WorldWideScience

Sample records for electric network sistemas

  1. Photovoltaic systems interconnected to the electric network; Sistemas fotovoltaicos interconectados a la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agredano Diaz, Jaime [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    This presentation is about the project carried out in the State of Baja California, Mexico, more specifically in the region called Mexicalli. In the first part, there are given the reasons and the effects developed in this region due to the climatologic changes occurred every summer. In effect, there are described both the cause and the economic impact representing for those families that live around there, the summer's arrival. Next, it is shown the solution found by the State government participating the Mexican Electric Research Institute (IIE). Such participation is translated on a project that shows the feasibility of installing photovoltaic systems on households. Such systems are interconnected to the Mexico's Federal Commission of Electricity's (CFE) electric network. Next, it is given a description of both its methodology and its performance. Then, it is firstly given the positive effect in both issues economic and environmental and secondly the general parameters of the installation of the system on the 220 households of the complex Valle de las Misiones. In addition, it is mentioned the method that would be used in order to get a bigger impact as well as better coverage of the system. Finally, there are presented the project's sponsors, among there can be found: the Mexican Energy Secretariat (SENER), the CFE, the Mexican Energy Regulatory Commission (CRE), the Universidad Autonoma de Baja California (UABC), the IIE, the North American Development Bank (NADB), and the Government of the State of Baja California. [Spanish] Esta ponencia es acerca del proyecto de sistemas fotovoltaicos desarrollado en el Estado de Baja California, mas especificamente en Mexicalli. En la primera parte, se presentan las causas y las consecuencias que ocasionan los cambios climatologicos desarrollados en esta region durante el verano; es decir, se describe la razon y el impacto economico que representa para las familias de esta region la llegada del verano

  2. Performance analysis of the PLC (Power Line Communication) in medium voltage electrical networks; Analise de desempenho de sistemas PLC em redes eletricas de media tensao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, A.A.; Paleta, R. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Campinas (PUC-Campinas), SP (Brazil)], E-mail: amota@puc-campinas.edu.br; Mota, L.T.M.; Ricardo, R.A. [Indelmatec Engenharia, Campinas, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: mota@indelmatec.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Nowadays, the information access in communication networks is widely explored due to the increase of Internet users. In this context, the PLC (Power Line Communication) technology is an alternative for data transmission. This technology is based on the usage of transmission/distribution power lines for data transmission. However there are some problems related to the usage of this technology: adequate data transmission rates and generation of acceptable levels of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This work had the objective of studying the performance of PLC systems in medium voltage electrical networks, through the assess of data transmission rates and the generated EMI. Tests were carried out in a test field that corresponded to a medium voltage electrical network and the obtained results show that, under some circumstances, the PLC system does not reach the existent technical recommendations. (author)

  3. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan M

    2004-01-01

    Written by two practicing electrical engineers, this second edition of the bestselling Protection of Electricity Distribution Networks offers both practical and theoretical coverage of the technologies, from the classical electromechanical relays to the new numerical types, which protect equipment on networks and in electrical plants. A properly coordinated protection system is vital to ensure that an electricity distribution network can operate within preset requirements for safety for individual items of equipment, staff and public, and the network overall. Suitable and reliable equipment sh

  4. Sistemas transparentes para gobiernos electrónicos eficientes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrade Castro, Jesús Alberto

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo hace una reflexión crítica del papel que desempeñan los sistemas transparentes en el gobiernoelectrónico. La misión de los sistemas transparentes computarizados es desarrollar aplicaciones confiables y robustas,con el propósito de sustituir la fiscalización y los controles jurídicos y contables del comportamiento administrativo,por verdaderas evaluaciones que incluyan la participación del ciudadano, en el ejercicio transparente de la accióngubernamental. Teniendo como base la necesidad de tener aplicaciones para gobierno electrónico, el Laboratorio deInvestigación de Tecnologías y Sistemas de Información (LITSI de la Facultad de Ciencias de la Universidad del Zuliadesarrolla aplicaciones de minería de texto, para obtener datos que están envueltos en el metalenguaje de etiquetas(HTML contenido en las páginas WEB. Con el prototipo que hemos desarrollado, se ha hecho un intento por convertirinformación desde documentos tipos texto no estructurados que están en la WEB, en información factible de ser analizaday contrastada con las acciones y políticas públicas. Se pretende así, desarrollar sistemas transparentes eficientescon aplicaciones computarizadas que permitan al ciudadano ejercer el control social de la gestión gubernamental.

  5. Multi nodal load forecasting in electric power systems using a radial basis neural network; Previsao de carga multinodal em sistemas eletricos de potencia usando uma rede neural de base radial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altran, A.B.; Lotufo, A.D.P.; Minussi, C.R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: lealtran@yahoo.com.br, annadiva@dee.feis.unesp.br, minussi@dee.feis.unesp.br; Lopes, M.L.M. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica], E-mail: mara@mat.feis.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology for electrical load forecasting, using radial base functions as activation function in artificial neural networks with the training by backpropagation algorithm. This methodology is applied to short term electrical load forecasting (24 h ahead). Therefore, results are presented analyzing the use of radial base functions substituting the sigmoid function as activation function in multilayer perceptron neural networks. However, the main contribution of this paper is the proposal of a new formulation of load forecasting dedicated to the forecasting in several points of the electrical network, as well as considering several types of users (residential, commercial, industrial). It deals with the MLF (Multimodal Load Forecasting), with the same processing time as the GLF (Global Load Forecasting). (author)

  6. Specification for the interconnection to a electric network of low tension of photovoltaic systems with 30 kW of capacity; Especificacion para la interconexion a la red electrica de baja tension de sistemas fotovoltaicos con capacidad hasta 30kW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Gutierrez, Jose [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Mexico (Mexico)

    2007-06-15

    In this presentation, there are shown the details of the photovoltaic systems interconnected with the electric network (SFVI), carried out by the Mexico's Federal Electricity Commission (CFE) with the support of the Mexican Electric Research Institute (IIE). First of all, there are found the objectives of the photovoltaic system interconnected to the electric network (SFVI). Then, there are mentioned the places where such sort of systems could be installed; besides, it is shown a diagram explaining the process of such systems. At the same time, there are briefly explained the components that are necessaries for their properly operation. Some of the elements previously mentioned are: photovoltaic generator (GFV), inverter, interface, and logic circuits and the control. It is shown a diagram with the location of the electrical disconnect switches. Then, it is shortly explained the place where the SFVI should be connected and there are given some requisites that are important to fulfill in order to have everything updated. Finally, it is mentioned the methodology that should be followed in order to supervise that everything works in a properly way, this last issue is carried out by CFE. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se presentan los pormenores del sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a la red (SFVI), realizado por la Comision federal de Electricidad (CFE) con apoyo del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE). En primer lugar, se encuentran los objetivos que tiene el uso de SFVI. Enseguida, se muestra un diagrama que explica el proceso que dichos sistemas realizan. Asimismo, se explican brevemente los elementos que, de uno u otro modo, son necesarios para el adecuado funcionamiento del SFV. Ademas, se muestra un diagrama con la ubicacion de los interruptores de desconexion. Luego, se explica escuetamente el lugar donde se debe de conectar el SFVI, ademas de algunas condiciones que se deben de cumplir para que no haya mayores contratiempos. Finalmente, se

  7. Impact of a PV system interconnected to the electric network of a High Consumption Domestic user's demand in BCS; Impacto de un sistema fotovoltaico interconectado a red en la demanda electrica de un usuario DAC en BCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez Grajales, H. R.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Gonzalez Galarza, R.; Munguia del Rio, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-11-15

    In Mexico, the incident solar radiation is high enough, that encourage its use both to produce process heat or electricity trough solar cells in autonomous configurations or grid. In European countries with substantially lower irradiation levels such as Germany or Spain. PV Grid Connected Systems (PVGCS) are a mature technology that is widely used in these countries, mainly due to tax incentives and preferential feed in tariffs schemes. Of the benefits that electricity production modality provides both the user and to the electricity grid and also the technical benefits for the utilities for incorporating distributed generation at its distribution system. In Mexico, more and more people are motivated to invest in this type of technology. This article analyzes the particular case of a user that is classified as High Consumption Domestic Customer (HCDC) in the city of La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico, who owns a single phase of 6 kWp PVGCS installed on the roof of her house. The reported results in this paper come from data analyzed by the Electrical Research Institute (IIE) for a three year monitoring period. The paper includes meteorological information, energy and power balances, maximum power, standard production, system losses, efficiency of the photovoltaic generator and inverters, among other performance information. The document highlights the impact that the PV system on electricity consumption user billing from the utility, and some recommendations are provided on what must be done in order get out from the HCDC classification and the economic benefits of it. [Spanish] En Mexico se tienen niveles de irradiacion solar suficientemente altos que desde un punto de vista puramente energetico alientan a su aprovechamiento en la produccion de electricidad, ello mediante sistemas fotovoltaicos directamente conectados a la red electrica convencional (SFVI). En paises europeos con niveles de irradiacion sustancialmente inferiores - i.e. Espana o Alemania- esta

  8. Neuro-fuzzy-wavelet network for detection and classification of the voltage disturbances in electrical power system; Rede neuro-fuzzy-wavelet para deteccao e classificacao de anomalias de tensao em sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malange, Fernando C.V. [Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso (UEMT), Caceres, MT (Brazil). Dept. de Computacao], E-mail: fmalange@gmail.com; Minussi, Carlos R. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: minussi@dee.feis.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    A methodology for identifying and classifying voltage disturbances (harmonics, voltage sag, etc.) using fuzzy ARTMAP neural networks is presented. It is an ART (adaptive resonance theory) architecture family neural network that presents the stability and plasticity properties, which are fundamental requests for developing a reliable electrical systems with reduced processing time. Stability means a guarantee of good solutions; plasticity allows realize the training without restart the system every time there are new patterns to be stored in a weight matrix of the neural network. The training is realized from the wave forms provided by the acquisition data system, using the wavelets theory to generate the coefficients that constitute the input patterns of the neural network. Results from simulations show that the accuracy index is nearly 100%. (author)

  9. Wireless system for location of permanent faults by short circuit current monitoring in electric power distribution network; Sistema wireless para localizacao de faltas permanentes atraves da monitoracao da corrente de curto-circuito em redes de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, A.G.; Correa, A.C.; Machado, R.N. das M.; Ferreira, A.M.D.; Pinto, J.A.C. [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Para (IFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil)], E-mail: alcidesmachado000@yahoo.com.br; Barra Junior, W. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Tecnologia. Faculdade de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: walbarra@ufpa.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents the development of an automatic system for permanent short-circuits location in medium voltage (13.8 kV) electric power system distribution feeders, by indirect monitoring of the line current. When a permanent failure occurs, the developed system uses mobile telephony (GSM) text messages (SMS) to inform the power company operation center where the failure most likely took place. With this information in real time, the power company operation center may provide the network restoration in a faster and efficient way. (author)

  10. Aspects concerning AM/FM project implementation based on geographic information systems for electric power distribution networks; Aspectos da implementacao de projetos AM/FM baseados em sistemas de informacoes geograficas para redes de distribuicao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marco Augusto Alves

    1996-12-31

    Electrical utilities have been constantly searching for ways to improve the management of their power distribution systems.The continuously growing demand as well as the society`s requirements for a high quality service have ensured the need to apply geo processing technologies integrated to AM/FM (Automated Mapping/Facilities Management) systems. The geographic information systems (GIS) are perfectly adapted to the requirements of the distribution network management, since both involve manipulation, treatment, analysis and visualization of great volumes of geo referenced data having related spatial and topological features, aggregated to descriptive attributes of entities inherent to distribution networks. However, there are difficulties in the processes of acquisition of the necessary data bases (mapping and network), since those tasks absorb most part of the required investments. There have been attempts to solve this problem through the development of new data acquisition techniques, specially a more intense utilization of digital collectors connected to GPS (Global Positioning System) receptors. In spite of such difficulties, most utilities have chosen to develop AM/FM/GIS systems, since it is through this technology that they will assure a high quality level of their services and obtain all the benefits arising from a improved equipment management and process optimization. (author) 94 refs., 22 figs.

  11. Aspects concerning AM/FM project implementation based on geographic information systems for electric power distribution networks; Aspectos da implementacao de projetos AM/FM baseados em sistemas de informacoes geograficas para redes de distribuicao de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Marco Augusto Alves

    1995-12-31

    Electrical utilities have been constantly searching for ways to improve the management of their power distribution systems.The continuously growing demand as well as the society`s requirements for a high quality service have ensured the need to apply geo processing technologies integrated to AM/FM (Automated Mapping/Facilities Management) systems. The geographic information systems (GIS) are perfectly adapted to the requirements of the distribution network management, since both involve manipulation, treatment, analysis and visualization of great volumes of geo referenced data having related spatial and topological features, aggregated to descriptive attributes of entities inherent to distribution networks. However, there are difficulties in the processes of acquisition of the necessary data bases (mapping and network), since those tasks absorb most part of the required investments. There have been attempts to solve this problem through the development of new data acquisition techniques, specially a more intense utilization of digital collectors connected to GPS (Global Positioning System) receptors. In spite of such difficulties, most utilities have chosen to develop AM/FM/GIS systems, since it is through this technology that they will assure a high quality level of their services and obtain all the benefits arising from a improved equipment management and process optimization. (author) 94 refs., 22 figs.

  12. Nuevos sistemas de organización de información electrónica

    OpenAIRE

    San Segundo Manuel, Rosa

    2005-01-01

    Memorias de las 4ª Conferencia Iberoamericana de Sistemas, Cibernética e Informática : CISCI 2005, 14 - 17 julio de 2005, Orlando, Florida, EEUU Los nuevos sistemas de organización de la información electrónica permiten organizar promover la sistematización del conocimiento, y en tanto que instrumentos adaptados y actualizados provienen de los antiguos sistemas empleados en la organización de de bibliotecas, museos, y archivos. Sus nuevas funciones abarcan la organización de los materiales...

  13. sistemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Alejandro Muñoz Gaviria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto presentado a continuación, plantea en términos generales las principales posturas conceptuales del sociólogo alemán Niklas Luhmann sobre las ideas de Max Weber y su teoría de la acción social, y de Talcott Parsons y sus planteamientos en torno a la teoría de los sistemas sociales. Al final del escrito se hace especial énfasis en el rol protagónico que para Luhmann tienen las ciencias sociales y humanas en la autorreferencia del sistema social.

  14. Global Electricity Trade Network: Structures and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ling; Jia, Xiaoping; Chiu, Anthony S. F.; Xu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nations increasingly trade electricity, and understanding the structure of the global power grid can help identify nations that are critical for its reliability. This study examines the global grid as a network with nations as nodes and international electricity trade as links. We analyze the structure of the global electricity trade network and find that the network consists of four sub-networks, and provide a detailed analysis of the largest network, Eurasia. Russia, China, Ukraine, and Azerbaijan have high betweenness measures in the Eurasian sub-network, indicating the degrees of centrality of the positions they hold. The analysis reveals that the Eurasian sub-network consists of seven communities based on the network structure. We find that the communities do not fully align with geographical proximity, and that the present international electricity trade in the Eurasian sub-network causes an approximately 11 million additional tons of CO2 emissions. PMID:27504825

  15. Modelling and designing electric energy networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Retiere, N.

    2003-11-01

    The author gives an overview of his research works in the field of electric network modelling. After a brief overview of technological evolutions from the telegraph to the all-electric fly-by-wire aircraft, he reports and describes various works dealing with a simplified modelling of electric systems and with fractal simulation. Then, he outlines the challenges for the design of electric networks, proposes a design process, gives an overview of various design models, methods and tools, and reports an application in the design of electric networks for future jumbo jets

  16. Electricity networks: how 'natural' is the monopoly?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, Rolf W.

    1999-01-01

    This article deals with the changing economic characteristics of the electricity network. Traditionally, electricity networks are considered natural monopolies for various kinds of market failures coincide in this essential part of the electricity infrastructure. Technological induced complementarities between nodes and links are causing network externalities, economies of scale, a high degree of mono-functionality, collective good characteristics and an inherent tendency towards concentrated market structures. It is argued that recent technological trends imply a dramatic change of the network economics, leading to possibilities of inter- and intra-network competition, as well as inter fuel competition. The possible implications for the regulatory framework of this sector are addressed. (Author)

  17. Sistema de manejo sostenible para residuos electrónicos en Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floria Roa Gutiérrez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En un trabajo interdisciplinario y multisectorial, se sensibilizó a los diferentes actores sobre la problemática relacionada con los equipos electrónicos, ya sea al alcanzar el final de su vida útil o por obsolescencia debido a los cambios tecnológicos constantes en software y hardware. Después de un análisis de los sistemas de manejo de residuos electrónicos en Holanda, Bélgica, Suiza, Inglaterra y Canadá, el sector productor o indirectamente los primeros importadores de equipos electrónicos en Costa Rica muestran interés por implementar un sistema basado en el principio de responsabilidad extendida al productor/importador (REP. Un decreto que soporta legalmente el sistema fue redactado y sometido a consulta legal y pública y se encuentra a la espera de la aprobación final por parte del Poder Ejecutivo. El sistema de financiamiento del sistema requirió de tres evaluaciones técnicas del proceso, incluyendo la estimación de los costos posibles. La valiosa experiencia en la generación de un sistema que integra a los sectores involucrados, marca un liderazgo de Costa Rica, pero requiere de compromiso y voluntad por parte del sector gubernamental. Dicha experiencia ha sido transferida mediante un taller a representantes de los países centroamericanos como un esfuerzo por inducir procesos similares en la región.

  18. Desenvolupament d'un sistema de monitoratge per a Software Defined Networks (SDN)

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro Sánchez, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Les Software Defined-Networks (SDN) són una tecnologia emergent que permet als components software estendre funcionalitats sobre la xarxa. En aquest projecte s'estudia com pot encaixar Polygraph, un sistema de monitoratge per a xarxes tradicionals, dins les SDN. Software Defined-Networks (SDN) are a new tecnology that allows software components to add new functionalities on networks. This project studies how Polygraph, a monitoring system for traditional networks, can fit in a SDN scenario.

  19. Methodology for the location diagnosis of electrical faults in electric power systems; Metodologia para el diagnostico de ubicacion de fallas en sistema electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosas Molina, Ricardo

    2008-08-15

    The constant growth of the Electric Power Systems derived from the increase in the world-wide demand of energy, has brought as a consequence a greater complexity in the operation and control of the power nets. One of the most affected tasks by this situation is the operation of electrical systems against the presence of faults, where the first task to realize is, on the part of the operational personnel of the network, the rapid fault site location within the system. In the present paper the problem of the diagnose location of electrical faults in power systems is approached, from the point of view of the operators of the energy control centers of an electric company. The objective of this thesis work is to describe a methodology of operational analysis of protections, as a bases for the development of a system of diagnosis systems for faults location, that allows to consider the possible fault sites within the system as well as a justification of the operation of protections in face of a disturbance as a support to the operators of the Energy Control centers. The methodology is designed to use different information types, discreet, continuous and controls. Nevertheless, in the development of the present stage of the proposed methodology use is made exclusively of the discreet information of the conditions of breakers and operation of relays, as well as of the connectivity of the network elements. The analysis methodology consists in determining the network elements where the fault could have occurred, using the protections coverage areas associated to the operated circuit breakers. Later, these fault alternatives become ordained in descendent form of possibility using classification indexes and analyses based on fuzzy logic. [Spanish] El constante crecimiento de los Sistemas Electricos de Potencia derivado del incremento en la demanda energetica mundial, ha traido como consecuencia una mayor complejidad en la operacion y control de las redes electricas. Una de las

  20. electrónica en sistemas multi-agente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARCELA PASTRANA DAVID

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo presentado en este artículo consiste en la definición de un método de comparación basado en la aplicación de métricas de calidad elaboradas con el fin de medir protocolos de negociación electrónica en entornos Multi-Agente. Para la comparación de los protocolos se escogen los siguientes criterios de calidad: Rapidez, Eficiencia, Escalabilidad y Completitud. Para la aplicación y validación del método de Comparación se implementan dos prototipos de negociación electrónica basados en las subastas inglesa y holandesa, utilizando la plataforma JADE (Java Agents DEvelopment Framework y se obtuvieron resultados preliminares de su comportamiento los cuales fueron analizados y se sacaron las conclusiones respectivas.

  1. Distributed control of deregulated electrical power networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    A prerequisite for reliable operation of electrical power networks is that supply and demand are balanced at all time, as efficient ways for storing large amounts of electrical energy are scarce. Balancing is challenging, however, due to the power system's dimensions and complexity, the low

  2. The supply expansion of electricity in Brazilian urban centers through connected photovoltaic systems' network; A expansao da oferta de energia eletrica nos centros urbanos brasileiros por meio de sistemas fotovoltaicos conectados a rede

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benedito, Ricardo da Silva; Zilles, Roberto [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia. Lab. de Sistemas Fotovoltaicos

    2010-07-01

    This paper aims to outline perspectives on the electricity production through Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems (GCPS), in Brazil, and its insertion on a large scale in the energy matrix, as a supplementary power generation source. The GCPS bring several benefits to the Electrical Sector and the environment by producing energy cleanly and quietly in the places of consumption, avoiding the construction of large power plants and avoiding additional costs with transmission and distribution. In general, these systems can be integrated into the buildings architecture, taking advantage of the rooftop of pre-existing buildings. But, although it has high solar potential, Brazil had been installed a capacity of only 161.32 kWp GCPS until December 2009, a value considered negligible compared, for instance, with 4.5 GWp installed in Europe alone in 2008. This study shows that the cost of generation from a GCPS is still high, reaching to 2.4 times higher than the average residential tariff practiced in Brazil, which turns the technology impracticable commercially. But it shows a trend of equalization between these two values in the next decade for various locations, which will certainly make the GCPS to be considered as an alternative for expanding the energy supply. But for the lack of appropriate technical criteria do not affect the spread of this technology in the future, it is necessary a correct regulation of this activity by the staff of the Electrical Sector. (author)

  3. La seguridad eléctrica y los sistemaLa sistemas eléctricos; Some considerations about electric security and electric systems working.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Castro Fernández

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El tema de la seguridad, visto con un enfoque integral y sistémico, no por estudiado deja de ser un temade importancia vital no sólo desde el punto de vista del funcionamiento como tal de un sistema dado apartir del uso de las nuevas tecnologías, sino también en la influencia que esas nuevas tecnologías tienensobre la vida humana. Si se parte de definir seguridad como el estado de riesgo aceptable o la actitudmental de las personas en una instalación, edificación o sistema dados, puede comprobarse lo dicho en elpárrafo anterior.El presente trabajo pretende abordar, de una forma general, los problemas relacionadoscon la seguridad de las personas, sean actores directos o no, en el marco de un entorno que puedeabarcar un sistema completo, una parte de él o una parte de una instalación o edificación: el entorno de laelectricidad. The security, it seen from the point of view of integral and systemic focus, do not be a real theme with highimportance both operation and use of new technologies and the influence of this technologies over humanbeen. If we start from to qualify security like acceptable risk or mental aptitude of people inside utilities,buildings or systems, it is possible to probe this consideration.The present paper, at general, pretend toexpose some problems related with the people security, they are been direct actors or not, inside oneenvironment which made incorporate one complete system, part of them or utility: electricity environments.

  4. Protection of electricity distribution networks

    CERN Document Server

    Gers, Juan; Institution of Engineering and Technology

    2011-01-01

    Combining a theoretical background with examples and exercises, this book allows the reader to easily follow requirements for high quality electrical service in utilities and industrial facilities around the world.

  5. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  6. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  7. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models......Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  8. Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Electric Vehicle Integration into Modern Power Networks provides coverage of the challenges and opportunities posed by the progressive integration of electric drive vehicles. Starting with a thorough overview of the current electric vehicle and battery state-of-the-art, this work describes dynamic...... software tools to assess the impacts resulting from the electric vehicles deployment on the steady state and dynamic operation of electricity grids, identifies strategies to mitigate them and the possibility to support simultaneously large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. New business models...... and control management architectures, as well as the communication infrastructure required to integrate electric vehicles as active demand are presented. Finally, regulatory issues of integrating electric vehicles into modern power systems are addressed. Inspired by two courses held under the EES...

  9. Multidimensional Risk Management for Underground Electricity Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcez Thalles V.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we consider an electricity provider company that makes decision on allocating resources on electric network maintenance. The investments decrease malfunction rate of network nodes. An accidental event (explosion, fire, etc. or a malfunctioning on underground system can have various consequences and in different perspectives, such as deaths and injuries of pedestrians, fires in nearby locations, disturbances in the flow of vehicular traffic, loss to the company image, operating and financial losses, etc. For this reason it is necessary to apply an approach of the risk management that considers the multidimensional view of the consequences. Furthermore an analysis of decision making should consider network dependencies between the nodes of the electricity distribution system. In the paper we propose the use of the simulation to assess the network effects (such as the increase of the probability of other accidental event and the occurrence of blackouts of the dependent nodes in the multidimensional risk assessment in electricity grid. The analyzed effects include node overloading due to malfunction of adjacent nodes and blackouts that take place where there is temporarily no path in the grid between the power plant and a node. The simulation results show that network effects have crucial role for decisions in the network maintenance – outcomes of decisions to repair a particular node in the network can have significant influence on performance of other nodes. However, those dependencies are non-linear. The effects of network connectivity (number of connections between nodes on its multidimensional performance assessment depend heavily on the overloading effect level. The simulation results do not depend on network type structure (random or small world – however simulation outcomes for random networks have shown higher variance compared to small-world networks.

  10. The photovoltaic generators and the electric network; Los generadores fotovoltaicos y la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga Novoa, Oscar E.; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    The photovoltaic generators are analyzed as an option for the electricity supply. An analysis is made of the option that these systems be utilized in sites where it is difficult to extend the power lines an in sites where the electric service already exists, such as residences, commercial buildings, network support power stations, central power stations, all this in order that the photovoltaic systems interact with the electric network for the generation of part of the energy consumed in these sites. In order that the photovoltaic systems can be interconnected with the electric network it is required: energy quality, protection and safety of the systems and persons and normativity for the interconnection. Some of the national programs of countries like Japan, United States of America and some organs of the Commission of the European Community are described. In conclusion, it is expected that the costs of this technology decrease so these systems can be widely utilized [Espanol] Se analizan los generadores fotovoltaicos como una alternativa para el suministro electrico. Se analiza la opcion de que estos sistemas se utilicen en lugares en donde es dificil extender la red electrica y en sitios en donde el servicio electrico ya existe, tales como: residencias, edificios comerciales, estaciones de apoyo a la red, estaciones centrales, esto con la finalidad de que el sistema fotovoltaico interactue con la red electrica a fin de generar parte de la energia que se consume en estos sitios. Para que los sistemas fotovoltaicos puedan estar interconectados con la red electrica se requiere: calidad de la energia, proteccion y seguridad de los sistemas y personas, y normatividad para la interconexion. Se describen algunos programas nacionales de paises como Japon, Estados Unidos y algunos organismos de la Comision de Comunidades Europeas. En conclusion, se espera que los costos de esta tecnologia disminuyan para que estos sistemas puedan ser ampliamante utilizados

  11. The photovoltaic generators and the electric network; Los generadores fotovoltaicos y la red electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arteaga Novoa, Oscar E; Agredano Diaz, Jaime; Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    The photovoltaic generators are analyzed as an option for the electricity supply. An analysis is made of the option that these systems be utilized in sites where it is difficult to extend the power lines an in sites where the electric service already exists, such as residences, commercial buildings, network support power stations, central power stations, all this in order that the photovoltaic systems interact with the electric network for the generation of part of the energy consumed in these sites. In order that the photovoltaic systems can be interconnected with the electric network it is required: energy quality, protection and safety of the systems and persons and normativity for the interconnection. Some of the national programs of countries like Japan, United States of America and some organs of the Commission of the European Community are described. In conclusion, it is expected that the costs of this technology decrease so these systems can be widely utilized [Espanol] Se analizan los generadores fotovoltaicos como una alternativa para el suministro electrico. Se analiza la opcion de que estos sistemas se utilicen en lugares en donde es dificil extender la red electrica y en sitios en donde el servicio electrico ya existe, tales como: residencias, edificios comerciales, estaciones de apoyo a la red, estaciones centrales, esto con la finalidad de que el sistema fotovoltaico interactue con la red electrica a fin de generar parte de la energia que se consume en estos sitios. Para que los sistemas fotovoltaicos puedan estar interconectados con la red electrica se requiere: calidad de la energia, proteccion y seguridad de los sistemas y personas, y normatividad para la interconexion. Se describen algunos programas nacionales de paises como Japon, Estados Unidos y algunos organismos de la Comision de Comunidades Europeas. En conclusion, se espera que los costos de esta tecnologia disminuyan para que estos sistemas puedan ser ampliamante utilizados

  12. Electric power conservation while using pumping systems; Conservacion de Energia Electrica en Sistemas de Bombeo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nambiar, P

    2007-01-15

    The pumping systems provide about 20 to 25 percent of energy which is necessary worldwide: it is fruitful to understand how to use electric power efficiently, to achieve the reduction regarding expenses a pumping system implies.It is essential to possess a better knowledge about the pumping system and its applications, in order to be able to use energy responsibly. If people do not how to operate this kind of systems properly, they will use inadequate equipment that will cause an energy waste. In addition it is important to know: alternative methods to meet variable demands, an adapted system to pump water requirements in order to ensure the pump work in its pumping point, and the life cycle system cost for the energy saving in the long term. [Spanish] En promedio del 20 al 25% de la energia necesaria en el mundo proviene de los sistemas de bombeo, por tal razon es importante saber como utilizar la energia electrica con eficiencia para asi lograr reducir los gastos que este tipo de sistemas implican. Para poder hacer un buen uso de la energia, es necesario que se tenga un conocimiento mayor del sistema de bombeo y aplicacion, ya que la ignorancia sobre esto exige el uso de aparatos que contribuyen al desperdicio de la energia; por otro lado tambien es esencial conocer metodos alternos para demandas variables, tener un sistema que se adapte a las necesidades de bombeo del agua para asegurarse de que cada bomba trabaje cerca de su punto de bombeo y finalmente conocer el costo del ciclo de vida del sistema para el ahorro de energia a largo plazo.

  13. Combined natural gas and electricity network pricing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morais, M.S.; Marangon Lima, J.W. [Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Rua Dr. Daniel de Carvalho, no. 296, Passa Quatro, Minas Gerais, CEP 37460-000 (Brazil)

    2007-04-15

    The introduction of competition to electricity generation and commercialization has been the main focus of many restructuring experiences around the world. The open access to the transmission network and a fair regulated tariff have been the keystones for the development of the electricity market. Parallel to the electricity industry, the natural gas business has great interaction with the electricity market in terms of fuel consumption and energy conversion. Given that the transmission and distribution monopolistic activities are very similar to the natural gas transportation through pipelines, economic regulation related to the natural gas network should be coherent with the transmission counterpart. This paper shows the application of the main wheeling charge methods, such as MW/gas-mile, invested related asset cost (IRAC) and Aumman-Shapley allocation, to both transmission and gas network. Stead-state equations are developed to adequate the various pricing methods. Some examples clarify the results, in terms of investments for thermal generation plants and end consumers, when combined pricing methods are used for transmission and gas networks. The paper also shows that the synergies between gas and electricity industry should be adequately considered, otherwise wrong economic signals are sent to the market players. (author)

  14. Pristine transfinite graphs and permissive electrical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Zemanian, Armen H

    2001-01-01

    A transfinite graph or electrical network of the first rank is obtained conceptually by connecting conventionally infinite graphs and networks together at their infinite extremities. This process can be repeated to obtain a hierarchy of transfiniteness whose ranks increase through the countable ordinals. This idea, which is of recent origin, has enriched the theories of graphs and networks with radically new constructs and research problems. The book provides a more accessible introduction to the subject that, though sacrificing some generality, captures the essential ideas of transfiniteness for graphs and networks. Thus, for example, some results concerning discrete potentials and random walks on transfinite networks can now be presented more concisely. Conversely, the simplifications enable the development of many new results that were previously unavailable. Topics and features: *A simplified exposition provides an introduction to transfiniteness for graphs and networks.*Various results for conventional g...

  15. Diseño y test de sistemas de acondicionamiento electrónico para sensores basados en magnetoimpedancia

    OpenAIRE

    Vela Equiza, Javier

    2011-01-01

    El propósito de este proyecto de fin carrera es diseñar un circuito capaz de medir la modulación en frecuencia de un oscilador en el que su frecuencia depende del campo magnético ejercido sobre un sensor de magneto-impedancia. Para ello ha sido necesario aplicar los conocimientos aprendidos durante la carrera en asignaturas como Electrónica Analógica, Electrónica Digital, Circuitos y Sistemas I y II, Sistemas Electrónicos Digitales y Física. Al finalizar este trabajo se pretend...

  16. Measurement of harmonics in electrical power systems; Medicion de armonicas en sistemas electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon Gonzalez, Gustavo Adolfo

    1998-07-01

    In this thesis project a system for the quantification and study of the harmonics content in electrical systems was developed. The study is focused to signals of feeding current to a Long Arc furnace. The system developed for the quantification of the harmonics content is formed by the following parts: (a) Data acquisition system: The application of a data acquisition system makes possible for us to take samples from an analogous voltage signal. The acquired samples that represent an analogous signal, can later be processed in a digital computer. The data acquisition system is constituted by: An IBM-PC microcomputer, a digitalization card of analogous signals, and programs to conduct signals sampling (b) Digital processing of the acquired signals: With the purpose of obtaining the harmonic content, the Fast Fourier Transform method was used. The analysis by means of the Fast Fourier Transform allows us to obtain the signals spectra in the frequency dominion. Through the analysis by means of the Fast Fourier Transform a substantial diminution of the calculation time of the coefficients corresponding to the harmonics is obtained, this compared with the method of Discreet Fourier Series. (c) Analysis of obtained results: Several line current and capacitors measurements of the feeding system signals of an arc furnace were made. For each measurement made the magnitude and the phase for each harmonic was obtained. Of the assembly of coefficient magnitudes and phases, the average value and its standard deviation were calculated. Graphs of the magnitude variation with time and phase of each harmonic are shown. Also, graphs of the waveform of the signal in analysis are obtained, bar charts of the average spectral content and a report of the standard deviation of the magnitude and the phase for each harmonica, is obtained. Results of a simulation of the electrical system in analysis are included and the results are compared. [Spanish] En este proyecto de tesis se desarrollo

  17. Supervisory control for hybrid systems of electrical generation based on fuzzy logic; Control supervisorio para sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica basado en logica difusa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas M, Javier; Ortega S, Cesar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Caratozzolo M, Patricia [Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, campus Cd. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The development and integration of hybrid systems of electrical generation (SHGE) of small capacity: The intention of these developments is its implementation in isolated or far away communities from conventional electric networks, that contribute in the own productive processes of these towns. As part of these work a system of control for their hybrid system wind-photovoltaic- internal combustion machine was developed that operates nowadays in a system installed in Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. However, in the two past years, the GENC has worked, altogether with the Management of Control and Instrumentation of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) and the Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (CENIDET) (National Center of Research and Technological Development), to incorporate an intelligent control technique in the regulation of the hybrid systems of wind-photovoltaic-machine of internal combustion type. Lemos de Pereira rises that the main problems of the present technology of the SHGE are related to the control and supervision of the power systems. The system that is in charge of the actions of load control and dispatch is denominated supervisory control. This controller supervises the operation of all the components, regulates the entry or exiting of operation of the generation systems, as well as the loads. [Spanish] El desarrollo e integracion de sistemas hibridos de generacion electrica (SHGE) de pequena capacidad. El proposito de estos desarrollos es su implementacion en comunidades aisladas o alejadas de la red electrica convencional, las cuales contribuyan en los procesos productivos propios de estos poblados. Como parte de dichos trabajos se desarrollo un sistema de control para su sistema hibrido eolico-fotovoltaico-maquina de combustion interna que opera actualmente en un sistema instalado en Pachuca, Hidalgo, Mexico. Ahora bien, en los dos ultimos anos, la GENC ha trabajado, en conjunto con la Gerencia de Control e

  18. Spare nonlinear systems resolution; its applicability in the resolution of the problem related power flow in electric power networks; Resolucao de sistemas nao-lineares esparsos; sua aplicacao na resolucao do problema de fluxo de carga em redes de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Ana Cecilia

    1990-03-01

    This thesis aims to find a better way to solve large scale nonlinear sparse system problems giving special emphasis to load flow in electric power networks. The suggested algorithms are presented 63 refs., 28 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. Evaluation of the reliability of electric power transmission systems; Evaluacion de confiabilidad de sistemas de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega Ortiz, Miguel

    1989-07-01

    In this thesis it is attacked the problem of Reliability Evaluation of the Electrical Power Transmission Systems for aims of its integral planning. Once described the problem the indexes that measure the electric power systems reliability are presented. Later the methods to evaluate the transmission nets, such as the Contingencies Enumeration, the Monte Carlo, the one of Markov and the methods for complex systems such as the Minimum Interruptions, are described. This last one is widely developed for the advantages that its application presents in the planning of large and complex networks. The method of minimum interruptions consists of two big steps: To determine the minimum interruptions for the load points and to calculate the reliability indexes in base of the minimum interruptions. The conventional algorithms for the determination of minimum interruptions consider a problem for each load point in an independent form going through a determination of minimum tracks. In this type of algorithms the CPU time and the space in memory required grow exponentially for the case of large transmission systems, which represents a strong restriction for its application. In order to solve this problem a methodology was established in which the system is modeled by means of a grapho and the minimum interruptions are determined with an algorithm based on the construction of cycles in the dual grapho. With these interruptions the connectivity and the capacity of the network is evaluated, obtaining the reliability indexes for each bus and the system. These indexes are calculated with the equivalent representation for complex systems of series parallel connections defined by the minimum interruptions. One of the fundamental objectives in this study is to integrate the reliability to the planning process, with the concept of the expected value of the non-supplied energy and its penalty cost. In order to demonstrate the capacity, effectiveness and rapidity of the new implemented

  20. World tendencies in the disintegration of the electric systems; Las tendencias mundiales a la desintegracion de los sistemas electricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viqueira Landa, Jacinto [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the organizational changes of the electric industry, accomplished or in the process of being implemented in various countries encompassing from the modality of the independent power producers with which the competitiveness at production level is pretended to be introduced, until the total disintegration of the electric systems by means of the separation of the generation, transmission and distribution functions and the intent of implementing the access of third parties to the transmission network. Finally, the risks that these reforms imply from the stand point of service quality and the environmental protection are pointed out [Espanol] En esta ponencia se describen los cambios de organizacion de la industria electrica, realizados o en vias de implantarse en varios paises, abarcando desde la modalidad de las empresas generadoras independientes con la que se pretende introducir la competencia al nivel de la produccion, hasta la desintegracion total de los sistemas electricos mediante la separacion de las funciones de generacion, transmision y distribucion, y la pretension de implantar el acceso de terceros a la red de transmision. Finalmente se senalan los riesgos que implican estas reformas desde el punto de vista de la calidad del servicio y de la preservacion del medio ambiente

  1. Electric power plants and networks. Elektrische Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happoldt, H [Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim (Germany, F.R.). Abt. Centralen; Oeding, D [Brown, Boveri und Cie A.G., Mannheim (Germany, F.R.). Zentralbereich Forschung und Entwicklung

    1978-01-01

    This book is itended for enginers working in the planning, construction and operation of plants to generate and distribute electric power; it is also a valuable aid for students of power engineering. This new edition places more emphasis on the presentation and calculation of three-phase current networks with the aid of symmetric components. The equations used for calculation are adapted to VDE regulations as far as possible.

  2. Modeling and optimization of an electric power distribution network ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling and optimization of an electric power distribution network planning system using ... of the network was modelled with non-linear mathematical expressions. ... given feasible locations, re-conductoring of existing feeders in the network, ...

  3. Electrical localization of weakly electric fish using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiar, Greg; Mamatjan, Yasin; Adler, Andy; Jun, James; Maler, Len

    2013-01-01

    Weakly Electric Fish (WEF) emit an Electric Organ Discharge (EOD), which travels through the surrounding water and enables WEF to locate nearby objects or to communicate between individuals. Previous tracking of WEF has been conducted using infrared (IR) cameras and subsequent image processing. The limitation of visual tracking is its relatively low frame-rate and lack of reliability when visually obstructed. Thus, there is a need for reliable monitoring of WEF location and behaviour. The objective of this study is to provide an alternative and non-invasive means of tracking WEF in real-time using neural networks (NN). This study was carried out in three stages. First stage was to recreate voltage distributions by simulating the WEF using EIDORS and finite element method (FEM) modelling. Second stage was to validate the model using phantom data acquired from an Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) based system, including a phantom fish and tank. In the third stage, the measurement data was acquired using a restrained WEF within a tank. We trained the NN based on the voltage distributions for different locations of the WEF. With networks trained on the acquired data, we tracked new locations of the WEF and observed the movement patterns. The results showed a strong correlation between expected and calculated values of WEF position in one dimension, yielding a high spatial resolution within 1 cm and 10 times higher temporal resolution than IR cameras. Thus, the developed approach could be used as a practical method to non-invasively monitor the WEF in real-time.

  4. Neural electrical activity and neural network growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafarov, F M

    2018-05-01

    The development of central and peripheral neural system depends in part on the emergence of the correct functional connectivity in its input and output pathways. Now it is generally accepted that molecular factors guide neurons to establish a primary scaffold that undergoes activity-dependent refinement for building a fully functional circuit. However, a number of experimental results obtained recently shows that the neuronal electrical activity plays an important role in the establishing of initial interneuronal connections. Nevertheless, these processes are rather difficult to study experimentally, due to the absence of theoretical description and quantitative parameters for estimation of the neuronal activity influence on growth in neural networks. In this work we propose a general framework for a theoretical description of the activity-dependent neural network growth. The theoretical description incorporates a closed-loop growth model in which the neural activity can affect neurite outgrowth, which in turn can affect neural activity. We carried out the detailed quantitative analysis of spatiotemporal activity patterns and studied the relationship between individual cells and the network as a whole to explore the relationship between developing connectivity and activity patterns. The model, developed in this work will allow us to develop new experimental techniques for studying and quantifying the influence of the neuronal activity on growth processes in neural networks and may lead to a novel techniques for constructing large-scale neural networks by self-organization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Electric network interconnection of Mashreq Arab Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Amin, I.M.; Al-Shehri, A.M.; Opoku, G.; Al-Baiyat, S.A.; Zedan, F.M.

    1994-01-01

    Power system interconnection is a well established practice for a variety of technical and economical reasons. Several interconnected networks exist worldwide for a number of factors. Some of these networks cross international boundaries. This presentation discusses the future developments of the power systems of Mashreq Arab Countries (MAC). MAC consists of Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates (UAE), and Yemen. Mac power systems are operated by government or semigovernment bodies. Many of these countries have national or regional electric grids but are generally isolated from each other. With the exception of Saudi Arabia power systems, which employ 60 Hz, all other MAC utilities use 50 Hz frequency. Each country is served by one utility, except Saudi Arabia, which is served by four major utilities and some smaller utilities serving remote towns and small load centers. The major utilities are the Saudi Consolidated electric Company in the Eastern Province (SCECO East), SCECO Center, SCECO West, and SCECO South. These are the ones considered in this study. The energy resources in MAC are varied. Countries such as Egypt, Iraq, and Syria have significant hydro resources.The gulf countries and Iraq have abundant fossil fuel, The variation in energy resources as well as the characteristics of the electric load make it essential to look into interconnections beyond the national boundaries. Most of the existing or planned interconnections involve few power systems. A study involving 12 countries and over 20 utilities with different characteristics represents a very large scale undertaking

  6. Forecasting of electricity prices with neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareta, Raquel [Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Romeo, Luis M. [Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)]. E-mail: luismi@unizar.es; Gil, Antonia [Centro de Investigacion de Recursos y Consumos Energeticos (CIRCE), Universidad de Zaragoza, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2006-08-15

    During recent years, the electricity energy market deregulation has led to a new free competition situation in Europe and other countries worldwide. Generators, distributors and qualified clients have some uncertainties about the future evolution of electricity markets. In consequence, feasibility studies of new generation plants, design of new systems and energy management optimization are frequently postponed. The ability of forecasting energy prices, for instance the electricity prices, would be highly appreciated in order to improve the profitability of utility investments. The development of new simulation techniques, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), has provided a good tool to forecast time series. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the Neural Network (NN) approach can be used to forecast short term hourly electricity pool prices (for the next day and two or three days after). The NN architecture and design for prices forecasting are described in this paper. The results are tested with extensive data sets, and good agreement is found between actual data and NN results. This methodology could help to improve power plant generation capacity management and, certainly, more profitable operation in daily energy pools.

  7. Forecasting of electricity prices with neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gareta, Raquel; Romeo, Luis M.; Gil, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    During recent years, the electricity energy market deregulation has led to a new free competition situation in Europe and other countries worldwide. Generators, distributors and qualified clients have some uncertainties about the future evolution of electricity markets. In consequence, feasibility studies of new generation plants, design of new systems and energy management optimization are frequently postponed. The ability of forecasting energy prices, for instance the electricity prices, would be highly appreciated in order to improve the profitability of utility investments. The development of new simulation techniques, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), has provided a good tool to forecast time series. In this paper, it is demonstrated that the Neural Network (NN) approach can be used to forecast short term hourly electricity pool prices (for the next day and two or three days after). The NN architecture and design for prices forecasting are described in this paper. The results are tested with extensive data sets, and good agreement is found between actual data and NN results. This methodology could help to improve power plant generation capacity management and, certainly, more profitable operation in daily energy pools

  8. Some future tendencies in the electric power systems; Algunas tendencias futuras en los sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento Uruchurtu, Hector Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    This document describes the most important tendencies on energy generation transmission and utilization of the electric power systems. The underlining of these tendencies has the purpose of maintaining a constant alert on the possible technological advances that must be covered at medium and long term in the Coordination Analysis of Transmission Systems [Espanol] En el presente documento se describen las tendencias mas importantes sobre generacion, transmision y utilizacion de la energia, en cuanto a los sistemas electricos de potencia. El destacar estas tendencias tiene por objeto una alerta constante sobre los posibles desarrollos tecnologicos que se deben abordar a mediano y largo plazo dentro de la Coordinacion de Analisis de Sistemas de Transmision

  9. Some future tendencies in the electric power systems; Algunas tendencias futuras en los sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento Uruchurtu, Hector Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This document describes the most important tendencies on energy generation transmission and utilization of the electric power systems. The underlining of these tendencies has the purpose of maintaining a constant alert on the possible technological advances that must be covered at medium and long term in the Coordination Analysis of Transmission Systems [Espanol] En el presente documento se describen las tendencias mas importantes sobre generacion, transmision y utilizacion de la energia, en cuanto a los sistemas electricos de potencia. El destacar estas tendencias tiene por objeto una alerta constante sobre los posibles desarrollos tecnologicos que se deben abordar a mediano y largo plazo dentro de la Coordinacion de Analisis de Sistemas de Transmision

  10. Calculation of sensitivities in electrical systems with SIFLETCA devices; Calculo de sensibilidades en sistemas electricos con dispositivos SIFLETCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubio Marroquin, Gabriel Omar

    2004-03-15

    With the purpose of avoiding the installation of new transmission lines, some researches have proposed the installation of SIFLETCA devices. Therefore in this thesis, different models in steady state of diverse SIFLETCA devices are described, such as: compensator variable series (VSC), static compensator of VArs (SCV), transformer phase shifter (TPS), transformer with changer under load (TWCL) and the universal controller of power flows (UCPF). In addition, it is developed in this thesis the equations used in the Jacobean of the method Newton-Raphson, to solve power flows including SIFLETCA devices. The different applications that are obtained when installing a device, such as prevention of flows in ring, electronic barrier, increment in the transmission capacity and specification of the power flow in transmission lines. On the other hand in the thesis, an analysis of sensitivities of a power system in steady state is developed. Also the control parameters are proposed in the thesis for which the sensitivities are calculated. Also, a performance index is used to measure the degree of congestion of an electrical system. In calculating the sensitivities the obtained results of the power flows are utilized. Four electrical networks are used to find where each SIFLETCA device must be located to reduce the congestion in the system. Also, the method developed in the thesis is compared with a method of sensitivities that uses DC flows, for validation and to show the advantages of using the Newton method in power flows. [Spanish] Con el fin de evitar instalar nuevas lineas de transmision, algunos investigadores han propuesto la instalacion de los dispositivos SIFLETCA. Por lo tanto en esta tesis, se describe diferentes modelos en estado estacionario de diversos dispositivos SIFLETCA, siendo: compensador serie variable (CSV), compensador estatico de VArs (CEV), transformador desfasador (TD), transformador con cambiador bajo carga (TTC) y el controlador universal de flujos

  11. Reversible Control of Anisotropic Electrical Conductivity using Colloidal Microfluidic Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beskok, Ali; Bevan, Michael; Lagoudas, Dimitris; Ounaies, Zoubeida; Bahukudumbi, Pradipkumar; Everett, William

    2007-01-01

    This research addresses the tunable assembly of reversible colloidal structures within microfluidic networks to engineer multifunctional materials that exhibit a wide range of electrical properties...

  12. Natural ionizing system to electrical protection and energy; Sistema ionizante natural de proteccion electrica y energias

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabareda Fermin; Luis [Universidad de Los Andes (Venezuela)]. E-mail: lcabaredaf@gmail.com

    2013-03-15

    This is the new highest technology, 100% Venezuelan and unique in the world, technological innovation, world patent for maximum protection, security and zero risk (0) to all electrical and power generation systems: hydroelectric and thermoelectric power plants, wind, nuclear and solar power plants, etc; it's the only technology around the world that has the potential to disperse and propagate to land mass the enormous energies associated to the atmospheric discharges (lightning), which are in the order: 200,000 to 500,000 Amperes; 1,000 million Kilowatts and high-level transient voltage of 100 million Volts. This new high technology is the solution to the paradigm of Benjamin Franklin and it is the mechanism to end blackouts that produce so many damages and losses of billions of dollars to both generators and users of electrical service, throughout the world. [Spanish] Esta nueva mas alta tecnologia, 100% venezolana y unica en el mundo, innovacion tecnologica, patente mundial ofrece maxima proteccion, seguridad y riesgo cero (0) a todos los sistemas de generacion electrica: centrales hidroelectricas, termoelectricas, de viento, nucleares y solar, otros; es la unica tecnologia en el mundo que tiene el potencial para dispersar y propagar a la masa terrestre las enormes energias asociadas a las descargas atmosfericas (rayos) que estan en el orden de: 200.000 a 500.000 amperios, 1.000 millones de kilovatios y voltajes transitorios de alto nivel de 100 millones de voltios. Esta nueva alta tecnologia es la solucion al paradigma de Benjamin Franklin y es el mecanismo para eliminar apagones que producen danos y perdidas de billones de dolares para ambos: generados y usuarios del servicio electrico, alrededor del mundo.

  13. Towards future electricity networks - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaemmanouil, A.

    2008-07-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done on the development of new power transmission planning tools for restructured power networks. These are needed in order to face the challenges that arise due to economic, environmental and social issues. The integration of transmission, generation and energy policy planning in order to support a common strategy with respect to sustainable electricity networks is discussed. In the first phase of the project the main focus was placed on the definition of criteria and inputs that are most likely to affect sustainable transmission expansion plans. Models, concepts, and methods developed in order to study the impact of the internalisation of external costs in power production are examined. To consider external costs in the planning process, a concurrent software tool has been implemented that is capable of studying possible development scenarios. The report examines a concept that has been developed to identify congested transmission lines or corridors and evaluates the dependencies between the various market participants. The paper includes a set of three appendices that include a paper on the 28{sup th} USAEE North American conference, an abstract from Powertech 2009 and an SFOE report from July 2008.

  14. The value of electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Paoli, L.

    2000-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study aimed at evaluating parts of the distribution network of ENEL, in charge of distributing and supplying electricity to its captive market, that could be sold as a separate entity. To determine the asset value of these hypothetical companies, the discounted cash flow method has been used applied to the 147 ENEL's distributing zones. The econometric analysis shows that the relevant variables are the quantity sold to non residential and non big industrial consumers and the length of medium voltage lines. According to the available data and to the methodology chosen, the per client value of the distribution zones of ENEL varies substantially. The maximum value is bout three times the mean value and the minimum value is largely negative. The article maintains that changes in regulation could greatly modify the asset value of distribution networks. The main regulatory risks are linked to the degree of market opening, the introduction of compensation mechanisms between different distributors and the allowed maximum revenue fixed by energy Authority for a given period of time. This point is developed in the appendix where it is shown that the price cap method is decided on the basis of a rate of return which is valid at the moment of the cap fixing but that could be no longer valid if the rate of inflation varies [it

  15. Towards future electricity networks - Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papaemmanouil, A.

    2008-01-01

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reviews work done on the development of new power transmission planning tools for restructured power networks. These are needed in order to face the challenges that arise due to economic, environmental and social issues. The integration of transmission, generation and energy policy planning in order to support a common strategy with respect to sustainable electricity networks is discussed. In the first phase of the project the main focus was placed on the definition of criteria and inputs that are most likely to affect sustainable transmission expansion plans. Models, concepts, and methods developed in order to study the impact of the internalisation of external costs in power production are examined. To consider external costs in the planning process, a concurrent software tool has been implemented that is capable of studying possible development scenarios. The report examines a concept that has been developed to identify congested transmission lines or corridors and evaluates the dependencies between the various market participants. The paper includes a set of three appendices that include a paper on the 28 th USAEE North American conference, an abstract from Powertech 2009 and an SFOE report from July 2008.

  16. Probabilistic risk benchmark of the Brazilian electrical system; Risco probabilistico de referencia do sistema eletrico brasileiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Neyl Hamilton Martelotta

    2002-05-01

    The main goal of this dissertation is to proceed a first numerical evaluation of the probabilistic risks magnitudes associated with the Brazilian Electrical network, considering the subsystems North, Northeast, South, Southeast and Mid West. This result is relevant because it can be used as an initial comparative reference for future reliability studies of the Brazilian Basic Grid. As a by-product, the whole set of criteria and procedures used in the work are described in detail. They may also serve as a preliminary base for future similar evaluations. (author)

  17. Sistema de comercio electrónico para el sector textil: generar maniquíes 3D a partir de imágenes del sensor Kinect

    OpenAIRE

    Olabarria Iñarra, Ibon

    2014-01-01

    Este proyecto consiste en analizar la viabilidad técnica un sistema de información para mejorar el comercio electrónico de compra –venta de ropa. El nuevo sistema de comercio electrónico ayudará al usuario a escoger el tamaño de la prenda con más precisión. El sistema consiste en calcular las medidas esenciales del cuerpo del cliente utilizando el dispositivo Kinect. Posteriormente, estas medidas se introducen en el programa Makehuman que genera un maniquí en 3D. Con la idea de que en el futu...

  18. Sistema automatizado para la realización de pruebas funcionales a las protecciones electrónicas CELCOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo García Bermúdez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza el diseño e implementación de un sistema automatizado que permite hacer las pruebas funcionales a las protecciones electrónicas por sobrecorriente para equipos de refrigeración producidas en el Laboratorio Científico Productivo perteneciente a la Universidad de Holguín "Oscar Lucero Moya". Para ello se realizó un estudio de las especificaciones funcionales que reclama el fabricante de las protecciones, que hizo posible definir un grupo de pruebas que verifican dichas especificaciones, se emplean módulos de adquisición de datos conectados por medio de una interfaz RS485 a la computadora y se hizo el diseño de la electrónica necesaria para la adaptación de las señales a estos módulos. El sistema informático permite realizar las pruebas a seis protecciones al mismo tiempo, cuyos resultados son almacenados en una base de datos. Adicionalmente puede realizarse la caracterización de los transformadores de corriente utilizados como sensores en las protecciones. El sistema realiza un grupo de pruebas que son imposibles de forma manual, eleva la productividad de los técnicos, disminuye los costos asociados al consumo de electricidad y permite que al 100% de las protecciones que salen al mercado se le verifiquen todas sus especificaciones funcionales.

  19. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  20. Methodology for evaluating the grounding system in electrical substations; Metodologia para la evaluacion del sistema de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrelles Rivas, L.F [Universidad Nacional Experimental Politecnica: Antonio Jose de Sucre (UNEXPO), Guayana, Bolivar (Venezuela)]. E-mail: torrellesluis@gmail.com; Alvarez, P. [Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), Maturin, Monagas (Venezuela)]. E-mail: alvarezph@pdvsa.com

    2013-03-15

    The present work proposes a methodology for evaluating grounding systems in electrical substations from medium and high voltage, in order to diagnose the state of the elements of the grounding system and the corresponding electrical variables. The assessment methodology developed includes a visual inspection phase to the elements of the substation. Then, by performing measurements and data analysis, the electrical continuity between the components of the substation and the mesh ground is verified, the soil resistivity and resistance of the mesh. Also included in the methodology the calculation of the step and touch voltage of the substation, based on the criteria of the International IEEE standards. We study the case of the 115 kV Pirital Substation belonging to PDVSA Oriente Transmission Network. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea una metodologia para la evaluacion de sistemas de puesta a tierra en subestaciones electricas de media y alta tension, con la finalidad de diagnosticar el estado de los elementos que conforman dicho sistema y las variables electricas correspondientes. La metodologia de evaluacion desarrollada incluye una fase de inspeccion visual de los elementos que conforman la subestacion. Luego, mediante la ejecucion de mediciones y analisis de datos, se verifica la continuidad electrica entre los componentes de la subestacion y la malla de puesta a tierra, la resistividad del suelo y resistencia de la malla. Se incluye tambien en la metodologia el calculo de las tensiones de paso y de toque de la subestacion, segun lo fundamentado en los criterios de los estandares Internacionales IEEE. Se estudia el caso de la Subestacion Pirital 115 kV perteneciente a la Red de Transmision de PDVSA Oriente.

  1. THE PROSPECTS OF DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRIC POWER NETWORK IN GEORGIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mshvidobadze, T.

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of application of one of the versions of development of the electric power network in Georgia is disscussed. The algorithm of grouping of the versions of power network development, which allows choosing the optimal network configuration under indefinite conditions, is offered. The experiments have demonstrated that the same optimal decision can be found by considerable reduction in the number of versions. (author)

  2. Impacts of climate change on electricity network business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martikainen, A.

    2006-04-01

    Climate has a significant impact on the electricity network business. The electricity network is under the weather pressure all the time and it is planned and constructed to withstand normal climatic stresses. The electricity network that has been planned and constructed now, is expected to be in operation next 40 years. If climatic stresses change in this period, it can cause significant impacts on electricity network business. If the impacts of climate change are figured out in advance, it is possible to mitigate negative points of climate change and exploit the positive points. In this paper the impact of climate change on electricity network business is presented. The results are based on RCAO climate model scenarios. The climate predictions were composed to the period 2016. 2045. The period 1960.1990 was used as a control period. The climate predictions were composed for precipitation, temperature, hoarfrost, thunder, ground frost and wind. The impacts of the change of the climate variables on electricity network business were estimated from technical and economical points of view. The estimation was based on the change predictions of the climate variables. It is expected that climate change will cause more damages than benefits on the electricity network business. The increase of the number of network faults will be the most significant and demanding disadvantage caused by climate change. If networks are not improved to be more resistant for faults, then thunder, heavy snow and wind cause more damages especially to overhead lines in medium voltage network. Increasing precipitation and decreasing amount of ground frost weaken the strength of soil. The construction work will be more difficult with the present vehicles because wet and unfrozen ground can not carry heavy vehicles. As a consequence of increasing temperature, the demand of heating energy will decrease and the demand of cooling energy will increase. This is significant for the electricity

  3. Integration of electric drive vehicles in the Danish electricity network with high wind power penetration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob; Larsen, Esben

    2010-01-01

    /conventional) which are likely to fuel these cars. The study was carried out considering the Danish electricity network state around 2025, when the EDV penetration levels would be significant enough to have an impact on the power system. Some of the interesting findings of this study are - EDV have the potential......This paper presents the results of a study carried out to examine the feasibility of integrating electric drive vehicles (EDV) in the Danish electricity network which is characterised by high wind power penetration. One of the main aims of this study was to examine the effect of electric drive...... vehicles on the Danish electricity network, wind power penetration and electricity market. In particular the study examined the effect of electric drive vehicles on the generation capacity constraints, load curve, cross border transmission capacity and the type of generating sources (renewable...

  4. Neural network based photovoltaic electrical forecasting in south Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Oudjana, S.; Hellal, A.; Hadj Mahammed, I

    2014-01-01

    Photovoltaic electrical forecasting is significance for the optimal operation and power predication of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) plants, and it is important task in renewable energy electrical system planning and operating. This paper explores the application of neural networks (NN) to study the design of photovoltaic electrical forecasting systems for one week ahead using weather databases include the global irradiance, and temperature of Ghardaia city (south of Algeria) for one year of 2013 using a data acquisition system. Simulations were run and the results are discussed showing that neural networks Technique is capable to decrease the photovoltaic electrical forecasting error. (author)

  5. Information report on electricity distribution network security and financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report first outlines the degradation of electricity quality, and identifies the lack of investment as the main reason of the network weakness. It notices that the French network is much extended, and that the medium and low voltage networks need to be secured, and outlines that some legal measures have already been implemented to correct these problems. In its second part, the report comments the network manager's point of view, and denies his critics of the conceding authorities. It also discusses the network manager's investments, and finally formulates six propositions for a better future of the distribution network

  6. Modal analysis of electromechanical oscillations in electrical power systems; Analisis modal de oscilaciones electromecanicas en sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. E-mail: jgcg@iie.org.mx

    2008-10-15

    The presence of electromechanical oscillations in any electrical power system is a typical characteristic of this kind of systems. Provided the damping associated with these oscillations lies above of a minimum specified value, the occurrence of these oscillations is not considered as a threat to the system operation. This paper focuses the attention on the application of modal analysis for assessing the dynamical behavior of a power system subjected to small disturbances for different operating conditions and transmission system topologies, as well. The reported results indicate, that modal analysis enables a straight identification of the causes that contribute negatively to the damping of the electromechanical modes. [Spanish] La presencia de oscilaciones electromecanicas en cualquier Sistema Electrico de Potencia (SEP) es una caracteristica propia de estos sistemas. Mientras el amortiguamiento asociado con este tipo de oscilaciones se encuentre dentro de los limites considerados como aceptables para la operacion continua de este tipo de sistemas, el surgimiento de estas no se considera una amenaza para la operacion segura del SEP. El presente articulo, centra su atencion en la aplicacion del analisis modal para evaluar el comportamiento dinamico de un SEP ante la ocurrencia de disturbios de magnitud pequena para diferentes topologias y condiciones de operacion. Los resultados reportados indican, que la aplicacion del analisis modal permite la identificacion directa de las causas que contribuyen en forma negativa al amortiguamiento asociado con los modos electromecanicos, asi como la ubicacion mas adecuada de controles que contribuyan a mejorar el amortiguamiento de los mismos.

  7. Tensions on the electric network; Tensions sur le reseau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigues, B.

    2001-10-01

    Facing the potential 12000 MW of wind power projects, it is necessary to solve quickly the management of queues for the connection to the french electric network. This paper presents the today situation and proposes solutions. (A.L.B.)

  8. Market tools: the immaterial part of the electricity transmission network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    The author first evokes the activities of RTE (Reseau de transport d'electricite - the French power transmission network) to improve the performance of its technical and industrial equipment (notably equipment evolution, maintenance policies) with, for example, the installation of a fibre optic network for network control automation, the development of software for a better exploitation and steering of electricity fluxes, notably the electricity produced by wind and photovoltaic power. He more particularly addresses the role of RTE in the construction of the electricity market. He outlines the role of the European electricity market in the economic optimization, the new approaches and tools for a higher flexibility of the electric system, the expertise of RTE, and the perspective of always more smart grids

  9. Network governance in electricity distribution: Public utility or commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenneke, Rolf; Fens, Theo

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the question whether the operation and management of electricity distribution networks in a liberalized market environment evolves into a market driven commodity business or might be perceived as a genuine public utility task. A framework is developed to classify and compare different institutional arrangements according to the public utility model and the commodity model. These models are exemplified for the case of the Dutch electricity sector. It appears that the institutional organization of electricity distribution networks is at the crossroads of two very different institutional development paths. They develop towards commercial business if the system characteristics of the electricity sector remain basically unchanged to the traditional situation. If however innovative technological developments allow for a decentralization and decomposition of the electricity system, distribution networks might be operated as public utilities while other energy services are exploited commercially. (Author)

  10. Basic Principles of Electrical Network Reliability Optimization in Liberalised Electricity Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleinikova, I.; Krishans, Z.; Mutule, A.

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose to select long-term solutions to the reliability problems of electrical networks in the stage of development planning. The guide lines or basic principles of such optimization are: 1) its dynamical nature; 2) development sustainability; 3) integrated solution of the problems of network development and electricity supply reliability; 4) consideration of information uncertainty; 5) concurrent consideration of the network and generation development problems; 6) application of specialized information technologies; 7) definition of requirements for independent electricity producers. In the article, the major aspects of liberalized electricity market, its functions and tasks are reviewed, with emphasis placed on the optimization of electrical network development as a significant component of sustainable management of power systems.

  11. Private electricity consumption on the rise -- the impact of networking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aebischer, B.; Huser, A.

    2001-01-01

    This article discusses the effect of the networking of the various devices to be found in the average home and the trend towards increased electricity consumption that will be brought about by 'intelligent' houses. Different scenarios for the increase in electricity consumption due to the increased use of multimedia systems - from the personal computer and mobile phones to hi-fi systems and the Internet are discussed. The contrasting tendencies noted in this area - such as, for example, the use of electricity to operate systems that are used to optimise and thus reduce electricity consumption in general are also discussed. Also, indirect energy-reduction effects in other areas - such as traffic reduction as a result of tele-working - are examined. Results of simulations and prognoses made concerning future trends for the electricity consumption of the various devices in homes are presented and recommendations are made on how to keep electricity consumption low when networking domestic apparatus

  12. Electric cars as buffers in an electricity network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans; Brebbia, Carlos; Miralles i Garcia, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Producing more electricity from alternative sources may help to reach four goals: reduce CO2- and other emissions, compensate for depleting resources, reduce political dependency and replace an ageing and inefficient infrastructure. Billions of Euros have to be spent in ‘grey’ or ‘green technology

  13. Noticing climate change in electricity network design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syri, S.; Martikeinen, A.; Lehtonen, M.

    2007-01-01

    The climate change is widely known to cause remarkable effects to electricity network systems on the whole. Some of the changes are good but the most of the changes cause disadvantages to electricity network. Consequence of climate change, blackouts can be long-standing which affect remarkable society and economic life. Most of electricity networks are coming to a renovation phase and the solutions, that are being made nowadays, affect still after decades. Taking account of climate change, now when networks are being developed and planned, it is possible to avoid possible large repair operation and increase reliability of distribution in the future. The aim of this project is to clarify how climate change should be noticed in planning and construction processes. According to the results of this project electricity network companies can be prepared for climate change by developing planning processes and network cost effectively. Also construction processes are being developed but emphasis is on planning process. The results and developed knowledge of VTT research project 'Impacts of climate change on electricity network business' are exploited in this project. In addition, impacts of climate change on cables and transformers are analyzed in collaboration with TKK in the project. (orig.)

  14. Impacts of climate change on electricity network business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auvinen, O.; Martikainen, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this project the impact of climate change on electricity network business was study. The results are based on RCAO climate model scenarios. The climate predictions were composed to the period 2016- 2045. The period 1960-1990 was used as a control period. The climate predictions were composed for precipitation, temperature, hoarfrost, thunder, ground frost and wind. Impacts of the change of the climate variables on electricity network business were estimated from technical and economical points of view. It is expected that climate change will cause more damages than benefits on the electricity network business. The increase of the number of network faults will be the most significant and demanding disadvantage caused by climate change in distribution network. If networks are not improved to be more resistant for faults, then thunder, heavy snow and wind cause more damages especially to overhead lines in medium voltage network. Increasing precipitation and decreasing amount of ground frost weaken the strength of soil. The construction work will be more difficult with the present vehicles because wet and unfrozen ground can not carry heavy vehicles. As a consequence of increasing temperature, the demand of heating energy will decrease and the demand of cooling energy will increase. This is significant for the electricity consumption and the peak load of temperature-dependent electricity users. (orig.)

  15. Investment in electricity networks with transmission switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Jonas Christoffer; Philpott, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    allows the solution of large problem instances. The methodology is illustrated by its application to a problem of determining the optimal investment in switching equipment and transmission capacity for an existing network. Computational tests on IEEE test networks with 73 nodes and 118 nodes confirm...

  16. Risk Based Maintenance in Electricity Network Organisations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehairjan, R.P.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Presently, maintenance management of assets in infrastructure utilities such as electricity, gas and water are widely undergoing changes towards new working environments. These are mainly driven against the background of stringent regulatory regimes, an ageing asset base, increased customer demands

  17. Electrical Properties of an m × n Hammock Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhen; Tan, Zhi-Zhong; Zhou, Ling

    2018-05-01

    Electrical property is an important problem in the field of natural science and physics, which usually involves potential, current and resistance in the electric circuit. We investigate the electrical properties of an arbitrary hammock network, which has not been resolved before, and propose the exact potential formula of an arbitrary m × n hammock network by means of the Recursion-Transform method with current parameters (RT-I) pioneered by one of us [Z. Z. Tan, Phys. Rev. E 91 (2015) 052122], and the branch currents and equivalent resistance of the network are derived naturally. Our key technique is to setting up matrix equations and making matrix transformation, the potential formula derived is a meaningful discovery, which deduces many novel applications. The discovery of potential formula of the hammock network provides new theoretical tools and techniques for related scientific research. Supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under Grant No. BK20161278

  18. Decentralised electrical distribution network in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannila, P.; Lehtonen, M.

    2000-02-01

    A centralised network is a dominating network solution in today's power plants. In this study a centralised and a decentralised network were designed in order to compare them economically and technically. The emphasis of this study was on economical aspects, but also the most important technical aspects were included. The decentralised network requires less space and less cabling since there is no switchgear building and distribution transformers are placed close to the consumption in the field of a power plant. MV-motors and distribution transformers build up a ring. Less cabling and an absent switchgear building cause considerable savings. Component costs of both of the networks were estimated by using data from fulfilled power plant projects and turned out to be smaller for the decentralised network. Simulations for the decentralised network were done in order to find a way to carry out earth fault protection and location. It was found out that in high resistance earthed system the fault distance can be estimated by a relatively simple method. The decentralised network uses a field bus, which offers many new features to the automation system of a power plant. Diversified information can be collected from the protection devices in order to schedule only the needed maintenance duties at the right time. Through the field bus it is also possible to control remotely a power plant. The decentralised network is built up from ready-to-install modules. These modules are tested by the module manufacturer decreasing the need for field testing dramatically. The work contribution needed in the electrification and the management of a power plant project reduces also due the modules. During the lifetime of a power plant, maintenance is easier and more economical. (orig.)

  19. Memristors in the electrical network of Aloe vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Alexander G; Reedus, Jada; Mitchell, Colee M; Tucket, Clayton; Forde-Tuckett, Victoria; Volkova, Maya I; Markin, Vladislav S; Chua, Leon

    2014-01-01

    A memristor is a resistor with memory, which is a non-linear passive two-terminal electrical element relating magnetic flux linkage and electrical charge. Here we found that memristors exist in vivo. The electrostimulation of the Aloe vera by bipolar sinusoidal or triangle periodic waves induce electrical responses with fingerprints of memristors. Uncouplers carbonylcyanide-3-chlorophenylhydrazone and carbonylcyanide-4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl hydrazone decrease the amplitude of electrical responses at low and high frequencies of bipolar periodic sinusoidal or triangle electrostimulating waves. Memristive behavior of an electrical network in the Aloe vera is linked to the properties of voltage gated ion channels: the K+ channel blocker TEACl reduces the electric response to a conventional resistor. Our results demonstrate that a voltage gated K+ channel in the excitable tissue of plants has properties of a memristor. The discovery of memristors in plants creates a new direction in the modeling and understanding of electrical phenomena in plants. PMID:25763487

  20. Nuevos dispositivos electrónicos para interaccionar con el sistema nervioso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Jover, Eduardo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades y accidentes que causan daños en el sistema nervioso suelen tener dramáticas consecuencias. Esto hace que en la actualidad se estén realizando grandes esfuerzos para el desarrollo de tratamientos capaces de restablecer las funciones perdidas. En este contexto, los recientes avances tecnológicos en el campo de la biomedicina, neurobiologia e ingeniería, están permitiendo desarrollar y fabricar neuroprótesis que pueden llegar a proporcionar nuevas vías de tratamiento para la recuperación parcial de algunas de estas patologías. El propósito de este trabajo es presentar algunos ejemplos de sistemas de neuroprótesis en diferentes fases de evolución y discutir sus logros y sus limitaciones.…

  1. NOTICE OF ELECTRICAL CUT - TEST OF THE SECURED NETWORK

    CERN Multimedia

    Electrical Service ST/EL

    2001-01-01

    The electrical service ST/EL will test the switching sequence between the secured network and the diesel generators on January 8, 2002. The normal network, general services of the sites Meyrin, Prevessin, SPS, Zone Nord, LHC1 and LHC18 will be cut between 6:00am and 6:10am. The secured network will be resupplied by the diesel generators after approximately 1 minute. The UPS network will not be affected. To facilitate the restart of the electrical network and to minimize the impact of the tests on critical equipment, we would like to ask you to stop any equipment that might suffer major inconveniences during the tests (e.g. computers). For any further information, please do not hesitate to contact the Technical Control Room TCR (72201) or G. Cumer (160592).

  2. Introduction to neural networks with electric power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wildberger, A.M.; Hickok, K.A.

    1990-01-01

    This is an introduction to the general field of neural networks with emphasis on prospects for their application in the power industry. It is intended to provide enough background information for its audience to begin to follow technical developments in neural networks and to recognize those which might impact on electric power engineering. Beginning with a brief discussion of natural and artificial neurons, the characteristics of neural networks in general and how they learn, neural networks are compared with other modeling tools such as simulation and expert systems in order to provide guidance in selecting appropriate applications. In the power industry, possible applications include plant control, dispatching, and maintenance scheduling. In particular, neural networks are currently being investigated for enhancements to the Thermal Performance Advisor (TPA) which General Physics Corporation (GP) has developed to improve the efficiency of electric power generation

  3. Propuesta de nueva visión del sistema de gestion de redes; Proposal of New Vision of the Networks Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Fernández Álvarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se hace un análisis de los principales cambios en la propuesta de nueva visión del sistema degestión de redes de la Unión Eléctrica. Se revisa la historia de este sistema a través de la evolución deldocumento. Se analizan los cambios que ha habido en el entorno tanto por los cambios tecnológicos y estructuralesen Cuba como por los avances de las normas internacionales. Se recogen los criterios fundamentales del nuevodocumento.  The work analyzes the proposed changes for the vision of the network management system of the ElectricalUnion. The history of this system is checked through the evolution of this important document. There areanalyzed the changes that have existed in the environment so much for the technological and structural changesin our country as for the advances of the international norms. The fundamentals criteria for the new documentsare gathered.

  4. Design of earth network in electric substations; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull-Martin, J. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as web as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presentan los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asi mismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  5. System for the measurement and detection of electric energy losses (SIM-IV); Sistema de medicion y deteccion de perdidas de energia electrica (SIM-IV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidrio L, Gilberto; Gomez L, Martin J; Castan L, Roberto [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-07-01

    The electric utility companies worldwide suffer, in greater or lesser degree, electrical energy losses. A great percentage of these losses is mostly due to illegal appropriations of energy. The consumers, by means of illicit practices such as clandestine connections and alteration of the operation of electricity meters, carry out the energy robbery. In order to try to alleviate the problematic of electric energy losses, in their majority by illicit, the electric utility companies have implemented one or more actions. Among the most important are: Visual inspection of the metering facilities. Its purpose is to verify the condition of the traditional protections of the metering installations, such as the seals and safety rings. Detection Equipment: These are recorders of energy consumption and of faults in conductors and are used to detect illicit connections and deviations in the consumption patterns and to the electrical energy connection or to the secondary distribution network. Statistical analysis of consumption: Many electric facility companies have adapted their processing consumption reading systems to detect deviations in the of consumption patterns of their clients. This could correspond to abnormal situations. Since this country is not extraneous to the problematic of energy losses, in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas it was developed a System of Measurement and Detection of Losses of Electrical Energy (SIM-IV) as a result of the knowledge of the problematic obtained from the projects in the metering area and of the interaction through work meetings with personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad and of Luz y Fuerza del Centro (LyFC), in which concepts of advanced technology were applied for the measurement of electrical variables. The SIM-IV is a system oriented to the metering of consumption and the detection of robberies of electrical energy caused by clandestine connections and non-allowed interventions to the energy meters. Since

  6. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  7. System for the reliability analysis of the electric energy supply; Sistema para el analisis de confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perales, Favio; Martinez, Javier; Huesca, Francisco; Garcia, Norma; Nieva, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    A computer tool, developed for the reliability evaluation of the electric energy supply, considering the faults in the generation and transmission systems, is presented. The application of the tool in planning the expansion and operation of the electric systems, the methodology of the solution employed and the various functions it accounts for, are described. At the end some illustrative examples of its applications by means of the studies with a model of representative characteristics of the interconnected national system. [Espanol] Se presenta una herramienta computacional desarrollada para evaluar la confiabilidad del suministro de energia electrica, considerando las fallas en los sistemas de generacion y transmision. Se describen las aplicaciones de la herramienta en la planeacion de la expansion y de la operacion de sistemas electricos, la metodologia de solucion empleada y las diversas funciones con que cuenta. Al final se presentan algunos ejemplos ilustrativos de sus aplicaciones mediante estudios con un modelo de caracteristicas representativas del sistema interconectado nacional.

  8. Information and management system for the secondary electricity distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knezevic, M. (Rudnik i Termoelectrana Gacko u Osnivanju (Yugoslavia))

    1988-07-01

    Emphasizes the importance of a reliable and continuous secondary electrical distribution network for surface coal mine productivity. Interruptions in equipment operation caused by mechanical and electrical failures should be eliminated without delay. Effective communication systems should lead to reliable management and high productivity in mines. It is suggested that mines be divided into four groups according to their sensitivity to supply interruptions, and provided with remotely controlled signalling devices linked to main and auxiliary dispatching stations equipped with micro-computers. Productivity may be increased by some 50-70% and supply costs decreased by some 35% if appropriate electrical distribution systems are used. A sketch of a secondary electrical supply network is attached. 11 refs.

  9. Control strategies for power distribution networks with electric vehicles integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie

    of electrical energy. A smart grid can also be dened as an electricity network that can intelligently integrate the actions of all users connected to it - generators, consumers and those that do both - in order to eciently deliver sustainable, economic and secure electricity supplies. This thesis focuses...... of the ii market. To build a complete solution for integration of EVs into the distribution network, a price coordinated hierarchical scheduling system is proposed which can well characterize the involved actors in the smart grid. With this system, we demonstrate that it is possible to schedule the charging......Demand side resources, like electric vehicles (EVs), can become integral parts of a smart grids because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. EVs can be used to balance the intermittent renewable energy resources such as wind and solar...

  10. Generating units in operation. National electrical system (Public service) 2002; Unidades generadoras en operacion. Sistema electrico nacional (Servicio publico) 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-03-15

    The information regarding the generation effective capacity updated to December 31, 2002 is presented. A detailed description of the effective capacity by generation region, control area, generation type and federal entity is presented. Also graphs are shown with the energy balance of the National Electrical System of Comision Federal de Electricidad and Luz y Fuerza del Centro. [Spanish] Se presenta la informacion relativa a la capacidad efectiva de generacion actualizada al 31 de diciembre de 2002. Se hace una descripcion detallada de la capacidad efectiva por region de generacion, por area de control, por tipo de generacion y por entidad federativa. Tambien se presentan unas graficas con el balance de energia del Sistema Electrico Nacional de la Comision Federal de Electricidad y de Luz y Fuerza del Centro.

  11. The electrical network of maize root apex is gravity dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Elisa; Ciszak, Marzena; Comparini, Diego; Monetti, Emanuela; Pandolfi, Camilla; Azzarello, Elisa; Mugnai, Sergio; Baluška, Frantisek; Mancuso, Stefano

    2015-01-15

    Investigations carried out on maize roots under microgravity and hypergravity revealed that gravity conditions have strong effects on the network of plant electrical activity. Both the duration of action potentials (APs) and their propagation velocities were significantly affected by gravity. Similarly to what was reported for animals, increased gravity forces speed-up APs and enhance synchronized electrical events also in plants. The root apex transition zone emerges as the most active, as well as the most sensitive, root region in this respect.

  12. Load management in electrical networks. Objectives, methods, prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabioud, D.

    2008-01-01

    This illustrated article takes up the problems related to the variation of the load in electricity networks. How to handle the peak load? Different solutions in the energy demand management are discussed. Method based on the price, method based on the reduction of the load by electric utilities. Information systems are presented which gives the consumer the needed data to participate in the local load management.

  13. A network model for electrical transport in sea ice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, J.; Golden, K.M.; Gully, A.; Sampson, C.

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring the thickness of sea ice is an important tool in assessing the impact of global warming on Earth's polar regions, and most methods of measuring ice thickness depend on detailed knowledge of its electrical properties. We develop a network model for the electrical conductivity of sea ice, which incorporates statistical measurements of the brine microstructure. The numerical simulations are in close agreement with direct measurements we made in Antarctica on the vertical conductivity of first year sea ice.

  14. Supervisory fussy control for an electric generating hybrid system; Control supervisorio difuso para un sistema hibrido de generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagunas Mendoza, Javier

    2004-11-15

    This work presents the development of a fuzzy supervisory controller for a hybrid power system (HPS). After reviewing the actual configurations for Hybrid Systems used around the world, it was defined the configuration and constitutive elements to be implemented in proposed HPS. The HPS includes: photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines as renewable sources, a Gen-set as a back-up system, a battery bank a mean for energy storage, AC loads and finally an inverter to transform DC to AC in order to provide electricity to the loads. Once the HPS configuration was selected, the mathematical models for the different elements of the system were selected. The validation of the models was made comparing the results from the model with collected real data of an experimental HPS installed in Pachuca Hidalgo. Using MatLab it was developed a program to simulate the operation of the a HPS. The main function of the supervisory controller within the HPS is to satisfy the objectives of operation of the system, and it was defined as part of the research work. The operation philosophy of the supervisory controller was defined having selected HPS configuration and the operation objectives of the system. Regarding to the supervisory controller development, first it was carried out a bibliographic review of the supervisory controllers that are used nowadays whose use some techniques of intelligent control. As result form this review the fuzzy logic technique was chosen to be implemented in the supervisory controller proposed. The resulting supervisory controller was a multi- variable system type, and it is implementation was challenging task. Its development was made using the hierarchic decomposition based on meta-knowledge. As result a smaller diffuse systems with a less number of rules were obtained. An important part of the work was the implementation of the supervisory controller in Matlab. The controller tested in the developed simulation program for SHGE. The results of operation of

  15. Software architecture for hybrid electrical/optical data center network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehmeri, Victor; Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents hardware and software architecture based on Software-Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm and OpenFlow/NETCONF protocols for enabling topology management of hybrid electrical/optical switching data center networks. In particular, a development on top of SDN open-source controller...... OpenDaylight is presented to control an optical switching matrix based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology....

  16. Incentive Regulation and Utility Benchmarking for Electricity Network Security

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Y.; Nepal, R.

    2014-01-01

    The incentive regulation of costs related to physical and cyber security in electricity networks is an important but relatively unexplored and ambiguous issue. These costs can be part of cost efficiency benchmarking or, alternatively, dealt with separately. This paper discusses the issues and proposes options for incorporating network security costs within incentive regulation in a benchmarking framework. The relevant concerns and limitations associated with the accounting and classification ...

  17. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance......-source-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...

  18. Online fouling detection in electrical circulation heaters using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalot, S. [M.E.T.I.E.R., Longuenesse Cedex (France); Universite de Valenciennes (France). LME; Lecoeuche, S. [M.E.T.I.E.R., Longuenesse Cedex (France); Universite de Lille (France). Laboratoire 13D

    2003-06-01

    Here is presented a method that is able to detect fouling during the service of a circulation electrical heater. The neural based technique is divided in two major steps: identification and classification. Each step uses a neural network, the connection weights of the first one being the inputs of the second network. Each step is detailed and the main characteristics and abilities of the two neural networks are given. It is shown that the method is able to discriminate fouling from viscosity modification that would lead to the same type of effect on the total heat transfer coefficient. (author)

  19. Outsourcing services in electricity distribution network industry; Ostopalveluiden kaeyttoe verkkoliiketoiminnassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminoff, A.; Lappetelaeinen, I. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)); Partanen, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K. (Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland)); Jaerventausta, P.; Trygg, P. (Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland))

    2009-02-15

    This report examines purchased services in the electricity distribution industry. The report is specially directed to readers working in the industry or otherwise interested in it. This report is a result of a research study that was done in 2008 by VTT, Lappeenranta University of Technology and Tampere University of Technology. The authors are thankful for funders and companies that made this research possible and provided lot of information and knowledge. We appreciate the participants in the steering group as well as the companies and people who answered to questionnaires, gave interviews and took part in GDSSinnovation session. In the business of electricity distribution the usage of purchased services has been increasing during the past years and network companies have focused more on their core business processes. There are a couple of peaks in the number of new purchasing decisions in the middle of the 90s and in the beginning of 2000. The most popular purchased services are network construction and maintenance services. On the other hand, many network planning related activities are still done in-house by the network companies, and are considered their core business. There are some industry specific factors that affect to the decision on whether or not to buy the service outside the company and how to cooperate with the suppliers. For instance, many network companies are owned by municipalities and many service providers are owned by the network companies. The former issue may sometimes bring local politics into the decision-making of the network companies. The latter issue, in turn, has an impact on the relationship between the customer and the supplier, and the infra-organizational issues may sometimes complicate the service purchasing process. Electricity network companies also have natural monopoly positions in their operating areas. To prevent the abuse of monopoly positions, the network companies are subjected to economic regulation. This affects

  20. Network cost in transmission and distribution of electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, A.; Naeslund, B.; Oettinger-Biberg, C.; Olander, H.; Wuolikainen, T.; Fritz, P.

    1994-01-01

    This report is divided in two parts, where part 1 treats the charges on the regional nets with special emphasis on the net owners tariffs on a deregulated market. Part 2 describes the development of the network costs in electric power distribution for the period 1991-1993. 11 figs, 33 tabs

  1. Calibración de un sistema electrónico para la caracterización óptica de diodos emisores de luz

    OpenAIRE

    Vara Lubiano, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo es la calibración de un sistema electrónico capaz de automatizar la obtención de espectros de emisión de fuentes de luz. Se trata de obtener una medida de la irradiancia de la fuente, es decir, potencia suministrada por la misma por unidad de superficie y para cada longitud de onda. En primer lugar se calibró la medida de la longitud de onda. Éste proceso consistió en la comparaci ón directa del espectro obtenido por el sistema con el valor conocido ...

  2. Intelligent Electric Power Systems with Active-Adaptive Electric Networks: Challenges for Simulation Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufa Ruslan A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The motivation of the presented research is based on the needs for development of new methods and tools for adequate simulation of intelligent electric power systems with active-adaptive electric networks (IES including Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS devices. The key requirements for the simulation were formed. The presented analysis of simulation results of IES confirms the need to use a hybrid modelling approach.

  3. Human networks in the European electric power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barjot, Dominique; Kurgan-van Hentenryk, Ginette

    2004-01-01

    Behind electrical systems, we should not forget the human networks. The European case is interesting for that matter. There were major players involved, from the pioneers up to the conceivers of national and international systems. More particularly, the engineers should be considered for their technical as well as organizational performance. Attitudes must also be stressed: in Europe, electricity has constantly been developed with both nationalist and internationalist considerations, as shown by the passage from Unternehmergeschaeft to Bankgeschaeft after 1918. Neither should we forget the role played by institutions in the formation of networks: schools, holdings, cartels, and also those frontier zones formed by small countries like Belgium and Switzerland. The human networks, finally, left long term results such as: interconnection, inter-firm cooperation, technocracy, and the growing intervention of the State

  4. System for the design of electrical distribution substations; Sistema para el diseno de subestaciones electricas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayas Perez, Benjamin Eddie; Islas Perez, Eduardo; Bahena Rada, Jessica Liliana; Romero Lima, Jesus [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Moreno Diaz, Humberto [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    The physical design of electric substations involves a variety of activities, such as developing, reviewing and performing modifications to different design proposals, estimating costs and producing documents to be integrated into an executive project. These activities are usually conducted at the Distribution Divisions of the Federal Electric Commission (CFE) through two separate processes: the development of engineering plans with computer-aided design software (CAD) and volumetric calculations for the initial budget using conventional spreadsheets. The documents are manually developed on an individual basis, without the existence of any functions to allow for automatically updating the design modifications of any of the plans. The corresponding initial budget becomes a lengthy and laborious process with the likelihood of inconsistencies among the documents. In order to optimize the design process for the public and electromechanical works of electric substations (ES) in a three-dimensional (3D) graphic environment, the IIE's Management of Process Supervision, in coordination with the CFE Distribution Subdivision, developed the System for the Design of Electric Substation Distribution (SDESD). This system makes use of the advantages of CAD3D technology to develop detail engineering, cost engineering to calculate initial budgets and virtual reality for three-dimensional interactive navigation. It is worth mentioning that this system is currently in the implementation phase at the CFE Distribution Subdivision. This article briefly describes the main stages in the development of the project, as well as the functioning and principal components of the system. [Spanish] El diseno fisico de subestaciones electricas implica una variedad de actividades, tales como elaborar, revisar y efectuar modificaciones de diferentes propuestas de diseno, estimar costos y producir documentos, para integrarlos como parte de un proyecto ejecutivo. Estas actividades usualmente se

  5. Transport and operation of Spanish electrical system; El transporte y la operacion del sistema electrico en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielgo Alvarez, P.

    1998-12-01

    The article summarized the institutional organization of the electric sector in Spain during recent years, up to the deregulation phase initial by the Electricity Sector Act. approved in november 1997. It includes a review of the regulation an retribution of the transmission, system operation and network management activities, as well as a description of the development and capabilities of Red Electrica as the company to which these central functions are assigned, and also of the legal limitations, and the opportunities opened by the new legal framework. (Author)

  6. Teoria de sistemas autopoiéticos y la “actor network theory”: ¿Hacia una convergencia posestructuralista?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Pont Vidal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-1384.2016v13n2p38 Desde hace unos años se manifiesta un creciente interés entre los sociólogos en establecer un nexo entre la Teoría de sistemas sociales autorreferenciales de Niklas Luhmann con los marcos teóricos que componen la filosofía social posestructuralista. Aunque existe una autodefinición común estructural-funcionalista aparecen insoslayables diferencias entre la teoría sistémica de Luhmann y el constructivismo de la Actor Network Theory.

  7. Sistema de Monitoreo Electrónico de Desplazamiento de Tubos de Extensión para Junta Expansiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Campuzano-Cervantes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: En este trabajo se plantea el desarrollo de un dispositivo, llamado junta expansiva, para mitigar la ruptura de tuberías para el transporte de hidrocarburos, causada por deslizamientos de tierra o dilatación lineal. La solución propuesta, involucra el desplazamiento de 2 tubos que alargan el dispositivo, aliviando la tensión y retardando la ruptura de la tubería. La medida del desplazamiento de esos tubos, requiere ser monitoreada para determinar qué tan pronto ocurrirá la ruptura y emprender las acciones correctivas para evitar el derramamiento del hidrocarburo, razón por la que se plantea este sistema de monitoreo electrónico con interfaz gráfica de usuario que facilita la visualización del desplazamiento de manera remota. De esta forma se complementa la junta expansiva y se ofrece la posibilidad al operador de mantenimiento de la tubería monitoreada, de reaccionar a tiempo. Las pruebas ejecutadas mostraron la funcionalidad del sistema de monitoreo propuesto en la junta expansiva. Abstract: In this work the development of a device, called an expansion joint, is proposed to mitigate the rupture of pipelines for the transportation of hydrocarbons, caused by landslides or linear expansion. Proposed solution involves the displacement of two tubes which extend the device, relieving tension and slowing the rupture of the pipe. The measurement of displacement needs to be monitored to determine how soon the rupture occur and take corrective actions to prevent spillage of hydrocarbons. Then, a system of electronic monitoring with graphical user interface that facilitates the visualization of displacement remotely is proposed, complementing the expansion joint. Operators can maintain the monitored pipe and react in time. The tests performed showed the functionality of the proposed system in the expansion joint. Palabras clave: Junta expansiva, sistema de control monitoreado, transporte de hidrocarburos, tuberías, interfaz gr

  8. New Operation and Maintenance Contract for Electrical Network

    CERN Document Server

    Kowalik, G

    2001-01-01

    The Electrical Exploitation is one of the few remaining operation services at CERN which nearly entirely relies on the CERN staff. Last year CERN policy, in connection with the LHC project needs, have led to the formulation of the strategy of out-sourcing of the Electrical Exploitation activities, market survey and subsequent Invitation to Tender. The following paper presents the approach used in the preparation of the Invitation to Tender and in solving of the out-sourcing issues applied to the operation and maintenance of the CERN electrical network. In particular the problems of the results oriented contract, quality assurance and performance as well requirement of the constantly increasing productivity of the Contractors team are treated. The paper gives also the particularities of the application of the out-sourcing to the electrical operation service as will as techniques used for the estimation of the work load of the activities being outsourced.

  9. Electricity Networks: Infrastructure and Operations. Too complex for a resource?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Dennis

    2013-07-01

    Electricity security remains a priority of energy policy and continuous electrification will further enhance the importance in the years to come. Market liberalisation has brought substantial benefits to societies, including competition, innovation, more client-oriented services and the reduced needs for public expenditure. Further, the path of decarbonisation is a must but experiences with many new technologies and policies show their many implications on power systems. Electricity networks form the backbone of reliable and affordable power systems and also significantly support the inception of renewable generation. The importance of distribution and transmission networks has to be well understood by policy makers and regulators to maintain the sensitive balance within the policy triangle of reliability, affordability and sustainability as power systems rapidly change. Failures in choosing the right institutions and regulatory frameworks to operate and build networks will put the sensitive balance within the policy triangle at risk. ''Too complex for a resource?'' identifies the key challenges the electricity distribution and transmission networks face today and in the future. It further provides for best practice examples on institutional design choices and regulatory frameworks for sound network service provision but also highlights the importance of additional responses required. More market-based and dynamic frameworks for various system services, the growing need for active service participation of renewable generators and highly independent and transparent central operators seem to be at the heart of these responses. ''Too complex for a resource?'' finds that the answer to the challenges ahead is not always more infrastructure and that networks and the services they provide have to be regarded as equal part of the total power system. Thus, accurate and dynamic cost allocation can significantly support to transform

  10. Simulación de sistemas eléctricos con cargas no lineales y variantes en el tiempo Simulation of electric systems with non-linear and time-variant loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carvajal Carreño

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se propone una metodología, implementada en un programa de computador por medio de una interfase gráfica con el usuario (GUI, que permite simular redes eléctricas con elementos no lineales (principalmente convertidores de potencia, tanto en el dominio del tiempo como en el dominio de la frecuencia. El método propuesto combina dos tipos de análisis en una herramienta flexible, de forma que se puedan aprovechar las ventajas de cada uno de ellos, y que permita analizar sistemas lineales y no lineales en el dominio del tiempo, sistemas lineales en el dominio de la frecuencia y sistemas mixtos utilizando este método híbrido. La herramienta es un instrumento de cálculo versátil y completo que puede ser usado de una manera sencilla, para los estudios de análisis de propagación de armónicos en las redes eléctricas. Se presentan ejemplos extraídos de la bibliografía utilizada en cursos de sistemas de potencia, circuitos eléctricos y electrónica de potencia, así como sistemas de prueba para análisis de cargas no lineales o variantes en el tiempo, generados como marco de referencia para las simulaciones de armónicos. Se analizan los resultados y se hacen observaciones acerca de las características de convergencia y estabilidad algorítmica del método propuesto. Dada la complejidad y carga computacional del análisis del método híbrido propuesto, se han seleccionado modelos de elementos, modelos de los componentes del sistema y algoritmos apropiados, para que la solución del problema se realice dentro de límites razonables de tiempo de simulación y consumo de recursos del equipo de cómputo.This paper deals with a methodology implemented in a computer program with a Graphic User Interface (GUI that allows us to simulate electrical networks (mainly power converters with non linear elements. The proposed approach mixes two analysis types in a flexible tool, in that way, we can take advantage of the features of each

  11. Operation planning of electrical power systems; Planeacion de operacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.; Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    The development of a software that has facilitated and improved considerably the planning tasks, besides diminishing the production costs is presented. The software denominated Hydrothermal Coordination (HTC)(Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT)), was developed in the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), with this software the plan of short term operation of the generating units is determined. The software analyzes mathematically a great number of options regarding to the allocation of generation units and selects very close solutions, in cost, to the optimal one. It constitutes in addition an information system that stores the relevant data of each unit, useful for decision making. [Spanish] Se presenta el desarrollo de un software que ha facilitado y mejorado considerablemente las tareas de planeacion, ademas de disminuir los costos de produccion. El paquete denominado Coordinacion Hidrotermica (CHT), fue desarrollado en el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE); con el se determina el plan de operacion a corto plazo de las unidades generadoras. El paquete analiza matematicamente un gran numero de opciones en lo que se refiere a la asignacion de unidades de generacion y selecciona soluciones muy cercanas, en costo, a la optima. Constituye ademas un sistema de informacion que almacena los datos relevantes de cada unidad, utiles para la toma de decisiones.

  12. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  13. Supply curve bidding of electricity in constrained power networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Agtash, Salem Y. [Hijjawi Faculty of Engineering; Yarmouk University; Irbid 21163 (Jordan)

    2010-07-15

    This paper presents a Supply Curve Bidding (SCB) approach that complies with the notion of the Standard Market Design (SMD) in electricity markets. The approach considers the demand-side option and Locational Marginal Pricing (LMP) clearing. It iteratively alters Supply Function Equilibria (SFE) model solutions, then choosing the best bid based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. It has been argued that SCB better benefits suppliers compared to fixed quantity-price bids. It provides more flexibility and better opportunity to achieving profitable outcomes over a range of demands. In addition, SCB fits two important criteria: simplifies evaluating electricity derivatives and captures smooth marginal cost characteristics that reflect actual production costs. The simultaneous inclusion of physical unit constraints and transmission security constraints will assure a feasible solution. An IEEE 24-bus system is used to illustrate perturbations of SCB in constrained power networks within the framework of SDM. By searching in the neighborhood of SFE model solutions, suppliers can obtain their best bid offers based on market-clearing LMP and network conditions. In this case, electricity producers can derive their best offering strategy both in the power exchange and the long-term contractual markets within a profitable, yet secure, electricity market. (author)

  14. Robust control decentralized by sliding ways of electrical of power multi-machines systems; Control robusto descentralizado por modos deslizantes de sistemas electricos de potencia multimaquinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta Avila, Hector

    2008-09-15

    This work deals with the problem of robust decentralized control of multimachine electric power systems. These systems are subject to different perturbations, such as short circuits, connection and/or disconnection of loads, lines generators, mechanical torque variations, etc. Then, it is necessary controllers which guarantee robustness under those perturbations to provide electrical energy to the loads with admissible stability margins. Moreover, the controller must be robust under parametric variations due to model uncertainties, and other physical reasons. The electrical power systems are modeled as complex great scale nonlinear systems. Then, the controller design is a challenging problem. Thus, the decentralized control schemes enable to avoid these problems. This work proposes three novel robust nonlinear techniques. The first one is based on the block control and integral sliding modes. The second obtains a sliding manifold from the Hamiltonian model of a nonlinear system to use this manifold in the integral sliding modes. The third technique enables to apply the sliding mode technique to a nonlinear block controllable system, by using Lyapunov function in each block. Then, four control schemes for electric power systems are designed. The four control schemes are robust under the perturbations of electric power systems mentioned above. The controllers proposed can be implemented in any electric power system with n generators, m lines and k loads. [Spanish] Este trabajo esta dedicado al diseno de esquemas de control robustos descentralizados que sean capaces de responder satisfactoriamente en sistemas electricos de potencia multimaquinas. Estos sistemas estan sujetos a perturbaciones de diferentes tipos, como cortos circuitos, entrada y salida de lineas de cargas o de generadores. Es evidente la necesidad de controladores que puedan rechazar estas perturbaciones para proveer energia de calidad y sin interrupciones a todos los usuarios conectados a la red

  15. Carbon in Spanish electric system; El carbon en el sistema electrico espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menendez Perez, E.; Camara Rascon, A.

    2002-07-01

    In this document is analysed the electrical Spanish system in the horizon of the three next decades, revising the different sources of generation, but with the look focused specifically toward the paper that the coal must play in the same, having basically to debit the questions of energetic security, environmental incidence that implies the use of the coal, and the social and economic aspects. (Author)

  16. Markets in real electric networks require reactive prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1996-01-01

    Extending earlier seminal work, the author finds that locational spot price differences in an electric network provide the natural measure of the appropriate internodal transport charge. However, the problem of loop flow requires different economic intuition for interpreting the implications of spot pricing. The Direct Current model, which is the usual approximation for estimating spot prices, ignores reactive power effects; this approximation is best when thermal constraints create network congestion. However, when voltage constraints are problematic, the DC Load model is insufficient; a full AC Model is required to determine both real and reactive spot prices. 16 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs

  17. Architecture, design and protection of electrical distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorrel, J.P. [Schneider electric Industries SA (France)

    2000-07-01

    Architectures related to AII Electric Ship (AES) require high level of propulsion power. Merchant ships and obviously warships require a low vulnerability, a high reliability and availability, a simple maintainability as well as an ordinary ode of operation. These constraints converge to an optimum single line diagram. We will focus on the mode of operation of the network, its constraints, the facilities to use a ring distribution for the ship service distribution system, the earthing of HV network as well as future developments. (author)

  18. Life cycle assessment of the Danish electricity distribution network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turconi, Roberto; Simonsen, Christian G.; Byriel, Inger P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This article provides life cycle inventory data for electricity distribution networks and a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the Danish transmission and distribution networks. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential importance of environmental impacts associated with distribution...... complexity and material consumption. Infrastructure provided important contributions to metal depletion and freshwater eutrophication (copper and aluminum for manufacturing of the cables and associated recycling being the most important). Underground 50-kV lines had larger impacts than overhead lines, and 0...

  19. Australia's long-term electricity demand forecasting using deep neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hamedmoghadam, Homayoun; Joorabloo, Nima; Jalili, Mahdi

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of long-term electricity demand has a significant role in demand side management and electricity network planning and operation. Demand over-estimation results in over-investment in network assets, driving up the electricity prices, while demand under-estimation may lead to under-investment resulting in unreliable and insecure electricity. In this manuscript, we apply deep neural networks to predict Australia's long-term electricity demand. A stacked autoencoder is used in...

  20. STRATEGIC RESEARCH AGENDA FOR EUROPE’S ELECTRICITY NETWORKS OF THE FUTURE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamberger, Yves; Baptista, João; Botting, Duncan

    The first milestone towards the establishment of a common strategy for the development of Europe’s electricity networks was set in April 2006 when the paper ‘Vision and Strategy for Europe’s Electricity Networks of the Future’1 was published. In this Vision, future electricity markets and networks...

  1. Fortalecimiento de los sistemas que garantizan un manejo sostenible de los desechos electrónicos.

    OpenAIRE

    Roa-Gutiérrez, Floria

    2012-01-01

    Informe Final de Proyecto de Investigación. Este proyecto surgió como una segunda fase al establecimiento de una estrategia de manejo sostenible para residuos electrónicos (ejecutado agosto, 2002-junio, 2004). Con el objetivo principal de implementar la estrategia propuesta que debe incluir un componente legal, un componente técnico-ambiental, un componente financiero y un componente social. Componente Legal: De la primera fase se estableció la necesidad de un soporte legal que incluya ...

  2. SYNCHRONIZATION OF NATIONAL GRID NETWORK WITH THE ELECTRICITY SHIPS NETWORK IN THE "SHORE TO SHIP" SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz TARNAPOWICZ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ‘Shore to ship’ system – ships’ power supply from the local electrical substations – is one of the effective ways to limit the negative impact of the ships lying in ports on the environment. Energy infrastructure of the port installation necessary to provide ships with power supply has to be designed so that different types of ships can use it. The important issue concerning ‘shore to ship’ system is the quality of power supply. This can be achieved via sustaining continuity of power supply while switching from the ships’ electrical network over to the national grid. In this article the author presents the way of synchronizing the national grid with the ships’ electrical network during ship’s lying in port. Such synchronization would allow for uninterruptible work of the ship’s electrical devices.

  3. Observación del sistema poroso de rocas carbonatadas al microscopio electrónico de barrido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, F.

    1988-08-01

    Full Text Available The pore system of three carbonate rocks is studied through observation of resin and latex casts, under scanning electron microscope. The selected rocks -Hontoria and Seville limestones, and Boñar dolomite- have been broadly employed in the construction of outstanding monuments of the Spanish Historical Heritage. The degree of impregnation achieved by the epoxy resins, according to different procedures, is also checked by means of mercury injection porosimetry techniques. The observation of the pore casts displays, generally, the complexity of the pore systems of these rocks.Se estudia en este trabajo el sistema poroso de tres rocas carbonatadas, a partir de observaciones de moldes de resina y réplicas de látex al microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las rocas seleccionadas -calizas de Hontoria y Sevilla, y dolomía de Boñar- han sido ampliamente utilizadas en la construcción de importantes monumentos del Patrimonio Histórico Español. Se ha comprobado, asimismo, el grado de impregnación alcanzado por las resinas epoxídicas en diferentes procedimientos, a partir de técnicas de porosimetria de inyección de mercurio. Los resultados obtenidos ponen de manifiesto, en general, la complejidad de la estructura porosa de dichas rocas.

  4. From electric networks to 'Smart grids'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjsaid, Nourredine; Sabonnadiere, Jean-Claude

    2015-12-01

    After decades of slow evolutions, and because of the emergence of renewable energies and of a multiplication of actors due to the liberalisation of energy markets, electric networks are entering a phase of large and complex development which will lead to a massive introduction of intelligence and to the building up of the 'smart grid' concept. The authors first identify the characteristics of the new energetic paradigm. The present operation of electric grids is based on four components: production by means of high power units installed in strategic locations, transport to consumption centres by means of a highly instrumented transport network which has highly centralised and hierarchical management, and consumers who are passive actors. They comment the implications of recent development for these three components. They describe how information and communication technologies (ICT) are used at the service of the grid, and how new technologies are integrated in different instruments (smart counter, actuators, fast cut devices, sensors, advanced supervision and control functions). Then they discuss the definition of a smart network or smart grid, the objectives it allows to be reached for energy transport as well as energy distribution. They discuss the desirable evolution of distribution networks and their technical objectives. Then, they give an overview of the various involved actors (consumers, network managers, electric equipment manufacturers, energy producers, and so on), evokes bodies and institutions involved in research on smart grids (notably in Grenoble within the INPG), give some examples of innovative concepts which are now being developed (intelligence distribution, virtual central station, grid monitoring, re-configurable grid, smart building). They also identify scientific and technological deadlocks, and outline the challenge of preparing the needed abilities for the development of smart grids

  5. AC Electric Field Communication for Human-Area Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kado, Yuichi; Shinagawa, Mitsuru

    We have proposed a human-area networking technology that uses the surface of the human body as a data transmission path and uses an AC electric field signal below the resonant frequency of the human body. This technology aims to achieve a “touch and connect” intuitive form of communication by using the electric field signal that propagates along the surface of the human body, while suppressing both the electric field radiating from the human body and mutual interference. To suppress the radiation field, the frequency of the AC signal that excites the transmitter electrode must be lowered, and the sensitivity of the receiver must be raised while reducing transmission power to its minimally required level. We describe how we are developing AC electric field communication technologies to promote the further evolution of a human-area network in support of ubiquitous services, focusing on three main characteristics, enabling-transceiver technique, application-scenario modeling, and communications quality evaluation. Special attention is paid to the relationship between electro-magnetic compatibility evaluation and regulations for extremely low-power radio stations based on Japan's Radio Law.

  6. Programa de apoyo a la toma de decisiones sobre nuevas cargas en sistemas de distribución mediante margen de capacidad; Methodology for supporting the decision-making process concerning the connection of new customers to electrical distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Richard Tello Ortíz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Resumen/ AbstractEste artículo presenta una nueva metodología, que tiene como principal objetivo mejorar las políticas dedecisión del área comercial de las empresas distribuidoras, en lo referente a la administración de laconexión de las nuevas cargas, con un proceso que permite analizar la capacidad de potencia disponibleen el sistema, e implementado un programa aplicativo desde los puntos de vista eléctricos, mecánicos yeconómicos, respectivamente. La principal característica del desarrollo de este programa radica en elmodelo matemático utilizado para representar el máximo consumo, con una carga conectada y calcular lapotencia aún disponible en el sistema, además otro aspecto trascendente se encuentra en la integracióncompleta con las plataformas de Sistemas Informáticos Geográficos (GIS, actualmente utilizados por lasempresas de Distribución de Energía Eléctrica. This work presents a new methodology aimed at supporting the decision-making process regarding theconnection of new loads in electrical distribution networks. The methodology is based upon the innovativeconcept of capacity margin, established within this work, by which the maximum load that can beconnected to any given point is computed in advance in offline mode. The criteria for finding the maximumload are based on the common requirements of minimum voltage and maximum loading. The proposedmethodology automatically eliminates the possibility of making incorrect decisions associated withconventional filtering techniques. The application of the proposed methodology is illustrated throughvarious examples which use real distribution networks, at both low and medium voltage levels.

  7. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  8. Smart PV grid to reinforce the electrical network

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Hamad, Mohamed Y.; Qamber, Isa S.

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) became the new competitive energy resources of the planet and needs to be engaged in grid to break up the congestion in both Distribution and Transmission systems. The objective of this research is to reduce the load flow through the distribution and transmission equipment by 20%. This reduction will help in relief networks loaded equipment's in all networks. Many projects are starting to develop in the GCC countries and need to be organized to achieve maximum benefits from involving the Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the network. The GCC countries have a good location for solar energy with high intensity of the solar radiation and clear sky along the year. The opportunities of the solar energy is to utilize and create a sustainable energy resource for this region. Moreover, the target of this research is to engage the PV technology in such a way to lower the over loaded equipment and increases the electricity demand at the consumer's side.

  9. IPv6-Based Smart Metering Network for Monitoring Building Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A smart electricity monitoring system of building is presented using ZigBee and internet to establish the network. This system consists of three hardware layers: the host PC, the router, and the sensor nodes. A hierarchical ant colony algorithm is developed for data transmission among the wireless sensor nodes. The wireless communication protocol is also designed based on IPv6 protocol on IEEE 802.15.4 wireless network. All-IP approach and peer-to-peer mode are integrated to optimize the network building. Each node measures the power, current, and voltage and transmits them to the host PC through the router. The host software is designed for building test characteristics, having a tree hierarchy and a friendly interface for the user. The reliability and accuracy of this monitoring system are verified in the experiment and application.

  10. Analysis of reflectivity & predictability of electricity network tariff structures for household consumers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, M.; Gibescu, M.; Cobben, J. F.G.

    2017-01-01

    Distribution network operators charge household consumers with a network tariff, so they can recover their network investment and operational costs. With the transition; towards a sustainable energy system, the household load is changing, through the introduction of photovoltaics and electric

  11. Atmospheric electric discharges and grounding systems; Descargas atmosfericas y sistemas de conexion a tierra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, Elena [ed.] [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this article the work made by the Institute of Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), in the area of atmospheric electric discharges and grounding connections at Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) is presented. The work consisted of the revision of the procedures for the design of transmission lines and substations of CFE from which high indexes of interruptions are reported, from this, a program was defined that allowed to improve the existing designs in CFE. [Spanish] En este articulo se presenta el trabajo realizado por el Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE), en el area de descargas atmosfericas y conexiones a tierra en Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). El trabajo consistio en la revision de los procedimientos de diseno de las areas de transmision y subestaciones de la CFE para los que se reportan altos indices de salidas, a partir de esto se definio un programa que permitio mejorar los disenos existentes en la CFE.

  12. Sistema de diagnóstico para la estimación de secciones en fallo en sistemas eléctricos de potencia; A Diagnostic Systems to Estimate Faulty Sections in Power Electric Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Bravo de las Casas

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El sistema de diagnóstico para la estimación de secciones en fallo (SDESF para sistemas eléctricos depotencia (SEP expuesto en el trabajo, usa la información procedente de los relés operados e interruptoresdisparados. Está escrito en Prolog, lenguaje de inteligencia artificial e implementado en una computadorapersonal. La tarea básica de este sistema es entrenar a los despachadores y utilizarlo como una herramientade apoyo a la toma de decisiones del despachador ante situaciones de emergencias complejas con unambiente computacional de usuario amigable. Este sistema ha sido verificado prácticamente por pruebasrealizadas en el SEP del territorio central de Cuba y los resultados preliminares de las pruebas sugieren quepuede ser implementado para el entrenamiento de despachadores. Se ha demostrado la efectividad delsistema para identificar la localización del fallo muy eficientemente, por lo tanto, puede servir como uninstrumento valioso de ayuda para la localización de fallos, y puede ser usado en las universidades comomedio de enseñanza. El sistema en un futuro pudiera ser ampliado para conectarse al sistema Scada(Sircre-2 a tiempo real para la estimación de secciones en fallo on-line.  The diagnostic system to estimate faulty sections (DSEFS in power electric systems (PES shown in thework it uses the information coming from the relays and breakers operated. It is written in Prolog Language ofartificial Intelligence and implemented in a personal computer. The basic task of this system is to train thedispatchers and to use it like a support tool to the taking of the dispatcher's decisions before situations ofcomplex emergencies with an ambient computacional of friendly user. This system has been verified practicallyby tests carried out in the PES of the central territory of Cuba and the preliminary results of the tests suggestthat  it  can  be  implemented  for  the  training  of  dispatchers.  The  effectiveness  of  the

  13. Predictive analysis on the electric energy distribution systems reliability: applying the synerGEE system; Analisis predictivo de la confiabilidad en los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica: aplicando el sistema synerGEE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Andrade, Carlos

    2008-12-15

    Electrical distribution systems ought to deliver electric power as economical as possible with an acceptable degree of service quality and continuity. Nevertheless, their faults represent one of the main causes of customer's unavailability. At the moment, a wide range of determinist criteria in the improvement of systems reliability based on past behavior are used, but they do not respond to the stochastic nature of system behavior, and are applied without an adequate balance between reliability and economy. In order to obtain this balance a minimum cost planning methodology that considers the predictive analysis of different investment alternatives in addition to the past behavior of the system is required, which guarantees that the economic resource available and limited will be used to gather the greater possible reliability degree. In this work this problem is approached with the fundamentals and methodologies needed to assess the design effects and operative criteria over the main reliability indexes used by the main utilities around the world, with emphasis on the need to optimize economical resources. The use of the system SynerGEETM, is investigated, probing it as a useful tool for the predictive reliability analysis. Due to the lack of experience that exists in Mexico with this type of analysis, distribution engineers has to become familiar with the concepts of the reliability engineering, their application to establish distribution systems models, and acquiring the ability to use the modern simulation tools, allowing them to evaluate the behavior of these systems with enough analytical rigor. In this sense a serial of well known study cases are presented to help them in this labor. [Spanish] Los sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica deben satisfacer la demanda de energia electrica de la forma mas economica posible, con un grado de calidad y continuidad aceptable. Sin embargo, sus fallas son una de las principales causas de indisponibilidad en

  14. THE EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF REACTIVE POWER COMPENSATION IN ELECTRIC POWER LOSSES IN ELECTRIC NETWORK OF RAILWAY JUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    O. I. Bondar; I. L. Bondar

    2009-01-01

    In this work the generalized mathematical model of an electrical network of the electrified railway junction is proposed. An estimation of influence of static var compensators installation on electric power losses in a network is executed on the basis of given model.

  15. Facing a Problem of Electrical Energy Quality in Ship Networks-measurements, Estimation, Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomasz Tarasiuk; Janusz Mindykowski; Xiaoyan Xu

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, electrical energy quality and its indices in ship electric networks are introduced, especially the meaning of electrical energy quality terms in voltage and active and reactive power distribution indices. Then methods of measurement of marine electrical energy indices are introduced in details and a microprocessor measurement-diagnosis system with the function of measurement and control is designed. Afterwards, estimation and control of electrical power quality of marine electrical power networks are introduced. And finally, according to the existing method of measurement and control of electrical power quality in ship power networks, the improvement of relative method is proposed.

  16. Effects of extracellular potassium diffusion on electrically coupled neuron networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing-Xing; Shuai, Jianwei

    2015-02-01

    Potassium accumulation and diffusion during neuronal epileptiform activity have been observed experimentally, and potassium lateral diffusion has been suggested to play an important role in nonsynaptic neuron networks. We adopt a hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neuron network in a zero-calcium condition to better understand the influence of extracellular potassium dynamics on the stimulus-induced activity. The potassium concentration in the interstitial space for each neuron is regulated by potassium currents, Na+-K+ pumps, glial buffering, and ion diffusion. In addition to potassium diffusion, nearby neurons are also coupled through gap junctions. Our results reveal that the latency of the first spike responding to stimulus monotonically decreases with increasing gap-junction conductance but is insensitive to potassium diffusive coupling. The duration of network oscillations shows a bell-like shape with increasing potassium diffusive coupling at weak gap-junction coupling. For modest electrical coupling, there is an optimal K+ diffusion strength, at which the flow of potassium ions among the network neurons appropriately modulates interstitial potassium concentrations in a degree that provides the most favorable environment for the generation and continuance of the action potential waves in the network.

  17. Modelling electric trains energy consumption using Neural Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fernandez, P.; Garcia Roman, C.; Insa Franco, R.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays there is an evident concern regarding the efficiency and sustainability of the transport sector due to both the threat of climate change and the current financial crisis. This concern explains the growth of railways over the last years as they present an inherent efficiency compared to other transport means. However, in order to further expand their role, it is necessary to optimise their energy consumption so as to increase their competitiveness. Improving railways energy efficiency requires both reliable data and modelling tools that will allow the study of different variables and alternatives. With this need in mind, this paper presents the development of consumption models based on neural networks that calculate the energy consumption of electric trains. These networks have been trained based on an extensive set of consumption data measured in line 1 of the Valencia Metro Network. Once trained, the neural networks provide a reliable estimation of the vehicles consumption along a specific route when fed with input data such as train speed, acceleration or track longitudinal slope. These networks represent a useful modelling tool that may allow a deeper study of railway lines in terms of energy expenditure with the objective of reducing the costs and environmental impact associated to railways. (Author)

  18. Simulation of the electric systems of the Laguna Verde nuclear power station; Simulacion de los sistemas electricos de la Central Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Lozano, Saul; Ruiz Ponce, Gerardo E [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1992-03-01

    In this article, the electric system models of the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station (CNLV) simulator, are presented. These models permit the functioning simulation, in the different operation modes of the main generator (Ruiz and Rodriguez 1991a), of the auxiliaries system and of the substation (Ruiz and Rodriguez 1991b), and of the emergency diesel generators system (Ruiz and Rodriguez 1991c). The general characteristics of such systems, considered as the basis to obtain the representative models, which were developed as modules in an independent way to be integrated in the simulator, are also described. [Espanol] En este articulo, se presenta los modelos de los sistemas electricos del simulador de la Central Laguna Verde (CLV). Estos modelos permiten simular el funcionamiento, en los diferentes modos de operacion del generador principal (Ruiz y Rodriguez, 1991a), del sistema de auxiliares y de la subestacion (Ruiz y Rodriguez, 1991b) y del sistema de generadores diesel de emergencia (Ruiz y Rodriguez, 1991c). Asimismo, se describen las caracteristicas generales de tales sistemas, consideradas como la base para obtener los modelos representativos, los cuales fueron desarrollados como modulos en forma independiente para integrarse al simulador.

  19. Schemes for protecting electric power systems; Esquemas de protecao de sistemas de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Paulo Cesar de

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this dissertation is to accomplish an introduction to the studies and the applications of the System Protection Schemes (SPS) used to maintain the electric power systems safety. A small group of definitions and concepts from the 'protection, reliability and power systems performance analysis' areas is presented with the objective of distinguishing SPS from the conventional system component protections. It also helps in understanding the functions of the SPS with more clarity. The SPS are used to maintain the integrity of the system when it is submitted to phenomena that provoke instability or cascade circuit outages. The classification and the description of these phenomena, as well as the SPS application are shown in this dissertation. The general structure of the SPS, the ways of classifying them and the different actions used by SPS to control the disturbances are the objectives of the analysis of this work. In order to exemplify, a vision is given of how the SPS are located in the Brazilian interconnected system (BIS) and also in the rest of the world. Some SPS used in Brazil deserved special attention. The analyses of the main blackouts that occurred in Brazil and in North America are presented, in a summarized term, in appendix I. Considerable knowledge is obtained from these analyses, leading to implementation measures that minimize the risk of interruptions in the energy supply. A comparison is also made of the degree of severity of the great blackouts that happened in Brazil and, for the two largest, an estimate of their respective interruption costs is made. In appendix II, an attempt was also made to establish the basic requirements for the SPS implementation using micro processing technology. Based on the experience lived during the studies developed by the group that analyzed the safety of the Bis after the blackout on March 11/1999, criteria and procedures to analyze the safety of the system and to accomplish studies of SPS

  20. Forecasting electricity market pricing using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pao, Hsiao-Tien

    2007-01-01

    Electricity price forecasting is extremely important for all market players, in particular for generating companies: in the short term, they must set up bids for the spot market; in the medium term, they have to define contract policies; and in the long term, they must define their expansion plans. For forecasting long-term electricity market pricing, in order to avoid excessive round-off and prediction errors, this paper proposes a new artificial neural network (ANN) with single output node structure by using direct forecasting approach. The potentials of ANNs are investigated by employing a rolling cross validation scheme. Out of sample performance evaluated with three criteria across five forecasting horizons shows that the proposed ANNs are a more robust multi-step ahead forecasting method than autoregressive error models. Moreover, ANN predictions are quite accurate even when the length of the forecast horizon is relatively short or long

  1. A neural network image reconstruction technique for electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, A.; Guardo, R.

    1994-01-01

    Reconstruction of Images in Electrical Impedance Tomography requires the solution of a nonlinear inverse problem on noisy data. This problem is typically ill-conditioned and requires either simplifying assumptions or regularization based on a priori knowledge. This paper presents a reconstruction algorithm using neural network techniques which calculates a linear approximation of the inverse problem directly from finite element simulations of the forward problem. This inverse is adapted to the geometry of the medium and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) used during network training. Results show good conductivity reconstruction where measurement SNR is similar to the training conditions. The advantages of this method are its conceptual simplicity and ease of implementation, and the ability to control the compromise between the noise performance and resolution of the image reconstruction

  2. Electricity price forecasting using Enhanced Probability Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Gow, Hong-Jey; Tsai, Ming-Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a price forecasting system for electric market participants to reduce the risk of price volatility. Combining the Probability Neural Network (PNN) and Orthogonal Experimental Design (OED), an Enhanced Probability Neural Network (EPNN) is proposed in the solving process. In this paper, the Locational Marginal Price (LMP), system load and temperature of PJM system were collected and the data clusters were embedded in the Excel Database according to the year, season, workday, and weekend. With the OED to smooth parameters in the EPNN, the forecasting error can be improved during the training process to promote the accuracy and reliability where even the ''spikes'' can be tracked closely. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed EPNN to provide quality information in a price volatile environment. (author)

  3. Using ELECTRE TRI to support maintenance of water distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Trojan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Problems encountered in the context of the maintenance management of water supply are evidenced by the lack of decision support models which gives a manager overview of the system. This paper, therefore, develops a model that uses, in its framework, the multicriteria outranking method ELECTRE TRI. The objective is to sort the areas of water flow measurement of a water distribution network, by priority of maintenance, with data collected from an automated system of abnormalities detection. This sorting is designed to support maintenance decisions in terms of the measure more appropriate to be applied per region. To illustrate the proposed model, an application was performed in a city with 100 thousand water connections. With this model it becomes possible to improve the allocation of maintenance measures for regions and mainly to improve the operation of the distribution network.

  4. Evaluate electric field strengths in the vicinity of electric transmission systems of electric power; Avaliar intensidades de campo eletrico nas vizinhancas de sistemas de transmissao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, J.F.; Ulson, J.A.C.; Creppe, R.C.; Serni, P.J.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FEB/UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], Emails: jfranc@feb.unesp.br, ulson@feb.unesp.br, creppe@feb.unesp.br, paulojas@feb.unesp.br

    2009-07-01

    The main purpose in this paper is to describe a methodology for the calculation of the profile of the electric field in the level soil and proximities originated by electric energy transmission systems real and in operation in the country. It is also commented the equation used and your computational implementation in order to agile and to optimize the studies. The results of simulations were just presented for the transmission system in the voltage class 500 kV for to simplify the understanding and space restriction in the article, although five others types of configurations have also been used in the complete study with very voltages and respective classes. The results were animating and very nearby of values well-known of electric field of other and publications traditional in the area. The graphic exits of software for better visual comprehension and understanding went in accomplished in the plan (2D) and in the space (3D). (author)

  5. Forecasting electricity infeed for distribution system networks : an analysis of the Dutch case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanrisever, F.; Derinkuyu, K.; Heeren, M.

    2013-01-01

    Estimating and managing electricity distribution losses are the core business competencies of distribution system operators (DSOs). Since electricity demand is a major driver of network losses, it is essential for DSOs to have an accurate estimate of the electricity infeed in their network. In this

  6. Will electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks undergo first-order transition under random attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Zhenshan; Zhu, Xuedong; Wang, Xunting

    2016-10-01

    Whether the realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks will undergo first-order transition under random failures still remains a question. To reflect the reality of Chinese electrical cyber-physical system, the "partial one-to-one correspondence" interdependent networks model is proposed and the connectivity vulnerabilities of three realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks are analyzed. The simulation results show that due to the service demands of power system the topologies of power grid and its cyber network are highly inter-similar which can effectively avoid the first-order transition. By comparing the vulnerability curves between electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks and its single-layer network, we find that complex network theory is still useful in the vulnerability analysis of electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks.

  7. Spare part management of an electricity distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauronen, J.

    1998-07-01

    Electricity distribution companies are required to improve their operational cost effectiveness. The storage systems of the companies have traditionally been based on the 'adequate' number of stores with plenty of different components. Therefore, they are potential objects for cost reduction. The effective operation of spare part management of an electricity distribution network requires that the spare components can be delivered at the fault site quickly in order to avoid excessive outage costs. In a fault situation the stores form a net structure. Currently the rural electricity distribution companies lack suitable methods for designing a spare part storage system. This thesis presents a suitable method for the designing problem. The models assume that faults of a distribution network are stochastic. Therefore, they are best suited for component types installed in large quantities. Improved methods for defining the outage, material and total costs for perpetual order quantity and periodic order-up-to-level storage control systems are described. The method for determining the control parameters of the stores is also presented and ways for finding the necessary initial parameter values are introduced. The developed method is tested in Haemeen Saehko Oy (HSOY). The results of the calculations are given. The key findings are: Small differences in the designing results can increase costs remarkably. For example, in HSOY too low stock levels can result in even eight folds higher outage costs than in the proper design. The best number of stores is not the same for all component types. For example, in HSOY the best number of stores is seven for the 50 kVA transformers and one for the 315 kVA transformers in a summer. If the stock levels are increased the protection against the demand variations is the better the shorter the duration of the review period and/or the replenishment lead time is. (orig.)

  8. Spare part management of an electricity distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauronen, J

    1998-07-01

    Electricity distribution companies are required to improve their operational cost effectiveness. The storage systems of the companies have traditionally been based on the 'adequate' number of stores with plenty of different components. Therefore, they are potential objects for cost reduction. The effective operation of spare part management of an electricity distribution network requires that the spare components can be delivered at the fault site quickly in order to avoid excessive outage costs. In a fault situation the stores form a net structure. Currently the rural electricity distribution companies lack suitable methods for designing a spare part storage system. This thesis presents a suitable method for the designing problem. The models assume that faults of a distribution network are stochastic. Therefore, they are best suited for component types installed in large quantities. Improved methods for defining the outage, material and total costs for perpetual order quantity and periodic order-up-to-level storage control systems are described. The method for determining the control parameters of the stores is also presented and ways for finding the necessary initial parameter values are introduced. The developed method is tested in Haemeen Saehko Oy (HSOY). The results of the calculations are given. The key findings are: Small differences in the designing results can increase costs remarkably. For example, in HSOY too low stock levels can result in even eight folds higher outage costs than in the proper design. The best number of stores is not the same for all component types. For example, in HSOY the best number of stores is seven for the 50 kVA transformers and one for the 315 kVA transformers in a summer. If the stock levels are increased the protection against the demand variations is the better the shorter the duration of the review period and/or the replenishment lead time is. (orig.)

  9. Optimal interval for major maintenance actions in electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louit, Darko; Pascual, Rodrigo [Centro de Mineria, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Av. Vicuna MacKenna, 4860 Santiago (Chile); Banjevic, Dragan [Centre for Maintenance Optimization and Reliability Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Rd., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Many systems require the periodic undertaking of major (preventive) maintenance actions (MMAs) such as overhauls in mechanical equipment, reconditioning of train lines, resurfacing of roads, etc. In the long term, these actions contribute to achieving a lower rate of occurrence of failures, though in many cases they increase the intensity of the failure process shortly after performed, resulting in a non-monotonic trend for failure intensity. Also, in the special case of distributed assets such as communications and energy networks, pipelines, etc., it is likely that the maintenance action takes place sequentially over an extended period of time, implying that different sections of the network underwent the MMAs at different periods. This forces the development of a model based on a relative time scale (i.e. time since last major maintenance event) and the combination of data from different sections of a grid, under a normalization scheme. Additionally, extended maintenance times and sequential execution of the MMAs make it difficult to identify failures occurring before and after the preventive maintenance action. This results in the loss of important information for the characterization of the failure process. A simple model is introduced to determine the optimal MMA interval considering such restrictions. Furthermore, a case study illustrates the optimal tree trimming interval around an electricity distribution network. (author)

  10. Virtual CO2 Emission Flows in the Global Electricity Trade Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Shen; Li, Yun; Liang, Sai; Yuan, Jiahai; Xu, Ming

    2018-05-14

    Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions due to electricity consumption is crucial for climate mitigation in the electric power sector. Current practices primarily use production-based emission factors to quantify emissions for electricity consumption, assuming production and consumption of electricity take place within the same region. The increasingly intensified cross-border electricity trade complicates the accounting for emissions of electricity consumption. This study employs a network approach to account for the flows in the whole electricity trade network to estimate CO 2 emissions of electricity consumption for 137 major countries/regions in 2014. Results show that in some countries, especially those in Europe and Southern Africa, the impacts of electricity trade on the estimation of emission factors and embodied emissions are significant. The changes made to emission factors by considering intergrid electricity trade can have significant implications for emission accounting and climate mitigation when multiplied by total electricity consumption of the corresponding countries/regions.

  11. Incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry. An Australian perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outhred, H.; Kaye, J.

    1996-01-01

    The role of an electricity network in a competitive electricity industry is reviewed, the nation's experience with transmission pricing is discussed, and a 'Nodal Auction Model' for incorporating network effects in a competitive electricity industry is proposed. The model uses a computer-based auction procedure to address both the spatial issues associated with an electricity network and the temporal issues associated with operation scheduling. The objective is to provide a market framework that addresses both network effects and operation scheduling in a coordinated implementation of spot pricing theory. 12 refs

  12. Dinâmica molecular ab initio:aplicações ao estudo de propriedades electrónicas de sistemas moleculares

    OpenAIRE

    Martiniano, Hugo Filipe de Mesquita Costa, 1978-

    2013-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento, Química (Química-Física), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2013 O método da dinâmica molecular ab initio exibe vantagens significativas para o estudo da estrutura e propriedades electrónicas de sistemas moleculares complexos. No entanto, uma das suas desvantagens é o elevado custo computacional, quando comparado com os métodos de dinâmica molecular clássicos. Um dos modos de resolver este problema é adoptar uma abordagem sequencial, na qual a dinâmica é ...

  13. Electric restructuring and consumer choice: lessons from other network industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of the U.S. model of private markets with limited regulation as the best alternative for delivering goods and services to consumers are discussed by citing examples from deregulated industries such as transportation, primary energy and financial markets. In all these cases deregulation has been extraordinarily successful. Experiences from these industries are examined in an effort to extract lessons that might be useful in predicting the likely evolution of competition in the electricity and telecommunications industries. A warning is sounded that deregulating these industries without opening access to the infrastructure (which is owned by carriers) could create major problems of natural-monopoly exploitation by the incumbents that would negate any productive and allocative efficiency gains conferred by deregulation. One obvious choice for liberalizing a network industry with natural-monopoly infrastructure is simply to separate the infrastructure from the delivery of the service as was done with railroads in the United Kingdom. A similar, but less far-reaching example might be the solution devised for natural gas pipelines in the U.S. where pipeline owners opened their infrastructure to competitors, albeit at regulated rates. In the electricity industry, separating power generation from transmission and distribution appears to be fairly simple, provided access to transmission and distribution network is granted. In the telecommunication industry where there is no generation, the natural monopoly may be in the local distribution of traffic to subscribers, hence separation of local distribution from national or regional distribution is the normal way to open up the market to new service providers. Experiences in the U. S., the U. K., Canada and New Zealand in electricity and telecommunications industry deregulation are examined and various pitfalls in current approaches are pointed out. It is the author's contention that announcing a date for the end

  14. Application of Artificial Neural Networks in the Heart Electrical Axis Position Conclusion Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakanovskaya, L. N.

    2016-08-01

    The article touches upon building of a heart electrical axis position conclusion model using an artificial neural network. The input signals of the neural network are the values of deflections Q, R and S; and the output signal is the value of the heart electrical axis position. Training of the network is carried out by the error propagation method. The test results allow concluding that the created neural network makes a conclusion with a high degree of accuracy.

  15. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

    2011-08-01

    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  16. Análisis preliminar del límite de potencia eólica utilizando flujos continuados en un Micro Sistema Eléctrico Partial analysis of wind power limit in an electric micro system using continuation power flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandry Fiallo Guerrero

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La integración de la energía eólica en los sistemas eléctricos puede provocar problemas de estabilidad ligados fundamentalmente a la variación aleatoria del viento; conocer el Límite de Potencia Eólica (LPE que puede insertarse en la red sin que esta pierda la estabilidad es un aspecto de extrema importancia, para lo cual se han implementado diferentes métodos de cálculo, entre los cuales se encuentran aquellos que tienen en consideración las restricciones del sistema en estado estacionario, como por ejemplo el que se fundamenta en un análisis de simulaciones de flujo continuado. En este trabajo se aplica dicho método en un micro sistema eléctrico que puede formarse a partir de un sistema al trabajar en isla, siendo el objetivo principal probar el método en un sistema débil y aislado de la red principal. Para la corrida de las simulaciones se usa el software libre PSAT, el cual utiliza de plataforma el MatLab.  The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit that can insert in an electric grid without losing stability is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit, some of them are based in static constrains, an example is a method based in a continuation power flow analysis. In the present work the method is applied in an electric micro system formed when the system is disconnected of the man grid, the main goal was prove the method in a weak and island network. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT.

  17. Análisis preliminar del límite de potencia eólica utilizando flujos continuados en un Micro Sistema Eléctrico; Partial analysis of wind power limit in an electric micro system using continuation power flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J andry Fiallo Guerrero

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La integración de la energía eólica en los sistemas eléctricos puede provocar problemas de estabilidad ligados fundamentalmente a la variación aleatoria del viento; conocer el Límite de Potencia Eólica (LPE que puede insertarse en la red sin que esta pierda la estabilidad es un aspecto de extrema importancia, para lo cual se han implementado diferentes métodos de cálculo, entre los cuales se encuentran aquellos que tienen en consideración las restricciones del sistema en estado estacionario, como por ejemplo el que se fundamenta en un análisis de simulaciones de flujo continuado. En este trabajo se aplica dicho método en un micro sistema eléctrico que puede formarse a partir de un sistema al trabajar en isla, siendo el objetivo principal probar el método en un sistema débil y aislado de la red principal. Para la corrida de las simulaciones se usa el software libre PSAT, el cual utiliza de plataforma el MatLab.The wind power insertion in the power system is an important issue and can create some instability problems in voltage and system frequency due to stochastic origin of wind. Know the Wind Power Limit that can insert in an electric grid without losing stability is a very important matter. Existing in bibliography a few methods for calculation of wind power limit, some of them are based in static constrains, an example is a method based in a continuation power flow analysis. In the present work the method is applied in an electric micro system formed when the system is disconnected of the man grid, the main goal was prove the method in a weak and island network. The software used in the simulations was the Power System Analysis Toolbox (PSAT.

  18. Identifying options for regulating the coordination of network investments with investments in distributed electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisten, E.

    2010-02-01

    The increase in the distributed generation of electricity, with wind turbines and solar panels, necessitates investments in the distribution network. The current tariff regulation in the Dutch electricity industry, with its ex post evaluation of the efficiency of investments and the frontier shift in the x-factor, delays these investments. In the unbundled electricity industry, the investments in the network need to be coordinated with those in the distributed generation of electricity to enable the DSOs to build enough network capacity. The current Dutch regulations do not provide for a sufficient information exchange between the generators and the system operators to coordinate the investments. This paper analyses these two effects of the Dutch regulation, and suggests improvements to the regulation of the network connection and transportation tariffs to allow for sufficient network capacity and coordination between the investments in the network and in the generation of electricity. These improvements include locally differentiated tariffs that increase with an increasing concentration of distributed generators.

  19. Network investments and the integration of distributed generation: Regulatory recommendations for the Dutch electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niesten, Eva

    2010-01-01

    An increase in the distributed generation of electricity necessitates investments in the distribution network. The current tariff regulation in the Dutch electricity industry, with its ex post evaluation of the efficiency of investments, average benchmarking and a frontier shift in the x-factor, delays these investments. In the unbundled electricity industry, the investments in the network need to be coordinated with those in the distributed generation of electricity to enable the system operators to build enough network capacity. The current Dutch regulations do not provide for a sufficient information exchange between the generators and the system operators to coordinate the investments. This paper analyses these two effects of the Dutch regulations, and suggests improvements to the regulation of the network connection and transportation tariffs to allow for sufficient network capacity and coordination between the investments in the network and in the generation of electricity. These improvements include locally differentiated tariffs that increase with an increasing concentration of distributed generation.

  20. ITER power electrical networks; Sistemas electricos de alimentacion a los consumidores del ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sejas Portela, S.

    2011-07-01

    The ITER project (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is an international effort to research and development to design, build and operate an experimental facility to demonstrate the scientific and technological possibility of obtaining useful energy from the physical phenomenon known as nuclear fusion.

  1. Computing and the electrical transport properties of coupled quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Casey Andrew

    In this dissertation a number of investigations were conducted on ballistic quantum networks in the mesoscopic range. In this regime, the wave nature of electron transport under the influence of transverse magnetic fields leads to interesting applications for digital logic and computing circuits. The work specifically looks at characterizing a few main areas that would be of interest to experimentalists who are working in nanostructure devices, and is organized as a series of papers. The first paper analyzes scaling relations and normal mode charge distributions for such circuits in both isolated and open (terminals attached) form. The second paper compares the flux-qubit nature of quantum networks to the well-established spintronics theory. The results found exactly contradict the conventional school of thought for what is required for quantum computation. The third paper investigates the requirements and limitations of extending the Thevenin theorem in classic electric circuits to ballistic quantum transport. The fourth paper outlines the optimal functionally complete set of quantum circuits that can completely satisfy all sixteen Boolean logic operations for two variables.

  2. Analysis methodology for economic technical feasibility studies in offshore electrical generation systems; Metodologia de analisis para estudios de factibilidad tecnica economica en sistemas de generacion electrica costa fuera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiscal Escalante, Raul [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    An analysis methodology followed in the development of technique-economic feasibility studies of systems of electrical generation in offshore electrical installations is presented, including the obtaining of the curves of the turbine and generator performance, the technical considerations for the formulation of the operation scenes and the calculations of the economic evaluation of a real scenario. [Spanish] Se muestra una metodologia de analisis seguida en el desarrollo de estudios de factibilidad tecnica-economica de sistemas de generacion electrica en instalaciones electricas costa fuera, incluyendo la obtencion de las curvas de comportamiento de la turbina y el generador, las consideraciones tecnicas para la formulacion de los escenarios de operacion y los calculos de la evaluacion economica de un escenario real.

  3. Wireless Sensor Network for Electric Transmission Line Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alphenaar, Bruce

    2009-06-30

    . On such a platform, it has been demonstrated in this project that wireless monitoring units can effectively deliver real-time transmission line power flow information for less than $500 per monitor. The data delivered by such a monitor has during the course of the project been integrated with a national grid situational awareness visualization platform developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Novel vibration energy scavenging methods based on piezoelectric cantilevers were also developed as a proposed method to power such monitors, with a goal of further cost reduction and large-scale deployment. Scavenging methods developed during the project resulted in 50% greater power output than conventional cantilever-based vibrational energy scavenging devices typically used to power smart sensor nodes. Lastly, enhanced and new methods for electromagnetic field sensing using multi-axis magnetometers and infrared reflectometry were investigated for potential monitoring applications in situations with a high density of power lines or high levels of background 60 Hz noise in order to isolate power lines of interest from other power lines in close proximity. The goal of this project was to investigate and demonstrate the feasibility of using small form factor, highly optimized, low cost, low power, non-contact, wireless electric transmission line monitors for delivery of real-time, independent power line monitoring for the US power grid. The project was divided into three main types of activity as follows; (1) Research into expanding the range of applications for non-contact power line monitoring to enable large scale low cost sensor network deployments (Tasks 1, 2); (2) Optimization of individual sensor hardware components to reduce size, cost and power consumption and testing in a pilot field study (Tasks 3,5); and (3) Demonstration of the feasibility of using the data from the network of power line monitors via a range of custom developed alerting and data visualization

  4. Network Theory Integrated Life Cycle Assessment for an Electric Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heetae Kim

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we allocate Greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of electricity transmission to the consumers. As an allocation basis, we introduce energy distance. Energy distance takes the transmission load on the electricity energy system into account in addition to the amount of electricity consumption. As a case study, we estimate regional GHG emissions of electricity transmission loss in Chile. Life cycle assessment (LCA is used to estimate the total GHG emissions of the Chilean electric power system. The regional GHG emission of transmission loss is calculated from the total GHG emissions. We construct the network model of Chilean electric power grid as an undirected network with 466 nodes and 543 edges holding the topology of the power grid based on the statistical record. We analyze the total annual GHG emissions of the Chilean electricity energy system as 23.07 Mt CO2-eq. and 1.61 Mt CO2-eq. for the transmission loss, respectively. The total energy distance for the electricity transmission accounts for 12,842.10 TWh km based on network analysis. We argue that when the GHG emission of electricity transmission loss is estimated, the electricity transmission load should be separately considered. We propose network theory as a useful complement to LCA analysis for the complex allocation. Energy distance is especially useful on a very large-scale electric power grid such as an intercontinental transmission network.

  5. Modeling and prediction of Turkey's electricity consumption using Artificial Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavaklioglu, Kadir; Ozturk, Harun Kemal; Canyurt, Olcay Ersel; Ceylan, Halim

    2009-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks are proposed to model and predict electricity consumption of Turkey. Multi layer perceptron with backpropagation training algorithm is used as the neural network topology. Tangent-sigmoid and pure-linear transfer functions are selected in the hidden and output layer processing elements, respectively. These input-output network models are a result of relationships that exist among electricity consumption and several other socioeconomic variables. Electricity consumption is modeled as a function of economic indicators such as population, gross national product, imports and exports. It is also modeled using export-import ratio and time input only. Performance comparison among different models is made based on absolute and percentage mean square error. Electricity consumption of Turkey is predicted until 2027 using data from 1975 to 2006 along with other economic indicators. The results show that electricity consumption can be modeled using Artificial Neural Networks, and the models can be used to predict future electricity consumption. (author)

  6. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike [Electricity North West Ltd., 304 Bridgewater Place, Birchwood, Warrington, Cheshire WA3 6XG (United Kingdom); Jackson, Tim [RESOLVE, Centre for Environmental Strategy D3, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs. (author)

  7. Developing electricity distribution networks and their regulation to support sustainable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, Rita; Attree, Mike; Jackson, Tim

    2010-01-01

    A more sustainable energy system will alter the current patterns of electricity demand and generation. This means technical, commercial and regulatory change for electricity network systems such as distribution networks. This paper traces the links in Great Britain between changes in energy policy since privatisation, changes in the objectives of the electricity regulator and changes in the objectives of the distribution networks and their owners, the distribution network operators (DNOs). The paper identifies tensions in regulatory policy and suggests reforms to the regulatory framework to support a lower-carbon future. DNOs are licensed regional infrastructure providers. In addition to their network services, the network companies can potentially deliver public policy objectives to facilitate heat infrastructure, energy-efficiency and distributed renewables. The paper identifies the potential benefits of a novel approach to facilitating renewable energy feed-in tariffs for electricity and heat, using DNOs.

  8. Interconnection of industrial centers with the electric network of the public service; Interconexion de centros industriales con la red electrica del servicio publico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosales Sedano, Inocente; Lopez Velazquez, Juan Jose; Garcia Paredes, Job; Robles Pimentel, Edgar [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Garcia Alvarez, David; Guzman Camacho, Benigno [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The large industrial centers that have continuous production processes and consume high amounts of electrical energy, generally have their own power generation. The petrochemical complexes, the paper and steel factories and the sugar mills are examples of this type of centers. On the other hand, the new regulation for the generation of electrical energy that allows to the electrical energy interchange between private companies and the public network, has originated the necessity of connecting systems that formerly operated isolated. Since the original design of the isolated electrical systems was to operate in an independent form, making the interconnection can generate technical problems that must be analyzed and solved. In this paper, some experiences related with the behavior of electrical equipment when connected to operate with the public network, are presented. [Spanish] Los grandes centros industriales que tienen procesos de produccion continua y consumen altas cantidades de energia electrica, generalmente cuentan con generacion propia. Los complejos petroquimicos, las fabricas de papel y acero y los ingenios azucareros son ejemplos de este tipo de centros. Por otro lado, la nueva reglamentacion de generacion de energia electrica que permite el intercambio de energia electrica entre las companias privadas y la red publica, ha originado la necesidad de conectar sistemas que antes operaban aislados. Debido a que el diseno original de los sistemas electricos aislados fue trabajar en forma independiente, el realizar la interconexion puede generar problemas tecnicos que tienen que analizarse y resolverse. En este articulo, se presentan algunas experiencias relacionadas con el comportamiento del equipo electrico al operar conectado con la red publica.

  9. Evaluating North American Electric Grid Reliability Using the Barabasi-Albert Network Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chassin, David P.; Posse, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The reliability of electric transmission systems is examined using a scale-free model of network structure and failure propagation. The topologies of the North American eastern and western electric networks are analyzed to estimate their reliability based on the Barabasi-Albert network model. A commonly used power system reliability index is computed using a simple failure propagation model. The results are compared to the values of power system reliability indices previously obtained using s...

  10. Increasing penetration of renewable and distributed electricity generation and the need for different network regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joode, J. de; Jansen, J.C.; Welle, A.J. van der; Scheepers, M.J.J.

    2009-01-01

    The amount of decentralised electricity generation (DG) connected to distribution networks increases across EU member states. This increasing penetration of DG units poses potential costs and benefits for distribution system operators (DSOs). These DSOs are regulated since the business of electricity distribution is considered to be a natural monopoly. This paper identifies the impact of increasing DG penetration on the DSO business under varying parameters (network characteristics, DG technologies, network management type) and argues that current distribution network regulation needs to be improved in order for DSOs to continue to facilitate the integration of DG in the network. Several possible adaptations are analysed.

  11. New approach in electricity network regulation: an issue on effective integration of distributed generation in electricity supply systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, Martin J.J.; Wals, Adrian F.

    2003-11-01

    Technological developments and EU targets for penetration of renewable energy sources (RES) and greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction are decentralising the electricity infrastructure and services. Although, the liberalisation and internationalisation of the European electricity market has resulted in efforts to harmonise transmission pricing and regulation, hardly any initiative exists to consider the opening up and regulation of distribution networks to ensure effective participation of RES and distributed generation (DG) in the internal market. The SUSTELNET project has been created in order to close this policy gap. Its main objective is to develop regulatory roadmaps for the transition to an electricity market and network structure that creates a level playing field between centralised and decentralised generation and that facilitates the integration of RES, within the framework of the liberalisation of the EU electricity market. By analysing the technical, socio-economic and institutional dynamics of the European electricity system and markets, the project identifies the underlying patterns that provide the boundary conditions and levers for policy development to reach long term RES and GHG targets (2020-2030 time frame). This paper presents results of this analytical phase of the SUSTELNET project. Furthermore, preliminary results of the current work in progress are presented. Principles and criteria for a regulatory framework for sustainable electricity systems are discussed, as well as the development of medium to long-term transition strategies/roadmaps for network regulation and market transformation to facilitate the integration of RES and decentralised electricity generating systems.

  12. Testing Situation Awareness Network for the Electrical Power Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Leszczyna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The contemporary electrical power infrastructure is exposed to new types of threats. The cause of such threats is related to the large number of new vulnerabilities and architectural weaknesses introduced by the extensive use of Information and communication Technologies (ICT in such complex critical systems. The power grid interconnection with the Internet exposes the grid to new types of attacks, such as Advanced Persistent Threats (APT or Distributed-Denial-ofService (DDoS attacks. When addressing this situation the usual cyber security technologies are prerequisite, but not sufficient. To counter evolved and highly sophisticated threats such as the APT or DDoS, state-of-the-art technologies including Security Incident and Event Management (SIEM systems, extended Intrusion Detection/Prevention Systems (IDS/IPS and Trusted Platform Modules (TPM are required. Developing and deploying extensive ICT infrastructure that supports wide situational awareness and allows precise command and control is also necessary. In this paper the results of testing the Situational Awareness Network (SAN designed for the energy sector are presented. The purpose of the tests was to validate the selection of SAN components and check their operational capability in a complex test environment. During the tests’ execution appropriate interaction between the components was verified.

  13. Thermal and Arc Flash Analysis of Electric Motor Drives in Distribution Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolovski, Srete; Mlakić, Dragan; Alibašić, Emir

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents thermal analysis and arc flash analysis taking care of protection relays coordination settings for electric motor drives connected to the electrical network. Power flow analysis is performed to check if there are any voltage and loading violation conditions in the system. Fault analysis is performed to check the short circuit values and compute arc flash energy dissipated at industrial busbars to eliminate damage to electrical equipment and electrical shocks and hazard to p...

  14. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics systems and components, networking and hybrid drive

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the "Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics" technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle. Content Electrical and electronical systems – Basic principles of networking - Examples of networked vehicles – Bus systems – Architecture of electronic systems – Mechatronics – Elektronics – Electronic control Units – Software – Sensors – Actuators – Hybrid drives – Vehicle electrical system – Start...

  15. Sistema electrónico de calibración de fruta por diámetro

    OpenAIRE

    Cruz Lemus, Erico

    2013-01-01

    En la actualidad, las cooperativas recolectan, seleccionan, tratan y separan la fruta según su calibre (peso, diámetro máximo, medio y/o mínimo) para que esta llegue al consumidor final según la categoría (calibre). Para poder competir en un mercado cada vez más exigente en calidad y precios, se requieren sistemas de clasificación automáticos que nos permitan obtener óptimos resultados con altos niveles de producción y productividad. Para realizar estas tareas existen calibr...

  16. Computer network for electric power control systems. Chubu denryoku (kabu) denryoku keito seigyoyo computer network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuneizumi, T. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Shimomura, S.; Miyamura, N. (Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-06-03

    A computer network for electric power control system was developed that is applied with the open systems interconnection (OSI), an international standard for communications protocol. In structuring the OSI network, a direct session layer was accessed from the operation functions when high-speed small-capacity information is transmitted. File transfer, access and control having a function of collectively transferring large-capacity data were applied when low-speed large-capacity information is transmitted. A verification test for the realtime computer network (RCN) mounting regulation was conducted according to a verification model using a mini-computer, and a result that can satisfy practical performance was obtained. For application interface, kernel, health check and two-route transmission functions were provided as a connection control function, so were transmission verification function and late arrival abolishing function. In system mounting pattern, dualized communication server (CS) structure was adopted. A hardware structure may include a system to have the CS function contained in a host computer and a separate installation system. 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  17. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V. [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J. M. [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  18. Importance of the harmonics in the lighting systems for the electric energy saving; Importancia de las armonicas en el sistema de iluminacion para el ahorro de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garibay Mendoza, V [Lumisistemas, departamento de aseguramineto de calidad, Naucalpan (Mexico); Hernandez Bernal, J M [UNICORP, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In a lighting system the discharge lamps (fluorescent and high intensity discharge (HID)), ballast and controls are generating elements of harmonics. As a consequence of the tendency of saving energy, the use of electronic ballasts and controls that integrate dimmers, daylight and present sensors has increased in order to optimize the energy use. This paper presents the harmonics generation resulting from the fluorescent lamps operating different electronic ballasts as well as their electronic controls. Likewise, are also shown the effects caused by generation of harmonics components by the lighting system in the electric system that go from the voltage and current distortion, the presence of currents in the neutral conductor in balanced systems to the repercussions in the metering equipment such as watthour meters and the effects the lighting equipment suffer due to the presence of harmonics, such as the power factor decrease in ballasts that are of high power factor and the temperature increment in the magnetic type ballasts. [Espanol] Dentro de un sistema de iluminacion, las lamparas de descarga (fluorescentes y alta intensidad de descarga {sup H}ID{sup )}, balastros y los controles son elementos generadores de armonicas. A consecuencia de la tendencia al ahorro de energia se ha incrementado el uso de balastros electronicos y controles que integran atenuadores de luz (dimmers), sensores de luz natural y de presencia con el fin de optimizar el uso de la energia. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de generacion de armonicas para lamparas fluorescentes, operando diferentes balastros electronicos asi como con controles electronicos. Asi mismo son presentados los efectos causados por la generacion de componentes armonicas por el sistema de iluminacion dentro del sistema electrico que van desde la distorsion en voltaje y corriente, la presencia de corrientes dentro del conductor neutro en sistemas balanceados, asi como la repercusion en los equipos de medicion tales

  19. Ubicación óptima de generación distribuida en sistemas de energía eléctrica Optimal placement of distributed generation in electric power system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús María López–Lezama

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta una metodología para la ubicación óptima de generación distribuida en sistemas de energía eléctrica. Las barras candidatas para ubicar la generación distribuida son identificadas basándose en los precios marginales locales. Estos precios son obtenidos al resolver un flujo de potencia óptimo (OPF y corresponden a los multiplicadores de Lagrange de las ecuaciones de balance de potencia activa en cada una de las barras del sistema. Para incluir la generación distribuida en el OPF, ésta se ha modelado como una inyección negativa de potencia activa. La metodología consiste en un proceso no lineal iterativo en donde la generación distribuida es ubicada en la barra con el mayor precio marginal. Se consideraron tres tipos de generación distribuida: 1 motores de combustión interna, 2 turbinas a gas y 3 microturbinas. La metodología propuesta es evaluada en el sistema IEEE de 30 barras. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que la generación distribuida contribuye a la disminución de los precios nodales y puede ayudar a solucionar problemas de congestión en la red de transmisión.This paper presents a methodology for optimal placement of distributed generation (DG in electric power system. The candidate buses for DG placementare identified on the bases of locational marginal prices. These prices are obtained by solving an optimal power flow (OPF and correspond to the Lagrange multipliers of the active power balance equations in every bus of the system.In order to consider the distributed generation in the OPF model, the DG was modeled as a negative injection of active power. The methodology consists ofa nonlinear iterative process in which DG is allocated in the bus with the highest locational marginal price. Three types of DG were considered in the model: 1 internal combustion engines, 2 gas turbines and 3 microturbines.The proposed methodology is tested on the IEEE 30 bus test system. The results obtained

  20. Prediction of Industrial Electric Energy Consumption in Anhui Province Based on GA-BP Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiajing; Yin, Guodong; Ni, Youcong; Chen, Jinlan

    2018-01-01

    In order to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electrical energy consumption, a prediction model of industrial electrical energy consumption was proposed based on genetic algorithm and neural network. The model use genetic algorithm to optimize the weights and thresholds of BP neural network, and the model is used to predict the energy consumption of industrial power in Anhui Province, to improve the prediction accuracy of industrial electric energy consumption in Anhui province. By comparing experiment of GA-BP prediction model and BP neural network model, the GA-BP model is more accurate with smaller number of neurons in the hidden layer.

  1. Modeling and simulation of the generation automatic control of electric power systems; Modelado y simulacion del control automatico de generacion de sistemas electricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero Ortiz, Ezequiel

    2002-12-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of the Automatic Control of Electrical Systems Generation of power, as of the information that generates the loop with Load-Frequency Control and the Automatic Voltage Regulator loop. To accomplish the analysis, the control classical theory and feedback control systems concepts are applied. Thus also, the modern theory concepts are employed. The studies are accomplished in the digital computer through the MATLAB program and the available simulation technique in the SIMULINK tool. In this thesis the theoretical and physical concepts of the automatic control of generation are established; dividing it in load frequency control and automatic voltage regulator loops. The mathematical models of the two control loops are established. Later, the models of the elements are interconnected in order to integrate the loop with load frequency control and the digital simulation of the system is carried out. In first instance, the function of the primary control in are - machine, area - multi machine and multi area - multi machine power systems, is analyzed. Then, the automatic control of generation of the area and multi area power systems is studied. The economic dispatch concept is established and with this plan the power system multi area is simulated, there in after the energy exchange among areas in stationary stage is studied. The mathematical models of the component elements of the control loop of the automatic voltage regulator are interconnected. Data according to the nature of each component are generated and their behavior is simulated to analyze the system response. The two control loops are interconnected and a simulation is carry out with data generated previously, examining the performance of the automatic control of generation and the interaction between the two control loops. Finally, the Poles Positioning and the Optimum Control techniques of the modern control theory are applied to the automatic control of an area generation

  2. Reliability optimization in compound electric power systems with the aid of evolutionary algorithms; Optimizacion de la confiabilidad en sistemas electricos de potencia compuestos utilizando algoritmos evolucionarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez Hernandez, Jose Alberto

    2001-11-15

    The purpose of evaluating the reliability of Electric Power Systems is to estimate the ability of the system to carry out their function of taking the energy from the generating stations to the load points. This involves the reliability of generation sources and transmission that affect in the transfer of power through the transmission system that bears load loss and voltage sags between the generation and the consumption centers. In this thesis a hybrid methodology that optimize the reliability in systems generation -transmission using evolutionary algorithms is developed. This technique of optimization determines the optimum number of components (parallel redundancy in lines) and shunt compensation in load nodes necessary to maximize reliability, subject to cost restrictions, and considering security conditions in steady state, using the smallest singular value technique. The objective function will be defined as stochastic function, where the measure of interests is the smallest singular value of the Jacobian matrix of power flows solution of the most severe event according to the evaluation of reliability of the generation transmission system, this formulation is a combination of integer and continuous non linear programming, where the conventional mathematical programming algorithms present difficulties in robustness and global optimal search. The fault in generation units is determined by using the state sampling together with the transmission system by Monte Carlo simulation for a desired load level. For events where violations in security exist (lines loading, violation in voltage in load nodes and violation in reactive power of generation nodes) a model of active and reactive power dispatch is used in order to correct these violations by means of the exact penalty function linear programming technique to proceeded to determine the stability of voltage in steady state by means of the smallest singular value technique and the participation factors of nodes

  3. Aplicación de los sistemas de soporte a la decisión (DSS en el comercio electrónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ruiz G.

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Los sistemas de soporte a la decisión (DSS y el comercio electrónico (CE han surgido como áreas individuales. Sin embargo, actualmente, y desde hace unos años, los DSS y el CE se han fusionado para traer mayores ventajas y valor agregado a los clientes. Es sabido que existen diversos tipos de DSS y de categorías y modelos de negocio de CE. Por tal razón, la aplicabilidad de una área sobre la otra se expande a las posibles combinaciones que se puedan realizar entre esta diversidad de categorías. Algunos ejemplos representativos están relacionados con, por ejemplo, los sitios de subastas que a través de la aplicación de a- gentes inteligentes se pueda saber sobre cuál producto ofertar o cuándo y dónde vender; los portales web para clientes y em- pleados, los DSS permiten controlar la información de la empresa a la que pueden acceder y de esta forma tomar decisiones; las tiendas virtuales se pueden afectar positivamente con la aplicación de data mining y data warehouse; en los sistemas de ser- vicio al cliente se podrían usar complejos algoritmos de predicción y análisis “qué sucedería si” para identificar oportunidades de ingresos en mercados competitivos; y un sinnúmero más de aplicaciones, en donde el limite es la imaginación. Se requiere que las investigaciones en DSS/CE sean continuas debido al constante surgimiento de nuevos modelos de negocio y de subsiste- mas DSS. Para cada uno, las aplicaciones pueden ser variadas y aportar de forma bidireccional. Los nuevos mecanismos de in- teracción y los esfuerzos por satisfacer al cliente son también el centro de inspiración para nuevas aplicaciones de sistemas DSS en el comercio electrónico.

  4. The Study on the Communication Network of Wide Area Measurement System in Electricity Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaorong, Cheng; Ying, Wang; Yangdan, Ni

    Wide area measurement system(WAMS) is a fundamental part of security defense in Smart Grid, and the communication system of WAMS is an important part of Electric power communication network. For a large regional network is concerned, the real-time data which is transferred in the communication network of WAMS will affect the safe operation of the power grid directly. Therefore, WAMS raised higher requirements for real-time, reliability and security to its communication network. In this paper, the architecture of WASM communication network was studied according to the seven layers model of the open systems interconnection(OSI), and the network architecture was researched from all levels. We explored the media of WAMS communication network, the network communication protocol and network technology. Finally, the delay of the network were analyzed.

  5. ON THE MANAGEMENT OF URBAN ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. А. Fursanov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of prospective operation of the city electric networks in the conditions of the MART GRID, which will be quite different as compared to the traditional understanding and approaches, are under consideration. This requires the selection and application of appropriate analytical criteria and approaches to assessment, analysis and control of the networks. With this regard the following criteria are recommended: in a particular case – the optimal (minimal technological electric power consumption (losses, while in general – economically reasonable (minimal cost value of electric power transmission. It should be also borne in mind that contemporary urban networks are actively saturated with distributed sources of small generation that have radically changed the structure of electrical networks; therefore, account for such sources is an absolutely necessary objective of management regimes of urban electric networks, both traditional and in associated with the SMART GRID. A case of the analysis and control of urban electric 10 kV networks with distributed small sources of generation has been developed and presented according to the theoretical criterion of minimum relative active power losses in the circuit as a control case. The conducted research makes it possible to determine the magnitude of the tolerance network mode from the point of the theoretical minimum. 

  6. Mathematical models of electrical network systems theory and applications : an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Kłos, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This book is for all those who are looking for a non-conventional mathematical model of electrical network systems. It presents a modern approach using linear algebra and derives various commonly unknown quantities and interrelations of network analysis. It also explores some applications of algebraic network model of and solves some examples of previously unsolved network problems in planning and operation of network systems. Complex mathematical aspects are illustrated and described in a way that is understandable for non-mathematicians. Discussing interesting concepts and practically useful methods of network analysis, it is a valuable resource for lecturers, students, engineers and research workers. .

  7. An electric mandate. The EU procedure for harmonising cross-border network codes for electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jevnaker, Torbjoerg

    2012-07-01

    The research question addressed in this report is why the EU procedure for developing network codes for electricity was enacted in its particular form. Passed by the EU in 2009, European organisations partly outside of the formal EU structure were given a mandate to make rules that would apply across the EU. This was puzzling given the observed resistance on part of the member states to let go of national control over energy issues. Drawing on institutionalist perspectives, the analysis shows that the procedure would not have been passed without support from and compromise among the Commission, European Parliament and the member states in Council; that parts of the procedure imitated existing practices within related policy areas; that horizontal and vertical specialization within the nation-states along with a Commission actively promoting transnational cooperation changed the feedback mechanisms, which changed the direction of European energy market regulation; and finally, that the new actors played an active role vis-a-vis EU bodies as the latter were legislating on the procedure. (Author)

  8. Application of Network-Constrained Transactive Control to Electric Vehicle Charging for Secure Grid Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2016-01-01

    including power transformer congestion and voltage violations. In this method, a price coordinator is introduced to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO) and aggregators in the smart grid. Electric vehicles are used to illustrate the proposed network...

  9. A sequential Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, Modassar; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick

    2013-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed to determine the reliability of the energy infrastructure. The model integrates the gas and electricity network into a single sequential Monte Carlo simulation. The model minimises the combined costs of the gas and electricity network, these include gas supplies, gas storage operation and electricity generation. The Monte Carlo model calculates reliability indices such as loss of load probability and expected energy unserved for the combined gas and electricity network. The intention of this tool is to facilitate reliability analysis of integrated energy systems. Applications of this tool are demonstrated through a case study that quantifies the impact on the reliability of the GB gas and electricity network given uncertainties such as wind variability, gas supply availability and outages to energy infrastructure assets. Analysis is performed over a typical midwinter week on a hypothesised GB gas and electricity network in 2020 that meets European renewable energy targets. The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on the reliability of the energy system is assessed. The results highlight the value of greater gas storage facilities in enhancing the reliability of the GB energy system given various energy uncertainties. -- Highlights: •A Monte Carlo model of the combined GB gas and electricity network was developed. •Reliability indices are calculated for the combined GB gas and electricity system. •The efficacy of doubling GB gas storage capacity on reliability of the energy system is assessed. •Integrated reliability indices could be used to assess the impact of investment in energy assets

  10. Modelo y desarrollo de W-planner: sistema multiagente on-line aplicado al turismo electrónico Modelo y desarrollo de W-planner: sistema multiagente on-line aplicado al turismo electrónico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F. Castillo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the “tourist problem” and presents an Multi-agent system based solution for it. A set of agents that uses a case-based reasoning system to identify actions and plans is capable of determining the most suitable itinerary with restrictions for a tourist. Wireless devises are used by the tourists to interact with the agent. Variational Calculus is used during the reasoning process to identify the set of posible problem solutions and Jacobi fields to find the most replanning-able solution. This analytical method facilitates the identification of a tourist itinerary in advance and is also capable of modifying the tourist route in execution time. To conclude, a case of typical use is shown, in which a tourist requests to the W-planner the most appropriate route that fits in well with the requirements.Este trabajo introduce el llamado ¿problema del turista¿ y presenta una solución basada en un sistema multiagente. Un grupo de agentes que usan un sistema para identificar acciones y planes es capaz de encontrar el itinerario más adecuado para un turista de acuerdo con ciertas restricciones. Los artefactos ¿sin hilos¿ se usan para que el turista interactúe con el agente. Se utilizan técnicas de ¿cálculo variacional¿ durante el proceso para identificar el conjunto de soluciones posibles del problema y técnicas de ¿campos de Jacobi¿ para encontrar la solución ¿más fácilmente replanificable¿. Este método analítico facilita la identificación de un itinerario turístico previamente y es capaz de modificar la ruta propuesta en tiempo de ejecución. Para finalizar se muestra el seguimiento de un caso de uso típico, en el cual un turista solicita al W-planner bajo ciertas condiciones la ruta más ajustada a sus requerimientos.

  11. Integrated Multimedia Based Intelligent Group Decision Support System for Electrical Power Network

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay Kumar Saxena; S. 0. Bhatnagar; P. K Saxena

    2002-01-01

    Electrical Power Network in recent time requires an intelligent, virtual environment based decision process for the coordination of all its individual elements and the interrelated tasks. Its ultimate goal is to achieve maximum productivity and efficiency through the efficient and effective application of generation, transmission, distribution, pricing and regulatory systems. However, the complexity of electrical power network and the presence of conflicting multiple goals and objectives p...

  12. MODELING OF SYMMETRIC THREE-PHASE ASYNCHRONOUS ELECTRIC MOTOR IN ASYMMETRIC CONNECTION TO NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Lukovnikov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows how to solve the problem concerning reveal of changes in mathematical models and electric parameters of symmetric three-phase short-circuited asynchronous electric motors in case of their connection to single- or two-phase network in comparison with their connection to three-phase network. The uniform methodological approach permitting to generalize the known data and receive new results is offered in the paper.

  13. Sistema de servocontrol visual empleando redes neuronales y filtros en el dominio de CIELAB//Visual servo-control system using neural networks and filters based on CIELAB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Buitrago Salazar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de un sistema servocontrol visual de un brazo robótico de seis grados de libertad. Para esto, se utiliza una red neuronal de tipo feed forward, entrenada por back propagation, para determinar la distancia entre el brazo robótico y un objeto de referencia, que permite ubicarlo en un espacio de trabajo. Las entradas de la red corresponden a la información obtenida de las imágenes capturadas por el Kinect, utilizando un filtro que discrimina la posición de los elementos, en el espacio de color CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b components. El resultado de esta investigación demostró que la distancia estimada por la red tiene un margen de error menor, que el algoritmo propuesto en otros trabajos. Igualmente, se probó que el sistema de procesamiento de imágenes es más robusto a ruidos digitales, en comparación con los sistemas que utilizan filtros en el dominio RGB (Red-Green-Blue.Palabras claves: sistema de servocontrol visual, CIELAB, redes neuronales, filtrado de imágenes.______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper the results of visual servo-control system for a robotic arm with six degrees of freedom are presented. For this purpose, a feed fordward neural network, which was trained by back propagation, is used to determine the distance between the robot arm and a reference object and sitting the robot in the workspace. The inputs of neural network correspond to the information obtained from the images captured by the Kinect, using a filter that discriminates the position of the elements in the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*bcomponents color space. The result of this research showed that the estimated distance with the network has an errorless than the algorithm proposed in other works. Similarly, it was proved that the image processing system is more robust to digital noise, compared to

  14. An Industrial Control System for the Supervision of the CERN Electrical Distribution Network

    CERN Document Server

    Poulsen, S

    1999-01-01

    CERN operates a large distribution network for the supply of electricity to the particle accelerators, experiments and the associated infrastructure. The distribution network operates on voltage levels from 400 V to 400 kV with a total yearly consumption of near to 1000 GWh. In the past, the laboratory has developed an in-house control system for this network, using the technologies applied to the accelerator control system. However, CERN is now working on a project to purchase, configure and install an industrial Electrical Network Supervisor (ENS). This is a state-of-the-art industrial control system completely developed and supported by an external contractor. The system - based on a scalable and distributed architecture - will allow the installation to be performed gradually, and will be tested while the existing system is fully operational. Ultimately, the complete electrical distribution network will be supervised with this new system, the maintenance and further development of which will be the complet...

  15. Does electricity (and heat) network regulation have anything to learn from fixed line telecoms regulation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollitt, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the lessons from the recent history of telecoms deregulation for electricity (and by implication heat) network regulation. We do this in the context of Ofgem's RPI-X rate at 20 review of energy regulation in the UK, which considers whether RPI-X-based price regulation is fit for purpose after over 20 years of operation in energy networks. We examine the deregulation of fixed line telecoms in the UK and the lessons which it seems to suggest. We then apply the lessons to electricity networks in the context of a possible increase in distributed generation directly connected to local distribution networks. We conclude that there is the possibility of more parallels over time and suggest several implications of this for the regulation of electricity and heat networks. (author)

  16. Auditing on the management of the electric power maintenance; Auditoria em gestao da manutencao do sistema eletrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This work aims to provide the internal auditing systems with a referential for identification and evaluation of the management policy and procedures, adopted in the utility for the electric power generation transmission and distribution areas.

  17. The impacts of voltage sags in industrial electric systems; Os impactos dos afundamentos de tensao em sistemas eletricos industriais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Reinaldo Moreira [Moinhos Vera Cruz, Santa Luzia, MG (Brazil); Silva, Selenio Rocha [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2010-10-15

    The sensitiveness increasing of industrial equipment related to the perturbation of electric grid, resulting in losses to the productive chain, turns the energy quality in the subject more discussed by the electrical community. In this study case on the problems caused by voltage sags to equipment of an industrial plant from the food sector, it is presented the identification process and the adopted solutions. (author)

  18. Network connection of distributed electricity production - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleym, Anngjerd; Mogstad, Olve

    2002-01-01

    It will be necessary to lower the barriers for utilisation of distributed energy sources in order to increase the use of such sources in Norway. A relatively extensive R and D activity would be required for reaching this goal. Available Norwegian and international guidelines and technical requirements with respect to network connection of the distributed energy sources are studied with the aim of exposing needs for further R and D initiatives. A limited monitor is also carried out among the Norwegian network businesses with distributed units in their networks. The results show that the main focus in the R and D activities has drifted away from establishing guidelines for technical requirements for network coupling. Some verification work remains in investigating the usefulness of the existing international and the specific commercial network guidelines. For the network industry the main focus must be on the two following areas: 1) How will large concentrations of distributed production units connected to the same network influence the voltage quality and the delivery reliability in the networks. 2) How can the network businesses employ the distributed production units in their networks. A Nordic project (Finland, Sweden, Norway) which will study these problems is being established. Large national scientific institutions will be involved. The executive committee will consist of representatives from Finenergy, Elforsk and EBL Kompetanse and other financing institutions and industries. A Finnish business Merinova, is to be appointed to the project leadership

  19. Seguridad en sistemas de información en salud estándares y métodos para historias clínicas electrónicas

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    La creciente complejidad de los sistemas de información clínicos implica mayores riesgos de seguridad los cuales deben ser enfrentados a través de estándares y metodologías que permitan asegurar los datos sensibles, especialmente aquellos relacionados con las historias clínicas electrónicas. El objetivo fue describir las metodologías y los estándares más importantes existentes en la actualidad para asegurar un sistema de información en salud que utiliza HCE. Por esta r...

  20. Allocation of thermoelectric units in short term in large scale electric power systems; Asignacion de unidades termoelectricas a corto plazo en sistemas electricos de potencia de gran escala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillen Moya, Isaias

    1987-08-01

    A method is presented to solve the problem of allocation of thermoelectric units in large scale electric power systems. The problem consists in determining which generating units have to be programmed to enter or to leave the operation during the intervals of the planning horizon in such a way that are satisfied at a minimum cost, and in a reliable form, the foretold demand of electric power and the physical and operative restrictions of the power system components. The method is made up of two stages: the first stage finds a feasible initial solution of thermoelectrical units by means of heuristic methods. The second stage produces a solution from a state of feasible initial allocation. The operation cost is reduced applying dynamic programming in subsequent approaches, in such a way that the product of each interaction constitutes the state of allocation of least cost found until that stage. The of search range for the optimal solution is reduced by applying technical of lagrangean relaxation to select solely the units that have the greater potential to reduce the operation cost. The algorithm is validated using a representative system of the Interconnected National System, that consists of 108 thermoelectrical units grouped in 7 groups of generation, for a planning horizon of one week divided into hourly intervals, containing 18,144 discreet variables, 18,144 continuous variables and 39,024 restrictions. In a VAX 11/780 computer the problem is solved in 55 of CPU minutes with an estimation of the 1.02% of sub-optimality that indicates how close it is of the optimal solution. The main contributions of this thesis are within the short term operation planning of the electric power systems which are: (1) The development of a heuristic-mathematical algorithm to solve the problem of allocation of thermoelectric units in large scale electric power systems, in relatively short execution time. The algorithm efficiently conjugates of lagrangean relaxation technical

  1. Network Constrained Transactive Control for Electric Vehicles Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Yang, Guangya; Bindner, Henrik W.

    2015-01-01

    . This paper applies the transactive control concept to integrate electric vehicles into the power distribution system with the purpose of minimizing the charging cost of electric vehicles as well as preventing grid congestions and voltage violations. A hierarchical EV management system is proposed where three...

  2. Planning model for the expansion of the electrical generation system with risk demarcation criteria; Modelo para la planificacion de la expansion del sistema electrico de generacion con criterios de acotamiento de riesgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio Alberto; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The general characteristics of a planning model for the electrical generation system expansion with risk demarcation criteria, as well as the main results of a representative study case of the Mexican Electrical System is presented. The model is based on a methodology of multiannual optimization for the generation expansion plans determination. In this context, every expansion plan defines the technology type to be installed, as well as the installation year, unit size and its location within a regional electric network. For this purpose, the model considers an interregional representation of the system identifying the necessary reinforcements to the capacity of the interregional connections. It also incorporates a Demarcation of Risk module that considers the uncertainty of the future scenarios of fuels prices to generate a set of expansion plans, among which includes the following: a) For every future of the fuel prices: the plan that diminishes the present value of the total cost (investment plus production). b) The plan that diminishes the economic risk derived from the uncertainty in the future of the fuel prices. c) A subgroup of expansion plans that are located in the efficient borders of decision, under the context of three criteria of interest: the economic risk, the investment cost of and the total cost in the future considered of greater relevance. [Spanish] Se presentan las caracteristicas generales de un modelo de planificacion de la expansion del sistema electrico de generacion con criterios de acotamiento de riesgo, asi como los principales resultados de un caso de estudio representativo del Sistema Electrico Mexicano. El modelo se basa en una metodologia de optimacion multi-anual para la determinacion de planes de expansion de la generacion. En este contexto, cada plan de expansion define el tipo de tecnologia que debera instalarse, asi como el ano de instalacion, el tamano de la unidad y su localizacion dentro de una red electrica regional. Para

  3. Dynamic preventive control of electric power systems through load shedding; Controle preventivo dinamico de sistemas de energia eletrica: formulacao atraves do corte de carga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Righeto, Luzia F.P.; Minussi, Carlos R. [UNESP, Ilha Solteira, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica

    1997-12-31

    This work presents a model to be used in Electric Power System preventive control, taking into account the dynamic network aspects, the effects caused by great oscillations in the synchronous machines angles (transient stability), electric equipment outages, short-circuit, etc. The energy function will be used as a form of measure the system stability degree using a criterion defined as security margin. The used control action will be the load shedding. (author) 16 refs.; e-mail: minussi at dee.feis.unesp.br

  4. An Electricity Price Forecasting Model by Hybrid Structured Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping-Huan Kuo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Electricity price is a key influencer in the electricity market. Electricity market trades by each participant are based on electricity price. The electricity price adjusted with the change in supply and demand relationship can reflect the real value of electricity in the transaction process. However, for the power generating party, bidding strategy determines the level of profit, and the accurate prediction of electricity price could make it possible to determine a more accurate bidding price. This cannot only reduce transaction risk, but also seize opportunities in the electricity market. In order to effectively estimate electricity price, this paper proposes an electricity price forecasting system based on the combination of 2 deep neural networks, the Convolutional Neural Network (CNN and the Long Short Term Memory (LSTM. In order to compare the overall performance of each algorithm, the Mean Absolute Error (MAE and Root-Mean-Square error (RMSE evaluating measures were applied in the experiments of this paper. Experiment results show that compared with other traditional machine learning methods, the prediction performance of the estimating model proposed in this paper is proven to be the best. By combining the CNN and LSTM models, the feasibility and practicality of electricity price prediction is also confirmed in this paper.

  5. Fluid power network for centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and completely different wind-energy conversion system is studied where a centralized electricity generation within a wind farm is proposed by means of a hydraulic network. This paper presents the dynamic interaction of two turbines when they are coupled to the same hydraulic network.

  6. Regulatory Improvements for Effective Integration of Distributed Generation into Electricity Distribution Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheepers, M.J.J.; Jansen, J.C.; De Joode, J.; Bauknecht, D.; Gomez, T.; Pudjianto, D.; Strbac, G.; Ropenus, S.

    2007-11-01

    The growth of distributed electricity supply of renewable energy sources (RES-E) and combined heat and power (CHP) - so called distributed generation (DG) - can cause technical problems for electricity distribution networks. These integration problems can be overcome by reinforcing the network. Many European Member States apply network regulation that does not account for the impact of DG growth on the network costs. Passing on network integration costs to the DG-operator who is responsible for these extra costs may result in discrimination between different DG plants and between DG and large power generation. Therefore, in many regulatory systems distribution system operators (DSOs) are not being compensated for the DG integration costs. The DG-GRID project analysed technical and economical barriers for integration of distributed generation into electricity distribution networks. The project looked into the impact of a high DG deployment on the electricity distribution system costs and the impact on the financial position of the DSO. Several ways for improving network regulation in order to compensate DSOs for the increasing DG penetration were identified and tested. The DG-GRID project looked also into stimulating network innovations through economic regulation. The project was co-financed by the European Commission and carried out by nine European universities and research institutes. This report summarises the project results and is based on a number of DG-GRID reports that describe the conducted analyses and their results

  7. Assessment of the voltage level and losses with photovoltaic and electric vehicle in low voltage network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ye, G.; Xiang, Y.; Cobben, J.F.G.

    2014-01-01

    Livelab from Alliander, a network operator, is a program which started to measure electrical and power quality data in the Dutch distribution network since 2013. A proper probability distribution can be used to model load distribution on feeders. This paper presents a methodology to generate the

  8. Planning of optimal electricity and gas distribution networks; Planung von optimalen Strom- und Gasverteilungsnetzen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Andreas; Hinueber, Gerd; Moser, Albert [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Elektrische Anlagen und Energiewirtschaft (IAEW)

    2009-12-15

    Framework conditions for the planning of energy networks are changing under the influence of European energy policy, incentive regulation and the politically motivated promotion of new technologies such as electromobility or intelligent metering. The future use of information and communication technologies in energy networks will create new degrees of freedom. This will necessitate changes in the way in which gas and electricity networks have been planned in the past. Especially computer-assisted methods for objectifying planning decisions are moving into the focus of network operators as a valuable network development tool.

  9. modeling and optimization of an electric power distribution network

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    EDNEPP) was solved by a mixed binary integer programming (MBIP) formulation of the network, where the steady-state operation of the network was modelled with non-linear mathematical expressions. The non-linear terms are linearized, using ...

  10. Gross domestic product estimation based on electricity utilization by artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevanović, Mirjana; Vujičić, Slađana; Gajić, Aleksandar M.

    2018-01-01

    The main goal of the paper was to estimate gross domestic product (GDP) based on electricity estimation by artificial neural network (ANN). The electricity utilization was analyzed based on different sources like renewable, coal and nuclear sources. The ANN network was trained with two training algorithms namely extreme learning method and back-propagation algorithm in order to produce the best prediction results of the GDP. According to the results it can be concluded that the ANN model with extreme learning method could produce the acceptable prediction of the GDP based on the electricity utilization.

  11. Smart grids fundamentals and technologies in electricity networks

    CERN Document Server

    Buchholz, Bernd M

    2014-01-01

    Efficient transmission and distribution of electricity is a fundamental requirement for sustainable development and prosperity. The world is facing great challenges regarding the reliable grid integration of renewable energy sources in the 21st century. The electric power systems of the future require fundamental innovations and enhancements to meet these challenges. The European Union's "Smart Grid" vision provides a first overview of the appropriate deep-paradigm changes in the transmission, distribution and supply of electricity.The book brings together common themes beginning with Smart Gr

  12. Flow network QSAR for the prediction of physicochemical properties by mapping an electrical resistance network onto a chemical reaction poset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanciuc, Ovidiu; Ivanciuc, Teodora; Klein, Douglas J

    2013-06-01

    Usual quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are computed from unstructured input data, by using a vector of molecular descriptors for each chemical in the dataset. Another alternative is to consider the structural relationships between the chemical structures, such as molecular similarity, presence of certain substructures, or chemical transformations between compounds. We defined a class of network-QSAR models based on molecular networks induced by a sequence of substitution reactions on a chemical structure that generates a partially ordered set (or poset) oriented graph that may be used to predict various molecular properties with quantitative superstructure-activity relationships (QSSAR). The network-QSAR interpolation models defined on poset graphs, namely average poset, cluster expansion, and spline poset, were tested with success for the prediction of several physicochemical properties for diverse chemicals. We introduce the flow network QSAR, a new poset regression model in which the dataset of chemicals, represented as a reaction poset, is transformed into an oriented network of electrical resistances in which the current flow results in a potential at each node. The molecular property considered in the QSSAR model is represented as the electrical potential, and the value of this potential at a particular node is determined by the electrical resistances assigned to each edge and by a system of batteries. Each node with a known value for the molecular property is attached to a battery that sets the potential on that node to the value of the respective molecular property, and no external battery is attached to nodes from the prediction set, representing chemicals for which the values of the molecular property are not known or are intended to be predicted. The flow network QSAR algorithm determines the values of the molecular property for the prediction set of molecules by applying Ohm's law and Kirchhoff's current law to the poset

  13. Sistema de diagnóstico para la estimación de secciones en fallo en sistemas eléctricos de potencia; A Diagnostic Systems to Estimate Faulty Sections in Power Electric Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Bravo de las Casas; Humberto Machado Fernández; Zenaida García Valdivia; Alain Álvarez Chávez; Isis Bonet Cruz; Norma E Cabrera González

    2011-01-01

    El sistema de diagnóstico para la estimación de secciones en fallo (SDESF) para sistemas eléctricos depotencia (SEP) expuesto en el trabajo, usa la información procedente de los relés operados e interruptoresdisparados. Está escrito en Prolog, lenguaje de inteligencia artificial e implementado en una computadorapersonal. La tarea básica de este sistema es entrenar a los despachadores y utilizarlo como una herramientade apoyo a la toma de decisi...

  14. The study of human bodies' impedance networks in testing leakage currents of electrical equipments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaohui; Wang, Xiaofei

    2006-11-01

    In the testing of electrical equipments' leakage currents, impedance networks of human bodies are used to simulate the current's effect on human bodies, and they are key to the preciseness of the testing result. This paper analyses and calculates three human bodies' impedance networks of measuring electric burn current, perception or reaction current, let-go current in IEC60990, by using Matlab, compares the research result of current effect thresholds' change with sine wave's frequency published in IEC479-2, and amends parameters of measuring networks. It also analyses the change of perception or reaction current with waveform by Multisim.

  15. Impact Assessment of Electric Boilers in Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2018-01-01

    Flexibility from the electricity supply, with high share of intermittent energy sources such as wind and solar, has been offered by combined heat and power (CHP) generation in Denmark for decades. There could be periods where the fuel prices are higher than the electricity prices (even -ve), during...... high wind production and is idle for electric boilers (EBs) operation. In the future, using EBs, excess electricity from wind turbines can be effectively utilized for heat production, and still meet the thermal demand by decreasing CHP production. Thus, there is need for demand side flexibility...... control incorporated based on grid voltages, restricts the operation of EBs but ensures operation of the distribution system within limits still trying to keep the thermal comfort in the houses....

  16. Visible technologies, invisible organisations: An empirical study of public beliefs about electricity supply networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine-Wright, Patrick; Devine-Wright, Hannah; Sherry-Brennan, Fionnguala

    2010-01-01

    Reducing carbon emissions in the energy system poses significant challenges to electricity transmission and distribution networks. Whilst these challenges are as much social as economic or technical, to date few research studies have investigated public beliefs about electricity supply networks. This research aimed to address this gap by means of a nationally representative study of UK adults (n=1041), probing beliefs about how electricity reaches the home, responsibility for electricity supply, associations with the words 'National Grid', as well as beliefs about the planning of new infrastructure. Findings suggest that electricity networks are represented predominantly in terms of technologies rather than organisations, specifically in terms of familiar, visible components such as cables or wires, rather than more systemic concepts such as networks. Transmission and distribution network operators were largely invisible to members of the public. In terms of planning new lines, most respondents assumed that government ministers were involved in decision-making, while local residents were widely perceived to have little influence; moreover, there was strong public support for placing new power lines underground, regardless of the cost. In conclusion, organisational invisibility, coupled with low expectations of participatory involvement, could provoke public opposition and delay siting new network infrastructure.

  17. Multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Tsang, Kaiming; Chan, Wailok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synchronization transitions in hybrid scale-free neuronal networks are investigated. • Multiple synchronization transitions can be induced by the time delay. • Effect of synchronization transitions depends on the ratio of the electrical and chemical synapses. • Coupling strength and the density of inter-neuronal links can enhance the synchronization. -- Abstract: The impacts of information transmission delay on the synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses are investigated. Numerical results show that multiple appearances of synchronization regions transitions can be induced by different information transmission delays. With the time delay increasing, the synchronization of neuronal activities can be enhanced or destroyed, irrespective of the probability of chemical synapses in the whole hybrid neuronal network. In particular, for larger probability of electrical synapses, the regions of synchronous activities appear broader with stronger synchronization ability of electrical synapses compared with chemical ones. Moreover, it can be found that increasing the coupling strength can promote synchronization monotonously, playing the similar role of the increasing the probability of the electrical synapses. Interestingly, the structures and parameters of the scale-free neuronal networks, especially the structural evolvement plays a more subtle role in the synchronization transitions. In the network formation process, it is found that every new vertex is attached to the more old vertices already present in the network, the more synchronous activities will be emerge

  18. History of electricity network control and distributed generation in the UK and Western Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehtonen, Markku; Nye, Sheridan

    2009-01-01

    Achieving the ambitious targets for renewable electricity generation in Europe will require harnessing a diverse range of energy sources, many of which are decentralised, small scale, and will be connected directly to the distribution networks. To control the two-way flows of electricity, the current passive network configurations will need to be replaced by active network management. This will require, in particular, innovations in intelligent IT-based network control. This paper draws on research on Large Technical Systems (LTS) and control systems in other sectors to analyse the evolution of electricity network control in western Denmark and the UK, since the Second World War. It concludes that lack of progress in network control has only recently-largely because of the combined needs to provide greater reliability and 'green' electricity within liberalised markets-emerged as a 'reverse salient' that will prevent the further development of the LTS of electricity supply industry towards desired direction. Breaking the inertia in the LTS and its control systems will require determined government action to promote learning and collaborative search for solutions. The UK might well draw lessons from the Danish pragmatism in fostering innovation through targeted support to collaborative R and D efforts towards sustainability objectives.

  19. History of electricity network control and distributed generation in the UK and Western Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehtonen, Markku [Sussex Energy Group, SPRU, University of Sussex, Freeman Centre, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom); Nye, Sheridan [SPRU, University of Sussex, Freeman Centre, Falmer, Brighton, East Sussex BN1 9QE (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    Achieving the ambitious targets for renewable electricity generation in Europe will require harnessing a diverse range of energy sources, many of which are decentralised, small scale, and will be connected directly to the distribution networks. To control the two-way flows of electricity, the current passive network configurations will need to be replaced by active network management. This will require, in particular, innovations in intelligent IT-based network control. This paper draws on research on Large Technical Systems (LTS) and control systems in other sectors to analyse the evolution of electricity network control in western Denmark and the UK, since the Second World War. It concludes that lack of progress in network control has only recently - largely because of the combined needs to provide greater reliability and 'green' electricity within liberalised markets - emerged as a 'reverse salient' that will prevent the further development of the LTS of electricity supply industry towards desired direction. Breaking the inertia in the LTS and its control systems will require determined government action to promote learning and collaborative search for solutions. The UK might well draw lessons from the Danish pragmatism in fostering innovation through targeted support to collaborative R and D efforts towards sustainability objectives. (author)

  20. Fuzzy control for the operation of an electrical energy generation system based on standard fuel cells PEM; Control difuso para la operacion de un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible tipo PEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez R, Miguel; Gutierrez A, Ruben [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Rodriguez P, Alejandro [Centro Nacional de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico (Cenidet), Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    Fuel cells, as totally clean power plants, have many applications in the industry in general, in the transport system, in the electricity generation for domestic consumption and in the communication systems, among others. When developing new forms of generation with renewable energy sources, it must be considered that petroleum will stop in being an available power resource. The interest in the study of the fuel cells has been increased in the last years because it is considered a solution to the supply of distributed energy problem. Therefore, already exist research institutions that are developing work on this technology. A generation of electrical energy system based on fuel cells is a nonlinear system where the control of the variables of the process, such as the temperature of the system and the pressurization of the reactants, are an important aspect for its proper operation, since it influences in the water balance and therefore in the global efficiency of the system. [Spanish] Las celdas de combustible, como fuente de energia totalmente limpia, tienen muchas aplicaciones en la industria en general: en el sistema de transporte, en la generacion de electricidad para consumo domestico y en los sistemas de comunicacion, entre otros. Al desarrollar nuevas formas de generacion con fuentes de energia renovables, se debe considerar que el petroleo dejara de ser un recurso energetico disponible. El interes en el estudio de las celdas de combustible se ha incrementado en los ultimos anos debido a que se le considera una solucion al problema de abasto de energia distribuida. Por lo tanto, ya existen instituciones de investigacion que estan desarrollando trabajos sobre esta tecnologia. Un sistema de generacion de energia electrica basado en celdas de combustible es un sistema no lineal en donde el control de las variables del proceso, tales como la temperatura del sistema y la presurizacion de los reactantes, es un aspecto importante para su buen funcionamiento, ya que

  1. Co-evolution of electric and telecommunications networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivkin, S.R.

    1998-05-01

    There are potentially significant societal benefits in co-evolution between electricity and telecommunications in the areas of common infrastructure, accelerated deployment of distributed energy, tighter integration of information flow for energy management and distribution, and improved customer care. With due regard for natural processes that are more potent than any regulation and more real than any ideology, the gains from co-evolution would far outweigh the attenuated and speculative savings from restructuring of electricity that is too simplistic.

  2. The impact of high PV penetration levels on electrical distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collinson, A; Beddoes, A; Thornycroft, J [Halcrow (United Kingdom); Strbac, G; Jenkins, N [UMIST, Manchester (United Kingdom); Verhoeven, B [KEMA (Netherlands)

    2002-07-01

    This report describes the results of a collaborative study by EA Technology, UMIST and Halcrow into the effects of large-scale connection of dispersed photovoltaic (PV) power systems on the national electricity supply network. The report is intended to help manufacturers and installers of PV systems and electricity companies to understand the issues associated with grid connection of PV power systems. The increased use of PV systems is expected to have a significant impact on the design, operation and management of electricity supply networks. The study examined three main areas: probability and risk analysis of islanding; PV and network voltage control (including analysis of voltage control in a commercial, domestic retrofit and domestic new build scenarios); and future low voltage network design and operational policies.

  3. Rational function systems and electrical networks with multiparameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, KaiSheng

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the problems of system theory and network theory over real field, this book uses matrices over the field F(z) of rational functions in multiparameters describing coefficient matrices of systems and networks and makes systems and network description over F(z) and researches their structural properties: reducible condition of a class of matrices over F(z) and their characteristic polynomial; type1 matrix and two basic properties; variable replacement conditions for independent parameters; structural controllability and observability of linear systems over F(z); separability, reducibi

  4. Patterns recognition of electric brain activity using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Pchelintseva, S. V.; Runnova, A. E.; Hramov, A. E.

    2017-04-01

    An approach for the recognition of various cognitive processes in the brain activity in the perception of ambiguous images. On the basis of developed theoretical background and the experimental data, we propose a new classification of oscillating patterns in the human EEG by using an artificial neural network approach. After learning of the artificial neural network reliably identified cube recognition processes, for example, left-handed or right-oriented Necker cube with different intensity of their edges, construct an artificial neural network based on Perceptron architecture and demonstrate its effectiveness in the pattern recognition of the EEG in the experimental.

  5. Distribution electric system simulator to support decision-making for CFE (Federal Electric Commission) Distribution Control Centers; Simulador del Sistema Electrico de Distribucion para apoyo en la toma de decisiones en Centros de Control de Distribucion de la CFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa Reza, Alfredo; Quintero Reyes, Agustin; Garcia Mendoza, Raul; Calleros Torres, Tito Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Borjas Diaz, Jesus Fidel; Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin; Torres Abrego, Rafael [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2011-07-01

    This article presents the physical, logical and functional architecture designed to integrate the Electric Distribution System (EDS) simulator developed for the CFE and the electric energy Distribution Control Centers in Mexico. The objective of the EDS simulator is to integrate engineering distribution functions (power flow, short circuit, optimal reconfiguration and reliability, among others) and an expert system (Case-based Reasoning) to aid the process of information analysis, decision-making and the capacity-building of the CFE's Regional and Zonal Distribution Control Centers. The EDS simulator has been installed, updated and is operational in the Tampico Zone and the Gulf Division Distribution Center, as an established product that continually evolves along with the actual operating dynamics. [Spanish] Se presenta la arquitectura fisica, logica y funcional disenada para integrar el simulador del Sistema Electrico de Distribucion (SED) desarrollado para la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) y los Centros de Control de Distribucion de energia electrica en Mexico. El objetivo del simulador del SED es integrar funciones de ingenieria de distribucion (flujo de potencia, corto circuito, reconfiguracion optima, confiabilidad, entre otras) y un sistema experto (Razonamiento Basado en Casos) para apoyar el proceso de analisis de informacion, la toma de decisiones y la capacitacion en los Centros de Control de Distribucion Zonales y Regionales de CFE. El Simulador del SED se encuentra instalado, actualizado y en operacion en la Zona Tampico y en la Division de Distribucion Golfo Centro como un producto consolidado y en constante evolucion a la par de la dinamica operativa real.

  6. Methodology for the electric energy distribution systems planning of small and rural zones of Comision Federal de Electricidad; Metodologia para la planeacion de sistemas de distribucion de energia electrica de zonas pequenas y rurales de Comision Federal de Electricidad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochoa Gomez, Miguel Armando

    2008-12-15

    institutional procedures, the standards, the commercial programs and the programs developed by the Management of Planning, used in the CFE to make the electric distribution systems planning. In the same way, in Chapter 4 a methodology for the optimization of the electrical grids in low tension is proposed, standing out some errors that are commonly committed in the design of these types of networks, doing recommendations to correct them with low cost investments. Because of the importance in the design of medium tension lines, in Chapter 3 the set of economic conductors for 23 kV was determined for urban and rural areas, system type A (3F-4H, 2F-3H, 1F-2H), by means of the Modified Method. With this information we will be able to select the conductor that offers the best economy in the time, in each extension of the network. In Chapter 5 the proposed methodology in the planning of the electrical system of distribution of the Zapotlan Zone was applied, as much in substations as in the high and medium tension network. In this chapter analyses of optimization of the network were performed, capacitor banks application, attention to the incremental demand, power losses, contingencies by fault and reliability of the provision. Finally the obtained conclusions of the investigation and the work carried out are presented; as well as the recommendations for future facilities. [Spanish] Las 13 Divisiones de Distribucion en las cuales la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) tiene estructurada, administrativa y tecnicamente, la distribucion de la energia electrica en su territorio atendido, estan constituida a su vez por un total de 120 Zonas de Distribucion, clasificadas conforme al producto de su numero de clientes, por su volumen de ventas anuales, en media y baja tension, como zonas tipo I, II y III. Ejemplos de zonas tipo III son las Zona Guadalajara y la Zona Metropolitana Monterrey Norte, Oriente y Poniente (metropolis), la tipo II son zonas predominantemente urbanas como Queretaro

  7. Prediction of Electricity Usage Using Convolutional Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis Information- and communication technology IKT590 - University of Agder 2017 Convolutional Neural Networks are overwhelmingly accurate when attempting to predict numbers using the famous MNIST-dataset. In this paper, we are attempting to transcend these results for time- series forecasting, and compare them with several regression mod- els. The Convolutional Neural Network model predicted the same value through the entire time lapse in contrast with the other ...

  8. Development scheme for the public electricity transport network - 2006-2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    After having discussed the role of the development scheme and its mains requirements, presented its important components (energy needs, energy transport needs), and described its elaboration mode, this report gives an overview of the present status of the electricity transport network in France: 400.000 volts transport and interconnection networks, 225.000 volts and high voltage networks, development objectives, development context, transport network characteristics in 2006 (country gridding, development dynamics and consumption growth). Then, it presents a set of hypotheses about consumption, production and European exchanges. It identifies different types of constraints (customer connection, supply safety, electric and economic performance, robustness against extreme climate phenomena) and presents a method to assess these constraints (simulation of situations at risk, supply quality analysis, works expertise). The last part present the middle- and long-term constraints for the network

  9. Business strategy in the electric sector: trading in the paraguay electric sector; Estrategias de negocios en el sector electrico: comercializacion en el sistema electrico paraguayo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardozo, Carlos M.; Soto, Ruben E. Brasa [Itaipu Binacional - Usina Hidroelectrica de Itaipu, Foz do Iguacu, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: cartin@itaipu.gov.py

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents an suitable analysis for a energy tradder which intends to operate in the paraguay electric market. First, the paper describes the main conceptual aspects and afterwards, formulate hypothesis on the possible highlights on the operative modes of negotiation and finally some results obtained based on hypothesis and simulation.

  10. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    that is generated thru the selling of electric energy, guarantees the sustainable operation of the system. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), y la empresa electrica norteamericana Arizona Public Service (APS), firmaron un convenio de colaboracion para desarrollar un proyecto de generacion de energia electrica con la utilizacion de energias renovables. Las premisas que se acordaron fueron las siguientes: 1. Enfoque del proyecto hacia una comunidad rural. 2. El costo de la obra debera ser menor al de su interconexion con el sistema convencional. 3. Aceptacion por parte de la comunidad, y autoridades gubernamentales. 4. Sustentabilidad de la operacion del sistema. Se efectuaron diversos analisis tecnicos y economicos asi como la evaluacion del recurso solar y eolico, estudio de impacto ambiental, plan de negocios para obtener la aprobacion de los recursos economicos ante instancias como Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), y la USAID, mediante la supervision de los Laboratorios Nacionales de Sandia. Despues de efectuarse las mediciones anemometricas y de radiacion solar, en diversas comunidades, se considero a la comunidad de San Juanico como la mas viable; tambien los aspectos de logistica, sociales, tamano de la comunidad y como detonador para las actividades economicas como la pesca y el turismo. La APS llevo a cabo el proyecto ejecutivo de conformidad con las recomendaciones de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. El proyecto consistio basicamente en la instalacion de 10 aerogeneradores de 10 Kw. c/u, un arreglo solar de 17 Kw., un inversor de 70 Kw., un banco de baterias de 432 Kwh., mas un motogenerador diesel de emergencia de 80 Kw. Ademas de la obra civil y electromecanica. Fue necesario involucrar a la poblacion en el conocimiento y seguimiento del proyecto desde sus inicios, ya que consideramos que este factor seria indispensable para lograr el exito del mismo. Se instalaron lamparas ahorradoras de energia en viviendas y alumbrado publico para optimizar el

  11. Hybrid system of generating electricity, solar eolic diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico; Sistema hibrido de generacion electrica, eolico solar diesel San Juanico, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huerta, Javier [Comision Federal de Electricidad, La Paz, Baja California Sur (Mexico); Johnston, Peter [Technology Development, Arizona (United States); Napikoski, Chester [Generation Engineering, Arizona (United States); Escutia, Ricardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Baja California Sur (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    is generated thru the selling of electric energy, guarantees the sustainable operation of the system. [Spanish] La Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), y la empresa electrica norteamericana Arizona Public Service (APS), firmaron un convenio de colaboracion para desarrollar un proyecto de generacion de energia electrica con la utilizacion de energias renovables. Las premisas que se acordaron fueron las siguientes: 1. Enfoque del proyecto hacia una comunidad rural. 2. El costo de la obra debera ser menor al de su interconexion con el sistema convencional. 3. Aceptacion por parte de la comunidad, y autoridades gubernamentales. 4. Sustentabilidad de la operacion del sistema. Se efectuaron diversos analisis tecnicos y economicos asi como la evaluacion del recurso solar y eolico, estudio de impacto ambiental, plan de negocios para obtener la aprobacion de los recursos economicos ante instancias como Niagara Mohawk (NIMO), y la USAID, mediante la supervision de los Laboratorios Nacionales de Sandia. Despues de efectuarse las mediciones anemometricas y de radiacion solar, en diversas comunidades, se considero a la comunidad de San Juanico como la mas viable; tambien los aspectos de logistica, sociales, tamano de la comunidad y como detonador para las actividades economicas como la pesca y el turismo. La APS llevo a cabo el proyecto ejecutivo de conformidad con las recomendaciones de la Comision Federal de Electricidad. El proyecto consistio basicamente en la instalacion de 10 aerogeneradores de 10 Kw. c/u, un arreglo solar de 17 Kw., un inversor de 70 Kw., un banco de baterias de 432 Kwh., mas un motogenerador diesel de emergencia de 80 Kw. Ademas de la obra civil y electromecanica. Fue necesario involucrar a la poblacion en el conocimiento y seguimiento del proyecto desde sus inicios, ya que consideramos que este factor seria indispensable para lograr el exito del mismo. Se instalaron lamparas ahorradoras de energia en viviendas y alumbrado publico para optimizar el

  12. Integrated Multimedia Based Intelligent Group Decision Support System for Electrical Power Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Kumar Saxena

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrical Power Network in recent time requires an intelligent, virtual environment based decision process for the coordination of all its individual elements and the interrelated tasks. Its ultimate goal is to achieve maximum productivity and efficiency through the efficient and effective application of generation, transmission, distribution, pricing and regulatory systems. However, the complexity of electrical power network and the presence of conflicting multiple goals and objectives postulated by various groups emphasized the need of an intelligent group decision support system approach in this field. In this paper, an Integrated Multimedia based Intelligent Group Decision Support System (IM1GDSS is presented, and its main components are analyzed and discussed. In particular attention is focused on the Data Base, Model Base, Central Black Board (CBB and Multicriteria Futuristic Decision Process (MFDP module. The model base interacts with Electrical Power Network Load Forecasting and Planning (EPNLFP Module; Resource Optimization, Modeling and Simulation (ROMAS Module; Electrical Power Network Control and Evaluation Process (EPNCAEP Module, and MFDP Module through CBB for strategic planning, management control, operational planning and transaction processing. The richness of multimedia channels adds a totally new dimension in a group decision making for Electrical Power Network. The proposed IMIGDSS is a user friendly, highly interactive group decision making system, based on efficient intelligent and multimedia communication support for group discussions, retrieval of content and multi criteria decision analysis.

  13. The expansion of electric power systems considering the operation reliability; Expansion de sistemas electricos considerando la securidad de servicio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortes, Marcelo A. [Universidad de Antofagasta (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica; Moya A, Oscar [Chile Univ., Santiago (Chile). Dept. de Ingenieria Civil

    1997-12-31

    This publication describes a procedure based in an linear programming for the planning of the expansion of mediating term in power systems. The implicit alternatives for network expansion, whether power plants or transmission lines, are classified according to indexes of reinforcement. The indexes are gotten resulting shadow pricing upon resolving a problem of minimum cost of operation and outage. The network is subjected to the most probable contingencies and from these outputs the expected reinforcement results are obtained. The problem of the reactive power accounts for restrictions in line capacity and prior evaluation of A C power flux. Results obtained are used for methodology validation. (author) 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.; e-mail: mcortes at apolo.cc.uantof.cl.; osmoya at tamarugo.cec.uchile.cl

  14. Design of a grounding network in electrical substations. Materials and formulas the most used; Diseno de redes de tierra en subestaciones electricas. Materiales y formulas mas utilizadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raull Martin, J. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a summarized version of the different types of construction of grounding systems, as well as their materials and formulas, which are necessary and useful for the design and building of a grounding network for medium to high voltage facilities. A description is also made of how to determine the electrical resistivity of subsoil layers with different physical characteristics. Several illustrative examples are also solved in the paper. [Spanish] El proposito de este articulo es presentar de manera resumida los diferentes tipos de construccion de los sistemas de tierra, asi como sus materiales y formulas, los cuales son necesarios y utiles para el diseno y edificacion de una red de tierra para instalaciones de mediana y alta tension. Se describe tambien la obtencion de las diferentes resistividades que presenta los terrenos con diversas caracteristicas fisicas. Asimismo, se solucionan ejercicios ilustrativos a lo largo del articulo.

  15. Centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms using hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which the electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A centralized

  16. artificial neural network (ann) approach to electrical load

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-18

    Aug 18, 2004 ... self organizing feature map; which is back-propagating in nature. ... distribution scheduling. ... electricity demand with lead times that range from ... become increasingly vital since the rise of the ... implemented for advanced control, data and sensor ... inspired methods of computing are thought to be the.

  17. Impacts of electric vehicle charging on distribution networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lizhong; Yang, Guang Ya; Xu, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) provide a unique opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector by drawing on renewable resources. As EVs become increasingly popular in the automotive market, the study of its impacts on the low-voltage grid has become increasingly important...

  18. Comparison of order reduction algorithms for application to electrical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lj. Radić-Weissenfeld

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses issues related to the minimization of the computational burden in terms of both memory and speed during the simulation of electrical models. In order to achieve a simple and computational fast model the order reduction of its reducible part is proposed. In this paper the overview of the order reduction algorithms and their application are discussed.

  19. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Paulo Régis C; Filho, Raimir Holanda; Rodrigues, Joel J P C; Oliveira, João P C M; Braga, Stephanie A

    2018-04-24

    At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC) and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  20. Infrastructure for Integration of Legacy Electrical Equipment into a Smart-Grid Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Régis C. de Araújo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, the standardisation of electrical equipment communications is on the rise. In particular, manufacturers are releasing equipment for the smart grid endowed with communication protocols such as DNP3, IEC 61850, and MODBUS. However, there are legacy equipment operating in the electricity distribution network that cannot communicate using any of these protocols. Thus, we propose an infrastructure to allow the integration of legacy electrical equipment to smart grids by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs. In this infrastructure, each legacy electrical device is connected to a sensor node, and the sink node runs a middleware that enables the integration of this device into a smart grid based on suitable communication protocols. This middleware performs tasks such as the translation of messages between the power substation control centre (PSCC and electrical equipment in the smart grid. Moreover, the infrastructure satisfies certain requirements for communication between the electrical equipment and the PSCC, such as enhanced security, short response time, and automatic configuration. The paper’s contributions include a solution that enables electrical companies to integrate their legacy equipment into smart-grid networks relying on any of the above mentioned communication protocols. This integration will reduce the costs related to the modernisation of power substations.

  1. Contribution in the area of harmonics in electric power systems; Contribuicoes na area de harmonicos em sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Aloisio de

    1989-07-01

    A general approach of the state of art of the harmonic generation, its sources, its limits, its measurement methods and its effects on the electric system components is presented. This thesis shows that this is an open field to research, modelling and solutions. It also helps towards the investigation of the effects caused by harmonics on the conventional KWh energy meters and on potential and current transformers. It presents the basis for the development and construction of prototypes to be utilized in the generation and measurement of harmonics. Finally a practical approach has been given to calculate the equivalent harmonic impedance as seen by a giving consumer. (author)

  2. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    power chain, which may improve the reliability and performance of the power system. The first part of this paper provides a comprehensive review of the various impedance-source-networks-based power converters and discusses the main topologies from an application point of view. This review paper...... is the first of its kind with the aim of providing a “one-stop” information source and a selection guide on impedance-source networks for power conversion for researchers, designers, and application engineers. A comprehensive review of various modeling, control, and modulation techniques for the impedance...

  3. Evolution of short circuit levels in the National Electric System, years 2007 to 2011; Evolucion de los niveles de cortocircuito del Sistema Electrico Nacional, anos 2007 al 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana Castaneda, J; Reyes Escobedo, G [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (Mexico)]. E-mails: jqc@iie.org.mx; gustavo.reyes@iie.org.mx; Ibarra Romo, F.G. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)]. E-mail: federico.ibarra@cfe.gob.mx

    2013-03-15

    The present document shows an analysis of 2011 short-circuit levels on the different nodes (substations) that integrate the National Electric System. This analysis presents the figures of short-circuit levels on past years, stating on 2007, with the purpose of detecting the variation on each one of these nodes and identify the cases that because it's high levels are considered as critical nodes of the transmission system. At the end of the analysis some recommendations to minimize the potential risks are given on those substations classified as critical nodes. [Spanish] En este documento se expone un analisis de los niveles de cortocircuito que se presentaron en el 2011 en los distintos nodos (subestaciones) que conforman la red del Sistema Electrico Nacional (SEN). Este analisis muestra las cifras de los niveles de cortocircuito que se han presentado desde el ano 2007, a fin de estudiar el comportamiento y evolucion que han tenido los nodos de la red electrica, identificando aquellos puntos que por sus altos niveles de cortocircuito se consideran como nodos criticos. En la parte final del analisis se dan algunas recomendaciones para disminuir los riesgos que se pudieran presentar en aquellas subestaciones clasificadas como nodos criticos.

  4. ELECTRIC MOTOR DIAGNOSTICS OF SWITCHES BASED ON THE NEURAL NETWORK DATA MODELING THE SPECTRAL DECOMPOSITION OF THE CURRENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Shvets

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The method of automated diagnostics of electric motors is offered. It uses a neural network revealing the electric motor faults on the basis of analysis of frequency spectrum of current flowing through the motor.

  5. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L. R. [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  6. A simple and efficient formula for saving electric energy in lighting systems; Una formula sencilla y eficaz para ahorrar energia electrica en sistemas de iluminacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa Noriega, L R [Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    In the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City, as well as in other regions with a similar climate, there are an important number of users of the electric energy service, whose main load consists of lighting, since systems such as environmental conditioning, refrigeration, pumping and others are either not necessary or lack of importance as electric energy consumers. These are classified in the range of small users that altogether represent a significant saving, but the precarious diffusion of the technological advances have not contemplated the need of carrying on corrective actions. Among these users are the offices, sites of entertainment and a range of commerces and services such as clothing stores, pharmacies, shoe stores, printing shops, dry cleaner`s, restaurants, barber shops, etc. The present paper pretends to provide a simple methodology easy to carry on, derived form a demonstrative project that FIDE (Fideicomiso de Apoyo al Programa de Ahorro de Energia del Sector Electrico) successfully carried out for the Club Deportivo Berinbau. [Espanol] En el area Metropolitana de la ciudad de Mexico, asi como en otras regiones con clima similar, existe un numero importante de usuarios del servicio de energia electrica cuya carga principal consiste en iluminacion, ya que sistemas como acondicionamiento ambiental, refrigeracion, bombeo y otros, o bien no son necesarios o carecen de la importancia en cuanto a consumo de energia electrica. Estos se catalogan dentro del rango de pequenos usuarios que en conjunto representan un potencial de ahorro significativo pero que, debido a la precaria difusion de los adelantos tecnologicos, no han contemplado la posibilidad de llevar a cabo acciones correctivas. Entre estos usuarios se encuentran oficinas, lugares de esparcimiento, planteles educativos y una gama de comercios y servicios como tiendas de ropa, farmacias, zapaterias, imprentas, tintorerias, restaurantes, peluquerias, etc. El presente trabajo pretende proporcionarles una

  7. Benefits analysis of Soft Open Points for electrical distribution network operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wanyu; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick; Wang, Chengshan; Green, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An analysis framework was developed to quantify the operational benefits. • The framework considers both network reconfiguration and SOP control. • Benefits were analyzed through both quantitative and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: Soft Open Points (SOPs) are power electronic devices installed in place of normally-open points in electrical power distribution networks. They are able to provide active power flow control, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation under normal network operating conditions, as well as fast fault isolation and supply restoration under abnormal conditions. A steady state analysis framework was developed to quantify the operational benefits of a distribution network with SOPs under normal network operating conditions. A generic power injection model was developed and used to determine the optimal SOP operation using an improved Powell’s Direct Set method. Physical limits and power losses of the SOP device (based on back to back voltage-source converters) were considered in the model. Distribution network reconfiguration algorithms, with and without SOPs, were developed and used to identify the benefits of using SOPs. Test results on a 33-bus distribution network compared the benefits of using SOPs, traditional network reconfiguration and the combination of both. The results showed that using only one SOP achieved a similar improvement in network operation compared to the case of using network reconfiguration with all branches equipped with remotely controlled switches. A combination of SOP control and network reconfiguration provided the optimal network operation.

  8. Diseño e Implementación de un Sistema Electrónico con Interface a PC para Automatizar una Máquina de Escribir Braille

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Noboa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo describe el diseño e implementación de un sistema electrónico que automatiza a una máquina de escribir Braille. Se compone de una interfaz gráfica programada mediante el entorno de desarrollo NetBeans con Java y el control de actuadores lineales mediante el microcontrolador 18f2550.

  9. INTEGRAL INDEX OF OPERATION QUALITY FOR EVALUATION OF IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTIVE GENERATION SOURCES ON ELECTRIC NETWORK MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petro D. Lezhniuk

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Method of operation quality evaluation of electric network, comprising renewable sources of energy (RSE is considered. Integral index that enables to evaluate the impact of RSE on energy losses and its quality as well as balance reliability in electric network is suggested. Mathematical model is constructed, taking into account the assumption that electric network with RSE may be in various operation modes, characterized by different technical economic indices. To determine the integral index of operation quality of electric network with RSE in all possible states tools of Markov processes theory and criterial method are used.

  10. Cooperation between Eastern and Western Europe in electrical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoz, H.; Remondeulaz, J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper begins with a brief historical account of relations between Eastern and Western Europe in matters of electricity and explains why the two blocks developed separately, at the same nominal frequency but with disparate synchronous systems. Then, examining annual electrical energy transfers among the various groups of European countries, the authors show that these exchanges are destined to grow considerably as the development gap between the Eastern and Western countries gradually closes. They wind up with a comparative study of the advantages and disadvantages of alternating and direct current interconnections and raise the question of whether the need for very costly AC-DC conversion stations might be avoided by synchronizing the two existing systems. Answers can be found only in broad international cooperation to lay down the guidelines, and in bilateral negociations to implement them. International organization like UNIPEDE and UCPTE seem to be the perfect framework for this type of concertation. 5 figs

  11. Nuclear plants in the expansion of the Mexican electrical system;Plantas nucleares en la expansion del sistema electrico mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Estrada S, G. J.; Martin del Campo M, C., E-mail: gestradas@yahoo.co [UNAM, Facultad de Ingenieria, Departamento de Sistemas Energeticos, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    In this work the results of four studies appear that were realized to analyze plans of long term expansion of Mexican electrical system of generation for the study period 2005-2025. The objective is to identify between the two third generation reactors with greater maturity at present which is it is that it can be integrated better in the expansion of the Mexican electrical system of generation. It was analyzed which of the four cases represents the best expansion plan in terms of two only parameters that are: 1) total cost of generation and, 2) the diversity of generated energy in all the period. In all studies candidates three different units of combined cycle were considered (802, 583 and 291 MW), a turbo gas unit of 267 MW, units of 700 MW with coal base and integrated de sulphur, geo thermo electrical units of 26.95 MW and two different types of nuclear units. In both first studies the Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (A BWR) for the nuclear units is considered, considering that is technology with more maturity of all the third generation reactors. In the following two studies were considered the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR), also of third generation, that uses in essence technology more spread to world-wide level. For this task was used the uni nodal planning model WASP-IV, developed by the IAEA to find the expansion configuration with less generation cost for each study. Considering the present situation of the generation system, the capacity additions begin starting from the year 2012 for the four studies. It is not considered the installation of nuclear plants before 2016 considering that its planning period takes 3 years, and the construction period requires at least of 5 years. In order to evaluate the diversity of each study it was used the Stirling Index or of Shannon-Weiner. In order to classify the studies in cost terms and diversity it was used like decision tool the Savage criterion, called also of minimal repentance. With this data, taking

  12. Bosch automotive electrics and automotive electronics. Systems and components, networking and hybrid drive. 5. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    Complete reference guide to automotive electrics and electronics. The significance of electrical and electronic systems has increased considerably in the last few years and this trend is set to continue. The characteristics feature of innovative systems is the fact that they can work together in a network. This requires powerful bus systems that the electronic control units can use to exchange information. Networking and the various bus systems used in motor vehicles are the prominent new topic in the 5th edition of the ''Automotive Electric, Automotive Electronics'' technical manual. The existing chapters have also been updated, so that this new edition brings the reader up to date on the subjects of electrical and electronic systems in the motor vehicle.

  13. Monthly electric energy demand forecasting with neural networks and Fourier series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Romera, E.; Jaramillo-Moran, M.A.; Carmona-Fernandez, D.

    2008-01-01

    Medium-term electric energy demand forecasting is a useful tool for grid maintenance planning and market research of electric energy companies. Several methods, such as ARIMA, regression or artificial intelligence, have been usually used to carry out those predictions. Some approaches include weather or economic variables, which strongly influence electric energy demand. Economic variables usually influence the general series trend, while weather provides a periodic behavior because of its seasonal nature. This work investigates the periodic behavior of the Spanish monthly electric demand series, obtained by rejecting the trend from the consumption series. A novel hybrid approach is proposed: the periodic behavior is forecasted with a Fourier series while the trend is predicted with a neural network. Satisfactory results have been obtained, with a lower than 2% MAPE, which improve those reached when only neural networks or ARIMA were used for the same purpose. (author)

  14. Bulk Electric Load Cost Calculation Methods: Iraqi Network Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qais M. Alias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is vital in any industry to regain the spent capitals plus running costs and a margin of profits for the industry to flourish. The electricity industry is an everyday life touching industry which follows the same finance-economic strategy. Cost allocation is a major issue in all sectors of the electric industry, viz, generation, transmission and distribution. Generation and distribution service costing’s well documented in the literature, while the transmission share is still of need for research. In this work, the cost of supplying a bulk electric load connected to the EHV system is calculated. A sample basic lump-average method is used to provide a rough costing guide. Also, two transmission pricing methods are employed, namely, the postage-stamp and the load-flow based MW-distance methods to calculate transmission share in the total cost of each individual bulk load. The three costing methods results are then analyzed and compared for the 400kV Iraqi power grid considered for a case study.

  15. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J.I.; Morillon Galvez, D. [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  16. Comparative analysis of the indexes of electric power density in buildings lighting systems; Analisis comparativo de los indices de densidad de potencia electrica de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruz Hernandez, J I; Morillon Galvez, D [CONAE, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The national situation of the lighting systems in buildings is presented in order to know its consumption and make comparisons in accordance with the terms of the Electric Power Density that the lighting systems must satisfy, recently published in the norm, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Energy Efficiency for non Residential Buildings` Lighting Systems). The form of application of the norm to determine the Electric Power Density Indexes in Lighting Buildings (EPDIL) is described, which permitted to know the current situation of the lighting systems, to compare the results internationally and with the ones specified in the proper norm. As a conclusion, there is the need of enhancing the efficiency of the lightning systems, with savings technologies, improve the lightning levels and equalize the energy indexes of the EPDIL with the ones recommended. [Espanol] Se presenta un estudio sobre la situacion nacional de los sistemas de alumbrado en edificios, con el objeto de conocer su consumo y compararlos, de acuerdo a los terminos de densidad de potencia electrica que deben cumplir los sistemas de alumbrado, publicados recientemente en la norma, NOM 007 ENER-1995 (Eficiencia Energetica para los Sistemas de Alumbrado en Edificios no Residenciales). Se describe la forma de aplicar la norma para determinar los indices de densidad de potencia electrica en alumbrado (DPEA) en edificios, lo cual permitio conocer la situacion actual de los sistemas de alumbrado, comparar con los reportados internacionalmente y con los especificados en la propia norma. Como conclusion se tiene la necesidad de eficientizar los sistemas de alumbrado, con tecnologia ahorradora, mejorar los niveles de iluminacion e igualar los indices energeticos de DPEA con los recomendados.

  17. Hybrid Electric Vehicle Experimental Model with CAN Network Real Time Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATOI, M.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an experimental model with a distributed control system of a hybrid electrical vehicle is presented. A communication CAN network of high speed (1 Mbps assures a distributed control of the all components. The modeling and the control of different operating regimes are realized on an experimental test-bench of a hybrid electrical vehicle. The experimental results concerning the variations of the mains variables (currents, torques, speeds are presented.

  18. The need to strengthen the electricity market with a better network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morch, Stein

    2002-01-01

    Price regions in the Nordic electricity market has been common. The competition authorities, the electricity exchange and the other actors indicate the need for increased capacity of the network. A larger concentration of big, competing producers in the Nordic countries is not desirable. The current competition among bidders is satisfactory at a common price level. Under conditions of price regions it is essential that there is competition in the area, which has not always been the case

  19. Competition and regulation in the European network industries. From general case to the case of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonquieres, F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper focuses on the institutional arrangements present situation in the European Electricity Supply Industry, which is characterized by its diversity. There is unquestionably, a trend to put pressure on the national electricity systems by the European Union organisms to accept the unbundling, Third Party Access to the network, deregulation etc. An opposing reaction appears, trying to underline the potential important drawbacks of such a trend. The conclusion of the author can be summarised as follows: Competition at the generation level? Yes[ Access to the network ? No[ (author)

  20. A generative modeling approach to connectivity-Electrical conduction in vascular networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Bjørn Olav

    2016-01-01

    The physiology of biological structures is inherently dynamic and emerges from the interaction and assembly of large collections of small entities. The extent of coupled entities complicates modeling and increases computational load. Here, microvascular networks are used to present a novel...... to synchronize vessel tone across the vast distances within a network. We hypothesize that electrical conduction capacity is delimited by the size of vascular structures and connectivity of the network. Generation and simulation of series of dynamical models of electrical spread within vascular networks...... of different size and composition showed that (1) Conduction is enhanced in models harboring long and thin endothelial cells that couple preferentially along the longitudinal axis. (2) Conduction across a branch point depends on endothelial connectivity between branches. (3) Low connectivity sub...

  1. Vision and Strategy for Europe’s Electricity Networks of the Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bamberger, Yves; Baptista, João; Belmans, Ronnie

    remotely fromdemand centres. The energy challenges that Europe is now facing are changing the electricity generationlandscape. The drive for lower-carbon generation technologies, combined with greatly improved efficiency on the demand side, will enable customers to become much more inter......-active with the networks. More customer-centric networks are the way ahead, but these fundamental changes will impact significantly on network design and control. In this context, the European Technology Platform (ETP) SmartGrids was set up in 2005 to create a jointvision for the European networks of 2020 and beyond....... The platform includes representatives fromindustry, transmission and distribution system operators, research bodies and regulators. It has identified clear objectives and proposes an ambitious strategy to make a reality of this vision for the benefits of Europe and its electricity customers....

  2. Embarked electrical network robust control based on singular perturbation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeljalil Belhaj, Lamya; Ait-Ahmed, Mourad; Benkhoris, Mohamed Fouad

    2014-07-01

    This paper deals with an approach of modelling in view of control for embarked networks which can be described as strongly coupled multi-sources, multi-loads systems with nonlinear and badly known characteristics. This model has to be representative of the system behaviour and easy to handle for easy regulators synthesis. As a first step, each alternator is modelled and linearized around an operating point and then it is subdivided into two lower order systems according to the singular perturbation theory. RST regulators are designed for each subsystem and tested by means of a software test-bench which allows predicting network behaviour in both steady and transient states. Finally, the designed controllers are implanted on an experimental benchmark constituted by two alternators supplying loads in order to test the dynamic performances in realistic conditions. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Shortest loops are pacemakers in random networks of electrically coupled axons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita eVladimirov

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency oscillations (HFOs are an important part of brain activity in health and disease. However, their origins remain obscure and controversial. One possible mechanism depends on the presence of sparsely distributed gap junctions that electrically couple the axons of principal cells. A plexus of electrically coupled axons is modeled as a random network with bidirectional connections between its nodes. Under certain conditions the network can demonstrate one of two types of oscillatory activity. Type I oscillations (100-200 Hz are predicted to be caused by spontaneously spiking axons in a network with strong (high-conductance gap junctions. Type II oscillations (200-300 Hz require no spontaneous spiking and relatively weak (low-conductance gap junctions, across which spike propagation failures occur. The type II oscillations are reentrant and self-sustained. Here we examine what determines the frequency of type II oscillations. Using simulations we show that the distribution of loop lengths is the key factor for determining frequency in type II network oscillations. We first analyze spike failure between two electrically coupled cells using a model of anatomically reconstructed CA1 pyramidal neuron. Then network oscillations are studied by a cellular automaton model with random network connectivity, in which we control loop statistics. We show that oscillation periods can be predicted from the network's loop statistics. The shortest loop, around which a spike can travel, is the most likely pacemaker candidate.The principle of one loop as a pacemaker is remarkable, because random networks contain a large number of loops juxtaposed and superimposed, and their number rapidly grows with network size. This principle allows us to predict the frequency of oscillations from network connectivity and visa versa. We finally propose that type I oscillations may correspond to ripples, while type II oscillations correspond to so-called fast ripples.

  4. Design of pressure-driven microfluidic networks using electric circuit analogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Kwang W; Lee, Kangsun; Ahn, Byungwook; Furlani, Edward P

    2012-02-07

    This article reviews the application of electric circuit methods for the analysis of pressure-driven microfluidic networks with an emphasis on concentration- and flow-dependent systems. The application of circuit methods to microfluidics is based on the analogous behaviour of hydraulic and electric circuits with correlations of pressure to voltage, volumetric flow rate to current, and hydraulic to electric resistance. Circuit analysis enables rapid predictions of pressure-driven laminar flow in microchannels and is very useful for designing complex microfluidic networks in advance of fabrication. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the physics of pressure-driven laminar flow, the formal analogy between electric and hydraulic circuits, applications of circuit theory to microfluidic network-based devices, recent development and applications of concentration- and flow-dependent microfluidic networks, and promising future applications. The lab-on-a-chip (LOC) and microfluidics community will gain insightful ideas and practical design strategies for developing unique microfluidic network-based devices to address a broad range of biological, chemical, pharmaceutical, and other scientific and technical challenges.

  5. Price for the quality of the electric power network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarsma, B.E.; Berkhout, P.H.G.; Hop, J.P.; Van Gemert, M.

    2004-01-01

    Power failures cause societal costs. Therefore, it is important that in the decision making process with regard to investments network managers take into account not only private costs and benefits, but also societal benefits of their investments. The benefits can be quantified by means of the so-called conjoint analysis and compared with the contingent valuation method (CVM). The article is followed by a reaction of employees of the Dutch Office of Energy Regulation (DTe) [nl

  6. Expansion planning of the electric systems in a competitive environment context; O planejamento da expansao dos sistemas eletricos no contexto de um ambiente competitivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haffner, Sergio Luis

    2000-07-01

    An integrated dynamic expansion planning model of electric energy systems model is proposed. Such model can be used by an independent structure of planning, compatible with the current competitive environment of the electric industry. The investments in generation and transmission are obtained simultaneously, taking into account a long term planning horizon that is split in multiple stages. In the proposed model, the entity responsible for the expansion planning, the Independent Expansion Planner, divulges the indicative expansion plan and other information that will be used by the sector agents to guide its investments in that area. Three network models are used (transport, DC load flow and hybrid transport-DC) in an hierarchical algorithm that uses the Benders decomposition to solve the problem of capacity expansion, considering the investment and operation costs. The original problem is separated in a master subproblem (investment) and several slave subproblems (operation). Each stage is represented by an operation subproblem and the master subproblem is solved by an specialized branch-and-bound algorithm. The operation subproblems (LP problems) are solved through the MINOS package. Strategies to improve the performance of the described algorithm are discussed and presented. The efficiency of those strategies is shown through tests using theoretical and realistic electric systems. The developed branch-and-bound algorithm and the selection techniques employed are described in details and illustrated through examples. It is presented, also, the Independent Planner role and its relevance in the current context of the national electric industry is pointed out. (author)

  7. Short-term electricity prices forecasting in a competitive market: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalao, J.P.S.; Mariano, S.J.P.S.; Mendes, V.M.F.; Ferreira, L.A.F.M.

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes a neural network approach for forecasting short-term electricity prices. Almost until the end of last century, electricity supply was considered a public service and any price forecasting which was undertaken tended to be over the longer term, concerning future fuel prices and technical improvements. Nowadays, short-term forecasts have become increasingly important since the rise of the competitive electricity markets. In this new competitive framework, short-term price forecasting is required by producers and consumers to derive their bidding strategies to the electricity market. Accurate forecasting tools are essential for producers to maximize their profits, avowing profit losses over the misjudgement of future price movements, and for consumers to maximize their utilities. A three-layered feedforward neural network, trained by the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, is used for forecasting next-week electricity prices. We evaluate the accuracy of the price forecasting attained with the proposed neural network approach, reporting the results from the electricity markets of mainland Spain and California. (author)

  8. Modeling and simulating the adaptive electrical properties of stochastic polymeric 3D networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigala, R; Smerieri, A; Camorani, P; Schüz, A; Erokhin, V

    2013-01-01

    Memristors are passive two-terminal circuit elements that combine resistance and memory. Although in theory memristors are a very promising approach to fabricate hardware with adaptive properties, there are only very few implementations able to show their basic properties. We recently developed stochastic polymeric matrices with a functionality that evidences the formation of self-assembled three-dimensional (3D) networks of memristors. We demonstrated that those networks show the typical hysteretic behavior observed in the ‘one input-one output’ memristive configuration. Interestingly, using different protocols to electrically stimulate the networks, we also observed that their adaptive properties are similar to those present in the nervous system. Here, we model and simulate the electrical properties of these self-assembled polymeric networks of memristors, the topology of which is defined stochastically. First, we show that the model recreates the hysteretic behavior observed in the real experiments. Second, we demonstrate that the networks modeled indeed have a 3D instead of a planar functionality. Finally, we show that the adaptive properties of the networks depend on their connectivity pattern. Our model was able to replicate fundamental qualitative behavior of the real organic 3D memristor networks; yet, through the simulations, we also explored other interesting properties, such as the relation between connectivity patterns and adaptive properties. Our model and simulations represent an interesting tool to understand the very complex behavior of self-assembled memristor networks, which can finally help to predict and formulate hypotheses for future experiments. (paper)

  9. Networking in private households. Impacts on electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aebischer, B. [Center for Energy Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Huser, A. [Encontrol GmbH, Niederrohrdorf (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    With the rapidly increasing use of the Internet for private purposes, it is possible that the concept of the 'intelligent home', which has been a matter of wishful thinking for many years now, will become reality in the near future. The fusion of the various media is both the catalyst and, at the same time, the first visible sign of this evolution. The development of user-friendly people-to-machine interfaces and new services, together with the possibility to 'have a look' back home and intervene from there at any time and from any location, will also foster the interconnection of white goods and the intelligent control of other building equipment and services. The impact of this development on energy demand are wide-ranging and could take on considerable dimensions. Inside the house, the induced increase in energy demand is probably far more significant than the quantity of energy saved by more efficient control. It is estimated that electricity demand in the private households sector will increase by a maximum of 1.3% per annum over the next two decades. Even if this Internet-induced increase should only be half as fast, the interconnection of equipment and services would still be the most important driver of electricity demand in the household sector. The most promising measure to slow down this increase consists in minimising the electricity consumption of components and equipment in standby and off modes, We recommend an internationally co-ordinated procedure supported by national information and education campaigns. (author)

  10. Power losses in electrical networks depending on weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhelezko, Yu. S.; Kostyushko, V. A.; Krylov, S. V.; Nikiforov, E. P.; Savchenko, O. V.; Timashova, L. V.; Solomonik, E. A.

    2005-01-01

    Specific power losses to corona and to leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for 110 - 750-kV transmission lines with different phase design and pole types for different weather conditions. Consumption of electric energy for ice melting on conductors of various cross sections is evaluated. Meteorological data of 1372 weather stations in Russia are processed for a period of 10 years. The territory of the country is divided into 7 regions with approximately homogeneous weather conditions. Specific power losses to corona and leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for every region

  11. Autonomous system for wireless network communication powered by photovoltaic solar energy; Sistema autonomo de comunicacao sem fio em malha alimentado por energia solar fotovoltaica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Rafael Herrero

    2009-07-01

    The wireless mesh network communication technology, based on the IEEE802.11 standard, has been a relevant technology solution for wireless networking in the recent years. However, even with the elimination of cables for data communication, the wireless mesh networks have to be connected to a voltage source using an electrical cable that may not be available at the local installation. In this scenario, being Brazil a country located in a tropical zone that receives large annual solar irradiation, the conversion of photons to electricity can be an alternative to eliminate the needs of wiring to the mesh access points. This work contributes to the development of autonomous wireless mesh communication systems powered by solar energy, with easy installation in urban or rural areas. This work also describes its evaluations in aspects such as autonomy, wireless coverage, number of users supported, installation height and throughput. (author)

  12. Design and analysis of electrical energy storage demonstration projects on UK distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.F.; Wade, N.S.; Jiang, T.; Taylor, P.C.; Hashiesh, F.; Michel, M.; Miller, D.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Results of an EES system demonstration project carried out in the UK. • Approaches to the design of trials for EES and observation on their application. • A formalised methodology for analysis of smart grids trials. • Validated models of energy storage. • Capability of EES to connect larger quantities of heat pumps and PV is evaluated. - Abstract: The UK government’s CO 2 emissions targets will require electrification of much of the country’s infrastructure with low carbon technologies such as photovoltaic panels, electric vehicles and heat pumps. The large scale proliferation of these technologies will necessitate major changes to the planning and operation of distribution networks. Distribution network operators are trialling electrical energy storage (EES) across their networks to increase their understanding of the contribution that it can make to enable the expected paradigm shift in generation and consumption of electricity. In order to evaluate a range of applications for EES, including voltage control and power flow management, installations have taken place at various distribution network locations and voltage levels. This article reports on trial design approaches and their application to a UK trial of an EES system to ensure broad applicability of the results. Results from these trials of an EES system, low carbon technologies and trial distribution networks are used to develop validated power system models. These models are used to evaluate, using a formalised methodology, the impact that EES could have on the design and operation of future distribution networks

  13. PSO-RBF Neural Network PID Control Algorithm of Electric Gas Pressure Regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanchang Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The current electric gas pressure regulator often adopts the conventional PID control algorithm to take drive control of the core part (micromotor of electric gas pressure regulator. In order to further improve tracking performance and to shorten response time, this paper presents an improved PID intelligent control algorithm which applies to the electric gas pressure regulator. The algorithm uses the improved RBF neural network based on PSO algorithm to make online adjustment on PID parameters. Theoretical analysis and simulation result show that the algorithm shortens the step response time and improves tracking performance.

  14. Hybrid solar-hydraulic electric power supply systems; Sistemas de fornecimento de energia eletrica hibrido solar hidraulico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Doriana Marinho Novaes; Silva, Selenio Rocha; Alvim Filho, Aymore de Castro [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Engenharia Eletrica]. E-mails: doriana@cpdee.ufmg.br; selenios@eee.ufmg.br; aymore@cpdee.ufmg.br; Martinez, Carlos Barreira [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos]. E-mail: martinez@cce.ufmg.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a comparative study among the direct solar energy utilization options ,through solar panels, coupled to the frequency inverter. These system store energy through batteries or through a reversible and hybrid solar/hydraulic system, coupled to a rectifier and a frequency inverter. There are two basic configurations for the systems being the first one composed of solar panels linked to a battery system , delivering electric energy through a three phase inverter. The second one is composed of solar panels connected to a small battery system and to a water reservoir that has the goal of operating as a reversible system during at night, or during load peak periods. In this ,it is presented a methodology for the designing and economic analysis, comparing this hybrid alternative, to the inverter plus batteries options. This methodology to the correct Energy Conversion System,which is economically advantageous due to the availability of the region. At the end, it is presented a 'case study' where viability of use , for the hybrid solar/hydraulic system in an isolated area, is verified. (author)

  15. Electric vehicles integration within low voltage electricity networks & possibilities for distribution energy loss reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Veldman, E.; Kling, W.L.; Gibescu, M.; Slootweg, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    With the prospect of an increasing number of electric vehicles (EVs) on the road, domestic charging will be the most obvious way to recharge the vehicles’ batteries. However, this can have adverse impacts to low voltage (LV) distribution grids such as high current demand, increased 3-phase load

  16. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks for Forecasting the Electric Demand of Stand-Alone Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanin, O. A.; Direktor, L. B.

    2018-05-01

    The problem of short-term forecasting of electric power demand of stand-alone consumers (small inhabited localities) situated outside centralized power supply areas is considered. The basic approaches to modeling the electric power demand depending on the forecasting time frame and the problems set, as well as the specific features of such modeling, are described. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods used for the short-term forecast of the electric demand are indicated, and difficulties involved in the solution of the problem are outlined. The basic principles of arranging artificial neural networks are set forth; it is also shown that the proposed method is preferable when the input information necessary for prediction is lacking or incomplete. The selection of the parameters that should be included into the list of the input data for modeling the electric power demand of residential areas using artificial neural networks is validated. The structure of a neural network is proposed for solving the problem of modeling the electric power demand of residential areas. The specific features of generation of the training dataset are outlined. The results of test modeling of daily electric demand curves for some settlements of Kamchatka and Yakutia based on known actual electric demand curves are provided. The reliability of the test modeling has been validated. A high value of the deviation of the modeled curve from the reference curve obtained in one of the four reference calculations is explained. The input data and the predicted power demand curves for the rural settlement of Kuokuiskii Nasleg are provided. The power demand curves were modeled for four characteristic days of the year, and they can be used in the future for designing a power supply system for the settlement. To enhance the accuracy of the method, a series of measures based on specific features of a neural network's functioning are proposed.

  17. Modelling renewable energy resource and the electricity network (East Midlands region)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newton, P.A.; Ma, T.

    2002-07-01

    The UK Government's targets for renewable generation and combined heat and power (CHP) are expected to result in a significant growth in embedded generation. This report describes the results of a study of the capability of the electricity distribution network in the East Midlands to accept embedded generation. Detailed network studies were performed for two sample networks: one representing an urban network (Leicester) and one representing a rural network (Boston). The 132 kV networks of the grid groups covering these areas were also studied. This included an examination of the connection points from major 132 kV busbars at grid supply points down to 11 kV primary substations. Power system studies were performed to identify the constraints and capabilities of the existing network, These studies included load flow to examine voltage profile and overloading, fault level analysis and transient studies to examine generator and network stability following faults on the network and voltage step change due to generator tripping. Space network capacity for the region was identified and used to assess the ability to accommodate regional targets for renewables and CHP. The study also examined constraining factors and potential solutions, including four improvement scenarios.

  18. Dynamics of global supply chain and electric power networks: Models, pricing analysis, and computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsypura, Dmytro

    In this dissertation, I develop a new theoretical framework for the modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of solutions to electric power supply chains with power generators, suppliers, transmission service providers, and the inclusion of consumer demands. In particular, I advocate the application of finite-dimensional variational inequality theory, projected dynamical systems theory, game theory, network theory, and other tools that have been recently proposed for the modeling and analysis of supply chain networks (cf. Nagurney (2006)) to electric power markets. This dissertation contributes to the extant literature on the modeling, analysis, and solution of supply chain networks, including global supply chains, in general, and electric power supply chains, in particular, in the following ways. It develops a theoretical framework for modeling, pricing analysis, and computation of electric power flows/transactions in electric power systems using the rationale for supply chain analysis. The models developed include both static and dynamic ones. The dissertation also adds a new dimension to the methodology of the theory of projected dynamical systems by proving that, irrespective of the speeds of adjustment, the equilibrium of the system remains the same. Finally, I include alternative fuel suppliers, along with their behavior into the supply chain modeling and analysis framework. This dissertation has strong practical implications. In an era in which technology and globalization, coupled with increasing risk and uncertainty, complicate electricity demand and supply within and between nations, the successful management of electric power systems and pricing become increasingly pressing topics with relevance not only for economic prosperity but also national security. This dissertation addresses such related topics by providing models, pricing tools, and algorithms for decentralized electric power supply chains. This dissertation is based heavily on the following

  19. Recognition of faults patterns in electric generators using artificial neurons networks; Reconocimiento de patrones de fallas en generadores electricos empleando redes neuronales artificiales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha Sanchez, Martha Alicia

    1999-03-01

    This work present the development of a reprocessing method to reduce the information of the original data and to maintain the essential information of the data that enter the reduction process. The obtaining of these data is performed with the aid of the ICM ++ (ICMsystems), from which vectors or n-uplos of elements are obtained. This investigation allowed to analyze an evaluation of the paradigms of artificial neural networks, with the intention of detecting which of these paradigms would evolve better with the problem of fault diagnosis in electric generators. From this a prototype system was developed called diagnosis of faults in electrical generators, which automatically will recognize faults in electrical generators by means of the interpretation of the recording of partial discharges. [Spanish] El presente trabajo presenta el desarrollo de un metodo de reprocesamiento para reducir informacion de los datos originales y mantener la informacion esencial de los datos que entran al proceso de reduccion. La obtencion de estos datos se realiza con la ayuda del ICM ++ (ICMsystems), de los cuales se obtienen vectores o n-uplos de elementos. Esta investigacion permitio analizar una evaluacion de los paradigmas de redes neuronales artificiales, con el objeto de detectar cual de estos paradigmas se desempenaria mejor con el problema de diagnostico de fallas en generadores electricos. A partir de esto se desarrollo un sistema prototipo llamado diagnostico de fallas en generadores electricos, el cual automaticamente reconocera fallas en los generadores electricos mediante la interpretacion de registro de descargas parciales.

  20. Modeling generator power plant portfolios and pollution taxes in electric power supply chain networks: a transportation network equilibrium transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kai Wu; Nagurney, A.; University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA; Zugang Liu; Stranlund, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Global climate change and fuel security risks have encouraged international and regional adoption of pollution/carbon taxes. A major portion of such policy interventions is directed at the electric power industry with taxes applied according to the type of fuel used by the power generators in their power plants. This paper proposes an electric power supply chain network model that captures the behavior of power generators faced with a portfolio of power plant options and subject to pollution taxes. We demonstrate that this general model can be reformulated as a transportation network equilibrium model with elastic demands and qualitatively analyzed and solved as such. The connections between these two different modeling schemas is done through finite-dimensional variational inequality theory. The numerical examples illustrate how changes in the pollution/carbon taxes affect the equilibrium electric power supply chain network production outputs, the transactions between the various decision-makers the demand market prices, as well as the total amount of carbon emissions generated. (author)

  1. Compressive stress-electrical conductivity characteristics of multiwall carbon nanotube networks

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slobodian, P.; Říha, Pavel; Lengálová, A.; Sáha, P.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 9 (2011), s. 3186-3190 ISSN 0022-2461 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : carbon nanotube network * compression * electrical conductivity * stress sensor Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2011

  2. Node localization algorithm of wireless sensor networks for large electrical equipment monitoring application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Qinyin; Hu, Y.; Chen, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Node localization technology is an important technology for the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) applications. An improved 3D node localization algorithm is proposed in this paper, which is based on a Multi-dimensional Scaling (MDS) node localization algorithm for large electrical equipment monito...

  3. Price-based optimal control of power flow in electrical energy transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jokic, A.; Lazar, M.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Bemporad, A.; Bicchi, A.; Buttazzo, G.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a novel control scheme for achieving optimal power balancing and congestion control in electrical energy transmission networks via nodal prices. We develop an explicit controller that guarantees economically optimal steady-state operation while respecting all line flow

  4. Network cost in transmission and distribution of electric power; Naetkostnader i oeverfoering och distribution av el

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindahl, A; Naeslund, B; Oettinger-Biberg, C; Olander, H; Wuolikainen, T; Fritz, P

    1994-12-31

    This report is divided in two parts, where part 1 treats the charges on the regional nets with special emphasis on the net owners tariffs on a deregulated market. Part 2 describes the development of the network costs in electric power distribution for the period 1991-1993. 11 figs, 33 tabs

  5. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Sousa, Tiago

    2017-01-01

    -VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1) a market-based approach; (2) a pro-rata approach; and (3) a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented...

  6. A control technique for integration of DG units to the electrical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pouresmaeil, Edris; Miguel-Espinar, Carlos; Massot-Campos, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with a multiobjective control technique for integration of distributed generation (DG) resources to the electrical power network. The proposed strategy provides compensation for active, reactive, and harmonic load current components during connection of DG link to the grid...

  7. Multi-objective optimization control of plug-in electric vehicles in low voltage distribution networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Villalobos, J.; Zamora, I.; Knezovic, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    The massive introduction of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) into low voltage (LV) distribution networks will lead to several problems, such as: increase of energy losses, decrease of distribution transformer lifetime, lines and transformer overload issues, voltage drops and unbalances...

  8. Network reconfiguration for loss reduction in electrical distribution system using genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adail, A.S.A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Distribution system is a critical links between the utility and the nuclear installation. During feeding electricity to that installation there are power losses. The quality of the network depends on the reduction of these losses. Distribution system which feeds the nuclear installation must have a higher quality power. For example, in Inshas site, electrical power is supplied to it from two incoming feeders (one from new abu-zabal substation and the other from old abu-zabal substation). Each feeder is designed to carry the full load, while the operator preferred to connect with a new abu-zabal substation, which has a good power quality. Bad power quality affects directly the nuclear reactor and has a negative impact on the installed sensitive equipment's of the operation. The thesis is Studying the electrical losses in a distribution system (causes and effected factors), feeder reconfiguration methods, and applying of genetic algorithm in an electric distribution power system. In the end, this study proposes an optimization technique based on genetic algorithms for distribution network reconfiguration to reduce the network losses to minimum. The proposed method is applied to IEEE test network; that contain 3 feeders and 16 nodes. The technique is applied through two groups, distribution have general loads, and nuclear loads. In the groups the technique applied to seven cases at normal operation state, system fault condition as well as different loads conditions. Simulated results are drawn to show the accuracy of the technique.

  9. Determinants of investment under incentive regulation: The case of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poudineh, Rahmatallah; Jamasb, Tooraj

    2016-01-01

    Investment in electricity networks, as regulated natural monopolies, is among the highest regulatory and energy policy priorities. The electricity sector regulators adopt different incentive mechanisms to ensure that the firms undertake sufficient investment to maintain and modernise the grid. Thus, an effective regulatory treatment of investment requires understanding the response of companies to the regulatory incentives. This study analyses the determinants of investment in electricity distribution networks using a panel dataset of 129 Norwegian companies observed from 2004 to 2010. A Bayesian Model Averaging approach is used to provide a robust statistical inference by taking into account the uncertainties around model selection and estimation. The results show that three factors drive nearly all network investments: investment rate in previous period, socio-economic costs of energy not supplied and finally useful life of assets. The results indicate that Norwegian companies have, to some degree, responded to the investment incentives provided by the regulatory framework. However, some of the incentives do not appear to be effective in driving the investments. - Highlights: • This paper investigates determinants of investment under incentive regulation. • We apply a Bayesian model averaging technique to deal with model uncertainty. • Dataset comprises 129 Norwegian electricity network companies from 2004 to 2010. • The results show that firms have generally responded to investment incentives. • However, some of the incentives do not appear to have been effective.

  10. Assessing feasibility of IT-enabled networked value consellations: A case study in the electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derzsi, Z.; Gordijn, J.; Kok, J.K.; Akkermans, J.M.; Tan, Y.H.; Krogstie, J.; Opdahl, A.L.; Sindre, G.

    2007-01-01

    Innovative networked value constellations, such as Cisco or Dell, are often enabled by Information Technology (IT). The same holds for the Distributed Electricity Balancing Service (DBS), which we present in this case study. To explore feasibility of such constellations while designing them, we need

  11. Analysis of Voltage Support by Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic in a Real Danish Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Juul Møller, René

    2014-01-01

    of incorporating electric vehicles (EVs) in a low voltage distribution network with high penetration of photovoltaic installations (PVs), and focuses on analysing potential voltage support functions from EVs and PVs. In addition, the paper evaluates the benefits that reactive power control may provide...

  12. Index-aware model order reduction : LTI DAEs in electric networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banagaaya, N.; Schilders, W.H.A.; Ali, G.; Tischendorf, C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Model order reduction (MOR) has been widely used in the electric networks but little has been done to reduce higher index differential algebraic equations (DAEs). The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach Most methods first do an index reduction before reducing a

  13. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation. Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. (Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain)); Lopez, R. (Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain))

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  14. Application of the Wallingford Procedure to sewer network rehabilitation; Rehabilitacion de redes de alcantarillado. Aplicando el sistema de Wallingford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M. [Universidad Politecnica de de Cataluna. Barcelona (Spain); Lopez, R. [Universitat de Lleida. Lleida (Spain)

    1999-11-01

    In this paper we present a summary of the Wallingford Procedure application to sewer network rehabilitation studies. After the methodology of the Procedure is revised, an application to a sewer network of Sant Boi de Llobregat is showed. Flow survey campaigns, calibration and validation processes and the alternative proposed to improve the initial situation are described. Finally, the benefits to apply such methodologies to the sewer network rehabilitation analysis are exposed. (Author) 3 refs.

  15. Multi-Objective Scheduling of Electric Vehicles in Smart Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Deng

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the energy savings and environmental protection they provide, plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs are increasing in number quickly. Rapid development of PEVs brings new opportunities and challenges to the electricity distribution network’s dispatching. A high number of uncoordinated charging PEVs has significant negative impacts on the secure and economic operation of a distribution network. In this paper, a bi-level programming approach that coordinates PEVs’ charging with the network load and electricity price of the open market is presented. The major objective of the upper level model is to minimize the total network costs and the deviation of electric vehicle aggregators’ charging power and the equivalent power. The subsequent objective of the lower level model after the upper level decision is to minimize the dispatching deviation of the sum of PEVs’ charging power and their optimization charging power under the upper level model. An improved particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to solve the bi-level programming. Numerical studies using a modified IEEE 69-bus distribution test system including six electric vehicle aggregators verify the efficiency of the proposed model.

  16. Methodology for carrying out energy diagnosis in auxiliaries systems in thermal electrical central stations; Metodologia para realizar un diagnostico energetico en sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebradt Garcia, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas Hidalgo, Ismael; Huante Perez, Liborio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1998-12-31

    One of the potential areas for energy saving in Central Electric Power Plants are the auxiliaries system, so as to based in a preliminary energy diagnosis and considering that energy saving measures would be taken, going from the instrumentation, operational changes in equipment, as well as in using velocity variators in motors, it turns out to be that the energy consumption of auxiliaries at 75% load in a 150 MW thermal power plant varies from 3% to 4% and for the case of a 350 MW power plant the energy consumption of the auxiliaries represents 2 to 3.5%. Nowadays this consumption are above 6%. Considering that the country has 40 units with capacities varying from 150 to 350 MW, the economical and the fuel saving would be substantial. This paper will present a summary of the methodology to be used to carry out this type of projects. [Espanol] Una de las areas potenciales de ahorro de energia en centrales termoelectricas son los sistemas auxiliares, de tal manera que basados en un diagnostico energetico preliminar y considerando que se aplicarian las medidas de ahorro de energia que van desde la instrumentacion, cambios operativos en equipos, asi como el uso de variadores de velocidad en motores, se tienen que los consumos de auxiliares para un 75% de carga en una central termoelectrica de 150 MW varian desde un 3% hasta un 4% y para el caso de una central termoelectrica de 350 MW, el consumo de auxiliares representa del 2 al 3.5%. Hoy en dia dichos consumos estan por encima del 6%. Si consideramos que el pais cuenta con 40 unidades que varian desde 150 MW hasta 350 MW, entonces los ahorros economicos y de combustible serian impactantes. La presente ponencia mostrara un resumen de la metodologia a emplear para la realizacion de este tipo de proyectos.

  17. Methodology for carrying out energy diagnosis in auxiliaries systems in thermal electrical central stations; Metodologia para realizar un diagnostico energetico en sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nebradt Garcia, Jesus [Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), Mexico, D. F. (Mexico); Rojas Hidalgo, Ismael; Huante Perez, Liborio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1999-12-31

    One of the potential areas for energy saving in Central Electric Power Plants are the auxiliaries system, so as to based in a preliminary energy diagnosis and considering that energy saving measures would be taken, going from the instrumentation, operational changes in equipment, as well as in using velocity variators in motors, it turns out to be that the energy consumption of auxiliaries at 75% load in a 150 MW thermal power plant varies from 3% to 4% and for the case of a 350 MW power plant the energy consumption of the auxiliaries represents 2 to 3.5%. Nowadays this consumption are above 6%. Considering that the country has 40 units with capacities varying from 150 to 350 MW, the economical and the fuel saving would be substantial. This paper will present a summary of the methodology to be used to carry out this type of projects. [Espanol] Una de las areas potenciales de ahorro de energia en centrales termoelectricas son los sistemas auxiliares, de tal manera que basados en un diagnostico energetico preliminar y considerando que se aplicarian las medidas de ahorro de energia que van desde la instrumentacion, cambios operativos en equipos, asi como el uso de variadores de velocidad en motores, se tienen que los consumos de auxiliares para un 75% de carga en una central termoelectrica de 150 MW varian desde un 3% hasta un 4% y para el caso de una central termoelectrica de 350 MW, el consumo de auxiliares representa del 2 al 3.5%. Hoy en dia dichos consumos estan por encima del 6%. Si consideramos que el pais cuenta con 40 unidades que varian desde 150 MW hasta 350 MW, entonces los ahorros economicos y de combustible serian impactantes. La presente ponencia mostrara un resumen de la metodologia a emplear para la realizacion de este tipo de proyectos.

  18. Identifying groups of critical edges in a realistic electrical network by multi-objective genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, E.; Golea, L.R.; Rocco S, C.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis of the vulnerability of the Italian high-voltage (380 kV) electrical transmission network (HVIET) is carried out for the identification of the groups of links (or edges, or arcs) most critical considering the network structure and flow. Betweenness centrality and network connection efficiency variations are considered as measures of the importance of the network links. The search of the most critical ones is carried out within a multi-objective optimization problem aimed at the maximization of the importance of the groups and minimization of their dimension. The problem is solved using a genetic algorithm. The analysis is based only on information on the topology of the network and leads to the identification of the most important single component, couples of components, triplets and so forth. The comparison of the results obtained with those reported by previous analyses indicates that the proposed approach provides useful complementary information.

  19. Modelling Altitude Information in Two-Dimensional Traffic Networks for Electric Mobility Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Santos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Elevation data is important for electric vehicle simulation. However, traffic simulators are often two-dimensional and do not offer the capability of modelling urban networks taking elevation into account. Specifically, SUMO - Simulation of Urban Mobility, a popular microscopic traffic simulator, relies on networks previously modelled with elevation data as to provide this information during simulations. This work tackles the problem of adding elevation data to urban network models - particularly for the case of the Porto urban network, in Portugal. With this goal in mind, a comparison between different altitude information retrieval approaches is made and a simple tool to annotate network models with altitude data is proposed. The work starts by describing the methodological approach followed during research and development, then describing and analysing its main findings. This description includes an in-depth explanation of the proposed tool. Lastly, this work reviews some related work to the subject.

  20. Fault detection and classification in electrical power transmission system using artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Majid; Sharma, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Rajveer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on the detection and classification of the faults on electrical power transmission line using artificial neural networks. The three phase currents and voltages of one end are taken as inputs in the proposed scheme. The feed forward neural network along with back propagation algorithm has been employed for detection and classification of the fault for analysis of each of the three phases involved in the process. A detailed analysis with varying number of hidden layers has been performed to validate the choice of the neural network. The simulation results concluded that the present method based on the neural network is efficient in detecting and classifying the faults on transmission lines with satisfactory performances. The different faults are simulated with different parameters to check the versatility of the method. The proposed method can be extended to the Distribution network of the Power System. The various simulations and analysis of signals is done in the MATLAB(®) environment.

  1. Planning the expansion of electrical transmission networks with evolutionary programming; Planeacion de la expansion de redes de transmision electrica con programacion evolucionaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceciliano Meza, Jose Luis

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented for the first time in the literature the solution of the problem of the planning the expansion of an electrical transmission network (PERTE) with the use of the Evolutionary Programming. The evolutionary programming is a stochastic method of optimization with similar characteristics to the generic algorithms, but different. During the development of this work it is shown what each one of these two heuristic methods of optimization consist of. Additionally, the main characteristics of other two heuristic methods known in the literature are described (Tabu Searching and Simulated Annealing). These two methods together with the genetic algorithms and decomposition of Benders have also been used to solve the problem of planning PERTE. The operation of the proposed algorithm of evolutionary programming was tested in two networks of electrical transmission. The first case of test is a system which is known in the literature. The second case is a representative system of the electrical transmission network of Central America. The results obtained improve all the results shown when applying different heuristic methods of optimization (genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and Tabu searching) to solve the same problem. [Espanol] En este trabajo se presenta por primera vez en la literatura, la solucion del problema de la planeacion de expansion de una red de transmision electrica (PERTE) con el uso de la Programacion Evolucionaria. La programacion evolucionaria es un metodo estocastico de optimizacion con caracteristicas similares a los algoritmos geneticos, pero diferente. Durante el desarrollo de este trabajo se muestra en que consiste cada uno de estos dos metodos heuristicos de optimizacion. Ademas, se describen las caracteristicas principales de otros dos metodos heuristicos conocidos en la literatura (busqueda Tabu y Recorrido Simulado). Estos dos metodos juntos con los algoritmos geneticos y descomposicion de Benders tambien han sido

  2. Analysis of the electrical disturbances in CERN power distribution network with pattern mining methods

    CERN Document Server

    Abramenko, Oleksii

    2017-01-01

    The current research focuses on the perturbations within the electrical network of the LHC and its subsystems by analyzing measurements collected from oscilloscopes installed across different CERN sites, and alarms by electrical equipments. We analyze amplitude and duration of the glitches and, together with other relevant variables, correlate them with beam stopping events. The work also tries to identify assets affected by such perturbations using data mining and, in particular, frequent pattern mining methods. On the practical side we summarize results of our work by putting forward a prototype of a software tool enabling online monitoring of the alarms coming from the electrical network and facilitating glitch detection and analysis by a technical operator.

  3. Decompositions of injection patterns for nodal flow allocation in renewable electricity networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Mirko; Tranberg, Bo; Hempel, Sabrina; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2017-08-01

    The large-scale integration of fluctuating renewable power generation represents a challenge to the technical and economical design of a sustainable future electricity system. In this context, the increasing significance of long-range power transmission calls for innovative methods to understand the emerging complex flow patterns and to integrate price signals about the respective infrastructure needs into the energy market design. We introduce a decomposition method of injection patterns. Contrary to standard flow tracing approaches, it provides nodal allocations of link flows and costs in electricity networks by decomposing the network injection pattern into market-inspired elementary import/export building blocks. We apply the new approach to a simplified data-driven model of a European electricity grid with a high share of renewable wind and solar power generation.

  4. RTE - Electricity transport network operator. Energy is our future: let's save it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    Managing and developing the French electricity transport network is essential to provide quality electricity on a continuous basis to all consumers. Since it was founded in 2000, and since it was made into a public service company (2005), RTE has proven its ability to fulfil its public interest mission in complete security. In an open European electricity market, RTE is recognised for offering all of its customers fair access to its network, which is the first condition for healthy competition. Based on this and thanks to its investments and operating quality, RTE is constantly improving its performances to meet its customers', public authorities' and the Energy Regulation Committee's requirements. This public service action is focused on four strategic priorities: performance of industrial facilities; a human and managerial policy focused on skills and efficiency; sustainable development; professionalism and innovation. This brochure presents RTE's missions, company overview and European cooperation

  5. Using adaptive network based fuzzy inference system to forecast regional electricity loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, L.-C.; Pan, M.-C.

    2008-01-01

    Since accurate regional load forecasting is very important for improvement of the management performance of the electric industry, various regional load forecasting methods have been developed. The purpose of this study is to apply the adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to forecast the regional electricity loads in Taiwan and demonstrate the forecasting performance of this model. Based on the mean absolute percentage errors and statistical results, we can see that the ANFIS model has better forecasting performance than the regression model, artificial neural network (ANN) model, support vector machines with genetic algorithms (SVMG) model, recurrent support vector machines with genetic algorithms (RSVMG) model and hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems for time series forecasting (HEFST) model. Thus, the ANFIS model is a promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads

  6. Using adaptive network based fuzzy inference system to forecast regional electricity loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, Li-Chih [Department of Marketing Management, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 11, Pu-tzu Lane, Peitun, Taichung City 406 (China); Pan, Mei-Chiu [Graduate Institute of Management Sciences, Nanhua University, 32, Chung Keng Li, Dalin, Chiayi 622 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Since accurate regional load forecasting is very important for improvement of the management performance of the electric industry, various regional load forecasting methods have been developed. The purpose of this study is to apply the adaptive network based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) model to forecast the regional electricity loads in Taiwan and demonstrate the forecasting performance of this model. Based on the mean absolute percentage errors and statistical results, we can see that the ANFIS model has better forecasting performance than the regression model, artificial neural network (ANN) model, support vector machines with genetic algorithms (SVMG) model, recurrent support vector machines with genetic algorithms (RSVMG) model and hybrid ellipsoidal fuzzy systems for time series forecasting (HEFST) model. Thus, the ANFIS model is a promising alternative for forecasting regional electricity loads. (author)

  7. Diagnosis and Reconfiguration using Bayesian Networks: An Electrical Power System Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, W. Bradley; Mengshoel, Ole

    2009-01-01

    Automated diagnosis and reconfiguration are important computational techniques that aim to minimize human intervention in autonomous systems. In this paper, we develop novel techniques and models in the context of diagnosis and reconfiguration reasoning using causal Bayesian networks (BNs). We take as starting point a successful diagnostic approach, using a static BN developed for a real-world electrical power system. We discuss in this paper the extension of this diagnostic approach along two dimensions, namely: (i) from a static BN to a dynamic BN; and (ii) from a diagnostic task to a reconfiguration task. More specifically, we discuss the auto-generation of a dynamic Bayesian network from a static Bayesian network. In addition, we discuss subtle, but important, differences between Bayesian networks when used for diagnosis versus reconfiguration. We discuss a novel reconfiguration agent, which models a system causally, including effects of actions through time, using a dynamic Bayesian network. Though the techniques we discuss are general, we demonstrate them in the context of electrical power systems (EPSs) for aircraft and spacecraft. EPSs are vital subsystems on-board aircraft and spacecraft, and many incidents and accidents of these vehicles have been attributed to EPS failures. We discuss a case study that provides initial but promising results for our approach in the setting of electrical power systems.

  8. Sistema Solar

    OpenAIRE

    Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas

    2011-01-01

    Lección sobre el Sistema Solar. Curso de Astronomía Básica, segunda edición, impartido por los miembros de la Federación de Asociaciones de Astronomía Cielo de Comellas. Casa de la Ciencia, sábados, del 24 de septiembre al 22 de octubre de 2011

  9. Electricity price forecast using Combinatorial Neural Network trained by a new stochastic search method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinia, O.; Amjady, N.; Shafie-khah, M.; Catalão, J.P.S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Presenting a Combinatorial Neural Network. • Suggesting a new stochastic search method. • Adapting the suggested method as a training mechanism. • Proposing a new forecast strategy. • Testing the proposed strategy on real-world electricity markets. - Abstract: Electricity price forecast is key information for successful operation of electricity market participants. However, the time series of electricity price has nonlinear, non-stationary and volatile behaviour and so its forecast method should have high learning capability to extract the complex input/output mapping function of electricity price. In this paper, a Combinatorial Neural Network (CNN) based forecasting engine is proposed to predict the future values of price data. The CNN-based forecasting engine is equipped with a new training mechanism for optimizing the weights of the CNN. This training mechanism is based on an efficient stochastic search method, which is a modified version of chemical reaction optimization algorithm, giving high learning ability to the CNN. The proposed price forecast strategy is tested on the real-world electricity markets of Pennsylvania–New Jersey–Maryland (PJM) and mainland Spain and its obtained results are extensively compared with the results obtained from several other forecast methods. These comparisons illustrate effectiveness of the proposed strategy.

  10. Congestion management of electric distribution networks through market based methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun

     EVs and HPs. Market-based congestion management methods are the focus of the thesis. They handle the potential congestion at the energy planning stage; therefore, the aggregators can optimally plan the energy consumption and have the least impact on the customers. After reviewing and identifying...... the shortcomings of the existing methods, the thesis fully studies and improves the dynamic tariff (DT) method, and proposes two  new market-based  congestion management methods,  namely the  dynamic subsidy (DS) method and the flexible demand swap method. The thesis improves the DT method from four aspects......Rapidly increasing share of intermittent renewable energy production poses a great challenge of the management and operation of the modern power systems. Deployment of a large number of flexible demands, such as electrical vehicles (EVs) and heat pumps (HPs), is believed to be a promising solution...

  11. Harmonic currents circulation in electrical networks simulation and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Em-Mamlouk, W.M. [MEP, Cairo (Egypt); El-Sharkawy, M.A. [Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Electrical Power and Machines; Mostafa, H.E. [Jazan Univ., Jazan (Saudi Arabia). Electrical Dept.

    2009-07-01

    A detailed harmonic flow analysis for a 13-bus balanced industrial distribution system was presented. The aim of the study was to determine the influence of harmonic sources in various branches of the system on voltage and current waveforms before disruptions to the utility supply system occurred. The current harmonic contents of an adjustable speed drive (ASD) were studied under various loading conditions. The test system was simulated using a standard study test system. Harmonic effects from multiple sources were investigated, and voltage distortion on the different buses was monitored. The study demonstrated that while the harmonic loads circulated harmonic currents in all system branches, no harmonic source was directly connected to the system buses. Many of the investigated cases exceeded allowable voltage total harmonic distortion and or current total harmonic distortion standards set by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). It was concluded that active harmonic filters should be used to prevent the effects of harmonic current circulation at different buses on neighbouring loads within a system. 8 refs., 11 tabs., 15 figs.

  12. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO_2 infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO_2 certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO_2. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO_2 for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO_2 for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO_2 for enhanced oil recovery (CO_2-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO_2 storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO_2-intensive coal power plants. The low CO_2 price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO_2 prices, or emissions performance standards. Analyses for Germany show

  13. Network access charges, vertical integration, and property rights structure - experiences from the German electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, C.; Wein, T.

    2005-01-01

    After the deregulation of the German electricity markets in 1998, the German government opted for a regulatory regime called negotiated third party access, which would be subject to ex-post control by the federal cartel office. Network access charges for new competitors are based on contractual arrangements between energy producers and industrial consumers. As the electricity networks are incontestable natural monopolies, the local and regional network operators are able to set (monopolistic) charges at their own discretion, restricted only by the possible interference of the federal cartel office (Bundeskartellamt). In this paper we analyze if there is evidence for varying charging behaviour depending on the supplier's economic independence (structure of property rights) or its level of vertical integration. For this purpose, we hypothesise that incorporated and vertically integrated suppliers set different charges than independent utility companies. Multivariate estimations show a relation between network access charges and the network operator's economic independence as well as level of vertical integration: on the low voltage level for an estimated annual consumption of 1700 kW/h, vertically integrated firms set-in accordance with our hypothesis-significantly lower access charges than vertically separated suppliers, whereas incorporated network operators charge significantly higher charges compared to independent suppliers. These results could not have been confirmed for other consumptions or voltage levels. (author)

  14. Impact of Social Network and Business Model on Innovation Diffusion of Electric Vehicles in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Y. Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of electric vehicles (EVs involves not only the technological development but also the construction of complex social networks. This paper uses the theory of network control to analyze the influence of network forms on EV diffusion in China, especially focusing on the building of EV business models (BMs and the resulting effects and control on the diffusion of EVs. The Bass model is adopted to forecast the diffusion process of EVs and genetic algorithm is used to estimate the parameters based on the diffusion data of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV in the United States and Japan. Two different social network forms and BMs are selected, that is, battery leasing model and vehicle purchasing model, to analyze how different network forms may influence the innovation coefficient and imitation coefficient in the Bass model, which will in turn result in different diffusion results. Thereby, we can find the appropriate network forms and BMs for EVs which is suitable to the local market conditions.

  15. Quality of electric service in utility distribution networks under electromagnetic compatibility principles. [ENEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chizzolini, P.; Lagostena, L.; Mirra, C.; Sani, G. (ENEL, Rome Milan (Italy))

    1989-03-01

    The development of electromagnetic compatibility criteria, being worked out in international standardization activities, requires the establishment of the characteristics of public utility distribution networks as a reference ambient. This is necessary for gauging the immunity levels towards users and for defining the disturbance emission limits. Therefore, it is a new way to look at the quality of electric service. Consequently, it is necessary to check and specify, in an homogeneous manner, the phenomena that affect electric service. Use must be made of experimental tests and of the collection and elaboration of operation data. In addition to testing techniques, this paper describes the checking procedures for the quality of electric service as they are implemented in the information system developed by ENEL (Italian Electricity Board) for distribution activities. The first reference data obtained from the national and international fields about voltage shape and supply continuity are also indicated.

  16. Systems for protection and automation of distribution electric networks 22 kv

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horak, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article deals with the new concept of fault location in overhead and cable 22 kV distribution systems, which are operated by ZSE Distribucia, a.s.. In the past the localisation of faults was a demanding and lengthy procedure, because the electric protection indicated only the affected output feeder. The exact fault point was then localised by manipulation in the field and by test switching in the power line where the fault took place. The current development of electric facilities and sharp fall in prices give use the possibility to broadly apply the simple digital metering devices equipped with the electric protection function. Once these devices are positioned densely along the individual power lines of the network, it is possible to localise the failure position quite exactly and electricity supply can be quickly restored. (Authors)

  17. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution - Case Network Performance Assessment Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost-effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM is under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slightly changes in the results can occur if calculations were made with latest parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters. (orig.)

  18. Econometric model as a regulatory tool in electricity distribution. Case network performance assessment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkapuro, S.; Lassila, J.; Viljainen, S.; Tahvanainen, K.; Partanen, J.

    2004-01-01

    Electricity distribution companies operate in the state of natural monopolies since building of parallel networks is not cost- effective. Monopoly companies do not have pressure from the open markets to keep their prices and costs at reasonable level. The regulation of these companies is needed to prevent the misuse of the monopoly position. Regulation is usually focused either on the profit of company or on the price of electricity. Regulation method which determines allowed income for each company with generic computation model can be seen as an econometric model. In this document, the usability of an econometric model in the regulation of electricity distribution companies is evaluated. As the special case of an econometric model, the method called Network Performance Assessment Model, NPAM (Naetnyttomodellen in Swedish), is analysed. NPAM is developed by Swedish Energy Agency (STEM) for the regulation of electricity distribution companies. Both theoretical analysis and calculations of an example network area are presented in this document to find the major directing effects of the model. The parameters of NPAM, which are used in the calculations of this research report, were dated on 30th of March 2004. These parameters were most recent ones available at the time when analysis was done. However, since NPAM have been under development, the parameters have been constantly changing. Therefore slight changes might occur in the numerical results of calculations if they were made with the latest set of parameters. However, main conclusions are same and do not depend on exact parameters

  19. Micro-grid platform based on NODE.JS architecture, implemented in electrical network instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duque, M.; Cando, E.; Aguinaga, A.; Llulluna, F.; Jara, N.; Moreno, T.

    2016-05-01

    In this document, I propose a theory about the impact of systems based on microgrids in non-industrialized countries that have the goal to improve energy exploitation through alternatives methods of a clean and renewable energy generation and the creation of the app to manage the behavior of the micro-grids based on the NodeJS, Django and IOJS technologies. The micro-grids allow the optimal way to manage energy flow by electric injection directly in electric network small urban's cells in a low cost and available way. In difference from conventional systems, micro-grids can communicate between them to carry energy to places that have higher demand in accurate moments. This system does not require energy storage, so, costs are lower than conventional systems like fuel cells, solar panels or else; even though micro-grids are independent systems, they are not isolated. The impact that this analysis will generate, is the improvement of the electrical network without having greater control than an intelligent network (SMART-GRID); this leads to move to a 20% increase in energy use in a specified network; that suggest there are others sources of energy generation; but for today's needs, we need to standardize methods and remain in place to support all future technologies and the best option are the Smart Grids and Micro-Grids.

  20. Automated electric valve for electrokinetic separation in a networked microfluidic chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Huanchun; Huang, Zheng; Dutta, Prashanta; Ivory, Cornelius F

    2007-02-15

    This paper describes an automated electric valve system designed to reduce dispersion and sample loss into a side channel when an electrokinetically mobilized concentration zone passes a T-junction in a networked microfluidic chip. One way to reduce dispersion is to control current streamlines since charged species are driven along them in the absence of electroosmotic flow. Computer simulations demonstrate that dispersion and sample loss can be reduced by applying a constant additional electric field in the side channel to straighten current streamlines in linear electrokinetic flow (zone electrophoresis). This additional electric field was provided by a pair of platinum microelectrodes integrated into the chip in the vicinity of the T-junction. Both simulations and experiments of this electric valve with constant valve voltages were shown to provide unsatisfactory valve performance during nonlinear electrophoresis (isotachophoresis). On the basis of these results, however, an automated electric valve system was developed with improved valve performance. Experiments conducted with this system showed decreased dispersion and increased reproducibility as protein zones isotachophoretically passed the T-junction. Simulations of the automated electric valve offer further support that the desired shape of current streamlines was maintained at the T-junction during isotachophoresis. Valve performance was evaluated at different valve currents based on statistical variance due to dispersion. With the automated control system, two integrated microelectrodes provide an effective way to manipulate current streamlines, thus acting as an electric valve for charged species in electrokinetic separations.

  1. A probabilistic approach to combining smart meter and electric vehicle charging data to investigate distribution network impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neaimeh, Myriam; Wardle, Robin; Jenkins, Andrew M.; Yi, Jialiang; Hill, Graeme; Lyons, Padraig F.; Hübner, Yvonne; Blythe, Phil T.; Taylor, Phil C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Working with unique datasets of EV charging and smart meter load demand. • Distribution networks are not a homogenous group with more capabilities to accommodate EVs than previously suggested. • Spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand alleviate the impacts on networks. • An extensive recharging infrastructure could enable connection of additional EVs on constrained distribution networks. • Electric utilities could increase the network capability to accommodate EVs by investing in recharging infrastructure. - Abstract: This work uses a probabilistic method to combine two unique datasets of real world electric vehicle charging profiles and residential smart meter load demand. The data was used to study the impact of the uptake of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on electricity distribution networks. Two real networks representing an urban and rural area, and a generic network representative of a heavily loaded UK distribution network were used. The findings show that distribution networks are not a homogeneous group with a variation of capabilities to accommodate EVs and there is a greater capability than previous studies have suggested. Consideration of the spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand has been demonstrated to reduce the estimated impacts on the distribution networks. It is suggested that distribution network operators could collaborate with new market players, such as charging infrastructure operators, to support the roll out of an extensive charging infrastructure in a way that makes the network more robust; create more opportunities for demand side management; and reduce planning uncertainties associated with the stochastic nature of EV charging demand.

  2. An enhanced radial basis function network for short-term electricity price forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Whei-Min; Gow, Hong-Jey; Tsai, Ming-Tang

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposed a price forecasting system for electric market participants to reduce the risk of price volatility. Combining the Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN) and Orthogonal Experimental Design (OED), an Enhanced Radial Basis Function Network (ERBFN) has been proposed for the solving process. The Locational Marginal Price (LMP), system load, transmission flow and temperature of the PJM system were collected and the data clusters were embedded in the Excel Database according to the year, season, workday and weekend. With the OED applied to learning rates in the ERBFN, the forecasting error can be reduced during the training process to improve both accuracy and reliability. This would mean that even the ''spikes'' could be tracked closely. The Back-propagation Neural Network (BPN), Probability Neural Network (PNN), other algorithms, and the proposed ERBFN were all developed and compared to check the performance. Simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed ERBFN to provide quality information in a price volatile environment. (author)

  3. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2012-12-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Optimized green operation of LTE networks in the presence of multiple electricity providers

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Energy efficiency aspects in cellular networks can significantly contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and help to save the environment. The base station (BS) sleeping strategy has become a well-known technique to achieve energy savings by switching off redundant BSs mainly for lightly loaded networks. Besides, introducing renewable energies as alternative power sources becomes a real challenge to network operators. In this paper, we propose a method that reduces the energy consumption of BSs by not only shutting down underutilized BSs but also by optimizing the amounts of energy procured from different retailers (Renewable energy and electricity retailers). We formulate an optimization problem that leads to the maximization of the profit of a Long-Term Evolution (LTE) cellular operator, and at the same time to the minimization of CO2 emissions in green wireless cellular networks without affecting the desired Quality of Service. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Basic semantic architecture of interoperability for the intelligent distribution in the CFE electrical system; Arquitectura base de interoperabilidad semantica para el sistema electrico de distribucion inteligente en la CFE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa Reza, Alfredo; Garcia Mendoza, Raul; Borja Diaz, Jesus Fidel; Sierra Rodriguez, Benjamin [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2010-07-01

    The physical and logical architecture of the interoperability platform defined for the distribution management systems (DMS), of the Distribution Subdivision of Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) in Mexico is presented. The adopted architecture includes the definition of a technological platform to manage the exchange of information between systems and applications, sustained in the Model of Common Information (CIM), established in norms IEC61968 and IEC 61970. The architecture based on SSOA (Semantic Services Oriented Architecture), on EIB (Enterprise Integration Bus) and on GID (Generic Interface Definition) is presented, as well as the sequence to obtain the interoperability of systems related to the Distribution Management of the of electrical energy in Mexico. Of equal way it is described the process to establish a Semantic Model of the Electrical System of Distribution (SED) and the creation of instances CIM/XML, oriented to the interoperability of the information systems in the DMS scope, by means of the interchange of messages conformed and validated according to the structure obtained and agreed to the rules established by Model CIM. In this way, the messages and the information interchanged among systems, assure the compatibility and correct interpretation in an independent way to the developer, mark or manufacturer of the system source and destiny. The primary target is to establish the infrastructure semantic base of interoperability, cradle in standards that sustain the strategic definition of an Electrical System of Intelligent Distribution (SEDI) in Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta la arquitectura fisica y logica de la plataforma de interoperabilidad definida para los sistemas de gestion de la distribucion (DMS por sus siglas en ingles), de la Subdireccion de Distribucion de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) en Mexico. La arquitectura adoptada incluye la definicion de una plataforma tecnologica para gestionar el intercambio de informacion

  6. Future vision of advanced telecommunication networks for electric utilities; Denki jigyo ni okeru joho tsushin network no shorai vision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonaru, S.; Ono, K.; Sakai, S.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuboi, A. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Manabe, S. [Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc., Kagawa (Japan); Miki, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1995-06-01

    The vision of an advanced information system is proposed to cope with the future social demand and business environmental change in electric utilities. At the large turning point such as drastic reconsideration of Electricity Utilities Industry Law, further improvement of efficiency and cost reduction are requested as well as business innovation such as proposal of a new business policy. For that purpose utilization of information and its technology is indispensable, and use of multimedia and common information in organization are the future direction for improving information basis. Consequently, free information networks without any limitation due to person and media are necessary, and the following are important: high-speed, high-frequency band, digital, easily connectable and multimedia transmission lines, and cost reduction and high reliability of networks. Based on innovation of information networks and the clear principle on advanced information system, development of new applications by multimedia technologies, diffusion of communication terminals, and promotion of standardization are essential. 60 refs., 30 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Prediction of electricity and lpg consumption in a hotel using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero, L Reiners; Perez T, Carlos; Gongora L, Ever; Marrero, R Secundino

    2009-01-01

    This work was developed in order to improve the current tools for energy planning. This makes possible to predict electricity and LPG consumption in a tourist facility with accuracy higher than 90% by using Artificial Neuronal Networks (ANN) as fitting and predictive models. Local climatology and occupational patterns were used as entering variables for the models. Parametric modeling was performed as starting conditions and then improved with ANN. Matlab tools were used for calculations. The average deviation when predicting electricity consumption was 0.6% with a standard deviation of 4%. For LPG consumption the average deviation was less than 1% with a standard deviation of 1.3%.

  8. Electricity network limitations on large-scale deployment of wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbairn, R.J.

    1999-07-01

    This report sought to identify limitation on large scale deployment of wind energy in the UK. A description of the existing electricity supply system in England, Scotland and Wales is given, and operational aspects of the integrated electricity networks, licence conditions, types of wind turbine generators, and the scope for deployment of wind energy in the UK are addressed. A review of technical limitations and technical criteria stipulated by the Distribution and Grid Codes, the effects of system losses, and commercial issues are examined. Potential solutions to technical limitations are proposed, and recommendations are outlined.

  9. Emerging subspecialties in neurology: deep brain stimulation and electrical neuro-network modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Anhar; Okun, Michael S

    2013-01-29

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical therapy that involves the delivery of an electrical current to one or more brain targets. This technology has been rapidly expanding to address movement, neuropsychiatric, and other disorders. The evolution of DBS has created a niche for neurologists, both in the operating room and in the clinic. Since DBS is not always deep, not always brain, and not always simply stimulation, a more accurate term for this field may be electrical neuro-network modulation (ENM). Fellowships will likely in future years evolve their scope to include other technologies, and other nervous system regions beyond typical DBS therapy.

  10. The European interconnection system between reality and utopia. Does the market organization fit into the electricity network?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stigler, H.

    2016-01-01

    On the basis of discussions about the contribution that research and innovations can make to the renewal of the electricity market, the synchronous grid of Continental Europe will be compared with the transmission network. The electricity market guidelines are put to critical consideration and the question is raised whether today's electricity market organization is sustainable in the long term. The paper concludes with regard to the usefulness of the organizational structure and the organization of the electricity markets. (rössner) [de

  11. PAT Design Strategy for Energy Recovery in Water Distribution Networks by Electrical Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the management of water distribution networks, large energy savings can be yielded by exploiting the head drop due to the network pressure control strategy, i.e., for leak reductions. Hydropower in small streams is already exploited, but technical solutions combining efficiency and economic convenience are still required. In water distribution networks, an additional design problem comes out from the necessity of ensuring a required head drop under variable operating conditions, i.e., head and discharge variations. Both a hydraulic regulation (HR—via a series-parallel hydraulic circuit- and an electrical regulation (ER—via inverter- are feasible solutions. A design procedure for the selection of a production device in a series-parallel hydraulic circuit has been recently proposed. The procedure, named VOS (Variable Operating Strategy, is based on the overall plant efficiency criteria and is applied to a water distribution network where a PAT (pump as a turbine is used in order to produce energy. In the present paper the VOS design procedure has been extended to the electrical regulation and a comparison between HR and ER efficiency and flexibility within a water distribution network is shown: HR was found more flexible than ER and more efficient. Finally a preliminary economic study has been carried out in order to show the viability of both systems, and a shorter payback period of the electromechanical equipment was found for HR mode.

  12. As redes do desenvolvimento econômico e social no sistema de ensino superior brasileiro | Economic and social development networks in the Brazilian higher education system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elói Senhoras

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O artigo estuda as mais dinâmicas redes que têm sido articuladas dentro do sistema público de ensino superior e pesquisa brasileiro, findando, por um lado, desenvolver uma análise dos padrões de interação e, e por outro lado, avaliar a tipologia dual existente de interação reticular no formato hélice tripla tradicional (universidade-empresa-governo e no formato hélice tripla público-social (universidade-governo-sociedade. Com essa discussão pretende-se fornecer os subsídios para a garantia de pluralidade e o aprofundamento do debate sobre os atores e forças que moldam a arquitetura das redes do desenvolvimento econômico e social no ensino superior brasileiro. Palavras chaves agências de inovação, empresas juniores, incubadoras, redes, tripla hélice.   Abstract This article focus the most dynamic networks that have been articulated in the Brazilian public system of higher education and research in order to make an overview analysis of the interaction patterns and to evaluate the dual typology of the traditional triple helix (university-company-government and the public-social triple helix (university-government-society. Throughout this discussion assistance is supplied to warranty plurality and depth for the debate about the actors and the driven forces that shape the architecture of the networks of the economic and social development in the Brazilian higher education system.  Keywords incubators, innovation agencies, junior enterprises, networks, triple helix.

  13. Design of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Shepelev, Aleksey; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-09-04

    With an increased number of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on the roads, charging infrastructure is gaining an ever-more important role in simultaneously meeting the needs of the local distribution grid and of EV users. This paper proposes a mesh network RFID system for user identification and charging authorization as part of a smart charging infrastructure providing charge monitoring and control. The Zigbee-based mesh network RFID provides a cost-efficient solution to identify and authorize vehicles for charging and would allow EV charging to be conducted effectively while observing grid constraints and meeting the needs of EV drivers

  14. Impact and Cost Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Integration on Medium Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qiuwei; Cheng, Lin; Pineau, Ulysse

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the analysis of the impact of electric vehicle (EV) integration on medium voltage (MV) distribution networks and the cost evaluation of replacing the overloaded grid components. A number of EV charging scenarios have been studied. A 10 kV grid from the Bornholm Island...... in the city area has been used to carry out case studies. The case study results show that the secondary transformers are the bottleneck of the MV distribution networks and the increase of EV penetration leads to the overloading of secondary transformers. The cost of the transformer replacement has been...

  15. A SURVEY OF SMART ELECTRICAL BOARDS IN UBIQUITOUS SENSOR NETWORKS FOR GEOMATICS APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. R. Moosavi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more advanced sensor networks in various fields are developed. There are lots of online sensors spreading around the world. Sensor networks have been used in Geospatial Information Systems (GIS since sensor networks have expanded. Health monitoring, environmental monitoring, traffic monitoring, etc, are the examples of its applications in Geomatics. Sensor network is an infrastructure comprised of sensing (measuring, computing, and communication elements that gives an administrator the ability to instrument, observe, and react to events and phenomena in a specified environment. This paper describes about development boards which can be used in sensor networks and their applications in Geomatics and their role in wireless sensor networks and also a comparison between various types of boards. Boards that are discussed in this paper are Arduino, Raspberry Pi, Beagle board, Cubieboard. The Boards because of their great potential are also known as single board computers. This paper is organized in four phases: First, Reviewing on ubiquitous computing and sensor networks. Second, introducing of some electrical boards. Then, defining some criterions for comparison. Finally, comparing the Ubiquitous boards.

  16. An environment for operation planning of electrical energy distribution systems; Um ambiente para planejamento da operacao de sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kleber

    1997-07-01

    The aim of operation planning of electrical energy distribution systems is to define a group of interventions in the distribution network in a way to reach a global optimization. Both normal operation and emergency conditions are considered including scheduled interventions in the network. Under normal conditions, some aspects as voltage drop and loss minimization, for example, are considered; under emergency conditions, the minimization of non-distributed energy and interruption time are taken into account. This proposes the development of a computer environment for operation planning studies. The design and implementation of a specific operation planning database, based on a relational database model, was carried out so that new information modules could be easily included. A statistical approach has been applied to the load model including consumption habits and seasonal information, for each consumer category. A group of operation planning functions is proposed, which includes simulation modules responsible for system analysis. These functions and the database should be designed together. The developed computer environment allows the inclusion of new functions, due to the standardized query language used to access the database. Two functions have been implemented for illustration. The development of the proposed environment constitutes a step towards an open operation planning system, an integration with other information systems and an easy-to-use system based on graphical interface. (author)

  17. Application of high-resolution domestic electricity load profiles in network modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    the generated profiles are inputted in a low-voltage network model created in DIgSILENT PowerFactory. By means of employing 1 hour based demand and generation profiles in during dynamic studies, the representation of the local power system performance might sometimes not be as accurate as needed. In the test...... with modeling when 1-minute domestic electricity demand and generation profiles are used as inputs. The analysis is done with a case study of low-voltage network located in Northern Denmark. The analysis includes two parts. The first part focuses on modeling the domestic demands and on-site generation in 1......-minute resolution. The load profiles of the household appliances are created using a bottom-up model, which uses the 1-minute cycle power use characteristics of a single appliance as the main building block. The profiles of heavy electric appliances, such as heat pump, are not included in the above...

  18. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city’s urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE’s characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  19. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, João; Rodrigues, Ana; Silva, Carlos; Dentinho, Tomaz

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city's urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE's characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  20. Adaptive complementary fuzzy self-recurrent wavelet neural network controller for the electric load simulator system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Chao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the complexities existing in the electric load simulator, this article develops a high-performance nonlinear adaptive controller to improve the torque tracking performance of the electric load simulator, which mainly consists of an adaptive fuzzy self-recurrent wavelet neural network controller with variable structure (VSFSWC and a complementary controller. The VSFSWC is clearly and easily used for real-time systems and greatly improves the convergence rate and control precision. The complementary controller is designed to eliminate the effect of the approximation error between the proposed neural network controller and the ideal feedback controller without chattering phenomena. Moreover, adaptive learning laws are derived to guarantee the system stability in the sense of the Lyapunov theory. Finally, the hardware-in-the-loop simulations are carried out to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms in different working styles.

  1. Electrifying Europe. The power of Europe in the construction of electricity networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagendijk, V.C.

    2008-01-01

    This book sets out to uncover the origins of the idea of a European electricity network. It explores historically the roots of a transnational European system, showing how engineers came to think in terms of 'Europe' already in the 1920s, and how these ideas continued to influence network-building in later decades. This thinking not only corresponded to economic and technical attributes of the system. This thesis claims that a European system was also legitimised by ideological motives. Covering the period between 1918 and 2001 the book provides a detailed analysis of ideas on, and the building of, a European electricity system. A substantial contribution is made to the much-neglected history of international collaboration in Europe. Prevailing histories of electricity infrastructures the focus is on national developments. Also, the history is placed in the broader historical context of the twentieth century, paying ample attention to the influence of both hot and cold wars, and interwar developments. By combining the specific history of this international collaboration with a more general political and economic history of the twentieth century, the author explains why a European solution emerged. The thesis primarily focuses on Western European developments and explains how this network took its specific shape through the building of different regional powerpools among national systems. In addition, the thesis presents a contribution to the emerging field of transnational history by focusing on the work and activities of international organisations, without neglecting the power and influence of nation-states. The book starts by revealing how an international community of electricity entrepreneurs and electrical engineers had existed since the turn of the century. Yet at the same time, national legislations came to limit the extent of international network development and operation. Whereas the first objections to these limitations were general, they became

  2. Hybrid Forecasting Approach Based on GRNN Neural Network and SVR Machine for Electricity Demand Forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weide Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate electric power demand forecasting plays a key role in electricity markets and power systems. The electric power demand is usually a non-linear problem due to various unknown reasons, which make it difficult to get accurate prediction by traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel hybrid forecasting method for managing and scheduling the electricity power. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR, the proposed new method, combines ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD, seasonal adjustment (S, cross validation (C, general regression neural network (GRNN and support vector regression machine optimized by the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSVR. The main idea of EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is respectively to forecast waveform and trend component that hidden in demand series to substitute directly forecasting original electric demand. EEMD-SCGRNN-PSVR is used to predict the one week ahead half-hour’s electricity demand in two data sets (New South Wales (NSW and Victorian State (VIC in Australia. Experimental results show that the new hybrid model outperforms the other three models in terms of forecasting accuracy and model robustness.

  3. The safety and reliability of the electricity transportation network, and the opening of markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merlin, A.

    2003-01-01

    Following a decade in which the electricity sector was concerned by the opening of markets the world over, the year 2003 highlighted the challenges of secure supply and of the safety of electrical systems. Major incidents are nothing new throughout history, and occurred well before the trend towards opening the markets dot underway. However, it is necessary to verify that the rules for the organisation, clarification of responsibilities and regulation make it possible to control the growing complexity of interconnected systems related to opening the market up to competition. Faced with such situations, changes are necessary in Europe. Firstly, it is important to have the second European directive on the internal electricity market introduced everywhere, this directive providing common rules to be met by all key players to ensure greater safety within the electricity system, and strengthening the role of the electricity transport network manager, who is separate from the other players in the market. It is also necessary to draft a third directive, focusing on both security of supply and the operational safety of the European electricity system. (authors)

  4. Expert System for natural gas transportation network management; Sistema especialista para gerenciamento de redes de transporte de gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da; Porciuncula, Gilson Simoes [Santa Catarina Univ., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica Lab. de Sistemas Hidraulicos e Pneumaticos

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents a project to integrate expert system and dynamic simulation of natural gas transportation network applying the concept of agents. Natural gas pipeline operation requires the intermittent analysis of hundreds interrelated operational parameters, which represent the network state. The combination of expert system and dynamic simulation is a synergic solution for this kind of problem. With expert system techniques, it is possible to implement rules that describe the relationship between current operational parameters and the network normal operational conditions based on heuristic knowledge. By applying such rules, the system aims to evaluate the real network state and to predict abnormal conditions via dynamic simulation, allowing time analysis of operational situation in advance. At the current stage, the project presents a well defined model. The process of knowledge acquisition and representation has taken place following an incremental approach, considered as development paradigm. The project objectives are to reduce costs, increase the reliability and organize pipeline operation and maintenance information. This work is part of SEGRED project established as partnership among LASHIP/UFSC, SCGAS, TBG and PETROBRAS. The project also received support from FINEP. (author)

  5. Using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdullaev, D.A.; Isaev, R.I.; Makhkamdzhanov, V.M.; Mansurov, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    The article presents the talk on the using of alternative sources of the electric power on telecommunication network of Uzbekistan given at the International Workshop on applied solar energy held in Tashkent (Uzbekistan) in June 1997. As an alternative source the combined solar-wind power plant on the basis of solar cells battery and wind-generator is proposed. The efficiency of proposed system is considered. (A.A.D.)

  6. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kordheili, Reza Ahmadi; Pourmousavi, Seyyed Ali; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs) in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow ...... demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage....

  7. Electrical network limitations on large-scale deployment of offshore wind energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, P.B.

    2001-07-01

    In this report we have summarised the electrical network limitations to the connection of offshore wind energy schemes in the United Kingdom. The offshore wind resource in the United Kingdom could enable energy production in excess of 230 TWh to be realised. The wind resource of the UK coast should enable 4 GW of wind generation (13.4 GWh assuming 30% load factor) to be developed, providing appropriate technical and commercial arrangements can be made. (author)

  8. A model-based eco-routing strategy for electric vehicles in large urban networks

    OpenAIRE

    De Nunzio , Giovanni; Thibault , Laurent; Sciarretta , Antonio

    2016-01-01

    International audience; A novel eco-routing navigation strategy and energy consumption modeling approach for electric vehicles are presented in this work. Speed fluctuations and road network infrastructure have a large impact on vehicular energy consumption. Neglecting these effects may lead to large errors in eco-routing navigation, which could trivially select the route with the lowest average speed. We propose an energy consumption model that considers both accelerations and impact of the ...

  9. The deregulation of network industries: is the electricity sector an exception?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppens, F.; Vivet, D.

    2006-01-01

    In view of their special characteristics, network industries have for quite a long time been considered as (natural) monopolies. Network externalities and economies of scale in particular justified this (natural) monopoly thesis. Since the last decade of the past century, however, a trend towards deregulation of such industries has been observed worldwide. This trend started with the successful introduction of competition in the telecommunications sector. The success in that sector is often used as an argument for opening up other network industries to competition as well. The study analyses whether this reasoning can be applied to the electricity sector. At first glance, the sectors electricity and telecommunications seem very similar, as both are network industries having been characterised for a long time by economies of scale, but for which technological progress may have put an end to this scale effect. However, the study points out that there are important differences. In the telecommunications sector, technological progress on the supply side has been accompanied by a strong growth in demand. There is no such demand side effect in the electricity branch. Moreover, due to physical characteristics, the electricity sector seems to be more complicated. In order to introduce competition, the sector has to be split up into sub-sectors (production, transmission, distribution and supply). Only two segments, production and supply, are considered as open markets; transmission and distribution, on the other hand, remain monopolies. This splitting up, however, entails a new kind of costs, the so-called transaction costs. As such the gains from the liberalization in certain segments might (partly) offset increase in the transaction costs resulting from vertical disintegration. (authors)

  10. SERS investigations and electrical recording of neuronal networks with three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantennas (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    SERS investigations and electrical recording of neuronal networks with three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantennas Michele Dipalo, Valeria Caprettini, Anbrea Barbaglia, Laura Lovato, Francesco De Angelis e-mail: francesco.deangelis@iit.it Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163, Genova Biological systems are analysed mainly by optical, chemical or electrical methods. Normally each of these techniques provides only partial information about the environment, while combined investigations could reveal new phenomena occurring in complex systems such as in-vitro neuronal networks. Aiming at the merging of optical and electrical investigations of biological samples, we introduced three-dimensional plasmonic nanoantennas on CMOS-based electrical sensors [1]. The overall device is then capable of enhanced Raman Analysis of cultured cells combined with electrical recording of neuronal activity. The Raman measurements show a much higher sensitivity when performed on the tip of the nanoantenna in respect to the flat substrate [2]; this effect is a combination of the high plasmonic field enhancement and of the tight adhesion of cells on the nanoantenna tip. Furthermore, when plasmonic opto-poration is exploited [3] the 3D nanoelectrodes are able to penetrate through the cell membrane thus accessing the intracellular environment. Our latest results (unpublished) show that the technique is completely non-invasive and solves many problems related to state-of-the-art intracellular recording approaches on large neuronal networks. This research received funding from ERC-IDEAS Program: "Neuro-Plasmonics" [Grant n. 616213]. References: [1] M. Dipalo, G. C. Messina, H. Amin, R. La Rocca, V. Shalabaeva, A. Simi, A. Maccione, P. Zilio, L. Berdondini, F. De Angelis, Nanoscale 2015, 7, 3703. [2] R. La Rocca, G. C. Messina, M. Dipalo, V. Shalabaeva, F. De Angelis, Small 2015, 11, 4632. [3] G. C. Messina et al., Spatially, Temporally, and Quantitatively Controlled Delivery of

  11. Characterization of ceramic electrical insulators discarded by the electricity distribution networks and compared with similar products without use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, C.S.; Mantovani, V.A.; Favero, M.; Morales, J.; Hasegawa, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    The maintenance of distribution networks for electricity generates a large amount of waste. Among these, one of the most representative weights is from porcelain, found in para-rays, braces, insulators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recycling potential of two models of ceramic insulators, new and used. It had been subjected to comparative tests of scanning electron microscopy, coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, contact angle, volatile content and density. In general, samples of new and used ceramic showed no differences that might be associated of material degradation by using. This indicates that the materials discarded and new ones are very close, which may encourage the reuse and recycling. (author)

  12. Material audiovisual para el estudio de los sensores y actuadores del sistema de inyección electrónica a gasolina

    OpenAIRE

    Padilla Calle, Henry Patricio; Pulla Morocho, Christian Omar

    2007-01-01

    El contenido del presente trabajo final de grado titulado como "Material Audiovisual para el Estudio de Sensores y Actuadores del Sistema de Inyección a Gasolina" tiene como misión principal dar a conocer al estudiante, al profesional o al público en general que se halle ligado a la rama de la mecánica automotriz, sobre los principales sistemas de inyección a gasolina existentes en el medio; así también destacando sus componentes principales y las ventajas que presentan; siendo de esta forma ...

  13. Competition and network expansion in the electricity market: an analysis of producers' strategic behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fumagalli, Elena; Garrone, Paola; Internullo, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Expansion of the transmission capacity is ODe of the most efficient means of enhancing competition in electricity markets. The issue is extremely relevant far the Italian electricity market, where competition in generation has not Jet been achieved. In order to study the effects on competition of a network expansion project, a description of the influence of transmission constraints on the strategic behavior of generators is necessary. The problem was addressed in the literature far a limited number only of simplified models. This work presents an original methodology (MIXEL), based on non-cooperative game theory, far the study of a rather broad set of electricity market models. The case study illustrated in this article, shows that the effects on competition of an expansion of the network is not always positive (or as positive) as expected, given the cases illustrated in the literature. The effects on competition vary with the market structure, the ratio between demand and supply and, above all, the size of the transmission capacity expansion. For these reasons, policy provisions mandating or encouraging expansion of the transmission system with the objective of promoting competition, should take into careful consideration the underlying market structure; in a similar way, provision encouraging divestiture of generation capacity should take into account the effects of the network [it

  14. Policy and network regulation for the integration of distribution generation and renewables for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Donkelaar, M.; Van Oostvoorn, F.

    2005-08-01

    This study has analysed the existing policy and regulation aimed at the integration of an increased share of Distributed Generation (DG) in electricity supply systems in the European Union. It illustrates the state of the art and progress in the development of support mechanisms and network regulation for large-scale integration of DG. Through a benchmark study a systematic comparison has been made of different DG support schemes and distribution network regulation in EU Member States to a predefined standard, the level playing field. This level playing field has been defined as the situation where energy markets, policy and regulation provide neutral incentives to central versus distributed generation, which results in an economically more efficient electricity supply to the consumer. In current regulation and policy a certain discrepancy can be noticed between the actual regulation and policy support systems in a number of countries, the medium to long term targets and the ideal situation described according to the level playing field objective. Policies towards DG and RES are now mainly aimed at removing short-term barriers, increasing the production share of DG/RES, but often ignoring the more complex barriers of integrating DG/RES that is created by the economic network regulation in current electricity markets

  15. Adaptive short-term electricity price forecasting using artificial neural networks in the restructured power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamin, H.Y.; Shahidehpour, S.M.; Li, Z.

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive model for the adaptive short-term electricity price forecasting using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in the restructured power markets. The model consists: price simulation, price forecasting, and performance analysis. The factors impacting the electricity price forecasting, including time factors, load factors, reserve factors, and historical price factor are discussed. We adopted ANN and proposed a new definition for the MAPE using the median to study the relationship between these factors and market price as well as the performance of the electricity price forecasting. The reserve factors are included to enhance the performance of the forecasting process. The proposed model handles the price spikes more efficiently due to considering the median instead of the average. The IEEE 118-bus system and California practical system are used to demonstrate the superiority of the proposed model. (author)

  16. Estimation of charges for services of transmission of electrical energy between regions of the national electrical system; Estimacion de cargos por servicios de transmision de energia electrica entre regiones del sistema electrico nacional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda Ruiz, Adrian; Flores Alba, Dora Elia [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Escobar Lopez, Akihito [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    2002-07-01

    In order to facilitate the answer of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) to the requests of services of transmission of authorized or potential licensees, this organism devised the construction of matrices of charges that allow in a fast and direct way for specific transactions, to know the charges in which different types of transmission services incur classified by transport levels and by tension levels in which the service is asked for. These tables could be published in the media that might be judged advisable, in order that the applicant licensees have access to a preliminary estimation of the charges for the required services, without the need of going, for one first estimation, directly to the CFE for their calculation. This article presents the results of the development of a calculation tool that allows estimating, in a fast and efficient way, charges for transmission services between regions of the national electrical system. [Spanish] Para facilitar la respuesta de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) a las solicitudes de servicios de transmision de permisionarios autorizados o potenciales, esta ideo la construccion de matrices de cargos que permitan de manera rapida y directa para transacciones especificas, conocer los cargos en que incurren diferentes tipos de servicios de transmision clasificados por niveles de transporte y por niveles de tension en los que se solicita el servicio. Dichas tablas podran ser publicadas en los medios que se juzguen convenientes, con el fin de que los permisionarios solicitantes tengan acceso a una estimacion preliminar de los cargos por los servicios requeridos, sin necesidad de acudir, para una primera estimacion, directamente a la CFE para su calculo. Este articulo presenta los resultados del desarrollo de una herramienta de calculo que permite estimar, de manera rapida y eficiente, matrices de cargos por servicios de transmision entre regiones del sistema electrico nacional.

  17. Planificación automatizada del arranque de generadores para la restauración de sistemas eléctricos de potencia ;Generator Start-Up automated planning for electric power system restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Francisco Aleaga Loaiza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available La elección de la secuencia de arranque de los generadores afecta directamente a la capacidad de generación disponible en el proceso de restauración del sistema de potencia. En este artículo se utiliza un método basado en la planificación automatizada para calcular la secuencia de arranque de las unidades de generación en el proceso de restauración de sistemas eléctricos de potencia. Se presenta una formulación basada en acciones donde se involucran varios factores complejos tales como: la naturaleza combinatoria, el conocimiento de expertos, varias restricciones y condiciones cambiantes en el tiempo que deben cumplirse y la optimización de varios recursos numéricos. Los resultados de prueba sobre el sistema IEEE39-barras muestran que el método es muy eficiente en obtener planes precisos y optimizados para restaurar el sistema de generación utilizando un algoritmo de planificación automatizada basado en la búsqueda heurística con capacidades de razonamiento en tiempo continuo.The choice of generator startup sequence affects directly the available generation capacity in the power system restoration process. In this paper an automated planning based method is used to calculate the startup sequence generating units in the electric power system restoration process. An action-based formulation is presented where several complex factors are involved such us: the combinatorial nature, expert knowledge, several restrictions and changing conditions over time that must be met and the optimization of several numerical resources. The test result son theIEEE39-bus system show that the method is veryefficientto obtain accurate and optimized plans to restore the generation system using an automated planning algorithm based on heuristic search with capabilities of reasoning in continuous time.

  18. A simulated-based neural network algorithm for forecasting electrical energy consumption in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents an integrated algorithm for forecasting monthly electrical energy consumption based on artificial neural network (ANN), computer simulation and design of experiments using stochastic procedures. First, an ANN approach is illustrated based on supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) network for the electrical consumption forecasting. The chosen model, therefore, can be compared to that of estimated by time series model. Computer simulation is developed to generate random variables for monthly electricity consumption. This is achieved to foresee the effects of probabilistic distribution on monthly electricity consumption. The simulated-based ANN model is then developed. Therefore, there are four treatments to be considered in analysis of variance (ANOVA), which are actual data, time series, ANN and simulated-based ANN. Furthermore, ANOVA is used to test the null hypothesis of the above four alternatives being statistically equal. If the null hypothesis is accepted, then the lowest mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) value is used to select the best model, otherwise the Duncan method (DMRT) of paired comparison is used to select the optimum model which could be time series, ANN or simulated-based ANN. In case of ties the lowest MAPE value is considered as the benchmark. The integrated algorithm has several unique features. First, it is flexible and identifies the best model based on the results of ANOVA and MAPE, whereas previous studies consider the best fitted ANN model based on MAPE or relative error results. Second, the proposed algorithm may identify conventional time series as the best model for future electricity consumption forecasting because of its dynamic structure, whereas previous studies assume that ANN always provide the best solutions and estimation. To show the applicability and superiority of the proposed algorithm, the monthly electricity consumption in Iran from March 1994 to February 2005 (131 months) is used and applied to

  19. Fluid power network for centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarquin-Laguna, A

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and completely different wind-energy conversion system is studied where a centralized electricity generation within a wind farm is proposed by means of a hydraulic network. This paper presents the dynamic interaction of two turbines when they are coupled to the same hydraulic network. Due to the stochastic nature of the wind and wake interaction effects between turbines, the operating parameters (i.e. pitch angle, rotor speed) of each turbine are different. Time domain simulations, including the main turbine dynamics and laminar transient flow in pipelines, are used to evaluate the efficiency and rotor speed stability of the hydraulic system. It is shown that a passive control of the rotor speed, as proposed in previous work for a single hydraulic turbine, has strong limitations in terms of performance for more than one turbine coupled to the same hydraulic network. It is concluded that in order to connect several turbines, a passive control strategy of the rotor speed is not sufficient and a hydraulic network with constant pressure is suggested. However, a constant pressure network requires the addition of active control at the hydraulic motors and spear valves, increasing the complexity of the initial concept. Further work needs to be done to incorporate an active control strategy and evaluate the feasibility of the constant pressure hydraulic network

  20. Business opportunities and dynamic competition through distributed generation in primary electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, R.; Rios, S.; Vasquez, R.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, for a real electricity distribution network, an assessment of business opportunities to invest in distributed generation (DG) is performed through a simulation based on a full representation of three medium voltage (12 kV) feeders. The three feeders representation includes 1062 sections of conductors with 13 different sizes. The economic assessment focuses on both, the incentives of the incumbent distribution company and those of a new entrant. The technical and economic impact on losses, reliability and voltage regulation in the network area are verified. The DG solution analyzed determines a business opportunity for new investors where end users are also benefited. This work calls in the debate on the need to reformulate the current regulation model on electricity distribution, by defining clear rules to incorporate DG to the existing network, and to enable any agent to develop the proposed business. DG success depends on the location of adequate sites to strategically establish few DG units being a substitute to network expansion

  1. The impact of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles on distribution networks: A review and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, Robert C. II.; Wang, Lingfeng; Alam, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are the next big thing in the electric transportation market. While much work has been done to detail what economic costs and benefits PHEVs will have on consumers and producers alike, it seems that it is also important to understand what impact PHEVs will have on distribution networks nationwide. This paper finds that the impact of PHEVs on the distribution network can be determined using the following aspects of PHEVs: driving patterns, charging characteristics, charge timing, and vehicle penetration. The impacts that these aspects of PHEVs will have on distribution networks have been measured and calculated by multiple authors in different locations using many different tools that range from analytical techniques to simulations and beyond. While much work has already been completed in this area, there is still much to do. Areas left for improvement and future work will include adding more stochasticity into models as well as computing and analyzing reliability indices with respect to distribution networks. (author)

  2. Households' willingness to pay for overhead-to-underground conversion of electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNair, Ben J., E-mail: Ben.McNair@anu.edu.a [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Bennett, Jeff [Crawford School of Economics and Government, Australian National University, Crawford Building, Lennox Crossing, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Hensher, David A.; Rose, John M. [Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, The Business School, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    Underground low-voltage electricity networks have several advantages over overhead networks including reliability of supply, safety and improved visual amenity. The economic viability of replacing existing overhead networks with new underground networks depends on the value of these benefits to households, but no complete value estimates are available in the literature. This paper represents a contribution towards addressing this research gap. A stated choice survey is used to estimate willingness to pay for undergrounding in established residential areas in Canberra, Australia. Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household and there is significant variation in preferences over the population. The results suggest that benefits would be highest in areas with higher household income and older residents where visual amenity, safety, tree trimming, or restrictions on the use of yard space are of concern. - Research highlights: {yields} A choice experiment is used to estimate values for undergrounding electricity wires. {yields} Average willingness to pay is at least A$6838 per household in Canberra, Australia. {yields} Preferences vary considerably over the population. {yields} Benefits would be highest in areas with higher income and older residents.

  3. Modelling and Simulation of the SVC for Power System Flow Studies: Electrical Network in voltage drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narimen Aouzellag LAHAÇANI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of any Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS devices study is to measure their impact on the state of the electrical networks into which they are introduced. Their principal function is to improve the static and dynamic properties of the electrical networks and that by increasing the margins of static and dynamic stability and to allow the power transit to the thermal limits of the lines.To study this impact, it is necessary to establish the state of the network (bus voltages and angles, powers injected and forwarded in the lines before and after the introduction of FACTS devices. This brings to calculate the powers transit by using an iterative method such as Newton-Raphson. Undertaking a calculation without the introduction of FACTS devices followed by a calculation with the modifications induced by the integration of FACTS devices into the network, makes it possible to compare the results obtained in both cases and thus assess the interest of the use of devices FACTS.

  4. Building and interconnecting hydrogen networks: Insights from the electricity and gas experience in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, Nuno

    2008-01-01

    This paper aims to investigate the transition to a new energy system based on hydrogen in the European liberalized framework. After analyzing the literature on the hydrogen infrastructure needs in Europe, we estimate the size and scope of the transition challenge. We take the theoretical framework of network economics to analyze early hydrogen infrastructure needs. Therefore, several concepts are applied to hydrogen economics such as demand club effects, scale economies on large infrastructures, scope economies, and positive socio-economical externalities. Based on the examples of the electricity and natural gas industry formation in Europe, we argue for public intervention in order to create conditions to reach more rapidly the critical size of the network and to prompt network externalities, allowing for the market diffusion of and, thus, an effective transition to the new energy system

  5. Evaluation of power quality in distribution system interaction and electric urban rail systems; Evaluacion de calidad de la potencia en la interaccion del sistema de distribucion y los sistemas electricos ferroviarios urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Mario A.; Ramos, Gustavo A.; Moreno, Ricardo [Universidad de Los Andes, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica], Emails: mrios@uniandes.edu.co, gramos@uniandes.edu.co, ri-moren@uniandes.edu.co

    2009-07-01

    This article presents the evaluation of the phenomena of power quality in electrical systems for mass transport to make a profound study of the effects of harmonic distortion and transients. The evaluation was performed in a typical electrical distribution system. The computer programs used in this study are: ATP, HarmFlow and MATLAB.

  6. Analysis of the network capacities and possible congestion of the electricity transmission networks within the accession countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristiansen, Tarjei; Hewicker, Cristian

    2005-01-01

    cross-border network constraints. Besides the technical parameters to describe production and main network characteristics, the main remaining input factors are costs/fuel prices and demand.The outputs of the PROSYM tool are generation quantities, costs, short-run marginal prices and flows. To calibrate the model and to check its accuracy, we have first performed simulations for the year 2003 (the reference year) where information on actual market prices and (physical) cross-border flows is available. Thereafter, we have run additional simulations for the years 2010 and 2020 to analyse the future development of generation, export and import patterns, and to assess the influence of new interconnector projects. Due to uncertainty about future development, we have additionally tested the sensitivity of our base case to changes in e.g. the rate of growth in generation capacity and demand, the future generation structure, or the development of fuel prices. With a view to the economic import and export potential, our investigations confirm the assumption that network constraints represent a major barrier to the free exchange of electricity within the IEM. Considering the frequency and severity of congestion, our calculations show major network constraints at the following borders: 1) From Central Eastern Europe (Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia) to Germany, Austria and Hungary; 2) From Austria and Slovenia to Italy; 3) From Bulgaria and Serbia and Montenegro (respectively Macedonia) to Greece. Our results show, not unexpectedly, considerable differences in the net benefits of individual transmission capacity increases, due to differences in market value and/or investment costs. (Author)

  7. Sistema de análise de ativos através de redes neurais de múltiplas camadas. Asset analysis system using multilayer neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Medianeira Flores Costa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available When investors decide to “adventure” through stock markets they search for a method to provide safety on making decision. In fact, there is no precise way to know which stocks will became a profitable investiment. Technical analysis is a discipline that support the investors on making decisions. Such a discipline uses a set of tools and statistical methods to forecast the market’s movement. Such a paper presents the develpment of a robotical Trade System, using a heuristic method. The system has a Neural Network multilayer perceptron, trained with an algorithm for back propagation error. Thus, approaching to the technical analysis without emotional aspects, using the Neural Network forecast on supporting the decisions of a investor on stock market. In analyzing the results of the neural network can be seen that the neural network got a result of 42.6% higher than the diagnostic of the technical analysis.Quando investidores decidem se “aventurar” pelo mercado de renda variável, como pelo mercado de ações, buscam um método de ter mais segurança na tomada de decisão. Na prática, não há como saber quais ativos tornar-se-ão um investimento lucrativo. No mercado acionário, a Análise Técnica procura auxiliar o investidor na tomada de decisão. Para isso, utiliza-se de ferramentas e de métodos estatísticos para tentar predizer os movimentos do mercado. Este artigo apresenta o desenvolvimento de um Trade System robótico, utilizando um método heurístico. O sistema conta com uma rede neural multilayer perceptron, treinada com o algoritmo de retro propagação de erro, aproximando-se da análise técnica sem o fator emoção. Ao avaliar os resultados da rede neural, pode ser visto que a mesma obteve um resultado de 42,6% maior do que o diagnóstico da análise técnica.

  8. Operating principle of Soft Open Points for electrical distribution network operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Wanyu; Wu, Jianzhong; Jenkins, Nick; Wang, Chengshan; Green, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two control modes were developed for a B2B VSCs based SOP. • The SOP operating principle was investigated under various network conditions. • The performance of the SOP using two control modes was analyzed. - Abstract: Soft Open Points (SOPs) are power electronic devices installed in place of normally-open points in electrical power distribution networks. They are able to provide active power flow control, reactive power compensation and voltage regulation under normal network operating conditions, as well as fast fault isolation and supply restoration under abnormal conditions. Two control modes were developed for the operation of an SOP, using back-to-back voltage-source converters (VSCs). A power flow control mode with current control provides independent control of real and reactive power. A supply restoration mode with a voltage controller enables power supply to isolated loads due to network faults. The operating principle of the back-to-back VSCs based SOP was investigated under both normal and abnormal network operating conditions. Studies on a two-feeder medium-voltage distribution network showed the performance of the SOP under different network-operating conditions: normal, during a fault and post-fault supply restoration. During the change of network operating conditions, a mode switch method based on the phase locked loop controller was used to achieve the transitions between the two control modes. Hard transitions by a direct mode switching were noticed unfavourable, but seamless transitions were obtained by deploying a soft cold load pickup and voltage synchronization process.

  9. Expert System for support of natural gas network management; Sistema especialista para gerenciamento de redes de gas natural: SEGRED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Jonny Carlos da [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Hirano, Eduardo Wulff [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Hidraulica e Pneumatica (LASHIP); Moura, Newton Reis de [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Freire, Luiz Gustavo de Melo [PETROBRAS S.A., Pojuca, BA (Brazil). Unidade de Negocios de Gas Natural (UNGN)

    2004-07-01

    This work reports on the SEGRED project, which aims to develop an expert system for management of natural gas transportation networks. The system is currently being developed by LASHIP-UFSC in partnership with PETROBRAS/CENPES and TBG. The SEGRED system consists of an environment designed to support natural gas pipeline management by means of remote supervision of process parameters and analysis of the mutual interactions of those parameters by an expert system integrated to a dynamic simulator. The system is deployed through a process that contributes to making available for use the knowledge about functions such as line packing analysis and line break detection, thus enhancing the quality of execution of these tasks, which are related to the management of natural gas transportation network. The main benefits consist of promoting efforts to acquire and organize expert knowledge. This process contributes to the generation of a knowledge base with corporate technical memory, which can be made available in a permanent, expansible and useful way for decision-making. (author)

  10. Using neural networks and extreme value distributions to model electricity pool prices: Evidence from the Australian National Electricity Market 1998–2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dev, Priya; Martin, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Neural nets are unable to properly capture spiky price behavior found in the electricity market. • We modeled electricity price data from the Australian National Electricity Market over 15 years. • Neural nets need to be augmented with other modeling techniques to capture price spikes. • We fit a Generalized Pareto Distribution to price spikes using a peaks-over-thresholds approach. - Abstract: Competitors in the electricity supply industry desire accurate predictions of electricity spot prices to hedge against financial risks. Neural networks are commonly used for forecasting such prices, but certain features of spot price series, such as extreme price spikes, present critical challenges for such modeling. We investigate the predictive capacity of neural networks for electricity spot prices using Australian National Electricity Market data. Following neural net modeling of the data, we explore extreme price spikes through extreme value modeling, fitting a Generalized Pareto Distribution to price peaks over an estimated threshold. While neural nets capture the smoother aspects of spot price data, they are unable to capture local, volatile features that characterize electricity spot price data. Price spikes can be modeled successfully through extreme value modeling

  11. Assessing the market power due to the network constraints in competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bompard, E.; Ma, Y.C.; Napoli, R.; Jiang, C.W.

    2006-01-01

    The physical and operational constraints of the network pose very specific problems to market power analysis in the oligopolistic electricity markets. This paper presents a direct analytical approach to find the market equilibrium based on a supply function game model. The model is exploited to undertake a sensitivity analysis of the producer surplus with reference to the line flow limits under a DC power flow model for network representation. Two different kinds of indices, that can capture the market power arising under network constraints, are proposed. The first set of indices is the location privilege (LP), that measure the effect of the generators positioning in the grid on their surplus under perfect competition. The second set is for the network market power (NMP) indices that take into account the strategic behaviors of the producers that may take advantage of the congestion of the transmission lines. The indices allow for a ranking of the lines in terms of the market power they can induce and, in this respect, they may help the market regulator to focus on the network weakness in terms of the possible market outcomes under the market power behaviors from the supply side. The application of the proposed indices is illustrated with reference to the IEEE 30-bus test system. (author)

  12. Pyramidal resistor networks for electrical impedance tomography with partial boundary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borcea, L; Mamonov, A V; Druskin, V; Vasquez, F Guevara

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an inversion algorithm for electrical impedance tomography (EIT) with partial boundary measurements in two dimensions. It gives stable and fast reconstructions using sparse parameterizations of the unknown conductivity on optimal grids that are computed as part of the inversion. We follow the approach in Borcea et al (2008 Inverse Problems 24 035013) and Vasquez (2006 PhD thesis Rice University, Houston, TX, USA) that connects inverse discrete problems for resistor networks to continuum EIT problems, using optimal grids. The algorithm in Borcea et al (2008 Inverse Problems 24 035013) and Vasquez (2006 PhD Thesis Rice University, Houston, TX, USA) is based on circular resistor networks, and solves the EIT problem with full boundary measurements. It is extended in Borcea et al (2010 Inverse Problems 26 045010) to EIT with partial boundary measurements, using extremal quasi-conformal mappings that transform the problem to one with full boundary measurements. Here we introduce a different class of optimal grids, based on resistor networks with pyramidal topology, that is better suited for the partial measurements setup. We prove the unique solvability of the discrete inverse problem for these networks and develop an algorithm for finding them from the measurements of the Dirichlet to Neumann map. Then, we show how to use the networks to define the optimal grids and to approximate the unknown conductivity. We assess the performance of our approach with numerical simulations and compare the results with those in Borcea et al (2010)

  13. Synthesis of CdS nanowire networks and their optical and electrical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, R M; Wei, X L; Dai, L; Huo, H B; Qin, G G

    2007-01-01

    High quality single-crystal CdS nanowire (NW) networks have been synthesized on Si(111) substrates via the chemical vapour deposition method. X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction show that the NWs in the networks grow along the directions and their (0001) crystal planes are parallel to the Si(111) substrates. Room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra of single CdS NWs in the networks are dominated by a near-band-edge emission and free from deep-level defect emissions. The PLs resulting from free-exciton and bound-exciton recombinations are detected at 77 K. The results of the electrical transport measurement on the CdS NW networks show that the current can flow through different NWs via the cross-junctions. The resistivity, electron concentration and electron mobility of single NWs in the networks are estimated by fitting the I-V curves measured on single NWs with the metal-semiconductor-metal model suggested by Zhang et al (2006 Appl. Phys. Lett. 88 073102; 2007 Adv. Funct. Mater. at press)

  14. Planning under uncertainties paradigm - application to electric power distribution systems planning; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi Junior, Alberto

    1996-12-31

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the Dynamic Programming which comprehends the multistage subject to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions referent to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of evolutional rules associated to network flow algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems Particularly, the model fits in the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by strips of options (discreet or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the real world. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric energy, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm`s applicability. (author) 41 refs., 26 figs., 36 tabs.

  15. Planning under uncertainties paradigm - application to electric power distribution systems planning; Paradigma de planejamento sob incertezas - aplicacao ao planejamento dos sistemas de distribuicao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianchi, Junior, Alberto

    1997-12-31

    In this work it is presented an original methodology of multistage planning, with conflictive objectives and restrictions, incorporating the concept of uncertainties. To do so, the proposed paradigm is based on the Dynamic Programming which comprehends the multistage subject to conflictive restrictions; on the Fuzzy Sets Theory, through the decisions and fuzzy numbers, which model the uncertainties and ambiguous decisions referent to qualitative variables; and on the consideration of evolutional rules associated to network flow algorithm. In its conceptual elaboration, the paradigm is developed in a very ample way, of generalized application to a well defined class of planning problems Particularly, the model fits in the flexible planning, which has been very discussed in the recent literature. Flexible planning must be understood as the one which allows to the planner, under well-defined limits, the evaluation of the planning policy composed by strips of options (discreet or continuous), associated to uncertainty levels related to the real world. In order to validate and consolidate the theoretic concepts, it was elaborated an algorithm turned to the aggregated planning of the distribution of electric energy, that presents intrinsic characteristics which are perfectly fitted in the paradigm`s applicability. (author) 41 refs., 26 figs., 36 tabs.

  16. Biomass gasification systems in electric energy generation for isolated communities; Sistemas de gaseificacao de biomassa na geracao de energia eletrica para comunidades isoladas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, Suani Teixeira; Velazquez, Silvia M. Stortine Gonzales; Martins, Osvaldo Stella; Santos, Sandra Maria Apolinario dos; Basaglia, Fernando [Centro Nacional de Referencia em Biomassa (CENBIO), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: suani@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sgvelaz@iee.usp.br, e-mail: omartins@iee.usp.br, e-mail: sandra@iee.usp.br, e-mail: basaglia@iee.usp.br; Ushima, Ademar Hakuo [Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (IPT), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: adidas@ipt.br

    2004-07-01

    The project 'Comparison Among Existing Technologies of Biomass Gasification', agreement FINEP/CT-ENERG 23.01.0695.00, is a partnership between CENBIO - The Brazilian Reference Center on Biomass, BUN - Biomass Users Network of Brazil, IPT - Technology Research Institute and UA - Amazon University. The main objective of this project is to study a biomass gasifier system and its implantation, using a sustainable way, at isolated communities in the North Region, offering an alternative to replace fossil fuel. The system is composed by a gasifier from Indian Institute of Science - IISc, that can generate 20 kW of output energy, a generator (internal combustion engine), an ashes extractor, a water cooler and treatment system, a dryer and a control panel. The project, developed at IPT, intends to evaluate the operation conditions of the gasification system: gas cleaning, electric power generation and the technology transfer to Brazil, allowing the formation of human resources in the Brazilian North region and collaborating with the national institutions from this area. (author)

  17. SAInt – A novel quasi-dynamic model for assessing security of supply in coupled gas and electricity transmission networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pambour, Kwabena Addo; Cakir Erdener, Burcin; Bolado-Lavin, Ricardo; Dijkema, Gerhard P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy sources into existing electric power systems is connected with an increased interdependence between natural gas and electricity transmission networks. To analyse this interdependence and its impact on security of supply, we developed a novel quasi-dynamic

  18. Electric Arc Furnace Modeling with Artificial Neural Networks and Arc Length with Variable Voltage Gradient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Garcia-Segura

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric arc furnaces (EAFs contribute to almost one third of the global steel production. Arc furnaces use a large amount of electrical energy to process scrap or reduced iron and are relevant to study because small improvements in their efficiency account for significant energy savings. Optimal controllers need to be designed and proposed to enhance both process performance and energy consumption. Due to the random and chaotic nature of the electric arcs, neural networks and other soft computing techniques have been used for modeling EAFs. This study proposes a methodology for modeling EAFs that considers the time varying arc length as a relevant input parameter to the arc furnace model. Based on actual voltages and current measurements taken from an arc furnace, it was possible to estimate an arc length suitable for modeling the arc furnace using neural networks. The obtained results show that the model reproduces not only the stable arc conditions but also the unstable arc conditions, which are difficult to identify in a real heat process. The presented model can be applied for the development and testing of control systems to improve furnace energy efficiency and productivity.

  19. Relative localization in wireless sensor networks for measurement of electric fields under HVDC transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Wang, Qiusheng; Yuan, Haiwen; Song, Xiao; Hu, Xuemin; Zhao, Luxing

    2015-02-04

    In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes' neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  20. Relative Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Measurement of Electric Fields under HVDC Transmission Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the wireless sensor networks (WSNs for electric field measurement system under the High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC transmission lines, it is necessary to obtain the electric field distribution with multiple sensors. The location information of each sensor is essential to the correct analysis of measurement results. Compared with the existing approach which gathers the location information by manually labelling sensors during deployment, the automatic localization can reduce the workload and improve the measurement efficiency. A novel and practical range-free localization algorithm for the localization of one-dimensional linear topology wireless networks in the electric field measurement system is presented. The algorithm utilizes unknown nodes’ neighbor lists based on the Received Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI values to determine the relative locations of nodes. The algorithm is able to handle the exceptional situation of the output permutation which can effectively improve the accuracy of localization. The performance of this algorithm under real circumstances has been evaluated through several experiments with different numbers of nodes and different node deployments in the China State Grid HVDC test base. Results show that the proposed algorithm achieves an accuracy of over 96% under different conditions.

  1. A Complex Network Approach for the Estimation of the Energy Demand of Electric Mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Mario; Facchini, Angelo; Scala, Antonio; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso

    2018-01-10

    We study how renewable energy impacts regional infrastructures considering the full deployment of electric mobility at that scale. We use the Sardinia Island in Italy as a paradigmatic case study of a semi-closed system both by energy and mobility point of view. Human mobility patterns are estimated by means of census data listing the mobility dynamics of about 700,000 vehicles, the energy demand is estimated by modeling the charging behavior of electric vehicle owners. Here we show that current renewable energy production of Sardinia is able to sustain the commuter mobility even in the theoretical case of a full switch from internal combustion vehicles to electric ones. Centrality measures from network theory on the reconstructed network of commuter trips allows to identify the most important areas (hubs) involved in regional mobility. The analysis of the expected energy flows reveals long-range effects on infrastructures outside metropolitan areas and points out that the most relevant unbalances are caused by spatial segregation between production and consumption areas. Finally, results suggest the adoption of planning actions supporting the installation of renewable energy plants in areas mostly involved by the commuting mobility, avoiding spatial segregation between consumption and generation areas.

  2. A modular neural network scheme applied to fault diagnosis in electric power systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Agustín; Quiles, Eduardo; García, Emilio; Morant, Francisco; Correcher, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system.

  3. A Modular Neural Network Scheme Applied to Fault Diagnosis in Electric Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Flores

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new method for fault diagnosis in electric power systems based on neural modules. With this method the diagnosis is performed by assigning a neural module for each type of component comprising the electric power system, whether it is a transmission line, bus or transformer. The neural modules for buses and transformers comprise two diagnostic levels which take into consideration the logic states of switches and relays, both internal and back-up, with the exception of the neural module for transmission lines which also has a third diagnostic level which takes into account the oscillograms of fault voltages and currents as well as the frequency spectrums of these oscillograms, in order to verify if the transmission line had in fact been subjected to a fault. One important advantage of the diagnostic system proposed is that its implementation does not require the use of a network configurator for the system; it does not depend on the size of the power network nor does it require retraining of the neural modules if the power network increases in size, making its application possible to only one component, a specific area, or the whole context of the power system.

  4. Fault detection in the electrical equipment of the artificial system, used for the oil production in marine platforms; Deteccion de fallas en los equipos electricos del sistema artificial, utilizado para la produccion de petroleo en plataformas marinas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas H, Vicente; Rosales S, Inocente [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Pimentel M, Jorge [Petroleos Mexicanos (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    At present, PEMEX is using new artificial pumping systems for the production of oil, specifically the Electro Centrifugal Pumping system (ECP). Nevertheless, during the operation of the (ECP) system problems by the failure of their electrical components have appeared, mainly of the equipment installed within the well. The faults have resulted in an increased cost for the diminution in the production and the maintenance cost of the remedial work. The maintenance personnel have procedures to perform verification tests of the conditions of the bottom electrical equipment. But, in the case of an electrical failure of the equipment, its location cannot be determined, since they are installed at 3,600 m from the production wellhead. In accordance with the former, the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas proposed the application of the reflectometry technique in the time domain, to complement the maintenance procedures. This technique is a very useful diagnosis tool of the electrical equipment, which helps in the decision making of the maneuvers of preventive and corrective maintenance to be followed, with the consequent saving of resources. [Spanish] Actualmente, PEMEX esta utilizando nuevos sistemas artificiales de bombeo para la produccion de petroleo, en especifico el Sistema de Bombeo Electrocentrifugo (BEC). Sin embargo, durante la operacion del Sistema BEC se han presentado problemas por la falla de sus componentes electricos, sobre todo del equipo instalado dentro del pozo. Las fallas han resultado con un costo elevado por la disminucion en la produccion y por los trabajos de mantenimiento correctivo. El personal de mantenimiento cuenta con procedimientos para realizar pruebas de verificacion del estado de los equipos electricos de fondo. Pero, en el caso de una falla electrica de los equipos, no se puede determinar su ubicacion, dado que se instalan a 3,600 m del cabezal del pozo de produccion. De acuerdo con lo anterior, el Instituto de Investigaciones

  5. Utilización del paquete libre PSAT para estudios en el Sistema Electro energético Nacional ; Using the PSAT free package for studies in the National Electric System in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio A. Martínez García

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La determinación de los regímenes más económicos de operación de los Sistemas Eléctricos de Potencia, teniendo en cuenta la confiabilidad, es una tarea actual sobre todo en sistemas de grandes dimensiones. En el siguiente trabajo se explican las posibilidades que brinda el paquete libre PSAT para efectuar análisis técnicos y económicos aplicados al Sistema Eléctrico Nacional, tales como flujos de carga, flujos continuado, análisis de estabilidad de la tensión, flujo óptimo de potencia y análisis de pequeñas oscilaciones, con lo cual se obtuvieron los siguientes resultados se evalúo la seguridad de estos regímenes desde el punto de vista de la cargabilidad de los nodos, así como de manera preliminar el amortiguamiento del sistema ante pequeñas perturbaciones y se determinó flujo óptimo para asegurar tensiones permisibles en los nodos. Los regímenes tomados como base para el estudio fueron regímenes bases típicos de invierno con demanda máxima pronosticada de 3187,41MW.Determining the economic regimes of operation of Electrical Power Systems, considering the reliability, is a present task especially in large systems. In this paper, we explain the possibilities of the PSAT free package to perform technical and economic analysis applied to the national electricity system, such as load flow, continuous flow analysis, voltage stability, optimal power flow and analysis of small oscillations, which were obtained the following results are evaluated the safety of these systems from the point of view of the chargeability of the nodes, and preliminarily the damping of the system to small perturbations and was determined to ensure optimum flow allowable stresses at nodes. Regimes taken as a basis for the study were typical winter base systems with peak demand forecast of 3187,41 MW.

  6. Integrated electrification solution for autonomous electrical networks on the basis of RES and energy storage configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    Most medium and small islands of the Aegean Archipelagos face serious infrastructure problems, strongly related with the limited electrical energy available at extremely high cost. On the other hand, the area is characterized by very high wind speeds and abundant solar energy, thus the exploitation of the available renewable energy sources (RES) may significantly contribute to the fulfillment of the local societies energy demand at minimum environmental and macroeconomic cost. However, the stochastic availability of wind energy and the variable availability of solar energy, the daily and seasonal electricity demand fluctuations, as well as the limited local electrical network capacity result in serious restrictions concerning the maximum renewable power penetration. In this context, the present paper investigates the possibility of creating a combined electricity generation facility based on the exploitation of wind or/and solar potential of an area as well as on the utilization of an appropriate energy storage configuration in order to replace the existing thermal power stations with rational investment requirements. For this purpose, the major parameters of the proposed integrated configuration are firstly calculated and its financial viability is accordingly analyzed. One of the main targets of the proposed solution is to maximize the RES exploitation of the area at a minimum electricity generation cost, while special emphasis is given in order to select the most cost-efficient energy storage device available. According to the results obtained the proposed solution is not only financially attractive but also improves the quality of the electricity offered to the local communities, substituting the expensive and heavily polluting existing thermal power stations

  7. Undelivered electricity as an indicator of the effects of automation in the 10 kV network PD ED Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrcelj Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the effects of automation in the 10 kV PD ED Belgrade valorized through undelivered electricity. In the paper it was observed the parts of the network for which it was possible to reconstruct the events of the past. Calculations undelivered electricity were carried out for the period prior to the implementation of recloser in remote control system and during the period of probation system. A significant reduction in the duration of the fault, and thus undelivered electricity in automated network, indicates an increase in the reliability level after the implementation in the system SCADA SN.

  8. Reinforcing electricity network cross border capacity: utility evaluation of a commercial interconnection between Belgium and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinko, Raytchev

    2004-01-01

    The emergence of a common European electricity market means that more exchange of electrical power between countries will be needed. Basically, there are two ways to accelerate the international trade in electricity: 1) improve the current methods of allocation of existing cross border capacity and 2) reinforce the network by building new capacity. The present paper deals only with the latter topic which is not well explored by the economic literature. The first section underlines the importance of encouraging the construction of a new cross border capacity. Then, using a concrete example - the possible construction of an interconnection line between Belgium and Germany - we discuss some questions concerning the installation of a new cross border capacity. We propose a new identification method for positioning of the interconnection line based on the examination of the energy balance of adjacent regions (section 2). The macro-economic analysis (section 3) and the revision of the institutions involved in the decision process (section 4) show that the three regions located at the German-Belgian border - the Rhineland-Palatinat, the Rhineland-of-North-Westphalia from the German side and Wallonia from the Belgian side-should be interested in building and operating the new electricity tie-line. (authors)

  9. Forecasting Electricity Demand in Thailand with an Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Kandananond

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand planning for electricity consumption is a key success factor for the development of any countries. However, this can only be achieved if the demand is forecasted accurately. In this research, different forecasting methods—autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA, artificial neural network (ANN and multiple linear regression (MLR—were utilized to formulate prediction models of the electricity demand in Thailand. The objective was to compare the performance of these three approaches and the empirical data used in this study was the historical data regarding the electricity demand (population, gross domestic product: GDP, stock index, revenue from exporting industrial products and electricity consumption in Thailand from 1986 to 2010. The results showed that the ANN model reduced the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE to 0.996%, while those of ARIMA and MLR were 2.80981 and 3.2604527%, respectively. Based on these error measures, the results indicated that the ANN approach outperformed the ARIMA and MLR methods in this scenario. However, the paired test indicated that there was no significant difference among these methods at α = 0.05. According to the principle of parsimony, the ARIMA and MLR models might be preferable to the ANN one because of their simple structure and competitive performance

  10. Day-ahead deregulated electricity market price forecasting using neural network input featured by DCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anbazhagan, S.; Kumarappan, N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We presented DCT input featured FFNN model for forecasting in Spain market. • The key factors impacting electricity price forecasting are historical prices. • Past 42 days were trained and the next 7 days were forecasted. • The proposed approach has a simple and better NN structure. • The DCT-FFNN mode is effective and less computation time than the recent models. - Abstract: In a deregulated market, a number of factors determined the outcome of electricity price and displays a perplexed and maverick fluctuation. Both power producers and consumers needs single compact and robust price forecasting tool in order to maximize their profits and utilities. In order to achieve the helter–skelter kind of electricity price, one dimensional discrete cosine transforms (DCT) input featured feed-forward neural network (FFNN) is modeled (DCT-FFNN). The proposed FFNN is a single compact and robust architecture (without hybridizing the various hard and soft computing models). It has been predicted that the DCT-FFNN model is close to the state of the art can be achieved with less computation time. The proposed DCT-FFNN approach is compared with 17 other recent approaches to estimate the market clearing prices of mainland Spain. Finally, the accuracy of the price forecasting is also applied to the electricity market of New York in year 2010 that shows the effectiveness of the proposed DCT-FFNN approach

  11. Enhanced Operation of Electricity Distribution Grids Through Smart Metering PLC Network Monitoring, Analysis and Grid Conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iker Urrutia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Voltage (LV electricity distribution grid operations can be improved through a combination of new smart metering systems’ capabilities based on real time Power Line Communications (PLC and LV grid topology mapping. This paper presents two novel contributions. The first one is a new methodology developed for smart metering PLC network monitoring and analysis. It can be used to obtain relevant information from the grid, thus adding value to existing smart metering deployments and facilitating utility operational activities. A second contribution describes grid conditioning used to obtain LV feeder and phase identification of all connected smart electric meters. Real time availability of such information may help utilities with grid planning, fault location and a more accurate point of supply management.

  12. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios [Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago (United States); Jamasb, Tooraj [Department of Applied Economics, University of Cambridge, Sidgwick Avenue, Austin Robinson Building, Cambridge, CB3 9DE (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tooraj.jamasb@econ.cam.ac.uk; Pollitt, Michael [Judge Institute of Management, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches.

  13. Benchmarking and incentive regulation of quality of service: an application to the UK electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannakis, Dimitrios; Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Quality of service has emerged as an important issue in post-reform regulation of electricity distribution networks. Regulators have employed partial incentive schemes to promote cost saving, investment efficiency, and service quality. This paper presents a quality-incorporated benchmarking study of the electricity distribution utilities in the UK between 1991/92 and 1998/99. We calculate technical efficiency of the utilities using Data Envelopment Analysis technique and productivity change over time using quality-incorporated Malmquist indices. We find that cost-efficient firms do not necessarily exhibit high service quality and that efficiency scores of cost-only models do not show high correlation with those of quality-based models. The results also show that improvements in service quality have made a significant contribution to the sector's total productivity change. In addition, we show that integrating quality of service in regulatory benchmarking is preferable to cost-only approaches

  14. Heterogeneous Collaborative Sensor Network for Electrical Management of an Automated House with PV Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jiménez-Leube

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector. Improving demand-side management is very important in distributed energy generation applications. Sensing and control are the foundations of the “Smart Grid” which is the future of large-scale energy management. The system presented in this paper has been developed on a self-sufficient solar house called “MagicBox” equipped with grid connection, PV generation, lead-acid batteries, controllable appliances and smart metering. Therefore, there is a large number of energy variables to be monitored that allow us to precisely manage the energy performance of the house by means of collaborative sensors. The experimental results, performed on a real house, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed collaborative system to reduce the consumption of electrical power and to increase energy efficiency.

  15. Development of the German network for transporting electricity: A major challenge for managers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feix, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    The catastrophe at the Japanese nuclear power plant in Fukushima has deeply altered Germany's energy policy. The news from Japan forced the federal government to step up its efforts so as to expand more quickly the share of renewable sources in the German energy mix and, on short notice, put an end to nuclear power. This Energiewende, as the Germans call it, is a major policy priority for the government and an outstanding project that mobilizes all of German society. This turning point in energy policy has entailed rewriting several laws so as to provide a legal framework for the transition. Most stakeholders expect that important amendments will be made to the texts directly related to production facilities. What is noticeable and even surprising is the scope of the changes in laws about electricity grids, in particular about managing and developing the network for transporting electricity

  16. Heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management of an automated house with PV energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Gutiérrez, Alvaro; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Caamaño-Martín, Estefaná; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Jiménez-Leube, Javier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector. Improving demand-side management is very important in distributed energy generation applications. Sensing and control are the foundations of the "Smart Grid" which is the future of large-scale energy management. The system presented in this paper has been developed on a self-sufficient solar house called "MagicBox" equipped with grid connection, PV generation, lead-acid batteries, controllable appliances and smart metering. Therefore, there is a large number of energy variables to be monitored that allow us to precisely manage the energy performance of the house by means of collaborative sensors. The experimental results, performed on a real house, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed collaborative system to reduce the consumption of electrical power and to increase energy efficiency.

  17. One Core Phase Shifting Transformer for Control of the Power Flow Distribution in Electric Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golub I.V.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the variant of phase shifting transformer that is made, unlike from traditional technology, on the basis of only one magnetic core. The paper describes the methodology related to the analysis of operation modes of device and its components. Additionally it presents a mathematical model of device with determines the relationship between input and output electric quantities as well as own longitudinal and transverse parameters of an equivalent circuit of phase shifting transformer (PST. Proposed configuration of PST is interesting from an economic and operational consideration; enable continuous control of power flow distribution in electric networks as a result of regulation a phase shift angle between input and output voltages of device.

  18. Heterogeneous Collaborative Sensor Network for Electrical Management of an Automated House with PV Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Cagigal, Manuel; Matallanas, Eduardo; Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Monasterio-Huelin, Félix; Caamaño-Martín, Estefaná; Masa-Bote, Daniel; Jiménez-Leube, Javier

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present a heterogeneous collaborative sensor network for electrical management in the residential sector. Improving demand-side management is very important in distributed energy generation applications. Sensing and control are the foundations of the “Smart Grid” which is the future of large-scale energy management. The system presented in this paper has been developed on a self-sufficient solar house called “MagicBox” equipped with grid connection, PV generation, lead-acid batteries, controllable appliances and smart metering. Therefore, there is a large number of energy variables to be monitored that allow us to precisely manage the energy performance of the house by means of collaborative sensors. The experimental results, performed on a real house, demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed collaborative system to reduce the consumption of electrical power and to increase energy efficiency. PMID:22247680

  19. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  20. Database management for an electrical distribution network of intermediate complexity CERN

    CERN Document Server

    De Ruschi, Daniele; Burdet, Georges

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is submitted as the final work for the degree of Master of Science in Engineering of Information that has been taken by the writer at at University of Bergamo, Italy. The report is based on the work conducted by the writer from September 2009 throughout June 2010 on a project assignment given by the department of Engineering Electrical Control at CERN Genève The work performed is a contribution to the GESMAR system of CERN. GESMAR is a CERN made complex platform for support and management of electric network. In this work is developed an information system for an ETL process. The report presents the design, implementation and evaluation made, prototypes of applications which take advantages of new information inserted in GESMAR are also presented.

  1. Equivalent electrical network model approach applied to a double acting low temperature differential Stirling engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formosa, Fabien; Badel, Adrien; Lottin, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An equivalent electrical network modeling of Stirling engine is proposed. • This model is applied to a membrane low temperate double acting Stirling engine. • The operating conditions (self-startup and steady state behavior) are defined. • An experimental engine is presented and tested. • The model is validated against experimental results. - Abstract: This work presents a network model to simulate the periodic behavior of a double acting free piston type Stirling engine. Each component of the engine is considered independently and its equivalent electrical circuit derived. When assembled in a global electrical network, a global model of the engine is established. Its steady behavior can be obtained by the analysis of the transfer function for one phase from the piston to the expansion chamber. It is then possible to simulate the dynamic (steady state stroke and operation frequency) as well as the thermodynamic performances (output power and efficiency) for given mean pressure, heat source and heat sink temperatures. The motion amplitude especially can be determined by the spring-mass properties of the moving parts and the main nonlinear effects which are taken into account in the model. The thermodynamic features of the model have then been validated using the classical isothermal Schmidt analysis for a given stroke. A three-phase low temperature differential double acting free membrane architecture has been built and tested. The experimental results are compared with the model and a satisfactory agreement is obtained. The stroke and operating frequency are predicted with less than 2% error whereas the output power discrepancy is of about 30%. Finally, some optimization routes are suggested to improve the design and maximize the performances aiming at waste heat recovery applications

  2. Phonon-assisted tunnelling in electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes and networks ones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipinys, P. [Department of Physics, Vilnius Pedagogical University, Studentu 39, LT-08106 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: pipiniai@takas.lt; Kiveris, A. [Department of Physics, Vilnius Pedagogical University, Studentu 39, LT-08106 Vilnius (Lithuania)], E-mail: studsk@vpu.lt

    2008-10-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), measured in the low temperatures by Tang et al. [Science 292 (2001) 2462] and transparent SWCNT networks presented by Jaiswal et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 446006], are reinterpreted in the framework of phonon-assisted tunnelling theory as a free charge carriers generation mechanism in the strong electrical field. The good fit of the temperature-dependent I-V data in low temperature region (i.e., T<25 K) has been achieved using the phonons of energy <1 meV.

  3. Phonon-assisted tunnelling in electrical conductivity of individual carbon nanotubes and networks ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipinys, P.; Kiveris, A.

    2008-01-01

    Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT), measured in the low temperatures by Tang et al. [Science 292 (2001) 2462] and transparent SWCNT networks presented by Jaiswal et al. [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 19 (2007) 446006], are reinterpreted in the framework of phonon-assisted tunnelling theory as a free charge carriers generation mechanism in the strong electrical field. The good fit of the temperature-dependent I-V data in low temperature region (i.e., T<25 K) has been achieved using the phonons of energy <1 meV

  4. Power flow modelling in electric networks with renewable energy sources in large areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buhawa, Z. M.; Dvorsky, E.

    2012-01-01

    In many worlds regions there is a great potential for utilizing home grid connected renewable power generating systems, with capacities of MW thousands. The optimal utilization of these sources is connected with power flow possibilities trough the power network in which they have to be connected. There is necessary to respect the long distances among the electric power sources with great outputs and power consumption and non even distribution of the power sources as well. The article gives the solution possibilities for Libya region under utilization of wind renewable sources in north in shore regions. (Authors)

  5. Advanced Power Converter for Universal and Flexible Power Management in Future Electricity Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bassett, R.

    2007-01-01

    converters for grid connection of renewable sources will be needed. These power converters must be able to provide intelligent power management as well as ancillary services. This paper presents the overall structure and the control aspects of an advanced power converter for universal and flexible power......More "green" power provided by Distributed Generation will enter into the European electricity network in the near future. In order to control the power flow and to ensure proper and secure operation of this future grid, with an increased level of the renewable power, new power electronic...

  6. Application of Electre III and DEA methods in the BPR of a bank branch network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaskos Xenofon

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Operational research methodologies are a powerful tool assisting managers in their effort to critically review business data and decide on future business actions. This paper presents the application of Electre multi-criteria methodology and Data Envelopment Analysis, as a part of a small commercial bank's ongoing effort to reengineer its branch network. We focus on two particular problems: first, categorization of the branches so as to apply adequate equivalent organizational schemas and second the assessment of relative efficiency of human resources.

  7. Effect of the metal work function on the electrical properties of carbon nanotube network transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Ko, Dae Young; Kil, Joon Pyo; Lee, Jung Wha; Park, Wan Jun

    2012-01-01

    A nearly perfect semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube random network thin film transistor array was fabricated, and its reproducible transport properties were investigated. The effects of the metal work function for both the source and the drain on the electrical properties of the transistors were systematically investigated. Three different metal electrodes, Al, Ti, and Pd, were employed. As the metal work function increased, p-type behavior became dominant, and the field effect hole mobility dramatically increased. Also, the Schottky barrier of the Ti-nanotube contact was invariant to the molecular adsorption of species in air.

  8. Multi-agents Based Modelling for Distribution Network Operation with Electric Vehicle Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Zong, Yi

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EV) can become integral part of a smart grid because instead of just consuming power they are capable of providing valuable services to power systems. To integrate EVs smoothly into the power systems, a multi-agents system (MAS) with hierarchical organization structure...... and its role is to manage the distribution network safely by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy schedule of VPPs. VPP agents belong to the middle level and their roles are to manage the charge periods of the EVs. EV agents sit in the bottom level...

  9. Multi-agent based modeling for electric vehicle integration in a distribution network operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Morais, Hugo; Lind, Morten

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a multi-agent based modeling technology for simulating and operating a hierarchical energy management of a power distribution system with focus on EVs integration. The proposed multi-agent system consists of four types of agents: i) Distribution system...... operator (DSO) technical agent and ii) DSO market agents that both belong to the top layer of the hierarchy and their roles are to manage the distribution network by avoiding grid congestions and using congestion prices to coordinate the energy scheduled; iii) Electric vehicle virtual power plant agents...

  10. Incentive regulation of electricity distribution networks: Lessons of experience from Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent experience of the UK electricity distribution sector under incentive regulation. The UK has a significant and transparent history in implementing incentive regulation in the period since 1990. We demonstrate the successes of this period in reducing costs, prices, and energy losses while maintaining quality of service. We also draw out the lessons for other countries in implementing distribution sector reform. We conclude by discussing the place of incentive regulation of networks within the wider reform context, the required legislative framework, the need for appropriate unbundling, the importance of quality of service incentives, the regulatory information requirements, and the role of sector rationalisation. (author)

  11. Filamentation and networking of electric currents in dense Z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The results of high-resolution processing using the multilevel dynamical contrasting method of earlier experiments on linear Z-pinches are presented which illustrate formation of a dynamical percolating network woven by long-living filaments of electric current. A qualitative approach is outlined which treats long-living filaments as a classical plasma formation governed by the long-range quantum bonds provided, at the microscopical level, by nanotubes of elements of optimal valence. The self-similarity of structuring in laboratory and cosmic plasmas is shown, and examples are found of nanotube-like and/or fullerene-like structures of cosmic length scales. (author)

  12. Filamentation and networking of electric currents in dense Z-pinch plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.

    1999-01-01

    The results of high-resolution processing using the multilevel dynamical contrasting method of earlier experiments on linear Z-pinches are presented which illustrate formation of a dynamical percolating network woven by long-living filaments of electric current. A qualitative approach is outlined which treats long-living filaments as a classical plasma formation governed by the long-range quantum bonds provided, at the micro-scopical level, by nanotubes of elements of optimal valence. The self-similarity of structuring in laboratory and cosmic plasmas is shown, and examples are found of nanotube-like and/or fullerene-like structures of cosmic length scales. (author)

  13. Electric field induced localization phenomena in a ladder network with superlattice configuration: Effect of backbone environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Paramita; Karmakar, S. N. [Condensed Matter Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Sector-I, Block-AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata-700 064 (India); Maiti, Santanu K., E-mail: santanu.maiti@isical.ac.in [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, 203 Barrackpore Trunk Road, Kolkata-700 108 (India)

    2014-09-15

    Electric field induced localization properties of a tight-binding ladder network in presence of backbone sites are investigated. Based on Green's function formalism we numerically calculate two-terminal transport together with density of states for different arrangements of atomic sites in the ladder and its backbone. Our results lead to a possibility of getting multiple mobility edges which essentially plays a switching action between a completely opaque to fully or partly conducting region upon the variation of system Fermi energy, and thus, support in fabricating mesoscopic or DNA-based switching devices.

  14. Improving distribution efficiency of electrical network using geo-electrical options. A case study in a rural area of Assam (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hazarika, S.; Hiloidhari, M.; Baruah, D.C. [Energy Conservation Laboratory, Department of Energy, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam (India)

    2012-11-15

    Reduction of electricity distribution loss is a major area of focus in India. This paper aims to investigate geo-electrical options to improve distribution efficiency of electrical network. Distribution efficiencies corresponding to several possible electrical network options are assessed using Geographical Information System (GIS) integrated electrical theory. An existing electrical distribution network of a rural area in Assam (India) is considered for the present investigation. Information related to characteristics of loads, features of conductors, and transformers of the existing network are used for this investigation. The line losses of the three existing transformers are estimated at about 36, 20, and 3 % of their respective connected loads. Longer distribution lines associated with higher loads are the causes of higher line losses. Using basic electrical theory and GIS tools, it is found that line losses can be reduced in the existing distribution system through management of distribution transformer and reconductoring. Two alternative locations for each of the three transformers are identified for optimal management of distribution transformers. Similarly, five different types of commercially available conductors are identified for possible reconductoring to reduce line loss. The economic viability of reconductoring of distribution lines are also assessed through an economic analysis. Net present values of total expenditure comprising purchase prices of conductor and cost attributed to line losses are estimated considering 30 years of useful life. The existing conductor has the worst economic merit, though it is the cheapest amongst all. A net saving of about USD 24,084 is possible through the best choice of distribution conductor for the village.

  15. How single node dynamics enhances synchronization in neural networks with electrical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacini, E.; Burioni, R.; Di Volo, M.; Groppi, M.; Soresina, C.; Vezzani, A.

    2016-01-01

    The stability of the completely synchronous state in neural networks with electrical coupling is analytically investigated applying both the Master Stability Function approach (MSF), developed by Pecora and Carroll (1998), and the Connection Graph Stability method (CGS) proposed by Belykh et al. (2004). The local dynamics is described by Morris–Lecar model for spiking neurons and by Hindmarsh–Rose model in spike, burst, irregular spike and irregular burst regimes. The combined application of both CGS and MSF methods provides an efficient estimate of the synchronization thresholds, namely bounds for the coupling strength ranges in which the synchronous state is stable. In all the considered cases, we observe that high values of coupling strength tend to synchronize the system. Furthermore, we observe a correlation between the single node attractor and the local stability properties given by MSF. The analytical results are compared with numerical simulations on a sample network, with excellent agreement.

  16. Simulation of Radiation Heat Transfer in a VAR Furnace Using an Electrical Resistance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    The use of electrical resistance networks to simulate heat transfer is a well known analytical technique that greatly simplifies the solution of radiation heat transfer problems. In a VAR furnace, radiative heat transfer occurs between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall; and the arc when the latter is present during melting. To explore the relative heat exchange between these elements, a resistive network model was developed to simulate the heat exchange between the electrode, ingot, and crucible with and without the presence of an arc. This model was then combined with an ingot model to simulate the VAR process and permit a comparison between calculated and observed results during steady state melting. Results from simulations of a variety of alloys of different sizes have demonstrated the validity of the model. Subsequent simulations demonstrate the application of the model to the optimization of both steady state and hot top melt practices, and raises questions concerning heat flux assumptions at the ingot top surface.

  17. FEATURES OF SELECTION OF CAPACITOR BANKS IN ELECTRIC NETWORKS WITH INTERHARMONIC SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. L. Sayenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Development of a methodology for selecting capacitor bank parameters designed to compensate for reactive power, if there are sources of interharmonics in the electrical network. Development of a methodology for selecting the parameters of capacitor banks that are part of resonant filters of higher harmonics and interharmonics. Methodology. For the research, we used the decomposition of the non-sinusoidal voltage (current curve into the sum of the harmonic components with frequencies as multiple of the fundamental frequency - higher harmonics, and not multiple fundamental frequencies - interharmonics. Results. Expressions are obtained for checking the absence of inadmissible overloads of capacitor banks by voltage and current in the presence of voltage (current in the curve, along with higher harmonics, of the discrete spectrum of interharmonics. When selecting capacitor banks, both for reactive power compensation and for filter-compensating devices, the necessity of constructing the frequency characteristics of the input and mutual resistances of the electrical network for analyzing possible resonant phenomena is confirmed. Originality. The expediency of simplified calculation of the voltage variation at the terminals of the banks of the capacitors of the higher harmonics filters and interharmonics due to the presence of the reactor in the filters is substantiated. Practical value. The use of the proposed approaches will make it possible to resolve a number of issues related to the choice of parameters of capacitor banks in networks with nonlinear loads, including: ensuring reliable operation of capacitor banks when their parameters deviate from their nominal values, as well as deviations in the parameters of the supply network and sources of harmonic distortion; ensuring the absence of resonant phenomena at frequencies of both higher harmonics and interharmonics.

  18. Analysis of market signals in a competitive electricity market using components of network rental

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarasinghe, L.Y.C.; Annakkage, U.D.

    2009-01-01

    In the competitive electricity market, Locational Marginal Prices (LMPs) are important pricing signals for the participants as the effects of transmission losses and binding constraints are embedded in LMPs. While these LMPs provide valuable information at each location, they do not provide a detailed description in terms of contributing terms. The LMP components, on the other hand, show the explicit decomposition of LMP into contributing components, and thus, can be considered as better market signals. However, the effects of transmission losses cannot be explicitly seen from the LMP components. In this paper, the components of network rental is proposed to be used as a method in analyzing market signals, by decomposing the network rental into contributing components among the consumers. Since, the network rental is the surplus paid by all the consumers, components of network rental show how each consumer has actually overpaid due to losses and each binding constraint separately. A case study is also presented to demonstrate the potential of this proposed method in market signal analysis. (author)

  19. Reliability Indicators of Urban Electric Network Schemes for Supply of Second and Third Category Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Korotkevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers two schemes of the urban distributive electric network for supply of the second and third category consumers for whom indicators of reliability have been determined.As for a network scheme of the 2nd category it has been determined that while installing low-oil and vacuum switches at a distributive point the most remote transformer substation has the highest non-availability  factor which is higher of the corresponding non-availability  factor of the nearest transformer substation by 1,21–1,23 fold  accordingly.As for a network scheme of the 3rd category consumers it has been obtained the data that reliability of consumers receiving supply from bus-bars of transformer substations with 0,38 kW voltage changes  significantly (by 1,2–1,9-fold while changing a breakpoint of the network with 10 kW voltage.

  20. Development of network-based multichannel neuromuscular electrical stimulation system for stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Hongen; Xie, Yongji; Liu, Xiaoxuan; He, Xin; Hao, Manzhao; Bao, Yong; Xie, Qing; Lan, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a promising assistive technology for stroke rehabilitation. Here we present the design and development of a multimuscle stimulation system as an emerging therapy for people with paretic stroke. A network-based multichannel NMES system was integrated based on dual bus architecture of communication and an H-bridge current regulator with a power booster. The structure of the system was a body area network embedded with multiple stimulators and a communication protocol of controlled area network to transmit muscle stimulation parameter information to individual stimulators. A graphical user interface was designed to allow clinicians to specify temporal patterns and muscle stimulation parameters. We completed and tested a prototype of the hardware and communication software modules of the multichannel NMES system. The prototype system was first verified in nondisabled subjects for safety, and then tested in subjects with stroke for feasibility with assisting multijoint movements. Results showed that synergistic stimulation of multiple muscles in subjects with stroke improved performance of multijoint movements with more natural velocity profiles at elbow and shoulder and reduced acromion excursion due to compensatory trunk rotation. The network-based NMES system may provide an innovative solution that allows more physiological activation of multiple muscles in multijoint task training for patients with stroke.

  1. CIRCUIT-DESIGN SOLUTIONS AND INFORMATION SUPPORT OF CITY ELECTRIC NETWORKS IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE SMART GRID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Fursanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structure, circuit-design solutions and information support of the city electric networks in the conditions of the SMART GRID have been analyzed. It is demonstrated that the new conditions of functioning of electric power engineering, increasing demands for its technological state and reliability in most countries determined the transition to a restructuring of electrical networks to be based on the SMART GRID (intelligent power networks innovative new structure. The definitions of the SMART GRID, its various attributes and characteristics in most developed countries including Belarus are presented. It is revealed that the existing and future circuit and constructive solutions that can automate the process of managing modes of urban electric networks under the SMART GRID conditions are manifold. At present, the most common in distribution networks are the sources of distributed generation (combustion turbines, wind turbines, photovoltaic installations, mini-hydro, etc.. The patterns and problems of information traceability of a traditional urban networks of the unified energy system of Belarus have been analyzed, and it is demonstrated that in the conditions of the SMART GRID most of the problems of the control mode that are characteristic for traditional distribution networks 6–10 kV and 0.38 kV, lose their relevance. Therefore, the present article presents and features the main directions of development of automatic control modes of the SMART GRID.

  2. Specification of a system for planning and analysis of independent generator connection impact on the electric distribution system; Especificacao de um sistema de planeamento e analise do impacto da conexao de geradores independentes no sistema electrico da distribuicao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proenca, Luis Miguel; Matos, Manuel Antonio [Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Porto (Portugal); Campos, Manuel Luis Borges [Centro para a Excelencia na Distribuicao (CED), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes a system for planning and analysis of the independent generator connection impact on the electric distribution system. This system is being developed under a contract signed between the Center for Excellency in the Distribution (CED), state of Sao Paulo - Brazil and the INESC, Porto - Portugal - energy unit.

  3. Sistema Electrónico Inteligente para el Control de la Interconexión entre Equipamiento de Generación Distribuida y la Red Eléctrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Real-Calvo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Las transformaciones que están teniendo lugar en el sector eléctrico están haciendo evolucionar la red hacia un modelo más inteligente y eficiente conocido como Smart Grid. En este contexto, a los DERs que se integren en la red se les requerirá un control avanzado de la interfaz de conexión. Este trabajo presenta un original dispositivo electrónico inteligente (IED de altas prestaciones para el control de la interconexión eléctrica con numerosas y nuevas prestaciones. El dispositivo tiene sobrada capacidad para contemplar tanto la calidad de suministro como operar multifuncionalmente a nivel de protección y seguridad; y su arquitectura modular en un Sistema Embebido permite una fácil integración, tanto en el desarrollo de equipos de nueva generación, como en equipamiento convencional ya instalado para adaptarlo al nuevo contexto de gestión inteligente. Se ha desarrollado un IED que ha sido sometido a pruebas de clase A siguiendo la normativa IEC 61000-4-30 e IEC 62586-2, y se le han efectuado ensayos para validar la respuesta temporal en la generación de órdenes y señales de alarma para protecciones. Se muestran y analizan algunos de estos resultados experimentales, y se comenta la experiencia de integración real de este prototipo en un inversor inteligente experimental, diseñado expresamente para operar en un escenario Smart Grid. Abstract: The changes that are taking place in the electricity sector are causing an evolution of grid towards a more intelligent and efficient model known as Smart Grid. In this context equipment that connect to electric system require an intelligent control of the connection interface. This paper presents the design and development of an intelligent electronic device (IED with high performance for controlling the electrical interconnection. The device has multifunctional ability to analyze power quality and operate with protections, and its modular architecture allows easy integration in

  4. Presentation of a stochastic model estimating the wind energy contribution in remote island electrical networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kapsali, M.; Tiligadas, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► This study estimates the maximum wind energy contribution to an isolated micro-grid. ► An integrated computational tool is developed on the basis of stochastic analysis. ► The probability distribution of the wind energy surplus and deficit is estimated. ► The results indicate that a strict penetration limit is imposed to wind energy. -- Abstract: The electrification in remote islands whose electricity distribution network is not connected to the mainland’s grid is mostly based on Autonomous Power Stations (APSs) that are usually characterized by a considerably high electricity production cost, while at the same time the contribution of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in these regions accounts for less than 10% of the total electricity generation. This actually results from the fact that despite the excellent wind potential of most of these islands, the wind energy contribution is significantly restricted from limits imposed to protect the remote electrical grids from possible instability problems, due to the stochastic wind speed behavior and the variable electricity consumption. On the basis of probability distribution of the load demand of a representative Greek island and the corresponding data related to the available wind potential, the present study estimates the maximum – acceptable by the local grid – wind energy contribution. For that reason, an integrated computational algorithm has been developed from first principles, based on a stochastic analysis. According to the results obtained, it becomes evident that with the current wind turbine technology, wind energy cannot play a key role in coping with the electrification problems encountered in many Greek island regions, excluding however the case of introducing bulk energy storage systems that may provide considerable recovery of the remarkable wind energy rejections expected.

  5. Neural networks approach to forecast several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in deregulated market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Paras; Senjyu, Tomonobu [Department of Electrical and Electronics, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nagakami Nishihara, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan); Funabashi, Toshihisa [Meidensha Corporation, Tokyo 103-8515 (Japan)

    2006-09-15

    In daily power markets, forecasting electricity prices and loads are the most essential task and the basis for any decision making. An approach to predict the market behaviors is to use the historical prices, loads and other required information to forecast the future prices and loads. This paper introduces an approach for several hour ahead (1-6h) electricity price and load forecasting using an artificial intelligence method, such as a neural network model, which uses publicly available data from the NEMMCO web site to forecast electricity prices and loads for the Victorian electricity market. An approach of selection of similar days is proposed according to which the load and price curves are forecasted by using the information of the days being similar to that of the forecast day. A Euclidean norm with weighted factors is used for the selection of the similar days. Two different ANN models, one for one to six hour ahead load forecasting and another for one to six hour ahead price forecasting have been proposed. The MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) results show a clear increasing trend with the increase in hour ahead load and price forecasting. The sample average of MAPEs for one hour ahead price forecasts is 9.75%. This figure increases to only 20.03% for six hour ahead predictions. Similarly, the one to six hour ahead load forecast errors (MAPE) range from 0.56% to 1.30% only. MAPE results show that several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in the deregulated Victorian market can be forecasted with reasonable accuracy. (author)

  6. Neural networks approach to forecast several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in deregulated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandal, Paras; Senjyu, Tomonobu; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    2006-01-01

    In daily power markets, forecasting electricity prices and loads are the most essential task and the basis for any decision making. An approach to predict the market behaviors is to use the historical prices, loads and other required information to forecast the future prices and loads. This paper introduces an approach for several hour ahead (1-6 h) electricity price and load forecasting using an artificial intelligence method, such as a neural network model, which uses publicly available data from the NEMMCO web site to forecast electricity prices and loads for the Victorian electricity market. An approach of selection of similar days is proposed according to which the load and price curves are forecasted by using the information of the days being similar to that of the forecast day. A Euclidean norm with weighted factors is used for the selection of the similar days. Two different ANN models, one for one to six hour ahead load forecasting and another for one to six hour ahead price forecasting have been proposed. The MAPE (mean absolute percentage error) results show a clear increasing trend with the increase in hour ahead load and price forecasting. The sample average of MAPEs for one hour ahead price forecasts is 9.75%. This figure increases to only 20.03% for six hour ahead predictions. Similarly, the one to six hour ahead load forecast errors (MAPE) range from 0.56% to 1.30% only. MAPE results show that several hour ahead electricity prices and loads in the deregulated Victorian market can be forecasted with reasonable accuracy

  7. Managing the output of intermittent sources of electricity: Managers of distribution networks at the center of smart grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallean, Gilles

    2013-01-01

    A literal revolution is under way in electricity grids owing to: the rapid decentralized production of electricity, the emergence of an active management of demand, the announcement of new means of storage, and the development of new uses, such as electric vehicles. These changes will gradually happen, differently depending on the country and region; but they will combine to form a system that, to be managed, will call for more intelligence, robots and electronics. At the junction between the production and consumption of electricity, distribution network managers must oversee the new system's technical complexity, limit rising costs and guarantee the quality of the services expected by clients

  8. An efficient approach for electric load forecasting using distributed ART (adaptive resonance theory) and HS-ARTMAP (Hyper-spherical ARTMAP network) neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yuan; Wang, Jian-zhou; Tang, Yun; Yang, Yu-chen

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network based on adaptive resonance theory, named distributed ART (adaptive resonance theory) and HS-ARTMAP (Hyper-spherical ARTMAP network), applied to the electric load forecasting problem. The distributed ART combines the stable fast learning capabilities of winner-take-all ART systems with the noise tolerance and code compression capabilities of multi-layer perceptions. The HS-ARTMAP, a hybrid of an RBF (Radial Basis Function)-network-like module which uses hyper-sphere basis function substitute the Gaussian basis function and an ART-like module, performs incremental learning capabilities in function approximation problem. The HS-ARTMAP only receives the compressed distributed coding processed by distributed ART to deal with the proliferation problem which ARTMAP (adaptive resonance theory map) architecture often encounters and still performs well in electric load forecasting. To demonstrate the performance of the methodology, data from New South Wales and Victoria in Australia are illustrated. Results show that the developed method is much better than the traditional BP and single HS-ARTMAP neural network. -- Research highlights: → The processing of the presented network is based on compressed distributed data. It's an innovation among the adaptive resonance theory architecture. → The presented network decreases the proliferation the Fuzzy ARTMAP architectures usually encounter. → The network on-line forecasts electrical load accurately, stably. → Both one-period and multi-period load forecasting are executed using data of different cities.

  9. Preparing tomorrow's network today: RTE at the crossroads of the European electricity system. Cross-border electricity interconnections Key issues and figures - 2014 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-10-01

    The interconnected electricity transmission network is a key element for ensuring security of supply, the creation of a single market and the integration of renewable energies. RTE and its European partners provide strengthened coordination by the use of interconnections to ensure solidarity between European countries. Interconnections also allow an electricity supplier to sell its energy to a customer located in another country in Europe. They contribute on a European scale to optimising the use of production means and in particular the integration of variable renewable energies. RTE, within the EnTSo-E (European Network of Transmission System Operators for Electricity), contributes to the publication of a common vision of the future of networks by 2030. The needs for new interconnection capacity are identified in the ten-year European network development plan (TYnDP) on the basis of a cost-benefit analysis. France is interconnected to all its neighbours via many cross-border links. However interconnection capacity with the various countries and its use differ widely. The usage profile of the interconnections is specific to each border and varies according to: - the characteristics of the production mix of each country, and in particular the level of production of renewable energies. - the level of consumption, which depends on the season, the type of day (working or non-working) the time of day, etc. - import and export capacity, which may be different depending on the internal constraints of the networks of each country

  10. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE. Power Utility Polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG, Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA, Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weatherometer, 120 °C, salt spray, immersion in water. After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 kA, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrestor are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks.

  11. Nonparametric Tree-Based Predictive Modeling of Storm Outages on an Electric Distribution Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jichao; Wanik, David W; Hartman, Brian M; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N; Astitha, Marina; Frediani, Maria E B

    2017-03-01

    This article compares two nonparametric tree-based models, quantile regression forests (QRF) and Bayesian additive regression trees (BART), for predicting storm outages on an electric distribution network in Connecticut, USA. We evaluated point estimates and prediction intervals of outage predictions for both models using high-resolution weather, infrastructure, and land use data for 89 storm events (including hurricanes, blizzards, and thunderstorms). We found that spatially BART predicted more accurate point estimates than QRF. However, QRF produced better prediction intervals for high spatial resolutions (2-km grid cells and towns), while BART predictions aggregated to coarser resolutions (divisions and service territory) more effectively. We also found that the predictive accuracy was dependent on the season (e.g., tree-leaf condition, storm characteristics), and that the predictions were most accurate for winter storms. Given the merits of each individual model, we suggest that BART and QRF be implemented together to show the complete picture of a storm's potential impact on the electric distribution network, which would allow for a utility to make better decisions about allocating prestorm resources. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Electrical equivalent thermal network for direct contact membrane distillation modeling and analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Karam, Ayman M.

    2016-09-19

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging water desalination technology that offers several advantages compared to conventional desalination methods. Although progress has been made to model the physics of the process, there are two common limitations of existing models. Firstly, many of the models are based on the steady-state analysis of the process and secondly, some of the models are based on partial differential equations, which when discretized introduce many states which are not accessible in practice. This paper presents the derivation of a novel dynamic model, based on the analogy between electrical and thermal systems, for direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). An analogous electrical thermal network is constructed and its elements are parameterized such that the response of the network models the DCMD process. The proposed model captures the spatial and temporal responses of the temperature distribution along the flow direction and is able to accurately predict the distilled water flux output. To demonstrate the adequacy of the proposed model, validation with time varying and steady-state experimental data is presented. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Electromechanical systems in microtechnology and mechatronics. Electrical, mechanical and acoustic networks, their interactions and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenk, Arno; Pfeifer, Guenther [Dresden Univ. of Technology (Germany). Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Ballas, Ruediger G. [Karl Mayer Textile Machinery, Obertshausen (Germany); Werthschuetzky, Roland [Darmstadt Univ. of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Electromechanical Design

    2011-07-01

    Electromechanical systems consisting of electrical, mechanical and acoustic subsystems are of special importance in various technical fields, e.g. precision device engineering, sensor and actuator technology, electroacoustics and medical engineering. Based on a circuit-oriented representation, providing readers with a descriptive engineering design method for these systems is the goal of this textbook. It offers an easy and fast introduction to mechanical, acoustic, fluid, thermal and hydraulic problems through the application of circuit-oriented basic knowledge. The network description methodology, presented in detail, is extended to finite network elements and combined with the finite element method (FEM): the combination of the advantages of both description methods results in novel approaches, especially in the higher frequency range. The book offers numerous current examples of both the design of sensors and actuators and that of direct coupled sensor-actuator systems. The appendix provides more extensive fundamentals for signal description, as well as a compilation of important material characteristics. The textbook is suitable both for graduate students and for engineers working in the fields of electrical engineering, information technology, mechatronics, microtechnology, and mechanical and medical engineering. (orig.)

  14. Intelligent Energy Management Control for Extended Range Electric Vehicles Based on Dynamic Programming and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihe Xi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The extended range electric vehicle (EREV can store much clean energy from the electric grid when it arrives at the charging station with lower battery energy. Consuming minimum gasoline during the trip is a common goal for most energy management controllers. To achieve these objectives, an intelligent energy management controller for EREV based on dynamic programming and neural networks (IEMC_NN is proposed. The power demand split ratio between the extender and battery are optimized by DP, and the control objectives are presented as a cost function. The online controller is trained by neural networks. Three trained controllers, constructing the controller library in IEMC_NN, are obtained from training three typical lengths of the driving cycle. To determine an appropriate NN controller for different driving distance purposes, the selection module in IEMC_NN is developed based on the remaining battery energy and the driving distance to the charging station. Three simulation conditions are adopted to validate the performance of IEMC_NN. They are target driving distance information, known and unknown, changing the destination during the trip. Simulation results using these simulation conditions show that the IEMC_NN had better fuel economy than the charging deplete/charging sustain (CD/CS algorithm. More significantly, with known driving distance information, the battery SOC controlled by IEMC_NN can just reach the lower bound as the EREV arrives at the charging station, which was also feasible when the driver changed the destination during the trip.

  15. Effect of artificial aging on polymeric surge arresters and polymer insulators for electricity distribution networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Carlos A.; Coser, E. [Laboratorio de Materiais Polimericos, Departamento de Engenharia de Materiais, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], e-mail: ferreira.carlos@ufrgs.br; Angelini, Joceli M.G. [Departamento de Materiais Eletricos, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Rossi, Jose A.D. [Materiais Alta Tensao, CPqD, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Martinez, Manuel L.B. [Departamento de Engenharia Eletrica, UNIFEI, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate new and laboratory-aged samples of surge arresters and anchorage polymeric insulators, for 12 and 24 kV networks, which are used by the Rio Grande Energia (RGE). Power utility polymeric compounds were analyzed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TG), Dynamic-Mechanic Analysis (DMA), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) to verify changes in the insulator properties due to degradation occurred during the experiments. The analyses were carried out before and after 6 months of aging in laboratory devices (weather meter, 120 deg C, salt spray, immersion in water). After the aging experiments, high-voltage electrical tests were also conducted: a radio interference voltage test and, simultaneously, the total and the internal leakage currents were measured to verify the surface degradation of the polymeric material used in the housing. The impulse current test was applied with current values close to 5, 10 and 30 k A, in order to force an internal degradation. Results showed that only surface degradation is detected at the polymer. The main properties of the parts were not affected by the aging. It confirms that polymer insulator and surge arrester are appropriate for use in electricity distribution networks. (author)

  16. Using supervised environmental composites in production and efficiency analyses. An application to Norwegian electricity networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orea, Luis [Oviedo Univ. (Spain). Oviedo Efficiency Group; Growitsch, Christian [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.; Jamasb, Tooraj [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Economics

    2012-12-15

    Supervised dimension reduction methods have been extensively applied in different scientific fields like biology and medicine in recent years. However, they have hardly ever been used in micro economics, and in particular cost function modeling. Nonetheless, these methods can also be useful in regulation of natural monopolies such as gas, water, and electricity networks, where firms' cost and performance can be affected by a large number of environmental factors. In order to deal with this 'dimensionality' problem we propose using a supervised dimension reduction approach that aims to reduce the dimension of data without loss of information. Economic theory suggests that in the presence of other relevant production (cost) drivers, the traditional all-inclusive assumption is not satisfied and, hence, production or cost predictions (and efficiency estimates) might be biased. This paper shows that purging the data using a partial regression approach allows us to address this issue when analyzing the effect of weather and geography on cost efficiency in the context of the Norwegian electricity distribution networks.

  17. Exploring the determinants of “best practice” benchmarking in electricity network regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brophy Haney, Aoife; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we use a best practice index constructed from the survey responses of regulators in 40 countries to explore the determinants of the methods used in electricity network regulation. Drawing from the incentive regulation and institutional economics literature, we construct an empirical model to investigate the impact of industry size, political and economic institutions on the degree of best practice regulation. Our results suggest that the existence and experience of an independent regulator is the most important institutional determinant of best practice regulation. In addition, small numbers of network companies act as a constraint on the use of advanced benchmarking methods. Finally, regional effects are also important. These findings lead us to question whether one “best practice” model is in fact applicable to countries with very different political and economic contexts. - Highlights: ► Political institutions are strong determinants of best practice electricity regulation. ► Behavior of neighboring regulators may shape regulatory outcomes. ► One “best practice” model may not be appropriate.

  18. Assessing the Potential of Plug-in Electric Vehicles in Active Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Ahmadi Kordkheili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-objective optimization algorithm is proposed in this paper to increase the penetration level of renewable energy sources (RESs in distribution networks by intelligent management of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV storage. The proposed algorithm is defined to manage the reverse power flow (PF from the distribution network to the upstream electrical system. Furthermore, a charging algorithm is proposed within the proposed optimization in order to assure PEV owner’s quality of service (QoS. The method uses genetic algorithm (GA to increase photovoltaic (PV penetration without jeopardizing PEV owners’ (QoS and grid operating limits, such as voltage level of the grid buses. The method is applied to a part of the Danish low voltage (LV grid to evaluate its effectiveness and capabilities. Different scenarios have been defined and tested using the proposed method. Simulation results demonstrate the capability of the algorithm in increasing solar power penetration in the grid up to 50%, depending on the PEV penetration level and the freedom of the system operator in managing the available PEV storage.

  19. Integración de sistemas electrónicos de una plataforma de rehabilitación locomotora con simulación en ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Avila Barón

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Los dispositivos para la rehabilitación locomotora son usados por un gran número de personas alrededor del mundo; la confiabilidad en estos dispositivos, su óptimo funcionamiento y la calidad del equipo son un interesante tema para los diseñadores y sus usuarios. Este documento muestra como el diseño de hardware y software de una plataforma de rehabilitación de la locomoción contribuyen a la confiabilidad de su uso, describe también como la programación embebida es aplicada en el sistema de monitoreo de esta plataforma. Los dispositivos médicos de rehabilitación de la locomoción son usados para ejecutar tratamientos no invasivos en los pacientes, estos pueden lograr efectos tanto positivos como negativos en la recuperación; pero un adecuado seguimiento en el control y monitoreo de éstos dispositivos es determinante hacia la recuperación. Este documento contiene información sobre el desarrollo de sistemas de redes neuronales y sistemas difusos combinados en el control y monitoreo de la plataforma de rehabilitación locomotora, también relaciona variables como la descarga de peso, la velocidad de una caminadora, el ritmo cardiaco ECG de los pacientes; aspectos que involucran, la integración de las partes, mediante la simulación con el software ANFIS de MATLAB y su aplicación de software embebido usando procesadores digitales DSPS.

  20. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  1. Desarrollo de una interfaz gráfica para un sistema electrónico de caracterización óptica de diodos emisores de luz

    OpenAIRE

    Colino Barrigón, Juan José

    2015-01-01

    En este Trabajo de Fin de Grado (TFG) se describe el proceso de análisis, diseño y desarrollo de una interfaz gráfica para un sistema de caracterización óptica de diodos emisores de luz (LED del inglés Light-emitting diode). La interfaz ha sido implementada en Python usando la librería gráfica GTK+3 para Linux. Grado en Ingeniería Informática

  2. Análisis de los convertidores electrónicos de potencia necesarios para un sistema de iluminación fotovoltaico semi-autónomo.

    OpenAIRE

    ZAMBRANO PARRA, BRAYAN LEONARDO

    2018-01-01

    [EN] In this project is expected to analize the main conversors to be used on a solar energy panel converter, this is focused in theorical analysis and a simulation of them applying knowledge accuired all along the degree. [ES] En el presente proyecto se espera realizar el conjunto de convertidores necesario para el funcionamiento de un sistema fotovoltáico, se concentra en el análisis teórico y una simulación de los mismos, aplicando así los conocimientos adquiridos a lo largo de la titul...

  3. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2018-01-30

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite\\'s conductivity based on these parameters.

  4. Long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation alters small-world brain functional networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Jiang, Yin; Glielmi, Christopher B; Li, Longchuan; Hu, Xiaoping; Wang, Xiaoying; Han, Jisheng; Zhang, Jue; Cui, Cailian; Fang, Jing

    2013-09-01

    Acupuncture, which is recognized as an alternative and complementary treatment in Western medicine, has long shown efficiencies in chronic pain relief, drug addiction treatment, stroke rehabilitation and other clinical practices. The neural mechanism underlying acupuncture, however, is still unclear. Many studies have focused on the sustained effects of acupuncture on healthy subjects, yet there are very few on the topological organization of functional networks in the whole brain in response to long-duration acupuncture (longer than 20 min). This paper presents a novel study on the effects of long-duration transcutaneous electric acupoint stimulation (TEAS) on the small-world properties of brain functional networks. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to construct brain functional networks of 18 healthy subjects (9 males and 9 females) during the resting state. All subjects received both TEAS and minimal TEAS (MTEAS) and were scanned before and after each stimulation. An altered functional network was found with lower local efficiency and no significant change in global efficiency for healthy subjects after TEAS, while no significant difference was observed after MTEAS. The experiments also showed that the nodal efficiencies in several paralimbic/limbic regions were altered by TEAS, and those in middle frontal gyrus and other regions by MTEAS. To remove the psychological effects and the baseline, we compared the difference between diffTEAS (difference between after and before TEAS) and diffMTEAS (difference between after and before MTEAS). The results showed that the local efficiency was decreased and that the nodal efficiencies in frontal gyrus, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate gyrus and hippocampus gyrus were changed. Based on those observations, we conclude that long-duration TEAS may modulate the short-range connections of brain functional networks and also the limbic system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Han, F.; Lubineau, G.

    2018-04-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in the remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite’s conductivity based on these parameters.

  6. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite's conductivity based on these parameters.

  7. An Optimal Domestic Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Reducing Network Transmission Loss While Taking Seasonal Factors into Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of domestic electric vehicle charging loads, the peak-valley gap and power fluctuation rate of power systems increase sharply, which can lead to the increase of network losses and energy efficiency reduction. This paper tries to regulate network loads and reduce power system transmission loss by optimizing domestic electric vehicle charging loads. In this paper, a domestic electric vehicle charging loads model is first developed by analyzing the key factors that can affect users’ charging behavior. Subsequently, the Monte Carlo method is proposed to simulate the power consumption of a cluster of domestic electric vehicles. After that, an optimal electric vehicle charging strategy based on the 0-1 integer programming is presented to regulate network daily loads. Finally, by taking the IEEE33 distributed power system as an example, this paper tries to verify the efficacy of the proposed optimal charging strategy and the necessity for considering seasonal factors when scheduling electric vehicle charging loads. Simulation results show that the proposed 0-1 integer programming method does have good performance in reducing the network peak-valley gap, voltage fluctuation rate, and transmission loss. Moreover, it has some potential to further reduce power system transmission loss when seasonal factors are considered.

  8. Artificial neural networks applied to the prediction of spot prices in the market of electric energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Alcantaro Lemes; Grimoni, Jose Aquiles Baesso

    2010-01-01

    The commercialization of electricity in Brazil as well as in the world has undergone several changes over the past 20 years. In order to achieve an economic balance between supply and demand of the good called electricity, stakeholders in this market follow both rules set by society (government, companies and consumers) and set by the laws of nature (hydrology). To deal with such complex issues, various studies have been conducted in the area of computational heuristics. This work aims to develop a software to forecast spot market prices in using artificial neural networks (ANN). ANNs are widely used in various applications especially in computational heuristics, where non-linear systems have computational challenges difficult to overcome because of the effect named 'curse of dimensionality'. This effect is due to the fact that the current computational power is not enough to handle problems with such a high combination of variables. The challenge of forecasting prices depends on factors such as: (a) foresee the demand evolution (electric load); (b) the forecast of supply (reservoirs, hydrology and climate), capacity factor; and (c) the balance of the economy (pricing, auctions, foreign markets influence, economic policy, government budget and government policy). These factors are considered be used in the forecasting model for spot market prices and the results of its effectiveness are tested and huge presented. (author)

  9. Understanding the doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Ying; Shimada, Satoru; Azumi, Reiko; Saito, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Similar to other semiconductor technology, doping of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film is of great significance for performance improvement or modification. However, it still remains a challenge to seek a stable and effective dopant. In this paper, we unitize several spectroscopic techniques and electrical characterizations under various conditions to investigate the effects of typical dopants and related methods. Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) solution, I 2 vapor, and CuI nanoparticles are used to modify a series of ultrathin CNT networks. Although efficient charge transfer is achieved initially after doping, HNO 3 is not applicable because it suffers from severe reliability problems in structural and electrical properties, and it also causes a number of undesired structural defects. I 2 vapor doping at 150 °C can form some stable C-I bonding structures, resulting in relatively more stable but less efficient electrical performances. CuI nanoparticles seem to be an ideal dopant. Photonic curing enables the manipulation of CuI, which not only results in the construction of novel CNT-CuI hybrid structures but also encourages the deepest level of charge transfer doping. The excellent reliability as well as processing feasibility identify the bright perspective of CNT-CuI hybrid film for practical applications

  10. Parametric analysis of parameters for electrical-load forecasting using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, William J.; Gonzalez, Avelino J.; Georgiopoulos, Michael

    1997-04-01

    Accurate total system electrical load forecasting is a necessary part of resource management for power generation companies. The better the hourly load forecast, the more closely the power generation assets of the company can be configured to minimize the cost. Automating this process is a profitable goal and neural networks should provide an excellent means of doing the automation. However, prior to developing such a system, the optimal set of input parameters must be determined. The approach of this research was to determine what those inputs should be through a parametric study of potentially good inputs. Input parameters tested were ambient temperature, total electrical load, the day of the week, humidity, dew point temperature, daylight savings time, length of daylight, season, forecast light index and forecast wind velocity. For testing, a limited number of temperatures and total electrical loads were used as a basic reference input parameter set. Most parameters showed some forecasting improvement when added individually to the basic parameter set. Significantly, major improvements were exhibited with the day of the week, dew point temperatures, additional temperatures and loads, forecast light index and forecast wind velocity.

  11. Integration of Electric Vehicles into the Power Distribution Network with a Modified Capacity Allocation Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Hu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing penetration of electric vehicles (EVs represents an operational challenge to system operators, mainly at the distribution level by introducing congestion and voltage drop problems. To solve these potential problems, a two-level coordination approach is proposed in this study. An aggregation entity, i.e., an EV virtual power plant (EV-VPP, is used to facilitate the interaction between the distribution system operator (DSO and EV owners considering the decentralized electricity market structure. In level I, to prevent the line congestion and voltage drop problems, the EV-VPP internally respects the line and voltage constraints when making optimal charging schedules. In level II, to avoid power transformer congestion problems, this paper investigates three different coordination mechanisms, or power transformer capacity allocation mechanisms, between the DSO and the EV-VPPs, considering the case of EVs charging and discharging. The three mechanisms include: (1 a market-based approach; (2 a pro-rata approach; and (3 a newly-proposed constrained market-based approach. A case study considering a 37-bus distribution network and high penetration of electric vehicles is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed coordination mechanism, comparing with the existing ones.

  12. Understanding the doping effects on the structural and electrical properties of ultrathin carbon nanotube networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying, E-mail: y-shuu@aist.go.jp; Shimada, Satoru; Azumi, Reiko [Electronics and Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan); Saito, Takeshi [Nanomaterials Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-1 Higashi, 305-8565 Tsukuba (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    Similar to other semiconductor technology, doping of carbon nanotube (CNT) thin film is of great significance for performance improvement or modification. However, it still remains a challenge to seek a stable and effective dopant. In this paper, we unitize several spectroscopic techniques and electrical characterizations under various conditions to investigate the effects of typical dopants and related methods. Nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solution, I{sub 2} vapor, and CuI nanoparticles are used to modify a series of ultrathin CNT networks. Although efficient charge transfer is achieved initially after doping, HNO{sub 3} is not applicable because it suffers from severe reliability problems in structural and electrical properties, and it also causes a number of undesired structural defects. I{sub 2} vapor doping at 150 °C can form some stable C-I bonding structures, resulting in relatively more stable but less efficient electrical performances. CuI nanoparticles seem to be an ideal dopant. Photonic curing enables the manipulation of CuI, which not only results in the construction of novel CNT-CuI hybrid structures but also encourages the deepest level of charge transfer doping. The excellent reliability as well as processing feasibility identify the bright perspective of CNT-CuI hybrid film for practical applications.

  13. Disseny d’un parc eòlic amb un sistema de producció d’hidrogen a través de l’electròlisi de l’aigua

    OpenAIRE

    Cucharero Mayol, Albert

    2015-01-01

    L’objectiu del projecte és realitzar un estudi de viabilitat per a la instal•lació d’un parc eòlic que emmagatzemi l’energia eòlica en forma d’hidrogen a la xarxa de gas natural. Quan no hi hagi demanda d’energia elèctrica, s’aprofitarà l’energia eòlica per poder produir hidrogen a partir de l’electròlisi de l’aigua. En el present projecte es realitzarà el disseny del parc i del sistema de producció d’hidrogen en la ubicació que es determinarà mitjançant el mapa eòlic i la xarxa de gas natura...

  14. Selection of generation and supply alternatives in Brazilian isolated electric power systems; Selecao de formas de geracao/suprimento de energia eletrica em sistemas eletricos isolados do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Robson S. Filadelfo dos [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Saliba, Aloysio Portugal M.; Martinez, Carlos B. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Hidraulica e Recursos Hidricos

    1997-12-31

    Electric energy is an essential component of economical integration of the regions of a country. The operation of an isolated electric system do not admit the adequate rearrangement of the energy flux, mainly in the rush time, which takes to deficit situations in some economical sectors, accentuated by generation options that are not totally compatible with the local reality. This work performs an comparison on the various electric generation options in isolated systems, specially in the Amazon region, based on their local characteristics and generation costs, according to the existent data obtained in the literature or from the electric generation companies. (author) 10 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  15. Application of an evolutionary algorithm in the reactive compensation of transmission networks of electrical energy planning; Aplicacion de un algoritmo evolutivo en la planificacion de la compensacion reactiva de redes de transmision de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio A.; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2001-07-01

    In the present work it is considered the mathematical formulation of the problem of the reactive compensation planning, The solution technique based on evolutionary programming is described and the results of compensation in the Northwest subsystem of the Mexican electrical system are shown. A technique of optimization based on the Evolutionary Programming is proposed to solve the problem of the Planning of the Reactive Compensation in transmission of electrical energy networks. The problem consists in determining how much compensation to add and where to locate it in such a way that the investment cost of the compensation equipment is diminished, plus the operation costs associated to the transmission losses, plus a penalty function associated to the violations of the operative limits of voltage. The compensation that is determined must allow that the network operates in normal conditions before any contingency of a pre-established assembly. The problem considered is non-linear and whole compound. Tests made to a representative system of the Northwest area of the Mexican electrical system of 171 nodes and 284 branches are reported. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se plantea la formulacion matematica del problema de planificacion de la compensacion reactiva, se describe la tecnica de solucion basada en programacion evolutiva y se muestra resultados de compensacion en el subsistema Noroeste del sistema electrico mexicano. Se propone una tecnica de optimizacion basada en la Programacion Evolutiva para resolver el problema de la Planificacion de la Compensacion Reactiva en redes de transmision de energia electrica. El problema consiste en determinar cuanta compensacion agregar y donde ubicarla de tal manera que se minimice el costo de inversion del equipo de compensacion, mas los costos de operacion asociados a las perdidas de transmision, mas una funcion de penalizacion asociada a la violaciones de los limites operativos de voltaje. La compensacion que se determine

  16. Supervision and control system for greenhouses using wireless network sensors; Sistema de supervisao e controle para casas de vegetacao empregando rede 'wireless' de sensores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontes, Ivo Reis; Cagnon, Jose Angelo; Rodrigues, Ricardo Martini [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Bauru, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia. Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], e-mail: ivo@feb.unesp.br, e-mail: martini@feb.unesp.br, e-mail: jacagnon@feb.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    The present work had as objective the configuration of a supervision and control system for greenhouses applications using a system of data collection of control parameters through a wireless communication network. In agreement with the adopted methodology, its development was accomplished in three different phases. Initially the hardware modules for a Sensors Unit, a Data Concentrator Unit and a capacitive type soil moisture sensor were developed. Soon afterwards an application was configured through a SCADA supervision and control program, the Ellipse PRO, dedicated to the supervision and control of a green house. In the final phase the necessary data were collected for the training of an artificial neural network that is integral part of the humidity sensor. The Sensors Unit and the Data Concentrator Unit were developed starting from microcontrollers of low consumption and high performance and presents excellent cost/benefit relationship. These units are used in the acquisition and data storage of in comings from several sensors applied in the installation. In order to eliminate the inconveniences of a system that uses nets of electric cables connections links of RF was used, with pattern of message of the protocol MODBUS/RTU, for the communication among these units. The application developed through the Ellipse FOR is composed of a group of screens that represents in a virtual way the complete green house environment. Through these screens the operator can alter the operation state of each one of the elements involved in the irrigation and climatization control process. According the cost characteristics, operation flexibility and existent functionality this system represents a solution economically viable in the automation green houses. It can be affirmed that this configuration represents an innovative solution and that can contribute in much for the improvement of cultivated species as well as to provide the necessary ways for the rational use of the

  17. Resolution 147/012. It authorize the Central Libertador / SA aeolian generation company to generate an aeolian electricity source by an electric power generating plant located in Maldonado town 4 AA Catastral section, and the Sistema inerconectado Nacional connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree authorizes the generation of electricity using aeolian energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the 'Libertador / S.A' aeolian generation company with the proposal to install an electrical plant in Maldonado town. This authorization is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation

  18. Computerized information system of support to the electric energy losses control; Sistema de informacion computarizado de apoyo al control de perdidas de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba Mar, Alvaro R; Perez Ortega, Joaquin; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Rodriguez Cano, Rene; Zapata Garcia, Juan Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    The energy losses are due to several reasons, among others, to the same nature of the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe in a general manner a decentralized system that processes the information of the energy and demand meters, to obtain the energy balances and losses indexes at national level. Additionally, the main services offered by the functional model and of the data base, the adopted policies for the energy interchanges among responsibility areas and the concepts of use, are described; next, the data sources of the system are described, the fragmentation and corresponding replication to the database are described and its architecture of software and hardware is shown. [Espanol] Las perdidas de energia se deben a varias razones, entre otras, a la naturaleza misma de los procesos de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la electricidad. El proposito de este articulo es describir de manera general un sistema descentralizado que procesa la informacion de los medidores de energia y demanda, para la obtencion de balances de energia e indices de perdidas a nivel nacional. Ademas, se describen los principales servicios que ofrece, el modelo funcional y el de la base de datos, las politicas adoptadas para los intercambios de energia entre areas de responsabilidad y los conceptos de uso; despues se describen las fuentes de datos del sistema, la fragmentacion y replicacion correspondiente a la base de datos y se muestra su arquitectura de hardware y software.

  19. Computerized information system of support to the electric energy losses control; Sistema de informacion computarizado de apoyo al control de perdidas de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barba Mar, Alvaro R.; Perez Ortega, Joaquin; Rodriguez Ortiz, Guillermo; Rodriguez Cano, Rene; Zapata Garcia, Juan Antonio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    The energy losses are due to several reasons, among others, to the same nature of the generation, transmission, and distribution processes. The purpose of this paper is to describe in a general manner a decentralized system that processes the information of the energy and demand meters, to obtain the energy balances and losses indexes at national level. Additionally, the main services offered by the functional model and of the data base, the adopted policies for the energy interchanges among responsibility areas and the concepts of use, are described; next, the data sources of the system are described, the fragmentation and corresponding replication to the database are described and its architecture of software and hardware is shown. [Espanol] Las perdidas de energia se deben a varias razones, entre otras, a la naturaleza misma de los procesos de generacion, transmision y distribucion de la electricidad. El proposito de este articulo es describir de manera general un sistema descentralizado que procesa la informacion de los medidores de energia y demanda, para la obtencion de balances de energia e indices de perdidas a nivel nacional. Ademas, se describen los principales servicios que ofrece, el modelo funcional y el de la base de datos, las politicas adoptadas para los intercambios de energia entre areas de responsabilidad y los conceptos de uso; despues se describen las fuentes de datos del sistema, la fragmentacion y replicacion correspondiente a la base de datos y se muestra su arquitectura de hardware y software.

  20. Direct electrical stimulation as an input gate into brain functional networks: principles, advantages and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandonnet, Emmanuel; Winkler, Peter A; Duffau, Hugues

    2010-02-01

    While the fundamental and clinical contribution of direct electrical stimulation (DES) of the brain is now well acknowledged, its advantages and limitations have not been re-evaluated for a long time. Here, we critically review exactly what DES can tell us about cerebral function. First, we show that DES is highly sensitive for detecting the cortical and axonal eloquent structures. Moreover, DES also provides a unique opportunity to study brain connectivity, since each area responsive to stimulation is in fact an input gate into a large-scale network rather than an isolated discrete functional site. DES, however, also has a limitation: its specificity is suboptimal. Indeed, DES may lead to interpretations that a structure is crucial because of the induction of a transient functional response when stimulated, whereas (1) this effect is caused by the backward spreading of the electro-stimulation along the network to an essential area and/or (2) the stimulated region can be functionally compensated owing to long-term brain plasticity mechanisms. In brief, although DES is still the gold standard for brain mapping, its combination with new methods such as perioperative neurofunctional imaging and biomathematical modeling is now mandatory, in order to clearly differentiate those networks that are actually indispensable to function from those that can be compensated.

  1. A New Neural Network Approach to Short Term Load Forecasting of Electrical Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Keynia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-term load forecast (STLF is an important operational function in both regulated power systems and deregulated open electricity markets. However, STLF is not easy to handle due to the nonlinear and random-like behaviors of system loads, weather conditions, and social and economic environment variations. Despite the research work performed in the area, more accurate and robust STLF methods are still needed due to the importance and complexity of STLF. In this paper, a new neural network approach for STLF is proposed. The proposed neural network has a novel learning algorithm based on a new modified harmony search technique. This learning algorithm can widely search the solution space in various directions, and it can also avoid the overfitting problem, trapping in local minima and dead bands. Based on this learning algorithm, the suggested neural network can efficiently extract the input/output mapping function of the forecast process leading to high STLF accuracy. The proposed approach is tested on two practical power systems and the results obtained are compared with the results of several other recently published STLF methods. These comparisons confirm the validity of the developed approach.

  2. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  3. A comprehensive approach for computation and implementation of efficient electricity transmission network charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, Luis; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio J. [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a comprehensive design of electricity transmission charges that are meant to recover regulated network costs. In addition, these charges must be able to meet a set of inter-related objectives. Most importantly, they should encourage potential network users to internalize transmission costs in their location decisions, while interfering as least as possible with the short-term behaviour of the agents in the power system, since this should be left to regulatory instruments in the operation time range. The paper also addresses all those implementation issues that are essential for the sound design of a system of transmission network charges: stability and predictability of the charges; fair and efficient split between generation and demand charges; temporary measures to account for the low loading of most new lines; number and definition of the scenarios to be employed for the calculation and format of the final charges to be adopted: capacity, energy or per customer charges. The application of the proposed method is illustrated with a realistic numerical example that is based on a single scenario of the 2006 winter peak in the Spanish power system. (author)

  4. Estudio exploratorio del impacto de la red social en el nivel individual de aceptación de sistemas empresariales Exploratory study of the impact of the social network at the individual level of acceptance of enterprise systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Ramírez Correa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene por propósito explorar el impacto de la red social en el uso de sistemas empresariales. Utilizando un modelo de aceptación de tecnologías de información con base en TAM, se explora la red de relaciones sociales asociadas al uso efectivo del sistema empresarial. El modelo de investigación incorporó las siguientes variables: normas sociales, ansiedad computacional, demostrabilidad de los resultados, relevancia para el trabajo, percepción de utilidad, percepción de facilidad de uso, intención de uso y uso del sistema. En una muestra de 90 individuos se realizó un análisis SEM-PLS del modelo que incluyó los valores asociados a medidas de centralidad y densidad de la red. El modelo de investigación y los resultados iniciales de este análisis se exponen en este artículo.The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the social network in using enterprise systems. Using a model of information technology acceptance based on TAM, this paper explores the social network associated with the effective use of the enterprise system. The research model incorporated the following variables: social norms, computer anxiety, results demonstrability, job relevance, perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, behavior intention to use and use of the system. In a sample of 90 individuals, the SEM-PLS analysis of the model included the values associated with measures of centrality and network density. The research model and initial results of this analysis are presented in this article.

  5. Implementación de sistema para restaurantes para gestión de pedidos y facturación electrónica (ambiente móvil & sistema administrable desde una PC.

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa Rivas, Roberto Carlos; León Quiñonez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    RESUMEN: La situación de Ecuador en la actualidad, exige que se incorpore de manera obligatorio para todos los contribuyentes la facturación electrónica, uno de los objetivos principales del gobierno del Presidente Rafael Correa es la contribución a una práctica ecológica de manera más responsable que se caracteriza por la reducción del uso de papel, lo que implica un ahorro significativo en los recursos, y en tiempo con la finalidad de mantener un mayor control sobre los contribuyentes. ...

  6. Fuel cell cars in a microgrid for synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, Farid; Park Lee, Esther; Wouw, Nathan van de; De Schutter, Bart; Lukszo, Zofia

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel concept of a flexible energy system that uses fuel cell cars as dispatchable power plants. • Synergies between hydrogen and electricity networks by operating of fuel cell cars in a microgrid. • A robust min-max model predictive control scheme for optimal dispatch of the fuel cell cars. • A novel model predictive control scheme to govern the system operation. - Abstract: Fuel cell electric vehicles convert chemical energy of hydrogen into electricity to power their motor. Since cars are used for transport only during a small part of the time, energy stored in the on-board hydrogen tanks of fuel cell vehicles can be used to provide power when cars are parked. In this paper, we present a community microgrid with photovoltaic systems, wind turbines, and fuel cell electric vehicles that are used to provide vehicle-to-grid power when renewable power generation is scarce. Excess renewable power generation is used to produce hydrogen, which is stored in a refilling station. A central control system is designed to operate the system in such a way that the operational costs are minimized. To this end, a hybrid model for the system is derived, in which both the characteristics of the fuel cell vehicles and their traveling schedules are considered. The operational costs of the system are formulated considering the presence of uncertainty in the prediction of the load and renewable energy generation. A robust min-max model predictive control scheme is developed and finally, a case study illustrates the performance of the designed system.

  7. The Local Structure of Globalization. The Network Dynamics of Foreign Direct Investments in the International Electricity Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskinen, Johan; Lomi, Alessandro

    2013-05-01

    We study the evolution of the network of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the international electricity industry during the period 1994-2003. We assume that the ties in the network of investment relations between countries are created and deleted in continuous time, according to a conditional Gibbs distribution. This assumption allows us to take simultaneously into account the aggregate predictions of the well-established gravity model of international trade as well as local dependencies between network ties connecting the countries in our sample. According to the modified version of the gravity model that we specify, the probability of observing an investment tie between two countries depends on the mass of the economies involved, their physical distance, and the tendency of the network to self-organize into local configurations of network ties. While the limiting distribution of the data generating process is an exponential random graph model, we do not assume the system to be in equilibrium. We find evidence of the effects of the standard gravity model of international trade on evolution of the global FDI network. However, we also provide evidence of significant dyadic and extra-dyadic dependencies between investment ties that are typically ignored in available research. We show that local dependencies between national electricity industries are sufficient for explaining global properties of the network of foreign direct investments. We also show, however, that network dependencies vary significantly over time giving rise to a time-heterogeneous localized process of network evolution.

  8. Electrical energy use in different heating systems for weaned piglets; Utilizacao de energia eletrica em diferentes sistemas de aquecimento para leitoes desmamados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarubbi, Juliana [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (CESNORS/UFSM), Palmeiras das Missoes, RS (Brazil). Centro de Educacao Superior Norte-RS. Dept. de Zootecnia], E-mail: jusarubbi@hotmail.com; Rossi, Luiz A.; Moura, Daniella J. de; Oliveira, Rafael A. de; David, Eduardo [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], Emails: rossi@agr.unicamp.br, daniella.moura@agr.unicamp.br, augustus@agr.unicamp.br, eduardo.david@agr.unicamp.br

    2010-11-15

    Heating piglets in nursery and farrowing may be improved to save energy, without affecting the animals' welfare. The objective of this research was to compare the electrical energy use and thermal environment promoted by three heating technologies for piglets in nursery. The heating technologies studied were: suspended electrical resistors, heated floor and convection heating. Electrical energy consumption (kWh), maximum power demand requirements (kW), specific consumption (kWh/kg of produced live body weight), efficiency of heating system (deg C /m{sup 3} air) and dry-bulb temperature (deg C) and temperature-humidity index were evaluated. The heated floor system was better under the aspect of electrical energy use. The electrical resistance heating system was the best regarding to the animals' thermal comfort needs. (author)

  9. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1990-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  10. Heat transfer equipment performance diagnosis of auxiliary systems in electric power stations; Diagnostico de comportamiento de equipo de transferencia de calor de sistemas auxiliares de centrales termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Esparza Gutierrez, Rogelio [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1991-12-31

    In this article the methodology followed to diagnose the performance of the equipment where heat is transferred from the feed water, condensate and circulation water systems in fossil power plants (FPP). The data collection is made with the unit in normal operation, using local instrumentation without taking the equipment out of service for its installation. The equipment diagnosis is made through the analysis of the collected data in actual operation and the design data; for this purpose a thermal balance of the interested systems is performed to obtain all the conditions an operation data. Later on the performance indicative parameters (PIP) of actual operation and design are calculated and compared one against the other. Such a comparison reveals the performance deterioration and the possible equipment faults. The data obtained and the supplementary information are stored in a data base whose objective is that Comision Federal de Electricidad has on hand a prompt access to them in order to control the performance, compare them among similar units and power stations, and inclusively verify possible recurrent causes of low availability in the referred systems. [Espanol] En este articulo se presenta la metodologia seguida para diagnosticar el comportamiento de equipos en los que se transfiere calor de los sistemas de agua de alimentacion, condensado y circulacion de las centrales termoelectricas (CTE). La toma de datos se realiza con la unidad en operacion normal, utilizando instrumentacion local sin necesidad de sacar de servicio a los equipos para su instalacion, ya que se ocupan los mismos puntos para instrumentos con que cuentan por diseno. El diagnostico de los equipos se realiza mediante el analisis de los datos recopilados, tanto de operacion real como de diseno; para ello, se efectua un balance termico de los sistemas de interes para obtener todas las condiciones y los datos de operacion. Posteriormente, se calculan los parametros indicativos de

  11. Three perspectives on the evolving electric vehicles innovation network of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasanen, R.-S.; Temmes, A.; Lovio, R.

    2013-06-01

    This report compiles the electric vehicle related work done in 2012 in the project: Future innovation and technology policy for sustainable system-level transitions: the case of transport (FIP-Trans). The project focuses on researching alternative and complementary socio-technical pathways and related policy options for sustainable transition in the Finnish transport sector. The project is financed by Tekes - the Finnish Funding Agency for Technology and Innovation. Analysis is continued in 2013. In this paper we study the evolving electric vehicle innovation network of Finland. The analysis is built on combining the theoretical aspects of Strategic Niche Management and Technology Innovation Systems. Based on the literature we develop a framework for analyzing the development of innovation networks. The framework contains four steps. The first step is the identification and analysis of the main actors and their activities. The second step is the identification and analysis of the main events affecting the development of the industry. This step is based on the use of event structure analysis. The third step consists of the analysis of development of the architecture of the system while the fourth step deals with the description and analysis of the niche and innovation system development processes in a combined manner. The data consists of interviews, policy and consultation papers, newspaper articles, press releases and other enterprise publications and of private databases containing financial information of the enterprises. Based on the theoretical framework, the four separate, but complementing qualitative analyses were made. The electric vehicle niche has evolved through the interaction of private and public sector actors. The involvement of public sector affected strongly on the evolution of the system arenas and was an important event for the resource mobilization of the industry. As with other Finnish industries, the importance of the international dimension

  12. Spatio-temporal analysis of brain electrical activity in epilepsy based on cellular nonlinear networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollas, Frank; Tetzlaff, Ronald

    2009-05-01

    Epilepsy is the most common chronic disorder of the nervous system. Generally, epileptic seizures appear without foregoing sign or warning. The problem of detecting a possible pre-seizure state in epilepsy from EEG signals has been addressed by many authors over the past decades. Different approaches of time series analysis of brain electrical activity already are providing valuable insights into the underlying complex dynamics. But the main goal the identification of an impending epileptic seizure with a sufficient specificity and reliability, has not been achieved up to now. An algorithm for a reliable, automated prediction of epileptic seizures would enable the realization of implantable seizure warning devices, which could provide valuable information to the patient and time/event specific drug delivery or possibly a direct electrical nerve stimulation. Cellular Nonlinear Networks (CNN) are promising candidates for future seizure warning devices. CNN are characterized by local couplings of comparatively simple dynamical systems. With this property these networks are well suited to be realized as highly parallel, analog computer chips. Today available CNN hardware realizations exhibit a processing speed in the range of TeraOps combined with low power consumption. In this contribution new algorithms based on the spatio-temporal dynamics of CNN are considered in order to analyze intracranial EEG signals and thus taking into account mutual dependencies between neighboring regions of the brain. In an identification procedure Reaction-Diffusion CNN (RD-CNN) are determined for short segments of brain electrical activity, by means of a supervised parameter optimization. RD-CNN are deduced from Reaction-Diffusion Systems, which usually are applied to investigate complex phenomena like nonlinear wave propagation or pattern formation. The Local Activity Theory provides a necessary condition for emergent behavior in RD-CNN. In comparison linear spatio

  13. Identifying the Effective Factors in Making Trust in Online Social Networks on the perspective of Iranian experts Using Fuzzy ELECTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Haghighi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available this paper attempts to rank the effective factors in making trust in social networks to provide the possibility of attracting and increasing users’ trust on these social networks for providers and designers of online social networks. Identifying the effective factors in making trust in social networks is a multi-criteria decision making problem and most of effective factors are ambiguous and uncertain, thereby this article uses Fuzzy ELECTRE to rank them. By implementing Fuzzy ELECTRE on gathered data, respectively «usability factor», «supporting up to date technology factor», «integrity» and «the rate of ethics factor» are on the top of effective factors in making trust in users. In general, «web features» and «technology features» have a higher degree of importance than «security features», «individual-social features» and «cultural features». Ranking of Fuzzy ELECTRE comparison ranking of Fuzzy TOPSIS and Fuzzy ELECTRE method becomes validate because Spearman correlation coefficients is 0/867. Result of sensitivity analysis on changing weight of criteria shows that Fuzzy ELECTRE isn’t affected by ambiguity and uncertainty in inputs.

  14. Modeling Geoelectric Fields and Geomagnetically Induced Currents Around New Zealand to Explore GIC in the South Island's Electrical Transmission Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divett, T.; Ingham, M.; Beggan, C. D.; Richardson, G. S.; Rodger, C. J.; Thomson, A. W. P.; Dalzell, M.

    2017-10-01

    Transformers in New Zealand's South Island electrical transmission network have been impacted by geomagnetically induced currents (GIC) during geomagnetic storms. We explore the impact of GIC on this network by developing a thin-sheet conductance (TSC) model for the region, a geoelectric field model, and a GIC network model. (The TSC is composed of a thin-sheet conductance map with underlying layered resistivity structure.) Using modeling approaches that have been successfully used in the United Kingdom and Ireland, we applied a thin-sheet model to calculate the electric field as a function of magnetic field and ground conductance. We developed a TSC model based on magnetotelluric surveys, geology, and bathymetry, modified to account for offshore sediments. Using this representation, the thin sheet model gave good agreement with measured impedance vectors. Driven by a spatially uniform magnetic field variation, the thin-sheet model results in electric fields dominated by the ocean-land boundary with effects due to the deep ocean and steep terrain. There is a strong tendency for the electric field to align northwest-southeast, irrespective of the direction of the magnetic field. Applying this electric field to a GIC network model, we show that modeled GIC are dominated by northwest-southeast transmission lines rather than east-west lines usually assumed to dominate.

  15. Methods for calculation of undelivered electricity in medium voltage network that is not integrated into the remote control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrcelj Nada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is based on data obtained from the so-called. hand-held measuring current at 10 kV voltage level and from reports of outages at reclosers that are installed in a part of network that is observed. At first, is calculates the electrical load of the main distribution power lines, and then simulates the corresponding power flow and calculates the undelivered electricity. The method was applied to parts of the network PD ED Belgrade that are not in the remote control system and is developed for the purpose of considering the effects of automation in the 10 kV PD ED Belgrade.

  16. Reference models and incentive regulation of electricity distribution networks: An evaluation of Sweden's Network Performance Assessment Model (NPAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamasb, Tooraj; Pollitt, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Electricity sector reforms across the world have led to a search for innovative approaches to regulation that promote efficiency in the natural monopoly distribution networks and reduce their service charges. To this aim, a number of countries have adopted incentive regulation models based on efficiency benchmarking. While most regulators have used parametric and non-parametric frontier-based methods of benchmarking some have adopted engineering-designed 'reference firm' or 'norm' models. This paper examines the incentive properties and related aspects of the reference firm model-NPAM-as used in Sweden and compares this with frontier-based benchmarking methods. We identify a number of important differences between the two approaches that are not readily apparent and discuss their ramifications for the regulatory objectives and process. We conclude that, on balance, the reference models are less appropriate as benchmarks than real firms. Also, the implementation framework based on annual ex-post reviews exacerbates the regulatory problems mainly by increasing uncertainty and reducing the incentive for innovation

  17. Report related to the mitigation of the impact of major climate events on the operation of electricity distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    After a presentation of the main characteristics of the French electricity distribution network, this report discusses the lessons learnt from recent tempests which occurred in 1999, 2008, 2009 and 2010. It identifies measures and technologies to be implemented to improve the network security. Then, it shows that the present institutional context does not lend itself to an optimisation of investment choices in terms of security. The last part discusses the security plan sizing which needs a better assessment of tempest-related risks

  18. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition: Fault Diagnosis of Electrical Power Systems in Aircraft and Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengshoel, Ole Jakob; Poll, Scott; Kurtoglu, Tolga

    2009-01-01

    This CD contains files that support the talk (see CASI ID 20100021404). There are 24 models that relate to the ADAPT system and 1 Excel worksheet. In the paper an investigation into the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems is described. The high-level specifications, Bayesian networks, clique trees, and arithmetic circuits representing 24 different electrical power systems are described in the talk. The data in the CD are the models of the 24 different power systems.

  19. Mesh Network Design for Smart Charging Infrastructure and Electric Vehicle Remote Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, Aleksey; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-14

    Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging today happens with little knowledge of the state of the vehicle being charged. In order to implement smart charging algorithms and other capabilities of the future smart grid, provisions for remote PEV monitoring will have to be developed and tested. The UCLA Smart-grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) is working on a smart charging research platform that includes data acquired in real time from PEVs being charged in order to investigate smart charging algorithms and demand response (DR) strategies for PEVs in large parking garage settings. The system outlined in this work allows PEVs to be remotely monitored throughout the charging process by a smart-charging controller communicating through a mesh network of charging stations and in-vehicle monitoring devices. The approach may be used for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication as well as PEV monitoring.

  20. Determining concentration depth profiles in fluorinated networks by means of electric force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miccio, Luis A.; Kummali, Mohammed M.; Alegria, Angel; Montemartini, Pablo E.; Oyanguren, Patricia A.; Schwartz, Gustavo A.; Colmenero, Juan

    2011-01-01

    By means of electric force microscopy, composition depth profiles were measured with nanometric resolution for a series of fluorinated networks. By mapping the dielectric permittivity along a line going from the surface to the bulk, we were able to experimentally access to the fluorine concentration profile. Obtained data show composition gradient lengths ranging from 30 nm to 80 nm in the near surface area for samples containing from 0.5 to 5 wt. % F, respectively. In contrast, no gradients of concentration were detected in bulk. This method has several advantages over other techniques because it allows profiling directly on a sectional cut of the sample. By combining the obtained results with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, we were also able to quantify F/C ratio as a function of depth with nanoscale resolution.

  1. Comparing electricity distribution network revenues and costs in New South Wales, Great Britain and Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain, Bruce; Littlechild, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    A decade ago, electricity distribution network revenues per customer in New South Wales (NSW) were twice those in Great Britain (GB). Recent price controls imply that by 2014 they will be nearly four times as high. This paper examines possible reasons for this. The main reason does not seem to be geography, operating environment or industry structure. GB and Victoria have managed to accommodate increasing demand at broadly constant or even declining costs and revenues while delivering higher quality of service, while NSW has not. The regulatory framework and the practice of the regulatory body within that framework seem relevant. Australian regulators have not used benchmarking techniques as the GB regulator has. Perhaps the most important explanatory factor is private ownership in GB and Victoria compared to state ownership in NSW. This could also impact on the nature and effectiveness of regulation. (author)

  2. Unleashing Flexibility from Electric Boilers and Heat Pumps in Danish Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2018-01-01

    and thereby improving its techno-economic efficiency. The data used for the evaluation are also from the real household sites in Denmark provided by the district heating utility. Focus is on the low-voltage grid, and that’s very relevant since many doesn’t expect any flexibility from that voltage level. Study...... this model is compared to responses from an average model of the hot water storage tank to evaluate the benefit of the more detailed model. Finally, analysis on consumption patterns of electrical and thermal loads in residential buildings in Northern Jutland, Denmark, are used for analysis of the system...... and use of thermal units as flexible consumer loads in the low voltage (LV) distribution network grid. The models of EB and HP with storage tank are briefly discussed in relation to the actual control and flexibility based on grid condition and status of storage tank temperature or position...

  3. A Neural Network Combined Inverse Controller for a Two-Rear-Wheel Independently Driven Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle active safety control is attracting ever increasing attention in the attempt to improve the stability and the maneuverability of electric vehicles. In this paper, a neural network combined inverse (NNCI controller is proposed, incorporating the merits of left-inversion and right-inversion. As the left-inversion soft-sensor can estimate the sideslip angle, while the right-inversion is utilized to decouple control. Then, the proposed NNCI controller not only linearizes and decouples the original nonlinear system, but also directly obtains immeasurable state feedback in constructing the right-inversion. Hence, the proposed controller is very practical in engineering applications. The proposed system is co-simulated based on the vehicle simulation package CarSim in connection with Matlab/Simulink. The results verify the effectiveness of the proposed control strategy.

  4. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid-electric

  5. Electric power measurement system of commercial character: a singular experience in South America; Sistema de medicion de energia de caracter comercial: una experiencia unica en America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenz, Jorge A [Compania Administradora del Mercado Mayorista Electrico S.A. (CAMMESA), Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1997-12-31

    This work present a measurement system, that determine the energy flow transference between the actors of the Argentina electric power market. It describes all aspects involved in the process of tariffing 1 ref., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Social representations of electricity network technologies: exploring processes of anchoring and objectification through the use of visual research methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine-Wright, Hannah; Devine-Wright, Patrick

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore everyday thinking about the UK electricity network, in light of government policy to increase the generation of electricity from renewable energy sources. Existing literature on public perceptions of electricity network technologies was broadened by adopting a more socially embedded conception of the construction of knowledge using the theory of social representations (SRT) to explore symbolic associations with network technologies. Drawing and association tasks were administered within nine discussion groups held in two places: a Scottish town where significant upgrades to the local transmission network were planned and an English city with no such plans. Our results illustrate the ways in which network technologies, such as high voltage (HV) pylons, are objectified in talk and drawings. These invoked positive as well as negative symbolic and affective associations, both at the level of specific pylons, and the 'National Grid' as a whole and are anchored in understanding of other networks such as mobile telecommunications. We conclude that visual methods are especially useful for exploring beliefs about technologies that are widespread, proximal to our everyday experience but nevertheless unfamiliar topics of everyday conversation.

  7. Analysis of the reactive power consumption and the harmonics in the network by the non-linear electrical loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogo, Joao Roberto [Escola Federal de Engenharia de Itajuba, MG (Brazil)

    1994-12-31

    The non linear electrical loads can give rise to a number of disturbances in electrical power networks. Among them, the high consumption of relative power is to be noted and so is the several harmonic components which may be injected in the industry system and very often in the utility system. So, by using appropriate technical considerations, as well as measurements in typical special electrical loads, such negative effects are analyzed and ways of minimizing them are suggested. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Cost-related model for transit rates in electric power distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collstrand, F.

    1994-02-01

    The planned deregulation of the swedish electrical power market will require a new structure of the electrical energy rates. In this report different models of transit rates are studied. The report includes studies of literature and a proposal to a rate structure and is made specifically for Malmoe Energi AB. The differences between various methods of calculating the transfer cost are illustrated. Further, the build-up of the tariff structure and its base elements are discussed. The costs are divided on different categories of costumers and shows the cost for each customer. The new regulations should apply simultaneously to all networks, independent of the voltage level. The transit cost should be based on a number of basic elements: capital cost, operation and maintenance, losses, measuring and administration. Capital cost and operation and maintenance should be charged as power fees, the loss cost as an energy fee and the measuring and administration cost as a fixed fee. The customer bill should be split into two parts, one for the transit cost and one for the energy usage. 15 refs., 37 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Annual electricity consumption forecasting by neural network in high energy consuming industrial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azadeh, A.; Ghaderi, S.F.; Sohrabkhani, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an artificial neural network (ANN) approach for annual electricity consumption in high energy consumption industrial sectors. Chemicals, basic metals and non-metal minerals industries are defined as high energy consuming industries. It is claimed that, due to high fluctuations of energy consumption in high energy consumption industries, conventional regression models do not forecast energy consumption correctly and precisely. Although ANNs have been typically used to forecast short term consumptions, this paper shows that it is a more precise approach to forecast annual consumption in such industries. Furthermore, the ANN approach based on a supervised multi-layer perceptron (MLP) is used to show it can estimate the annual consumption with less error. Actual data from high energy consuming (intensive) industries in Iran from 1979 to 2003 is used to illustrate the applicability of the ANN approach. This study shows the advantage of the ANN approach through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, the ANN forecast is compared with actual data and the conventional regression model through ANOVA to show its superiority. This is the first study to present an algorithm based on the ANN and ANOVA for forecasting long term electricity consumption in high energy consuming industries

  10. Glass-Glass Transitions by Means of an Acceptor-Donor Percolating Electric-Dipole Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yang; Kuball, Martin; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-11-01

    We report the ferroelectric glass-glass transitions in KN (K+/Nb5 +) -doped BaTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics, which have been proved by x-ray diffraction profile and Raman spectra data. The formation of glass-glass transitions can be attributed to the existence of cubic (C )-tetragonal (T )-orthorhombic (O )-rhombohedral (R ) ferroelectric transitions in short-range order. These abnormal glass-glass transitions can perform very small thermal hysteresis (approximately 1.0 K ) with a large dielectric constant (approximately 3000), small remanent polarization Pr , and relative high maximum polarization Pm remaining over a wide temperature range (220-350 K) under an electrical stimulus, indicating the potential applications in dielectric recoverable energy-storage devices with high thermal reliability. Further phase field simulations suggest that these glass-glass transitions are induced by the formation of a percolating electric defect-dipole network (PEDN). This proper PEDN breaks the long-range ordered ferroelectric domain pattern and results in the local phase transitions at the nanoscale. Our work may further stimulate the fundamental physical theory and accelerate the development of dielectric energy-storing devices.

  11. Day-ahead price forecasting of electricity markets by a new feature selection algorithm and cascaded neural network technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amjady, Nima; Keynia, Farshid

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of restructuring into the electric power industry, the price of electricity has become the focus of all activities in the power market. Electricity price forecast is key information for electricity market managers and participants. However, electricity price is a complex signal due to its non-linear, non-stationary, and time variant behavior. In spite of performed research in this area, more accurate and robust price forecast methods are still required. In this paper, a new forecast strategy is proposed for day-ahead price forecasting of electricity markets. Our forecast strategy is composed of a new two stage feature selection technique and cascaded neural networks. The proposed feature selection technique comprises modified Relief algorithm for the first stage and correlation analysis for the second stage. The modified Relief algorithm selects candidate inputs with maximum relevancy with the target variable. Then among the selected candidates, the correlation analysis eliminates redundant inputs. Selected features by the two stage feature selection technique are used for the forecast engine, which is composed of 24 consecutive forecasters. Each of these 24 forecasters is a neural network allocated to predict the price of 1 h of the next day. The whole proposed forecast strategy is examined on the Spanish and Australia's National Electricity Markets Management Company (NEMMCO) and compared with some of the most recent price forecast methods.

  12. Evaluating the electricity intensity of evolving water supply mixes: the case of California’s water network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, Jennifer; Taptich, Michael; Kavvada, Olga; Horvath, Arpad

    2017-11-01

    Climate change is making water supply less predictable, even unreliable, in parts of the world. Urban water providers, especially in already arid areas, will need to diversify their water resources by switching to alternative sources and negotiating trading agreements to create more resilient and interdependent networks. The increasing complexity of these networks will likely require more operational electricity. The ability to document, visualize, and analyze water-energy relationships will be critical to future water planning, especially as data needed to conduct the analyses become increasingly available. We have developed a network model and decision-support tool, WESTNet, to perform these tasks. Herein, WESTNet was used to analyze a model of California’s 2010 urban water network as well as the projected system for 2020 and 2030. Results for California’s ten hydrologic regions show that the average number of water sources per utility and total electricity consumption for supplying water will increase in spite of decreasing per-capita water consumption. Electricity intensity (kWh m-3) will increase in arid regions of the state due to shifts to alternative water sources such as indirect potable water reuse, desalination, and water transfers. In wetter, typically less populated, regions, reduced water demand for electricity-intensive supplies will decrease the electricity intensity of the water supply mix, though total electricity consumption will increase due to urban population growth. The results of this study provide a baseline for comparing current and potential innovations to California’s water system. The WESTNet tool can be applied to diverse water systems in any geographic region at a variety of scales to evaluate an array of network-dependent water-energy parameters.

  13. An environment integrated for identification, modeling, analysis, and control associated systems project to the power electric systems; Um ambiente integrado para identificacao, modelagem, analise e projeto de sistemas de controle associados a sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Lucas Thadeu Orihuela da

    1990-12-01

    An integrated environment which was developed to give support to the activities of identification, modeling, analysis and simulation of control systems of Electric Power Systems - EPS is presented. It is a computer program to be used in compatible IBM P C microcomputers. The program has two algorithms for systems identification: one for identification in the frequency domain and other to be used in the time domain. For the analysis, were implemented the algorithms of the frequency response and the root locus. One can simulate multivariable and nonlinear models. A set of auxiliary transformations is available to obtain the dynamic equation of the model declared for the simulation and to transform it in a transfer matrix. The hierarchical menus used for the selection of the program functions are presented and the dialogues and the others communication mechanisms with the user are described. The program in EPS's is demonstrated through the design of a Power System Stabilizer. The results obtained with the program are compared with the ones that were obtained in field tests. (author)

  14. An environment integrated for identification, modeling, analysis, and control associated systems project to the power electric systems; Um ambiente integrado para identificacao, modelagem, analise e projeto de sistemas de controle associados a sistemas eletricos de potencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Lucas Thadeu Orihuela da

    1990-12-01

    An integrated environment which was developed to give support to the activities of identification, modeling, analysis and simulation of control systems of Electric Power Systems - EPS is presented. It is a computer program to be used in compatible IBM P C microcomputers. The program has two algorithms for systems identification: one for identification in the frequency domain and other to be used in the time domain. For the analysis, were implemented the algorithms of the frequency response and the root locus. One can simulate multivariable and nonlinear models. A set of auxiliary transformations is available to obtain the dynamic equation of the model declared for the simulation and to transform it in a transfer matrix. The hierarchical menus used for the selection of the program functions are presented and the dialogues and the others communication mechanisms with the user are described. The program in EPS's is demonstrated through the design of a Power System Stabilizer. The results obtained with the program are compared with the ones that were obtained in field tests. (author)

  15. High-tension electricity network expansions in Argentina: decision mechanisms and willingness-to-pay revelation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chisari, O.O.; Dal-Bo, P.; Romero, C.A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the procedures established by the present regulation for high-tension network expansions, studies its optimality and points its main problems. According to the present regulatory scheme, the decision to expand the high-tension network system is on the hands of the private sector. A simple model of the Argentine electricity system and its regulation allowed the simulation of cases in which the present 'Public Contest' method could result in the rejection of socially desirable projects and the acceptance of undesirable ones. Three main reasons for the existence of wrong incentives to investment are found. First, since consumers are not included in the mechanism, they have no way to reveal their willingness-to-pay for the investment. Second, the approximation of the future use of the line is done in such a way that it leaves important nodes under represented, thereby affecting the optimality of the mechanism. Third, the profit agents obtain from a line may not be related to their use, e.g. the generators profits depend also on generation costs

  16. A special purpose computer for the calculation of the electric conductivity of a random resistor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjar, Mansour

    1987-01-01

    The special purpose computer PERCOLA is designed for long numerical simulations on a percolation problem in Statistical Mechanics of disordered media. Our aim is to improve the actual values of the critical exponents characterizing the behaviour of random resistance networks at percolation threshold. The architecture of PERCOLA is based on an efficient iterative algorithm used to compute the electric conductivity of such networks. The calculator has the characteristics of a general purpose 64 bits floating point micro-programmable computer that can run programs for various types of problems with a peak performance of 25 Mflops. This high computing speed is a result of the pipeline architecture based on internal parallelism and separately micro-code controlled units such as: data memories, a micro-code memory, ALUs and multipliers (both WEITEK components), various data paths, a sequencer (ANALOG DEVICES component), address generators and a random number generator. Thus, the special purpose computer runs percolation problem program 10 percent faster than the supercomputer CRAY XMP. (author) [fr

  17. High-tension electricity network expansions in Argentina: decision mechanisms and willingness-to-pay revelation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chisari, O.O. [Departamento de Economia y Finanzas, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Chile 1142 lo piso, 1073 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dal-Bo, P. [Department of Economics, University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Romero, C.A. [Departamento de Economia y Finanzas and Centro de Estudios Economicos de la Regulacion, Universidad Argentina de la Empresa, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-11-01

    This paper describes the procedures established by the present regulation for high-tension network expansions, studies its optimality and points its main problems. According to the present regulatory scheme, the decision to expand the high-tension network system is on the hands of the private sector. A simple model of the Argentine electricity system and its regulation allowed the simulation of cases in which the present 'Public Contest' method could result in the rejection of socially desirable projects and the acceptance of undesirable ones. Three main reasons for the existence of wrong incentives to investment are found. First, since consumers are not included in the mechanism, they have no way to reveal their willingness-to-pay for the investment. Second, the approximation of the future use of the line is done in such a way that it leaves important nodes under represented, thereby affecting the optimality of the mechanism. Third, the profit agents obtain from a line may not be related to their use, e.g. the generators profits depend also on generation costs.

  18. Artificial Neural Network Maximum Power Point Tracker for Solar Electric Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Theodore Amissah OCRAN; CAO Junyi; CAO Binggang; SUN Xinghua

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an artificial neural network maximum power point tracker (MPPT) for solar electric vehicles. The MPPT is based on a highly efficient boost converter with insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) power switch. The reference voltage for MPPT is obtained by artificial neural network (ANN) with gradient descent momentum algorithm. The tracking algorithm changes the duty-cycle of the converter so that the PV-module voltage equals the voltage corresponding to the MPPT at any given insolation, temperature, and load conditions. For fast response, the system is implemented using digital signal processor (DSP). The overall system stability is improved by including a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, which is also used to match the reference and battery voltage levels. The controller, based on the information supplied by the ANN, generates the boost converter duty-cycle. The energy obtained is used to charge the lithium ion battery stack for the solar vehicle. The experimental and simulation results show that the proposed scheme is highly efficient.

  19. Secure Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Charging in a Smart Grid Network