WorldWideScience

Sample records for electric hexadecapole transitions

  1. Neptunium octupole and hexadecapole motif in NpO sub 2 directly from electric-dipole (E1) enhanced x-ray Bragg diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    Lovesey, S W; Detlefs, C; Laan, G V D; Sivia, D S; Staub, U

    2003-01-01

    The phase transition in NpO sub 2 at T sub o approx 25.5K is accompanied by the onset of superlattice reflections in the x-ray Bragg diffraction pattern, with intensity enhanced by an electric-dipole (E1) event. Additional experiments using other techniques indicate no ordering at T sub o of Np magnetic moments. Absence of long-range magnetic order below T sub o fits with the outcome of a polarization analysis of superlattice intensities at 12K; signals are observed in both the unrotated (sigma'sigma) and rotated (pi'sigma) channels of scattering while magnetic (dipole) moments would contribute only in the rotated channel. We demonstrate that these empirical findings, together with a narrow energy profile of the Bragg intensity at the Np M sub 4 edge, are consistent with magnetic and charge contributions to the El Bragg amplitude described by Np 5f multipoles of ranks 3 (octupole) and 4 (hexadecapole). Key to our understanding of the x-ray diffraction data gathered in the vicinity of the Np M sub 4 edge is re...

  2. Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    A government, industry, and university cooperative is developing an advanced hybrid electric city transit bus. Goals of this effort include doubling the fuel economy compared to current buses and reducing emissions to one-tenth of current EPA standards. Unique aspects of the vehicle's power system include the use of ultra-capacitors as an energy storage system, and a planned natural gas fueled turbogenerator developed from a small jet engine. Power from both the generator and energy storage system is provided to a variable speed electric motor attached to the rear axle. At over 15000 kg gross weight, this is the largest vehicle of its kind ever built using ultra-capacitor energy storage. This paper describes the overall power system architecture, the evolution of the control strategy, and its performance over industry standard drive cycles.

  3. Production and detection of atomic hexadecapole at Earth's magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, V M; Auzinsh, M; Gawlik, W; Grisins, P; Higbie, J M; Jackson Kimball, D F; Krzemien, L; Ledbetter, M P; Pustelny, S; Rochester, S M; Yashchuk, V V; Budker, D

    2008-07-21

    Optical magnetometers measure magnetic fields with extremely high precision and without cryogenics. However, at geomagnetic fields, important for applications from landmine removal to archaeology, they suffer from nonlinear Zeeman splitting, leading to systematic dependence on sensor orientation. We present experimental results on a method of eliminating this systematic error, using the hexadecapole atomic polarization moment. In particular, we demonstrate selective production of the atomic hexadecapole moment at Earth's magnetic field and verify its immunity to nonlinear Zeeman splitting. This technique promises to eliminate directional errors in all-optical atomic magnetometers, potentially improving their measurement accuracy by several orders of magnitude.

  4. Electrical Conductivity in Transition Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher; Vickneson, Kishanda

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this "Science Note" is to describe how to test the electron-sea model to determine whether it accurately predicts relative electrical conductivity for first-row transition metals. In the electron-sea model, a metal crystal is viewed as a three-dimensional array of metal cations immersed in a sea of delocalised valence…

  5. Influence of hexadecapole deformations of the nuclear shape of subbarrier fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez Niello, J.

    1989-01-01

    A systematic study of the contribution of hexadecapole deformations to the enhancement of subbarrier fusion cross reactions is carried out. The analysis is based on calculations that cover the full range of values of hexadecapole deformations found in actual nuclear systems. The interplay of this shape degree of freedom with the presence of prolate quadrupole deformations is also contemplated. (Author) [es

  6. Effect of nonaxial and hexadecapole deformation on the hyperfine splitting of energy levels in 238U muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagaev, V.I.; Mikhajlov, I.N.; Ortlepp, Kh.G.; Fromm, V.D.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of nonaxial and hexadecapole deformation on spectra of moun atoms is considered, the model of rigid nonaxial rotator being used. Experimental data on μ -238 U obtained on the JINR synchrocyclotron are presented. The effect of monopolar, quadrupolar and hexadecapolar parts of potential on muon spectrum is studied using a separated beam of negative 105 MeV/c muons, as the contribution of other harmonics is negligible. Wave functions of 238 U nucleus are determined in the framework of the Davydov-Filipov model. The values of charge distribution parameters obtained for 238 U are compared with available ones. The comparison shows that the effect of nuclear polarization on quadrupolar splitting of n→n-1 transitions decreases with the growth of n. Quadrupolar splitting of 4F→3D transitions is sufficiently large for experimental studies. Besides, vacuum polarization, radial charge distribution etc. produce an insignificant effect on the above transitions

  7. Description of the hexadecapole deformation parameter in the sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yuxin; Sun Di; Wang Jiajun; Han Qizhi

    1998-01-01

    The hexadecapole deformation parameter β 4 of the rare-earth and actinide nuclei is investigated in the framework of the sdg interacting boson model. An explicit relation between the geometric hexadecapole deformation parameter β 4 and the intrinsic deformation parameters ε 4 , ε 2 are obtained. The deformation parameters β 4 of the rare-earths and actinides are determined without any free parameter. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. It also shows that the SU(5) limit of the sdg interacting boson model can describe the β 4 systematics as well as the SU(3) limit

  8. Description of the Hexadecapole Deformation Parameter in the sdg Interacting Boson Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-xin; Sun, Di; Wang, Jia-jun; Han, Qi-zhi

    1998-04-01

    The hexadecapole deformation parameter β4 of the rare-earth and actinide nuclei is investigated in the framework of the sdg interacing boson model. An explicit relation between the geometric hexadecapole deformation parameter β4 and the intrinsic deformation parameters epsilon4, epsilon2 are obtained. The deformation parameters β4 of the rare-earths and actinides are determined without any free parameter. The calculated results agree with experimental data well. It also shows that the SU(5) limit of the sdg interacting boson model can describe the β4 systematics as well as the SU(3) limit.

  9. Possible interplay between non-axial and hexadecapole degrees of freedom. An explanation for ''enormously'' large Q4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, J.; Nazarewicz, W.; Rozmej, P.

    1980-02-01

    The theoretical calculations of equilibrium deformations and multipole moments of rare earth nuclei are presented. The good agreement with experiment for Gd, Dy, Er, Yb nuclei is found in contrast to large discrepancies for heavy Hf, W and Os isotopes, especially connected with hexadecapole deformations and moments. Possibilities of the explanation of the above hexadecapole anomaly are discussed. The assumption of the ''partial-bubble''-like density distribution, suggested from electron scattering measurements, is found to be quite insufficient for the hexadecapole anomaly explanation. The simultaneous inclusion of non-axial and hexadecapole degrees of freedom is found to be the most promising approach to explain the ''hexadecapole anomaly'' for Hf, W, Os isotopes. (author)

  10. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitts L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p’ reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0, were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77−34+23 × 10−3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0 value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0 values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0 value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  11. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Moukaddam, M.; Alshahrani, B.; Eriksen, T. K.; Holt, J. D.; Hota, S. S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Palalani, N.; Reed, M. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p') reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0), were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77-34+23 × 10-3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0) value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0) values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0) value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  12. Shape transition in Os and Pt isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ansari, A.

    1985-07-01

    Ground state structure of A=186 to 196 Os-Pt transitional region is investigated through a self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogolyubov calculation employing a pairing-plus-quadrupole-plus-hexadecapole model interaction Hamiltonian. Influence of the hexadecapole degrees of freedom on the triaxiality is especially examined. A gradual prolate to oblate shape transition is found in Pt isotopes but such a change is almost abrupt in Os at A approx. = 194. This difference in behaviour of the Os and Pt isotopes is obtained only if all the hexadecapole degrees of freedom, instead of merely an axial Y 40 component, are treated fully self-consistently. (author)

  13. The electricity market in transition: a decoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Mathilde; Schwarz, Virginie; Chapon, Antoine; Fouquet, Doerte; Joos, Marine; Jedliczka, Marc; Siess, Damien

    2015-01-01

    A set of article proposes a discussion of the main challenges for energy transition for the architecture of the European electricity market, an interview of the responsible of the energy department within the French ministry of ecology (she addresses the issues of market, electricity system, renewable energies), a discussion of the first lessons learned from the integration of renewable energies in the electricity market, a comment on hazardous evolutions for independent producers, a discussion of the pilot stage for bidding in Germany, a discussion of false ideas and true challenges in the relationship between demand management and integration, a comment on the evolution towards a complete reform of the support system for renewable energies, and a discussion of the perspectives beyond 40 per cent of renewable energies in the French electricity mix

  14. Electric dipole transitions of heavy quarkonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietrulewicz, Piotr [Universitaet Wien (Austria)

    2012-07-01

    In this talk we present the theoretical treatment of electric dipole transitions of heavy quarkonia within an effective field theory formalism. Inside the effective field theory called potential nonrelativistic QCD (pNRQCD) we account for the relativistic corrections to the decay rate in a systematic and model-independent way. Former results from potential model calculations are scrutinized, and a phenomenological analysis in relation to the experimental data is presented.

  15. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Prohaska, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kelly, Kenneth [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-01-27

    Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to evaluate its fleet of Proterra battery electric buses (BEBs) in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This report provides data on the buses from April 2014 through July 2015. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  16. Transition countries in the light of electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolin, I.

    2000-01-01

    The fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 could be closely considered as the beginning of transition in many countries. during this period, lasting for about ten years, unavoidable fluctuations and stoppages caused degradation of electricity production and economic decline as well. This can be mathematically evaluated by means of equation for electricity production, valid before the fall of the Berlin Wall. However, electricity decrease has not been the same in all the countries. Therefore, in order to investigate and evaluate the transition process in the light of electricity production, eight transition states, including croatia, are analysed and mutually compared. (author)

  17. Electrical valley filtering in transition metal dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Tzu-Chi; Chou, Mei-Yin; Wu, Yu-Shu

    2018-03-01

    This work investigates the feasibility of electrical valley filtering for holes in transition metal dichalcogenides. We look specifically into the scheme that utilizes a potential barrier to produce valley-dependent tunneling rates, and perform the study with both a k .p -based analytic method and a recursive Green's function-based numerical method. The study yields the transmission coefficient as a function of incident energy and transverse wave vector, for holes going through lateral quantum barriers oriented in either armchair or zigzag directions, in both homogeneous and heterogeneous systems. The main findings are the following: (1) The tunneling current valley polarization increases with increasing barrier width or height; (2) both the valley-orbit interaction and band structure warping contribute to valley-dependent tunneling, with the former contribution being manifest in structures with asymmetric potential barriers, and the latter being orientation dependent and reaching maximum for transmission in the armchair direction; and (3) for transmission ˜0.1 , a tunneling current valley polarization of the order of 10 % can be achieved.

  18. Phonon-assisted transitions in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.R.

    1980-05-01

    A theory of the effect of a crossed electric, E, and magnetic, H, fields in the indirect transitions in semiconductors is developed. A semi-classical treatment is adopted where the electric field is considered as a small perturbation. A numerical application to GaP gives the limiting values of E/H valid to this approach. (author)

  19. Electricity in european economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This study examines the electricity supply industries in the European members of the former Unified Power System/interconnected Power Systems (UPS/IPS): Belarus, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia and Ukraine. It explores the transformation process in the electricity sector over the past five years, its relationship to other changes in the region and possible future trends. Subjects covered include structure and regulation, demand, primary fuel availability, generating capacity, financing, tariffs, interconnections and trade

  20. Turmoil and transition: Electric utility industry trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    In a review of electric utility industry trends, focusing on North America, it is noted that four critical influences are dominant: competition in the electricity supply business; technological advances; the recognized need for environmental protection; and a favoring of market economics and customer choice. As energy costs rose in the 1970s and 1980s, electricity usage growth rates decreased and demand side management became an accepted alternative to building new power plants. In large areas of Canada and the USA, substantial surplus generation capacity arose, transmission linkages improved, and regional electricity markets developed. Privatization measures in the British electric sector were closely studied in North America and electric markets in the USA were pushed toward more competition with the 1992 Energy Policy Act. Non-utility generators have entered the market, including industrial companies, pipeline companies, independent renewable-energy providers, and power companies set up by the utilities themselves. Power pools may evolve into regional transmission grids in which the transmission owning utilities would exchange their lines for an interest in the grid. California is likely to lead in opening access to transmission on a regional scale. Distribution systems are likely to remain a regulated monopoly as before. Substantial change is expected in customer services as functions such as power purchase and conservation are being performed by independent companies. Other possible developments in the industry include emissions trading and spot markets for power. The implications of these trends for British Columbia Hydro are discussed

  1. Electric grids and energy transition in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruciani, Michel

    2015-06-01

    Focussing on electricity, this report proposes an analysis of the main elements in favour of large investments in electric grids, while notably outlining technical or economic uncertainties as well as possible political consequences such as compatibility of a largely interconnected European network with a free choice of energy sources (as specified in the Lisbon Treaty), and responsibility for the States in terms of supply security. The author first describes the present situation: overview of the regulatory framework of the liberalization process. The second part addresses challenges which emerged with the European commitment in favour of renewable sources of electricity and the emergence of new needs, notably regarding electric vehicles. It also presents measures aimed at supporting the development of networks. The third part introduces a discussion about the relevancy of this development by highlighting, on the one hand, the fragility of economic perspectives, and on the other hand, the necessity to address future consequences of a major increase of interconnections within the European electric grid. Some recommendations are finally proposed. Examples and specific analysis more particularly concern Germany, Spain, France, Italy and the United-Kingdom

  2. Electricity storage - A challenge for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bart, Jean-Baptiste; Nekrasov, Andre; Pastor, Emmanuel; Benefice, Emmanuel; Brincourt, Thierry; Cagnac, Albannie; Brisse, Annabelle; Jeandel, Elodie; Lefebvre, Thierry; Penneau, Jean-Francois; Radvanyi, Etienne; Delille, Gautier; Hinchliffe, Timothee; Lancel, Gilles; Loevenbruck, Philippe; Soler, Robert; Stevens, Philippe; Torcheux, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    After a presentation of the energetic context and of its issues, this collective publication proposes presentations of various electricity storage technologies with a distinction between direct storage, thermal storage and hydrogen storage. As far as direct storage is concerned, the following options are described: pumped energy transfer stations or PETS, compressed air energy storage or CAES, flywheels, various types of electrochemical batteries (lead, alkaline, sodium, lithium), metal air batteries, redox flow batteries, and super-capacitors. Thermal storage comprises power-to-heat and heat-to-power technologies. Hydrogen can be stored under different forms (compressed gas, liquid), in saline underground cavities, or by using water electrolysis and fuel cells. The authors propose an overview of the different services provided by energy storage to the electricity system, and discuss the main perspectives and challenges for tomorrow's storage (electric mobility, integration of renewable energies, electrification of isolated areas, scenarios of development)

  3. Transition-cost issues for a restructuring US electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Utilities regulators can use a variety of approaches to calculate transition costs. We categorized these approaches along three dimensions. The first dimension is the use of administrative vs. market procedures to value the assets in question. Administrative approaches use analytical techniques to estimate transition costs. Market valuation relies on the purchase price of particular assets to determine their market values. The second dimension concerns when the valuation is done, either before or after the restructuring of the electricity industry. The third dimension concerns the level of detail involved in the valuation, what is often called top-down vs. bottom-up valuation. This paper discusses estimation approaches, criteria to assess estimation methods, specific approaches to estimating transition costs, factors that affect transition-cost estimates, strategies to address transition costs, who should pay transition costs, and the integration of cost recovery with competitive markets.

  4. Energetic transition in the electric sector: Brazilian case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jannuzzi, Gilberto de Martino

    1999-01-01

    The Brazilian electric sector is essentially based on a source of renewable energy -hydroelectricity, and the national economy has increased its dependence of the electricity. The use of the electricity for unit of GDP increased in continuous form from 1970 and the country has serious difficulties in the financing of the expansion of the electric production. Energetic politics, in what concerns to the sustainable development in the Brazilian case, should direct its efforts toward a bigger investment in efficiency and energy conservation. a bigger use of supply options that they are renewable and decentralized will depend on high degree of the regulation of the electric sector during the privatization. The transition stage of the Brazilian electric sector will imply more efforts toward a handling based on the demand and a bigger efficiency

  5. Electric field dependence of excess electrical conductivity below transition temperature in thin superconducting lead films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashwini Kumar, P K; Duggal, V P [Delhi Univ. (India). Dept. of Physics and Astrophysics

    1976-01-26

    Results of measurements of the electric field dependence of the excess electrical conductivity are reported in thin superconducting lead films below the transition temperature. It is observed that the normal state sheet resistance has some effect on the nonlinearity but the theory of Yamaji still fits well to the experimental data.

  6. Cubic to hexagonal phase transition induced by electric field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Giacomelli, F. C.; Silveira, N.; Nallet, F.; Černoch, Peter; Steinhart, Miloš; Štěpánek, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 9 (2010), s. 4261-4267 ISSN 0024-9297 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : order to order transition (OOT) * electric field * block copolymers Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.838, year: 2010

  7. Strategies to address transition costs in the electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hadley, S.; Hirst, E.

    1996-07-01

    Transition costs are the potential monetary losses that electric- utility shareholders, ratepayers, or other parties might experience because of structural changes in the electricity industry. Regulators, policy analysts, utilities, and consumer groups have proposed a number of strategies to address transition costs, such as immediately opening retail electricity markets or delaying retail competition. This report has 3 objectives: identify a wide range of strategies available to regulators and utilities; systematically examine effects of strategies; and identify potentially promising strategies that may provide benefits to more than one set of stakeholders. The many individual strategies are grouped into 6 major categories: market actions, depreciation options, rate-making actions, utility cost reductions, tax measures, and other options. Of the 34 individual strategies, retail ratepayers have primary or secondary responsibility for paying transition costs in 19 of the strategies, shareholders in 12, wheeling customers in 11, taxpayers in 8, and nonutility suppliers in 4. Most of the strategies shift costs among different segments of the economy, although utility cost reductions can be used to offset transition costs. Most of the strategies require cooperation of other parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully; financial stakeholders must be engages in negotiations that hold the promise of shared benefits. Only by rejecting ``winner-take-all`` strategies will the transition-cost issue be expeditiously resolved.

  8. The electric monopole transition: Nuclear structure, and nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zganiar, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The electric monopole (E0) transition process provides unique information on the structure of nuclei. For example, δI=0 transitions between nuclear configurations of different shape have enhanced EO components. The authors have observed I π→Iπ (I=0) transitions in 185 Pt and 184 Pt which are pure E0. This is unprecedented. Further, they have initiated searches for the location of the superdeformed band in 192 Hg utilizing internal conversion spectroscopy and, for the first time, internal pair spectroscopy. Additionally, the lifetime of the 0 + 2 level in 188 Hg was measured with a newly developed picosecond lifetime system which utilized the 0 + 2 →0 + 1 E0 internal conversion transition as an energy gate and its associated atomic X-ray as a fast trigger. The role of the E0 internal conversion process in the study of nuclear structure and as a tool in nuclear spectroscopy are discussed

  9. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M.; Levin, J.; Edwards, T.

    2006-01-01

    Both AC Transit and SunLine Transit operate hybrid electric hydrogen fueled buses in their transit service. ACT presently operates three fuel cell buses in daily revenue service, and SunLine operates a fuel cell bus and a HHICE (Hybrid Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine) bus. All these buses use similar electric drive train and electric accessories, although the detailed design differs notably between the fuel cell and the hybrid ICE buses. The fuel cell buses use a 120kW UTC fuel cell and a Van Hool Chassis, whereas the HHICE bus uses a turbocharged Ford engine which is capable of 140kW generator output in a New Flyer Chassis. The HHICE bus was the first in service, and has been subjected to both winter testing in Manitoba, Canada and summer testing in the Palm Springs, CA region. The winter testing included passenger sampling using questionnaires to ascertain passenger response. The fuel cell buses were introduced to service at the start of 2006. All five buses are in daily revenue service use. The paper will describe the buses and the experience of the transit properties in operating the buses. (author)

  10. Europe’s electricity regime: restoration or thorough transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviel Verbruggen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about climate change, diminishing social acceptance of traditional fuels, and technological innovations have led several countries to pursue energy transition strategies, typically by massive diffusion of renewable electricity supplies. The German ‘Energiewende’ has been successful so far in terms of deploying renewable power, mainly by applying particular feed-in tariffs, and by bundling public, academic, industrial and political support. So far though, only few EU member states proceed with a similar transition. In March 2014 CEOs of Europe’s major energy companies publicly opposed a fast and thorough transformation of electricity supplies to become fully renewable. In April 2014 the European Commission published new state aid guidelines, generally mandating renewable energy support mechanisms (premiums, tenders of lesser performance than regularly adjusted, specific feed-in tariffs. The new guidelines are likely to be pernicious for the fast deployment of renewable electricity supplies. In light of these challenges, this position paper highlights two implications of power sector transitions. First, the engineering-economics theory of power generation systems needs fundamental revision, mainly since a growing share of power sources no longer function on command. Second, and based on the experience in Germany, the paper sketches out a strategy for a thorough transition of the power sector, which, in the end, also entails normative judgements. Deep changes in energy systems and associated ways of living require societal consensus building based on ethical considerations.

  11. Temperature-dependent electrical property transition of graphene oxide paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xingyi; Jiang Pingkai; Zhi Chunyi; Golberg, Dmitri; Bando, Yoshio; Tanaka, Toshikatsu

    2012-01-01

    Reduction of graphene oxide is primarily important because different reduction methods may result in graphene with totally different properties. For systematically exploring the reduction of graphene oxide, studies of the temperature-dependent electrical properties of graphene oxide (GO) are urgently required. In this work, for the first time, broadband dielectric spectroscopy was used to carry out an in situ investigation on the transition of the electrical properties of GO paper from −40 to 150 °C. The results clearly reveal a very interesting four-stage transition of electrical properties of GO paper with increasing temperature: insulator below 10 °C (stage 1), semiconductor at between 10 and 90 °C (stage 2), insulator at between 90 and 100 °C (stage 3), and semiconductor again at above 100 °C (stage 4). Subsequently, the transition mechanism was discussed in combination with detailed dielectric properties, microstructure and thermogravimetric analyses. It is suggested that the temperature-dependent transition of electronic properties of GO is closely associated with the ion mobility, water molecules removal and the reduction of GO in the GO paper. Most importantly, the present work clearly demonstrates the reduction of GO paper starts at above 100 °C. (paper)

  12. Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jeffers, Matthew [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-28

    This report summarizes results of a battery electric bus (BEB) evaluation at Foothill Transit, located in the San Gabriel and Pomona Valley region of Los Angeles County, California. Foothill Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate its fleet of Proterra BEBs in revenue service. The focus of this evaluation is to compare performance of the BEBs to that of conventional technology and to track progress over time toward meeting performance targets. This project has also provided an opportunity for DOE to conduct a detailed evaluation of the BEBs and charging infrastructure. This is the second report summarizing the results of the BEB demonstration at Foothill Transit and it provides data on the buses from August 2015 through December 2016. Data are provided on a selection of compressed natural gas buses as a baseline comparison.

  13. Sustainability in Electricity Markets. Study for the Dutch Transition Platform on Sustainable Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-12-01

    The current energy system is not sustainable. This situation is liable to lead to serious and costly consequences in the long term. The two most important themes to be addressed are climate change and securing energy supplies, particularly in view of the increasing dependency on fossil fuels from geo-politically unstable regions. That is why the Dutch government has decided to strive for a transition towards a Sustainable Energy System. The aim of the energy transition is to transform the current energy system over the coming decades into a sustainable energy system. The participants in this Energy Transition have established six themes for achieving a sustainable energy economy within 50 years. Within these themes experiments are being conducted, experiments that ensure that the final aims become clearer and feasible. Market participants, scientific and civil organizations, and government agencies are taking the lead in each of the six themes: (a) Green raw materials; (b) Sustainable Mobility; (c) Chain Efficiency; (d) New Gas; (e) Sustainable Electricity; (f) Energy in the built environment. This document provides input for the theme on Sustainable Electricity. The Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs together with SenterNovem is preparing a Platform Renewable Electricity Supply. In this Platform representatives from different stakeholders are to take part. The platform is meant to stimulate concrete actions/initiatives towards sustainable electricity supply. SenterNovem has asked PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) to make an international inventory of electricity market developments, with a focus on the impact for future sustainable electricity supply. The question which options for electricity generation are the most suitable for a sustainable electricity supply will be dealt with by KEMA (a Dutch research institute for the electric power industry)

  14. Transition costs in the electricity industry: A summary of issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.; Hirst, E.; Hadley, S.

    1996-10-01

    Progress is evident as the restructuring debate in the U.S. electricity industry completes its third year. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission released a final rule on transmission open access-a key element to facilitate more efficient wholesale markets. The majority of states have initiated investigations or discussions on restructuring retail markets. Yet hurdles remain in formulating and implementing state-level restructuring proposals. Perhaps foremost among these hurdles is the issue of transition costs (the potential monetary losses experienced by utilities, consumers, and other economic actors as a result of government initiatives to transform electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market). Transition costs are approximately equal to the difference between the embedded cost for generation services under traditional cost-of-service regulation and the competitive-market price for power. When government takes action to open current monopoly franchises to multiple generation providers and the competitive-market price falls below embedded generation costs, then transition costs will arise. Transition costs will include one or more of the following four classes of costs: (1) assets, primarily utility-owned power plants; (2) liabilities, primarily long-term power-purchase and fuel-supply contracts; (3) regulatory assets, including deferred expenses and costs that regulators allow utilities to place on their balance sheets; and (4) public-policy programs, such as energy efficiency, low-income programs, and research and development. What is at issue in the transition-cost debate? The debate turns on four questions: (1) How large are the potential transition costs from restructuring? (2) How are these costs estimated? (3) What, if anything, might be done to address these costs? (4) Who will ultimately pay for any remaining costs and how? This paper summarizes some of the key results from a project at ORNL that addresses these four questions.

  15. Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias [I. Physikalisches Institut Ia, RWTH Aachen, 52056 Aachen (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s.

  16. Electrically induced phase transition in GeSbTe alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruns, Gunnar; Schlockermann, Carl; Woda, Michael; Wuttig, Matthias

    2008-01-01

    While phase change materials have already successfully been applied in rewriteable optical data storage, they are now also promising to form the basis for novel non-volatile electrical data storage devices. To understand the physical concepts of these so-called Phase Change Random Access Memory (PCRAM) it is mandatory to gain a deeper insight into the switching process between the highly resistive amorphous and the lowly resistive crystalline phase. The fast phase transitions between the amorphous and crystalline state of GeSbTe-based alloys has so far often been studied using pulsed laser irradiation. In this work an alternative approach is employed to investigate this transition. Electrical pulses are used to rapidly and reversibly switch between the two states. For these experiments a setup was built with a specially designed contacting circuit board to meet the requirements of electrical measurements on a nanosecond timescale. The influence of the pulse parameters on the change of device resistance was determined for different initial states. Furthermore the high time resolution of 0.4 ns allows investigation of transient electrical effects like the so-called threshold switching first described by Ovshinsky in the late 1960s

  17. Strategies to address transition costs in a restructuring electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, Lester; Hirst, Eric; Hadley, Stanton

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses the potential financial consequences, or transition costs, of transforming electricity generation from a regulated to a competitive market in the US. Industry-wide estimates suggest potential monetary losses could exceed $100 billion as a result of the move to competition. The paper discusses the most prominent strategies suggested to address these potential losses. For each strategy, the paper identifies the parties most likely to bear the financial consequences. Most strategies do nothing to reduce the total costs to society, but instead shift costs from one set of economic actors to another. The exceptions are those strategies that result in economic-efficiency gains, which can then be used to offset the transition costs. Most of the strategies examined require the cooperation of several parties, including regulators, to be implemented successfully. (author)

  18. Assessing Sustainability Transition in the US Electrical Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen McCauley

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines sustainability transition dynamics in the US electricity system, drawing on the socio-technical systems approach. We view system change as unfolding along several critical dimensions and geographical scales, including dynamics in the environment, science, civil society, discourse, and state regulatory institutions, as well as in capital and technology formations. A particular emphasis is given to the interaction of discourses, policy networks, and institutions. We trace four distinct regimes which have characterized the evolution of this discourse-network-institutional nexus over the last century. The research examines dynamics that present a challenge to the incumbent energy regime based on fossil fuels, nuclear and hydropower, and demonstrates how the actor-network supporting renewables and energy efficiency has grown stronger and more capable of moving toward a sustainability transition than at any time since the sustainable energy movement began a generation ago.

  19. Electric monopole transitions from low energy excitations in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, J L; De Coster, C; Heyde, Kris L G

    1999-01-01

    Electric monopole (E0) properties are studied across the entire nuclear mass surface. Besides an introductory discussion of various model results (shell model, geometric vibrational and rotational models, algebraic models), we point out that many of the largest E0 transition strengths, $\\rho^2$(E0), are associated with shape mixing. We discuss in detail the manifestation of E0 transitions and present extensive data for~: single-closed shell nuclei, vibrational nuclei, well-deformed nuclei, nuclei that exhibit sudden ground-state changes, and nuclei that exhibit shape coexistence and intruder states. We also give attention to light nuclei, odd-A nuclei, and illustrate a suggested relation between $\\rho^2$(E0) and isotopic shifts.

  20. Lost in transition? Comparing strategies of electricity companies in Delhi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Criqui, Laure; Zérah, Marie-Hélène

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of energy transition when implemented by private utilities. In 2000, the Delhi government privatized electricity distribution to three private distribution companies. Most research was concerned with the impact of privatization on energy reliability, tariff settings and regulation issues. This paper looks at two under-researched themes: the expansion of services to poorer neighborhoods and the rollout of clean energy policies. This focus allows to unpack the materiality of socio-technical systems, to analyze how energy infrastructures are being technically deployed on the ground and to identify which social approach is used. To detail the specific practices of each company provides a more nuanced and accurate understanding of the reform. In-depth analysis of the three private utilities show that they interpret the reform mandate differently: they use a varied range of technical tools; they respond differently to social concerns in poorer neighborhoods; and they have distinctive internal management choices and corporate cultures. All these four factors can strengthen or undermine the transition towards increased access and clean energy. - Highlights: • Energy transition in an emerging cities aims at balancing environmental and social concerns. • Utilities have distinct transition paths despite similar privatization and regulation framework. • Utilities paths depend on spatial, social, managerial and corporate considerations. • Utilities' strategies are shaped by urban challenges rather than by energy policies

  1. Transition pathways for a UK low carbon electricity future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foxon, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Achieving long-term targets for greenhouse gas emissions reductions, such as the UK's legally-binding target of reducing its emissions by 80% by 2050, will require a transition in systems for meeting and shaping energy service demands, involving radical substitution to low-carbon supply technologies and improvements in end-use energy efficiency. This paper describes the development and high-level analysis of a set of transition pathways to a UK low carbon electricity system, explaining key features of the core pathways developed and the distinctiveness and value of the approach. The pathways use an ‘action space’ concept to explore the dynamic interactions between choices made by actors, which are influenced by the competing governance ‘framings’ or ‘logics’ that different actors pursue. The paper sets out three core transition pathways – Market Rules, Central Co-ordination and Thousand Flowers, in which market, government and civil society logics respectively dominate. It summarises the key technological and institutional changes in these pathways, and the roles of actors in bringing these about. This leads to an identification of the key risks to the realisation of each of the pathways, and of the challenges for individuals, businesses, social movements and policy-makers in taking action to bring them about and sustain them. - Highlights: ► Development of a set of transition pathways to a UK low carbon electricity system. ► Action space to explore the dynamic interactions between choices made by actors. ► Three core pathways in which market, government and civil society logics dominate. ► Key technological and institutional changes, and the roles of actors in pathways. ► Challenges for different actors in realising pathways.

  2. Challenges to China's transition to a low carbon electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahrl, Fredrich; Williams, Jim; Ding Jianhua; Hu Junfeng

    2011-01-01

    We examine the challenges to China's transition to a low carbon electricity system, in which renewable energy would play a significant role. China's electricity system currently lacks the flexibility in planning, operations, and pricing to respond to conflicting pressures from demand growth, rising costs, and environmental mandates in a way that simultaneously maintains reliability, decarbonizes the system, and keeps prices within acceptable bounds. Greater flexibility crucially requires the ability to more systematically and transparently manage and allocate costs. This will require re-orientating sector institutions still rooted in central planning, and strengthening independent regulation. Some of the necessary changes require fundamental political and legal reforms beyond the scope of energy policy. However, the system's flexibility can still be increased through the development of traditional planning and regulatory tools and approaches, such as an avoided cost basis for energy efficiency investments, more integrated planning to improve the coordination of generation, transmission, and demand-side investments, and a transparent ratemaking process. The judicious application of OECD electricity sector experience and skills can support these developments. - Research highlights: → China's electricity system currently lacks the flexibility to integrate renewables and reduce CO 2 emissions on a large scale at an acceptable cost and level of reliability. → The challenges to increased flexibility are more institutional than technological. → Chinese government agencies need new approaches to basic power system planning and ratemaking. → OECD countries can help address these challenges through the transfer of 'soft' technologies.

  3. Lifetime of electric flux tubes near the QCD phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faroughy, Cyrus; Shuryak, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Electric flux tubes are a well-known attribute of the quantum chromodynamic (QCD) vacuum in which they manifest confinement of electric color charges. Recently, experimental results appeared which suggest that not only do those objects persist at temperatures T≅T c near the QCD phase transitions, but their decay is suppressed and the resulting clusters in Au-Au collisions are larger than in pp collisions (i.e., in vacuum). This correlates well with recent theoretical scenarios that view the QCD matter in the T≅T c region as a dual-magnetic plasma dominated by color-magnetic monopoles. In this view, the flux tubes are stabilized by dual-magnetic currents and are described by dual magnetohydrodynamics (DMHD). In this article, we calculate classically the dissipative effects in the flux tube. Such effects are associated with rescattering and finite conductivity of the matter. We derive the DMHD solution in the presence of dissipation and then estimate the lifetime of the electric flux tubes. The conclusion of this study is that a classical treatment leads to too short of a lifetime for the flux tubes.

  4. Electric transition(s) - What Europe and markets have been unable to tell you

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Jean-Pierre; Percebois, Jacques; Mestrallet, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    In an interview, one of the authors proposes an assessment of 20 years of liberalisation of the electric power sector and market: no technological innovation like in the telecommunication sector, disturbance of market operation, high subsidies awarded to renewable sources, emergence of stranded costs. He also explains that electricity is not a product like others (it is a strategic product), the importance of time (a power plant lifetime is often more than 40 years), and that the digital revolution will probably change the deal. He explains why France is an exception in the production of clean electric power. As 40 per cent of power production is based on coal, he discusses what could be an efficient measure to reduce this share. Then, an article proposes a review of the book. It outlines the contradiction between approach by or for the market, reports the different failures noticed by the author regarding power markets and utilities. It describes how the authors promote deregulation and prefer Hayek to Keynes. It finally discusses the two electric transitions which are existing within the European electric power system: the end of public services and the de-carbonation of power generation

  5. Multiple electrical phase transitions in Al substituted barium hexaferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Supriya, Sweety; Kar, Manoranjan

    2017-12-01

    Barium hexaferrite is known to be a very good ferromagnetic material. However, it shows very good dielectric properties, i.e., the dielectric constant is comparable to that of the ferroelectric material. However, its crystal symmetry does not allow it to be a ferroelectric material. Hence, the electrical properties have revived the considerable research interest on these materials, not only for academic interest, but also for technological applications. There are a few reports on temperature dependent dielectric behavior of these materials. However, the exact cause of dielectric as well as electrical conductivity is yet to be established. Hence, Al (very good conducting material) substituted barium hexaferrite (BaFe12-xAlxO19, x = 0.0-4.0) has been prepared by following the modified sol-gel method to understand the ac and DC electrical properties of these materials. The crystal structure and parameters have been studied by employing the XRD and FTIR techniques. There are two transition temperatures, which have been observed in the temperature dependent ac dielectric and DC resistivity measurement. The response of dielectric behaviors to temperature is similar to that of the ferroelectric material; however, the dielectric polarization is due to the polaron hopping, which is evident from the DC resistivity analysis. Hence, the present observations lead to understand the electrical properties of barium hexaferrite. The frequency dependent dielectric dispersion can be understood by the modified Debye model. More interestingly, the dielectric constant decreases and DC resistivity increases with the increase in the Al concentration, which has the correlation between bond length modifications in the crystal due to substitution.

  6. Challenges and Experiences with Electric Propulsion Transit Buses in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L.; Gifford, M.

    2003-11-01

    Document provides background for transit agencies and fleets that are considering electric propulsion technologies. It tells them what to expect and plan for when implementing vehicles with electric propulsion systems.

  7. Electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions in carbon isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Sagawa, Hiroyuki; Hagino, Kouichi

    2003-01-01

    We carry out shell model calculations to study electromagnetic moments and electric dipole transitions of C isotopes. We point out the configuration dependence of the quadrupole and magnetic moments of the odd C isotopes, which will be useful to find out the deformations and the spin parities of the ground states of these nuclei. We also study the electric dipole states of C isotopes, focusing on the interplay between low energy pigmy strength and giant dipole resonances. As far as the energies of the resonances are concerned, reasonable agreement is obtained with available experimental data for the photoreaction cross sections in 12 C, 13 C, and 14 C, both in the low energy region below (ℎ/2π)ω=14 MeV and in the high energy giant resonance region (14 MeV 15 C is found to exhaust about 12-16 % of the classical Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule value and 50-80 % of the cluster sum rule value

  8. Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.H.; Ghanadan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Since about 1990, many developing and transition countries have undertaken market-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model, reform processes and outcomes have often failed to meet expectations. Drawing on an extensive literature review and case studies in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and Eastern Europe, this paper describes common features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions. Comparison with the sector-focused policy goals of deregulation in OECD countries highlights the importance of national fiscal crises, macroeconomic reforms, and persuasion by multilateral lenders in shaping non-OECD reforms. It also makes clear reform's dependence on attracting foreign capital, and consequent vulnerability to volatile international financial conditions. Case studies of Bolivia, Ghana, India, Poland, and Thailand illustrate reform's diverse pathways and problems in different settings. A broad range of non-OECD reform experiences indicates that disappointing results have often resulted from a narrow focus on finance and cost recovery, inflexibly applied. The paper concludes that improving reform will require emphasizing a broader set of objectives, including service provision, public benefits, effective regulation, and social/political legitimacy. Above all, reforms must be based on realistic assessments of national needs and capabilities. (author)

  9. Phase transition and electrical properties of strontium orthovanadate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, Biswajit; Choudhary, R.N.P.; Das, Piyush R.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Highly crystallized Sr 3 V 2 O 8 ceramic has a structural and micro-structural stability. •The low values of ε r and tan δ make this material useful for microwave applications. •The material exhibits good ferroelectric properties suitable for memory devices. •The dielectric relaxation is of non Debye-type and ac conductivity obeys Jonscher power law. •The small value of dc activation energy suggests the conduction initiates with a small energy. -- Abstract: The current research work reports the study of phase transition and transport mechanism in lead-free strontium orthovanadate (Sr 3 V 2 O 8 ), prepared using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. Preliminary X-rays diffraction studies exhibit the formation of a single-phase compound in the trigonal crystal system. Study of microstructure of gold-coated pellet by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows well-defined and homogeneous grains in the morphology. Detailed studies of dielectric parameters (ε r and tan δ) of the compound as a function of temperature at some selected frequencies reveal their independence for a wide range of temperatures. An anomaly in relative permittivity (ε r ) suggests the existence of a ferroelectric–paraelectric phase transition of diffuse-type in the material that confirms through the detailed studies of its electric polarization. Detailed studies of impedance and related parameters exhibit that the electrical properties of the material are strongly dependent on temperature, and bear a good correlation with its microstructure (i.e., bulk, grain boundary, etc.). The decrease in value of bulk resistance on increasing temperature suggests the negative temperature co-efficient of resistance (NTCR) behavior of the material. Studies of electric modulus indicate the presence of hopping conduction mechanism in the system with non-exponential type of conductivity relaxation. The nature of variation of dc conductivity with temperature confirms the

  10. Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Binary Amorphous Transition Metal Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Sy-Hwang

    The electrical, superconductive and magnetic properties of several binary transition metal amorphous and metastable crystalline alloys, Fe(,x)Ti(,100-x) (30 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Zr(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 93), Fe(,x)Hf(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 100), Fe(,x)Nb(,100 -x) (22 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 85), Ni(,x)Nb(,100-x) (20 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 80), Cu(,x)Nb(,100-x) (10 (LESSTHEQ) x (LESSTHEQ) 90) were studied over a wide composition range. Films were made using a magnetron sputtering system, and the structure of the films was investigated by energy dispersive x-ray diffraction. The composition region of each amorphous alloys system was determined and found in good agreement with a model proposed by Egami and Waseda. The magnetic properties and hyperfine interactions in the films were investigated using a conventional Mossbauer spectrometer and a ('57)Co in Rh matrix source. In all Fe-early transition metal binary alloys systems, Fe does not retain its moment in the low iron concentration region and the result is that the critical concentration for magnetic order (x(,c)) is much larger than anticipated from percolation considerations. A direct comparison between crystalline alloys and their amorphous counterparts of the same composition illustrate no clear correlation between crystalline and amorphous states. Pronounced discontinuities in the magnetic properties with variation in Fe content of all Fe-early transition metal alloys at phase boundaries separating amorphous and crystalline states have been observed. This is caused by the differences in the atomic arrangement and the electronic structure between crystalline and amorphous solids. The temperature dependence of resistivity, (rho)(T), of several binary amorphous alloys of Fe-TM (where TM = Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb etc.) has been studied from 2K to 300K. The Fe-poor (x x(,c)) samples have distinctive differences in (rho)(T) at low temperature (below 30K). All the magnetic samples

  11. Transit experience with hydrogen fueled hybrid electric buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, P.B.; Mazaika, D.M. [ISE Corp., Poway, CA (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mass transit buses are ideal candidates for hydrogen implementation due to their capability of carrying 30 to 60 kg of hydrogen. ISE Corporation is a supplier of hydrogen fueled buses, including the first hybrid electric fuel cell bus which was commercialized in 2002, the hybrid electric fuel cell bus, and the hybrid hydrogen internal combustion engine (HHICE) bus which was commercialized in 2004. The configuration of a HHICE bus was illustrated with reference to its engine, control system, energy storage, generator, drive motor, inverter and accessories. Although these vehicles are expensive, the cost is amortized over a large base of hours used and passengers carried. The buses are operated primarily in urban areas where quiet and clean operation is needed the most. ISE has established a joint venture with Thor industries to develop a series of fuel cell buses equipped with a 60 kW PEM fuel cell. A schematic illustrating the energy flow in HHICE bus was also presented. It was shown that regenerative braking recovers the energy of motion. When using regenerative braking, most of the braking energy is saved in the battery. ISE drive systems convert 30 per cent or more of the bus energy to electrical energy to be used in later acceleration. Reduced fuel consumption also reduces the vehicle emissions. Testing of HHICE buses in both summer and winter operating conditions have shown that the range needs to be improved along with engine component reliability and durability. Fuel supply is also a major issue. A comparison with a fuel cell hybrid system was also presented. In the United States, more than 100,000 miles have been logged for the use of hydrogen hybrid buses, fuel cell buses and HHICE buses. The HHICE bus offers low capital cost, familiar technologies, but some NOx. CAT absorber technology offers the possibility of near zero emission capability. The fuel cell bus was found to be more fuel efficient, and can travel nearly twice as far per unit energy as

  12. Electric Field-Dependent Photoluminescence in Multilayer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanev, T. K.; Henning, A.; Sangwan, V. K.; Speiser, N.; Stern, N. P.; Lauhon, L. J.; Hersam, M. C.; Wang, K.; Valencia, D.; Charles, J.; Kubis, T. C.

    Owing to interlayer coupling, transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) such as MoS2 exhibit strong layer dependence of optical and electronic phenomena such as the band gap and trion and neutral exciton population dynamics. Here, we systematically measure the effect of layer number on the optical response of multilayer MoS2 in an external electric field, observing field and layer number dependent emission energy and photoluminescence intensity. These effects are studied in few (2-6) and bulk (11 +) layered structures at low temperatures. In MoS2\\ the observed layer dependence arises from several mechanisms, including interlayer charge transfer, band structure, Stark Effect, Fermi level changes, screening, and surface effects, so it can be challenging to isolate how these mechanisms impact the observables. Because it behaves like a stack of weakly interacting monolayers rather than multilayer or bulk, ReS2 provides a comparison to traditional TMDCs to help isolate the underlying physical mechanisms dictating the response of multilayers. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation MRSEC program (DMR-1121262), and the 2-DARE Grant (EFRI-1433510). N.P.S. is an Alfred P. Sloan Research Fellow.

  13. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Safarzynska, K.E.; van den Bergh, J.C.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological

  14. Electric field bifurcation and transition in the core plasma of CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Hamada, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    1997-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, dynamic phenomena associated with transitions in radial electric field were observed during combined ECH+NBI heated plasmas. The observations with high temporal resolution confirmed a nonlinear relation between radial electric field and radial current to cause these phenomena associated with electric field bifurcation. (author)

  15. The US Electricity Industry and the Low-Carbon Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathieu, Carole

    2016-04-01

    While the wave of liberalisation produced a fragmented, but now stabilised, industrial landscape, the US power sector is about to undergo another major transformation with the low-carbon transition. Against a background of combined weak demand for electricity, a boom in distributed solar PV power and a decline in the profitability of merchant assets, incumbent stakeholders are currently dealing with further questions about the future of their business models. Driven as much by market forces as by government support mechanisms, these destabilising factors have an impact, which is still difficult to assess, but the need to control future transformation is already at the heart of debate. In areas where output is priced on the wholesale markets, new tools are being studied to secure compensation for some power stations, with the issue of possible excessive dependency on natural gas in the background. At the same time, an increasing number of states are questioning the design of their support mechanisms for distributed energy. If net metering, the main support mechanism for distributed solar PV power, has been a resounding success because of its simplicity, it is now criticised because of the problems of covering grid costs and the cross-subsidies it leads to. Although reforms are always difficult to implement, since they involve a conflict of increasingly organised interests, consensus is beginning to emerge regarding the structure of retail sales tariffs. Nevertheless, calls for an assessment of distributed generation according to its actual value for the system are increasing, without any real convergence of views on the methodology to be adopted to date. Conventional stakeholders are also looking to adapt in order to find growth opportunities where primarily only challenges appear. The diversification of activities is an important lever for transformation, even if the case of NRG Energy illustrates the difficulty in making strategic shifts while maintaining

  16. Electrifying Australian transport: Hybrid life cycle analysis of a transition to electric light-duty vehicles and renewable electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfram, Paul; Wiedmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •This research assesses life-cycle carbon impacts of different powertrains. •We illustrate a transition to low-carbon vehicles in a hybrid IO-LCA model. •Different electricity and transport scenarios are integrated in the model. •With Australia’s current grid-mix, electric vehicles offer no mitigation potential. •Using renewable energy, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66%. -- Abstract: Recent life cycle assessments confirmed the greenhouse gas emission reduction potential of renewable electricity and electric vehicle technologies. However, each technology is usually assessed separately and not within a consistent macro-economic, multi-sectoral framework. Here we present a multi-regional input-output based hybrid approach with integrated scenarios to facilitate the carbon footprint assessment of all direct and indirect effects of a transition to low-emission transportation and electricity generation technologies in Australia. The work takes into account on-road energy consumption values that are more realistic than official drive-cycle energy consumption figures used in previous work. Accounting for these factors as well as for Australia’s grid electricity, which heavily relies on coal power, electric vehicles are found to have a higher carbon footprint than conventional vehicles, whereas hybrid electric vehicles have the lowest. This means that – from a carbon footprint perspective – powertrain electrification is beneficial only to a certain degree at the current stage. This situation can be changed by increasing shares of renewable electricity in the grid. In our best-case scenario, where renewable energy accounts for 96% of the electricity mix in 2050, electric vehicle carbon footprints can be cut by 66% by 2050 relative to 2009. In the business-as-usual scenario (36% renewable electricity share by 2050), electric vehicles can reach a 56% reduction if fossil fuel power plants significantly increase their efficiencies

  17. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in the Stable Nickel Isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, Lee John

    A series of measurements of stable nickel isotopes were performed at the Australian National University in Canberra. Excited states in 58,60,62Ni were populated via inelastic scattering of proton beams delivered by the 14UD Pelletron accelerator. Multiple setups were used in order to determine the structure of low-lying states. The CAESAR array of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used to measure the (E2/M1) mixing ratio of transitions from angular distributions of gamma rays. The Super-e spectrometer was used to measure conversion coefficients for a number of J to J transitions. The data obtained from both devices was combined with previously measured parent lifetimes and branching ratios to determine E0 transition strengths between J-pi transitions. The E0 transition strength for the second 0+ to first 0+ transitions in 60,62Ni have been measured for the first time through internal conversion electron detection. The experimental value of 132(+59,-70) for 62Ni agrees within 2 sigma of the previous result obtained from internal pair formation. However it is likely that the previous experimental results used an outdated theoretical model for internal pair formation emission. This work also represents the first measurements of E0 transition strengths between 2+ states in Ni isotopes. There is generally large E0 strength between the 2+ states, particularly in the second 2+ to first 2+ transition, however there is also a large uncertainty in the measurements owing to the difficulties involved in measuring conversion coefficients. In 62Ni, the E0 transition strength of 172(+62,-77) for the second 2+ to first 2+ transition gives further weight to the argument against the spherical vibrator model, as an E0 transition is forbidden if there is a change of only one phonon. The large measurement also indicates the presence of shape coexistence, complementing the recent experimental work carried out in the neutron-rich Ni isotopes.

  18. Radiative Decay Rates for Electric Dipole, Magnetic Dipole and Electric Quadrupole Transitions in Triply Ionized Thulium (Tm IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnin Enzonga Yoca

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A new set of radiative decay parameters (oscillator strengths, transition probabilities for spectral lines in triply ionized thulium (Tm IV has been obtained within the framework of the pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR approach. The effects of configuration interaction and core-polarization have been investigated in detail and the quality of the results has been assessed through a comparison between different HFR physical models. The spectroscopic data listed in the present paper cover electric dipole as well as magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole transitions in a wide range of wavelengths from extreme ultraviolet to near infrared.

  19. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid–solid phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions. PMID:21505445

  20. Reversible temperature regulation of electrical and thermal conductivity using liquid-solid phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ruiting; Gao, Jinwei; Wang, Jianjian; Chen, Gang

    2011-01-01

    Reversible temperature tuning of electrical and thermal conductivities of materials is of interest for many applications, including seasonal regulation of building temperature, thermal storage and sensors. Here we introduce a general strategy to achieve large contrasts in electrical and thermal conductivities using first-order phase transitions in percolated composite materials. Internal stress generated during a phase transition modulates the electrical and thermal contact resistances, leading to large contrasts in the electrical and thermal conductivities at the phase transition temperature. With graphite/hexadecane suspensions, the electrical conductivity changes 2 orders of magnitude and the thermal conductivity varies up to 3.2 times near 18 °C. The generality of the approach is also demonstrated in other materials such as graphite/water and carbon nanotube/hexadecane suspensions.

  1. Reliability risks during the transition to competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    The Electricity Consumers Resource Council (ELCON) is a U.S. association representing industrial consumers of electricity, and is a long-standing advocate of competition in the electric power industry. However, because a reliable grid is necessary to support competitive wholesale markets, ELCON believes that the transmission system is an essential facility that must remain regulated. The initiatives discussed in this white paper represent significant steps that the National Electric Reliability Council (NERC) and the industry have taken to improve reliability in a competitive and restructured electric industry. Strategic manoeuvres of incumbent utilities to maintain market share were evaluated, as well as discrimination against potential competitors. It was suggested that, occasionally, indecisive federal policies have been taken advantage of by utilities. The unintended consequences of state restructuring policies that allow utilities to over-earn their revenue requirements were reviewed. NERC reliability standards will remain unenforceable until a new Electricity Reliability Organization has been certified. Flawed market designs and inadequate market power mitigation, as well as the financial distress of merchant generators, pose considerable risks. It was suggested that these risks could trigger transmission loading relief incidents, local outages or widespread outages. In the absence of mandatory reliability standards with penalties, and complementary market rules for mitigating generation and transmission market power, economic incentives will encourage other forms of opportunistic behavior that may be the root cause of other outages. Public concern regarding these risks to grid reliability may result in lost public support for competitive electricity markets. Proposed solutions include the certification of a new Electric Reliability Organization to establish and enforce mandatory reliability standards, and granting the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

  2. Fast electric dipole transitions in Ra-Ac nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    1985-01-01

    Lifetime of levels in 225 Ra, 225 Ac, and 227 Ac have been measured by delayed coincidence techniques and these have been used to determine the E1 gamma-ray transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities. The reduced E1 transition probabilities in 225 Ra and 225 Ac are about two orders of magnitude larger than the values in mid-actinide nuclei. On the other hand, the E1 rate in 227 Ac is similar to those measured in heavier actinides. Previous studies suggest the presence of octupole deformation in all the three nuclei. The present investigation indicates that fast E1 transitions occur for nuclei with octupole deformation. However, the studies also show that there is no one-to-one correspondence between E1 rate and octupole deformation. 13 refs., 4 figs

  3. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  4. Electric driving. Evaluation of transitions based on system options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagelhout, D.; Ros, J.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Over the past years, electric driving has become more and more attractive because of the development of better batteries. Driving electric vehicles could drastically reduce CO2 emissions, especially if more electricity would be generated by using sustainable energy. As most passenger cars are not used at night, this is the ideal time for charging their batteries. This would be cost-effective because, at that time, there is a surplus of generating capacity, and wind energy could also be used more effectively. Moreover, consumers will be able to drive clean and quiet vehicles at costs that seem surmountable in the future. At least two obstacles still need to be overcome. The first of which is the current maximum range of electric vehicles of around a few hundred kilometres. The second obstacle is the need for a standardised European network of charging stations, and electrical outlets near residences and at commercial and public parking facilities. This report shows the challenges facing the government and the business community of utilising the benefits of electric driving and of overcoming the obstacles [nl

  5. Multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chen; Wang, Jiang; Wang, Lin; Yu, Haitao; Deng, Bin; Wei, Xile; Tsang, Kaiming; Chan, Wailok

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Synchronization transitions in hybrid scale-free neuronal networks are investigated. • Multiple synchronization transitions can be induced by the time delay. • Effect of synchronization transitions depends on the ratio of the electrical and chemical synapses. • Coupling strength and the density of inter-neuronal links can enhance the synchronization. -- Abstract: The impacts of information transmission delay on the synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical and chemical hybrid synapses are investigated. Numerical results show that multiple appearances of synchronization regions transitions can be induced by different information transmission delays. With the time delay increasing, the synchronization of neuronal activities can be enhanced or destroyed, irrespective of the probability of chemical synapses in the whole hybrid neuronal network. In particular, for larger probability of electrical synapses, the regions of synchronous activities appear broader with stronger synchronization ability of electrical synapses compared with chemical ones. Moreover, it can be found that increasing the coupling strength can promote synchronization monotonously, playing the similar role of the increasing the probability of the electrical synapses. Interestingly, the structures and parameters of the scale-free neuronal networks, especially the structural evolvement plays a more subtle role in the synchronization transitions. In the network formation process, it is found that every new vertex is attached to the more old vertices already present in the network, the more synchronous activities will be emerge

  6. Positioning Nuclear Power in the Low-Carbon Electricity Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aviel Verbruggen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Addressing climate change requires de-carbonizing future energy supplies in an increasingly energy-dependent world. The IEA and the IPCC (2014 mention the following as low-carbon energy supply options: ‘renewable energy, nuclear power and fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage’. Positioning nuclear power in the decarbonization transition is a problematic issue and is overridden by ill-conceived axioms. Before probing these axioms, we provide an overview of five major, postwar energy-related legacies and some insight into who is engaged in nuclear activities. We check whether low-carbon nuclear power passes the full sustainability test and whether it is compatible with the unfettered deployment of variable renewable power sourced from the sun and from wind and water currents, which delivers two negative answers. We show that the best approach of the sustainable energy transition was Germany’s 2011 decision to phase out nuclear power for a fast development and full deployment of renewable power. This is the best approach for the sustainable energy transition. We offer five practical suggestions to strengthen and accelerate carbon- and nuclear-free transitions. They are related to institutional issues like the role of cost-benefit analysis and the mission of the International Atomic Energy Agency, to the costs of nuclear risks and catastrophes, and to the historical record of nuclear technology and business.

  7. Moving EVs (Electric vehicles) into a mass transit scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, D [Petrie Transit Consultants (United States)

    1996-12-31

    In this futuristic scenario electric microcars, providing local mobility, would be automatically loaded onto maglev trucks for longer commutes on a guideway located on a barriered inside lane of existing freeways. Stations are located above the freeway and an elegant Command and Control subsystem would be matched to traffic requirements. (Author)

  8. Will electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks undergo first-order transition under random attacks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xingpei; Wang, Bo; Liu, Dichen; Dong, Zhaoyang; Chen, Guo; Zhu, Zhenshan; Zhu, Xuedong; Wang, Xunting

    2016-10-01

    Whether the realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks will undergo first-order transition under random failures still remains a question. To reflect the reality of Chinese electrical cyber-physical system, the "partial one-to-one correspondence" interdependent networks model is proposed and the connectivity vulnerabilities of three realistic electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks are analyzed. The simulation results show that due to the service demands of power system the topologies of power grid and its cyber network are highly inter-similar which can effectively avoid the first-order transition. By comparing the vulnerability curves between electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks and its single-layer network, we find that complex network theory is still useful in the vulnerability analysis of electrical cyber-physical interdependent networks.

  9. Using restructured electricity markets in the hydrogen transition: The PJM case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, F.A.; Hajos, A. [Rutgers State University, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2006-10-15

    We examine a hydrogen transition strategy of using excess electric generation capacity in the U.S. midatlantic states during off-peak hours to produce hydrogen via electrolysis. Four different generation technologies are evaluated: combined-cycle natural gas, nuclear power, clean coal, and pulverized coal. We construct hydrogen-electricity price curves for each technology and evaluate the resulting air emissions of key pollutants. Substantial capital investments may be avoided by leveraging off generation assets that would otherwise be built to produce electricity. We also account for the interaction between the production of hydrogen and wholesale electricity prices and demand. Results show that off-peak electrolysis is a plausible but not dominant strategy for hydrogen production; however, there may be a substantial real option value in using the electric power system to transition to a hydrogen economy that may exceed the direct cost savings of producing hydrogen by less expensive methods.

  10. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safarzynska, Karolina, E-mail: ksafarzy@wu.ac.at [Institute for the Environment and Regional Development, WU Vienna University of Economics and Business, Nordbergstrasse 15 (UZA4, 4B), A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den, E-mail: jeroen.bergh@uab.es [ICREA, Barcelona (Spain); Institute for Environmental Science and Technology and Department of Economics and Economic History, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Edifici Cn-Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, and the Institute for Environmental Studies, VU University Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fellow of Tinbergen Institute and NAKE (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: > We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. > Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. > We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. > We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. > We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  11. Industry evolution, rational agents and the transition to sustainable electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safarzynska, Karolina; Bergh, Jeroen C.J.M. van den

    2011-01-01

    Guiding a transition to low carbon electricity requires a good understanding of the substitution of old by new technologies in the electricity industry. With the aim of explaining historical change from coal to gas in the British electricity industry, we develop a formal model of technological change, where energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. In each model version, we look at the causal relations between price and output setting mechanisms, fuel and labour use, and investment decisions for different institutional arrangements. We quantify model parameters on data for the United Kingdom. We find that the version of the model with rational investors is capable of replicating well core features of UK electricity history. This includes a rapid diffusion of gas in electricity production, the evolution of the average size of newly installed plants, and a high percentage of electricity sales covered by (forward) contracts-for-difference. In this model setting, nuclear and renewable energies have no chance to diffuse on the market. In the version of the model with boundedly rational investors, nuclear power typically dominates electricity production. We discuss implications of our modelling results for making a transition to low carbon electricity in the future. - Highlights: → We propose a model of a transition from coal to gas in electricity production. → Energy technologies diffuse through the construction of new power plants. → We considered two model versions: with rational and boundedly rational investors. → We quantify model parameters on data for the UK for the period 1990-2002. → We draw policy conclusions for guiding a transition to low carbon electricity.

  12. Redox transitions in strontium vanadates: Electrical conductivity and dimensional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macías, J.; Yaremchenko, A.A.; Frade, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Electrical conductivity and thermal expansion of strontium vanadates are measured. • Conductivity of SrVO 3−δ is 10 6 –10 8 times higher compared to Sr 2 V 2 O 7 and Sr 3 V 2 O 8 . • Sr 2 V 2 O 7 transforms on reduction to SrVO 3−δ via (5Sr 3 V 2 O 8 + SrV 6 O 11 ) intermediate. • This process is kinetically stagnated due to good redox stability of Sr 3 V 2 O 8 . • Large volume changes on Sr 2 V 2 O 7 ↔ SrVO 3 transformation are confirmed by dilatometry. - Abstract: The reversibility of redox-induced phase transformations and accompanying electrical conductivity and dimensional changes in perovskite-type SrVO 3−δ , a parent material for a family of potential solid oxide fuel cell anode materials, were evaluated employing X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, dilatometry and electrical measurements. At 873–1273 K, the electrical conductivity of SrVO 3−δ is metallic-like and 6–8 orders of magnitude higher compared to semiconducting V 5+ -based strontium pyrovanadate Sr 2 V 2 O 7 and strontium orthovanadate Sr 3 V 2 O 8 existing under oxidizing conditions. SrVO 3−δ is easily oxidized to a pyrovanadate phase at atmospheric oxygen pressure. Inverse reduction in 10%H 2 –90%N 2 atmosphere occurs in two steps through (5Sr 3 V 2 O 8 + SrV 6 O 11 ) intermediate. As Sr 3 V 2 O 8 is relatively stable even under reducing conditions, the perovskite phase and its high level of electrical conductivity cannot be recovered completely in a reasonable time span at temperatures ⩽1273 K. Dilatometric studies confirmed that SrVO 3 ↔ Sr 2 V 2 O 7 redox transformation is accompanied with significant dimensional changes. Their extent depends on the degree of phase conversion and, apparently, on microstructural features

  13. Electricity demand in France: what's at stake for the energy transition?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berghmans, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    This study identifies five key issues linked to electricity consumption to be taken into consideration in the management of the French power system transition: articulating the building stock renovation strategy and electricity consumption; integrating demand for electricity stemming from the development of electric vehicles; addressing winter 'peak' demand with specific demand-side policies; establishing energy demand management economic models as a flexible solution for the power system; identifying the impact of the emergence of a power system that is decentralised, balanced locally and connected with other energy carriers on the nature of demand for power from the grid. In the context of weak economic and demographic growth, the recent stabilization of electricity demand in France can be attributed to 'structural' factors, i.e. the continued expansion of the tertiary sector in the economy and the acceleration in energy efficiency gains. This evolution was poorly anticipated by stakeholders in the sector, which contributed to an imbalance between electricity demand and supply in Europe. In the absence of a major disruption, planning for transition in the electrical system should be made assuming relatively stable demand. However, major transformations will change the nature of the requirements placed on the electricity system: the times at which energy is consumed, the ability to manage the demand side of the system, and the geographical location of electricity demand within the network. Five key challenges are identified to anticipate the development of electricity consumption patterns: the role of electricity in satisfying building sector heating requirements, the integration of electric vehicle charging, the evolution of the winter demand peak, the development of demand-side management, and the emergence of an electric system based on local-level balancing. Too often considered an exogenous factor, the development in electricity consumption is in fact central

  14. Control of magnetic relaxation by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition and inhomogeneous domain switching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Emori, Satoru; Wang, Xinjun; Hu, Zhongqiang; Xie, Li; Gao, Yuan; Lin, Hwaider; Sun, Nian, E-mail: n.sun@neu.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Peng, Bin; Liu, Ming, E-mail: mingliu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Electronic Materials Research Laboratory, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jiao, Jie; Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Budil, David [Department of Chemistry, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts 02115 (United States); Jones, John G.; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J. [Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Electric-field modulation of magnetism in strain-mediated multiferroic heterostructures is considered a promising scheme for enabling memory and magnetic microwave devices with ultralow power consumption. However, it is not well understood how electric-field-induced strain influences magnetic relaxation, an important physical process for device applications. Here, we investigate resonant magnetization dynamics in ferromagnet/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, FeGaB/PMN-PT and NiFe/PMN-PT, in two distinct strain states provided by electric-field-induced ferroelectric phase transition. The strain not only modifies magnetic anisotropy but also magnetic relaxation. In FeGaB/PMN-PT, we observe a nearly two-fold change in intrinsic Gilbert damping by electric field, which is attributed to strain-induced tuning of spin-orbit coupling. By contrast, a small but measurable change in extrinsic linewidth broadening is attributed to inhomogeneous ferroelastic domain switching during the phase transition of the PMN-PT substrate.

  15. Electrically controlled band gap and topological phase transition in two-dimensional multilayer germanane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Jingshan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    Electrically controlled band gap and topological electronic states are important for the next-generation topological quantum devices. In this letter, we study the electric field control of band gap and topological phase transitions in multilayer germanane. We find that although the monolayer and multilayer germananes are normal insulators, a vertical electric field can significantly reduce the band gap of multilayer germananes owing to the giant Stark effect. The decrease of band gap eventually leads to band inversion, transforming them into topological insulators with nontrivial Z_2 invariant. The electrically controlled topological phase transition in multilayer germananes provides a potential route to manipulate topologically protected edge states and design topological quantum devices. This strategy should be generally applicable to a broad range of materials, including other two-dimensional materials and ultrathin films with controlled growth.

  16. Influence of Superconductivity on Crystal Electric Field Transitions in La1-xTbxAl2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feile, R.; Loewenhaupt, M.; Kjems, Jørgen

    1981-01-01

    Inelastic neutron scattering from the crystal electric field transitions in La1-xTbxAl2 single crystals has revealed an abrupt increase in the lifetimes of these transitions when the system becomes superconducting. An increase in the integrated intensities is also observed. The lifetime effects...... are quantitatively reproduced by existing theories, which take into account the reduced scattering of the conduction electrons by the magnetic ions due to the creation of the superconducting energy gap 2Δ(T)....

  17. Transition of radial electric field by electron cyclotron heating in stellarator plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idei, H.; Ida, K.; Sanuki, H.

    1993-06-01

    The transition of a radial electric field from a negative to a positive value is observed in Compact Helical System when the electron loss is sufficiently enhanced by the superposition of the off-axis second harmonic electron cyclotron heating on the neutral beam heated plasmas. The observed threshold for the enhanced particle flux required to cause the transition is compared with a theoretical prediction. (author)

  18. Tunable phase transition in single-layer TiSe2 via electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L.

    2018-06-01

    Phase transition represents an intriguing physical phenomenon that exists in a number of single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenides. This phenomenon often occurs below a critical temperature and breaks the long-range crystalline order leading to a reconstructed superstructure called the charge-density wave (CDW) structure, which can therefore be recovered by external stimuli such as temperature. Alternatively, we show here that another external stimulation, electric field can also result in the phase transition between the regular and CDW structures of a single-layer transition-metal dichalcogenide. We used single-layer TiSe2 as an example to elucidate the mechanism of the CDW followed by calculations of the electronic structure using a hybrid density functional. We found that applying electric field can tune the phase transition between the 1T and CDW phases of single-layer TiSe2. Our work opens up a route of tuning the phase transition of single-layer materials via electric field.

  19. Electric field driven orbital order-disorder transition in LaMnO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Dipten

    2012-01-01

    The external stimulation such as mechanical pressure magnetic field, electric field, and optical pulse driven phase transition and concomitant gigantic response in physical properties in terms of orders of magnitude jump in electrical resistivity, magnetization, thermoelectric power, or optical constants etc in strongly correlated electron systems has fascinated the researchers for more than two decades now. The underlying physics is nontrivial and the application potential is enormous. We report here our observation of pulsed electric field driven orbital order-disorder transition in canonical orbital ordered system LaMnO 3 . The LaMnO 3 , with orthorhombic crystallographic structure (space group Pbnm), possesses A-type magnetic order below T N (∼ 140 K) and C-type orbital order, with ordering of active 3d 3x 2 -r 2 /3d 3y 2 -r 2 orbitals within a plane and stacking across the plane, below Too (∼ 750 K). We have studied the electrical current-voltage characteristics as well as the differential thermal scans across a wide temperature range 80-800 K under pulsed field on a high quality single crystal of LaMnO 3 . We show how under pulsed electric field, T00 shifts towards lower temperature and the latent heat of the transition decreases monotonically. We also show that the electrical resistivity jumps by more than five orders of magnitude beyond a threshold electric field a low temperature (∼ 80 K). The field driven transition turns out to be originating electro-migration of lattice defects and consequent depinning of orbital domains. The orbital order in LaMnO 3 is not a continuum. It is granular because of interaction with lattice strain, defects, or even interference between Jahn-Teller and MnO 6 tilt order. The domains are pinned by the defects. The electric field driven migration leads to depinning transition. The model of depinning of charge density waves appears to be fitting the data observed in the present case closely, since the orbital order in La

  20. Phase transitions in the $sdg$ interacting boson model

    OpenAIRE

    Van Isacker, P.; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S.

    2009-01-01

    19 pages, 5 figures, submitted to Nuclear Physics A; A geometric analysis of the $sdg$ interacting boson model is performed. A coherent-state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ($\\beta_2$), axial hexadecapole ($\\beta_4$) and triaxial ($\\gamma_2$). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic $sdg$ hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical ${\\rm U}(5)\\otimes{\\rm U}(9)$, the (prolate and ob...

  1. Electric dipole transitions for four-times ionized cerium (Ce V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Usta, Betül Karaçoban, E-mail: bkaracoban@sakarya.edu.tr; Akgün, Elif, E-mail: elif.akgun@ogr.sakarya.edu.tr; Alparslan, Büşra, E-mail: busra.alparslan1@ogr.sakarya.edu.tr [Physics Department, Sakarya University, 54187, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2016-03-25

    We have calculated the transition parameters, such as wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities (or rates), for the electric dipole (E1) transitions in four-times ionized cerium (Ce V, Z = 58) by using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method within the framework of Breit-Pauli (MCHF+BP) relativistic corrections and the relativistic Hartree-Fock (HFR) method. The obtained results have been compared with other works available in literature. A discussion of these calculations for Ce V in this study has also been in view of the MCHF+BP and HFR methods.

  2. An economic and legal perspective on electric utility transition costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K.

    1996-07-01

    The issue of possibly unrecoverable cost incurred by a utility, or `stranded costs,` has emerged as a major obstacle to developing a competitive generation market. Stranded or transition costs are defined as costs incurred by a utility to serve its customers that were being recovered in rates but are no longer due to availability of lower-priced alternative suppliers. The idea of `stranded cost,` and more importantly arguments for its recovery, is a concept with little basis in economic theory, legal precedence, or precedence in other deregulated industries. The main argument recovery is that the ``regulatory compact`` requires it. This is based on the misconception that the regulator compact is simply: the utility incurs costs on behalf of its customers because of the ``obligation to serve`` so, therefore, customers are obligated to pay. This is a mischaracterization of what the compact was and how it developed. Another argument is that recovery is required for economic efficiency. This presumes, however, a very narrow definition of efficiency based on preventing ``uneconomic`` bypass of the utility and that utilities minimize costs. A broader definition of efficiency and the likelihood of cost inefficiencies in the industry suggest that the cost imposed on customers from inhibiting competition could exceed the gains from preventing uneconomic bypass. Both these issues are examined in this paper.

  3. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  4. A Transition Strategy from Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy Sources in the Mexican Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Vidal-Amaro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy sources exploitation acquires special importance for creating low-carbon energy systems. In Mexico a national regulation limits the fossil fuel-based electricity generation to 65%, 60% and 50% by years 2024, 2030 and 2050 respectively. This study evaluates several scenarios of renewables incorporation into the Mexican electricity system to attend those targets as well as a 75% renewables-based electricity share target towards a 100% renewable system. By its size, the Mexican electricity system, with a generation of 260.4 TWh/year (85% based on fossil fuels, can be regarded as an illustrating reference. The impact of increasing amounts of wind, photovoltaic solar, biomass, biogas, geothermal, hydro and concentrating solar power on the system’s capacity to attend demand on a one-hour timescale resolution is investigated utilizing the EnergyPLAN model and the minimum total mix capacity method. Possible excess of electricity production is also assessed. For every target year, a solution is obtained corresponding to the combination resulting in the minimum total generation capacity for the electricity system. A transition strategy to a system with a high share of renewables-based electricity is designed where every transition step corresponds to the optimal energy mix for each of the target years.

  5. Thermal battery. [solid metal halide electrolytes with enhanced electrical conductance after a phase transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsten, R.W.; Nissen, D.A.

    1973-03-06

    The patent describes an improved thermal battery whose novel design eliminates various disadvantages of previous such devices. Its major features include a halide cathode, a solid metal halide electrolyte which has a substantially greater electrical conductance after a phase transition at some temperature, and a means for heating its electrochemical cells to activation temperature.

  6. Proceedings of the CERI 2003 electricity conference : electricity restructuring in transition. CD-ROM ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The restructuring of the electric power industry was reviewed from a North American perspective. This conference focused on how current market structures can be improved to benefit all participants. The current issues for future development of power generation and transmission were discussed. The conference was divided into seven sessions as follows: (1) market design issues, (2) Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's (FERC's) wholesale market platform, (3) does retail competition make sense, (4) the future direction of the Alberta market, (5) the status of restructured electricity markets, (6) resource mix in a greenhouse gas (GHG)-constrained world, and (7) electricity supply from oil sands cogeneration. A total of eleven papers were selected and indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  7. Glass-Glass Transitions by Means of an Acceptor-Donor Percolating Electric-Dipole Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Lou, Xiaojie; Wang, Dong; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yang; Kuball, Martin; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ren, Xiaobing

    2017-11-01

    We report the ferroelectric glass-glass transitions in KN (K+/Nb5 +) -doped BaTiO3 ferroelectric ceramics, which have been proved by x-ray diffraction profile and Raman spectra data. The formation of glass-glass transitions can be attributed to the existence of cubic (C )-tetragonal (T )-orthorhombic (O )-rhombohedral (R ) ferroelectric transitions in short-range order. These abnormal glass-glass transitions can perform very small thermal hysteresis (approximately 1.0 K ) with a large dielectric constant (approximately 3000), small remanent polarization Pr , and relative high maximum polarization Pm remaining over a wide temperature range (220-350 K) under an electrical stimulus, indicating the potential applications in dielectric recoverable energy-storage devices with high thermal reliability. Further phase field simulations suggest that these glass-glass transitions are induced by the formation of a percolating electric defect-dipole network (PEDN). This proper PEDN breaks the long-range ordered ferroelectric domain pattern and results in the local phase transitions at the nanoscale. Our work may further stimulate the fundamental physical theory and accelerate the development of dielectric energy-storing devices.

  8. International perspectives on the importance of electric tariff transitioning to cost-based levels in Bulgaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, T.; Davis, F.; Dilovska, I.

    1996-01-01

    The traditional cost-of-service approach to power pricing has been replaced in many countries by market pricing mechanisms that compensate power producers at the marginal cost of production established collectively in the marketplace. The paper stresses the importance of cost-based tariff setting pointing out two main pricing principles of utility services: 1) Revenues must meet or exceed the utility average cost of production; 2) Marginal cost pricing for incremental consumption must ensure efficient allocation of resources. Examples describing the factors encouraging transition to economically efficient tariffs at a small utility are given for: Northwest U.S., MINENERGO in Belarus, Pacific Gas and Electric Co in California and the National Electric Co (NEK) in Bulgaria.The analysis of the Bulgarian electric sector is based on ongoing work being funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development. Each of the four utilities described faces a different challenge for transitioning tariffs to cost- based levels. However, one and the same broad conclusion applies in all cases: utility pricing must take into account the underlying average and marginal cost structures of the regional power industry. Bulgaria needs transition to cost-based tariffs to recover the electricity cost-of-service and to ensure that the electric sector operates efficiently and consumers are treated fairly. Measures that facilitate the process of tariff transitioning include: 1) Developing a transparent process of tariff setting with clear objectives, a plan and timetable, and roles of organizations; 2) Establishing of independent regulation to ensure that tariff setting objectives are achieved; 3) Instituting mechanisms to reward organizations for performance that achieves electric sector objectives. 3 figs

  9. Secure and Efficient Electricity Supply. During the Transition to Low Carbon Power Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    Electricity shortages can paralyse our modern economies. All governments fear rolling black-outs and their economic consequences, especially in economies increasingly based on digital technologies. Over the last two decades, the development of markets for power has produced cost reduction, technological innovation, increased cross border trade and assured a steady supply of electricity. Now, IEA countries face the challenge of maintaining security of electricity supply during the transition to low-carbon economies. Low-carbon policies are pushing electricity markets into novel territories at a time when most of the generation and network capacity will have to be replaced. Most notably, wind and solar generation, now an integral part of electricity markets, can present new operating and investment challenges for generation, networks and the regional integration of electricity markets. In addition, the resilience of power systems facing more frequent natural disasters is also of increasing concern. IEA Ministers mandated the Secretariat to work on the Electricity Security Action Plan (ESAP), expanding to electricity the energy security mission of the IEA. This paper outlines the key conclusions and policy recommendations to ''keep the lights on'' while reducing CO2 emissions and increasing the efficiency.

  10. Actively Controlling the Topological Transition of Dispersion Based on Electrically Controllable Metamaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Guo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Topological transition of the iso-frequency contour (IFC from a closed ellipsoid to an open hyperboloid provides unique capabilities for controlling the propagation of light. However, the ability to actively tune these effects remains elusive, and the related experimental observations are highly desirable. Here, a tunable electric IFC in a periodic structure composed of graphene/dielectric multilayers is investigated by tuning the chemical potential of the graphene layer. Specially, we present the actively controlled transportation in two kinds of anisotropic zero-index media containing perfect electric conductor/perfect magnetic conductor impurities. Finally, by adding variable capacitance diodes into a two-dimensional transmission-line system, we present an experimental demonstration of the actively controlled magnetic topological transition of dispersion based on electrically controllable metamaterials. With the increase in voltage, we measure the different emission patterns from a point source inside the structure and observe the phase-transition process of IFCs. The realization of an actively tuned topological transition will open up a new avenue in the dynamical control of metamaterials.

  11. Comparing electricity transitions: A historical analysis of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherp, Aleh; Vinichenko, Vadim; Jewell, Jessica; Suzuki, Masahiro; Antal, Miklós

    2017-01-01

    This paper contributes to understanding national variations in using low-carbon electricity sources by comparing the evolution of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan. It develops and applies a framework for analyzing low-carbon electricity transitions based on interplay of techno-economic, political and socio-technical processes. We explain why in the 1970s–1980s, the energy paths of the two countries were remarkably similar, but since the 1990s Germany has become a leader in renewables while phasing out nuclear energy, whereas Japan has deployed less renewables while becoming a leader in nuclear power. We link these differences to the faster growth of electricity demand and energy insecurity in Japan, the easier diffusion of onshore wind power technology and the weakening of the nuclear power regime induced by stagnation and competition from coal and renewables in Germany. We show how these changes involve the interplay of five distinct mechanisms which may also play a role in other energy transitions. - Highlights: • We identify five mechanisms which play a role in national low-carbon electricity transitions. • Use of nuclear, wind and solar power in Germany and Japan diverged in the 1990s. • Wind power diffused to Germany from Denmark but different geography stalled it in Japan. • Demand growth and energy insecurity prompted nuclear power expansion in Japan. • Competition with domestic coal and wind led to the demise of nuclear power in Germany.

  12. Exploration of a new method in determining the glass transition temperature of BMGs by electrical resistivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jing; Zu, Fangqiu; Chen, Zhihao; Zheng, Shubin; Yuan, Yuan

    2005-07-01

    Based on a brief retrospect of the method in establishing Tg of the bulk metallic glasses (BMGs), some perplexities concerning this are pointed out. With the experimental results of Zr-Al-Ni-Cu-X (Nb,Ti) BMGs, a electrical resistivity method is proposed to determine the glass transition temperature of BMGs. With the method, we define two kinds of characteristic temperature related to the glass transition, Tg-dep and Tg-int, respectively. By comparing Tg-dep and Tg-int with Tg determined by the DSC method, we have found that, for the same alloy at the same heating rate, Tg-dep is very close to Tg-onset while Tg-int is approximate to Tg-mid. As a method to determine the glass transition temperature, the electrical resistivity method has proved to be more convenient and practical in comparison with the DSC method, especially when the DSC curve cannot show the glass transition character of BMGs. In addition, we would emphasize that when we refer to Tg, it is necessary to expatiate on the way of denoting the glass transition temperature, such as Tg-dep or Tg-int ( Tg-onset or Tg-mid), and on the heating rate, in order to avoid ambiguity.

  13. Electric field-triggered metal-insulator transition resistive switching of bilayered multiphasic VOx

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Seokjae; Lee, Sang Yeon; Hwang, Jungyeon; Park, Jucheol; Seo, Hyungtak

    2018-01-01

    Electric field-triggered Mott transition of VO2 for next-generation memory devices with sharp and fast resistance-switching response is considered to be ideal but the formation of single-phase VO2 by common deposition techniques is very challenging. Here, VOx films with a VO2-dominant phase for a Mott transition-based metal-insulator transition (MIT) switching device were successfully fabricated by the combined process of RF magnetron sputtering of V metal and subsequent O2 annealing to form. By performing various material characterizations, including scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy loss spectroscopy, the film is determined to have a bilayer structure consisting of a VO2-rich bottom layer acting as the Mott transition switching layer and a V2O5/V2O3 mixed top layer acting as a control layer that suppresses any stray leakage current and improves cyclic performance. This bilayer structure enables excellent electric field-triggered Mott transition-based resistive switching of Pt-VOx-Pt metal-insulator-metal devices with a set/reset current ratio reaching 200, set/reset voltage of less than 2.5 V, and very stable DC cyclic switching upto 120 cycles with a great set/reset current and voltage distribution less than 5% of standard deviation at room temperature, which are specifications applicable for neuromorphic or memory device applications. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Electrical Switching in Thin Film Structures Based on Transition Metal Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pergament

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Electrical switching, manifesting itself in the nonlinear current-voltage characteristics with S- and N-type NDR (negative differential resistance, is inherent in a variety of materials, in particular, transition metal oxides. Although this phenomenon has been known for a long time, recent suggestions to use oxide-based switching elements as neuristor synapses and relaxation-oscillation circuit components have resumed the interest in this area. In the present review, we describe the experimental facts and theoretical models, mainly on the basis of the Mott transition in vanadium dioxide as a model object, of the switching effect with special emphasis on the emerging applied potentialities for oxide electronics.

  15. Stark Interference of Electric and Magnetic Dipole Transitions in the A-X Band of OH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, H Christian; Zhang, Dongdong; Meijer, Gerard; Field, Robert W; Sartakov, Boris G; Groenenboom, Gerrit C; van der Avoird, Ad; Vanhaecke, Nicolas

    2016-04-15

    An experimental method is demonstrated that allows determination of the ratio between the electric (E1) and magnetic (M1) transition dipole moments in the A-X band of OH, including their relative sign. Although the transition strengths differ by more than 3 orders of magnitude, the measured M1-to-E1 ratio agrees with the ratio of the ab initio calculated values to within 3%. The relative sign is found to be negative, also in agreement with theory.

  16. Energies and electric dipole transitions for low-lying levels of protactinium IV and uranium V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uerer, Gueldem; Oezdemir, Leyla [Sakarya Univ. (Turkey). Physics Dept.

    2012-01-15

    We have reported a relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) study on low-lying level structures of protactinium IV (Z = 91) and uranium V (Z = 92) ions. Excitation energies and electric dipole (E1) transition parameters (wavelengths, oscillator strengths, and transition rates) for these low-lying levels have been given. We have also investigated the influence of the transverse Breit and quantum electrodynamic (QED) contributions besides correlation effects on the level structure. A comparison has been made with a few available data for these ions in the literature. (orig.)

  17. Electricity tariff design for transition economies. Application to the Libyan power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reneses, Javier; Gomez, Tomas; Rivier, Juan [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Angarita, Jorge L. [Europraxis Operations, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper presents a general electricity tariff design methodology, especially applicable for transition economies. These countries are trying to modernize their power systems from a centralized environment (with normally, a public vertically integrated electric company) to a liberalized framework (unbundling electricity companies and, eventually, starting a privatization process). Two issues arise as crucial to achieving a successful transition: (1) ensuring cost recovery for all future unbundled activities (generation, transmission, distribution and retailing), and (2) sending the right price signals to electricity customers, avoiding cross-subsidies between customer categories. The design of electricity tariffs plays a pivotal role in achieving both objectives. This paper proposes a new tariff design methodology that, complying with these two aforementioned criteria, requires a low amount of information regarding system data and customer load profiles. This is important since, typically, volume and quality of data are poor in those countries. The presented methodology is applied to computing tariffs for the Libyan power system in 2006, using real data. (author)

  18. Impacts on the biophysical economy and environment of a transition to 100% renewable electricity in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Graham M.; Elliston, Ben; Diesendorf, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the impacts on the biophysical economy, employment and environment of a transition scenario to an energy-efficient, 100% renewable electricity (RE) system by 2060, based on wind, solar and biomass technologies, and an introduction of electric vehicles. We employ a CSIRO process-based model of the physical activity of Australia’s economy and environmental resources, the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework. The RE systems are assumed to be manufactured in Australia to identify possible employment benefits. In comparison with the business-as-usual (BAU) scenario, on a national scale, the RE scenario has much lower economy-wide net emissions, remaining below contemporary levels and becoming zero in the electricity sector by 2060. Compared with BAU, the RE scenario also has significantly lower industrial water use, somewhat higher materials use, slightly lower unemployment, lower net foreign debt (relative to a GDP proxy) and, resulting from the growth in electric vehicles, reduced oil imports. The GDP per capita growth, based on the physical stocks of capital and labour, is virtually the same in both scenarios. Hence, from the viewpoint of the biophysical economy, there are no major barriers to implementing policies to facilitate the transition to a 100% renewable electricity system for Australia. - Highlights: ► Simulation of a 100% renewable electricity (RE) system in a process-based model. ► The RE scenario achieves zero GHG emissions in the electricity sector by 2060. ► Consumption of secondary materials is higher and more variable in the RE scenario. ► The RE scenario has lower water use, unemployment, foreign debt and oil imports

  19. Conductance fluctuations and distribution at metal-insulator transition induced by electric field in disordered chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senouci, Khaled

    2000-08-01

    A simple Kronig-Penney model for 1D mesoscopic systems with δ peak potentials is used to study numerically the influence of a constant electric field on the conductance fluctuations and distribution at the transition. We found that the conductance probability distribution has a system-size independent form with large fluctuations in good agreement with the previous works in 2D and 3D systems. (author)

  20. Sustainable electricity transitions in Germany in a spatial context: between localism and centralism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Fuchs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the traditional form of electricity generation and supply is based on centralized structures with large-scale power plants, the objective of a strongly decentralized form of energy supply is increasingly becoming important. Sustainability-oriented energy transitions are relying on various sorts of renewable energies coupled with energy-efficiency initiatives. In the current existing regulatory and market frameworks in Germany and elsewhere, important technical and institutional innovations for energy transitions were and are being developed, tested, and brought to application on regional and local levels. Regions, cities, and villages experimenting with socio-technical innovations and aiming to implement new concepts have to develop governance structures under high uncertainty. These governance structures mirror space-specific social, political, technological and economic constellations. The present article introduces an analytical approach for studying emergent forms of governance and uses four cases from Germany to apply the approach. Research is based on a comparative case study research design, using primarily expert interviews and document analyses as data sources. The cases demonstrate that sustainable energy transitions are driven forward by a host of different actors with different aims and interests, culminating in the development of space-specific technological mixes and situative governance structures. Sustainable energy transitions neither follow a master plan, nor are they coordinated on a national level. The upper political levels and external events pose severe constraints for the implementation of local transition initiatives. Future research should aim to highlight and analyze the contentious character of energy transitions.

  1. Electric transition dipole moment in pre-Born-Oppenheimer molecular structure theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmen, Benjamin; Mátyus, Edit; Reiher, Markus

    2014-10-21

    This paper presents the calculation of the electric transition dipole moment in a pre-Born-Oppenheimer framework. Electrons and nuclei are treated equally in terms of the parametrization of the non-relativistic total wave function, which is written as a linear combination of basis functions constructed from explicitly correlated Gaussian functions and the global vector representation. The integrals of the electric transition dipole moment are derived corresponding to these basis functions in both the length and the velocity representation. The calculations are performed in laboratory-fixed Cartesian coordinates without relying on coordinates which separate the center of mass from the translationally invariant degrees of freedom. The effect of the overall motion is eliminated through translationally invariant integral expressions. The electric transition dipole moment is calculated between two rovibronic levels of the H2 molecule assignable to the lowest rovibrational states of the X (1)Σ(g)(+) and B (1)Σ(u)(+) electronic states in the clamped-nuclei framework. This is the first evaluation of this quantity in a full quantum mechanical treatment without relying on the Born-Oppenheimer approximation.

  2. Configurational entropy of polar glass formers and the effect of electric field on glass transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitrym@asu.edu [Department of Physics and School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 871504, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2016-07-21

    A model of low-temperature polar liquids is constructed that accounts for the configurational heat capacity, entropy, and the effect of a strong electric field on the glass transition. The model is based on the Padé-truncated perturbation expansions of the liquid state theory. Depending on parameters, it accommodates an ideal glass transition of vanishing configurational entropy and its avoidance, with a square-root divergent enumeration function at the point of its termination. A composite density-temperature parameter ρ{sup γ}/T, often used to represent combined pressure and temperature data, follows from the model. The theory is in good agreement with the experimental data for excess (over the crystal state) thermodynamics of molecular glass formers. We suggest that the Kauzmann entropy crisis might be a signature of vanishing configurational entropy of a subset of degrees of freedom, multipolar rotations in our model. This scenario has observable consequences: (i) a dynamical crossover of the relaxation time and (ii) the fragility index defined by the ratio of the excess heat capacity and excess entropy at the glass transition. The Kauzmann temperature of vanishing configurational entropy and the corresponding glass transition temperature shift upward when the electric field is applied. The temperature shift scales quadratically with the field strength.

  3. Configurational entropy of polar glass formers and the effect of electric field on glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matyushov, Dmitry V

    2016-07-21

    A model of low-temperature polar liquids is constructed that accounts for the configurational heat capacity, entropy, and the effect of a strong electric field on the glass transition. The model is based on the Padé-truncated perturbation expansions of the liquid state theory. Depending on parameters, it accommodates an ideal glass transition of vanishing configurational entropy and its avoidance, with a square-root divergent enumeration function at the point of its termination. A composite density-temperature parameter ρ(γ)/T, often used to represent combined pressure and temperature data, follows from the model. The theory is in good agreement with the experimental data for excess (over the crystal state) thermodynamics of molecular glass formers. We suggest that the Kauzmann entropy crisis might be a signature of vanishing configurational entropy of a subset of degrees of freedom, multipolar rotations in our model. This scenario has observable consequences: (i) a dynamical crossover of the relaxation time and (ii) the fragility index defined by the ratio of the excess heat capacity and excess entropy at the glass transition. The Kauzmann temperature of vanishing configurational entropy and the corresponding glass transition temperature shift upward when the electric field is applied. The temperature shift scales quadratically with the field strength.

  4. Hybrid Perovskite Phase Transition and Its Ionic, Electrical and Optical Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoque, Md Nadim Ferdous; Islam, Nazifah; Zhu, Kai; Fan, Zhaoyang

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under normal operation will reach a temperature above ~ 60 °C, across the tetragonal-cubic structural phase transition of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3). Whether the structural phase transition could result in dramatic changes of ionic, electrical and optical properties that may further impact the PSC performances should be studied. Herein, we report a structural phase transition temperature of MAPbI3thin film at ~ 55 °C, but a striking contrast occurred at ~ 45 °C in the ionic and electrical properties of MAPbI3due to a change of the ion activation energy from 0.7 eV to 0.5 eV. The optical properties exhibited no sharp transition except for the steady increase of the bandgap with temperature. It was also observed that the activation energy for ionic migration steadily increased with increased grain sizes, and reduction of the grain boundary density reduced the ionic migration.

  5. Analytical transition-matrix treatment of electric multipole polarizabilities of hydrogen-like atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharchenko, V.F.

    2015-01-01

    The direct transition-matrix approach to the description of the electric polarization of the quantum bound system of particles is used to determine the electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen-like atoms. It is shown that in the case of the bound system formed by the Coulomb interaction the corresponding inhomogeneous integral equation determining an off-shell scattering function, which consistently describes virtual multiple scattering, can be solved exactly analytically for all electric multipole polarizabilities. Our method allows to reproduce the known Dalgarno–Lewis formula for electric multipole polarizabilities of the hydrogen atom in the ground state and can also be applied to determine the polarizability of the atom in excited bound states. - Highlights: • A new description for electric polarization of hydrogen-like atoms. • Expression for multipole polarizabilities in terms of off-shell scattering functions. • Derivation of integral equation determining the off-shell scattering function. • Rigorous analytic solving the integral equations both for ground and excited states. • Study of contributions of virtual multiple scattering to electric polarizabilities

  6. Effect of electron correlation on the forced electric dipole transition probabilities in fsup(N) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, K.; Smentek-Mielczarek, L.

    1981-01-01

    Results of model studies of the impact of electron correlation on the forced electric dipole transition probabilities between states of the 4fsup(N) configuration are reported for the [ 3 P] 0 - [ 3 F] 4 , [ 3 H] 4 transitions in Pr 3+ : LaCl 3 and for [ 7 F] 0 - [ 5 D] 2 , [ 7 F] 1 - [ 5 D] 1 hypersensitive transitions in Eu 3+ : LaCl 3 . For the former system the correlation effects cause a modification of earlier results by 40-95 per cent, whereas for the latter the probability changes by as much as two orders of magnitude. The great changes found in the case of hypersensitive transitions suggest that electron correlation effects may belong to the most important factors determining the nature of these transitions. Several types of effective correlation operators are considered and their relative importance is discussed. The results indicate that intermediate configurations including g orbitals are very important for the description of correlation effects. (author)

  7. The transition to the electric vehicle era; De transitie naar het tijdperk van de elektrische auto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J.

    2010-06-15

    The final transition from a fossil fuel driven transport system to an electricity driven transport system seems to be a fact. Every large car manufacturer has electric vehicles in its product range in the coming 6 to 24 months and more are expected to follow. Scientists and experts in the fields of electric driving see how this transition takes place in various stages: from hybrid cars to plug-in hybrids, to full-electric cars. The pace of this transition is mainly determined by the technical and institutional factors such as developments in battery technology and federal government policy. This transition will have a positive effect on climate, economy, national security and a wide range of other factors. The electric vehicle also offers opportunities in the field of smart and efficient use of energy by means of smart grid and vehicle to grid (V2G) technology. For now, the high cost price and low energy density of batteries (a decisive factor for the range) seem to constitute the largest obstacle to success. [Dutch] De definitieve overgang van een op fossiele brandstoffen naar een op elektriciteit gebaseerd transportsysteem lijkt een feit. Elke grote autofabrikant heeft in de komende 6 tot 24 maanden een elektrische auto in haar productaanbod en daar komen er naar verwachting steeds meer bij. Wetenschappers en experts op het gebied van elektrisch rijden zien deze overgang zich voltrekken in verschillende fases; van hybride auto's naar de plug-in hybrides, naar de volledig elektrische auto's. De snelheid waarmee deze overgang zal gaan plaatsvinden zal vooral bepaald worden door technische en institutionele factoren zoals ontwikkelingen in batterijtechnologie en het beleid van federale overheden. Deze overgang zal een positief effect hebben op het klimaat, de economie, de nationale veiligheid en een breed scala aan andere factoren. Ook biedt de elektrische auto mogelijkheden op het gebied van slim en efficient gebruik van energie door middel van smart

  8. Cost-related model for transit rates in electric power distribution networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collstrand, F.

    1994-02-01

    The planned deregulation of the swedish electrical power market will require a new structure of the electrical energy rates. In this report different models of transit rates are studied. The report includes studies of literature and a proposal to a rate structure and is made specifically for Malmoe Energi AB. The differences between various methods of calculating the transfer cost are illustrated. Further, the build-up of the tariff structure and its base elements are discussed. The costs are divided on different categories of costumers and shows the cost for each customer. The new regulations should apply simultaneously to all networks, independent of the voltage level. The transit cost should be based on a number of basic elements: capital cost, operation and maintenance, losses, measuring and administration. Capital cost and operation and maintenance should be charged as power fees, the loss cost as an energy fee and the measuring and administration cost as a fixed fee. The customer bill should be split into two parts, one for the transit cost and one for the energy usage. 15 refs., 37 tabs., 6 figs

  9. Innovation and institutional change. The transition to a sustainable electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofman, P.S.

    2005-12-02

    relevant to the study of systems change and focuses on the way different theoretical streams deal with the institutional factor in fundamental changes of production and consumption systems (in short: systems change). Chapter three builds upon the theoretical reflections of the previous chapter and develops an analytical framework that structures the empirical part of the book. Main elements of the conceptual model used in the empirical chapters are introduced and explained. Chapter four - stability and transformation in the electricity system - analyses main changes that have taken place in the electricity system in the past three decades. The initial focus is on explaining the emergence of a range of alternative paths within the electricity system, varying from nuclear technology, to wind energy, biomass, cogeneration, and green electricity. Next the focus is on explaining relative success and failure of the paths taken within the context of the electricity and broader institutional arrangements for knowledge generation, economic exchange, policy and regulation, societal legitimacy. In-depth review of two relative successful paths takes place in two further chapters. Chapter five - the evolution of decentralized cogeneration - provides insight in how changes in the institutional setting, in connection with some other changes, can trigger a process of change where a previously disfavoured technological concept and design becomes more and more attractive and fundamentally alters basic beliefs and principles underlying the system. Chapter six - the emergence of green electricity - provides a more detailed assessment how the introduction of a new concept within the electricity system triggers changing interactions between institutional change at different levels which may offset a process of systems change. Chapter seven extends the analysis of past changes in the electricity system and utilise the insights for the development of potential transition paths towards a more

  10. Innovation and institutional change. The transition to a sustainable electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, P.S.

    2005-01-01

    relevant to the study of systems change and focuses on the way different theoretical streams deal with the institutional factor in fundamental changes of production and consumption systems (in short: systems change). Chapter three builds upon the theoretical reflections of the previous chapter and develops an analytical framework that structures the empirical part of the book. Main elements of the conceptual model used in the empirical chapters are introduced and explained. Chapter four - stability and transformation in the electricity system - analyses main changes that have taken place in the electricity system in the past three decades. The initial focus is on explaining the emergence of a range of alternative paths within the electricity system, varying from nuclear technology, to wind energy, biomass, cogeneration, and green electricity. Next the focus is on explaining relative success and failure of the paths taken within the context of the electricity and broader institutional arrangements for knowledge generation, economic exchange, policy and regulation, societal legitimacy. In-depth review of two relative successful paths takes place in two further chapters. Chapter five - the evolution of decentralized cogeneration - provides insight in how changes in the institutional setting, in connection with some other changes, can trigger a process of change where a previously disfavoured technological concept and design becomes more and more attractive and fundamentally alters basic beliefs and principles underlying the system. Chapter six - the emergence of green electricity - provides a more detailed assessment how the introduction of a new concept within the electricity system triggers changing interactions between institutional change at different levels which may offset a process of systems change. Chapter seven extends the analysis of past changes in the electricity system and utilise the insights for the development of potential transition paths towards a more

  11. Azure Dynamics transit connect : EV2010VE : upfitting to a battery electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldham, B. [Azure Dynamics Corp., Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Transit Connect is a delivery vehicle brought to North America in 2010 that was initially released in Europe as part of Ford's global platform program. The stock layout includes the front engine; front wheel drive; fuel tank in rear; gasoline in North America; and diesel in Europe. This presentation described what Azure Dynamics Corporation did to improve the engine, transmission, energy storage, power steering, air conditioning, and generator. An overview of Transit Connect was provided. The presentation discussed design consideration, with particular reference to crash worthiness; durability; and total cost of implementation. Electrical harness and the total cost of implementation were also addressed. Other topics that were presented included the glider based design; a glider based design commonized platform; and additional design features. tabs., figs.

  12. The socio-technical transition of distributed electricity storage into future networks—System value and stakeholder views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grünewald, Philipp H.; Cockerill, Timothy T.; Contestabile, Marcello; Pearson, Peter J.G.

    2012-01-01

    Whole system models for the GB electricity system suggest that distributed electricity storage has the potential to significantly reduce the system integration cost for future system scenarios. From a policy perspective, this poses the question why this value should not be realised within existing market structures. Opinion among stakeholders is divided. Some believe that storage deployment constitutes a ‘special case’ in need of policy support. Others insist that markets can provide the necessary platform to negotiate contracts, which reward storage operators for the range of services they could provide. This paper seeks to inform this debate with a process of stakeholder engagement using a perspective informed by socio-technical transition literatures. This approach allows the identification of tensions among actors in the electricity system and of possibilities for co-evolution in the deployment of storage technologies during a transition towards a low carbon electricity system. It also draws attention to policy-related challenges of technology lock-in and path dependency resulting from poor alignment of incumbent regimes with the requirements for distributed electricity storage. - Highlights: ► Electricity storage is poorly aligned with existing regimes in the electricity system. ► Stakeholders perceive electricity storage as “somebody else's problem”. ► Combining stakeholder views and transition theory provides new insight. ► Transition from network to operational benefits poses regulatory challenge. ► Value aggregation made difficult due to institutional barriers.

  13. Observation of electric quadrupole X-ray transitions in muonic thallium, lead and bismuth

    CERN Document Server

    Schneuwly, H; Engfer, R; Jahnke, U; Kankeleit, E; Lindenberger, K H; Pearce, R M; Petitjean, C; Schellenberg, L; Schröder, W U; Walter, H K; Zehnder, A

    1972-01-01

    Electric quadrupole X-ray transitions (5g to 3d, 4f to 2p, and 3d to 1s) have been observed in muonic Tl, Pb and Bi. From the 3 to 1 transitions, energy splittings of the n=3 levels were deduced. From a comparison of the relative intensities of E1 and E2 transitions the population ratios 5g/5f, 4f/4d, and 3d/3p were deduced. These ratios are well reproduced by a cascade calculation assuming a statistical initial population at n=20, including K, L and M shell conversion. In the case of /sup 205/Tl discrepancies between the experimental and the calculated 3d-1s/3p-is intensity ratio can be explained by nuclear excitation. From the 3p/sub 3/2/ to 1s/sub 1/2/ intensity in /sup 209 /Bi one can deduce the ratio of the radiationless to the X-ray transition width and give limits for prompt neutron emission from the 3d level. (23 refs).

  14. The evolution of the electric power grid within the energy transition. Breakfast of 8 February 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, Katrien; ); Bendtsen, Bendt; ); Derdevet, Michel; Duerr, Matthias; Laffaye, Herve

    2017-01-01

    This document proposes a synthesis of contributions, questions and answers of a meeting gathering French and Danish representatives of political parties, electric utilities and European bodies which addressed issues related to the evolution of the electric power grid within a context of energy transition. Several issues have been addressed. First, the approach adopted by institutional actors like the European Commission and Parliament with a priority given to grid infrastructures to ensure interconnection between all member States, a financial support for the associated investments, and a European governance. Second, the approach adopted by operators in charge of networks, transport and distribution to face a change in the business model, an increasing financial burden, the issue of acceptability of works, future evolutions and innovations, and a closer collaboration

  15. An evaluation of the transitional Turkish electricity balancing and settlement market: Lessons for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camadan, Ercuement; Erten, Ibrahim Etem

    2011-01-01

    Balancing and settlement market is a crucial part of restructured Turkish electricity market. In this framework, the main purpose of this study is to examine whether the prices constituted in the transitional balancing and settlement market reflect the real cost of imbalances. Although it is observed that the prices are not powerful in indicating the real cost of imbalances, Turkey has the opportunity to form a well-functioning market within the context of planned new market structure. Turkey needs to define a proper roadmap reckoning the points mentioned in this paper to be able to achieve her objectives. (author)

  16. Percolation model of excess electrical noise in transition-edge sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeman, M.A.; Anderson, M.B.; Bandler, S.R.; Bilgri, N.; Chervenak, J.; Gwynne Crowder, S.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Finkbeiner, F.; Iyomoto, N.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.A.; Lai, T.; Man, J.; McCammon, D.; Nelms, K.L.; Porter, F.S.; Rocks, L.E.; Saab, T.; Sadleir, J.; Vidugiris, G.

    2006-01-01

    We present a geometrical model to describe excess electrical noise in transition-edge sensors (TESs). In this model, a network of fluctuating resistors represents the complex dynamics inside a TES. The fluctuations can cause several resistors in series to become superconducting. Such events short out part of the TES and generate noise because much of the current percolates through low resistance paths. The model predicts that excess white noise increases with decreasing TES bias resistance (R/R N ) and that perpendicular zebra stripes reduce noise and alpha of the TES by reducing percolation

  17. Assessing the dynamic material criticality of infrastructure transitions: A case of low carbon electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelich, Katy; Dawson, David A.; Purnell, Phil; Knoeri, Christof; Revell, Ruairi; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a method to analyse material criticality of infrastructure transitions. • Criticality is defined as the potential for, and exposure to, supply disruption. • Our method is dynamic reducing the probability of lock-in to at-risk technologies. • We show that supply disruption potential is reducing but exposure is increasing. - Abstract: Decarbonisation of existing infrastructure systems requires a dynamic roll-out of technology at an unprecedented scale. The potential disruption in supply of critical materials could endanger such a transition to low-carbon infrastructure and, by extension, compromise energy security more broadly because low carbon technologies are reliant on these materials in a way that fossil-fuelled energy infrastructure is not. Criticality is currently defined as the combination of the potential for supply disruption and the exposure of a system of interest to that disruption. We build on this definition and develop a dynamic approach to quantifying criticality, which monitors the change in criticality during the transition towards a low-carbon infrastructure goal. This allows us to assess the relative risk of different technology pathways to reach a particular goal and reduce the probability of being ‘locked in’ to currently attractive but potentially future-critical technologies. To demonstrate, we apply our method to criticality of the proposed UK electricity system transition, with a focus on neodymium. We anticipate that the supply disruption potential of neodymium will decrease by almost 30% by 2050; however, our results show the criticality of low carbon electricity production increases ninefold over this period, as a result of increasing exposure to neodymium-reliant technologies

  18. A Control Strategy for Mode Transition with Gear Shifting in a Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyuhyun Sim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mode transition from electric propulsion mode to hybrid propulsion mode is important with regard to the power management strategy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs. This is because mode transitions can occur frequently depending on the power management strategies and driving cycles, and because inadequate mode transitions worsen the fuel efficiency and drivability. A pre-transmission parallel PHEV uses a clutch between the internal combustion engine (ICE and the electric motor (EM to connect or disconnect the power source of the ICE for a mode transition. The mode transition requires additional energy consumption for clutch speed synchronization, and is accompanied by a drivetrain shock due to clutch engagement. This paper proposes a control strategy for the mode transition with gear-shifting to resolve the problems of energy consumption and drivetrain shock. Through the development of a PHEV performance simulator, we analyze the mode transition characteristics and propose a control strategy considering the vehicle acceleration and gear state. The control strategy reduces the duration required for the mode transition by moving the start time of the mode transition. This helps to improve energy efficiency while maintaining adequate drivability.

  19. Dynamic imaging in electrical impedance tomography of the human chest with online transition matrix identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Fernando Silva; Aya, Julio Cesar Ceballos; Fleury, Agenor Toledo; Amato, Marcelo Britto Passos; Lima, Raul Gonzalez

    2010-02-01

    One of the electrical impedance tomography objectives is to estimate the electrical resistivity distribution in a domain based only on electrical potential measurements at its boundary generated by an imposed electrical current distribution into the boundary. One of the methods used in dynamic estimation is the Kalman filter. In biomedical applications, the random walk model is frequently used as evolution model and, under this conditions, poor tracking ability of the extended Kalman filter (EKF) is achieved. An analytically developed evolution model is not feasible at this moment. The paper investigates the identification of the evolution model in parallel to the EKF and updating the evolution model with certain periodicity. The evolution model transition matrix is identified using the history of the estimated resistivity distribution obtained by a sensitivity matrix based algorithm and a Newton-Raphson algorithm. To numerically identify the linear evolution model, the Ibrahim time-domain method is used. The investigation is performed by numerical simulations of a domain with time-varying resistivity and by experimental data collected from the boundary of a human chest during normal breathing. The obtained dynamic resistivity values lie within the expected values for the tissues of a human chest. The EKF results suggest that the tracking ability is significantly improved with this approach.

  20. Spontaneous transition rates for electric dipole (E1), magnetic dipole (M1), electric quadrupole (E2) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions for He-like calcium and sulfur ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kingston, A.E.; Norrington, P.H.; Boone, A.W.

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous decay rates for the electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1) and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions between all of the 1s 2 , 1s2 l and 1s3 l states have been obtained for helium-like calcium and sulfur ions. To assess the accuracy of the calculations, the transition probabilities were calculated using two sets of configuration interaction wavefunctions. One set of wavefunctions was generated using the fully relativistic GRASP code and the other was obtained using CIV3, in which relativistic effects are introduced using the Breit-Pauli approximation. The transition rates, A values, oscillator strengths and line strengths from our two calculations are found to be similar and to compare very well with other recent results for Δn=1 or 2 transitions. For Δn=0 transitions the agreement is much less good; this is mainly due to differences in the calculated excitation energies. (author)

  1. Hysteresis, phase transitions, and dangerous transients in electrical power distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclut, Charlie; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The majority of dynamical studies in power systems focus on the high-voltage transmission grids where models consider large generators interacting with crude aggregations of individual small loads. However, new phenomena have been observed indicating that the spatial distribution of collective, nonlinear contribution of these small loads in the low-voltage distribution grid is crucial to the outcome of these dynamical transients. To elucidate the phenomenon, we study the dynamics of voltage and power flows in a spatially extended distribution feeder (circuit) connecting many asynchronous induction motors and discover that this relatively simple 1+1 (space+time) dimensional system exhibits a plethora of nontrivial spatiotemporal effects, some of which may be dangerous for power system stability. Long-range motor-motor interactions mediated by circuit voltage and electrical power flows result in coexistence and segregation of spatially extended phases defined by individual motor states, a "normal" state where the motors' mechanical (rotation) frequency is slightly smaller than the nominal frequency of the basic ac flows and a "stalled" state where the mechanical frequency is small. Transitions between the two states can be initiated by a perturbation of the voltage or base frequency at the head of the distribution feeder. Such behavior is typical of first-order phase transitions in physics, and this 1+1 dimensional model shows many other properties of a first-order phase transition with the spatial distribution of the motors' mechanical frequency playing the role of the order parameter. In particular, we observe (a) propagation of the phase-transition front with the constant speed (in very long feeders) and (b) hysteresis in transitions between the normal and stalled (or partially stalled) phases.

  2. Lifecycle cost assessment and carbon dioxide emissions of diesel, natural gas, hybrid electric, fuel cell hybrid and electric transit buses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajunen, Antti; Lipman, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates the lifecycle costs and carbon dioxide emissions of different types of city buses. The simulation models of the different powertrains were developed in the Autonomie vehicle simulation software. The carbon dioxide emissions were calculated both for the bus operation and for the fuel and energy pathways from well to tank. Two different operating environment case scenarios were used for the primary energy sources, which were Finland and California (USA). The fuel and energy pathways were selected appropriately in relation to the operating environment. The lifecycle costs take into account the purchase, operating, maintenance, and possible carbon emission costs. Based on the simulation results, the energy efficiency of city buses can be significantly improved by the alternative powertrain technologies. Hybrid buses have moderately lower carbon dioxide emissions during the service life than diesel buses whereas fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions, by up to 75%. The lifecycle cost analysis indicates that diesel hybrid buses are already competitive with diesel and natural gas buses. The high costs of fuel cell and battery systems are the major challenges for the fuel cell hybrid buses in order to reduce lifecycle costs to more competitive levels. - Highlights: • Alternative powertrains can significantly improve energy efficiency of transit buses. • Operating environment has an important impact on the lifecycle costs of buses. • Diesel hybrid buses are already cost effective solution for public transportation. • The cost of fuel cell technology is the major challenge for fuel cell hybrid buses. • Fully-electric buses have potential to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions.

  3. Basic concepts for designing renewable electricity support aiming at a full-scale transition by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbruggen, Aviel; Lauber, Volkmar

    2009-01-01

    Renewable electricity supply is a crucial factor in the realization of a low-carbon energy economy. The understanding is growing that a full turn-over of the electricity sectors by 2050 is an elementary condition for avoiding global average temperature increase beyond 2 C. This article adopts such full transition as Europe's target when designing renewable energy policy. An immediate corollary is that phasing-in unprecedented energy efficiency and renewable generation must be paralleled by phasing-out non-sustainable fossil fuel and nuclear power technologies. The double phasing programme assigns novel meaning to nearby target settings for renewable power as share of total power consumption. It requires organizing in the medium term EU-wide markets for green power, a highly demanding task in the present context of poorly functional markets in brown power. The EU Commission's 2007/2008 proposals of expanding tradable certificates markets were not based on solid analysis of past experiences and future necessities. The keystone of sound policies on renewable electricity development is a detailed scientific differentiation and qualification of renewable electricity sources and technologies, for measuring the huge diversity in the field. We provide but structuring concepts about such qualification, because implementation requires extensive research resources. Support for renewable electricity development is organized via feed-in prices or premiums, and via quota obligations connected to tradable green certificates. Green certificates are dependent on physical generated renewable power, but separable and no joint products. Contrary to conventional wisdom we argue their separation in cost analysis but firm linking during trade. A few graphs illustrate the importance of assigning qualities to different renewable power sources/technologies. Feed-in systems based on an acceptable qualification perform generally better than certificate markets imposing uniform approaches on a

  4. SnTe field effect transistors and the anomalous electrical response of structural phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haitao; Zhu, Hao; Yuan, Hui; Li, Qiliang; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J.; Richter, Curt A.; Zhao, Erhai

    2014-01-01

    SnTe is a conventional thermoelectric material and has been newly found to be a topological crystalline insulator. In this work, back-gate SnTe field-effect transistors have been fabricated and fully characterized. The devices exhibit n-type transistor behaviors with excellent current-voltage characteristics and large on/off ratio (>10 6 ). The device threshold voltage, conductance, mobility, and subthreshold swing have been studied and compared at different temperatures. It is found that the subthreshold swings as a function of temperature have an apparent response to the SnTe phase transition between cubic and rhombohedral structures at 110 K. The abnormal and rapid increase in subthreshold swing around the phase transition temperature may be due to the soft phonon/structure change which causes the large increase in SnTe dielectric constant. Such an interesting and remarkable electrical response to phase transition at different temperatures makes the small SnTe transistor attractive for various electronic devices.

  5. Phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transition in VO2 under an electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yin; Chen, Long-Qing

    2018-05-01

    The roles of an electric field and electronic doping in insulator-to-metal transitions are still not well understood. Here we formulated a phase-field model of insulator-to-metal transitions by taking into account both structural and electronic instabilities as well as free electrons and holes in VO2, a strongly correlated transition-metal oxide. Our phase-field simulations demonstrate that in a VO2 slab under a uniform electric field, an abrupt universal resistive transition occurs inside the supercooling region, in sharp contrast to the conventional Landau-Zener smooth electric breakdown. We also show that hole doping may decouple the structural and electronic phase transitions in VO2, leading to a metastable metallic monoclinic phase which could be stabilized through a geometrical confinement and the size effect. This work provides a general mesoscale thermodynamic framework for understanding the influences of electric field, electronic doping, and stress and strain on insulator-to-metal transitions and the corresponding mesoscale domain structure evolution in VO2 and related strongly correlated systems.

  6. Challenges to China's transition to a low carbon electricity system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahrl, Fredrich, E-mail: fkahrl@berkeley.edu [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Williams, Jim [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., 101 Montgomery Street, 16th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States); Monterey Institute of International Studies, 460 Pierce Street, Monterey, CA 93940 (United States); Ding Jianhua [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., 101 Montgomery Street, 16th Floor, San Francisco, CA 94104 (United States); Hu Junfeng [School of Economics and Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-07-15

    We examine the challenges to China's transition to a low carbon electricity system, in which renewable energy would play a significant role. China's electricity system currently lacks the flexibility in planning, operations, and pricing to respond to conflicting pressures from demand growth, rising costs, and environmental mandates in a way that simultaneously maintains reliability, decarbonizes the system, and keeps prices within acceptable bounds. Greater flexibility crucially requires the ability to more systematically and transparently manage and allocate costs. This will require re-orientating sector institutions still rooted in central planning, and strengthening independent regulation. Some of the necessary changes require fundamental political and legal reforms beyond the scope of energy policy. However, the system's flexibility can still be increased through the development of traditional planning and regulatory tools and approaches, such as an avoided cost basis for energy efficiency investments, more integrated planning to improve the coordination of generation, transmission, and demand-side investments, and a transparent ratemaking process. The judicious application of OECD electricity sector experience and skills can support these developments. - Research Highlights: > China's electricity system currently lacks the flexibility to integrate renewables and reduce CO{sub 2} emissions on a large scale at an acceptable cost and level of reliability. > The challenges to increased flexibility are more institutional than technological. > Chinese government agencies need new approaches to basic power system planning and ratemaking. > OECD countries can help address these challenges through the transfer of 'soft' technologies.

  7. Effect of electric field on the oscillator strength and cross-section for intersubband transition in a semiconductor quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Das, N R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the oscillator strength and cross-section for intersubband optical transition in an n-type semiconductor quantum ring of cylindrical symmetry in the presence of an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the ring. The analysis is done considering Kane-type band non-parabolicity of the semiconductor and assuming that the polarization of the incident radiation is along the axis of the ring. The results show that the oscillator strength decreases and the transition energy increases with the electric field. The assumption of a parabolic band leads to an overestimation of the oscillator strength. The effects of the electric field, band non-parabolicity and relaxation time on absorption cross-section for intersubband transition in a semiconductor quantum ring are also shown. (paper)

  8. Specific heat and electric conductivity of zirconium alloy with 2,5 mass% niobium in the range of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roshchupkin, V.V.; Pokrasin, M.A.; Chernov, A.I.; Semashko, N.A.

    1996-01-01

    Experimental investigation of specific heat and electric resistance of zirconium alloy with 2.5 mass% niobium in the range of phase transitions was conducted, using adiabatic calorimeter of original design, characterized by high sensitivity, efficiency and high accuracy. It was revealed that temperature dependence of specific heat was characterized by anomalous growth at 590 deg C, related with (α+β Nb )→(α+β Zr )-transition, and at 810 deg -related with (α+β Zr )→β Zr - transition. Temperature dependence of electric resistance was specific in the region of α+β Zr →β Zr phase transition. It was established that revealed anomalies were connected with high oxygen absorption at high temperatures. 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  9. Neoclassical transport, poloidal rotation and radial electric field at the L-H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.; Gervasini, G.; Lazzaro, E.

    1993-01-01

    The transition to a high confinement regime in tokamaks operating with a magnetic divertor configuration is accompanied by the strong steepening of the edge temperature profile and the onset of a large positive poloidal mass rotation associated with a negative radial electric field. The latter phenomena are signatures of a neoclassical transport mechanism. We address the question of establishing whether neoclassical transport is indeed sufficient to establish high edge gradients and drive poloidal rotation under strong auxiliary heating. The heat transport equation is solved numerically in a narrow edge layer interfaced to the plasma body through heat flux continuity, but allowing for heat conductivity discontinuity. The results compared with recent experimental measurements support the assumption that a highly sheared neoclassical poloidal velocity profile can suppress the anomalous part of the heat transport, and that the neoclassical residual transport, characterizes the plasma behaviour at the edge during H modes. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. Dynamic behavior associated with electric field transitions in CHS Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Lee, S.

    2001-01-01

    A new kind of oscillatory steady state is discovered in observation of potential with a heavy ion beam probe in Compact Helical System Heliotron/Torsatron. Bulk plasma parameters, such as electron temperature and density profile, change being synchronized with the pulsation of potential. The phenomenon can be regarded as successive transitions between two bifurcative states of the plasma. The pulsation can be self-sustained and create a dynamic steady state in low density plasma with electron cyclotron heating. The cause of phenomenon is associated with the bifurcation nature of radial electric field, that is inherent with toroidal helical plasmas. This paper presents two examples of the phenomenon in different density regimes. Dependence of pulsation characteristics on several parameters is described. The bifurcation property predicted by a neoclassical theory is presented for comparison with the experimental observations. (author)

  11. Electric power is not the same power. Why the energy transition can not succeed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limburg, Michael; Mueller, Fred F.

    2015-01-01

    The energy transition - the conversion of our power supply to so-called ''Renewable Energy'' - will lead to disaster, economically as well as technically. Although the concept is not technically feasible, more than 500 billion Euros were spent for this purpose already. This money our economy will miss bitterly when it is needed it to go, sweep up the future shambles. Here explain two recognized experts why. ''The book, 'electric power is not the same power' pulled himself together again on a colossal effort. It dissects technically brilliant with the tools of logic, scientific reasoning a fatal mental aberration.''- Arnold Vaatz MP. [de

  12. Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus Project: Demonstrating a Total Transit Solution for Fuel Cell Electric Buses in Boston

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-05-22

    The Federal Transit Administration's National Fuel Cell Bus Program focuses on developing commercially viable fuel cell bus technologies. Nuvera is leading the Massachusetts Fuel Cell Bus project to demonstrate a complete transit solution for fuel cell electric buses that includes one bus and an on-site hydrogen generation station for the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (MBTA). A team consisting of ElDorado National, BAE Systems, and Ballard Power Systems built the fuel cell electric bus, and Nuvera is providing its PowerTap on-site hydrogen generator to provide fuel for the bus.

  13. Band mixing and electric monopole contribution in 2sub(. gamma. ). -->. 2sub(g) transition in /sup 168/Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahota, H S; Hasiza, M L; Mittal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-06-01

    The 2sub(..gamma..)..-->..2sub(g) transition in /sup 168/Er has been examined for the presence of electric monopole contribution. The experimental E0/E2 reduced transition probabilities and monopole matrix element have been found to be somewhat larger than the theoretical predictions of the Bohr-Mottelson model but the ratio rhosup(2)/X has been found to agree well with the theoretical value. The band mixing parameters have also been evaluated and found to be sizeable.

  14. Transition between vortex rings and MAP solutions for electrically charged magnetic solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Khai-Ming; Soltanian, Amin; Teh, Rosy [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    We consider the bifurcation and transition of axially symmetric monopole-antimonopole pair (MAP) and vortex ring solutions in the presence of electric charge for the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory. Here we investigate the properties of MAP/vortex ring solutions with n = 3,η = 0.65, for different Higgs field strength λ. For λ < 4.93, there is only one fundamental branch of vortex ring solution, but at the critical value of λ{sub b} = 4.93, branching happens and 2 sets of new solutions appeared. The new branch with less energy is a full MAP solution while the branch with higher energy contains MAP at the beginning and separation between poles of MAP on the z-axis reduces gradually and at another critical value of λ{sub t} = 14.852, they merge together at z = 0. Beyond this point the solutions change to the vortex ring solutions and a transitions between MAP and vortex ring solutions happens at this branch.

  15. Soil Structure Evaluation Across Geologic Transition Zones Using 2D Electrical Resistivity Imaging Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine C Anukwu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study utilizes the electrical resistivity values obtained using 2-D Electrical resistivity imaging (ERI technique to evaluate the subsurface lithology across different geological units. The primary objective was to determine the effect of subsurface lithology on the integrity of a road pavement, which had developed cracks and potholes at various locations. The dipole-dipole configuration was utilized and a total of nine traverses were established in the study area, whose geology cuts across both the basement and sedimentary complexes. The inverted resistivity section obtained showed significant variation in resistivity along established traverses and also across the different rock units, with the resistivity value ranging from about 4 ohm-m to greater than 7000 ohm- m. The lithology as interpreted from the resistivity section revealed the presence topsoil, clay, sandy clay, sand, sand stones/basement rocks, with varying vertical and horizontal arrangements to a depth of 40m. Results suggest that the geologic sequence and structure might have contributed to the observed pavement failure. The capability of the 2D ERI as an imaging tool is observed, especially across the transition zones as depicted in this study. The study further stressed the ability of this technique if properly designed and implemented, to be capable of providing a wealth of information that could complement other traditional geotechnical and geologic techniques.

  16. Solar Electricity and Solar Fuels: Status and Perspectives in the Context of the Energy Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaroli, Nicola; Balzani, Vincenzo

    2016-01-04

    The energy transition from fossil fuels to renewables is already ongoing, but it will be a long and difficult process because the energy system is a gigantic and complex machine. Key renewable energy production data show the remarkable growth of solar electricity technologies and indicate that crystalline silicon photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines are the workhorses of the first wave of renewable energy deployment on the TW scale around the globe. The other PV alternatives (e.g., copper/indium/gallium/selenide (CIGS) or CdTe), along with other less mature options, are critically analyzed. As far as fuels are concerned, the situation is significantly more complex because making chemicals with sunshine is far more complicated than generating electric current. The prime solar artificial fuel is molecular hydrogen, which is characterized by an excellent combination of chemical and physical properties. The routes to make it from solar energy (photoelectrochemical cells (PEC), dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (DSPEC), PV electrolyzers) and then synthetic liquid fuels are presented, with discussion on economic aspects. The interconversion between electricity and hydrogen, two energy carriers directly produced by sunlight, will be a key tool to distribute renewable energies with the highest flexibility. The discussion takes into account two concepts that are often overlooked: the energy return on investment (EROI) and the limited availability of natural resources-particularly minerals-which are needed to manufacture energy converters and storage devices on a multi-TW scale. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Model validation for radial electric field excitation during L-H transition in JFT-2M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Ido, T.; Kamiya, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Miura, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Fujisawa, A.; Inagaki, S.; Ida, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we elaborate the electric field excitation mechanism during the L-H transition in the JFT-2M tokamak. Using time derivative of the Poisson’s equation, models of the radial electric field excitation is examined. The sum of the loss-cone loss current and the neoclassical bulk viscosity current is found to behave as the experimentally evaluated radial current that excites the radial electric field. The turbulent Reynolds stress only plays a minor role. The wave convection current that produces a negative current at the edge can be important to explain the ambipolar condition in the L-mode.

  18. Assessment and evolution of renewable energy policy: the transition of the Latin-American electricity sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bersalli, German

    2017-01-01

    The transition to a more sustainable energy system requires a much faster development of new and renewable energy technologies for electricity generation (RENe). Thus, involving new challenges in the regulation of electricity sector. Additionally, a stronger commitment by emerging and developing countries for a deeper decarbonization trajectory, calls for the strengthening of renewable energy policies. Such policies include designing regulatory instruments that are better adapted for their specific economic and institutional needs. This thesis deals with the evaluation and the redesign of policies that encourage the diffusion of RENe in the context of Latin America's countries. To this end, we first use Environmental Economics theory to analyse the different regulatory instruments available, characterize them and to propose evaluation criteria based on a thorough review of the literature. We then carry out a panel data econometric study, to identify the determining factors of investments in regards to new RENe production capacity; and in particular, to measure the effectiveness of such policies. In a third phase, we mobilize the evolutionary theory of technological change to analyse the process of policy implementation, the existing barriers and the obtained results. This analysis is based on three case studies in the electricity sector of Chile, Brazil and Argentina. And finally, we focus on the challenges related to the massive deployment of RENe in Latin America by 2030-2040: the integration of intermittent energy sources, the access to financing and the industrial challenge. Our research shows that the evolution of the economic and institutional context encourages a dynamic which conditions public policy choices as well as their performance. We therefore propose the basis of an analytical framework for the design and assessment of ambitious long-term promoting policies. These policies must be integrated into a multidimensional and coherent project for the

  19. Clean air program : design guidelines for bus transit systems using electric and hybrid electric propulsion as an alternative fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-03-01

    The use of alternative fuels to power transit buses is steadily increasing. Several fuels, including : Compressed Natural Gas (CNG), Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), and : Methanol/Ethanol, are already being used. At presen...

  20. Determination of electric dipole transitions in heavy quarkonia using potential non-relativistic QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segovia, Jorge; Steinbeißer, Sebastian

    2018-05-01

    The electric dipole transitions {χ }bJ(1P)\\to γ \\Upsilon (1S) with J = 0, 1, 2 and {h}b(1P)\\to γ {η }b(1S) are computed using the weak-coupling version of a low-energy effective field theory named potential non-relativistic QCD (pNRQCD). In order to improve convergence and thus give firm predictions for the studied reactions, the full static potential is incorporated into the leading order Hamiltonian; moreover, we must handle properly renormalon effects and re-summation of large logarithms. The precision we reach is {k}γ 3/{(mv)}2× O({v}2), where kγ is the photon energy, m is the mass of the heavy quark and v its velocity. Our analysis separates those relativistic contributions that account for the electromagnetic interaction terms in the pNRQCD Lagrangian which are v 2 suppressed and those that account for wave function corrections of relative order v 2. Among the last ones, corrections from 1/m and 1/m2 potentials are computed, but not those coming from higher Fock states since they demand non-perturbative input and are {{{Λ }}}{{QCD}}2/{(mv)}2 or {{{Λ }}}{{QCD}}3/({m}3{v}4) suppressed, at least, in the strict weak coupling regime. These proceedings are based on the forthcoming publication [1].

  1. Optimal control of mode transition for four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle with dry dual-clutch transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiguo; Lei, Dan; Chen, Jiayi; Li, Hangyu

    2018-05-01

    When the four-wheel-drive hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) equipped with a dry dual clutch transmission (DCT) is in the mode transition process from pure electrical rear wheel drive to front wheel drive with engine or hybrid drive, the problem of vehicle longitudinal jerk is prominent. A mode transition robust control algorithm which resists external disturbance and model parameter fluctuation has been developed, by taking full advantage of fast and accurate torque (or speed) response of three electrical power sources and getting the clutch of DCT fully involved in the mode transition process. Firstly, models of key components of driveline system have been established, and the model of five-degrees-of-freedom vehicle longitudinal dynamics has been built by using a Uni-Tire model. Next, a multistage optimal control method has been produced to realize the decision of engine torque and clutch-transmitted torque. The sliding-mode control strategy for measurable disturbance has been proposed at the stage of engine speed dragged up. Meanwhile, the double tracking control architecture that integrates the model calculating feedforward control with H∞ robust feedback control has been presented at the stage of speed synchronization. Finally, the results from Matlab/Simulink software and hardware-in-the-loop test both demonstrate that the proposed control strategy for mode transition can not only coordinate the torque among different power sources and clutch while minimizing vehicle longitudinal jerk, but also provide strong robustness to model uncertainties and external disturbance.

  2. Electric-Field Control of Oxygen Vacancies and Magnetic Phase Transition in a Cobaltite/Manganite Bilayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, B.; Song, C.; Li, F.; Zhong, X. Y.; Wang, Z. C.; Werner, P.; Gu, Y. D.; Wu, H. Q.; Saleem, M. S.; Parkin, S. S. P.; Pan, F.

    2017-10-01

    Manipulation of oxygen vacancies (VO ) in single oxide layers by varying the electric field can result in significant modulation of the ground state. However, in many oxide multilayers with strong application potentials, e.g., ferroelectric tunnel junctions and solid-oxide fuel cells, understanding VO behavior in various layers under an applied electric field remains a challenge, owing to complex VO transport between different layers. By sweeping the external voltage, a reversible manipulation of VO and a corresponding fixed magnetic phase transition sequence in cobaltite/manganite (SrCoO3 -x/La0.45Sr0.55MnO3 -y ) heterostructures are reported. The magnetic phase transition sequence confirms that the priority of electric-field-induced VO formation or annihilation in the complex bilayer system is mainly determined by the VO formation energies and Gibbs free-energy differences, which is supported by theoretical analysis. We not only realize a reversible manipulation of the magnetic phase transition in an oxide bilayer but also provide insight into the electric-field control of VO engineering in heterostructures.

  3. Effects of interfacial transition layers on the electrical properties of individual Fe 30 Co 61 Cu 9 /Cu multilayer nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we accurately measure the electrical properties of individual Fe30Co61Cu9/Cu multilayered nanowires using nanomanipulators in in situ scanning electron microscopy to reveal that interfacial transition layers are influential in determining their transport behaviors. We investigate the morphology, crystal structure and chemistry of the Fe30Co61Cu9/Cu multilayered nanowires to characterize them at the nanoscale. We also compare the transport properties of these multilayered nanowires to those of individual pure Cu nanowires and to those of alloy Fe30Co61Cu9 nanowires. The multilayered nanowires with a 50 nm diameter had a remarkable resistivity of approximately 5.41 × 10-7 Ω m and a failure current density of 1.54 × 1011 A m-2. Detailed analysis of the electrical data reveals that interfacial transition layers influence the electrical properties of multilayered nanowires and are likely to have a strong impact on the life of nanodevices. This work contributes to a basic understanding of the electrical parameters of individual magnetic multilayered nanowires for their application as functional building blocks and interconnecting leads in nanodevices and nanoelectronics, and also provides a clear physical picture of a single multilayered nanowire which explains its electrical resistance and its source of giant magnetoresistance. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

  4. Short-Term Interferential Transabdominal Electrical Stimulation Did Not Change Oral-Rectal Transit Time in Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Andre Y F; Sourial, Magdy; Hutson, John M; Southwell, Bridget R

    2018-03-02

    Transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) using interferential current (IFC) is a new therapeutic treatment for constipation. Clinical studies show that TES-IFC for 3-6 months improves colonic transit, but it is not clear if short-term stimulation affects transit or the effect requires longer to develop. The aim of this study was to determine if TES-IFC for only four days affects oral-rectal transit time in healthy pigs. Twenty-two 4-5-week old large white female piglets had transit studies during week 4 and week 5 by placing a capsule containing 18 radiopaque plastic markers in the esophagus under anesthetic followed by x-rays at 6, 30, 54, and 78 hours. Animals were randomly assigned to active or control groups. The active group received TES for 30 min daily for four days. Interferential current was applied through four electrodes (4 × 4 cm), with two para-spinal just below the last rib and two on the belly at the same level. Stimulation was at 4000 Hz and 4080-4160 Hz with currents crossing through the abdominal cavity. Whole bowel transit times ranged from 7.7 to 72.2 hours, stomach transit from transit time from 5 to 53 hours. Transit times were the same for the control (median 28.4 hours) and TES-IFC (23.0 hours) groups in the prestimulation and stimulation weeks (control 23.0, TES-IFC 19.8 hours) with no change within or between groups. Four days of half-hour TES-IFC daily in healthy 5-week-old piglets did not change oral-rectal transit time. © 2018 International Neuromodulation Society.

  5. Electric-field driven insulator-metal transition and tunable magnetoresistance in ZnO thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Chen, Shanshan; Chen, Xiangyang; Ye, Zhizhen; Zhu, Liping

    2018-04-01

    Electrical control of the multistate phase in semiconductors offers the promise of nonvolatile functionality in the future semiconductor spintronics. Here, by applying an external electric field, we have observed a gate-induced insulator-metal transition (MIT) with the temperature dependence of resistivity in ZnO thin films. Due to a high-density carrier accumulation, we have shown the ability to inverse change magnetoresistance in ZnO by ionic liquid gating from 10% to -2.5%. The evolution of photoluminescence under gate voltage was also consistent with the MIT, which is due to the reduction of dislocation. Our in-situ gate-controlled photoluminescence, insulator-metal transition, and the conversion of magnetoresistance open up opportunities in searching for quantum materials and ZnO based photoelectric devices.

  6. Control of Chiral Magnetism Through Electric Fields in Multiferroic Compounds above the Long-Range Multiferroic Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, J; Baum, M; Holbein, S; Finger, T; Cronert, T; Tölzer, C; Fröhlich, T; Biesenkamp, S; Schmalzl, K; Steffens, P; Lee, C H; Braden, M

    2017-10-27

    Polarized neutron scattering experiments reveal that type-II multiferroics allow for controlling the spin chirality by external electric fields even in the absence of long-range multiferroic order. In the two prototype compounds TbMnO_{3} and MnWO_{4}, chiral magnetism associated with soft overdamped electromagnons can be observed above the long-range multiferroic transition temperature T_{MF}, and it is possible to control it through an electric field. While MnWO_{4} exhibits chiral correlations only in a tiny temperature interval above T_{MF}, in TbMnO_{3} chiral magnetism can be observed over several kelvin up to the lock-in transition, which is well separated from T_{MF}.

  7. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Yinghang; Gong, Yubing; Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. → Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. → Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. → Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  8. Single or multiple synchronization transitions in scale-free neuronal networks with electrical or chemical coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Yinghang [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Gong, Yubing, E-mail: gongyubing09@hotmail.co [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Wang Li; Ma Xiaoguang; Yang Chuanlu [School of Physics, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: Single synchronization transition for gap-junctional coupling. Multiple synchronization transitions for chemical synaptic coupling. Gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on synchronization transition. Chemical synapses may play a dominant role in neurons' information processing. - Abstract: In this paper, we have studied time delay- and coupling strength-induced synchronization transitions in scale-free modified Hodgkin-Huxley (MHH) neuron networks with gap-junctions and chemical synaptic coupling. It is shown that the synchronization transitions are much different for these two coupling types. For gap-junctions, the neurons exhibit a single synchronization transition with time delay and coupling strength, while for chemical synapses, there are multiple synchronization transitions with time delay, and the synchronization transition with coupling strength is dependent on the time delay lengths. For short delays we observe a single synchronization transition, whereas for long delays the neurons exhibit multiple synchronization transitions as the coupling strength is varied. These results show that gap junctions and chemical synapses have different impacts on the pattern formation and synchronization transitions of the scale-free MHH neuronal networks, and chemical synapses, compared to gap junctions, may play a dominant and more active function in the firing activity of the networks. These findings would be helpful for further understanding the roles of gap junctions and chemical synapses in the firing dynamics of neuronal networks.

  9. TRANSIT

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. TRANSIT. SYSTEM: DETERMINE 2D-POSITION GLOBALLY BUT INTERMITTENT (POST-FACTO). IMPROVED ACCURACY. PRINCIPLE: POLAR SATELLITES WITH INNOVATIONS OF: GRAVITY-GRADIENT ATTITUDE CONTROL; DRAG COMPENSATION. WORKS ...

  10. Matrix elements of the electric multiple transition and relativistic correction operators in the case of complex configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanyauskas, Yu.M.; Rudzikas, Z.B.

    1976-01-01

    Operators and their submatrix elements are studied in the framework of the electric multipole transitions of complex atoms with account of relativistic corrections of the order of the square of the fine structure constant. The analysis is performed by means of irreducible tensor operators and genealogical coefficients. It has been assumed that angular momenta of individual shells are coupled with each other according to ls, lk, jk and jj coupling. Formulas are given for the operator which causes the relativistic corrections for the single-electron multipole transition and for its submatrix element in the case of configurations with two unfilled shells. A possibility is discussed of using the formulas suggested for calculation. As follows from analysis, the relativistic correction operators even with the pure ls coupling allow intercombination transitions with ΔS equals +-1. The expressions obtained may turn out to be useful for performing calculations in the case of the intermediate type of coupling

  11. A robust H∞ control-based hierarchical mode transition control system for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Jiao, Xiaohong; Li, Liang; Zhang, Yuanbo; Chen, Zheng

    2018-01-01

    To realize a fast and smooth operating mode transition process from electric driving mode to engine-on driving mode, this paper presents a novel robust hierarchical mode transition control method for a plug-in hybrid electric bus (PHEB) with pre-transmission parallel hybrid powertrain. Firstly, the mode transition process is divided into five stages to clearly describe the powertrain dynamics. Based on the dynamics models of powertrain and clutch actuating mechanism, a hierarchical control structure including two robust H∞ controllers in both upper layer and lower layer is proposed. In upper layer, the demand clutch torque can be calculated by a robust H∞controller considering the clutch engaging time and the vehicle jerk. While in lower layer a robust tracking controller with L2-gain is designed to perform the accurate position tracking control, especially when the parameters uncertainties and external disturbance occur in the clutch actuating mechanism. Simulation and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test are carried out in a traditional driving condition of PHEB. Results show that the proposed hierarchical control approach can obtain the good control performance: mode transition time is greatly reduced with the acceptable jerk. Meanwhile, the designed control system shows the obvious robustness with the uncertain parameters and disturbance. Therefore, the proposed approach may offer a theoretical reference for the actual vehicle controller.

  12. Thermal conductivity, electric resistivity, and Lorenz function for some transition metals measured by a direct electric heating technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkele, Ludolf

    1985-01-01

    The validity of the Wiedemann-Franz-Lorenz law in its standard form is disputed in the case of transition metals. However, normal behaviour could be demonstrated for the transition metals molybdenum, tantalum, and niobium by the application of an already tried and tested, and recently improved, modified Kohlrausch measuring method; that is, the high-temperature Lorenz number of these metals takes the Sommerfeld value, within measuring uncertainties of approx. 3%. In the case of tungsten, saturation was observed 16.7% above the Sommerfeld value. Even the Lorenz number of platinum seems to take on a saturation value at that level at temperatures above 1400 K. The lattice conductivity separated by various processes displays a temperature dependence describable by an exponential law for all the metals studied, in contrast to previous assumptions. (author)

  13. Voltage- and current-activated metal–insulator transition in VO2-based electrical switches: a lifetime operation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelian Crunteanu, Julien Givernaud, Jonathan Leroy, David Mardivirin, Corinne Champeaux, Jean-Christophe Orlianges, Alain Catherinot and Pierre Blondy

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanadium dioxide is an intensively studied material that undergoes a temperature-induced metal–insulator phase transition accompanied by a large change in electrical resistivity. Electrical switches based on this material show promising properties in terms of speed and broadband operation. The exploration of the failure behavior and reliability of such devices is very important in view of their integration in practical electronic circuits. We performed systematic lifetime investigations of two-terminal switches based on the electrical activation of the metal–insulator transition in VO2 thin films. The devices were integrated in coplanar microwave waveguides (CPWs in series configuration. We detected the evolution of a 10 GHz microwave signal transmitted through the CPW, modulated by the activation of the VO2 switches in both voltage- and current-controlled modes. We demonstrated enhanced lifetime operation of current-controlled VO2-based switching (more than 260 million cycles without failure compared with the voltage-activated mode (breakdown at around 16 million activation cycles. The evolution of the electrical self-oscillations of a VO2-based switch induced in the current-operated mode is a subtle indicator of the material properties modification and can be used to monitor its behavior under various external stresses in sensor applications.

  14. Online transition matrix identification of the state evolution model for the extended Kalman filter in electrical impedance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Fernando S; Aya, Julio C C; Lima, Raul G; Fleury, Agenor T

    2008-01-01

    One of the electrical impedance tomography objectives is to estimate the electrical resistivity distribution in a domain based only on contour electrical potential measurements caused by an imposed electrical current distribution into the boundary. In biomedical applications, the random walk model is frequently used as evolution model and, under this conditions, it is observed poor tracking ability of the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). An analytically developed evolution model is not feasible at this moment. The present work investigates the possibility of identifying the evolution model in parallel to the EKF and updating the evolution model with certain periodicity. The evolution model is identified using the history of resistivity distribution obtained by a sensitivity matrix based algorithm. To numerically identify the linear evolution model, it is used the Ibrahim Time Domain Method, normally used to identify the transition matrix on structural dynamics. The investigation was performed by numerical simulations of a time varying domain with the addition of noise. Numerical dificulties to compute the transition matrix were solved using a Tikhonov regularization. The EKF numerical simulations suggest that the tracking ability is significantly improved.

  15. A Smooth Transition Logit Model of the Effects of Deregulation in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurn, A.S.; Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    We consider a nonlinear vector model called the logistic vector smooth transition autoregressive model. The bivariate single-transition vector smooth transition regression model of Camacho (2004) is generalised to a multivariate and multitransition one. A modelling strategy consisting of specific......We consider a nonlinear vector model called the logistic vector smooth transition autoregressive model. The bivariate single-transition vector smooth transition regression model of Camacho (2004) is generalised to a multivariate and multitransition one. A modelling strategy consisting...... of specification, including testing linearity, estimation and evaluation of these models is constructed. Nonlinear least squares estimation of the parameters of the model is discussed. Evaluation by misspecification tests is carried out using tests derived in a companion paper. The use of the modelling strategy...

  16. Structure of ground status in magic nuclei and description of their electric transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savane, Y.Sy.

    1996-11-01

    The structure of the low-lying states in the even-even semi-magic nuclei ( 106-114 50 Sn) and the reduced transition probabilities B(E2, 6 + 1 → 4 = 1 ) for E2-transition have been investigated in the frame of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model. The model wave function includes a quasiparticle + two phonons components. It is shown that the small values of the transitions are connected with the non collective structure of the states. The calculated values are in agreement with the observed property of decreasing of the transition with increasing of mass number. (author). 16 refs, 6 tabs

  17. The end of regulated electricity sales prices: thinking transition in a strategic way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Pablo; O'Sullivan, Brian

    2014-01-01

    In this article, the authors state that the end of regulated tariffs is inevitable, and present the guidelines of the transition mode. Then, they highlight that this transition must be designed in a strategic way by preparing the negotiation, by pooling providers and enterprises, by valorising flexibilities of the industrial or tertiary asset, and by putting energy efficiency forward

  18. Observation of electric quadrupole transitions to Rydberg nd states of ultracold rubidium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tong, D.; Farooqi, S.M.; Kempen, van E.G.M.; Pavlovic, Z.; Stanojevic, J.; Coté, R.; Eyler, E.E.; Gould, P.L.

    2009-01-01

    We report the observation of dipole-forbidden, but quadrupole-allowed, one-photon transitions to high-Rydberg states in Rb. Using pulsed uv excitation of ultracold atoms in a magneto-optical trap, we excite 5s¿nd transitions over a range of principal quantum numbers n=27–59. Compared to

  19. Influence of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock starting potential on the parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes in cesium and thallium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perger, W. F.; Das, B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes for the 6s1/2-7s1/2 transition in cesium and the 6p1/2-7p1/2 transition in thallium have been calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The effects of using different Dirac-Hartree-Fock atomic core potentials are examined and the transition amplitudes for both the length and velocity gauges are given. It is found that the parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes exhibit a greater dependence on the starting potential for thallium than for cesium.

  20. Holographic Van der Waals phase transition of the higher-dimensional electrically charged hairy black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui-Ling [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China); Shenyang Normal University, College of Physics Science and Technology, Shenyang (China); Feng, Zhong-Wen [China West Normal University, College of Physics and Space Science, Nanchong (China); Zu, Xiao-Tao [University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, School of Physical Electronics, Chengdu (China)

    2018-01-15

    With motivation by holography, employing black hole entropy, two-point connection function and entanglement entropy, we show that, for the higher-dimensional Anti-de Sitter charged hairy black hole in the fixed charged ensemble, a Van der Waals-like phase transition can be observed. Furthermore, based on the Maxwell equal-area construction, we check numerically the equal-area law for a first order phase transition in order to further characterize the Van der Waals-like phase transition. (orig.)

  1. Holographic Van der Waals phase transition of the higher-dimensional electrically charged hairy black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hui-Ling; Feng, Zhong-Wen; Zu, Xiao-Tao

    2018-01-01

    With motivation by holography, employing black hole entropy, two-point connection function and entanglement entropy, we show that, for the higher-dimensional Anti-de Sitter charged hairy black hole in the fixed charged ensemble, a Van der Waals-like phase transition can be observed. Furthermore, based on the Maxwell equal-area construction, we check numerically the equal-area law for a first order phase transition in order to further characterize the Van der Waals-like phase transition. (orig.)

  2. Analysis on the phase transition behavior of Cu base bulk metallic glass by electrical resistivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Young Su; Chung, Sung Jae; Ok, Myoung-Ryul; Hong, Kyung Tae; Suh, Jin-Yoo; Byeon, Jai Won; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Lee, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Kyung Sub

    2007-01-01

    The crystallization behavior of Cu 43 Zr 43 Al 7 Ag 7 (numbers indicate at.%) bulk metallic glass was investigated using the isothermal electrical resistivity measurements at 450 deg. C in the supercooled liquid region. The crystallization process is a single step phase transformation. To analyze the electrical resistivity reduction, microstructure evolutions were analyzed using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and small-angle X-ray scattering. The Avrami parameter of the electrical resistivity reduction step was 1.73, indicating that the crystallization process is a diffusion-controlled growth of intermetallic compounds with decreasing nucleation rate

  3. Electric-field-induced modification of the magnon energy, exchange interaction, and curie temperature of transition-metal thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, M; Nakamura, K; Akiyama, T; Ito, T; Weinert, M; Freeman, A J

    2015-03-13

    The electric-field-induced modification in the Curie temperature of prototypical transition-metal thin films with the perpendicular magnetic easy axis, a freestanding Fe(001) monolayer and a Co monolayer on Pt(111), is investigated by first-principles calculations of spin-spiral structures in an external electric field (E field). An applied E field is found to modify the magnon (spin-spiral formation) energy; the change arises from the E-field-induced screening charge density in the spin-spiral states due to p-d hybridizations. The Heisenberg exchange parameters obtained from the magnon energy suggest an E-field-induced modification of the Curie temperature, which is demonstrated via Monte Carlo simulations that take the magnetocrystalline anisotropy into account.

  4. Electric controlling of surface metal-insulator transition in the doped BaTiO3 film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Xun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on first-principles calculations, the BaTiO3(BTO film with local La-doping is studied. For a selected concentration and position of doping, the surface metal-insulator transition occurs under the applied electric field, and the domain appears near the surface for both bipolar states. Furthermore, for the insulated surface state, i.e., the downward polarization state in the doped film, the gradient bandgap structure is achieved, which favors the absorption of solar energy. Our investigation can provide an alternative avenue in modification of surface property and surface screening effect in polar materials.

  5. Electric-Field-Driven Dual Vacancies Evolution in Ultrathin Nanosheets Realizing Reversible Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mengjie; Liu, Youwen; Zhi, Yuduo; Xiao, Chong; Gu, Bingchuan; Hua, Xuemin; Fan, Shaojuan; Lin, Yue; Bai, Wei; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Ye, Bangjiao; Xie, Yi

    2015-12-02

    Fabricating a flexible room-temperature ferromagnetic resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) device is of fundamental importance to integrate nonvolatile memory and spintronics both in theory and practice for modern information technology and has the potential to bring about revolutionary new foldable information-storage devices. Here, we show that a relatively low operating voltage (+1.4 V/-1.5 V, the corresponding electric field is around 20,000 V/cm) drives the dual vacancies evolution in ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets at room temperature, which causes the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal, accompanyied by an abrupt conductivity change up to 10(3) times, exhibiting room-temperature ferromagnetism in two resistance states. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron spin resonance results show that the Sn/O dual vacancies in the ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets evolve to isolated Sn vacancy under electric field, accounting for the switching behavior of SnO2 ultrathin nanosheets; on the other hand, the different defect types correspond to different conduction natures, realizing the transition between semiconductor and half-metal. Our result represents a crucial step to create new a information-storage device realizing the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal with flexibility and room-temperature ferromagnetism at low energy consumption. The as-obtained half-metal in the low-resistance state broadens the application of the device in spintronics and the semiconductor to half-metal transition on the basis of defects evolution and also opens up a new avenue for exploring random access memory mechanisms and finding new half-metals for spintronics.

  6. Effect of metallic and hyperbolic metamaterial surfaces on electric and magnetic dipole emission transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ni, X.; Naik, G. V.; Kildishev, A. V.

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous emission patterns of electric and magnetic dipoles on different metallic surfaces and a hyperbolic metamaterial (HMM) surface were simulated using the dyadic Green’s function technique. The theoretical approach was verified by experimental results obtained by measuring angular......-dependent emission spectra of europium ions on top of different films. The results show the modified behavior of electric and magnetic dipoles on metallic and HMM surfaces. The results of numerical calculations agree well with experimental data....

  7. Observation of interference between stark and electric quadrupole transitions in LIF from He atoms in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takiyama, K.; Namba, S.; Furukawa, S.; Oda, T.; James, B.W.; Andruczyk, D.

    2004-01-01

    Interference between Stark-induced dipole and electric quadrupole amplitudes was observed in a He hollow cathode plasma with axial magnetic field perpendicular to the sheath electric field E by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method. Circularly polarized LIF signals were observed in the sheath region. Spatial profile of the degree of polarization P c showed characteristic features of the interference. Using theoretically calculated P c -E relationship, E-profile was successfully obtained form the measure P c . (author)

  8. Prediction of the oscillator strengths for the electric dipole transitions in Th II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembczynski, Jerzy [Institute of Control and Information Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Ruczkowski, Jaroslaw; Elantkowska, Magdalena [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Metrology, Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13B, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    In order to parametrize the oscillator strength, the matrix of angular coefficients of the possible transitions in multiconfiguration system were calculated. In the odd and even configuration systems, the fine structure eigenvectors for both parities were obtained, using our semiempirical method, which taken into account also the second order effects, resulting from the excitations from electronic closed shells to open shells and from open shells to empty shell. The correctness of the fine structure wave functions was verified by the comparison of calculated and experimental hyperfine structure constants for Th II available in the literature. The least square fit to experimental values for some transitions allow to obtain the values of radial parameters and predict the oscillator strengths values for all possible transitions from the levels under consideration. These calculations are necessary for the design of the nuclear frequency standard based on the thorium ion.

  9. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  10. A life-cycle approach to technology, infrastructure, and climate policy decision making: Transitioning to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and low-carbon electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Constantine

    In order to mitigate the most severe effects of climate change, large global reductions in the current levels of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are required in this century to stabilize atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations at less than double pre-industrial levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) fourth assessment report states that GHG emissions should be reduced to 50-80% of 2000 levels by 2050 to increase the likelihood of stabilizing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In order to achieve the large GHG reductions by 2050 recommended by the IPCC, a fundamental shift and evolution will be required in the energy system. Because the electric power and transportation sectors represent the largest GHG emissions sources in the United States, a unique opportunity for coupling these systems via electrified transportation could achieve synergistic environmental (GHG emissions reductions) and energy security (petroleum displacement) benefits. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), which use electricity from the grid to power a portion of travel, could play a major role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions from the transport sector. However, this thesis finds that life cycle GHG emissions from PHEVs depend on the electricity source that is used to charge the battery, so meaningful GHG emissions reductions with PHEVs are conditional on low-carbon electricity sources. Power plants and their associated GHGs are long-lived, and this work argues that decisions made regarding new electricity supplies within the next ten years will affect the potential of PHEVs to play a role in a low-carbon future in the coming decades. This thesis investigates the life cycle engineering, economic, and policy decisions involved in transitioning to PHEVs and low-carbon electricity. The government has a vast array of policy options to promote low-carbon technologies, some of which have proven to be more successful than others. This thesis uses life

  11. Graphene/phase change material nanocomposites: light-driven, reversible electrical resistivity regulation via form-stable phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunming; Mi, Hongyi; Zheng, Qifeng; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-04

    Innovative photoresponsive materials are needed to address the complexity of optical control systems. Here, we report a new type of photoresponsive nanomaterial composed of graphene and a form-stable phase change material (PCM) that exhibited a 3 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity upon light illumination while retaining its overall original solid form at the macroscopic level. This dramatic change in electrical resistivity also occurred reversibly through the on/off control of light illumination. This was attributed to the reversible phase transition (i.e., melting/recrystallization) behavior of the microscopic crystalline domains present in the form-stable PCM. The reversible phase transition observed in the graphene/PCM nanocomposite was induced by a reversible temperature change through the on/off control of light illumination because graphene can effectively absorb light energy and convert it to thermal energy. In addition, this graphene/PCM nanocomposite also possessed excellent mechanical properties. Such photoresponsive materials have many potential applications, including flexible electronics.

  12. A smooth transition logit model of the effects of deregulation in the electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurn, A. Stan; Silvennoinen, Annastiina; Teräsvirta, Timo

    2016-01-01

    of the model are derived along with their asymptotic properties, together with a Lagrange multiplier test of the null hypothesis of linearity in the underlying latent index. The development of the STL model is motivated by the desire to assess the impact of deregulation in the Queensland electricity market...... and ascertain whether increased competition has resulted in significant changes in the behaviour of the spot price of electricity, specifically with respect to the occurrence of periodic abnormally high prices. The model allows the timing of any change to be endogenously determined and also market participants...

  13. Foreign direct investment (FDI) in energy/electricity projects in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1995-01-01

    Registered foreign direct investments (FDI) in energy/ electricity projects in central and eastern Europe and the CIS are weak and disappointing compared with expectations and business opportunities. In addition, energy FDI is highly concentrated in oil and gas exploration/extraction. FDI opportunities in electricity generation, transmission and distribution while being explored, have not been implemented, mostly for legislation restriction reasons towards foreign participation. The major issue appears to be the extent of privatization of this politically and socially sensitive industry. Progress are made in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. A significant breakthrough depends on political stability, economic recovery and progress in privatization. 2 figs

  14. Synergistic interactions of dynamic ridesharing and battery electric vehicles land use, transit, and auto pricing policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    It is widely recognized that new vehicle and fuel technology is necessary, but not sufficient, to meet deep greenhouse gas (GHG) : reductions goals for both the U.S. and the state of California. Demand management strategies (such as land use, transit...

  15. 76 FR 31354 - Notice of Issuance of Final Determination Concerning the Transit Connect Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ... are drilled into the glider and brackets are installed to support the battery pack and other electric assembly components. The fuel door of the glider is removed, assembled into a charge port, and the charge...-voltage battery is removed. Station 2: A U.S.-origin battery pack, U.S. engine bay wiring harness, German...

  16. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G. [Applied Economic Research Co., Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility`s service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ``busbar costs`` at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor.

  17. Transition from steady to periodic liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flow in a sliding electrical contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talmage, Gita; Walker, John S.; Brown, Samuel H.; Sondergaard, Neal A.

    1993-09-01

    In homopolar motors and generators, large dc electric currents pass through the sliding electrical contacts between rotating copper disks (rotors) and static copper surfaces shrouding the rotor tips (stators). A liquid metal in the small radial gap between the rotor tip and concentric stator surface can provide a low-resistance, low-drag electrical contact. Since there is a strong magnetic field in the region of the electrical contacts, there are large electromagnetic body forces on the liquid metal. The primary, azimuthal motion consists of simple Couette flow, plus an electromagnetically driven flow with large extremes of the azimuthal velocity near the rotor corners. The secondary flow involves the radial and axial velocity components, is driven by the centrifugal force associated with the primary flow, and is opposed by the electromagnetic body force, so that the circulation varies inversely as the square of the magnetic-field strength. Three flow regimes are identified as the angular velocity Ω of the rotor is increased. For small Ω, the primary flow is decoupled from the secondary flow. As Ω increases, the secondary flow begins to convect the azimuthal-velocity peaks radially outward, which in turn changes the centrifugal force driving the secondary flow. At some critical value of Ω, the flow becomes periodic through the coupling of the primary and secondary flows. The azimuthal-velocity peaks begin to move radially in and out with an accompanying oscillation in the secondary-flow strength.

  18. Management of busbar costs and spending tradeoffs for the transition to competitive markets in electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, M.R.; Boyd, G.

    1995-01-01

    Competition is changing the fundamental basis for doing business in the electricity generation market. As the market moves toward competitive market conditions, electricity will be viewed increasingly as a commodity--not only supplied to customers within a utility's service area, but brokered and marketed outside its area as well. With movement toward retail wheeling being considered in California, Michigan, and New York, it may soon become a reality as well. This means that a utility can no longer feel secure as the monopoly supplier of electricity within its own franchise area. To remain the main supplier in its current service area and compete for customers in other service areas, utilities will need to understand and examine all the components of ''busbar costs'' at its generating units. As competition drives the market to marginal costs, generating units with costs exceeding the market clearing price for electricity may soon have a limited role in the generation market. As the industry evolves, competition in the marketplace will force uneconomic plants to reduce costs or go out of business. This paper discusses results of studies addressing the evaluation of cost effectiveness, benchmarking of cost-efficiency, and development of marginal cost curves for busbar costs based on the development and aggregation of the three key measures which determine the cost and level of output (generation): (1) reliability; (2) heat rate; and (3) planned outage factor

  19. The journey towards decarbonization: Exploring socio-technical transitions in the electricity sector in the province of Ontario (1885–2013) and potential low-carbon pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenbloom, Daniel; Meadowcroft, James

    2014-01-01

    This article employs the multi-level perspective on socio-technical transitions to explore the historical evolution of the electricity regime in the province of Ontario from 1885-2013 and to interpret the potential for future movement towards decarbonization. With an emphasis on the political and social dimensions of transitions, this analysis traces the key features influencing change within Ontario's electricity system over the past century. This paper uses multiple criteria (the phase of electrification; role of the electricity system in economic development; structures of ownership, market and regulation; dominant technologies; and the relative stability of arrangements) to characterize distinct regime configurations and periods of instability which separate relatively stable system orientations. Lessons are drawn from the historical case with implications for future decarbonization in the province, including the importance of: (1) residual momentum; (2) embedded guiding principles; and, (3) politico-economic coalitions. - Highlights: • Investigates transitions in the electricity sector using the multi-level perspective. • Explores the socio-technical evolution of the electricity system in Ontario. • Draws lessons relevant for low-carbon transitions. • Poses key questions for the development of low-carbon pathways in Ontario. • Provides insights on the political dimensions of low-carbon transitions

  20. Foreign direct investments (FDI) in energy and electricity projects in the economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1996-01-01

    Registered foreign direct investments (or equity finance) in energy and electricity projects in central and eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) presently stand at about US$ 3 billion (flows) and US$ 5.5 billion (stock). This is insignificant compared with world FDI and disappointing compared with expectations and business opportunities. In addition, energy FDI is concentrated in oil and gas exploration/extraction, primarily in Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. FDI opportunities in electricity generation, transmission and distribution while being explored (see list), have not been implemented: legislation was either restrictive as regards foreign participation, or not yet finalized, or not yet enacted. The major issue at present appears to be the extent of privatisation of this politically and socially sensitive industry. 1995 will see progress in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Related FDI would, however, still be modest. A significant breakthrough depends on political stability, economic recovery and progress in privatisation. (author)

  1. The role of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies in enabling global low-carbon energy transitions

    OpenAIRE

    McPherson, M.; Johnson, N.; Strubegger, M.

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have noted the importance of electricity storage and hydrogen technologies for enabling large-scale variable renewable energy (VRE) deployment in long-term climate change mitigation scenarios. However, global studies, which typically use integrated assessment models, assume a fixed cost trajectory for storage and hydrogen technologies; thereby ignoring the sensitivity of VRE deployment and/or mitigation costs to uncertainties in future storage and hydrogen technology costs. Y...

  2. Sustainable Energy Transitions in China: Renewable Options and Impacts on the Electricity System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Sun

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chinese energy consumption has been dominated by coal for decades, but this needs to change to protect the environment and mitigate anthropogenic climate change. Renewable energy development is needed to fulfil the Intended Nationally Determined Contribution (INDC for the post-2020 period, as stated on the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris. This paper reviews the potential of renewable energy in China and how it could be utilised to meet the INDC goals. A business-as-usual case and eight alternative scenarios with 40% renewable electricity are explored using the EnergyPLAN model to visualise out to the year 2030. Five criteria (total cost, total capacity, excess electricity, CO2 emissions, and direct job creation are used to assess the sustainability of the scenarios. The results indicate that renewables can meet the goal of a 20% share of non-fossil energy in primary energy and 40%–50% share of non-fossil energy in electricity power. The low nuclear-hydro power scenario is the most optimal scenario based on the used evaluation criteria. The Chinese government should implement new policies aimed at promoting integrated development of wind power and solar PV.

  3. Effect of Aspect Ratio on Electrical, Rheological and Glass Transition Properties of PC/MWCNT Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Heidy; Son, Younggon

    2018-02-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNT), significant research works have focused on the application of CNT as conductive filler to polymer nanocomposites which can be used in several fields such as electrostatic dissipation (ESD), electrostatic painting and electromagnetic interference shielding (EMI-shielding). However, the main challenge in the large-scale manufacturing of this technology is the poor electrical conductivity of polymer nanocomposites produced by injection molding process. This study aims to investigate the effect of CNT aspect ratio in improving the electrical conductivity of injection molded nanocomposites. In this work, three types of multiwall carbon nanotubes with different lengths were melt-mixed with polycarbonate in a twin screw extruder followed by injection and compression molding. Results show that nanocomposites with higher CNT aspect ratio exhibit higher electrical conductivity. Longer nanotubes form a stronger conductive network during secondary agglomeration which can withstand the high shear forces during injection molding. Higher melt viscosity and storage modulus were observed in nanocomposites with higher CNT aspect ratio which is attributed to the effective constriction of polymer chains by longer nanotubes. It was also found that Tg of the composites increased with nanotube aspect ratio and the addition of CNT causes degradation which leads to the general Tg depression of polycarbonate.

  4. Optical and electrical experiments at some transition-metal oxide foil-electrolyte interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, S.O.; Ahlgren, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Metal-oxide layers formed from transition-metal foils oxidized by heating in air have been examined for their photoelectrolytic response. The metals examined are Y, Ti, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, W, and Pt. Weak photoeffects are observed for oxide layers of all of these metals. Sizable light-dependent oxygen gas evolution rates are found in Ti and also in W oxides. The spectral dependence of the oxygen response in these compounds is investigated, and interpretation is given of these experiments

  5. Emergence of a phase transition for the required amount of storage in highly renewable electricity systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Greiner, Martin

    2014-01-01

    -up of the required amount of storage, with renewable penetration being the control parameter and average relative storage filling level being the order parameter. A singularity appears for the required storage energy capacity at a renewable penetration determined by the parameters of the storage. For an ideal...... storage with no roundtrip losses the transition occurs at 100% renewable penetration. Moreover, the required storage energy capacity is strongly enhanced by temporal correlations on the synoptic weather time scale. A Markov process is proposed, which reproduces these findings....

  6. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Isacker, P.; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S.

    2010-01-01

    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole (β 2 ), axial hexadecapole (β 4 ) and triaxial (γ 2 ). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)xU(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU ± (3) and the γ 2 -soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  7. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Isacker, P. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France)], E-mail: isacker@ganil.fr; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S. [Department of Physics, PRIMALAB Laboratory, University of Batna, Avenue Boukhelouf M El Hadi, 05000 Batna (Algeria)

    2010-05-15

    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ({beta}{sub 2}), axial hexadecapole ({beta}{sub 4}) and triaxial ({gamma}{sub 2}). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)xU(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU{sub {+-}}(3) and the {gamma}{sub 2}-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  8. Phase transitions in the sdg interacting boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Isacker, P.; Bouldjedri, A.; Zerguine, S.

    2010-05-01

    A geometric analysis of the sdg interacting boson model is performed. A coherent state is used in terms of three types of deformation: axial quadrupole ( β), axial hexadecapole ( β) and triaxial ( γ). The phase-transitional structure is established for a schematic sdg Hamiltonian which is intermediate between four dynamical symmetries of U(15), namely the spherical U(5)⊗U(9), the (prolate and oblate) deformed SU(3) and the γ-soft SO(15) limits. For realistic choices of the Hamiltonian parameters the resulting phase diagram has properties close to what is obtained in the sd version of the model and, in particular, no transition towards a stable triaxial shape is found.

  9. Optical absorption of carbon nanotube diodes: Strength of the electronic transitions and sensitivity to the electric field polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Davide; Pierantoni, Luca; Rozzi, Tullio

    2008-03-01

    Aim of this work is to model electrostatically doped carbon nanotubes (CNT), which have recently proved to perform as ideal PN diodes, also showing photovoltaic properties. The new model is able to predict the optical absorption of semiconducting CNT as function of size and chirality. We justify theoretically, for the first time, the experimentally observed capability of CNTs to detect and select not only a well defined set of frequencies, as resulting from their discrete band structure, but also the polarization of the incident radiation. The analysis develops from an approach proposed in a recent contribution. The periodic structure of CNTs is formally modeled as a photonic crystal, that is characterized by means of numerical simulators. Longitudinal and transverse components of the electric field are shown to excite distinct interband transitions between well defined energy levels. Equivalently, for a given energy of the incident radiation, absorption may show polarization ratios strongly exceeding unity.

  10. Photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As double quantum wells: Electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, S.Y. [Grupo de Educacion en Ciencias Experimentales y Matematicas-GECEM, Facultad de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia); Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, CP 62209, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Duque, C.A., E-mail: cduque@fisica.udea.edu.c [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226 Medellin (Colombia)

    2009-12-15

    The photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As coupled double quantum wells are presented by considering the simultaneous effects of applied electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure. Calculations have been made in the framework of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and using a variational procedure. The electric field is taken to be oriented along the growth direction of the heterostructure whereas for the magnetic field both in-plane and in-growth directions have been considered. The results show that the hydrostatic pressure and the applied electric field are two useful tools to tune the direct and indirect exciton transitions in such heterostructures. Our results are in good agreement with previous experimental findings in double quantum wells under applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

  11. Photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga1-xAlxAs double quantum wells: Electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, S.Y.; Mora-Ramos, M.E.; Duque, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The photoluminescence energy transitions in GaAs-Ga 1-x Al x As coupled double quantum wells are presented by considering the simultaneous effects of applied electric and magnetic fields and hydrostatic pressure. Calculations have been made in the framework of the effective mass and parabolic band approximations and using a variational procedure. The electric field is taken to be oriented along the growth direction of the heterostructure whereas for the magnetic field both in-plane and in-growth directions have been considered. The results show that the hydrostatic pressure and the applied electric field are two useful tools to tune the direct and indirect exciton transitions in such heterostructures. Our results are in good agreement with previous experimental findings in double quantum wells under applied electric field and hydrostatic pressure.

  12. Electric properties and phase transition behavior in lead lanthanum zirconate stannate titanate ceramics with low zirconate content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Tao; Lou, Qi-Wei; Chen, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Ling; Dong, Xian-Lin; Wang, Gen-Shui

    2015-11-01

    The phase transitions, dielectric properties, and polarization versus electric field (P-E) hysteresis loops of Pb0.97La0.02(Zr0.42Sn0.58-xTix)O3 (0.13≤ x ≤0.18) (PLZST) bulk ceramics were systematically investigated. This study exhibited a sequence of phase transitions by analyzing the change of the P-E hysteresis loops with increasing temperature. The antiferroelectric (AFE) to ferroelectric (FE) phase boundary of PLZST with the Zr content of 0.42 was found to locate at the Ti content between 0.14 and 0.15. This work is aimed to improve the ternary phase diagram of lanthanum-doped PZST with the Zr content of 0.42 and will be a good reference for seeking high energy storage density in the PLZST system with low-Zr content. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51202273, 11204304, and 11304334) and the Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality, China (Grant No. 14DZ2261000).

  13. Electric dipole f values for Fe II J=9/2->11/2^o transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Donald R.

    2007-06-01

    Relativistic configuration-interaction f values have been obtained for all transitions between the lowest 17 J=9/2 and the lowest 27 J=11/2^o levels. The 35 f values >0.01 have an average gauge agreement of 3.6% and generally agree well with the semi-empirical results of Raassen ootnotetextA. J. J. Raassen, ftp://ftp.wins.uva.nl/pub/orth/iron/FeII.E1 (1999).. The near degeneracy of many of the odd levels requires the introduction of small semi-empirical energy shifts ootnotetextD. R. Beck, Phys. Scr. 71, 447 (2005).. A systematic way of estimating radial convergence is discussed.

  14. Fully-Coupled Thermo-Electrical Modeling and Simulation of Transition Metal Oxide Memristors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamaluy, Denis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gao, Xujiao [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tierney, Brian David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Marinella, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mickel, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tierney, Brian D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Transition metal oxide (TMO) memristors have recently attracted special attention from the semiconductor industry and academia. Memristors are one of the strongest candidates to replace flash memory, and possibly DRAM and SRAM in the near future. Moreover, memristors have a high potential to enable beyond-CMOS technology advances in novel architectures for high performance computing (HPC). The utility of memristors has been demonstrated in reprogrammable logic (cross-bar switches), brain-inspired computing and in non-CMOS complementary logic. Indeed, the potential use of memristors as logic devices is especially important considering the inevitable end of CMOS technology scaling that is anticipated by 2025. In order to aid the on-going Sandia memristor fabrication effort with a memristor design tool and establish a clear physical picture of resistance switching in TMO memristors, we have created and validated with experimental data a simulation tool we name the Memristor Charge Transport (MCT) Simulator.

  15. Thermotropic Phase Transition of Benzodithiophene Copolymer Thin Films and Its Impact on Electrical and Photovoltaic Characteristics

    KAUST Repository

    Ko, Sangwon

    2015-02-24

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. We observed a thermotropic phase transition in poly[3,4-dihexyl thiophene-2,2′:5,6′-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b′]dithiophene] (PDHBDT) thin films accompanied by a transition from a random orientation to an ordered lamellar phase via a nearly hexagonal lattice upon annealing. We demonstrate the effect of temperature-dependent molecular packing on charge carrier mobility (μ) in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) and photovoltaic characteristics, such as exciton diffusion length (LD) and power conversion efficiency (PCE), in organic solar cells (OSCs) using PDHBDT. The μ was continuously improved with increasing annealing temperature and PDHBDT films annealed at 270 °C resulted in a maximum μ up to 0.46 cm2/(V s) (μavg = 0.22 cm2/(V s)), which is attributed to the well-ordered lamellar structure with a closer - stacking distance of 3.5 Å as shown by grazing incidence-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD). On the other hand, PDHBDT films with a random molecular orientation are more effective in photovoltaic devices than films with an ordered hexagonal or lamellar phase based on current-voltage characteristics of PDHBDT/C60 bilayer solar cells. This observation corresponds to an enhanced dark current density (JD) and a decreased LD upon annealing. This study provides insight into the dependence of charge transport and photovoltaic characteristics on molecular packing in polymer semiconductors, which is crucial for the management of charge and energy transport in a range of organic optoelectronic devices.

  16. Order-disorder transition and electrical conductivity of the brownmillerite solid-solutions system Ba sub 2 (In, M) sub 2 O sub 5 (M=Ga, Al)

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamura, H; Kakinuma, K; Mori, T; Haneda, H

    1999-01-01

    The brownmillerite solid-solution systems Ba sub 2 (In sub 1 sub - sub x M sub x) sub 2 O sub 5 (M=Ga, Al) were investigated by means of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, and electrical-conductivity measurements. XRD showed that the Ba sub 2 (In sub 1 sub - sub x Ga sub x) sub 2 O sub 5 system had orthorhombic symmetry in the composition range 0.0<=x<=0.2 and cubic symmetry in the range 0.3<=x. The Al system also changed to cubic symmetry from orthorhombic symmetry in the range 0.2<=x. While the orthorhombic phase showed an order-disorder transition in the electrical conductivity measurements, the transition temperature decreased with increasing the M content. The order-disorder transition temperature and the crystal-structure transition temperature were very different. Such a transition was not observed in the cubic phases, and their electrical conductivity were fairly low compared to those of the disordered cubic phase after the transition due to the heating process. These p...

  17. Order-disorder transition and electrical conductivity of the brownmillerite solid-solutions system Ba2(In, M)2O5 (M=Ga, Al)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Hiroshi; Hamazaki, Hirohumi; Kakinuma, Katsuyoshi; Mori, Toshiyuki; Haneda, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    The brownmillerite solid-solution systems Ba 2 (In 1-x M x ) 2 O 5 (M=Ga, Al) were investigated by means of high-temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD), dilatometry, and electrical-conductivity measurements. XRD showed that the Ba 2 (In 1-x Ga x ) 2 O 5 system had orthorhombic symmetry in the composition range 0.0≤x≤0.2 and cubic symmetry in the range 0.3≤x. The Al system also changed to cubic symmetry from orthorhombic symmetry in the range 0.2≤x. While the orthorhombic phase showed an order-disorder transition in the electrical conductivity measurements, the transition temperature decreased with increasing the M content. The order-disorder transition temperature and the crystal-structure transition temperature were very different. Such a transition was not observed in the cubic phases, and their electrical conductivity were fairly low compared to those of the disordered cubic phase after the transition due to the heating process. These phenomena are discussed in terms of disordering of the tetrahedral site in the brownmillerite structure, which is occupied by the smaller Ga 3+ or Al 3+ rather than ny In 3+

  18. The value of electric energy storage in electricity systems with high shares of wind and solar PV: the case of France in the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villavicencio, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The adoption of ambitious targets for variable renewable energies (VRE) such as wind and solar has important effects on the technical and economic operation of power systems. Increasing shares of VRE will in particular require the deployment of more flexible and responsive technologies. Key flexibility providers in the scope are demand side management (DSM) and different forms of electric energy storage (EES) such as pumped hydroelectric (PHS), Li-ion batteries (Li-ion), and compressed air (CAES), among others. It have been previously showed how the value and the deployment of such new flexibility providers depended on the shares of VRE shares introduced into the system (Brijs et al., 2016; Van Stiphout et al., 2015; Villavicencio, 2017). Building on this works, this paper explores the value of storage in the context of a realistic Brownfield model calibrated on the existing French electricity system. In particular, this paper compares the value of storage (a) in a system corresponding to the target of 27% VRE production formulated by the French government in its 2015 Energy Transition Act by 2020 and (b) in a system corresponding to the target of 40% VRE production formulated in the same Act by 2030. The latter case will necessarily reflect the additional target which by 2025 limits the share of nuclear power to 50% of electricity production. In 2020, 4.7 GW of DSM are sufficient to provide the required flexibility and no EES investments will be needed. By 2030, however, in addition to a comparable level of DSM, 3.2 GW of additional EES investments are required. These storage solutions will generate an economic value of euro 350 million per year and will increases overall welfare by euro 670 million per year by 2030. The modeling yields a number of additional policy relevant results. First, limiting nuclear production will open opportunities for alternative base and mid-load providers, mainly gas, implying a threefold increase of CO_2 emissions compared to 2020

  19. Monopolies, liberalization, energy transition. Electricity market design between change and constancy; Monopole, Liberalisierung, Energiewende. Strommarktdesign zwischen Wandel und Konstanz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grashof, Katherina; Zipp, Alexander [Hochschule fuer Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW), Saarbruecken (Germany). Abt. Energiemaerkte; Lechtenboehmer, Stefan [Wuppertal Institut fuer Klima Umwelt Energie (Germany). Forschungsgruppe 1: Zukuenftige Energie- und Mobilitaetsstrukturen; Jachmann, Henning [Zentrum fuer Sonnenenergie und Wasserstoff-Forschung Baden-Wuerttemberg (ZSW), Stuttgart (Germany); Wille-Haussmann, Bernhard [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE, Freiburg (Germany). Elektrische Verteilnetze und Betriebsmittel; Reeg, Matthias [Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany). Fachbereich Systemanalyse und Technikbewertung

    2015-09-15

    After a long period of stability, the electricity industry is in the past 15 years in a major state of flux. With the liberalization the change of area monopolies to competitively organized producer and consumer markets was pending. At present a very similar upheaval takes place, which is characterized by the transition from conventional to renewable power generation. But are the paradigms of each phase compatible and has plenty of still their right to exist, or is a modification necessary? The electricity market design of the future cannot designed on a blank sheet, but it must be taken into account existing structures. At the same time, the question must be answered whether the choice between regulatory or market-based approaches also differs with the possibility of precision of control. [German] Nach einer langen Phase der Stabilitaet ist die Stromwirtschaft in den vergangenen 15 Jahren stark in Bewegung geraten. Mit der Liberalisierung stand zunaechst der Wechsel von Gebietsmonopolen hin zu wettbewerblich organisierten Erzeuger- und Verbrauchermaerkten an. Derzeit findet ein ganz aehnlicher Umbruch statt, der vom Uebergang von konventioneller hin zu erneuerbarer Stromerzeugung gekennzeichnet ist. Aber sind die Paradigmen der einzelnen Phasen miteinander vereinbar und hat jede fuer sich noch immer ihre Daseinsberechtigung, oder ist hier eine Modifizierung notwendig? Das Strommarktdesign der Zukunft kann nicht auf einem leeren Blatt entworfen, sondern es muessen bestehende Strukturen beruecksichtigt werden. Gleichzeitig ist die Frage zu beantworten, ob die Wahl zwischen regulatorischen oder marktbasierten Ansaetzen sich auch anhand der mit ihnen moeglichen Praezision der Steuerung unterscheidet.

  20. No energy transition without a change of paradigm for electric grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ober, Thomas; Meunier, Stephane

    2015-01-01

    The authors first indicate the three main levels of the French electric grid operation (a national transmission grid, regional distribution grids, and distribution to the final user) with their radial or tree-like structure. They briefly analyse the characteristics and impact of the integration of renewable energies: low power installations, wind and solar farms, strengths (close to consumption locations, reduction of grid losses, free primary energy) and raised problems (sizing of distribution networks, intermittency, and influence on conventional production planning). They discuss the implementation of new tools and devices such as the smart meter which can transmit various technical data, or a local steering of distribution networks. Renewable energies could then become a regulating element when they have been considered until now as a disturbing element. The authors finally evoke solutions aimed at reducing the use of peak means: a smoothed consumption, and the use of other production sources

  1. Recovery - Strategy to Accelerate U.S. Transition to Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard; LoGrasso, Joseph; Monterosso, Sandra

    2014-04-30

    The objective of this project was to develop Extended Range Electric Vehicle (EREV) advanced propulsion technology and demonstrate a fleet of 146 Volt EREVs to gather data on vehicle performance and infrastructure to understand the impacts on commercialization while also creating or retaining a significant number of jobs in the United States. This objective was achieved by developing and demonstrating EREVs in real world conditions with customers in several diverse locations across the United States and installing, demonstration and testing charging infrastructure while also continuing development on second generation EREV technology. The project completed the development of the Chevrolet Volt and placed the vehicle in the hands of consumers in diverse locations across the United States. This demonstration leveraged the unique telematics platform of OnStar, standard on all Chevrolet Volts, to capture the operating experience that lead to better understanding of customer usage. The project team included utility partners that installed, demonstrated and tested charging infrastructure located in home, workplace and public locations to understand installation issues, customer usage and interaction with the electric grid. Development and demonstration of advanced technologies such as smart charging, fast charging and battery to grid interface were completed. The recipient collected, analyzed and reported the data generated by the demonstration. The recipient also continued to advance the technology of the Chevrolet Volt technology by developing energy storage system enhancements for the next-generation vehicle. Information gathered from the first generation vehicle will be utilized to refine the technology to reduce cost and mass while also increasing energy storage capacity to enhance adoption of the second generation technology into the marketplace. The launch of the first generation Chevrolet Volt will provide additional opportunities to further enhance the RESS

  2. Role of Defects and Adsorbed Water Film in Influencing the Electrical, Optical and Catalytic Properties of Transition Metal Oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) constitute a large group of materials that exhibit a wide range of optical, electrical, electrochemical, dielectric and catalytic properties, and thus making them highly regarded as promising materials for a variety of applications in next generation electronic, optoelectronic, catalytic, photonic, energy storage and energy conversion devices. Some of the unique properties of TMOs are their strong electron-electron correlations that exists between the valence electrons of narrow d- or f-shells and their ability to exist in variety of oxidation states. This gives TMOs an enormous range of fascinating electronic and other physical properties. Many of these remarkable properties of TMOs arises from the complex surface charge transfer processes at the oxide surface/electrochemical redox species interface and non-stoichiometry due to the presence of lattice vacancies that may cause significant perturbation to the electronic structure of the material. Stoichiometry, oxidation state of the metal center and lattice vacancy defects all play important roles in affecting the physical properties, electronic structures, device behavior and other functional properties of TMOs. However, the underlying relationships between them is not clearly known. For instance, the exchange of electrons between adsorbates and defects can lead to the passivation of existing defect states or formation of new defects, both of which affect defect equilibria, and consequently, functional properties. In depth understanding of the role of lattice defects on the electrical, catalytic and optical properties of TMOs is central to further expansion of the technological applications of TMO based devices. The focus of this work is to elucidate the interactions of vacancy defects with various electrochemical adsorbates in TMOs. The ability to directly probe the interactions of vacancy defects with gas and liquid phase species under in-operando conditions is highly desirable to

  3. Electrical Conductivity, Relaxation and the Glass Transition: A New Look at a Familiar Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel, Paul W.; Cooper, Alfred R.; DeGuire, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Annealed samples from a single melt of a 10 mol% K2O-90SiO2 glass were reheated to temperatures ranging from 450 to 800 C, held isothermally for 20 min, and then quenched in either air or a silicon oil bath. The complex impedance of both the annealed and quenched samples was measured as a function of temperature from 120 to 250 C using ac impedance spectroscopy from 1 Hz to 1 MHz. The dc conductivity, sigma(sub dc), was measured from the low frequency intercept of depressed semicircle fits to the complex impedance data. When the sigma(sub dc) at 150 C was plotted against soak temperature, the results fell into three separate regions that are explained in terms of the glass structural relaxation time, tau(sub S). This sigma(sub dc) plot provides a new way to look the glass transition range, Delta T(sub r). In addition, sigma(sub dc) was measured for different soak times at 550 C, from which an average relaxation time of 7.3 min was calculated. It was found that the size and position of the Delta T(sub r) is controlled by both the soak time and cooling rate.

  4. Localized electric field induced transition and miniaturization of two-phase flow patterns inside microchannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Abhinav; Tiwari, Vijeet; Kumar, Vineet; Mandal, Tapas Kumar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar

    2014-10-01

    Strategic application of external electrostatic field on a pressure-driven two-phase flow inside a microchannel can transform the stratified or slug flow patterns into droplets. The localized electrohydrodynamic stress at the interface of the immiscible liquids can engender a liquid-dielectrophoretic deformation, which disrupts the balance of the viscous, capillary, and inertial forces of a pressure-driven flow to engender such flow morphologies. Interestingly, the size, shape, and frequency of the droplets can be tuned by varying the field intensity, location of the electric field, surface properties of the channel or fluids, viscosity ratio of the fluids, and the flow ratio of the phases. Higher field intensity with lower interfacial tension is found to facilitate the oil droplet formation with a higher throughput inside the hydrophilic microchannels. The method is successful in breaking down the regular pressure-driven flow patterns even when the fluid inlets are exchanged in the microchannel. The simulations identify the conditions to develop interesting flow morphologies, such as (i) an array of miniaturized spherical or hemispherical or elongated oil drops in continuous water phase, (ii) "oil-in-water" microemulsion with varying size and shape of oil droplets. The results reported can be of significance in improving the efficiency of multiphase microreactors where the flow patterns composed of droplets are preferred because of the availability of higher interfacial area for reactions or heat and mass exchange. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  6. Effects of configurational changes on electrical resistivity during glass-liquid transition of two bulk metal-alloy glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aji, D. P. B.; Johari, G. P., E-mail: joharig@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2014-12-14

    Consequences of increase in structural fluctuations on heating Pd{sub 40}Ni{sub 10}Cu{sub 30}P{sub 20} and Zr{sub 46.75}Ti{sub 8.25}Cu{sub 7.5}Ni{sub 10}Be{sub 27.5} through their glass to liquid transition range were investigated by measuring the electrical resistivity, ρ, an electron scattering property. The temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR = (1/ρ) dρ/dT) of the liquid and glassy states is negative. The plots of their ρ against T in the T{sub g} (glass to liquid transition) range show a gradual change in the slope similar to the change observed generally for the plots of the density, elastic modulus, and refractive index. As fluctuations in the melt structure involve fewer configurations on cooling, ρ increases. In the energy landscape description, the melt's structure explores fewer minima with decrease in T, vibrational frequencies increase, and electron scattering and ρ increase. Plots of (−dρ/dT) against T resemble the plot of the specific heat of other glasses and show a sub-T{sub g} feature and a rapid rise at T near T{sub g}. Analysis shows that the magnitude of negative TCR is dominated by change in the phonon characteristics, and configurational fluctuations make it more negative. The TCR of the liquid and glassy states seems qualitatively consistent with the variation in the structure factor in Ziman's model for pure liquid metals as extended by Nagel to metal alloys and used to explain the negative TCR of a two-component metal glass.

  7. Transition metal modified bulk BiFeO{sub 3} with improved magnetization and linear magneto-electric coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas, E-mail: pvsri123@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (Puerto Rico); Kumar, A.; Panwar, N.; Panwar, I.C.; Katiyar, R.S. [Department of Physics and Institute for Functional Nanomaterials, University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00936 (Puerto Rico)

    2011-08-11

    Highlights: > Present composition (Bi{sub 0.9}Sm{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (BSFCO) have shown very high magnetization compared to parent BFO. > The magnetic hysteresis loops are well saturated with high saturation magnetization 2.89 emu/gm (unpoled and unleached) and 2.18 emu/gm (poled and unleached) respectively. > Converse ME coupling were found 0.8e-10 s m{sup -1} (H||E) and 0.6-0.8 x 10{sup -10} s m{sup -1} (H-perpendicular E) which are better than the single phase multiferroic obeying linear ME coupling. - Abstract: At present BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) is the most attractive and sole example, which possesses low magnetization value, high leakage current and low polarization in ceramic form. Single-phase room temperature multiferroics are rare in nature. This paper deals with the improved magnetic and observed linear magneto-electric coupling in Co and Sm co-doped BiFeO{sub 3} ceramics synthesized by sol-gel process at low temperature {approx}600 deg. C. As synthesized Bi{sub 0.9}Sm{sub 0.10}Fe{sub 0.95}Co{sub 0.05}O{sub 3} (BSFCO) showed high impurities phases (20%) over wide range of calcination temperatures. Impurity phases reduced drastically from 20% to 5% after leaching with nitric acid. However the electrical and the magnetic properties were almost the same for both phases. Well-defined magnetic hysteresis with high magnetic moment was found at room temperature. Ferroelectric polarization studies demonstrated similar values and shape as reported in literature for the pure bulk BFO. Linear magneto-electric (ME) coupling and weak ME coefficient ({alpha}) {approx} 0.6 e-10 s m{sup -1} were observed in the co-doped BFO. The origin of the strong ferromagnetic property in our samples may be due to the presence of rare earth and transition metal ions at the lattice sites of BFO or due to impurity phase, since we have not seen any change in magnetization with reduction of impurity phase the later effect is more unlikely.

  8. Transition metal modified bulk BiFeO3 with improved magnetization and linear magneto-electric coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puli, Venkata Sreenivas; Kumar, A.; Panwar, N.; Panwar, I.C.; Katiyar, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Present composition (Bi 0.9 Sm 0.10 Fe 0.95 Co 0.05 O 3 (BSFCO) have shown very high magnetization compared to parent BFO. → The magnetic hysteresis loops are well saturated with high saturation magnetization 2.89 emu/gm (unpoled and unleached) and 2.18 emu/gm (poled and unleached) respectively. → Converse ME coupling were found 0.8e-10 s m -1 (H||E) and 0.6-0.8 x 10 -10 s m -1 (H-perpendicular E) which are better than the single phase multiferroic obeying linear ME coupling. - Abstract: At present BiFeO 3 (BFO) is the most attractive and sole example, which possesses low magnetization value, high leakage current and low polarization in ceramic form. Single-phase room temperature multiferroics are rare in nature. This paper deals with the improved magnetic and observed linear magneto-electric coupling in Co and Sm co-doped BiFeO 3 ceramics synthesized by sol-gel process at low temperature ∼600 deg. C. As synthesized Bi 0.9 Sm 0.10 Fe 0.95 Co 0.05 O 3 (BSFCO) showed high impurities phases (20%) over wide range of calcination temperatures. Impurity phases reduced drastically from 20% to 5% after leaching with nitric acid. However the electrical and the magnetic properties were almost the same for both phases. Well-defined magnetic hysteresis with high magnetic moment was found at room temperature. Ferroelectric polarization studies demonstrated similar values and shape as reported in literature for the pure bulk BFO. Linear magneto-electric (ME) coupling and weak ME coefficient (α) ∼ 0.6 e-10 s m -1 were observed in the co-doped BFO. The origin of the strong ferromagnetic property in our samples may be due to the presence of rare earth and transition metal ions at the lattice sites of BFO or due to impurity phase, since we have not seen any change in magnetization with reduction of impurity phase the later effect is more unlikely.

  9. Enhancement of superconducting transition temperature in FeSe electric-double-layer transistor with multivalent ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakawa, Tomoki; Shiogai, Junichi; Shimizu, Sunao; Matsumoto, Michio; Ito, Yukihiro; Harada, Takayuki; Fujiwara, Kohei; Nojima, Tsutomu; Itoh, Yoshimitsu; Aida, Takuzo; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Tsukazaki, Atsushi

    2018-03-01

    We report on an enhancement of the superconducting transition temperature (Tc) of the FeSe-based electric-double-layer transistor (FeSe-EDLT) by applying the multivalent oligomeric ionic liquids (ILs). The IL composed of dimeric cation (divalent IL) enables a large amount of charge accumulation on the surface of the FeSe ultrathin film, resulting in inducing electron-rich conduction even in a rather thick 10 nm FeSe channel. The onset Tc in FeSe-EDLT with the divalent IL is enhanced to be approaching about 50 K at the thin limit, which is about 7 K higher than that in EDLT with conventional monovalent ILs. The enhancement of Tc is a pronounced effect of the application of the divalent IL, in addition to the large capacitance, supposing preferable interface formation of ILs driven by geometric and/or Coulombic effect. The present finding strongly indicates that multivalent ILs are powerful tools for controlling and improving physical properties of materials.

  10. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak Kumar; Kumar, K. Uday; Subrahmanyam, A.

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl˜1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path) and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons) in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known `metal-insulator transition' (MIT) which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC); this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann's expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  11. Electric Dipole Transition Moments and Solvent-Dependent Interactions of Fluorescent Boron-Nitrogen Substituted Indole Derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif, Mari; Widom, Julia R; Xu, Senmiao; Abbey, Eric R; Liu, Shih-Yuan; Marcus, Andrew H

    2015-06-25

    Fluorescent analogues of the indole side chain of tryptophan can be useful spectroscopic probes of protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. Here we present linear dichroism and solvent-dependent spectroscopic studies of two fluorescent analogues of indole, in which the organic C═C unit is substituted with the isosteric inorganic B-N unit. We studied the so-called "external" BN indole, which has C2v symmetry, and the "fused" BN indole with Cs symmetry. We performed a combination of absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet linear dichroism (UV-LD) in stretched poly(ethylene) (PE) films, and quantum chemical calculations on both BN indole compounds. Our measurements allowed us to characterize the degree of alignment for both molecules in stretched PE films. We thus determined the orientations and magnitudes of the two lowest energy electric dipole transition moments (EDTMs) for external BN indole, and the two lowest energy EDTMs for fused BN indole within the 30 000-45 000 cm(-1) spectral range. We compared our experimental results to those of quantum chemical calculations using standard density functional theory (DFT). Our theoretical predictions for the low-energy EDTMs are in good agreement with our experimental data. The absorption and fluorescence spectra of the external and the fused BN indoles are sensitive to solvent polarity. Our results indicate that the fused BN indole experiences much greater solvation interactions with polar solvents than does the external BN indole.

  12. Relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of electric dipole n=2−n=3 transitions for medium-charge Li-like ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Banglin, E-mail: banglindeng@yahoo.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, Sichuan (China); Jiang, Gang [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065, Sichuan (China); Zhang, Chuanyu [Department of Applied Physics, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, Sichuan (China)

    2014-09-15

    In this work, the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock and relativistic configuration-interaction methods have been used to calculate the transition wavelengths, electric dipole transition probabilities, line strengths, and absorption oscillator strengths for the 2s–3p, 2p–3s, and 2p–3d transitions in Li-like ions with nuclear charge Z=7–30. Our calculated values are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. We took the contributions from Breit interaction, finite nuclear mass corrections, and quantum electrodynamics corrections to the initial and final levels into account, and also found that the contributions from Breit interaction, self-energy, and vacuum polarization grow fast with increasing nuclear charge for a fixed configuration. The ratio of the velocity to length form of the transition rate (A{sub v}/A{sub l}) was used to estimate the accuracy of our calculations.

  13. One step beyond the electric dipole approximation: An experiment to observe the 5p → 6p forbidden transition in atomic rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponciano-Ojeda, F.; Hernández-Gómez, S.; Mojica-Casique, C.; Ruiz-Martínez, E.; López-Hernández, O.; Colín-Rodríguez, R.; Ramírez-Martínez, F.; Flores-Mijangos, J.; Sahagún, D.; Jáuregui, R.; Jiménez-Mier, J.

    2018-01-01

    An advanced undergraduate experiment to study the 5 P 3 / 2 → 6 P 3 / 2 electric quadrupole transition in rubidium atoms is presented. The experiment uses two external cavity diode lasers, one operating at the D2 rubidium resonance line and the other built with commercial parts to emit at 911 nm. The lasers produce the 5 s → 5 p → 6 p excitation sequence in which the second step is the forbidden transition. Production of atoms in the 6 P 3 / 2 state is observed by detection of the 420 nm fluorescence that results from electric dipole decay into the ground state. Lines whose widths are significantly narrower than the Doppler width are used to study the hyperfine structure of the 6 P 3 / 2 state in rubidium. The spectra illustrate characteristics unique to electric dipole forbidden transitions, like the electric quadrupole selection rules; they are also used to show general aspects of two-color laser spectroscopy such as velocity selection and hyperfine pumping.

  14. Reaching a 1.5°C target: socio-technical challenges for a rapid transition to low-carbon electricity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, Nick; Darby, Sarah J; Grünewald, Philipp; McKenna, Eoghan; Ford, Rebecca

    2018-05-13

    A 1.5°C global average target implies that we should no longer focus on merely incremental emissions reductions from the electricity system, but rather on fundamentally re-envisaging a system that, sooner rather than later, becomes carbon free. Many low-carbon technologies are surpassing mainstream predictions for both uptake and cost reduction. Their deployment is beginning to be disruptive within established systems. 'Smart technologies' are being developed to address emerging challenges of system integration, but their rates of future deployment remain uncertain. We argue that transition towards a system that can fully displace carbon generation sources will require expanding the focus of our efforts beyond technical solutions. Recognizing that change has social and technical dimensions, and that these interact strongly, we set out a socio-technical review that covers electricity infrastructure, citizens, business models and governance. It describes some of the socio-technical challenges that need to be addressed for the successful transition of the existing electricity systems. We conclude that a socio-technical understanding of electricity system transitions offers new and better insights into the potential and challenges for rapid decarbonization.This article is part of the theme issue 'The Paris Agreement: understanding the physical and social challenges for a warming world of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  15. What contribution of the electric-powered vehicle to the ecological transition in France? Environmental issues and integration perspectives of mobility and energy ecosystems. The electric-powered vehicle in the ecological transition in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheron, Marie; Gilbert-d'Halluin, Abrial; Schuller, Aurelien; Bailleul, Esther; Beretta, Joseph; Castelli, Marie; Bouteille, Adrien; Marie, Francois; Crohas, Jean-Baptiste; Lacout, Beatrice; Siret, Clemence; Limousin, Lorelei; Mignon, Herve; Colombo, Emanuele; Pasquier, Maxime; Osset, Philippe; Beaudard, Cecile; Bauchot, Dephine; Cluzel, Celine; Payet, Jerome; Teulon, Helene

    2017-12-01

    A large deployment of plug-in vehicles in France can contribute to reduce the climate impact of cars while reaching the ambitions of the French energy transition law. According to this technical report, launched by the ECF and Fondation pour l'Homme et la Nature, vehicle to grid and Second life batteries can accelerate the deployment of renewable energy sources (RES) and ensure better grid stability. The project was conducted over 18 months with the input from the French's automotive sector, battery suppliers, transmission system operators and environmental NGOs, and was underpinned by energy modeling by Carbon 4. The project team built a balanced evidence base on the contribution of EVs towards transport decarbonization and to RES integration in France by 2030. The project also identified the key levers to reduce the remaining impacts on the environment via life cycle analysis on five indicators (Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Abiotic Depletion, Eutrophication Potential, Photochemical Ozone Creation Potential). The analysis shows today, the Global Warming Potential (GWP) of a small Battery Electric Vehicle (e.g. Zoe - 22 kWh) is 70% less than the GWP of a small gasoline car. The GWP of a large BEV is 57% less than the GWP of large diesel car. In 2030, the gap between Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles (BEV) is reduced due to the mild-hybridization of ICE vehicles but BEVs still have less life cycle emissions. Recycling is an important element to reduce life-cycle impacts of large BEVs and should be incentivized. On average, a 30% increase of the battery recycling mass rate leads to a 14% decrease of the overall EV's GWP. BEVs contribute to renewable energies integration. In case the infrastructure is in place, the use of vehicle-to-grid services can ensure grid stabilization, in particular during peak demand. The technical V2G potential for an average Winter day of 1.3 million vehicles (30

  16. Description of strong M1 transitions between 4^+ states at N=52 within the sdg-IBM-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casperson, R. J.; Werner, V.; Heinze, S.

    2009-10-01

    The interplay between collective and single-particle degrees of freedom for nuclei near the N=50 shell closure have recently been under investigation. In Molybdenum and Ruthenium nuclei, collective symmetric and mixed-symmetric structures have been identified, while in Zirconium, underlying shell-structure plays an enhanced role. The one-phonon 2^+ mixed-symmetry state was identified from its strong M1 transition to the 2^+1 state. Similar transitions were observed between 4^+ states in ^94Mo and ^92Zr, and shell model calculations indicate that hexadecapole excitations play a role. These phenomena will be investigated within the sdg-Interacting Boson Model-2 in order to gain a better understanding about the structure of the states involved, and to which extent the hexadecapole degree of freedom is important at relatively low energies. First calculations within this model, using an F-spin conserving Hamiltonian to disentangle symmetric and mixed- symmetric structures, will be presented and compared to data.

  17. Reduction of ion thermal diffusivity associated with the transition of the radial electric field in neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the large helical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K; Funaba, H; Kado, S; Narihara, K; Tanaka, K; Takeiri, Y; Nakamura, Y; Ohyabu, N; Yamazaki, K; Yokoyama, M; Murakami, S; Ashikawa, N; deVries, P C; Emoto, M; Goto, M; Idei, H; Ikeda, K; Inagaki, S; Inoue, N; Isobe, M; Itoh, K; Kaneko, O; Kawahata, K; Khlopenkov, K; Komori, A; Kubo, S; Kumazawa, R; Liang, Y; Masuzaki, S; Minami, T; Miyazawa, J; Morisaki, T; Morita, S; Mutoh, T; Muto, S; Nagayama, Y; Nakanishi, H; Nishimura, K; Noda, N; Notake, T; Kobuchi, T; Ohdachi, S; Ohkubo, K; Oka, Y; Osakabe, M; Ozaki, T; Pavlichenko, R O; Peterson, B J; Sagara, A; Saito, K; Sakakibara, S; Sakamoto, R; Sanuki, H; Sasao, H; Sasao, M; Sato, K; Sato, M; Seki, T; Shimozuma, T; Shoji, M; Suzuki, H; Sudo, S; Tamura, N; Toi, K; Tokuzawa, T; Torii, Y; Tsumori, K; Yamamoto, T; Yamada, H; Yamada, I; Yamaguchi, S; Yamamoto, S; Yoshimura, Y; Watanabe, K Y; Watari, T; Hamada, Y; Motojima, O; Fujiwara, M

    2001-06-04

    Recent large helical device experiments revealed that the transition from ion root to electron root occurred for the first time in neutral-beam-heated discharges, where no nonthermal electrons exist. The measured values of the radial electric field were found to be in qualitative agreement with those estimated by neoclassical theory. A clear reduction of ion thermal diffusivity was observed after the mode transition from ion root to electron root as predicted by neoclassical theory when the neoclassical ion loss is more dominant than the anomalous ion loss.

  18. Preparing Canada`s power systems for transition to the Year 2000: Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies: second quarter 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-08-25

    The report describes the state of readiness of Canadian electric utility companies with respect to the Year 2000 computer challenge. It complements the North American Electric Reliability Council Report entitled `Preparing the Electric Power Systems of North America for Transition to the Year 2000: A Status and Work Plan.` Two surveys were employed to gather information for this report. The first, a detailed survey prepared by NERC, was forwarded to all major electric utilities that comprise the Bulk Electricity System in North America. CEA has removed the Canadian findings from the overall North American results, and has presented those findings in this report. The second was a shorter, more simplified study, conducted by CEA and Natural Resources Canada. Whereas small companies involved only in the distribution aspect of the electricity business were not asked to complete the NERC assessment, all Canadian electric utility companies were part of the shorter survey. Chapter 2 covers specifically the readiness status and project management for non-nuclear generation, nuclear generation, energy management systems, telecommunications systems, substation controls, system protection and distribution systems, business information systems, and small distribution companies.

  19. The Ownership Structure Dilemma and its Implications on the Transition from Small-Scale to Large-Scale Electric Road Systems

    OpenAIRE

    BEDNARCIK ABDULHADI, EMMA; VITEZ, MARINA

    2016-01-01

    This master thesis is written on behalf of KTH Royal Institute of Technology and the Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI). The study investigates how infrastructure ownership could affect the transition from small-scale to large-scale electric road systems (ERS) and how infrastructure ownership affects the foreseen future roles of the ERS stakeholders. The authors have used a qualitative research method, including a literature study within the areas of infrastructure t...

  20. Electrical properties and Raman studies of phase transitions in ferroelectric [N(CH3)4]2CoCl2Br2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mohamed, C.; Karoui, K.; Bulou, A.; Ben Rhaiem, A.

    2018-03-01

    The present paper accounted for the synthesis, electric properties and vibrational spectroscopy of [N(CH3)4]2CoCl2Br2. The dielectric spectra were measured in the frequency range 10-1-105 Hz and temperature interval from 223 to 393 K. The dielectical properties confirm the ferroelectric-paraelectric phase transition at 290 K, which is reported by Abdallah Ben Rhaiem et al. (2013). The equivalent circuit based on the Z-View-software was proposed and the conduction mechanisms were determined. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) in phase I and non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model (NSPT) in phases II and III. Raman spectra as function temperature have been used to characterize the phase transitions and their nature, which indicates a change of the some peak near the transitions phase.

  1. A temperature-dependent structural investigation of electrical transitions in A 3conb2o9 perovskites (A=Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ting, V.; Liu, Y.; Withers, R.L.

    2006-01-01

    Upon heating, the 1:2 triple perovskites A 3 CoNb 2 O 9 (A=Ca, Sr or Ba) each undergo well-defined insulator to conductor phase transitions at ∼8, ∼126 and ∼325 deg. C, respectively. As the trend in the transition temperatures for these materials does not correlate with the size of the reported band gaps, neutron powder diffraction has been used to investigate if this change in electrical behaviour of the materials was due to a structural phase change. It was found that in the regions of the suspected phase transitions there were only slight perturbations of the structures, namely thermal expansion of the lattices and an apparent muting of the amplitude of the octahedral rotations in the A=Ca and Sr compound at higher temperatures

  2. Role of radial electric field in LH transition triggered by counter-NBI at low plasma density in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukachinsky, A.S.; Askinazi, L.G.; Chernyshev, F.V. and others; Krupnik, L.I.; Rushkevich, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Threshold power needed to attain H-mode in a tokamak is a critical parameter for designing of future devices and in particular fusion reactor ITER [1]. According to commonly accepted scaling [2] the threshold power P t hr increases with average density n e when the density exceeds some n em in at which P t hr is minimal. An increase in the P t hr towards low density was observed in many experiments [3-6], prevents the transition at lower n e as well. Physics of the threshold power increase at low ne is not well understood. Since the radial electric field E r and E r xB sheared flow play important roles in the LH transition one could expect these quantities effect the low n-bar e transitions. Toroidal rotation and radial electric field generation during counter-NBI have been studied in [7] and recently reconsidered theoretically in [8]. Thus, motivation for the presented study is to analyze effect of counter-NBI on the LH transition at low density

  3. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000 : Y2K readiness assessment results for Canadian electric utility companies : first quarter 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The effort made by Canadian electric utilities to minimize any power disruptions during the year 2000 (Y2K) transition is discussed and the state of readiness of the electric power industry with respect to the Y2K computer challenge is outlined. Canadian utilities started addressing Y2K issues several years ago, and today, reports show that every major electric utility in Canada is either on, or ahead of schedule to meet the industry established milestones for Y2K readiness. This report includes the assessment of all of Canada's large electric utilities, plus about 95 per cent of Canada's small distribution utilities. On average, the bulk electric utilities in Canada expect to be Y2K ready by mid-June 1999. This means that equipment and systems will operate properly for all dates including Y2K, or that there will be an operating strategy in place to mitigate the effects of any improper operations of equipment or systems. In terms of overall preparations for Y2K, Canada is ahead of the North American averages. Bulk electric utilities for non-nuclear generation are now 100 per cent complete in the inventory phase, 99 per cent complete in the assessment phase, and 91 per cent complete in the remediation/testing phase. For nuclear generation, completion rates are the same except for the remediation/testing phase which is 97 per cent complete. 1 tab., 21 figs

  4. Electric-field-induced phase transitions in co-doped Pb(Zr1−xTixO3 at the morphotropic phase boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Franzbach

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The strain- and polarization-electric field behavior was characterized at room temperature for Pb0.98Ba0.01(Zr1−xTix0.98Nb0.02O3, 0.40 ≤ x ≤ 0.60. The investigated compositions were located in the vicinity of the morphotropic phase boundary, giving insight into the influence of crystal structure on the hysteretic ferroelectric behavior. The remanent strain of particular compositions is shown to be larger than theoretically allowed by ferroelectric switching alone, indicating the presence of additional remanent strain mechanisms. A phenomenological free energy analysis was used to simulate the effect of an applied electric field on the initial equilibrium phase. It is shown that electric-field-induced phase transitions in polycrystalline ferroelectrics can account for the experimental observations. The experimental and simulation results are contrasted to neutron diffraction measurements performed on representative compositions in the virgin and remanent states.

  5. Electric-dipole allowed and intercombination transitions among the 3d5, 3d44s and 3d44p levels of Fe IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, Narayan C.; Hibbert, Alan

    2010-01-01

    Oscillator strengths and transition rates for the electric-dipole (E1) allowed and intercombination transitions among 3d 5 , 3d 4 4s and 3d 4 4p levels of Fe IV are calculated using the CIV3 code of Hibbert and coworkers. Using the Hartree-Fock functions up to 3d orbitals we have also optimized 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p and 5d orbitals of which 4s and 4p are taken to be spectroscopic and the remaining orbitals represent corrections to the spectroscopic orbitals or the correlation effects. The J-dependent levels of 108 LS states are included in the calculation and the relativistic effects are accounted for via the Breit-Pauli operator. Configurations are chosen in two steps: (a) two promotions were allowed from the 3p, 3d, 4s and 4p subshells, using all the orbitals; and (b) selective promotions from the 3s subshell are included, but only to the 3s and 4s orbitals. The ab initio fine-structure levels are then fine tuned to reproduce observed energy levels as closely as possible, and the resulting wavefunctions are used to calculate oscillator strengths and transition rates for all possible E1 transitions. For many of these transitions, the present results show good agreement between the length and velocity forms while for some transitions, some large disagreements are found with other available results. The complete list of weighted oscillator strengths, transition rates, and line strengths for transitions among the fine structure levels of the three lowest configurations are presented in ascending order of wavelength.

  6. Composition-induced structural, electrical, and magnetic phase transitions in AX-type mixed-valence cobalt oxynitride epitaxial thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Jumpei; Oka, Daichi; Hirose, Yasushi; Yang, Chang; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya; Nakao, Shoichiro; Harayama, Isao; Sekiba, Daiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of mid- to late-transition metal oxynitrides is generally difficult by conventional thermal ammonolysis because of thermal instability. In this letter, we synthesized epitaxial thin films of AX-type phase-pure cobalt oxynitrides (CoO x N y ) by using nitrogen-plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition and investigated their structural, electrical, and magnetic properties. The CoO x N y thin films with 0 ≤ y/(x + y) ≤ 0.63 grown on MgO (100) substrates showed a structural phase transition from rock salt (RS) to zinc blend at the nitrogen content y/(x + y) ∼ 0.5. As the nitrogen content increased, the room-temperature electrical resistivity of the CoO x N y thin films monotonically decreased from the order of 10 5  Ω cm to 10 −4  Ω cm. Furthermore, we observed an insulator-to-metal transition at y/(x + y) ∼ 0.34 in the RS-CoO x N y phase, which has not yet been reported in Co 2+ /Co 3+ mixed-valence cobalt oxides with octahedral coordination. The low resistivity in the RS-CoO x N y phase, on the 10 −3  Ω cm order, may have originated from the intermediate spin state of Co 3+ stabilized by the lowered crystal field symmetry of the CoO 6−n N n octahedra (n = 1, 2,…5). Magnetization measurements suggested that a magnetic phase transition occurred in the RS-CoO x N y films during the insulator-to-metal transition. These results demonstrate that low-temperature epitaxial growth is a promising approach for exploring novel electronic functionalities in oxynitrides

  7. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  8. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-Static Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Burton, Evan; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud

    2015-11-11

    This study evaluates the costs and benefits associated with the use of a plug-in hybrid electric bus and determines the cost effectiveness relative to a conventional bus and a hybrid electric bus. A sensitivity sweep analysis was performed over a number of a different battery sizes, charging powers, and charging stations. The net present value was calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for the design evaluation. In all cases, given present day economic assumptions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present value while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario reached lower lifetime costs than the hybrid electric bus. The study also performed parameter sensitivity analysis under low market potential assumptions and high market potential assumptions. The net present value of plug-in hybrid electric bus is close to that of conventional bus.

  9. An analysis of long-term scenarios for the transition to renewable energy in the Korean electricity sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Nyun-Bae; Yun, Sun-Jin; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the energy, environmental and economic influences of three electricity scenarios in Korea by 2050 using the “Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning system” (LEAP) model. The reference year was 2008. Scenarios include the baseline (BL), new governmental policy (GP) and sustainable society (SS) scenarios. The growth rate of electricity demand in the GP scenario was higher than that of the BL scenario while the growth rate in the SS scenario was lower than that of the BL scenario. Greenhouse gas emissions from electricity generation in 2050 in the BL and GP scenarios were similar with current emissions. However, emissions in 2050 in the SS scenario were about 80% lower than emissions in 2008, because of the expansion of renewable electricity in spite of the phase-out of nuclear energy. While nuclear and coal-fired power plants accounted for most of the electricity generated in the BL and GP scenarios in 2050, the SS scenario projected that renewable energy would generate the most electricity in 2050. It was found that the discounted cumulative costs from 2009 to 2050 in the SS scenario would be 20 and 10% higher than that of the BL and GP scenarios, respectively. - Highlights: ► This paper analyzed three kinds of electricity scenarios in Korea by 2050 using LEAP model. Baseline and governmental policy scenarios focus on the electricity supply through nuclear expansion. ► Sustainable Society scenario focuses on demand management and renewable electricity. ► The latter improves energy security and reduces more GHG with the affordable cost.

  10. The storage of electric energy: an unavoidable dimension of energy transition. Opinion of the Economic, Social and Environmental Council

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obadia, Alain

    2015-01-01

    After a brief synthesis, the opinion of the Council is stated. It presents the main objectives of the storage of electric energy, its main physical-chemical principles and the available technologies (gravity, compressed air energy storage, electrochemical, thermal, electric, and inertial storage), and the three main techniques: pumped-storage hydroelectricity, batteries, hydrogen. Global assessment and recommendations are discussed, notably in terms of economic and financial consequences, but also in terms of technological choices, research and development, local development, industrial cooperation, and legal framework. Appendices notably present in detail the different technologies, the operation of the electric grid in France and Europe, and some experiments

  11. Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: bsovacool@nus.edu.sg; Hirsh, Richard F. [History and Science and Technology Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (United States)], E-mail: richard@vt.edu

    2009-03-15

    This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition. The article disputes the idea that the only important barriers facing the greater use of PHEVs and V2G systems are technical. Instead, it provides a broader assessment situating such 'technical' barriers alongside more subtle impediments relating to social and cultural values, business practices, and political interests. The history of other energy transitions, and more specifically the history of renewable energy technologies, implies that these 'socio-technical' obstacles may be just as important to any V2G transition-and perhaps even more difficult to overcome. Analogously, the article illuminates the policy implications of such barriers, emphasizing what policymakers need to achieve a transition to a V2G and PHEV world.

  12. Beyond batteries. An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K. [Energy Governance Program, Centre on Asia and Globalisation, Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Hirsh, Richard F. [History and Science and Technology Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg (United States)

    2009-03-15

    This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition. The article disputes the idea that the only important barriers facing the greater use of PHEVs and V2G systems are technical. Instead, it provides a broader assessment situating such 'technical' barriers alongside more subtle impediments relating to social and cultural values, business practices, and political interests. The history of other energy transitions, and more specifically the history of renewable energy technologies, implies that these 'socio-technical' obstacles may be just as important to any V2G transition - and perhaps even more difficult to overcome. Analogously, the article illuminates the policy implications of such barriers, emphasizing what policymakers need to achieve a transition to a V2G and PHEV world. (author)

  13. Beyond batteries: An examination of the benefits and barriers to plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and a vehicle-to-grid (V2G) transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sovacool, Benjamin K.; Hirsh, Richard F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores both the promise and the possible pitfalls of the plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and vehicle-to-grid (V2G) concept, focusing first on its definition and then on its technical state-of-the-art. More originally, the paper assesses significant, though often overlooked, social barriers to the wider use of PHEVs (a likely precursor to V2G) and implementation of a V2G transition. The article disputes the idea that the only important barriers facing the greater use of PHEVs and V2G systems are technical. Instead, it provides a broader assessment situating such 'technical' barriers alongside more subtle impediments relating to social and cultural values, business practices, and political interests. The history of other energy transitions, and more specifically the history of renewable energy technologies, implies that these 'socio-technical' obstacles may be just as important to any V2G transition-and perhaps even more difficult to overcome. Analogously, the article illuminates the policy implications of such barriers, emphasizing what policymakers need to achieve a transition to a V2G and PHEV world

  14. The role of electric field shear stabilization of turbulence in the H-mode to VH-mode transition in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Rettig, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    VH-mode plasma exhibit energy confinement times up to 2.4 times the DIII-D/JET H-mode scaling relation and up to 3.9 times the value given by ITER89-P L-mode scaling. If this confinement improvement can be exploited in reactor plasmas, smaller prototype reactors with significantly lower unit cost can be produced. Accordingly, understanding and optimizing the confinement improvement is of significant interest. One of the possible explanations for this bulk confinement improvement is stabilization of turbulence by shear in the radial electric field, similar to the present explanation for the confinement improvement at the extreme plasma edge at the L to H transition. Preliminary measurements have shown that the region of the plasma where the electric field gradient is steepest broadens when the plasma goes from H-mode to VH-mode. More recent measurements have confirmed this broadening and have shown that the change in the electric field gradient occurs prior to the change in the thermal transport. In addition, transport analysis shows that the electric field shear increases in the same region between magnetic flux coordinate p=0.6 and 0.9 where the local thermal transport decreases. Furthermore, far infra-red (FIR) scattering measurements have detected density fluctuations in the region around p=0.8 which could be responsible for enhanced transport and which disappear at the time that the electric shear increases. These fluctuations appear as bursts of density fluctuations in the 0.5 to 1.5 MHz range. The time between bursts increases as the electric field shear increases. Once these bursts disappear, the major change in confinement takes place in most discharges. When isolated bursts occur, the heat and angular momentum pulse connected with the burst are detectable on the plasma profile diagnostics. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs

  15. First-principles calculations on strain and electric field induced band modulation and phase transition of bilayer WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiang; Yu, Ke

    2018-04-01

    A purposeful modulation of physical properties of material via change external conditions has long captured people's interest and can provide many opportunities to improve the specific performance of electronic devices. In this work, a comprehensive first-principles survey was performed to elucidate that the bandgap and electronic properties of WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure exhibited unusual response to exterior strain and electric field in comparison with pristine structures. It demonstrates that the WSe2sbnd MoS2 is a typical type-II heterostructure, and thus the electron-hole pairs can be effectively spatially separated. The external effects can trigger the electronic phase transition from semiconducting to metallic state, which originates from the internal electric evolution induced energy-level shift. Interestingly, the applied strain shows no direction-depended character for the modulation of bandgap of WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure, while it exists in the electric field tuning processes and strongly depends on the direction of the electric field. Our findings elucidate the tunable electronic property of bilayer WSe2sbnd MoS2 heterostructure, and would provide a valuable reference to design the electronic nanodevices.

  16. Laser spectroscopy of the 5P3/2 → 6Pj (j = 1/2 and 3/2) electric dipole forbidden transitions in atomic rubidium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponciano-Ojeda, F.; Hernández-Gómez, S.; Mojica-Casique, C.; Hoyos, L. M.; Flores-Mijangos, J.; Ramírez-Martínez, F.; Sahagún, D.; Jáuregui, R.; Jiménez-Mier, J.

    2018-04-01

    Doppler-free optical double-resonance spectroscopy is used to study the 5S1/2 → 5P3/2 → 6Pj (j = 3/2,1/2) excitation sequence in room-temperature rubidium atoms. This involves a 5S1/2 → 5P3/2 electric dipole preparation step followed by the 5P3/2 → 6Pj electric quadrupole excitation. The electric dipole forbidden transitions occur at 911.0 nm (j = 3/2) and 917.5 nm (j = 1/2). Production of atoms in the 6Pj states is detected by observing their direct decay to the ground state through emission of blue photons (λ ≈ 420 nm). A detailed experimental and theoretical study of the dependence on the relative linear polarizations of excitation beams is made. It is shown that specific electric quadrupole selection rules over magnetic quantum numbers are directly related to the relative orientation of the linear polarization of the excitation beams.

  17. Is This the Only Hope for Reversing Global Warming? Transitioning Each Country's All-Purpose Energy to 100% Electricity Powered by Wind, Water, and Solar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2016-12-01

    Global warming, air pollution, and energy insecurity are three of the most significant problems facing the world today. Can these problems be solved with existing technologies implemented on a large scale or do we need to wait for a miracle technology? This talk discusses the development of technical and economic plans to convert the energy infrastructure of each of 139 countries of the world to those powered by 100% wind, water, and sunlight (WWS) for all purposes using existing technology along with efficiency measures. All purposes includes electricity, transportation, heating/cooling, industry, and agriculture/forestry/fishing. The roadmaps propose using existing WWS generator technologies along with existing electrical transportation, heating/cooling, and industrial devices and appliances, plus existing electricity storage technologies, (CSP with storage, pumped hydroelectric storage, and existing hydroelectric power) and existing heat/cold storage technologies (water, ice, and rocks) for the transitions. They envision 80% conversion to WWS by 2030 and 100% by 2050. WWS not only replaces business-as-usual (BAU) power, but also reduces 2050 BAU demand due to the higher work to energy ratio of WWS electricity over combustion, the elimination of energy for mining, transporting, and processing fuels, and improvements in end-use efficiency beyond BAU. The study examines job creation versus loss, land use requirements, air pollution mortality and morbidity cost differences, and global warming cost differences due to the conversion in each country. Results suggest that implementing these roadmaps will stabilize energy prices because fuel costs are zero; reduce international conflict by creating energy-independent countries; reduce energy poverty; reduce power disruption by decentralizing power; and avoid exploding CO2 levels. Thus, the study concludes that a 100% WWS transition provides at least one solution to global warming Please see http

  18. Electric and magnetic dipole transitions from broad s-wave neutron resonance in even-even sd-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitazawa, H.; Igashira, M.; Shimizu, M.; Muto, K.; Oda, T.; Achiha, Y.; Lee, Y.; Mukai, N.

    1992-01-01

    Observations have been performed for electromagnetic transitions from the broad s-wave neutron resonances at 658 keV in 24 Mg, at 180 keV in 28 Si, and at 103 keV in 32 S. Capture gamma rays were measured with an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) detector, using a neutron time-of-flight technique. E1 and M1 transitions from those resonances to low-lying states with a strong single-particle character were found. The deduced partial radiative widths for E1 transition are in excellent agreement with the Lane-Mughabghab valence-capture model calculations taking the neutron effective charge, -Ze/A. Moreover, it is shown that essential features of the observed E1 and M1 transitions can be well explained by assuming a configuration-mixing wave function, Ψ i (1/2 + )=a(0 + direct-product 1/2 + )+b(1 + direct-product 1/2 + )+c(1 + direct-product 3/2 + ), for each resonance. The M1 transition strengths are compared also with more detailed shell model calculations in the model space of full (sd) n configurations, using the Wildenthal effective interaction

  19. Preparing tomorrow's grid: RTE at the service of regions to support energy transition. Regional electric assessments - Stakes and key data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-06-01

    This document gathers a first one which presents the regional electric assessments and 21 regional reports. The presentation document briefly outlines the interdependency of regions, the diversity of regional situation in terms of electricity production and consumption, needs and ways to develop energy saving in order to reduce sensitivity to temperature, the evolution, objectives and contrasted results of the development of renewable energies, the investments and projects by RTE to develop and improve the grid. Regional reports propose maps and graphs and a synthesis of the evolution of electricity consumption, of the evolution of electricity consumption by industries, of the evolution of peak consumptions, of the evolution of consumption coverage by regional production, of the origin of electricity production (renewable thermal, photovoltaic, thermal fossil, hydraulic, nuclear), of the evolution of the various productions (renewable, hydraulic, thermal fossil, nuclear), of the evolution of the share of renewable energies, of the development of photovoltaic and wind installed power. They also present projects and investments, and propose maps of France indicating the level of consumption, the evolution of consumption between 2006 and 2013, the production/consumption rate of the different French regions and the energy exchanges between regions

  20. Second and third harmonic generation associated to infrared transitions in a Morse quantum well under applied electric and magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, R. L.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Morales, A. L.; Duque, C. A.

    2017-09-01

    The effects of electric and magnetic fields on the second and third harmonic generation coefficients in a Morse potential quantum well are theoretically studied. The energy levels and corresponding wave functions are obtained by solving the Schrödinger equation for the electron in the parabolic band scheme and effective mass approximations and the envelope function approach. The results show that both the electric and the magnetic fields have significant influence on the magnitudes and resonant peak energy positions of the second and third harmonic generation responses. In general, the Morse potential profile becomes wider and shallower as γ -parameter increases and so the energies of the bound states will be functions of this parameter. Therefore, we can conclude that the effects of the electric and magnetic fields can be used to tune and control the optical properties of interest in the range of the infrared electromagnetic spectrum.

  1. Electric quadrupole transitions for some isotopes of Xenon; considering rigidity for γ = 30{sup ∘} collective parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobhani, Hadi, E-mail: hadisobhani8637@gmail.com; Hassanabadi, Hassan

    2017-01-15

    In this article, Davydov–Chaban Hamiltonian is investigated in presence of Davidson potential. Using analytical approach, wave function corresponding of considered system has been derived. Then energy spectra and B(E2) transition rate have been calculated numerically in detail as well. The results are compared with experimental data for three isotope of Xenon.

  2. Proceedings: 1996 EPRI conference on innovative approaches to electricity pricing: Managing the transition to market-based pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents the proceedings from the EPRI conference on innovative approaches to electricity pricing. Topics discussed include: power transmission pricing; retail pricing; price risk management; new pricing paradigms; changes from cost-based to a market-based pricing scheme; ancillary services; retail market strategies; profitability; unbundling; and value added services. This is the leading abstract. Papers are processed separately for the databases

  3. Composition-induced structural, electrical, and magnetic phase transitions in AX-type mixed-valence cobalt oxynitride epitaxial thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Jumpei; Oka, Daichi [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Hirose, Yasushi, E-mail: hirose@chem.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Yang, Chang; Fukumura, Tomoteru; Hasegawa, Tetsuya [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Nakao, Shoichiro [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), 3-2-1 Sakado, Takatsu, Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Harayama, Isao; Sekiba, Daiichiro [University of Tsukuba Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC), 1-1-1 Tennoudai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2015-12-07

    Synthesis of mid- to late-transition metal oxynitrides is generally difficult by conventional thermal ammonolysis because of thermal instability. In this letter, we synthesized epitaxial thin films of AX-type phase-pure cobalt oxynitrides (CoO{sub x}N{sub y}) by using nitrogen-plasma-assisted pulsed laser deposition and investigated their structural, electrical, and magnetic properties. The CoO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with 0 ≤ y/(x + y) ≤ 0.63 grown on MgO (100) substrates showed a structural phase transition from rock salt (RS) to zinc blend at the nitrogen content y/(x + y) ∼ 0.5. As the nitrogen content increased, the room-temperature electrical resistivity of the CoO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films monotonically decreased from the order of 10{sup 5} Ω cm to 10{sup −4} Ω cm. Furthermore, we observed an insulator-to-metal transition at y/(x + y) ∼ 0.34 in the RS-CoO{sub x}N{sub y} phase, which has not yet been reported in Co{sup 2+}/Co{sup 3+} mixed-valence cobalt oxides with octahedral coordination. The low resistivity in the RS-CoO{sub x}N{sub y} phase, on the 10{sup −3} Ω cm order, may have originated from the intermediate spin state of Co{sup 3+} stabilized by the lowered crystal field symmetry of the CoO{sub 6−n}N{sub n} octahedra (n = 1, 2,…5). Magnetization measurements suggested that a magnetic phase transition occurred in the RS-CoO{sub x}N{sub y} films during the insulator-to-metal transition. These results demonstrate that low-temperature epitaxial growth is a promising approach for exploring novel electronic functionalities in oxynitrides.

  4. Electric field-induced phase transitions in Li-modified Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} at the polymorphic phase boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iamsasri, Thanakorn; Jones, Jacob L., E-mail: jacobjones@ncsu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Tutuncu, Goknur [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Uthaisar, Chunmanus; Pojprapai, Soodkhet [School of Ceramic Engineering, Institute of Engineering, Suranaree University of Technology, Nakorn Ratchasima 30000 (Thailand); Wongsaenmai, Supattra [Program in Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Maejo University, Chiang Mai 50290 (Thailand)

    2015-01-14

    The electric field-induced phase transitions in Li-modified Na{sub 0.5}K{sub 0.5}NbO{sub 3} at the polymorphic phase boundary (PPB) were observed using in situ X-ray diffraction. The ratio of monoclinic to tetragonal phase fraction was used as an indicator of the extent and reversibility of the phase transitions. The reversibility of the phase transition was greater in compositions further from the PPB. These results demonstrate that the field-induced phase transition is one of the origins of high piezoelectric properties in lead-free ferroelectric materials.

  5. The Kubo-Greenwood spin-dependent electrical conductivity of 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides and group-IV materials: A Green's function study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoi, Bui Dinh; Yarmohammadi, Mohsen

    2018-04-01

    The spin-dependent electrical conductivity of counterparts of graphene, transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) and group-IV nanosheets, have investigated by a magnetic exchange field (MEF)-induction to gain the electronic transport properties of charge carriers. We have implemented a k.p Hamiltonian model through the Kubo-Greenwood formalism in order to address the dynamical behavior of correlated Dirac fermions. Tuning the MEF enables one to control the effective mass of carriers in group-IV and TMDs, differently. We have found the Dirac-like points in a new quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state at strong MEFs for both structures. For both cases, a broad peak in electrical conductivity originated from the scattering rate and entropy is observed. Spin degeneracy at some critical MEFs is another remarkable point. We have found that in the limit of zero or uniform MEFs with respect to the spin-orbit interaction, the large resulting electrical conductivity depends on the spin sub-bands in group-IV and MLDs. Featuring spin-dependent electronic transport properties, one can provide a new scenario for future possible applications.

  6. A system dynamics analysis of the Nordic electricity market: The transition from fossil fuelled toward a renewable supply within a liberalized electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogstad, Klaus-Ole

    2005-07-01

    A system dynamic model to analyze long-term versus short-term implications of various energy policies within the context of the Nordic electricity market has been developed. The model itself provides a theory of the development of the Nordic electricity market in response to various energy policies, both in the long and the short term. The model includes generation scheduling, demand, price formation, investment decisions, resource availability and to some extent technology progress as endogenous. Thus, explanations of the model behaviour can be found from within the model. As examples of use, the model/modelling concept addresses two important questions on the energy policy agenda. First the marginal C02-emission controversy has been study, whether building gas power in Norway increase or reduce Nordic C02-emissions. The results were that in the short run, some emission reductions can be obtained due to substitution of existing coal units by operations of the market, but this effect was found to be modest. Existing gas power is also substituted, plus some bio. In the long run, there are also some investment substitutions of renewables. These effects do not appear to be significant in the short run, but in the long run, the investment rate of renewables is reduced as a consequence of reduced prices from gas. The reduced investments in renewables results in increased emissions. Some increase in demand is also to be expected from adding gas power, due to price-elasticity of demand. The net result is that gas power is likely to increase C02-emissions, which contradicts the current belief as well as results from other electricity market models that omit the long-term mechanisms such as investment decisions and technology progress. The second study analyzed the current Swedish TGC market at the time of the introduction. The purpose was to assist market design. It was found that the current Swedish TGC market design is likely to crash, due to the slow adjustment of the

  7. A system dynamics analysis of the Nordic electricity market: The transition from fossil fuelled toward a renewable supply within a liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogstad, Klaus-Ole

    2005-01-01

    A system dynamic model to analyze long-term versus short-term implications of various energy policies within the context of the Nordic electricity market has been developed. The model itself provides a theory of the development of the Nordic electricity market in response to various energy policies, both in the long and the short term. The model includes generation scheduling, demand, price formation, investment decisions, resource availability and to some extent technology progress as endogenous. Thus, explanations of the model behaviour can be found from within the model. As examples of use, the model/modelling concept addresses two important questions on the energy policy agenda. First the marginal C02-emission controversy has been study, whether building gas power in Norway increase or reduce Nordic C02-emissions. The results were that in the short run, some emission reductions can be obtained due to substitution of existing coal units by operations of the market, but this effect was found to be modest. Existing gas power is also substituted, plus some bio. In the long run, there are also some investment substitutions of renewables. These effects do not appear to be significant in the short run, but in the long run, the investment rate of renewables is reduced as a consequence of reduced prices from gas. The reduced investments in renewables results in increased emissions. Some increase in demand is also to be expected from adding gas power, due to price-elasticity of demand. The net result is that gas power is likely to increase C02-emissions, which contradicts the current belief as well as results from other electricity market models that omit the long-term mechanisms such as investment decisions and technology progress. The second study analyzed the current Swedish TGC market at the time of the introduction. The purpose was to assist market design. It was found that the current Swedish TGC market design is likely to crash, due to the slow adjustment of the

  8. Energy resource management under the influence of the weekend transition considering an intensive use of electric vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sousa, T.; Morais, Hugo; Pinto, T.

    2015-01-01

    Energy resource scheduling is becoming increasingly important, as the use of distributed resources is intensified and of massive electric vehicle is envisaged. The present paper proposes a methodology for day-ahead energy resource scheduling for smart grids considering the intensive use of distri......Energy resource scheduling is becoming increasingly important, as the use of distributed resources is intensified and of massive electric vehicle is envisaged. The present paper proposes a methodology for day-ahead energy resource scheduling for smart grids considering the intensive use...... of distributed generation and Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G). This method considers that the energy resources are managed by a Virtual Power Player (VPP) which established contracts with their owners. It takes into account these contracts, the users' requirements subjected to the VPP, and several discharge price steps...

  9. Current challenges of Germany’s energy transition project and competing strategies of challengers and incumbents: The case of direct marketing of electricity from renewable energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wassermann, Sandra; Reeg, Matthias; Nienhaus, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Electricity generated by renewable energies (RES-E) already accounts for 25% of Germany’s electricity supply. This has led to recent discussions for a better market integration of RES-E. The paper examines how competing actors and their ideas on market integration developed new services for direct marketing according to their respective origins and tried to shape the regulatory framework. The paper analyses this process and explains the current shape of the field of direct marketing. Medium-sized structured actors, who favoured RES-E integration via the conventional wholesale power markets, and who formed early close coalitions with RES-E power producers at the same time, have been most successful in terms of market shares. Moreover, they have been very successful for different reasons in building-up coalitions with governance units and influencing the field rules and routines. Based on those findings, the paper will conclude with some policy advices for the future adjustment of the current regulative frameworks. As long as there is no evidence of how RES-E can be integrated most effectively and efficiently, policies should maintain a competition between different direct marketing strategies to find out which strategies serve the best in terms of achieving a successful energy transition. - Highlights: • Innovation sociological analysis of the market integration of electricity from renewables in the German electricity markets. • Direct marketing of RES-E seen as a new strategic action field in the German “Energiewende”. • Strategies of incumbent and challenger actors to shape the rules of the field. • Suggestions for the future design of policy instruments for direct marketing of RES-E

  10. Deliberation of the commission of electricity regulation relative to the definition of the modalities of allocation, for the year 2002, of the transfrontier transit capacities between France and Italy; Deliberation de la Commission de Regulation de l'Electricite relative a la definition des modalites d'attribution pour l'annee 2002 des capacites de transit transfrontalier entre la France et l'Italie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This regulatory text from the French commission of electricity regulation (CRE) defines the annual and secondary allocation of electricity transit capacity between France and Italy. Transit capacity allocations are jointly implemented by the French and Italian public network management authorities (RTE and GRTN, respectively). (J.S.)

  11. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar Kaushik; K. Uday Kumar; A. Subrahmanyam

    2017-01-01

    Tin doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes) in low temperatures (25-300 K). The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl∼1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l ...

  12. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurin, Andrey V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-09-15

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  13. Analysis of changes in the fuel component of the cost of electricity in the transition to a closed fuel cycle in nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurin, Andrey V.; Alekseev, P.N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of scenarios of transition to a closed fuel cycle in the system of nuclear power, built basing on resource availability requirements at the stage of full life-cycle reactors. Conventionally, there are three main scenarios for the development of nuclear energy: with VVER reactors operating in an open fuel cycle; with VVER reactors operating in a closed fuel cycle; and co-operating VVER and BN, operating in a closed fuel cycle. For the considered scenarios, a quantitative estimation of change in time of material balances were performed, including spent fuel balance, balance of plutonium, reprocessed and depleted uranium, radioactive waste, and the analysis of the fuel component of the cost of electricity.

  14. Domain configuration changes under electric field-induced antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase transitions in NaNbO3-based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hanzheng; Randall, Clive A.; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Mizuno, Youichi

    2015-01-01

    We recently developed a feasible crystal chemistry strategy to stabilize the antiferroelectricity in NaNbO 3 through a chemical substitution to decrease the tolerance factor and increase the average electronegativity of the system [Shimizu et al., Dalton Trans. 44, 10763 (2015) and Guo et al., J. Appl. Phys. 117, 214103 (2015)]. Two novel lead-free antiferroelectric (AFE) solid solutions, (1-x)NaNbO 3 -xCaZrO 3 and (1-x)NaNbO 3 -xSrZrO 3 , have been found to exhibit the double polarization hysteresis typical of a reversible AFE ↔ ferroelectric (FE) phase transition. In this study, as demonstrated by (1-x)NaNbO 3 -xCaZrO 3 system, the influence of chemical modification and electrical poling on the AFE/FE phase stability was investigated, primarily focusing on the microstructural and crystallographic evolutions. Together with the macroscopic polarization hysteresis measurements, a well-demonstrated structure-property relationship was presented. It was found that the CaZrO 3 substitution into NaNbO 3 can effectively destabilize the FE Q phase and correspondingly lead to a spontaneous reverting to AFE P phase. In contrast to the reversible AFE ↔ FE phase transition, the domain morphology evolution exhibits irreversible nature with a growing process of the orientational domains after applying electric field. Moreover, a multiple-zone axes electron diffraction map of P and Q phases has been summarized and is believed to be an efficient diagram to determine the AFE/FE nature of the NaNbO 3 -based systems

  15. Modelling the transition from cost-based to bid-based pricing in a deregulated electricity-market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Druce, Donald J. [BC Hydro, 6911 Southpoint Drive, Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    2007-12-15

    Alberta is a province in western Canada with a deregulated electricity-market. Market clearing prices for most hours reflect the cost of either coal-fired or gas-fired thermal generation. Whenever there is a chronic shortage of generation or even a temporary one due to an outage, prices can be bid much higher than fuel costs would suggest. The province of British Columbia borders Alberta to the west and its electric utility, BC Hydro, has a history of trade with the utilities in Alberta. BC Hydro has predominantly hydroelectric resources and large storage reservoirs. Prior to Alberta's deregulation in 1996, BC Hydro was able to enter into mutually beneficial load-factoring contracts with the Alberta utilities. Now, as long as the transmission is available, BC Hydro can buy low priced off-peak coal-fired energy and sell into the high priced periods without having to share the benefits. BC Hydro uses a combination of econometric and Monte Carlo modelling to simulate hourly price-duration curves for Alberta that capture both cost-based and bid-based characteristics. This approach provides a good fit with the stochastic dynamic programming model that BC Hydro has developed for its mid-term hydro scheduling. (author)

  16. Modelling the transition from cost-based to bid-based pricing in a deregulated electricity-market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Druce, Donald J.

    2007-01-01

    Alberta is a province in western Canada with a deregulated electricity-market. Market clearing prices for most hours reflect the cost of either coal-fired or gas-fired thermal generation. Whenever there is a chronic shortage of generation or even a temporary one due to an outage, prices can be bid much higher than fuel costs would suggest. The province of British Columbia borders Alberta to the west and its electric utility, BC Hydro, has a history of trade with the utilities in Alberta. BC Hydro has predominantly hydroelectric resources and large storage reservoirs. Prior to Alberta's deregulation in 1996, BC Hydro was able to enter into mutually beneficial load-factoring contracts with the Alberta utilities. Now, as long as the transmission is available, BC Hydro can buy low priced off-peak coal-fired energy and sell into the high priced periods without having to share the benefits. BC Hydro uses a combination of econometric and Monte Carlo modelling to simulate hourly price-duration curves for Alberta that capture both cost-based and bid-based characteristics. This approach provides a good fit with the stochastic dynamic programming model that BC Hydro has developed for its mid-term hydro scheduling

  17. Reduced electric-octupole transition probabilities, B(E3;O1+ → 31-), for even-even nuclides throughout the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spear, R.H.

    1988-11-01

    Adopted values for the excitation energy, E x( 3 1 - ), of the first 3 - state of the even-even nuclei are tabulated. Values of the reduced electric-octupole transition probability, B(E3;O 1 + → 3 1 - ), from the ground state to this state, as determined from Coulomb excitation, lifetime measurements, inelastic electron scattering, deformation parameters β 3 obtained from angular distributions of inelastically scattered nucleons and light ions, and other miscellaneous procedures are listed in separate Tables. Adopted values for B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) are presented in Table VII, together with the E3 transition strengths, in Weisskopf units, and the product E x( 3 1 - ) x B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - - ) expressed as a percentage of the energy-weighted E3 sum-rule strength. An evaluation is made of the reliability of B(E3; O 1 + → 3 1 - ) values deduced from deformation parameters β 3 . The literature has been covered to March 1988

  18. Structural and electrical phase transitions in the [(C2H5)4N]2ZnI3.86Cl0.14 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhouma, Najla Mahbouli; Rayes, Ali; Mezzadri, Francesco; Delmonte, Davide; Cabassi, Riccardo; Calestani, Gianluca; Loukil, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    The organic-inorganic hybrid non-centrosymmetric material [(C2H5)4N]2ZnI3.86Cl0.14 has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dielectric and transport measurements. In analogy with the corresponding tetraiodo-zincate analogue, the material crystallizes at room temperature in the tetragonal system, space group P 4 ̅ 21m (No. 113), with lattice parameters a = 13.743(6) and c = 14.785(10) Å. DSC and XRD characterizations pointed out the occurrence of two phases transitions, one of second order at about 290 K and the other of the first order at T = 451 K. The former is related to an electrical transition from insulating to thermally activated transport mechanism displaying clear hints of ionic conduction, the latter leads to a phase showing the typical features of plastic crystals in its powder XRD pattern. The pattern was indexed by an orthorhombic cell, a = 15.724(1), b = 17.907(1) and c = 10.585(1) Å, and a reliable model was found and refined in the Pna21 space group. The model consists of ordered tetrahedral ZnCl42- units intercalated by fully disordered tetraethylammonium cations.

  19. Thermophysical, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Selected Metal-Nonmetal Transition Materials: Comprehensive Bibliography with Typical Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    Brueckner, G., " Positron Annihilation in Vanadium(IV) Oxide and Vanadium(III) Oxide," Zentralinst. Kernforsch., Rossendorf, Dresden, ZEK-295, 93-4, 1975...Phys.-Solid State, 17(5), 851-5, 1975. A000130. Andreeff, A. and Brauer, G., " Positron Annihilation Study of the Metal- Insulator Transition in V20 3...thermal expansion at 298 K. Sample N o. a TH l Mkta1 l c phase X - 0 . 0 0 20.2 0.3 - b6 . 0.3 0.04 TI 24.4 -5.6 4-moleli Mgo 25.5 2.0 -9.5 * 2.0 16

  20. Phase Transition Behavior of LiCr0.35Mn0.65O2 under High Pressure by Electrical Conductivity Measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yan, Cui; Ting-Jing, Hu; Yong-Hao, Han; Chun-Xiao, Gao; Gang, Peng; Cai-Long, Liu; Bao-Jia, Wu; Yue, Wang; Bao, Liu; Wan-Bin, Ren; Yan, Li; Ning-Ning, Su; Guang-Tian, Zou; Fei, Du; Gang, Chen

    2010-01-01

    The electrical conductivity of powdered LiCr 0.35 Mn 0.65 O 2 is measured under high pressure up to 26.22 GPa in the temperature range 300–413 K by using a diamond anvil cell. It is found that both conductivity and activation enthalpy change discontinuously at 5.36 GPa and 21.66 GPa. In the pressure range 1.10–5.36 GPa, pressure increases the activation enthalpy and reduces the carrier scattering, which finally leads to the conductivity increase. In the pressure ranges 6.32–21.66 GPa and 22.60–26.22 GPa, the activation enthalpy decreases with pressure increasing, which has a positive contribution to electrical conductivity increase. Two pressure-induced structural phase transitions are found by in-situ x-ray diffraction under high pressure, which results in the discontinuous changes of conductivity and activation enthalpy. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  1. Electric field-induced phase transitions and composition-driven nanodomains in rhombohedral-tetragonal potassium-sodium niobate-based ceramics

    KAUST Repository

    Lv, Xiang

    2017-08-07

    The mechanisms behind the high piezoelectricity of (K,Na)NbO3-based lead-free ceramics were investigated, including electric field-induced phase transitions and composition-driven nanodomains. The construction of a rhombohedral-tetragonal (R-T) phase boundary, confirmed using several advanced techniques, allowed a large piezoelectric constant (d33) of 450 ± 5 pC/N to be obtained in (1-x)K0.4Na0.6Nb0.945Sb0.055O3-xBi0.5Na0.5(Hf1-ySny)O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.06 and 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.5) ceramics possessing an ultralow ΔUT-R of 7.4 meV. More importantly, the existence of an intermediate phase, i.e., the electric-induced phase (EIP), bridging the rhombohedral R [Ps//(111)] and tetragonal T [Ps//(001)] phases during the polarization rotation was demonstrated. Striped nanodomains (∼40 nm) that easily responded to external stimulation were also observed in the ceramics with an R-T phase. Thus, the enhanced piezoelectric properties originated from EIP and the striped nanodomains.

  2. Developmental changes in electrophysiological properties and a transition from electrical to chemical coupling between excitatory layer 4 neurons in the rat barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fliza eValiullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During development, sensory systems switch from an immature to an adult mode of function along with the emergence of the active cortical states. Here, we used patch-clamp recordings from neocortical slices in vitro to characterize the developmental changes in the basic electrophysiological properties of excitatory L4 neurons and their connectivity before and after the developmental switch, which occurs in the rat barrel cortex in vivo at postnatal day P8. Prior to the switch, L4 neurons had lower resting membrane potentials, higher input resistance, lower membrane capacity, as well as action potentials (APs with smaller amplitudes, longer durations and higher AP thresholds compared to the neurons after the switch. A sustained firing pattern also emerged around the switch. Dual patch-clamp recordings from L4 neurons revealed that recurrent connections between L4 excitatory cells do not exist before and develop rapidly across the switch. In contrast, electrical coupling between these neurons waned around the switch. We suggest that maturation of electrophysiological features, particularly acquisition of a sustained firing pattern, and a transition from the immature electrical to mature chemical synaptic coupling between excitatory L4 neurons, contributes to the developmental switch in the cortical mode of function.

  3. A novel energy transfer inducing strong enhancement of electric dipole transition in Na3Mo12PO40:xEu3+ phosphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jinqiao; Wang, Tianman; Luo, Zhirong; Gao, Yong; Song, Baoling; Liang, Jing; Liao, Sen; Huang, Yingheng; Zhang, Huaxin

    2017-08-01

    A series of Na3Mo12PO40:xEu3+ phosphors have been successfully synthesized by a solid-state method, and characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (PXRD). The PXRD results confirm that the samples have crystal phases of Na3Mo12PO40. For PL spectra of Na3Mo12PO40:2.0Eu3+ excited by 394 and 465 nm, R (R is the peak area ratio of 5D0  →  7F2 to 5D0  →  7F1) is only 1.46 with an excitation of 394 nm, but increases to 3.03 with an excitation of 465 nm. Furthermore, a new enhancement of electric dipole transition is observed. Emission spectrum (PL) intensity at 617 nm excited by 465 nm is 1.95 times as high as the excitation spectrum (PLE) intensity at 465 nm. Thus, cooperative energy transfers from the magnetic dipole (MD) Eu3+ center to the electric dipole (ED) Eu3+ center when excited by 465 nm is demonstrated for the new fluorescent behavior.

  4. Low energy gamma induced radiation damage in YBCO: electrical resistivity and the induced metal - insulator transition behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, Carlos M.; Pinnera, Ibrahin; Leyva, Antonio; Abreu, Yamiel; Sirgado, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In the present contribution the superconducting YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior on the irradiation dose and accumulative time are studied for gamma quanta of E γ = 132 keV ( 57 Co) and 1,25 MeV ( 60 Co) at room temperature. In both cases, possible radiation effects on grain boundary and intragrain zones are evaluated by means of different gamma ray microscopic interaction models. It was conclude that 57 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 132 keV) modules YBCO ρ(T) dependence behavior through enhanced oxygen vacancy diffusion motions which collapse the electron percolative conduction paths in the grain boundary zones, effects which are not observed by irradiation with 60 Co gamma quanta (E γ = 1,25 MeV), in which case main irradiation effects on the electrical conduction mechanisms are limited to the intragrain zones. (Author)

  5. Thermal switching of the electrical conductivity of Si(111)(√3x√3)Ag due to a surface phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J W; Kallehauge, J F; Hofmann, Ph

    2007-01-01

    The temperature-dependent surface conductivity of the Si(111)(√3x√3)Ag surface was measured using a microscopic four-point probe. The conductivity was found to undergo a sharp increase of about three orders of magnitude when the system was heated above about 220 K. This strong conductivity change is reversible and attributed to the phase transition which is generally believed to occur on this surface. It is also shown that, in order to find the true surface conductivity, it is necessary to separate it from the contribution of the bulk and space charge layer. In this work, this is achieved by using a finite-element model. A percolating network of Ag islands on Si(111) was also studied and a much simpler behaviour (compared to that of Si(111))(√3x√3)Ag) was found. The temperature-dependent conductivity of this system was found to display typical metallic behaviour. The absolute value of the conductivity is comparable to the value expected by modelling the Ag film as exhibiting the bulk Ag transport properties

  6. Synthesis, Thermal, Electrical and Catalytic Studies of Some Transition Metal Polychelates of Bis-bidentate Schiff Base

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BANSOD Ashish; ASWAR Anand

    2007-01-01

    Polychelates of Mn(Ⅱ),Fe(Ⅱ),Co(Ⅱ), Ni(Ⅱ),Cu(Ⅱ),Zn(Ⅱ) and Cd(Ⅱ) with the bis salen-type ligand derivedfrom 4,4'-bis[(salicylaldehyde-5)azo]biphenyl and 1,4-diaminobutane have been synthesized.All the polychelates have been characterized by elemental analysis,magnetic susceptibility measurements,IR,electronic spectra and thermogravimetric studies.All the complexes isolated in solid state are dark coloured and insoluble in water and common organic solvents.The ligand behaves as a bis-bidentate molecule coordinating through the phenolic oxygen and azomethine nitrogen atoms.The thermal decomposition of these metal complexes was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis and data have been analyzed for kinetic parameters using Broido equation.The solid-state electrical conductivity of the ligand and its polychelates in the form of compressed pellet was studied in the temperature range from 313 to 413 K.All the polychelates were found to show semiconducting nature.The Mn(Ⅱ),Fe(Ⅱ),Co(Ⅱ) and Ni(Ⅱ) polychelates have been assessed for the catalytic epoxidation of styrene.

  7. Metal-insulator transition in tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin films: Quantum correction to the electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin doped indium oxide (ITO thin films are being used extensively as transparent conductors in several applications. In the present communication, we report the electrical transport in DC magnetron sputtered ITO thin films (prepared at 300 K and subsequently annealed at 673 K in vacuum for 60 minutes in low temperatures (25-300 K. The low temperature Hall effect and resistivity measurements reveal that the ITO thin films are moderately dis-ordered (kFl∼1; kF is the Fermi wave vector and l is the electron mean free path and degenerate semiconductors. The transport of charge carriers (electrons in these disordered ITO thin films takes place via the de-localized states. The disorder effects lead to the well-known ‘metal-insulator transition’ (MIT which is observed at 110 K in these ITO thin films. The MIT in ITO thin films is explained by the quantum correction to the conductivity (QCC; this approach is based on the inclusion of quantum-mechanical interference effects in Boltzmann’s expression of the conductivity of the disordered systems. The insulating behaviour observed in ITO thin films below the MIT temperature is attributed to the combined effect of the weak localization and the electron-electron interactions.

  8. European transition to a low carbon electricity system using a mix of variable renewable energies: carbon saving trajectories as functions of production and storage capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Baptiste; Creutin, Jean-Dominique

    2016-04-01

    Today, most of the produced energy is generated from fossil energy sources (i.e. coal, petroleum). As a result, the energy sector is still the main source of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. For limiting greenhouse gas emission, a transition from fossil to renewable energy is required, increasing gradually the fraction energy coming from variable renewable energy (i.e. solar power, wind power and run-of-the river hydropower, hereafter denoted as VRE). VRE penetration, i.e. the percentage of demand satisfied by variable renewables assuming no storage capacity, is hampered by their variable and un-controllable features. Many studies show that combining different VRE over space smoothes their variability and increases their global penetration by a better match of demand fluctuations. When the demand is not fully supplied by the VRE generation, backup generation is required from stored energy (mostly from dams) or fossil sources, the latter being associated with high greenhouse gas emission. Thus the VRE penetration is a direct indicator of carbon savings and basically depends on the VRE installed capacity, its mix features, and on the installed storage capacity. In this study we analyze the European transition to a low carbon electricity system. Over a selection of representative regions we analyze carbon saving trajectories as functions of VRE production and storage capacities for different scenarios mixing one to three VRE with non-renewables. We show substantial differences between trajectories when the mix of sources is far from the local optimums, when the storage capacity evolves. We bring new elements of reflection about the effect of transport grid features from local independent systems to a European "copper plate". This work is part of the FP7 project COMPLEX (Knowledge based climate mitigation systems for a low carbon economy; Project FP7-ENV-2012 number: 308601; http://www.complex.ac.uk/).

  9. Luminescence Anisotropy and Thermal Effect of Magnetic and Electric Dipole Transitions of Cr3+ Ions in Yb:YAG Transparent Ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Fei; Ye, Honggang; Su, Zhicheng; Bao, Yitian; Guo, Wang; Xu, Shijie

    2017-12-20

    In this article, we present an in-depth optical study on luminescence spectral features and the thermal effect of the magnetic dipole (MD) transitions (e.g., the R lines of 2 E → 4 A 2 ) and the associated electric dipole transitions (e.g., phonon-induced sidebands of the R lines) of Cr 3+ ions in ytterbium-yttrium aluminum garnet polycrystalline transparent ceramic. The doubly split R lines predominately due to the doublet splitting of the 2 E level of the Cr 3+ ion in an octahedral crystal field are found to show a very large anisotropy in both emission intensity and thermal broadening. The large departure from the intensity equality between them could be interpreted in terms of large difference in coupling strength with phonons for the doubly split states of the 2 E level. For the large anisotropy in thermal broadening, very different effective Debye temperatures for the two split states may be responsible for it. Besides the 2 E excited state, the higher excited states, for example, 4 T 1 and 4 T 2 of the Cr 3+ ion, also exhibit a very large inequality in coupling strength with phonons at room temperature. By examining the Stokes phonon sidebands of the MD R lines at low temperatures with the existing ion-phonon coupling theory, we reveal that they indeed carry fundamental information of phonons. For example, their broad background primarily reflects Debye density of states of acoustic phonons. These new results significantly enrich our existing understanding on interesting but challenging luminescence mechanisms of ion-phonon coupling systems.

  10. How much electricity can we save by using direct current circuits in homes? Understanding the potential for electricity savings and assessing feasibility of a transition towards DC powered buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasgo, Brock; Azevedo, Inês Lima; Hendrickson, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • DC distribution systems are analyzed using monitored appliance and solar PV data. • DC-distributed PV energy generates savings under real-world load and solar profiles. • Savings from direct-DC are generally not cost-effective in current markets. • Non-technical hurdles remain before DC can be widely adopted in US homes. - Abstract: Advances in semiconductor-based power electronics and growing direct current loads in buildings have led researchers to reconsider whether buildings should be wired with DC circuits to reduce power conversions and facilitate a transition to efficient DC appliances. The feasibility, energy savings, and economics of such systems have been assessed and proven in data centers and commercial buildings, but the outcomes are still uncertain for the residential sector. In this work, we assess the technical and economic feasibility of DC circuits using data for 120 traditionally-wired AC homes in Austin, Texas to understand the effect of highly variable demand profiles on DC-powered residences, using appliance-level use and solar generation data, and performing a Monte Carlo simulation to quantify costs and benefits. Results show site energy savings between 9% and 20% when solar PV is distributed to all home appliances. When battery storage for excess solar energy is considered, these savings increase to 14–25%. At present DC equipment prices, converting all equipment to DC causes levelized annual costs of electricity to homeowners to roughly double. However, by converting only homes’ air conditioning condensing units to DC, the costs of direct-DC are greatly reduced and home site energy savings of 7–16% are generated. In addition to quantifying savings, we find major nontechnical barriers to implementing direct-DC in homes. These include a lack of standards for such systems, a relatively small market for DC appliances and components, utility programs designed for AC power, and a workforce unfamiliar with DC

  11. Electrical and structural properties of group-4 transition-metal nitride (TiN, ZrN, and HfN) contacts on Ge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Keisuke; Nakashima, Hiroshi, E-mail: nakasima@astec.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Noguchi, Ryutaro; Wang, Dong [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Mitsuhara, Masatoshi; Nishida, Minoru [Department of Engineering Sciences for Electronics and Materials, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Hara, Toru [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-09-21

    Electrical and structural properties were investigated for group-4 transition-metal nitride contacts on Ge (TiN/Ge, ZrN/Ge, and HfN/Ge), which were prepared by direct sputter depositions using nitride targets. These contacts could alleviate the intrinsic Fermi-level pinning (FLP) position toward the conduction band edge. It was revealed that this phenomenon is induced by an amorphous interlayer (a-IL) containing nitrogen atoms at the nitride/Ge interfaces. The strength of FLP alleviation positively depended on the thickness of a-IL. TiN/Ge and ZrN/Ge contacts with ∼2 nm-thick a-ILs showed strong FLP alleviations with hole barrier heights (Φ{sub BP}) in the range of 0.52–56 eV, and a HfN/Ge contact with an ∼1 nm-thick a-IL showed a weaker one with a Φ{sub BP} of 0.39 eV. However, TaN/Ge contact without a-IL did not show such FLP alleviation. Based on the results of depth distributions for respective elements, we discussed the formation kinetics of a-ILs at TiN/Ge and ZrN/Ge interfaces. Finally, we proposed an interfacial dipole model to explain the FLP alleviation.

  12. An investigation on the role of texture evolution and ordered phase transition in soft magnetic properties of Fe–6.5 wt%Si electrical steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, Guojun; Li, Changsheng, E-mail: lics@ral.neu.edu.cn; Cai, Ban; Wang, Qiwen

    2017-05-15

    Fe–6.5 wt%Si electrical steel characterized with excellent soft magnetic properties such as almost zero magnetostriction, low eddy current and hysteresis losses characteristics has been widely applied in high frequency fields. In this work, the role of texture evolution and ordered phase transition in soft magnetic properties of annealed sheets was explored using EBSD, XRD and TEM. The results demonstrate that accompanied with the increase of annealing temperatures, an increase on the B8 is attributable to a contribution combining the sizes of recrystallization grains with APBs of ordered phases as pinning the migration of magnetic domain wall. Whereas B50 declines to a minimum value (1.479 T) and then increases to a certain value (1.695 T) due to different types and intensities of textures affecting on the magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. Meanwhile, the dislocation density gradually decreases and corresponding to a gradual decline in the internal stress, which makes the coercive force (H{sub c}) decrease monotonically. - Highlights: • Role of texture and ordered phase in Fe–6.5 wt%Si were studied. • With increasing annealing temperatures, H{sub c} decreases monotonically. • Combining grain sizes with APBs in B8 measurements. • Increasing annealing temperatures, B50 declines and then increases due to texture.

  13. Giant magnetoimpedance and high frequency electrical detection of magnetic transition in La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25}MnO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, S K; Rebello, A; Tan, C L; Mahendiran, R [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, National University of Singapore 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore-117542 (Singapore)

    2008-01-21

    We show that high frequency electrical transport is an efficient technique for detecting the magnetic transition hidden by the scattering of charges at grain boundaries in colossal magnetoresistive oxides, even in the absence of any external magnetic field. The dc resistivity which shows only a weak anomaly at the Curie temperature in La{sub 0.75}Sr{sub 0.25} MnO{sub 3} transforms into abrupt jumps in both resistive (Z') and reactive (Z-prime) parts of the ac impedance, Z(f, T, H) = Z'(f, T, H) + jZ-prime(f, T, H) at higher frequencies (f = 0.1-5 MHz). The anomaly in Z' and Z-prime at T{sub C} decreases as much as 19% and 15%, respectively, in a dc magnetic field of H 65 mT compared with 1% dc magnetoresistance, suggesting a possible giant low-field magnetoimpedance effect which could be exploited for room temperature practical applications. We interpret our observations due to changes in the magnetic penetration depth induced by the spontaneous ordering of spins and by the applied field. (fast track communication)

  14. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2017-01-01

    The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) was one of the seven total Phase II NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) that was down-selected in 2015 for continued funding and research. In Phase I our team learned that a spacecraft propelled by an Electric Sail (E-Sail) can travel great astronomical distances, such as to the Heliopause region of the solar system (approx. 100 to 120 AU) in approximately one quarter of the time (10 years) versus the time it took the Voyager spacecraft launched in 1977 (36 years). The completed work within the Phase II NIAC funded effort builds upon the work that was done in the Phase I NIAC and is focused on: 1) Testing of plasma interaction with a charged wire in a MSFC simulated solar environment vacuum test chamber. 2) Development of a Particle-in-Cell (PIC) models that are validated in the plasma testing and used to extrapolate to the E-Sail propulsion system design. 3) Conceptual design of a Technology Demonstration Mission (TDM) spacecraft developed to showcase E-Sail propulsion systems. 4) Down selection of both: a) Materials for a multi km length conductor and, b) Best configuration of the proposed conductor deployment subsystem. This paper will document the findings to date (June, 2017) of the above focused areas.

  15. The 'energy transitions' programmes in Europe (out of France). Progress status and impact on the electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perves, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    After having outlined some opposite characteristics of the electricity market which is opened in some respects, and protected in others, and shown how the European regulation has become inappropriate, this document proposes an overview of energy transition policies in different European countries. It more precisely describes the German example with its four main steps of evolution (phasing out nuclear, definition of an energy mix to compensate this phasing out, definition of development objectives for renewable energies, and projection to 2050 with the Energy Concept), its current achievements in terms of evolution of energy mix and levels which are to be reached by 2050, and its contradictions and difficulties: costs and notably hidden costs of intermittent energies, solar and wind overproduction with bad consequences for the market, industrial setback in the solar array sector, implications in territorial organisation in relationship with energy production, social transfers, evolution of public opinion. Other European experiences are briefly presented (Spain, Italy, and Great-Britain) and the global European situation is briefly described. Some questions are raised and some recommendations are made in conclusion

  16. Electric power is not the same power. Why the energy transition can not succeed; Strom ist nicht gleich Strom. Warum die Energiewende nicht gelingen kann

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Limburg, Michael; Mueller, Fred F.

    2015-07-01

    The energy transition - the conversion of our power supply to so-called ''Renewable Energy'' - will lead to disaster, economically as well as technically. Although the concept is not technically feasible, more than 500 billion Euros were spent for this purpose already. This money our economy will miss bitterly when it is needed it to go, sweep up the future shambles. Here explain two recognized experts why. ''The book, 'electric power is not the same power' pulled himself together again on a colossal effort. It dissects technically brilliant with the tools of logic, scientific reasoning a fatal mental aberration.''- Arnold Vaatz MP. [German] Die Energiewende - die Umstellung unserer Stromversorgung auf sogenannte ''Erneuerbare Energien'' - wird in eine Katastrophe fuehren, wirtschaftlich ebenso wie technisch. Obwohl das Konzept technisch nicht machbar ist, wurden hierfuer bereits mehr als 500 Milliarden Euro ausgegeben. Dieses Geld wird unserer Volkswirtschaft bitter fehlen, wenn sie darangehen muss, den kuenftigen Scherbenhaufen zusammenzukehren. Hier erklaeren zwei ausgewiesene Fachleute, warum. ''Das Buch 'Strom ist nicht gleich Strom' rafft sich noch einmal zu einer ungeheuren Kraftanstrengung auf. Es seziert handwerklich brillant mit den Mitteln der logischen, naturwissenschaftlichen Argumentation einen fatalen geistigen Irrweg.'' - Arnold Vaatz MdB.

  17. Ab initio study of the RbSr electronic structure: Potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, and permanent electric dipole moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pototschnig, Johann V., E-mail: johann.pototschnig@tugraz.at; Krois, Günter; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E., E-mail: wolfgang.ernst@tugraz.at [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, A-8010 Graz (Austria)

    2014-12-21

    Excited states and the ground state of the diatomic molecule RbSr were calculated by post Hartree-Fock molecular orbital theory up to 22 000 cm{sup −1}. We applied a multireference configuration interaction calculation based on multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions. Both methods made use of effective core potentials and core polarization potentials. Potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, and permanent electric dipole moments were determined for RbSr and could be compared with other recent calculations. We found a good agreement with experimental spectra, which have been obtained recently by helium nanodroplet isolation spectroscopy. For the lowest two asymptotes (Rb (5s {sup 2}S) + Sr (5s4d {sup 3}P°) and Rb (5p {sup 2}P°) + Sr (5s{sup 2} {sup 1}S)), which exhibit a significant spin-orbit coupling, we included relativistic effects by two approaches, one applying the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian to the multireference configuration interaction wave functions, the other combining a spin-orbit Hamiltonian and multireference configuration interaction potential energy curves. Using the results for the relativistic potential energy curves that correspond to the Rb (5s {sup 2}S) + Sr (5s4d {sup 3}P°) asymptote, we have simulated dispersed fluorescence spectra as they were recently measured in our lab. The comparison with experimental data allows to benchmark both methods and demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling has to be included for the lowest states of RbSr.

  18. Ab initio study of the RbSr electronic structure: potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, and permanent electric dipole moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pototschnig, Johann V; Krois, Günter; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E

    2014-12-21

    Excited states and the ground state of the diatomic molecule RbSr were calculated by post Hartree-Fock molecular orbital theory up to 22 000 cm(-1). We applied a multireference configuration interaction calculation based on multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions. Both methods made use of effective core potentials and core polarization potentials. Potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, and permanent electric dipole moments were determined for RbSr and could be compared with other recent calculations. We found a good agreement with experimental spectra, which have been obtained recently by helium nanodroplet isolation spectroscopy. For the lowest two asymptotes (Rb (5s (2)S) + Sr (5s4d (3)P°) and Rb (5p (2)P°) + Sr (5s(2) (1)S)), which exhibit a significant spin-orbit coupling, we included relativistic effects by two approaches, one applying the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian to the multireference configuration interaction wave functions, the other combining a spin-orbit Hamiltonian and multireference configuration interaction potential energy curves. Using the results for the relativistic potential energy curves that correspond to the Rb (5s (2)S) + Sr (5s4d (3)P°) asymptote, we have simulated dispersed fluorescence spectra as they were recently measured in our lab. The comparison with experimental data allows to benchmark both methods and demonstrate that spin-orbit coupling has to be included for the lowest states of RbSr.

  19. The influence of the relative thermal expansion and electric permittivity on phase transitions in the perovskite-type bidimensional layered NH3(CH2)3NH3CdBr4 compound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staśkiewicz, Beata; Staśkiewicz, Anna

    2017-07-01

    Hydrothermal method has been used to synthesized the layered hybrid compound NH3(CH2)3NH3CdBr4 of perovskite architecture. Structural, dielectric and dilatometric properties of the compound have been analyzed. Negative thermal expansion (NTE) effect in the direction perpendicular to the perovskite plane as well as an unusual phase sequence have been reported based on X-ray diffraction analysis. Electric permittivity measurements evidenced the phase transitions at Tc1=326/328 K and Tc2=368/369 K. Relative linear expansion measurements almost confirmed these temperatures of phase transitions. Anomalies of electric permittivity and expansion behavior connected with the phase transitions are detected at practically the same temperatures as those observed earlier in differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR), far infrared (FIR) and Raman spectroscopy studies. Mechanism of the phase transitions is explained. Relative linear expansion study was prototype to estimate critical exponent value β for continuous phase transition at Tc1. It has been inferred that there is a strong interplay between the distortion of the inorganic network, those hydrogen bonds and the intermolecular interactions of the organic component.

  20. Studies of highly ionized atoms using internal conversion: 197Au, 57Fe; electric monopole transitions in 40Ca, 42Ca, and 44Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrickson, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    By using heavy-ion reactions, highly ionized electronic states of atoms may be produced. The interaction between excited nuclear levels and the surrounding atomic electrons via internal conversion allows the nucleus to be used as a probe of the electronic structure of the highly ionized atoms. Studies of such atoms were undertaken for strongly internally converted nuclear levels in 197 Au and 57 Fe. The nuclear levels were Coulomb excited by using 16 O and 32 S beams. Simultaneous measurement of the lifetime of the 77-keV state of 197 Au in both neutral gold atoms and gold atoms with mean charge +10 resulted in a measured change in the internal conversion coefficient of Δalpha/alpha equals - 1.7 +- 3.0)10 -3 . This result is consistent with calculations using a Hartree-Fock--Slater program. Measurements of the electric monopole strengths for 0 + → 0 + transitions were undertaken to determine the amount of core-deformation in calcium nuclei. The E0 strengths for the decays of the 0 + states at 5.21 MeV in 40 C, 1.84 MeV in 42 Ca, and 1.88 MeV in 44 Ca were observed. The branching ratios for the subsequent E0 pair decays were measured by observing the coincident annihilation radiation from the e + member of the pair in coincidence with protons feeding the state in the cases of 42 Ca and 44 Ca, and by observing the actual coincident e + --e - pair together with protons feeding the state in the case of 40 Ca. The resulting E0 strengths (rho less than or equal to 0.06, rho = 0.34 +- 0.03, rho = 0.30 +- 0.10 for 40 Ca, 42 Ca, and 44 Ca respectively) agree with theoretical descriptions

  1. Dependence of the interband transitions on the in mole fraction and the applied electric field in In xGa1-xAs/In0.52Al0.48As multiple quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.H.; Woo, J.T.; Lee, I.; Kim, T.W.; Yoo, K.H.; Kim, M.D.; Ram-Mohan, L.R.

    2005-01-01

    Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and photocurrent (PC) measurements were carried out to investigate the microstructural properties and excitonic transitions in In x Ga 1-x As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As multiple quantum wells (MQWs) for x = 0.54, 0.57 and 0.60. TEM images showed that high-quality 11-period In x Ga 1-x As/In 0.52 Al 0.48 As MQWs had high-quality heterointerfaces. The results for the PC spectra at 300 K showed that the peaks corresponding to the excitonic transitions from the ground state electronic sub-band to the ground state heavy-hole band (E 1 -HH 1 ) and the ground state electronic sub-band to the ground state light-hole band (E 1 -LH 1 ) became closer to each other with decreasing In mole fraction and that E 1 -HH 1 and E 1 -LH 1 excitonic peaks shifted to longer wavelength with increasing applied electric field. The calculated values of the E 1 -HH 1 interband transition energies were in qualitative agreement with those obtained form the PC measurements with and without applied electric field. These results can be helpful in understanding potential applications of In x Ga 1-x As/In y Al 1-y As MQWs dependent on In mole fraction and applied electric field in long-wavelength optoelectronic devices

  2. Fine Structure Intervals ‎ ‎-‎ ‎ , ‎ ‎-‎ ‎ and ‎Electric Dipole Transition Rate ‎ ‎-‎ ‎ in ‎Phosphorus Isoelectronic Sequence ‎ ‎ ‎And Phosphorus Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Yousif Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A systematic study for the calculation of the fine structure intervals -  and -   for the ground configuration 3s23p3 and the excited configuration 3s23p24s respectively, and electric dipole transition rate -  as well as transition energy form the excited configuration 3s23p24s to the ground configuration 3s23p3 in Phosphorus isoelectronic sequence by applying multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF method. The effect of Breit interaction, QED and correlation on the fine structure interval and the gauge invariance effect on the transition probability are studied. Also the fine structure intervals for the phosphorus ions from Piii to Pxv are calculated and are compared with the available experimental data and gives good consistent

  3. RoadRail: An economically viable infrastructure which facilitates the transition from oil to electricity for all forms of road transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    to convert road transport from oil to electricity. This involves the electrification of major roads so that electric cars, vans, busses, and trucks can use electricity as their primary fuel over long distance, which in this study is referred to as ‘RoadRail’. This is a new and radical alternative......In recent decades, economic renewable energy technologies have been developed for the electricity and heat sectors. Although there has been some development in the transport sector, there is still no well-establish sustainable alternatives to oil. In this study, a new alternative is proposed...... and electricity/oil costs, Denmark is presented as a case study for the installation of RoadRail. The results indicate that based on 2020 cost assumptions, RoadRail is a more socio-economic alternative than a business-as-usual using oil. This is primarily due to decreasing electric vehicle costs, decreasing...

  4. Frequency measurement of the 2S(1/2)-2D(3/2) electric quadrupole transition in a single 171Yb+ ion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Stephen; Godun, Rachel; King, Steven; Huang, Guilong; Walton, Barney; Tsatourian, Veronika; Margolis, Helen; Lea, Stephen; Gill, Patrick

    2010-03-01

    We report on precision laser spectroscopy of the 2S(1/2)(F = 0)-2D(3/2) (F = 2, m(F) = 0) clock transition in a single ion of 171Yb+. The absolute value of the transition frequency, determined using an optical frequency comb referenced to a hydrogen maser, is 688358979309310 +/- 9 Hz. This corresponds to a fractional frequency uncertainty of 1.3 x 10(-14).

  5. Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Quasi-In-Motion Wireless Power Transfer for Plug-In Hybrid Electric Transit Buses from Fleet Perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijuan; Gonder, Jeff; Brooker, Aaron; Meintz, Andrew; Konan, Arnaud; Markel, Tony

    2016-05-16

    This study evaluated the costs and benefits associated with the use of stationary-wireless-power-transfer-enabled plug-in hybrid electric buses and determined the cost effectiveness relative to conventional buses and hybrid electric buses. A factorial design was performed over a number of different battery sizes, charging power levels, and f bus stop charging stations. The net present costs were calculated for each vehicle design and provided the basis for design evaluation. In all cases, given the assumed economic conditions, the conventional bus achieved the lowest net present cost while the optimal plug-in hybrid electric bus scenario beat out the hybrid electric comparison scenario. The parameter sensitivity was also investigated under favorable and unfavorable market penetration assumptions.

  6. Tuning SPT-3G Transition-Edge-Sensor Electrical Properties with a Four-Layer Ti-Au-Ti-Au Thin-Film Stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, F. W.; Ade, P. A. R.; Ahmed, Z.; Anderson, A. J.; Austermann, J. E.; Avva, J. S.; Thakur, R. Basu; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Cecil, T.; Chang, C. L.; Cliche, J. F.; Cukierman, A.; Denison, E. V.; de Haan, T.; Ding, J.; Divan, R.; Dobbs, M. A.; Dutcher, D.; Everett, W.; Foster, A.; Gannon, R. N.; Gilbert, A.; Groh, J. C.; Halverson, N. W.; Harke-Hosemann, A. H.; Harrington, N. L.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Huang, N.; Irwin, K. D.; Jeong, O. B.; Jonas, M.; Khaire, T.; Kofman, A. M.; Korman, M.; Kubik, D.; Kuhlmann, S.; Kuo, C. L.; Kutepova, V.; Lee, A. T.; Lowitz, A. E.; Meyer, S. S.; Michalik, D.; Miller, C. S.; Montgomery, J.; Nadolski, A.; Natoli, T.; Nguyen, H.; Noble, G. I.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pan, Z.; Pearson, J.; Posada, C. M.; Rahlin, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saunders, L. J.; Sayre, J. T.; Shirley, I.; Shirokoff, E.; Smecher, G.; Sobrin, J. A.; Stan, L.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Suzuki, A.; Tang, Q. Y.; Thompson, K. L.; Tucker, C.; Vale, L. R.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Yoon, K. W.; Young, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    We have developed superconducting Ti transition-edge sensors with Au protection layers on the top and bottom for the South Pole Telescope's third-generation receiver (a cosmic microwave background polarimeter, due to be upgraded this austral summer of 2017/2018). The base Au layer (deposited on a thin Ti glue layer) isolates the Ti from any substrate effects; the top Au layer protects the Ti from oxidation during processing and subsequent use of the sensors. We control the transition temperature and normal resistance of the sensors by varying the sensor width and the relative thicknesses of the Ti and Au layers. The transition temperature is roughly six times more sensitive to the thickness of the base Au layer than to that of the top Au layer. The normal resistance is inversely proportional to sensor width for any given film configuration. For widths greater than five micrometers, the critical temperature is independent of width.

  7. Relationship between the electric power supplier and customer during Romania's transition from an over-centralized to a market economy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conecini, I.; Lung, I.

    1996-01-01

    A series of undertakings of RENEL is introduced which aim to improve the mutual relations between supplier and customer and to settle these relations on a partnership basis incurring responsibilities for both parties. Among these undertakings, one aims to improve the metering and billing system, with subsequent effects upon both electric power customer and supplier. The new relations, settled on a contract basis and made proper to the market economy make it necessary to control the electric power quality as well as the quality of the whole supply service to every customer. Within the electric power supply department, a privileged activity is the improvement of the systems for meter reading, billing and financial receipts. The document describes also the results obtained by RENEL following a market study. (author)

  8. What is 'protective space'? Exploring the politics of niche development in sustainability transitions : the case of solar electricity in the UK and the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kern, F.; Raven, R.P.J.M.; Smith, A.G.; Veraart, F.C.A.; Verhees, B.

    2011-01-01

    Transitions theory emphasizes the important role of niches as sources of sustainable innovation. A defining niche characteristic is the provision of ‘protective space’. It is surprising that the concept of ‘niche protection’ has received little systematic attention to date. Drawing upon UK and

  9. Electric dipole moment function of the X1 Sigma/+/ state of CO - Vibration-rotation matrix elements for transitions of gas laser and astrophysical interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chackerian, C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The electric dipole moment function of the ground electronic state of carbon monoxide has been determined by combining numerical solutions of the radial Schrodinger equation with absolute intensity data of vibration-rotation bands. The derived dipole moment function is used to calculate matrix elements of interest to stellar astronomy and of importance in the carbon monoxide laser.

  10. Vehicle electrical system state controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissontz, Jay E.

    2017-10-17

    A motor vehicle electrical power distribution system includes a plurality of distribution sub-systems, an electrical power storage sub-system and a plurality of switching devices for selective connection of elements of and loads on the power distribution system to the electrical power storage sub-system. A state transition initiator provides inputs to control system operation of switching devices to change the states of the power distribution system. The state transition initiator has a plurality of positions selection of which can initiate a state transition. The state transition initiator can emulate a four position rotary ignition switch. Fail safe power cutoff switches provide high voltage switching device protection.

  11. Effect of moisture on the electrical performance of transition-joints for medium voltage paper-insulated cables; Elektrische Beeintraechtigung durch Feuchtigkeit an oelgetraenkten Isolierpapieren. Mittelspannungsuebergangsmuffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardinaels, Jos [Nexans Network Solution, Erembodegem (Belgium). Produktentwicklung; Baesch, Manfred [Nexans Power Accessories Germany, Dortmund (Germany). Produkt- und Qualitaetsmanagement

    2009-06-15

    Paper-insulated cables are constructed with an impervious metallic outer jacket in order to protect them against ingress of moisture. On 'modern' transition-joints to XLPE-insulated cables, this metal barrier is interrupted, hence, a risk of moisture penetration exists. This text presents measurements of water-vapour permeability of used materials and discusses the results of ageing tests. (orig.)

  12. Size dependence of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties in corundum-type Ti2O3 nanoparticles showing insulator–metal transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Tsujimoto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Corundum-type Ti2O3 has been investigated over the last half century because it shows unusual insulator–metal (I-M transition over a broad temperature range (420–550 K. In this work, we successfully synthesized Ti2O3 nanoparticles (20, 70, 300 nm in size by the low-temperature reduction between precursors of rutile-type TiO2 and the reductant CaH2, in a non-topotactic manner. The reaction time required for obtaining the reduced phase increases with increasing the particle size. Synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction and electron microscopy studies reveal that the symmetry of all the present samples remains the same as that of bulk samples. However, the particle-size reduction results in three important features compared with bulk samples as follows, (i color shift from dark brown to bluish black, (ii anisotropic volume contraction involving the shrinkage of Ti–Ti bonds in the ab plane and along the c axis, (iii reduction of the I-M transition temperature from 420 K to 350 K. These suggest that the a1g band broadening caused by the surface strain effects, which favors narrowing of the band gap, may play a critical role in the suppression of IM transition.

  13. Elimination of bus voltage impact on temperature sensitive electrical parameter during turn-on transition for junction temperature estimation of high-power IGBT modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Iannuzzo, Francesco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    Junction temperature is of great importance to safe operating area of IGBT modules. Various information of the IGBT operating state is reflected on electrical characteristics during turn-on transient. A unified extraction method for internal junction temperature via dynamic thermo......-sensitive electrical parameters (DTSEP) during turn-on transient is proposed. Two DTSEP, turn-on delay time (tdon) and the maximum increasing rate of collector current dic/dt(max), are combined to eliminate the bus voltage impact. Using the inherent emitter-auxiliary inductor LeE in high-power modules, the temperature......-dependent DTSEPs can be converted into a low-voltage and measurable signal. Finally, experiment results are exhibited to verify the effectiveness of proposed method....

  14. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  15. The new Tenant Electricity Law. No or one contribution to the energy transition?; Das neue Mieterstromgesetz. (K)ein Beitrag zur Energiewende?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortlaender, Jenny [Kanzlei Rechtsanwaelte Guenther, Hamburg (Germany).; Zengerling, Cathrin [HafenCity Univ., Hamburg (Germany). Nachwuchsforschungsgruppe ' ' Urban Footprints' '

    2018-03-15

    With the new Tenant Electricity Act, the federal legislator is pursuing two main goals: Firstly, tenants should now benefit from solar power subsidies in addition to homeowners. On the other hand, the number of solar systems on residential buildings should increase significantly. The article explores the question of whether and to what extent the concrete structure of the Tenant Electricity Act published by the EU Commission on 24 July 2017 in the Federal Law Gazette and approved by the EU Commission in November 2017 contributes to achieving these goals. [German] Mit dem neuen Mieterstromgesetz verfolgt der Bundesgesetzgeber zwei wesentliche Ziele: Zum einen sollen neben Hauseigentuemern nun auch Mieter von der Solarstromfoerderung profitieren. Zum anderen soll die Zahl der Solaranlagen auf Wohngebaeuden deutlich steigen. Der Artikel geht der Frage nach, ob und inwieweit die konkrete Ausgestaltung des am 24. Juli 2017 im Bundesgesetzblatt veroeffentlichten und im November 2017 von der EU-Kommission beihilferechtlich genehmigten Mieterstromgesetzes dazu beitraegt, diese Ziele zu erreichen.

  16. Investigation on transition behavior and electrical properties of (K0.5Na0.51-xLixNb0.84Ta0.1Sb0.06O3 around polymorphic phase transition region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available (K0.5Na0.51-xLixNb0.84Ta0.1Sb0.06O3 (KNLNTS lead free ceramics with different Li concentration were fabricated by conventional solid-state reaction method. By increasing Li ions in KNLNTS, the grains grow up and the crystal structure changes from orthorhombic to tetragonal. When 0.03 ≤ x ≤ 0.05, the ceramics structure lays in PPT region. Polarization versus electric field (P-E hysteresis loops at room temperature show good ferroelectric properties and the remnant polarization decreases by increasing Li content while coercive electric keeps almost unchanged. In PPT region, taking x = 0.04 as an example, the sample shows excellent dielectric properties: the dielectric constant is 1159 and loss tangent is 0.04, while the piezoelectric constant d33 is 245 pC/N and kp is 0.44 at room temperature, it is promising for (K0.5Na0.51-xLixNb0.84Ta0.1Sb0.06O3 with 4 at. % Li to substitute PZT.

  17. Size dependence of structural, magnetic, and electrical properties in corundum-type Ti2O3 nanoparticles showing insulator–metal transition

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshihiro Tsujimoto; Yoshitaka Matsushita; Shan Yu; Kazunari Yamaura; Tetsuo Uchikoshi

    2015-01-01

    Corundum-type Ti2O3 has been investigated over the last half century because it shows unusual insulator–metal (I-M) transition over a broad temperature range (420–550 K). In this work, we successfully synthesized Ti2O3 nanoparticles (20, 70, 300 nm in size) by the low-temperature reduction between precursors of rutile-type TiO2 and the reductant CaH2, in a non-topotactic manner. The reaction time required for obtaining the reduced phase increases with increasing the particle size. Synchrotron...

  18. Energy transition in France and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persem, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    This document presents some key figures and comparisons between the French and German energy plans: electricity mix, 2003-2013 evolution of installed power and of renewable electrical production, cost of energy transition (evolution of charges relative to contracts of renewable electricity purchasing agreement), 2004-2013 evolution employment in renewable energies industry, France-Germany power exchanges (France import balance of 9.8 TWh in 2013), electricity goals in the French and German energy transitions

  19. Joint inversion of satellite-detected tidal and magnetospheric signals constrains electrical conductivity and water content of the upper mantle and transition zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grayver, Alexander V.; Munch, F. D.; Kuvshinov, Alexey V.

    2017-01-01

    and ocean tidal magnetic signals from the most recent Swarm and CHAMP data. The challenging task of properly accounting for the ocean effect in the data was addressed through full three-dimensional solution of Maxwell's equations. We show that simultaneous inversion of magnetospheric and tidal magnetic......We present a new global electrical conductivity model of Earth's mantle. The model was derived by using a novel methodology, which is based on inverting satellite magnetic field measurements from different sources simultaneously. Specifically, we estimated responses of magnetospheric origin...

  20. Magnetically induced electrical transport and dielectric properties of 3d transition elemental substitution at the Mn-site in Nd0.67Ba0.33MnO3 manganites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakshina, B.; Arun, B.; Chandrasekhar, K. Devi; Yang, H. D.; Vasundhara, M.

    2018-05-01

    We have investigated the temperature dependence of electrical transport and dielectric properties along with magnetoresistance and magneto dielectric behavior in Nd0.67Ba0.33Mn0.9TR0.1O3 (TR= Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu) manganites. All the compounds crystallized into an orthorhombic structure with Imma space group. Nd0.67Ba0.33MnO3 shows insulating to metallic behavior at intermediate temperatures, but, with the substitution of transitional elements it shows insulating in nature, down to lowest temperature measured for all the compounds. Dielectric measurement shows the intrinsic behavior of these lossy materials. A large value of magneto resistance is obtained for all the compounds and considerable amount of magneto-dielectric effect is shown for all the substituted compounds at lower temperatures.

  1. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, Arash; Lantz, Frederic; Percebois, Jacques

    2013-12-01

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop a optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. (authors)

  2. The Heliopause Electrostatic Rapid Transit System (HERTS) - Design, Trades, and Analyses Performed in a Two Year NASA Investigation of Electric Sail Propulsion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.; Scheider, Todd; Heaton, Andrew; Vaughn, Jason; Stone, Nobie; Wright, Ken

    2017-01-01

    Personnel from NASA's MSFC have been investigating the feasibility of an advanced propulsion system known as the Electric Sail (E-Sail) for future scientific exploration missions. This team initially won a NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) Phase I NASA Innovative Advanced Concept (NIAC) award and then a two-year follow-on Phase II NIAC award in October 2015. This paper documents the findings from this three-year investigation. An Electric sail, a propellant-less propulsion system, uses solar wind ions to rapidly travel either to deep space or the inner solar system. Scientific spacecraft could reach Pluto in 5 years, or the boundary of the solar system in ten to twelve years compared to the thirty-five plus years the Voyager spacecraft took. The team's recent focuses have been: 1) Developing a Particle in Cell (PIC) numeric engineering model from MSFC's experimental data on the interaction between simulated solar wind and a charged bare wire that can be applied to a variety of missions, 2) Determining what missions could benefit from this revolutionary propulsion system, 3) Conceptualizing spacecraft designs for various tasks: to reach the solar system's edge, to orbit the sun as Heliophysics sentinels, or to examine a multitude of asteroids.

  3. Phase transitions and electrical properties of Bi2W1−xNbxO6−y and Bi2W1−xTaxO6−y

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharitonova, E.P.; Voronkova, V.I.; Gagor, A.B.; Pietraszko, A.P.; Alekseeva, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The limit of Bi 2 W 1−x Me x O 6−y solid solutions is at x = 0.1, 0.15 for Me = Nb, Ta. •Ta and Nb substitutions for W suppress the reconstructive phase transition. •Bi 2 W 0.9 Nb 0.1 O 6−y samples belong to Aurivillius-type structure up to their melting. •Nb and Ta doping shifts ferroelectric transition to low temperatures up to 200 °C. •The highest conductivity reaches 10 −1 S/cm at 800 °C (x = 0.05, 0.1; Me = Nb, Ta). -- Abstract: Polycrystalline samples of Bi 2 W 1−x Me x O 6−y (Me = Nb, Ta) solid solutions have been prepared by solid-state reactions, and the influence of Nb and Ta substitutions for W on the polymorphism and electrical properties of Bi 2 WO 6 has been studied. The limit of the solid solutions is at x = 0.1 for Me = Nb and at x = 0.15 for Me = Ta. The distinctive features of the polymorphism of the Nb- and Ta-doped materials have been identified. According to differential scanning calorimetry data, tantalum and niobium substitutions for tungsten increase the temperature of the high-temperature, orthorhombic-to-monoclinic reconstructive phase transition and suppress the transition starting at x = 0.05 for Me = Nb and x = 0.10 for Me = Ta. As a result, the Bi 2 W 1−x Nb x O 6−y samples have an orthorhombic Aurivillius-type structure up to their melting point. The Bi 2 W 1−x Ta x O 6−y solid solutions at high temperatures consist of a mixture of an orthorhombic and a monoclinic phase. Nb and Ta doping shifts the ferroelectric phase transition to lower temperatures by more than 200 °C, thus markedly extending the stability range of the nonpolar orthorhombic paraelectric phase, which exists in a temperature range as narrow as 930–960 °C in the case of undoped Bi 2 WO 6 . The increase in oxygen vacancy concentration due to heterovalent substitutions of Nb 5+ and Ta 5+ for W 6+ leads to an increase in conductivity by two orders of magnitude relative to the unsubstituted compound

  4. Effect of gas-liquid-crystal transitions in oxygen clusters on electric and magnetic activity of localized states in In2O3-SrO ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okunev, V. D.; Szymczak, R.; Szymczak, H.; Aleshkevych, P.; Glot, A. B.; Bondarchuk, A. N.

    2015-10-01

    It has been shown that the overlap of tails of the density of states of the valence and conduction bands leads to the formation of a "negative" gap in the In2O3-SrO ceramic with disordered structure and oxygen clusters in nanovoids. Two types of magnetism are observed. One of them caused by the formation of (dangling bond + O- 2 center) complexes has been found in samples saturated with oxygen. The other is associated with the presence of dangling bonds in oxygen-depleted samples. At T conductivity of samples. The effects caused by magnetic phase transitions in clusters of crystal oxygen are manifested at T < 54.8 K. The variations of the resistance of samples in the interval T = 5-300 K correspond to Mott's law under the dependence of the local activation energy for electron hopping on the state of oxygen clusters.

  5. Electron scattering studies of selected electric and magnetic dipole and quadrupole transitions in light and heavy nuclei, the new multipole giant resonances and atomic transitions - recent results from the DALINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, A.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experimental work from the Darmstadt electron linear accelerator (DALINAC) is briefly summarized. Particular emphasis is given to the following topics: high resolution inelastic electron scattering (ΔE approximately 30 keV FWHM) has been used to study the radiative width and magnetization density of the 2 + , T = 1 state at 16.11 MeV in 12 C, E2 strength distribution in 28 Si below an excitation energy of 13 MeV and the isospin forbidden E1 electroexcitation of the 1 - , T = 0 state at 6.95 MeV in 40 Ca. High resolution inelastic electron scattering was also employed to determine certain M1 transitions in 14 N, 28 Si, 39 K, 58 Ni, 90 Zr and 208 Pb and the M2 strength distribution in the two heaviest nuclei. At medium energy resolution (ΔE approximately 200 keV FWHM) spectra at various angles and bombarding energies have been measured from (4-31) MeV for 208 Pb. They are being analyzed in order to determine E0, E1, E2, E3 and M1 giant resonance strength in the continuum. The Z and E dependence and the scaling behaviour of the atomic inner shell ionization cross section at relativistic electron impact is studied on gaseous and solid targets. (orig./BJ) [de

  6. Some peculiarities of electro-optical effect in lead magno-niobate in strong alternative electric fields in the region of washing off phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnik, N.N.; Trepakov, V.A.; Kamzina, L.S.; Sakharov, D.G.; Volik, B.A.; Pis'mennyj, V.A.; Skornyakova, K.P.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation was made of the transverse electrooptic effect in PbMgsub(1/3)Nbsub(2/3)O 3 subjected to alternating fields of 0-20 kV/cm intensity and 2.10-10 4 Hz frequency in the region of the broad ferroelectric phase tansition. The quadratic electrooptic coefficients (R 11 -R 12 ) exhibited relaxation-type maxima in the temperature dependences, whereas no such maxima were observed for the linear coefficients (r 33 -r 13 ) in the investigated temperature range: The latter coefficients rose monotonically when the temperature was lowered. It was concluded that the predominant despersion mechanism in strong fields was the inertia of the growth of ferroelectric domains and nuclei. The coefficients (M 11 -M 12 ), which were quadratic in respect of the polarization, increased with rising temperature and this was explained qualitatively by allowing for the contribution of orientation processes to the overall electric polarization and birefrigence. (author)

  7. Electricity generation analyses in an oil-exporting country: Transition to non-fossil fuel based power units in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnoosh, Arash; Lantz, Frederic; Percebois, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    In Saudi Arabia, fossil-fuel is the main source of power generation. Due to the huge economic and demographic growth, the electricity consumption in Saudi Arabia has increased and should continue to increase at a very fast rate. At the moment, more than half a million barrels of oil per day is used directly for power generation. Herein, we assess the power generation situation of the country and its future conditions through a modelling approach. For this purpose, we present the current situation by detailing the existing generation mix of electricity. Then we develop an optimization model of the power sector which aims to define the best production and investment pattern to reach the expected demand. Subsequently, we will carry out a sensitivity analysis so as to evaluate the robustness of the model's by taking into account the integration variability of the other alternative (non-fossil fuel based) resources. The results point out that the choices of investment in the power sector strongly affect the potential oil's exports of Saudi Arabia. For instance, by decarbonizing half of its generation mix, Saudi Arabia can release around 0.5 Mb/d barrels of oil equivalent per day from 2020. Moreover, total power generation cost reduction can reach up to around 28% per year from 2030 if Saudi Arabia manages to attain the most optimal generation mix structure introduced in the model (50% of power from renewables and nuclear power plants and 50% from the fossil power plants). - Highlights: • We model the current and future power generation situation of Saudi Arabia. • We take into account the integration of the other alternative resources. • We consider different scenarios of power generation structure for the country. • Optimal generation mix can release considerable amount of oil for export

  8. Electric power balance sheet 2013

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    The mission of RTE, the French electricity Transportation grid, a public service assignment, is to balance the electricity supply and demand in real time. This report presents RTE's technical results for the year 2013: stabilisation of the electricity consumption in France, high level of hydropower generation, fast evolution of the European power network, electricity markets in a transition situation, adaptation of RTE's network to the evolutions of the energy system

  9. Departure Interval Optimization of Electric Bus Rapid Transit Considering Level of Service%考虑服务水平的纯电动快速公交发车间隔优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪然; 刘文峰; 李斌; 张沫

    2017-01-01

    With the electric vehicles applied in the field of bus rapid transit,due to the special operational needs of charging or battery swap for electric vehicles,the traditional methods of departure interval optimization are no longer applicable.Considering the level of service and charging time constraints,this paper studies the departure interval optimization of electric bus rapid transit.Firstly,the service level evaluation system associated with energy consumption is established by analyzing the correlation between service level indexes and energy consumption;secondly,considering the level of service and charging time constraints,the departure interval optimization model is established by setting energy consumption as the objective function;finally,taking line 1 of Jinhua E-BRT as an example to examine the effect of the optimization model,the optimization results demonstrate that compared with the current operation plans the energy consumption is saved by 6.21% under the premise of the same level of service.Therefore,the departure interval optimization method of electric bus rapid transit considering level of service established in this paper has certain practical significance and provides an important guidance for reducing the energy consumption under a certain service level.%随着电动汽车被引入城市快速公交领域,由于其充换电等特殊的运营调度需求,在发车间隔计划等制定过程中传统方法不再适用.本文在综合考虑服务水平和车辆充电时间约束条件下,对纯电动快速公交(E-BRT)发车间隔优化进行了研究.根据分析服务水平指标项与车辆能耗的相关性,建立了面向能耗评估的服务水平评价体系;综合考虑服务水平和充电时间约束条件,以车辆运营能耗为目标函数,建立了发车间隔优化模型;基于金华市E-BRT1号线运营数据进行实例验证,结果表明,在满足相同服务水平情况下,本文提出的优化模型可以节约能耗6.21%.

  10. Transitional Justice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gissel, Line Engbo

    This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...

  11. Very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) investigation for groundwater potential evaluation in a complex geological terrain around the Ijebu-Ode transition zone, southwestern Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osinowo, Olawale O; Olayinka, A Idowu

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater exploration in either a basement or sedimentary environment is often fairly well defined and focuses on delineating weathered/fractured rocks or saturated formations, respectively. Conversely, unique geological structures, the complex coexistence of different rock types and poorly defined basal/lateral contacts between basement and sedimentary rocks make groundwater development in a geological transition environment very challenging. Ijebu-Ode and its environs lie within such a problematic transition zone, between the Precambrian basement rocks and Cretaceous sediments of the Dahomey Basin, in southwestern Nigeria, where associated acute groundwater development challenges require adequate subsurface information to maximize its groundwater resource potential. This study integrated very low frequency electromagnetic (VLF-EM) and electrical resistivity (ER) geophysical prospecting techniques for a detailed terrain study of Ijebu-Ode in order to establish the reasons for the low groundwater resource potential in the area. Thirty five VLF-EM profiles, 140 vertical electrical soundings (VES) and relevant hydrogeological data were acquired along grids and profiles. Data were filtered, inverted and enhanced using appropriate software packages. The current density and geoelectric parameters of the VLF-EM and VES data were employed to generate terrain maps, the conductivity distribution and a subsurface basement model of the study area. Current density plots and geoelectric parameters identified up to three layers in the basement complex terrain which comprised lateritic topsoil, weathered basement and fresh basement rocks. The five layers encountered in the sedimentary terrain were topsoil, a lateritic unit, a dry sandy unit, a saturated sandy unit and fresh basement rocks. The hydraulic conductivity of the thick (3–18 m) lateritic unit was determined to be 1.32 × 10 −5 mm s −1 , while that of the underlying sandy units ranged from 2.65 × 10 −4 to 1

  12. Profound Understanding of Effect of Transition Metal Dopant, Sintering Temperature, and pO2 on the Electrical and Optical Properties of Proton Conducting BaCe0.9Sm0.1O3-δ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handal, Hala T; Hassan, Azfar; Leeson, Ryan; Eloui, Sherif M; Fitzpatrick, Martin; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2016-01-19

    This study reports the effect of transition metal (TM) substitution on the electrical and optical properties of BaCe0.9Sm0.1O3-δ (BCS). Concentrations of 5-10 mol % of each of Fe and Co have been doped for the B-site of BCS by citric acid autocombustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction has revealed the formation of an orthorhombic perovskite-type structure. FTIR confirmed a distortion in the lattice upon TM-doping in BCS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of 1400 °C sintered samples have manifested a higher densification in BaCe0.8Sm0.1Co0.1O3-δ (BCSC10) with a grain size ∼11 μm compared to the parent compound BCS (∼2 μm). Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis showed a water uptake in case of BaCe0.85Sm0.1Co0.05O3-δ (BCSC5), while BaCe0.85Sm0.1Fe0.05O3-δ (BCSF5) did not show a noteworthy uptake of water. TG has also proved that the incorporation of Fe and Co in BCS did not improve the chemical stability in CO2 at elevated temperature. The band gap estimated using Kubelka-Munk model based on the diffuse reflectance data was found to be the lowest for BCSC5 (2.47 eV). However, it increases upon lowering oxygen partial pressure (pO2), which was interpreted by a band structure modifications. Among the samples investigated, BCSC10 sintered at 1400 °C showed the highest electrical conductivity of 0.02 S cm(-1) in air at 600 °C, while its proton mobility appears to be negligible under the investigated humidity atmosphere.

  13. Hydrogen: the great debate. 'Power to Gas - how to cope with the challenge of electricity storage?; Hydrogen in energy transition: which challenges to be faced?; Hydrogen, essential today, indispensable tomorrow; Electrolytic hydrogen, a solution for energy transition?; Development of high power electrolysis systems: need and approach; Hydrogen as energy vector, Potential and stakes: a perspective; The Toyota Fuel Cell System: a new era for the automotive industry; Three key factors: production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance; Hydrogen, benevolent fairy or tempting demon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauet, Jean-Pierre; Boucly, Philippe; Beeker, Etienne; Mauberger, Pascal; Quint, Aliette; Pierre, Helene; Lucchese, Paul; Bouillon-Delporte, Valerie; Chauvet, Bertrand; Brisse, Annabelle; Gautier, Ludmila; Hercberg, Sylvain; De Volder, Marc; Gruson, Jean-Francois; Marion, Pierre; Grellier, Sebastien; Devezeaux, Jean-Guy; Mansilla, Christine; Le Net, Elisabeth; Le Duigou, Alain; Maire, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of contributions which address various issues related to the development of the use of hydrogen as an energy source. More precisely, these contributions discuss how to face the challenge of electricity storage by using the Power-to-Gas technology, the challenges to be faced regarding the role of hydrogen in energy transition, the essential current role of hydrogen and its indispensable role for tomorrow, the possible role of electrolytic hydrogen as a solution for energy transition, the need of and the approach to a development of high power electrolysis systems, the potential and stakes of hydrogen as an energy vector, the Toyota fuel cell system as a sign for new era for automotive industry, the three main factors (production, applications to mobility, and public acceptance) for the use of hydrogen in energy transition, and the role of hydrogen perceived either as a benevolent fairy or a tempting demon

  14. 中国电力系统低碳转型的路径探析——基于社会技术转型思路%Exploring Transition Pathways for a Decarbonized Electricity System in China——Based on the Socio-technical Transition Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈卓淳; 姚遂

    2012-01-01

    The Multi-lever Perspective (MLP) of socio-technical transition is the new development of transition theory. It claims that transition is a non-linear and evolutional process through three interlocking levers (technological niches in micro-lever, socio-technical regime in meso-lever, landscape in macro-lever) , and seeks to understand the long time changes of the socio-technical regime by analyzing the interaction between technological and social factors. Drawing upon MLP approach and its typology of transition pathways, this paper first describes and analyses the dynamitic changes that have taken place in the electricity system in China . Then it proposes a conceptual framework of the transition pathways for a decarbonized electricity system, in short-term, mid-term and long-term dimensions. Along the short-term transformation path, the electricity system continues and extends existing institutional structures and governance models. It will achieve the government' s 2020 emission reduction targets and renewable energy targets, through the regime actors' conscious adjustment of their innovation and development directions, which will mitigate the internal conflicts and pressures in the regime. Along the mid-term reconfiguration path, electricity system will experience substantive changes in electricity resource structure. Thermal power gradually decreases. Its dominance will be challenged by the renewable energy generation. The power system will turn out to be diversified mode. With the final breakthroughs of innovation of new low-carbon energy technologies, high-carbon coal power system will eventually be replaced by low-carbon system along the long-term re-alignment path. Theoretically and methodologically, this analysis will enrich the debates on low-carbon transition in China. It will also be useful informing policy-makers and other stakeholders.%社会技术转型的多层视角(MLP)是转型理论的最新进展,它认为转型是由三个层面——微观

  15. Greenlys, the first French experiment of an urban smart electric power system in Lyons and Grenoble discloses its conclusions. Which returns on experience and which recommendations for to-morrow's electric power systems, cornerstone of energy transition for territories? Press file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the strengths and peculiarities of Greenlys, a demonstrator of a global urban smart electric power system which has been experimented in Lyons and Grenoble, this report identifies and outlines the evolutions associated with this project which introduces a true change in energy models. It outlines the characteristics of smart grids and the fact that the French and European contexts promote their development which induces flexibility, economic growth, and the emergence of new economic models and regulations. The next part presents Greenlys, the involved partners, its innovating objectives, some characteristics of the implementation sites (two metropolitan areas), its specific innovations, its various associated equipment. It describes how the user or consumer becomes an actor in terms of active demand and consumption management, indicates sociological user profiles which have been identified during this experiment, and also indicates and comments tested solutions with their functionalities and returns on experience. The next chapters comment the contributions to regulation evolutions related to cut-off and business model, outline the benefit in the office building sector, and the positive influence of these grid innovations on energy transition, discuss the value of a smart power system in urban areas, and finally outline the role of the various partners which are representative of the French electric power system, and the support of public investments managed by the ADEME

  16. Supporting Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Asima; Petrucco, James

    2018-01-01

    Meadowbrook Primary School has explored the use of The Teacher Assessment in Primary Science (TAPS) to support transition, initially for transfer to secondary school and now for transition from Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) into Key Stage 1 (ages 5-7). This article will consider an example of a secondary transition project and discuss the…

  17. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  18. Electric response of Pb0.99[(Zr0.90Sn0.10)0.968Ti0.032]0.98Nb0.02O3 ceramics to the shock-wave-induced ferroelectric-to-antiferroelectric phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dongdong; Zhang Na; Feng Yujun; Du Jinmei; Gu Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Shock wave induces the FE-to-AFE phase transition in PbNb(Zr,Sn,Ti)O 3 . ► Depoling current due to phase transition depends on shock pressure and load resistance. ► Shock pressure promotes the phase transition in short-circuit case. ► Increasing load resistance decreases the released charge. - Abstract: Shock-wave-enforced ferroelectric (FE)-to-antiferroelectric (AFE) phase transition releases a large electrical polarization, having application in pulse power technology. In the present work, the depoling currents under shock wave compression were investigated in Pb 0.99 [(Zr 0.90 Sn 0.10 ) 0.968 Ti 0.032 ] 0.98 Nb 0.02 O 3 (PZST) ceramics with composition close to the FE/AFE phase boundary. Shock wave was generated by gas-gun and propagated in a direction perpendicular to the remanent polarization. It was found that the shock pressure promoted the phase transition under the short-circuit condition. The shock pressure dependence of the released charge was associated with the evolution of FE-to-AFE phase transition. The onset of phase transition was about 0.40 GPa and complete transformation occurred at 1.23 GPa. However, the released charge decreased with increasing load resistance. The reason may be that the electric field suppresses the phase transition in uncompressed zone and/or shock induces conductivity in compressed zone. Results lay the foundation for application of PZST ceramics in shock-activated power supply.

  19. Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment: Tiger Teams Offer Project Assistance for Federal Fleets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-01-02

    To assist federal agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s EVSE Tiger Teams.

  20. Germany: the electricity bill soars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, Hartmut

    2016-01-01

    As Germany is already one of the European countries where electricity prices are the highest for households (twice more than in France), the author comments the past evolution of these prices and shows that they will probably increase again in 2017 to finance energy transition. This increase is notably due to higher taxes (a comparison with the French CSPE tax is presented and commented), and to a costly grid renewal. As the energy transition appears to be very expensive (about 500 billions euros by 2025), the cost-benefit rate of the German energy transition is disastrous and the de-carbonation of the electricity sector does not progress

  1. Transition radiation and transition scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, V.L.

    1982-01-01

    Transition radiation is a process of a rather general character. It occurs when some source, which does not have a proper frequency (for example, a charge) moves at a constant velocity in an inhomogeneous and (or) nonstationary medium or near such a medium. The simplest type of transition radiation takes place when a charge crosses a boundary between two media (the role of one of the media may be played by vacuum). In the case of periodic variation of the medium, transition radiation possesses some specific features (resonance transition radiation or transition scattering). Transition scattering occurs, in particular, when a permittivity wave falls onto an nonmoving (fixed) charge. Transition scattering is closely connected with transition bremsstrahlung radiation. All these transition processes are essential for plasma physics. Transition radiation and transition scattering have analogues outside the framework of electrodynamics (like in the case of Vavilov-Cherenkov radiation). In the present report the corresponding range of phenomena is elucidated, as far as possible, in a generally physical aspect. (Auth.)

  2. Nonadiabatic transitions in electrostatically trapped ammonia molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirste, Moritz; Schnell, Melanie; Meijer, Gerard; Sartakov, Boris G.

    2009-01-01

    Nonadiabatic transitions are known to be major loss channels for atoms in magnetic traps but have thus far not been experimentally reported upon for trapped molecules. We have observed and quantified losses due to nonadiabatic transitions for three isotopologues of ammonia in electrostatic traps by comparing the trapping times in traps with a zero and a nonzero electric field at the center. Nonadiabatic transitions are seen to dominate the overall loss rate even for the present samples that are at relatively high temperatures of 30 mK. It is anticipated that losses due to nonadiabatic transitions in electric fields are omnipresent in ongoing experiments on cold molecules.

  3. Securing Power during the Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Electricity security has been a priority of energy policy for decades due to the dependence of modern society on ongoing supply of electricity. Only a few years ago there was confidence that liberalised electricity markets in IEA member countries could deliver sufficient and timely generation investments needed to ensure security of supply. However, policies to decarbonise electricity systems have served to magnify investment risk and uncertainty. At the same time as renewable support schemes have proven effective in facilitating deployment of wind and solar photovoltaics, they also introduce new challenges to design a stable regulatory framework and well-functioning markets. Securing Power during the Transition, a report in the Electricity Security Action Plan series, assesses the threats and identifies options for competitive electricity markets embarking on the transition towards generating electricity from low-carbon sources . The analysis covers the impact of the global economic and financial situation, energy policy context and the implications for electricity market design. Its objective is to identify opportunities to improve regulatory and market designs to create a framework for timely and adequate investment, with a particular focus on conventional power plants.

  4. Electricity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Soung

    2006-12-01

    The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.

  5. Phase transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Sole, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V; Sol, Ricard V; Solé, Ricard V

    2011-01-01

    Phase transitions--changes between different states of organization in a complex system--have long helped to explain physics concepts, such as why water freezes into a solid or boils to become a gas. How might phase transitions shed light on important problems in biological and ecological complex systems? Exploring the origins and implications of sudden changes in nature and society, Phase Transitions examines different dynamical behaviors in a broad range of complex systems. Using a compelling set of examples, from gene networks and ant colonies to human language and the degradation of diverse ecosystems, the book illustrates the power of simple models to reveal how phase transitions occur. Introductory chapters provide the critical concepts and the simplest mathematical techniques required to study phase transitions. In a series of example-driven chapters, Ricard Solé shows how such concepts and techniques can be applied to the analysis and prediction of complex system behavior, including the origins of ...

  6. Theory of coherent transition radiation generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Root, op 't W.P.E.M.; Smorenburg, P.W.; Oudheusden, van T.; Wiel, van der M.J.; Luiten, O.J.

    2007-01-01

    We present the theory of coherent transition radiation (CTR) generated by ellipsoidal electron bunches. We calculate analytical expressions for the electric field spectrum, the power spectrum, and the temporal electric field of CTR, generated by cylindrically symmetric ellipsoidal electron bunches

  7. Hybrid Turbine Electric Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viterna, Larry A.

    1997-01-01

    Hybrid electric power trains may revolutionize today's ground passenger vehicles by significantly improving fuel economy and decreasing emissions. The NASA Lewis Research Center is working with industry, universities, and Government to develop and demonstrate a hybrid electric vehicle. Our partners include Bowling Green State University, the Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, Lincoln Electric Motor Division, the State of Ohio's Department of Development, and Teledyne Ryan Aeronautical. The vehicle will be a heavy class urban transit bus offering double the fuel economy of today's buses and emissions that are reduced to 1/10th of the Environmental Protection Agency's standards. At the heart of the vehicle's drive train is a natural-gas-fueled engine. Initially, a small automotive engine will be tested as a baseline. This will be followed by the introduction of an advanced gas turbine developed from an aircraft jet engine. The engine turns a high-speed generator, producing electricity. Power from both the generator and an onboard energy storage system is then provided to a variable-speed electric motor attached to the rear drive axle. An intelligent power-control system determines the most efficient operation of the engine and energy storage system.

  8. Sandia and NJ TRANSIT Authority Developing Resilient Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, Charles J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ellis, Abraham [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Through the memorandum of understanding between the Depratment of Energy (DOE), the New Jersey Transit Authority (NJ Transit), and the New Jersey Board of Public Utilities, Sandia National Labs is assisting NJ Transit in developing NJ TransitGrid: an electric microgrid that will include a large-scale gas-fired generation facility and distributed energy resources (photovoltaics [PV], energy storage, electric vehicles, combined heat and power [CHP]) to supply reliable power during storms or other times of significant power failure. The NJ TransitGrid was awarded $410M from the Department of Transportation to develop a first-of-its-kind electric microgrid capable of supplying highly-reliable power.

  9. Status of electroweak phase transition and baryogenesis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is possible that the universe has undergone a number of phase transitions, as illustrated in table 1. .... А, and perturbation theory breaks down for heavy Higgs bosons, ..... This is good news, since the neutron and electric dipole moment.

  10. The energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defeuilley, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    In a first part, the author proposes an analysis of energy transition and of its consequences on the competitive environment. He recalls the main characteristics of energy transition and more particularly focuses on two aspects: the development of renewable energies and the management of demand. Thus, the author discusses the following issues: the relationship between the struggle against climate change and the low carbon economy, the development of renewable energies, the evolution and main actors of photovoltaic array and of wind turbine production, the distribution of photovoltaic and wind energy installed production among countries, and some key figures about the main renewable energy operators in Europe. He discusses how to manage consumptions, and operations performed. In a second part, the author addresses the impact of the German energy transition (Energiewende) on the business models of the main German energy operators (RWE and E.On). He recalls and comments the objective of this energy policy, presents the German electric and gas sector, comments the evolution of the electric utilities since 1998, more presently presents and discusses the activities of RWE and E.On, the evolution of their main financial indicators, and the levels of installed power with respect of energy sources

  11. Transit transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Public transit agencies have employed intelligent systems for determining : schedules and routes and for monitoring the real-time location and status of their : vehicle fleets for nearly two decades. But until recently, the data generated by : daily ...

  12. Electric emissions from electrical appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitgeb, N.; Cech, R.; Schroettner, J.

    2008-01-01

    Electric emissions from electric appliances are frequently considered negligible, and standards consider electric appliances to comply without testing. By investigating 122 household devices of 63 different categories, it could be shown that emitted electric field levels do not justify general disregard. Electric reference values can be exceeded up to 11-fold. By numerical dosimetry with homogeneous human models, induced intra-corporal electric current densities were determined and factors calculated to elevate reference levels to accounting for reduced induction efficiency of inhomogeneous fields. These factors were found not high enough to allow generally concluding on compliance with basic restrictions without testing. Electric appliances usually simultaneously emit both electric and magnetic fields exposing almost the same body region. Since the sum of induced current densities is limited, one field component reduces the available margin for the other. Therefore, superposition of electric current densities induced by either field would merit consideration. (authors)

  13. Electricity Customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential, commercial, and industrial customers each account for roughly one-third of the nation’s electricity use. The transportation sector also accounts for a small fraction of electricity, although it could increase.

  14. Slovak Electric, Plc., 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, Plc.) was established on November 1, 1994 as one entity among new entities created as successors to the former Slovensky energeticky podnik. The subject activity is the generation of electric power, operation of transmission 220 kV and 400 kV systems, transit, import, export, and sales of electric power. Besides these activities the company deals with generation, distribution, and sales of heat. The company operates one nuclear power station, three thermal power plants, and thirty hydro power plants. One nuclear Power plant is under construction (state up tu June 1997). On this CD ROM next chapters are presented: (1) The structure of the company; (2) The production Units; (3) The economic power of the company; (4) The operation culture of the company; (5) The strategic plans of the company

  15. Electric drives

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    ENERGY CONVERSION IN ELECTRIC DRIVESElectric Drives: A DefinitionApplication Range of Electric DrivesEnergy Savings Pay Off RapidlyGlobal Energy Savings Through PEC DrivesMotor/Mechanical Load MatchMotion/Time Profile MatchLoad Dynamics and StabilityMultiquadrant OperationPerformance IndexesProblemsELECTRIC MOTORS FOR DRIVESElectric Drives: A Typical ConfigurationElectric Motors for DrivesDC Brush MotorsConventional AC MotorsPower Electronic Converter Dependent MotorsEnergy Conversion in Electric Motors/GeneratorsPOWER ELECTRONIC CONVERTERS (PECs) FOR DRIVESPower Electronic Switches (PESs)The

  16. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  17. Electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  18. RTE, network for the energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maillard, D.

    2013-01-01

    Energy transition is currently the subject of a wide-ranging national debate. Whatever the options that are retained, one thing is certain: the electricity system in France and in Europe will be confronted with profound changes. As of now, the main vectors for the development of electricity distribution, in France and in Europe, are the indispensable solidarity among territories and the rising flows of electricity from renewable sources. (author)

  19. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  20. Sustainable Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ole Erik; Søndergård, Bent

    2014-01-01

    of agendas/vision, technologies, actors and institutions in the emergent design of an urban mobility system based on an electric car sharing system. Why. Designing for sustainability is a fundamental challenge for future design practices; designers have to obtain an ability to contribute to sustainable...

  1. Electrically Tunable Plasmonic Resonances with Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emani, Naresh K.; Chung, Ting-Fung; Ni, Xingjie

    2012-01-01

    Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance.......Real time switching of a plasmonic resonance may find numerous applications in subwavelength optoelectronics, spectroscopy and sensing. We take advantage of electrically tunable interband transitions in graphene to control the strength of the plasmonic resonance....

  2. Ignition and spread of electrical wire fires

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xinyan

    2012-01-01

    Ignition of electrical wires by external heating is investigated in order to gain a better understanding of the initiation of electrical-wire fires. An ignition-to- spread model is developed to systematically explain ignition and the following transition to spread. The model predicts that for a higher-conductance wire it is more difficult to achieve ignition and the weak flame may extinguish during the transition phase because of a large conductive heat loss along the wire core. Wires with tw...

  3. The electricity market 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    taxes. The price of electricity dropped between 1997 and 2000, but began rising again to all electricity customers during 2000 and 2001. During the same period, the network charges remained largely unchanged, while the tax on electricity increased substantially. This led to an increase in the total cost to domestic customers, whereas the cost to industrial customers, who are exempt from taxes, is lower. The reform has enabled customers to choose freely the supplier from whom they want to buy their electricity. An opinion poll shows that most customers know that they can choose their supplier, and 37 % have acted on this by changing to a different supplier or negotiating their electricity price. The market concentration has increased in recent years since the dominating companies in Nordic countries have bought shares in competing companies on the Nordic market. The power companies and electricity trading companies are being developed towards bigger and more integrated energy companies, with operations in several countries. In recent years, the former surplus generation capacity in Sweden has been reduced. The oil-fired condensing power stations that were previously used in Sweden as reserve capacity have been decommissioned, and the first reactor in Barsebaeck was shut down. Svenska Kraftnaet, the Swedish grid utility, purchased a power reserve before the winter of 2000/2001 in order to strengthen the power balance during consumption peaks. During the autumn of 2001, the Government also entrusted Svenska Kraftnaet with the task of safe-guarding electricity generation capacity during very cold weather. This was to be done by purchasing reserve power capacity. The assignment resulted in additional power generation capacity consisting of previously decommissioned power generation plants and companies that were prepared to reduce their power consumption voluntarily. The procurement of reserve capacity is a temporary transitional measure. In the Government assignment

  4. Electric Substations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Substations. Substations are facilities and equipment that switch, transform, or regulate electric voltage. The Substations feature class includes taps, a location...

  5. Atmospheric electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Chalmers, J Alan

    1957-01-01

    Atmospheric Electricity brings together numerous studies on various aspects of atmospheric electricity. This book is composed of 13 chapters that cover the main problems in the field, including the maintenance of the negative charge on the earth and the origin of the charges in thunderstorms. After a brief overview of the historical developments of atmospheric electricity, this book goes on dealing with the general principles, results, methods, and the MKS system of the field. The succeeding chapters are devoted to some aspects of electricity in the atmosphere, such as the occurrence and d

  6. The electricity market 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    charges and taxes. The price of electricity dropped between 1997 and 2000, but began rising again to all electricity customers during 2000 and 2001. During the same period, the network charges remained largely unchanged, while the tax on electricity increased substantially. This led to an increase in the total cost to domestic customers, whereas the cost to industrial customers, who are exempt from taxes, is lower. The reform has enabled customers to choose freely the supplier from whom they want to buy their electricity. An opinion poll shows that most customers know that they can choose their supplier, and 37 % have acted on this by changing to a different supplier or negotiating their electricity price. The market concentration has increased in recent years since the dominating companies in Nordic countries have bought shares in competing companies on the Nordic market. The power companies and electricity trading companies are being developed towards bigger and more integrated energy companies, with operations in several countries. In recent years, the former surplus generation capacity in Sweden has been reduced. The oil-fired condensing power stations that were previously used in Sweden as reserve capacity have been decommissioned, and the first reactor in Barsebaeck was shut down. Svenska Kraftnaet, the Swedish grid utility, purchased a power reserve before the winter of 2000/2001 in order to strengthen the power balance during consumption peaks. During the autumn of 2001, the Government also entrusted Svenska Kraftnaet with the task of safe-guarding electricity generation capacity during very cold weather. This was to be done by purchasing reserve power capacity. The assignment resulted in additional power generation capacity consisting of previously decommissioned power generation plants and companies that were prepared to reduce their power consumption voluntarily. The procurement of reserve capacity is a temporary transitional measure. In the Government

  7. Energy systems in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1989-01-01

    The principal point of the author was to discuss energy systems (ES) in transition, transition addresses the next 10-25 years, and strategy of the transition. He considers different scenarios of future development of ES. Further he presents considerations elaborated during the last years on the concept of novel horizontally integrated ES which gives promise to be at least an approximation to the desired object of no emissions. The main ideas of the concept are: to decompose and thereby clean all the primary inputs before they are brought to combustion; to develop a network combining all the primary inputs to an integrated supply structure of high absorption, buffer, and storage capacity that resembles in some way the supply and utility functions of the well established electric grid but completes it at best on the basis of mass flows; to achieve a high flexibility in supplying the final energy. The author considers the long run perspective of hydrogen, solar, and nuclear energy with respect to alternative energy sources. 6 refs, 24 figs

  8. The economics of electricity markets

    CERN Document Server

    Biggar, Darryl R

    2014-01-01

    With the transition to liberalized electricity markets in many countries, the shift to more environmentally sustainable forms of power generation and increasing penetration of electric vehicles and smart appliances, a fundamental understanding of the economic principles underpinning the electricity industry is vital. Using clarity and precision, the authors successfully explain economic theory of all liberalized electricity market types from a cross-disciplinary engineering and policy perspective. No prior engineering knowledge or economics expertise is assumed in introducing key ideas such as nodal pricing, optimal dispatch and efficient pricing or in extending those models to areas including investment, risk management and the handling of contingencies. Key features: Comprehensively covers the principles of all liberalized electricity market types, including the US, Europe, New Zealand and Australia. Provides up to date coverage of research and policy iss es, including design of financial transmission rig...

  9. The Greenpeace 2013 scenario for energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cormier, Cyrille; Teske, Sven

    2013-01-01

    After a synthesis of the Greenpeace scenario for energy transition, this report presents the French current energy landscape: structure of the energy system, greenhouse gas emissions and nuclear risks, main social and economic challenges, and search for a political ambition (from the Grenelle de l'Environnement to the current debate on energy). Then, after having outlined that energy transition must be decided now, the report presents the scenario hypotheses: studies used to develop the scenario, macro-economic and technical-economic hypotheses. The scenario is then presented in terms of possible trajectory, of energy demand (global evolution per sector), of energy production (electricity, heat, mobility), and of CO 2 assessment and nuclear wastes. Scenarios are compared in social and economic terms, more particularly in terms of investments in electricity and heat production systems, of electricity production costs and electricity bill, of energy independence, and of jobs in the electricity and heat sectors

  10. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  11. Teaching Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iona, Mario

    1982-01-01

    To clarify the meaning of electrical terms, a chart is used to compare electrical concepts and relationships with a more easily visualized system in which water flows from a hilltop reservoir through a pipe to drive a mill at the bottom of the hill. A diagram accompanies the chart. (Author/SK)

  12. Negative refraction using Raman transitions and chirality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D. [Department of Physics, 1150 University Avenue, University of Wisconsin at Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    We present a scheme that achieves negative refraction with low absorption in far-off resonant atomic systems. The scheme utilizes Raman resonances and does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole transition and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same wavelength. We show that two interfering Raman tran-sitions coupled to a magnetic-dipole transition can achieve a negative index of refraction with low absorption through magnetoelectric cross-coupling. We confirm the validity of the analytical results with exact numerical simulations of the density matrix. We also discuss possible experimental implementations of the scheme in rare-earth metal atomic systems.

  13. Assignment of multipolarity for ΔI= 0 γ transitions from polarization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Sajad; Rajbanshi, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that the determination of the polarization for the γ transition will lead to the unique spin-parity assignments of the nuclear states. The electric and magnetic nature of the γ-rays are distinguishes by the direction of the electric vector of electromagnetic radiation with respect to the beam detector plane. The difference between the perpendicular and parallely scattered events due to the Compton scattering depends on the direction of electric vector of the emitted γ radiation. The difference is positive for electric type transition and negative for magnetic type transitions while for a mixed transitions it is almost zero. However, for the ΔI =0 γ transitions it can be shown theoretically that the difference is positive for magnetic type of transitions and negative for electric type of transitions. This opposite results of the polarization asymmetry for the ΔI =0 γ transitions may sometimes resulted in different assignments of the nuclear states

  14. U.S. electric power sector transitions required to achieve 80% reductions in economy-wide greenhouse gas emissions: Results based on a state-level model of the U.S. energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.; Kyle, Gordon P.; Ledna, Catherine M.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Wise, M. A.

    2017-05-01

    The United States has articulated a deep decarbonization strategy for achieving a reduction in economy-wide greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of 80% below 2005 levels by 2050. Achieving such deep emissions reductions will entail a major transformation of the energy system and of the electric power sector in particular. , This study uses a detailed state-level model of the U.S. energy system embedded within a global integrated assessment model (GCAM-USA) to demonstrate pathways for the evolution of the U.S. electric power sector that achieve 80% economy-wide reductions in GHG emissions by 2050. The pathways presented in this report are based on feedback received during a workshop of experts organized by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis. Our analysis demonstrates that achieving deep decarbonization by 2050 will require substantial decarbonization of the electric power sector resulting in an increase in the deployment of zero-carbon and low-carbon technologies such as renewables and carbon capture utilization and storage. The present results also show that the degree to which the electric power sector will need to decarbonize and low-carbon technologies will need to deploy depends on the nature of technological advances in the energy sector, the ability of end-use sectors to electrify and level of electricity demand.

  15. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Vutha, Amar C.

    2014-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic & molecular physics.

  16. Electric dipoles on the Bloch sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vutha, Amar C

    2015-01-01

    The time evolution of a two-level quantum mechanical system can be geometrically described using the Bloch sphere. By mapping the Bloch sphere evolution onto the dynamics of oscillating electric dipoles, we provide a physically intuitive link between classical electromagnetism and the electric dipole transitions of atomic and molecular physics. (paper)

  17. Polarization electric dipole moment in nonaxial nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.; Davidovskaya, O.I.

    1996-01-01

    An expression for the macroscopic polarization electric dipole moment is obtained for nonaxial nuclei whose radii of the proton and neutron surfaces are related by a linear equation. Dipole transitions associated with the polarization electric dipole moment are analyzed for static and dynamical multipole deformations

  18. Preparing Canada's power systems for transition to the year 2000: the Y2K programs of Canada's electric utility companies: province-by-province report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1999-09-01

    The province-by-province report covers BC Hydro; TransAlta, ATCO Ltd., EPCOR, and Enmax, SaskPower, Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg Hydro, Ontario Power Generation, Ontario Hydro Services Company, Toronto Hydro, Hydro-Quebec and Energie Maclaren, Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro, Newfoundland Power, Nova Scotia Power, Maritime Electric,Yukon and Northwest Territories,Yukon Electrical Company Ltd., Northland Utilities (Yellowknife) Ltd. and Northland Utilities (NWT) Ltd. A report typically deals with inventory, testing and remediation of business systems, inventory, testing and remediation of operational control devices, business partner reviews, and preparation and exercising of contingency plans, as well as Y2K status and readiness reports, and dateline preparations.

  19. Transit space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raahauge, Kirsten Marie

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with representations of one specific city, Århus, Denmark, especially its central district. The analysis is based on anthropological fieldwork conducted in Skåde Bakker and Fedet, two well-off neighborhoods. The overall purpose of the project is to study perceptions of space...... and the interaction of cultural, social, and spatial organizations, as seen from the point of view of people living in Skåde Bakker and Fedet. The focus is on the city dwellers’ representations of the central district of Århus with specific reference to the concept of transit space. When applied to various Århusian...

  20. Transition region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, C.

    1977-01-01

    The Glossary is designed to be a technical dictionary that will provide solar workers of various specialties, students, other astronomers and theoreticians with concise information on the nature and the properties of phenomena of solar and solar-terrestrial physics. Each term, or group of related terms, is given a concise phenomenological and quantitative description, including the relationship to other phenomena and an interpretation in terms of physical processes. The references are intended to lead the non-specialist reader into the literature. This section deals with: transition region; di-electronic recombination; intersystem or intercombination lines; satellite lines; grazing-incidence optics; and crystal spectrometers. (B.R.H.)

  1. Electric drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-10-01

    Several electric vehicles have been tested in long-term tests, i.e. an electric passenger car (maximum speed 115 km/h) and several busses for use in pedestrians' zones, spas, airports, natural reserves, and urban transportation (DUO busses). The ICE high-speed train is discussed in some detail, i.e. its aeroacoustic and aerodynamic design, running gear, computer-controlled drives and brakes, diagnostic systems, and electrical equipment. The Berlin Maglev system is mentioned as well as current inverters in rail vehicles. (HWJ).

  2. Electricity: the German example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Sylvestre

    2013-01-01

    The author proposes some comments on the content of the Energiewende, i.e. the definition of the energy transition in Germany which aims at producing and consuming a green energy, without carbon nor nuclear. He comments the German energy mix for 2010 in terms of electricity production per origin (nuclear, coal and lignite, gas, oil, wind, solar photovoltaic, other renewable sources) and of installed capacities per origin. He notices that gas and coal still have a major weight in this mix, and discusses the content of a scenario based 100 per cent renewable energies as it has been studied by the Fraunhofer Institute, notably in terms of production level and of costs

  3. Transitional issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This discussion paper, the fifth in the series developed at the IPPSO Market Design Conference, addressed the issue of the need to prevent Ontario Hydro from taking unfair advantage of independent producers and other stakeholders through activities and investments in new power generating capacity in the transitional period leading up to deregulation. The need for controls is predicated on the assumption that the short-term actions and investments of Ontario Hydro could seriously compromise the position of independent generators, and that without such controls the level playing field essential to the operation of a competitive market, does not exist. Various actual and potential actions of Ontario Hydro were discussed, all of which point to the need for strict controls over Ontario Hydro exercising its dominant market power in an unfair way. It was recommended that as a minimum, the provincial government should no longer provide guarantees for Ontario Hydro capital projects, and that Ontario Hydro be instructed to defer any investment on new or returning generating capacity until the new market is in place. Limits could also be placed on Ontario Hydro's marketing efforts to enter into contracts during the transition period, and Ontario Hydro and municipal utilities should be required to keep separate accounts of their commercial preparation, and to settle such accounts separate from ratepayer revenue

  4. Electricity derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Aïd, René

    2015-01-01

    Offering a concise but complete survey of the common features of the microstructure of electricity markets, this book describes the state of the art in the different proposed electricity price models for pricing derivatives and in the numerical methods used to price and hedge the most prominent derivatives in electricity markets, namely power plants and swings. The mathematical content of the book has intentionally been made light in order to concentrate on the main subject matter, avoiding fastidious computations. Wherever possible, the models are illustrated by diagrams. The book should allow prospective researchers in the field of electricity derivatives to focus on the actual difficulties associated with the subject. It should also offer a brief but exhaustive overview of the latest techniques used by financial engineers in energy utilities and energy trading desks.

  5. Electric empire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, Paul

    1983-01-01

    The author discusses the economic and political aspects of Ontario Hydro, a provincial crown corporation. He also deals with nuclear safety of the CANDU reactors and the ecological effects of electric power supply. Alternate sources of energy are also mentioned

  6. Electrical Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.; Sand, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Explains how electrical conductivity (EC) can be used to measure ion concentration in solutions. Describes instrumentation for the measurement, temperature dependence and EC, and the EC of common substances. (PR)

  7. Electric theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Seong

    2006-02-01

    This book explains electric theory which is divided into four chapters. The first chapter includes electricity and material, electric field, capacitance, magnetic field and electromagnetic force, inductance. The second chapter mentions electronic circuit analysis, electric resistance,heating and power, chemical activity on current and battery with electrolysis. The third chapter deals with an alternating current circuit about the basics of an AC circuit, operating of resistance, inductance and capacitance, series circuit and parallel circuit of PLC, an alternating current circuit, Three-phase Alternating current, two terminal pair network and voltage and current of non-linearity circuit. The last explains transient phenomena of RC series circuit, RL series circuit, transient phenomena of an alternating current circuit and transient phenomena of RLC series circuit.

  8. Electrical injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2018:chap 134. Price LA, Loiacono LA. Electrical and lightning injury. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM, eds. Current Surgical ...

  9. Transmission grid requirements with scattered and flutuating renewable electricity sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2002-01-01

    Denmark is in a situation with many scattered sources of electricity, that are not controlled by the central load dispatch. At the same time, Denmark is being used as an electricity transit corridor between Norway/Sweden and Germany. Through energy systems analyses and load-flow analyses......, it is determined that if scattered load balancing is introduced, electricity transit is enabled to a higher degree than if central load balancing is maintained....

  10. The electric motor handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, R.W.; Feltham, P. (eds.)

    2004-05-01

    This handbook outlines the important role that electric motors play in modern society. It covers the field of motor applications from various motor types to their use and repair. It also presents practical applications of electric motors and methods on motor efficiency. More than half of all electricity generated, and 75 per cent of all industrial electricity consumption is consumed by electric motors. Electrical personnel must be aware of all factors involved in electric motors in order to choose and apply the appropriate size of electric motor. These factors include efficiency, sizing and proper application. The efficient use and maximum life expectancy of electric motors depends on proper motor protection, control and maintenance. This handbook includes articles from leading experts on electric motors in modern electrical systems. The content includes: design considerations; proper electric motor sizing techniques; optimal electric motor application; electric motor protection technology; electric motor control principles; electric motor maintenance and troubleshooting; induction electric motors; electric motor bearing currents; electric motor bearing lubrication; electromagnetism; electric motor enclosures; electric motor testing; electric motor repair; DC electric motor; electric motor starters; electric motor brushes; industrial electric motors; electric motor diagrams; AC electric motors; electric motor wiring; electric motor service; electric motor rewinding; electric motor winding; diagram of electric motor wiring; electric motor kit; and, troubleshooting electric motors. A directory of motor manufacturers and suppliers was also included. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Energy transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    The yearly environmental conference will hold on September 2013 to evaluate the negotiations led at the national and local levels for december 2012. The government will have then to decide of an energy programming bill which will be submitted to the Parliament at the beginning of the year 2014. 30 main propositions have emerged of the decentralised debates. One of them is the ecological taxation which raise the question of the gas oil and petrol taxation. The current environmental taxes are for almost three quarters of them taxes on energy consumptions and mainly on fossil energies. The Economic, Social and Environmental Council, gives his opinion on the way to find resources to ensure the ecological and energy transition while reducing the public deficit of the State. (O.M.)

  12. Generation cost frontier analysis, dynamic market adjustment, and strategic gaming: Integrated tools for benchmarking, competitive market analysis, and strategy formulation under conditions of uncertainty in the transition to a competitive electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corio, M.R.; Bellucci, J.W.; Boyd, G.A.; Perl, K.E.

    1998-07-01

    The authors describe a three dimensional frontier consisting of: spending, availability/reliability, and utilization/heat rate. To determine optimal behavior in a future deregulated market, one must also find the optimal adjustment path from present to long-run frontier operation, and the optimal strategic action/response as determined by game theory. One can also perform more limited optimizations along either the two dimensional spending/reliability or spending/utilization frontiers. Although the authors mainly discuss optimizing existing domestic plants, frontier analysis could easily be applied to an electric producer's plants or acquisition targets internationally. Efficient operation saves money even in countries where electric markets are still regulated and can also confer indirect environmental benefits. AER is also applying these frontier analysis and game theory techniques to environmental decision-making, specifically to environmental retrofit decisions.

  13. Generation cost frontier analysis, dynamic market adjustment, and strategic gaming: Integrated tools for benchmarking, competitive market analysis, and strategy formulation under conditions of uncertainty in the transition to a competitive electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corio, M.R.; Bellucci, J.W.; Boyd, G.A.; Perl, K.E.

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe a three dimensional frontier consisting of: spending, availability/reliability, and utilization/heat rate. To determine optimal behavior in a future deregulated market, one must also find the optimal adjustment path from present to long-run frontier operation, and the optimal strategic action/response as determined by game theory. One can also perform more limited optimizations along either the two dimensional spending/reliability or spending/utilization frontiers. Although the authors mainly discuss optimizing existing domestic plants, frontier analysis could easily be applied to an electric producer's plants or acquisition targets internationally. Efficient operation saves money even in countries where electric markets are still regulated and can also confer indirect environmental benefits. AER is also applying these frontier analysis and game theory techniques to environmental decision-making, specifically to environmental retrofit decisions

  14. 309 Building transition plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    The preparation for decontamination and decommissioning (transition) of the 309 Building is projected to be completed by the end of the fiscal year (FY) 1998. The major stabilization and decontamination efforts include the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR), fuel storage and transfer pits, Transfer Waste (TW) tanks and the Ion Exchange Vaults. In addition to stabilizing contaminated areas, equipment, components, records, waste products, etc., will be dispositioned. All nonessential systems, i.e., heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC), electrical, monitoring, fluids, etc., will be shut down and drained/de-energized. This will allow securing of the process, laboratory, and office areas of the facility. After that, the facility will be operated at a level commensurate with its surveillance needs while awaiting D ampersand D. The implementation costs for FY 1995 through FY 1998 for the transition activities are estimated to be $1,070K, $2,115K, $2,939K, and $4,762K, respectively. Costs include an assumed company overhead of 20% and a 30% out year contingency

  15. To prepare now tomorrow's grid: RTE at the service of regions to support them in energy transition. Regional electricity assessments. Challenges and key figures - 2015 release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-06-01

    For each French region, this report proposes an interview of RTE's regional manager, a presentation of consumption evolution, a sector-based analysis, a presentation of consumption peaks, the composition of the energy mix and of its evolution, a description of the development of renewable energies, regional data and their comparison with national data, and presentations of projects and investments aimed at adapting the grid, at integrating renewable energies, and at preparing tomorrow's European electricity grid. The introducing part also indicates power exchanges between regions, outlines the electric interdependency of territories, and the diversity of regions in terms of relationship between electric power production and consumption, comments the issue of balancing supply and demand in a context of increased variability of consumption, and outlines the need to promote energy sobriety to deal with the impact of temperature. It also proposes an overview of the development of renewable energies and of the challenge of their connection to the grid

  16. Greengrid Electric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argue, D.

    1998-01-01

    This presentation focused on what customers want from a competitive electricity market and what motivates customers to choose a renewable energy product and service. Greengrid Electric, a subsidiary of Enershare Technology Corp., intends to provide the green electricity that they believe customers have wanted for some time. Enershare and Greengrid have been active participants in the electricity restructuring process in Ontario, and have provided input to the Market Design Committee. Once licensed as a retailer, Greengrid intends to be the major provider of green electricity in Ontario. The company will supply a 100 per cent renewable energy product to their wholesale and retail customers. The company is confident that there is a significant niche market in Ontario for selling a green product that has a blend of wind, small hydro (run-of-river or existing dam), solar, and for energy produced from capturing methane gas from municipal landfill sites. Company officials are confident that customers will be willing to pay a premium price for energy if their purchases will lead to environmental improvement

  17. Slovak Electric, Plc., 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. (Slovak Electric, Plc., abbrevation 'SE, a.s.') is the Slovak electricity generating utility, incorporated on November 1, 1994 as one of new companies formed from substantially all of the assets and a legal successor of Slovensky energeticky podnik, s.p., founded on January 1, 1969 in the form of SEP group. From its predecessor, Slovak Electric, Plc., took over generation of power, operation of 220 kV and 400 kV power system, transit, import, export, and sale of electricity. It is also involved in generation, distribution, and sale of heat. At present, SE's share of electriciry sales in the Slovak Republic is 88.47%. Electricity is delivered to three regional distribution companies and directly to several major industrial enterprises. SE, a.s. operates one nuclear power station, three thermal power plants, and 30 hydro power plants. The second nuclear power plant is under construction (state up tu June 1997) and SE is participating in the construction of two hydro power plants and one combined cycle power plant. The efforts of SE, s.a. focus on the generation of power and heat with minimal environmental impacts. Ecology is given priority in the SE, a.s. development programmes. SE's mission is to permanently satisfy customers' needs, for an acceptable price and with minimal environmental impact. On this CD ROM next chapters are presented: (1) The structure of the Company; (2) Production units; (3) The economic power of the Company; (4) The operation culture; (5) The strategic plans of the Company

  18. Electrical resistivity of ferrimagnetic magnetite thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varshney, Dinesh; Yogi, A.; Kaurav, N.; Gupta, R.P.; Phase, D.M.

    2006-01-01

    We have grown Fe 3 O 4 (III) epitaxial film on Al 2 O 3 (0001) substrate by pulsed laser deposition, with thickness of 130 nm. X-ray diffraction studies of magnetite show the spinel cubic structure of film with preferential (III) orientation. The electrical resistivity measurement demonstrates that the properties of thin film of magnetite are basically similar to those of bulk magnetite and clearly shows semiconductor-insulator transition at Verwey transition temperature (≅140 K). We have found higher Verwey transition temperature when compared with earlier reports on similar type of system. Possible causes for increase in transition temperature are discussed. (author)

  19. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  20. Transition Dipole Moments and Transition Probabilities of the CN Radical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuan; Shi, Deheng; Sun, Jinfeng; Zhu, Zunlue

    2018-04-01

    This paper studies the transition probabilities of electric dipole transitions between 10 low-lying states of the CN radical. These states are X2Σ+, A2Π, B2Σ+, a4Σ+, b4Π, 14Σ‑, 24Π, 14Δ, 16Σ+, and 16Π. The potential energy curves are calculated using the CASSCF method, which is followed by the icMRCI approach with the Davidson correction. The transition dipole moments between different states are calculated. To improve the accuracy of potential energy curves, core–valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections, as well as the extrapolation of potential energies to the complete basis set limit are included. The Franck–Condon factors and Einstein coefficients of emissions are calculated. The radiative lifetimes are determined for the vibrational levels of the A2Π, B2Σ+, b4Π, 14Σ‑, 24Π, 14Δ, and 16Π states. According to the transition probabilities and radiative lifetimes, some guidelines for detecting these states spectroscopically are proposed. The spin–orbit coupling effect on the spectroscopic and vibrational properties is evaluated. The splitting energy in the A2Π state is determined to be 50.99 cm‑1, which compares well with the experimental ones. The potential energy curves, transition dipole moments, spectroscopic parameters, and transition probabilities reported in this paper can be considered to be very reliable. The results obtained here can be used as guidelines for detecting these transitions, in particular those that have not been measured in previous experiments or have not been observed in the Sun, comets, stellar atmospheres, dark interstellar clouds, and diffuse interstellar clouds.

  1. The Future of Electricity Resource Planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahrl, Fredrich [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lavin, Luke [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Ryan, Nancy [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Olsen, Arne [Energy and Environmental Economics, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Electricity resource planning is the process of identifying longer-term investments to meet electricity reliability requirements and public policy goals at a reasonable cost. Resource planning processes provide a forum for regulators, electric utilities, and electricity industry stakeholders to evaluate the economic, environmental, and social benefits and costs of different investment options. By facilitating a discussion on future goals, challenges and strategies, resource planning processes often play an important role in shaping utility business decisions. Resource planning emerged more than three decades ago in an era of transition, where declining electricity demand and rising costs spurred fundamental changes in electricity industry regulation and structure. Despite significant changes in the industry, resource planning continues to play an important role in supporting investment decision making. Over the next two decades, the electricity industry will again undergo a period of transition, driven by technological change, shifting customer preferences and public policy goals. This transition will bring about a gradual paradigm shift in resource planning, requiring changes in scope, approaches and methods. Even as it changes, resource planning will continue to be a central feature of the electricity industry. Its functions — ensuring the reliability of high voltage (“bulk”) power systems, enabling oversight of regulated utilities and facilitating low-cost compliance with public policy goals — are likely to grow in importance as the electricity industry enters a new period of technological, economic and regulatory change. This report examines the future of electricity resource planning in the context of a changing electricity industry. The report examines emerging issues and evolving practices in five key areas that will shape the future of resource planning: (1) central-scale generation, (2) distributed generation, (3) demand-side resources, (4

  2. Electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijayatunga, P.D.C.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity pricing in most countries, especially in the developing world, has been determined by traditional accounting criteria where it raises revenue requirements to cover the operating costs and a return on past and future capital investments in possible power systems. The use of economic principles to improve the total economic efficiency in the electricity industry is discussed. Basic marginal cost theory, long run marginal costing (LRMC) cost categories and rating periods, marginal capacity costs, marginal energy costs, consumer costs, short run marginal costing (SRMC), marginal cost of fuel, marginal cost of network losses, market clearing price, value of unserved energy and network quality of supply cost are discussed

  3. Investigations into electrical discharges in gases

    CERN Document Server

    Klyarfel'D, B N

    2013-01-01

    Investigations into Electrical Discharges in Gases is a compilation of scientific articles that covers the advances in the investigation of the fundamental processes occurring in electrical discharges in gases and vapors. The book details the different aspects of the whole life cycle of an arc, which include the initiation of a discharge, its transition into an arc, the lateral spread of the arc column, and the recovery of electric strength after extinction of an arc. The text also discusses the methods for the dynamic measurement of vapor density in the vicinity of electrical discharges, alon

  4. New electricity 21. Designing a sustainable electric system for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The five main sessions of the conference are opportunities to increase electricity use for sustainable development; electric system expansion and integration to meet growing competition; power producers and global climate change issues; technology for supplying electricity in developing and transitional economies; power industry structure, regulatory policies and technological innovation. All contributions have been indexed and abstracted for the INIS and Energy database. (R.P.)

  5. Electrical Rectification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    bio-mimetic systems. O w ing to the saturation of the e± ciency of sil- icon devices in electronics industry, m olecular electronics has gained trem endous im petus in re- cent tim es. T heoretical predictions and experi- m ental realizations of such system s have given birth to a ... their electrical conductance property and pos-.

  6. Atmospheric Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2018-02-01

    Electricity occurs in atmospheres across the Solar System planets and beyond, spanning spectacular lightning displays in clouds of water or dust, to more subtle effects of charge and electric fields. On Earth, lightning is likely to have existed for a long time, based on evidence from fossilized lightning strikes in ancient rocks, but observations of planetary lightning are necessarily much more recent. The generation and observations of lightning and other atmospheric electrical processes, both from within-atmosphere measurements, and spacecraft remote sensing, can be readily studied using a comparative planetology approach, with Earth as a model. All atmospheres contain charged molecules, electrons, and/or molecular clusters created by ionization from cosmic rays and other processes, which may affect an atmosphere's energy balance both through aerosol and cloud formation, and direct absorption of radiation. Several planets are anticipated to host a "global electric circuit" by analogy with the circuit occurring on Earth, where thunderstorms drive current of ions or electrons through weakly conductive parts of the atmosphere. This current flow may further modulate an atmosphere's radiative properties through cloud and aerosol effects. Lightning could potentially have implications for life through its effects on atmospheric chemistry and particle transport. It has been observed on many of the Solar System planets (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) and it may also be present on Venus and Mars. On Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn, lightning is thought to be generated in deep water and ice clouds, but discharges can be generated in dust, as for terrestrial volcanic lightning, and on Mars. Other, less well-understood mechanisms causing discharges in non-water clouds also seem likely. The discovery of thousands of exoplanets has recently led to a range of further exotic possibilities for atmospheric electricity, though lightning detection beyond our Solar System

  7. Electric fields and electrical insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAllister, Iain Wilson

    2002-01-01

    The adoption of a field-theoretical approach to problems arising in the framework of electrical insulation is discussed with reference to six main topics, which have been addressed over the last 30 years. These include uniform field electrodes, Green's differential equation, electrode surface...... roughness, induced charge, electrostatic probes, and partial discharge transients, together with several follow-on aspects. Each topic is introduced and thereafter the progress achieved through the use of a field-theoretical approach is reviewed. Because the topics cover a wide spectrum of conditions......, it is amply demonstrated that such an approach can lead to significant progress in many areas of electrical insulation....

  8. Topics on electricity trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-01-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  9. Topics on electricity trade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skytte, K.

    2001-07-01

    The first chapter in this thesis is a survey of studies on electricity trade, which has been included in order to show how subjects in this thesis fit into this aspect of energy research. Transitions from centralised monopolies to liberalised electricity markets have been inaugurated in the northern European countries during the last decade. The backgrounds and speed of transitions differ within the countries. Where Norway liberalised its electricity market in order to stabilise the prices, EU urged a liberalisation in order to make the electricity supply industry more effective. Together with national liberalisation, the opening of the cross border trade between the countries is also urged. The first paper in this thesis describes those different liberalisation processes within northern Europe and discusses problems that may arise in a transition period for integrating the countries into a common electricity market with efficient cross-border competition. Before the liberalisation process started, the electricity generation was determined by a central load dispatch at known prices. The introduction of competition has necessitated the creation of new competitive markets, power exchanges and financial markets where generation and prices are determined by demand and supply on the markets. One implication of this is that investments in new plants shall be made under levels of uncertainty about future prices. The second paper in this thesis analyses the importance of introducing uncertainty in energy-economic modelling of the electricity supply sector. Another implication, which arises on introducing a new market structure and power exchanges, is that the design of the power exchanges influences the price setting on the markets. The third paper of this thesis analyses the price setting on the regulating power market on the Nordic power exchange Nord Pool. More precisely, the paper reveals the pattern of the prices on the regulating power market by analysing the cost of

  10. Study of electric monopole transitions between the ground state and the first excited O+-state in 40,42,44,48Ca with high resolution inelastic electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strottman, D.; Graef, H.D.; Feldmeier, H.; Manakos, P.; Richter, A.; Spamer, E.

    1977-11-01

    Monopole transitions from the O + 1 ground states to O + 2 excited states at 3.353 MeV ( 40 Ca), 1.837 MeV ( 42 Ca), 1.884 MeV ( 44 Ca) and 4.272 Mev ( 48 Ca) have been investigated with high resolution inelastic electron scattering (FWHM approximately equal to 30 keV) at low momentum transfer (0.29 fm -1 -1 ). The respective monopole matrix elements are (2.53 +- 0.41) fm 2 , (5.24 +- 0.39) fm 2 , (5.45 +- 0.41) fm 2 and (2.28 +- 0.49) fm 2 . These results are used together with known ground state charge radii and the average number of holes in the sd-shell in the ground state to estimate the number of particle-hole excitations in the wavefunctions of th excited O + states. (orig.) [de

  11. Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Robert L. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Francis, Julieta [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Bogacz, Richard J. [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Grid investments that support electric vehicle deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

  12. Electricity market opening and electricity generation system's expansion in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosnjek, Z.; Vidmar, M.; Bregar, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Slovenia is rapidly adopting the European Union (EU) legislation to make itself ready to be admitted the fifteen EU member countries. In the area of energy or electricity supply industry, Slovenia has consequently enforced the Energy law, which in its essence follows the idea of the Directive 96/92/EC. Globally, the Directive defines common rules of the internal electricity market within EU. Any EU member country is responsible for assuring a competitive electricity market and implementing corresponding instruments as foreseen by the Directive. The share of the national market opening is calculated on the basis of eligible customers' consumption versus the overall consumption in a particular member country. Also, the Directive defines the rate of the electricity market opening. It is interesting to note that the EU member countries have been opening their national electricity markets at a greater speed than specified by the Directive. The overall Slovenian Electricity Supply Industry shall have to adapt itself to new imperatives, whereby the greatest changes will by all means take place in the area of electricity generation. As the reaction of eligible domestic market customers is quite unpredictable, the direct electricity import from foreign countries can only be estimated on a variant basis. EU countries that have deregulated their electricity market have been, step by step, gaining valuable experiences. The majority of them show a considerable pressure on having prices of the EPS generation sector reduced. A similar development can by all means be expected in Slovenia, too. it is expected that the major burden of the electricity market liberalisation and electric power interconnecting within EU will be carried by the EPS generation sector. The analyses of developed variants show that the burden, imposed by the transition onto the market economy, will be predominantly carried by the coal fired electricity supply industry. Further development of electricity

  13. Electricity Bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, A.; Beith, A.J.; Hardy, P.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the debate, which lasted a total of about 7 hours, a verbatim report of the first five of which are included here, was about energy conservation. Several new clauses and amendments were discussed. One would place a duty on the new Director of the Energy Supply industry to promote the efficiency and conservation of energy, another would appoint a Deputy Director with responsibility for energy conservation, and the third would require targets of energy efficiency and pollution reduction to be achieved. This allowed discussion on energy saving by domestic thermal insulation, improved efficiency of heating and refrigeration units and on renewable energy sources especially world energy. The second part of the debate was about access to information regarding health and safety resulting from any activities of the electricity supply industry. The remainder of the debate concerned regional representation and the economics of the electricity supply industry. (UK)

  14. Electricity unplugged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, Aristeidis

    2009-02-01

    The judge was driving back late one cold winter night. Entering the garage, the battery-charging indicator in his wirelessly powered electric car came on. "Home at last," crossed his mind. He swiped his personal smartcard on the front-door detector to be let in. He heard a "charging" beep from his mobile phone. The blinking cursor on the half-finished e-mail on the laptop had been waiting all day on the side table. He picked the computer up and walked towards his desk. "Good evening, your honour. Your wirelessly heated robe," said the butler-robot as it approached from the kitchen. Putting on the electric garment, he sat on the medical desk chair. His artificial heart was now beating faster.

  15. Electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezendes, V.S.

    1991-10-01

    This report focuses on the Securities and Exchange Commission's (SEC) administration of the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935, intended to protect the public, investors, and consumers from abuses associated with the control of electric and gas utility companies through the holding company structure. These abuses include subjecting subsidiary utilities to excessive charges for services, construction work, and materials; frustrating effective state regulation through the holding company structure; and overloading subsidiary utilities with debt to prevent voluntary rate reductions. GAO discusses industry changes during the past decade involving electric utility holding companies; SEC's regulatory response to such changes; and the relationship between SEC, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, and states in protecting consumer and investor interests in light of these changes

  16. Electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear heart pacer having a heat-to-electricity converter including a solid-state thermoelectric unit embedded in rubber which is compressed to impress hydrostatic precompression on the unit is described. The converter and the radioactive heat source are enclosed in a container which includes the electrical circuit components for producing and controlling the pulses; the converter and components being embedded in rubber. The portions of the rubber in the converter and in the container through which heat flows between the radioactive primary source and the hot junction and between the cold junction and the wall of the container are of thermally conducting silicone rubber. The 238 Pu primary radioactive source material is encapsuled in a refractory casing of WC-222 (T-222) which in turn is encapsuled in a corrosion-resistant casing of platinum rhodium, a diffusion barrier separating the WC-222 and the Pt--Rh casings. The Pt--Rh casing is in a closed basket of tantalum. The tantalum protects the Pt--Rh from reacting with other materials during cremation of the host, if any. The casings and basket suppress the transmission of hard x rays generated by the alpha particles from the 238 Pu. The outside casing of the pacer is typically of titanium but its surface is covered by an electrically insulating coating, typically epoxy resin, except over a relatively limited area for effective electrical grounding to the body of the host. It is contemplated that the pacer will be inserted in the host with the exposed titanium engaging a non-muscular region of the body

  17. Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    NASA's Lewis Research Center undertook research toward a practical, economical battery with higher energy density. Borrowing from space satellite battery technology, Lewis came up with a nickel-zinc battery that promises longer life and twice the range of the lead-acid counterpart. Lewis researchers fabricated a prototype battery and installed it in an Otis P-500 electric utility van, using only the battery space already available and allowing battery weight equal to that of the va's conventional lead-acid battery

  18. Electrical deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, R.

    2001-01-01

    Deregulation in the electricity sector took effect on January 1, 2001 in Alberta. Business consumers discovered that their electricity rates had almost doubled in a one-month period. The government argued that it was the case of short term pain for long term gain. The intent of the deregulation is the lowering of prices through competition. This principle applies when the supply meets the demand, but when the demand exceeds the supply, prices increase. When initial plans were made for the deregulation of the sector, utilities did not invest huge amounts of capital to build new generation plants, as it was not known how they would fare in the deregulated environment. This situation was compounded by the fact that there was an economic boom around the same time in Alberta, adding to the demands made on the existing generation infrastructure (approximately 4 per cent per year over the past decade). At the moment, some resource developers such as Syncrude, Amoco, and Daishowa produce their own electricity and export their excess capacity to the provincial grid for general use. The rules of the deregulated market have been clarified and a number of utilities are planning new generation plants and facilities. TransAlta, EPCOR, and Enmax Corp. have announced plans to expand or build new coal-fired plants. Alberta has an estimated 35 billion tonnes of recoverable coal, and 25 million tonnes of coal were used in 1999 to produce 75 per cent of the electricity required in Alberta. Over the next ten years, 4,000 megawatts of new capacity is planned, representing a 50 per cent increase over current levels. AES Corporation, a Virginia power giant, has also announced plans to build a generator in Alberta

  19. Electrical cardioversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sucu, Murat; Davutoglu, Vedat; Ozer, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    External electrical cardioversion was first performed in the 1950s. Urgent or elective cardioversions have specific advantages, such as termination of atrial and ventricular tachycardia and recovery of sinus rhythm. Electrical cardioversion is life-saving when applied in urgent circumstances. The succcess rate is increased by accurate tachycardia diagnosis, careful patient selection, adequate electrode (paddles) application, determination of the optimal energy and anesthesia levels, prevention of embolic events and arrythmia recurrence and airway conservation while minimizing possible complications. Potential complications include ventricular fibrillation due to general anesthesia or lack of synchronization between the direct current (DC) shock and the QRS complex, thromboembolus due to insufficient anticoagulant therapy, non-sustained VT, atrial arrhythmia, heart block, bradycardia, transient left bundle branch block, myocardial necrosis, myocardial dysfunction, transient hypotension, pulmonary edema and skin burn. Electrical cardioversion performed in patients with a pacemaker or an incompatible cardioverter defibrillator may lead to dysfunction, namely acute or chronic changes in the pacing or sensitivity threshold. Although this procedure appears fairly simple, serious consequences might occur if inappropriately performed. PMID:19448376

  20. Superconducting Metallic Glass Transition-Edge-Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Charles C. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A superconducting metallic glass transition-edge sensor (MGTES) and a method for fabricating the MGTES are provided. A single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is deposited on a substrate. The single-layer superconducting amorphous metal alloy is an absorber for the MGTES and is electrically connected to a circuit configured for readout and biasing to sense electromagnetic radiation.

  1. In-transit charging lane model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verkerk, A.; Nijmeijer, H.; Khajepour, A.

    2012-01-01

    The current electric vehicles still have a problem with a short range and long charging time compared to the internal combustion vehicles. A possible solution for this problem is to charge the batteries while driving on the highway. For this, a special traffic lane is needed with an in-transit

  2. Transition radiation of ultrarelativistic neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimus, W.; Neufeld, H.

    1994-10-01

    We perform a quantum theoretical calculation of transition radiation by neutral particles with spin 1/2 equipped with magnetic moments and/or electric dipole moments. The limit of vanishing masses is treated exactly for arbitrary refraction index. Finally we apply our result to the solar neutrino flux. (author)

  3. Energy transition and phasing out nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    In the first part of this report, the author outlines and comments the need of an energy transition in the world: overview of world challenges (world energy consumption and its constraints, a necessary energy transition, new actors and new responsibilities), and describes the German example of an energy transition policy. In the second part, he presents and discusses the main reasons for phasing out nuclear: description of a nuclear plant operation (fission and chain reaction, heat production, production of radioactive elements, how to stop a nuclear reactor), safety and risk issues (protection arrangements, risk and consequence of a nuclear accident), issue of radioactive wastes, relationship between civil techniques and proliferation of nuclear weapons. In a third part, the author proposes an overview of the energy issue in France: final energy consumption, electricity production and consumption, primary energy consumption, characteristics of the French energy system (oil dependency, electricity consumption, and high share of nuclear energy in electricity production). In a last part, the author addresses the issue of energy transition in a perspective of phasing out nuclear: presentation of the Negawatt scenario, assessments made by Global Chance, main programmes of energy transition

  4. New options for purchasing electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-10-01

    This guide is intended for small to medium commercial customers in Alberta and explains new options for purchasing electricity. Small to medium customers include corner stores, community centres, schools, small office buildings, and light industrial businesses. In the 1990s, private power producers in Alberta built 3,000 megawatts of new generation, adding 30 per cent more supply to the power grid in the province. Prices in the deregulated electricity market have fluctuated with natural gas prices, changing weather and changing power demands. The competitive electricity market was opened on January 1, 2001 in Alberta, offering consumers purchasing choices such as green power, multi-year contracts, or electricity rates under the Regulated Rate Option (RRO). The RRO was a transition mechanism that will end by December 31, 2003 at which time, small to medium commercial customers will have the option to shop around for competitive electricity contracts that provide a fixed price of power over time, or they can opt to stay with their current supplier and receive a regulated flow-through of market prices. Under the flow-through option, risk of future deferral charges is reduced, but electricity prices will probably change between billing periods. 1 fig

  5. evaluation of electricity consumer's behaviour towards electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Energy efficiency and sustainability: evaluation of electricity consumer's behaviour towards electricity usage and energy conservation. ... Remember me ... particularly about electricity consumer's attitudes, behaviour and practices with respect ...

  6. Trying to understand French-German electric power exchanges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livet, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The author aims at understanding the differences of electric balance between France and Germany depending on whether statistics produced by RTE or statistics produced by the ENSTO-E are considered, as both bodies measure electricity exchanges between both countries. It appears that electricity entering France from Germany is in fact transiting to other countries, whereas France exports about 10 TWh each year. This analysis is important when these imports from Germany are often used as arguments by opponents to the substitution of CO 2 emitting energy sources by electricity to artificially increase the low carbon content of the French electricity, notably by putting electric heating into question again

  7. The E1 transitions in kaonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, I.E.

    1984-01-01

    The electric dipole transition rates in kanonic atoms are calculated by using distorted relativistic wave functions. The kaon-nucleus strong interaction which is responsible for the distortion of atomic states is considered to be proportional to the nuclear density and the effective isospin-averaged kaon-nucleon scattering length. Six atoms have been studied for which the last observed X-rays correspond to 3d-2p, 4f-3d, 5g-4f, 6h-5g, 7i-6h and 8j-7i transitions. It is found that the electric dipole transition rate is enhanced by an amount (0.3-7.6)x10 13 s -1 . (orig.)

  8. Coulomb-nuclear interference measurements of hexadecapole deformations in 168Yb and 178,180Hf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nettles, W.G.; Mississippi Coll., Clinton; Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Coulomb-nuclear interference studies of 168 Yb and 178,180 Hf have been carried out with alpha particles from the Pittsburgh tandem. From coupled channel fits to the data at 18 MeV for 168 Yb and 19.5 MeV for 178,180 Hf, β 4 c values of -0.030(20), -0.166(18), and -0.180(6) were obtained, respectively. These data agree with the positive M 04 value from sub-Coulomb studies of 168 Yb but with the large negative M 04 values from sub-Coulomb studies of 178,180 Hf. (author)

  9. Three aspects of the Germany-France comparison on electricity. Electricity production and consumption in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laponche, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    As a comparative overview of the French and German situation regarding electric power, a first article proposes tables and graphs illustrating data evolution, and brief comments about these evolutions. Comparison focuses on household electricity consumption, on electricity exchanges, and on the production of electricity based on renewable energies. An appendix proposes a presentation of the German policy for energy transition: principles and objectives, phasing out nuclear, implementation. Then, an article, illustrated by data tables and graphs, discusses the evolution of electric power production and consumption in Germany between 2000 and 2013. The author addresses power final consumption, power total production and exchanges, the components of electric power production, and greenhouse gas emissions (by fossil fuel, by sector, and by electricity and heat production)

  10. Electrical properties, phase transitions and conduction mechanisms of the [(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})NH{sub 3}]{sub 2}CdCl{sub 4} compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed, C. Ben; Karoui, K. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter, Faculty of Science of Sfax, University of Sfax, BP1171- 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Saidi, S. [Laboratory of Materials, Organization and Properties (LMOP), Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Tunis-El Manar University, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Guidara, K. [Laboratory of Condensed Matter, Faculty of Science of Sfax, University of Sfax, BP1171- 3000 Sfax (Tunisia); Rhaiem, A. Ben, E-mail: abdallahrhaiem@yahoo.fr [Laboratory of Condensed Matter, Faculty of Science of Sfax, University of Sfax, BP1171- 3000 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2014-10-15

    The [(C{sub 2}H{sub 5})NH{sub 3}]{sub 2}CdCl{sub 4} hybrid material was prepared and its calorimetric study and electric properties were investigated at low temperature. The X-ray powder diffractogram has shown that the compound is crystallized in the orthorhombic system with Abma space group, and the refined unit cell parameters are a=7.546 Å, b=7.443 Å, and c=21.831 Å. The calorimetric study has revealed two endothermic peaks at 216 K and 357 K, which are confirmed by the variation of f{sub p} and σ{sub dc} as a function of temperature. The equivalent circuit based on the Z-View-software was proposed and the conduction mechanisms were determined. The obtained results have been discussed in terms of the correlated barrier hopping model (CBH) in phase I (low temperature (OLT)), non-overlapping small polaron tunneling model (NSPT) in phase II (room temperature (ORT)) and the overlapping large polaron tunneling model in phase III (high temperature (OHT)). The density of localized states N{sub F}(E) at the Fermi level and the binding energy W{sub m} were calculated. The variation of the dielectric loss log(ε″) with log(ω) was found to follow the empirical law, ε″=B ω{sup m(T)}.

  11. Digital systems, a new ally for renewable energies: Energy supply is revolutionized; Electric power: bits in the grid; Energy transition: collectivities are in open data mode; Renewable energies: GAFAs are running around; Block-chain: a revolution to be refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, Anne-Claire; Piro, Patrick; Bongrain, Timothee

    2017-01-01

    With 'digitalisation', data are increasingly at the heart of renewable energy production systems, for reducing costs, optimizing decentralized production, etc. This file contains 5 articles which themes are: after the apparition of several energy 'alternative' providers some ten years ago, a new generation of fully-digitalized providers (Ilek, Plum Energie, ekWateur, etc.) is revolutionizing the French energy sector; RTE and Enedis, the two subsidiaries of Electricite de France, are increasingly investing in digital systems in order to cope with the integration of renewable energies, through a more agile and flexible approach; As the French legislation has now established 'open data' for energy data, this could be an efficient tool for public communities in their sustainable energy policy approach; Google, Apple, Facebook and Amazon (Gafa) have recently decided to 'green' the enormous electric power quantities they consume, leading to very positive consequences for renewable energies; Energy providers are more and more interested in Block-chain, the technology for peer-to-peer transaction platforms that uses decentralised storage to record all transaction data, as it could be essential for renewable energies; however, the technology needs to be improved

  12. An Electricity-Alcohol Transportation Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, David [Inst. for Local Self-Reliance, Minneapolis (United States)

    2006-07-15

    In the United States, a dual fuel system may be emerging as a consensus strategy for a rapid transition to an oil free transportation system. The energy source for the vehicles will be a combination of electricity and alcohols. The technology will be a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle whose batteries can be charged from the national grid system, and a backup flexible fueled engine, primarily fueled by alcohols.

  13. BC Transit Fuel Cell Bus Project: Evaluation Results Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Post, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    This report evaluates a fuel cell electric bus demonstration led by British Columbia Transit (BC Transit) in Whistler, Canada. BC Transit is collaborating with the California Air Resources Board and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory to evaluate the buses in revenue service. This evaluation report covers two years of revenue service data on the buses from April 2011 through March 2013.

  14. Atomic Transition Probabilities Scandium through Manganese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.A.; Fuhr, J.R.; Wiese, W.L.

    1988-01-01

    Atomic transition probabilities for about 8,800 spectral lines of five iron-group elements, Sc(Z = 21) to Mn(Z = 25), are critically compiled, based on all available literature sources. The data are presented in separate tables for each element and stage of ionization and are further subdivided into allowed (i.e., electric dipole-E1) and forbidden (magnetic dipole-M1, electric quadrupole-E2, and magnetic quadrupole-M2) transitions. Within each data table the spectral lines are grouped into multiplets, which are in turn arranged according to parent configurations, transition arrays, and ascending quantum numbers. For each line the transition probability for spontaneous emission and the line strength are given, along with the spectroscopic designation, the wavelength, the statistical weights, and the energy levels of the upper and lower states. For allowed lines the absorption oscillator strength is listed, while for forbidden transitions the type of transition is identified (M1, E2, etc.). In addition, the estimated accuracy and the source are indicated. In short introductions, which precede the tables for each ion, the main justifications for the choice of the adopted data and for the accuracy rating are discussed. A general introduction contains a discussion of our method of evaluation and the principal criteria for our judgements

  15. Electrical transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, D P

    1960-05-01

    After briefly tracing the history of electricity transmission, trends in high voltage transmission and experiments being conducted on 650 kV are discussed. 5000 miles of the U.K. grid are operated at 132 kV and 1000 at 275 kV, ultimately to provide a super grid at 380 kV. Problems are insulation, radio interference and the cost of underground lines (16 times that of overhead lines). Also considered are the economics of the grid as a means of transporting energy and as a means of spreading the peak load over the power stations in the most efficient manner. Finally, the question of amenities is discussed.

  16. Electric rivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCutcheon, S.

    1992-04-01

    James Bay II, the projected Canadian hydroelectric power plant of gigantic dimensions, is to deliver its electricity to Europe: in the USA, opposition to power imports from James Bay is growing. Its realization means the flooding of an area as big as the Federal Republic of Germany; the native territory and hunting grounds of the Cree indians would be inundated. The interests of the European power industry in the James Bay project and the consequences for Europe are described in an appendix (EQHHPP project, project management Hydro-Quebec and Ludwig Boelkow Foundation, hydrogen production through electrolysis, methods for transporting hydrogen to Hamburg). (orig./HP) [de

  17. Structural Transition and Electrical Properties of (1 - x)(Na0.4K0.1Bi0.5)TiO3- xSrTiO3 Lead-Free Piezoceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xing; Zhai, Jiwei; Shen, Bo; Li, Feng; Li, Peng

    2017-10-01

    (1 - x)(Na0.4K0.1Bi0.5)TiO3- xSrTiO3 (NKBT- xST) ceramics with x = 0 mol.%, 3 mol.%, and 5 mol.% (0ST, 3ST, and 5ST) have been prepared by a conventional solid-state reaction method and their ferroelectric, electrostrictive, and pyroelectric properties investigated. Addition of ST considerably disrupted the long-range ferroelectric order of NKBT- xST ceramics, and the 5ST ceramic exhibited ergodic relaxor phase structure. T FR shifted to near or below room temperature for 5ST ceramic, accompanied by a significant decline of ferroelectricity and enhanced strain. As the temperature approached T FR, the NKBT- xST ceramics exhibited predominantly electrostrictive effect, and the 5ST ceramic presented relatively high electrostrictive coefficient Q 33 of 0.0193 m4/C2. High pyroelectric response was observed for 0ST, 3ST, and 5ST ceramics in the vicinity of T FR due to the large polarization release during the ferroelectric-relaxor structural transition. The 5ST ceramic exhibited high and frequency-insensitive (100 Hz to 10 kHz) room-temperature pyroelectric properties with pyroelectric coefficient p of 656 μC m-2 K-1 and figures of merit F i, F v, and F d reaching 233 pm/V, 0.013 m2/C, and 7.61 μPa-1/2, respectively, indicating that 5ST ceramic is a promising candidate to replace PZT-based ceramics.

  18. Electricity prices in a competitive market: a preliminary analysis of the deregulated Thai electricity industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipattanasomporn, M.; Ongsakul, W.; Pacudan, R.; Lefevre, T.

    2000-01-01

    The electricity industry throughout the world is currently undergoing a significant transition towards restructuring and deregulation. Following this new legislation, Thailand has initiated an institutional and structural reform with a belief that this could be the best way forward for the Thai electricity supply industry (ESI) to improve efficiency, lower electricity prices, and tackle financial debts. This paper presents an analysis of the extent to which prices for generation services in a competitive market may differ from regulated electricity prices, if competitive prices are based on marginal costs and regulated prices are based on average costs, by using Thailand as a case study. (Author)

  19. Sustainable Federal Fleets: Deploying Electric Vehicles and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps federal agencies reduce petroleum consumption and increase alternative fuel use through its resources for Sustainable Federal Fleets. To assist agencies with the transition to plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), including battery electric vehicles (BEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), FEMP offers technical guidance on electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) installations and site-specific planning through partnerships with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) EVSE Tiger Teams.

  20. [Electrical storm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnay, C; Taieb, J; Morice, R

    2007-11-01

    Electrical storm is defined as repeated occurrence of severe ventricular arrhythmias requiring multiple cardioversions, two or more or three or more following different studies. The clinical aspect can sometimes be made of multiple, self aggravating, life threatening accesses. There are three main clinical circumstances of occurrence: in patients equipped with intracardiac defibrillators, during the acute phase of myocardial infarction and in Brugada syndrome. 10 to 15% of patients with cardiac defibrillators are subject to electrical storms in a period of two years. The causative arrhythmia is most often ventricular tachycardia than ventricular fibrillation, especially in secondary prevention and if the initial arrhythmias justifying the device was a ventricular tachycardia. Precipitaing factors are present in one third of cases, mainly acute heart failure, ionic disorders and arrhythmogenic drugs. Predictive factors are age, left ventricular ejection fractionelectrical shock in 50% of cases, antitachycardi stimulation in 30% and in 20% by association of the two. Treatment, after elimination of inappropriate shocks, is mainly based on beta-blockers and amiodarone, class I antiarrhythmics, lidocaïne or bretylium in some cases, and sedation pushed to general anesthesia in some cases. Radio-frequency ablation and even heart transplantation have been proposed in extreme cases. Quinidine has been proved efficient in cases of Brugada syndrome.

  1. Electric crossover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuster, R.M.; Luria, N.G.

    1977-01-01

    This invention concerns an electric crossover that makes a steam and pressure-tight seal for a conductor crossing two separate walls of a nuclear reactor vessel that seismic tremors or thermal expansion of the walls and conductor subject to relative displacements. The conductors, that have to cross the vessels, are fixed to the walls of the vessel in crossover systems fitted in crossover channels made in the walls of the vessel on their initial manufacture. The separate walls of the vessel move independently when they undergo an earth tremor or a temperature change between the walls or between the conductor. This shift can damage the conductor or the crossover system and this could give rise to cause steam or other materials to leak in the reactor should leaks occur in the primary system. Furthermore, in the case of medium or high power conductors, which are relatively rigid, the non-alignment of the crossover channels can bring about awkward stresses in the conductors or their protective sheathing. The aims of this invention are fulfilled by designing an electric crossover to pass at least one conductor through the two separate walls of a vessels, that includes an initial sub-assembly crossover, secured in a leak-tight manner to the first wall and a second sub-sessembly crossover in sliding or rolling contact with the second wall, whilst forming a leak-tight seal with it [fr

  2. Branching ratios of radiative transitions in O VI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sur, Chiranjib; Chaudhuri, Rajat K

    2007-01-01

    We study the branching ratios of the allowed and forbidden radiative transitions among the first few (9) fine structure levels of O VI using relativistic coupled-cluster theory. We find irregular patterns for a number of transitions within n-complexes with n ≤ 4. We have used the existing values of the allowed electric dipole (E1) transition as a benchmark of our theory. Good agreement with the existing values establish accuracies of not only the theoretical method but the basis function as well. In general, the electric quadrupole (E2) transition probabilities are greater in magnitude than magnetic dipole (M1) transition probabilities, whereas for medium atomic transition frequencies they are of the same order of magnitude. On the other hand, if the transitions involved are in between two fine-structure components of the same term, then the M1 transition probability is more probable than that of E2. The results presented here in tabular and graphical form are compared with the available theoretical and observed data. Graphical analysis helps to understand the trends of electric and magnetic transitions for the decay channels presented here. Our calculated values of the lifetimes of the excited states are in very good agreement with the available results

  3. Electric vortex lines from the Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, N.K.; Olesen, P.

    1978-08-01

    The dynamics of an unstable Yang-Mills field mode previously found by the authors is developed. It is argued that this unstable mode corresponds to the transition to a state where electric vortex lines are created. (Auth.)

  4. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Septon, Kendall K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-11

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  5. Electric-Drive Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-09-01

    Electric-drive vehicles use electricity as their primary fuel or to improve the efficiency of conventional vehicle designs. These vehicles can be divided into three categories: Hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), All-electric vehicles (EVs). Together, PHEVs and EVs can also be referred to as plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs).

  6. Space charge effect in SQS transition in a gas counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohgaki, Hideaki; Kametani, Hitoshi; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Uozumi, Yuusuke; Ijiri, Hidenobu; Matoba, Masaru; Sakae, Takeji; Koori, Norihiko

    1990-01-01

    Systematic investigation of the gas multiplication characteristics in the transition region from proportional to SQS mode in a cylindrical proportional counter has been performed. The property of saturation of the gas multiplication factor can be reproduced using the effective electric field which is corrected for the space charge related to the positive ion density in the avalanche. Photon-mediated gas multiplication can explain the large jump phenomenon of the SQS transition. It is shown that the effective electric field in the avalanche becomes almost zero near the anode surface (Meek's streamer condition) at the 50% transition voltage and the region of its maximum moves slightly away from the anode surface. (orig.)

  7. The future electricity business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budhraja, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    The transition of the electricity business into the competitive market will result in change as significant as that brought about by the PC or the deregulation of telecommunications,and with it opportunities for new products, service, and technologies, particularly to support an increase in distributed generation. The electricity business has been viewed as having three building blocks--generation, transmission, and distribution. Almost all investments in these three sectors historically have been made by utilities, but now these investments have begun to be made by customers or new entrants under a competitive market model. With the high-voltage transmission system largely built, the business focus will shift to efficient utilization of that infrastructure through investments in grid automation control, communications, and network management. And while the primary function of the distribution system--connecting customers to the utility grid--will remain unchanged, there will be new requirements on the distribution system to integrate distributed technologies and customer micro grids. Generation power plants are as likely to be located at customer sites as at utility or central-station sites. Customers may choose to create micro grids that are locally self sufficient and may or may not be connected to the utility grid. The characteristics of the distribution grid are likely to change from a one-way system in which power flows from utility central-station power plants to customers, to a two-way system in which power may flow in either direction. Hence, the focus will increasingly shift to integration of portfolio of distributed technologies. The opening of the electricity business to competition also opens new markets and business opportunities for new entrants

  8. Electricity privatisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, Frank; Skinner, Dennis; Marshall, John

    1990-01-01

    In this amendment debate about the privatisation of the electricity supply, the opposition develops a number of themes detracting from the government's policy in this matter. It is felt that the industry is being sold off much too cheaply, at about one third of its value based on previous audits. Measures to prevent environmental damage are not likely to be implemented as they would reduce profits. Fuel reserves are in danger of depletion, especially natural gas. Coal imports will increase with accompanying threats to the balance of payments. Lastly, it is argued that very large sums of money are being paid unnecessarily to City Analysts and that big business and M.P.s are acting immorally in extracting money from what should be a publicly owned utility. The amendment was defeated by 298 to 186. (author)

  9. Electrical properties of phosphate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogus-Milankovic, A; Santic, A; Reis, S T; Day, D E

    2009-01-01

    Investigation of the electrical properties of phosphate glasses where transition metal oxide such as iron oxide is the network former and network modifier is presented. Phosphate glasses containing iron are electronically conducting glasses where the polaronic conduction is due to the electron hopping from low to high iron valence state. The identification of structural defects caused by ion/polaron migration, the analysis of dipolar states and electrical conductivity in iron phosphate glasses containing various alkali and mixed alkali ions was performed on the basis of the impedance spectroscopy (IS). The changes in electrical conductivity from as-quenched phosphate glass to fully crystallized glass (glass-ceramics) by IS are analyzed. A change in the characteristic features of IS follows the changes in glass and crystallized glass network. Using IS, the contribution of glass matrix, crystallized grains and grain boundary to the total electrical conductivity for iron phosphate glasses was analyzed. It was shown that decrease in conductivity is caused by discontinuities in the conduction pathways as a result of the disruption of crystalline network where two or more crystalline phases are formed. Also, phosphate-based glasses offer a unique range of biomaterials, as they form direct chemical bonding with hard/soft tissue. The surface charges of bioactive glasses are recognized to be the most important factors in determining biological responses. The improved bioactivity of the bioactive glasses as a result of the effects of the surface charges generated by electrical polarization is discussed.

  10. Load profiles analysis for electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Porumb

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of electric power system transition towards smart grids, and the adoption of the electric market schemes, electric utilities are facing the need of a better load profiles understanding for their customers. In this work, some key objectives were addresses, such as definition of the mathematical model for calculating the hourly energy specific, identification of the three target groups for users who have developed consumer profiles, definition of the two types of significant load and assessment of the impact of using consumer profiles on users.

  11. A General Overview of Electric Road Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamblin, Veronique

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue with two articles: the first of these by Pierre Bonnaure, above, assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process; this second article by Veronique Lamblin offers a general over - view of electric road vehicles (passenger cars, heavy good vehicles, bicycles etc.) throughout the world. (author)

  12. A Bumpy Ride for Electric Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue, first through this article by Pierre Bonnaure that assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process, and then with an article by Veronique Lamblin offering a general overview of electric road vehicles. (author)

  13. Calculation of transition probabilities using the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ki; Desclaux, Jean Paul; Indelicato, Paul

    1998-01-01

    The performance of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method in calculating transition probabilities of atoms is reviewed. In general, the MCDF wave functions will lead to transition probabilities accurate to ∼ 10% or better for strong, electric-dipole allowed transitions for small atoms. However, it is more difficult to get reliable transition probabilities for weak transitions. Also, some MCDF wave functions for a specific J quantum number may not reduce to the appropriate L and S quantum numbers in the nonrelativistic limit. Transition probabilities calculated from such MCDF wave functions for nonrelativistically forbidden transitions are unreliable. Remedies for such cases are discussed

  14. Electrical Control of Excitons in Semiconductor Nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirsanské, Gabija

    The scope of this thesis covers investigation of the exciton Mott transition in coupled quantum wells, fabrication of photonic-crystal structures with embedded self-assembled quantum dots, and tuning of their properties by means of an external electric field. In the first part of the thesis the f...

  15. Explaining variance in national electric vehicle policies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesseling, Joeri

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Transition studies’ understanding of differences in public policy is limited due to its tendency to focus on single-country cases. This paper assesses differences in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) policies, comprising RD&D subsidies, infrastructure investments and sales incentives, across

  16. Energy transition: which opportunities for the French industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bousson, Guillaume; Pouzeratte, Francois; Pierret, Christian; Bensasson, Bruno; Bouttes, Jean-Paul; Bouygues, Olivier; Durdilly, Robert; Geoffron, Patrice; Ladoucette, Philippe de; Lepercq, Thierry; Maillard, Dominique; Rosier, Philippe; Sauquet, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    Regulatory requirements introduced by the new policy of energy transition will force the French industry to look for alternatives to oil and coal. Within this context, this publication contains contributions proposed by industrial and academic experts which aim at discussing how the French industry can seize the opportunity of energy transition to strengthen itself. The authors discuss the issue of competitiveness, the role of de-carbonated electricity, the context of energy transition in France, the evolutions and transformations of the energy market. They also outline the lack of an energy vision in France, the role of the electricity grid as a vector of energy transition, and the fact that the debate on energy transition did not result in concrete solutions

  17. Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    The Biodiesel Mass Transit Demonstration report is intended for mass transit decision makers and fleet managers considering biodiesel use. This is the final report for the demonstration project implemented by the National Biodiesel Board under a gran...

  18. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  19. The Full Costs of Electricity Provision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horst Keppler, Jan; Rothwell, Geoffrey; Cometto, Marco; Deffrennes, Marc; Iracane, Daniel; Ha, Jaejoo; Paillere, Henri; ); Aspelund, Karl; Aydil, Ismail; ); Berthelemy, Michel; Devezeaux De Lavergne, Jean-Guy; Burtin, Alain; Crozat, Matthew P.; D'Haeseleer, William; Friedrich, Reiner; Gonzalez Jimenez, Antonio; Hirschberg, Stefan; Kiso, Jan-Ole; ); Lee, Manki; Le Masne, Dominique; ); Lundmark, Roger J.; Neumann, Doris; ); Politis, Savvas; ); Prin, Coralie; Skonieczny, Olgierd; Voss, Alfred

    2018-01-01

    Electricity provision touches upon every facet of life in OECD and non-OECD countries alike, and choosing how this electricity is generated - whether from fossil fuels, nuclear energy or renewables - affects not only economic outcomes but individual and social well-being in the broader sense. Research on the overall costs of electricity is an ongoing effort, as only certain costs of electricity provision are perceived directly by producers and consumers. Other costs, such as the health impacts of air pollution, damage from climate change or the effects on the electricity system of small-scale variable production are not reflected in market prices and thus diminish well-being in unaccounted for ways. Accounting for these social costs in order to establish the full costs of electricity provision is difficult, yet such costs are too important to be disregarded in the context of the energy transitions currently under way in OECD and NEA countries. This report draws on evidence from a large number of studies concerning the social costs of electricity and identifies proven instruments for internalising them so as to improve overall welfare. The results outlined in the report should lead to new and more comprehensive research on the full costs of electricity, which in turn would allow policy makers and the public to make better informed decisions along the path towards fully sustainable electricity systems

  20. γ transitions from 30P and 32S nuclei resonance levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostin, V.Ya.; Kopanets, E.G.; Koval', A.A.

    1977-01-01

    The probability distributions of dipole and quadrupole electromagnetic transitions from resonance excitation-energy range from 6.2 to 8.3 MeV and from 9.2 to 12.0 MeV respectively, were obtained. An analysis of the distributions shows that isovector dipole electic and magnetic transitions are comparable in magnitude with transitions between bound states. Isoscalar dipole transitions are stronger by an order of magnitude than transitions between bound states. This may be attributed to the increase in isospin mixing in the resonance range of excitation of atomic nuclei. Quadrupole electrical transitions have strengths comparable with those of transitions between bound states. For magnetic quadrupole transitions, a strong increase in transition probabilities compared with transitions between bound states is noted. The isospin selection rules for γ transitions in self-conjugate nuclei are discussed

  1. Quantum phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Phase transitions are normally associated with changes of temperature but a new type of transition - caused by quantum fluctuations near absolute zero - is possible, and can tell us more about the properties of a wide range of systems in condensed-matter physics. Nature abounds with phase transitions. The boiling and freezing of water are everyday examples of phase transitions, as are more exotic processes such as superconductivity and superfluidity. The universe itself is thought to have passed through several phase transitions as the high-temperature plasma formed by the big bang cooled to form the world as we know it today. Phase transitions are traditionally classified as first or second order. In first-order transitions the two phases co-exist at the transition temperature - e.g. ice and water at 0 deg., or water and steam at 100 deg. In second-order transitions the two phases do not co-exist. In the last decade, attention has focused on phase transitions that are qualitatively different from the examples noted above: these are quantum phase transitions and they occur only at the absolute zero of temperature. The transition takes place at the ''quantum critical'' value of some other parameter such as pressure, composition or magnetic field strength. A quantum phase transition takes place when co-operative ordering of the system disappears, but this loss of order is driven solely by the quantum fluctuations demanded by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The physical properties of these quantum fluctuations are quite distinct from those of the thermal fluctuations responsible for traditional, finite-temperature phase transitions. In particular, the quantum system is described by a complex-valued wavefunction, and the dynamics of its phase near the quantum critical point requires novel theories that have no analogue in the traditional framework of phase transitions. In this article the author describes the history of quantum phase transitions. (UK)

  2. Cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1993-10-01

    If modern ideas about the role of spontaneous symmetry breaking in fundamental physics are correct, then the Universe should have undergone a series of phase transitions early in its history. The study of cosmological phase transitions has become an important aspect of early-Universe cosmology. In this lecture I review some very recent work on three aspects of phase transitions: the electroweak transition, texture, and axions

  3. Modeling for transition management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, E.J.L.; Dijkema, G.P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  4. Modeling for Transition Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chappin, Emile J L; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.

    2015-01-01

    A framework for the modeling and simulation of transitions is presented. A transition, “substantial change in the state of a socio-technical system”, typically unfolds over a long timespan. We therefore suggest to use simulation to inform transition managers on the effect of their decisions.

  5. Microwave stability at transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, J.A.; Colestock, P.L.

    1995-05-01

    The question of microwave stability at transition is revisited using a Vlasov approach retaining higher order terms in the particle dynamics near the transition energy. A dispersion relation is derived which can be solved numerically for the complex frequency in terms of the longitudinal impedance and other beam parameters. Stability near transition is examined and compared with simulation results

  6. Transit manager's handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This handbook provides an overview of public transit in Iowa and how to do business with the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) Office of Public Transit (OPT). It is intended to be a tool to assist transit managers navigate through the many...

  7. Transit labor relations guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...

  8. Transition: Preschool to Kindergarten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Transition is movement or change without interruption. It should be a smooth flow from one place or condition to another. While the transition plan for a student receiving special education services is designed to prepare him or her for life after high school, transition can start when a child enters preschool. The second of six distinct stages of…

  9. Electrical equipment design library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This book guides the design supervision, construction order for electrical equipment. The contents of this library are let's use electricity like this, leading-in-pole and casual power, electric pole install below 300KVA, electric pole install below 301∼1000KVA, electric pole install exceed 1000KVA, rooftop install exceed 1000KVA, CUBICLE type, 154KV services. It adds an appendix.

  10. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  11. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lighting • Energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  12. Tariff policy in Romania. Strategic elements for developing electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manea, D.; Indre, G.; Gugu, F.; Vilceanu, M.

    1996-01-01

    Starting from considerations of economic mechanisms as the main tools for developing electricity supply technology in Romania. The guidelines of Romanian policy for electricity rates and tariffs are presented. The main constraints and difficulties of designing rates and tariffs in a transitional economy are analysed. Models are presented for strategic development of rates and tariffs, and the role of tariffs is discussed in promoting electric technologies in Romanian social and economic activities. (author)

  13. Electrical conduction in solid materials physicochemical bases and possible applications

    CERN Document Server

    Suchet, J P

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Conduction in Solid Materials (Physicochemical Bases and Possible Applications) investigates the physicochemical bases and possible applications of electrical conduction in solid materials, with emphasis on conductors, semiconductors, and insulators. Topics range from the interatomic bonds of conductors to the effective atomic charge in conventional semiconductors and magnetic transitions in switching semiconductors. Comprised of 10 chapters, this volume begins with a description of electrical conduction in conductors and semiconductors, metals and alloys, as well as interatomic bon

  14. High electric field conduction in low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Priyanka; Yuan, Mengxue; Gao, Jun; Furman, Eugene; Lanagan, Michael T.

    2018-02-01

    Electrical conduction in silica-based glasses under a low electric field is dominated by high mobility ions such as sodium, and there is a transition from ionic transport to electronic transport as the electric field exceeds 108 V/m at low temperatures. Electrical conduction under a high electric field was investigated in thin low-alkali boroaluminosilicate glass samples, showing nonlinear conduction with the current density scaling approximately with E1/2, where E is the electric field. In addition, thermally stimulated depolarization current (TSDC) characterization was carried out on room-temperature electrically poled glass samples, and an anomalous discharging current flowing in the same direction as the charging current was observed. High electric field conduction and TSDC results led to the conclusion that Poole-Frenkel based electronic transport occurs in the mobile-cation-depleted region adjacent to the anode, and accounts for the observed anomalous current.

  15. State electricity profiles, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Due to the role electricity plays in the Nation`s economic and social well-being, interested parties have been following the electric power industry`s transition by keeping abreast of the restructuring and deregulation events that are taking place almost daily. Much of the attention centers around the States and how they are restructuring the business of electricity supply within their respective jurisdictions. This report is designed to profile each State and the District of Columbia regarding not only their current restructuring activities, but also their electricity generation and concomitant statistics from 1986 through 1996. Included are data on a number of subject areas including generating capability, generation, revenues, fuel use, capacity factor for nuclear plants, retail sales, and pollutant emissions. Although the Energy Information Administration (EIA) publishes this type of information, there is a lack of a uniform overview for each individual State. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. In addition to basic statistics in tables and graphs, a textual section is provided for each State, discussing some of the points relative to electricity production that are noteworthy in, or unique to, that particular State. Also, each State is ranked according to the place it holds, as compared to the rest of the states, in various relevant areas, such as its average price of electricity per kilowatthour, its population, and its emissions of certain atmospheric pollutants. The final chapter covers the Nation as a whole. 451 figs., 520 tabs.

  16. Transition Theory – Sustainable Transition of Socio-Technical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergård, Bent; Holm, Jesper; Stauning, Inger

    2015-01-01

    Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction......Theories of transition management, transition studies and social practise theory Applied to studies of hosuing and construction...

  17. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  18. Electrical Methods: Resistivity Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surface electrical resistivity surveying is based on the principle that the distribution of electrical potential in the ground around a current-carrying electrode depends on the electrical resistivities and distribution of the surrounding soils and rocks.

  19. Controlling Electrical Hazards

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    ...). In general, OSHA's electrical standards are based on the National Fire Protection Associations Standard NFPA 70E, Electrical Safety Requirements for Employee Workplaces, and in turn, from the National Electrical Code (NEC...

  20. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker - large piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker is made of 300'000 straw tubes, up to 144cm long. Filled with a gas mixture and threaded with a wire, each straw is a complete mini-detector in its own right. An electric field is applied between the wire and the outside wall of the straw. As particles pass through, they collide with atoms in the gas, knocking out electrons. The avalanche of electrons is detected as an electrical signal on the wire in the centre. The tracker plays two important roles. Firstly, it makes more position measurements, giving more dots for the computers to join up to recreate the particle tracks. Also, together with the ATLAS calorimeters, it distinguishes between different types of particles depending on whether they emit radiation as they make the transition from the surrounding foil into the straws.

  1. ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker - small piece

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The ATLAS transition radiation tracker is made of 300'000 straw tubes, up to 144cm long. Filled with a gas mixture and threaded with a wire, each straw is a complete mini-detector in its own right. An electric field is applied between the wire and the outside wall of the straw. As particles pass through, they collide with atoms in the gas, knocking out electrons. The avalanche of electrons is detected as an electrical signal on the wire in the centre. The tracker plays two important roles. Firstly, it makes more position measurements, giving more dots for the computers to join up to recreate the particle tracks. Also, together with the ATLAS calorimeters, it distinguishes between different types of particles depending on whether they emit radiation as they make the transition from the surrounding foil into the straws.

  2. Agricultural Electricity. Electric Motors. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Robert T.

    Addressed to the student, this manual, which includes supplementary diagrams, discusses the following topics and principles: Electromagnetic fields, electromagnets, parts of an electric motor, determining speed of an electric motor, types of electric motors in common use (split-phase, capacitor, repulsion-induction, three-phase), the electric…

  3. Prices on electricity and transmission of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication contains data on prices of electric energy and transmission of electricity valid from 1 January 2003. The purpose is to illustrate the price changes on the electricity market in terms of prices for different customer categories. All companies holding network concessions for areas and all companies trading in electricity are included in this report, which is produced on an annual basis.The prices for transmission services 1 January 2003 were on the whole unchanged compared to the preceding year. For households the mean annual cost was SEK 882 for flats, SEK 4 335 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 1 925 for those without electric heating. Electricity prices rose considerably on 1 January 2003 compared to the year before. The mean price per kWh for households with standard agreements was SEK 0.519 for deliveries to flats, SEK 0.447 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating and SEK 0.471 without electric heating. As a result, the mean annual cost increased by SEK 326 for flats, SEK 3 012 for one- or two-family houses with electric heating, and by SEK 774 for those houses without electric heating. The high costs of electricity may be explained in part by the development on the Nordic Power Exchange (Nord Pool), where the spot price increased by about 290 per cent during 2002 (1 USD is about 8 SEK)

  4. Economic Rebalancing and Electricity Demand in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Gang [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Advanced Light Source (ALS); Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Lin, Jiang [Energy Foundation, Beijing (China); Yuan, Alexandria [Energy Foundation, Beijing (China)

    2015-11-01

    Understanding the relationship between economic growth and electricity use is essential for power systems planning. This need is particularly acute now in China, as the Chinese economy is going through a transition to a more consumption and service oriented economy. This study uses 20 years of provincial data on gross domestic product (GDP) and electricity consumption to examine the relationship between these two factors. We observe a plateauing effect of electricity consumption in the richest provinces, as the electricity demand saturates and the economy develops and moves to a more service-based economy. There is a wide range of forecasts for electricity use in 2030, ranging from 5,308 to 8,292 kWh per capita, using different estimating functions, as well as in existing studies. It is therefore critical to examine more carefully the relationship between electricity use and economic development, as China transitions to a new growth phase that is likely to be less energy and resource intensive. The results of this study suggest that policymakers and power system planners in China should seriously re-evaluate power demand projections and the need for new generation capacity to avoid over-investment that could lead to stranded generation assets.

  5. Gifts from Exoplanetary Transits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Norio

    2009-08-01

    The discovery of transiting extrasolar planets has enabled us to do a number of interesting studies. Transit photometry reveals the radius and the orbital inclination of transiting planets, which allows us to learn the true mass and density of the respective planets by the combined information from radial velocity (RV) measurements. In addition, follow-up observations of transiting planets, looking at such things as secondary eclipses, transit timing variations, transmission spectroscopy, and the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect, provide us information about their dayside temperatures, unseen bodies in systems, planetary atmospheres, and the obliquity of planetary orbits. Such observational information, which will provide us a greater understanding of extrasolar planets, is available only for transiting planets. Here, I briefly summarize what we can learn from transiting planets and introduce previous studies.

  6. The potential of electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    Electric vehicles can help reduce the dependence of road transport on imported oil, cut the country's energy bill, reduce greenhouse gas emissions, improve air quality in cities through zero exhaust emissions and reduce noise pollution. The economic costs and environmental impacts of electric vehicles are mostly concentrated at the manufacturing stage, whereas the costs and impacts of internal combustion vehicles are predominantly felt during usage. So we cannot simply compare vehicles as objects, we must see how they are used, which means taking a fresh look at the full potential of electric vehicles which must be used intensely to be economically and environmentally viable. The main advantage of internal combustion vehicles is their ability to carry a very large amount of energy giving them a very large range and significant versatility. However, the consequences of the use of fossil fuels on the climate and the environment today require us to look for other solutions for vehicles and mobility systems. Electric vehicles are among these: its lack of versatility, due to its still limited range, is offset by being more adaptable and optimised for the usage sought. Electric vehicles are particularly suitable for new mobility services offerings and allow the transition to new ways of travelling to be speeded up optimising the use of the vehicle and no longer requiring ownership of it. The use of digital, facilitated by the electrical engine, opens up numerous opportunities for innovations and new services (such as the autonomous vehicle for example). In addition, electric vehicles can do more than just transport. Their batteries provide useful energy storage capabilities that can help regulate the power grid and the development of renewable energy. The marketing of electric vehicles may be accompanied by energy services that can be economically viable and used to structure the electro-mobility offer in return. To minimise the impact on the electrical grid, it is

  7. Electrical engineer's reference book

    CERN Document Server

    Laughton, M A

    1985-01-01

    Electrical Engineer's Reference Book, Fourteenth Edition focuses on electrical engineering. The book first discusses units, mathematics, and physical quantities, including the international unit system, physical properties, and electricity. The text also looks at network and control systems analysis. The book examines materials used in electrical engineering. Topics include conducting materials, superconductors, silicon, insulating materials, electrical steels, and soft irons and relay steels. The text underscores electrical metrology and instrumentation, steam-generating plants, turbines

  8. DOE handbook electrical safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    Electrical Safety Handbook presents the Department of Energy (DOE) safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety guidance and information for DOE installations to effect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of this handbook are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  9. Electrical safety guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Electrical Safety Guidelines prescribes the DOE safety standards for DOE field offices or facilities involved in the use of electrical energy. It has been prepared to provide a uniform set of electrical safety standards and guidance for DOE installations in order to affect a reduction or elimination of risks associated with the use of electrical energy. The objectives of these guidelines are to enhance electrical safety awareness and mitigate electrical hazards to employees, the public, and the environment.

  10. Anomalous Capacitive Sheath with Deep Radio Frequency Electric Field Penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    A novel nonlinear effect of anomalously deep penetration of an external radio-frequency electric field into a plasma is described. A self-consistent kinetic treatment reveals a transition region between the sheath and the plasma. Because of the electron velocity modulation in the sheath, bunches in the energetic electron density are formed in the transition region adjusted to the sheath. The width of the region is of order V(subscript T)/omega, where V(subscript T) is the electron thermal velocity, and w is frequency of the electric field. The presence of the electric field in the transition region results in a cooling of the energetic electrons and an additional heating of the cold electrons in comparison with the case when the transition region is neglected

  11. Electric engineering introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Byeong Won; Eom, Sang Ho

    1999-03-01

    It is divided into nine chapters, which includes electricity theory such as structure of material and current, nature of electricity, static, magnetic force and magnetic attraction, attraction of current and a storage battery, electric circuit on a direct current circuit, single phase circuit and 3-phase current circuit electricity machine like DC generator, DC motor, alternator, electric transformer, single-phase induction motor, 3-phase induction motor, synchronous motor, synchro electric machine, semiconductor such as diode, transistor, FET, UJT, silicon symmetrical switch, electronic circuit like smoothing circuit and Bistable MV. circuit, automatic control, measurement of electricity, electric application and safety.

  12. The changing Swiss electricity - Critical views

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, E.F.J.

    2001-01-01

    This book takes a critical look at developments in the Swiss electricity market and, in particular, criticises national, regional and local energy policy, which the author considers to be incoherent. The book first describes how the electricity market works, the main players involved and the daily problems that have to be solved. Then, the problems that could be caused by liberalisation, including the question of transit fees, the development of electricity prices for consumers, changes in the structure of the electricity business and third party access are discussed. The second part of the book examines legal aspects of proposed electricity market legislation and then presents 16 propositions covering energy policy, market regulation, unbundling not only of electricity generation, distribution and services but also of politics and business, the revision of proposed liberalisation legislation, taxation aspects as well as the national and international operation of the electricity grid. The book further examines three regional electricity utilities and the attempts to privatise them, which did not meet with the approval of the voting public, and discusses the suspicion cast on certain politicians, that they try to push through the particular interests of groups they are closely associated with. The book is also includes a bibliography and a list of useful addresses

  13. Electrical breakdown of water in microgaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbach, Karl; Kolb, Juergen; Xiao Shu; Katsuki, Sunao; Minamitani, Yasushi; Joshi, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and modeling studies on electrical breakdown in water in submillimeter gaps between pin and plane electrodes have been performed. Prebreakdown, breakdown and recovery of the water gaps were studied experimentally by using optical and electrical diagnostics with a temporal resolution on the order of one nanosecond. By using Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the electric field distribution in the prebreakdown phase was determined by means of the Kerr effect. Electric fields values in excess of the computed electric fields, which reach >4 MV cm -1 for applied electrical pulses of 20 ns duration, were recorded at the tip of the pin electrode, an effect which can be explained by a reduced permittivity of water at high electric fields. Breakdown of the gaps, streamer-to-arc transition, was recorded by means of high-speed electrical diagnostics, and through high-speed photography. It was shown, through simulations, that breakdown is initiated by field emission at the interface of preexisting microbubbles. Impact ionization within the micro-bubble's gas then contributes to plasma development. Experiments using pulse-probe methods and Schlieren diagnostics allowed us to follow the development of the disturbance caused by the breakdown over a time of more than milliseconds and to determine the recovery time of a water switch. In order to trigger water switches a trigger electrode with a triple point has been utilized. The results of this research have found application in the construction of compact pulse power generators for bioelectric applications.

  14. Simulation models of a drive with an asynchronous electric engine for students of electrical engineering faculties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanenko N. G.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the application of virtual laboratories will allow to show different transition processes, as well as to carry out experiments that are very expensive in real electrical machines’ labs, for example, to calculate the energy costs in electric drives. Models of non-regulation asynchronous drive and frequency-regulated asynchronous electric drive are examined in this article. The author has calculated and compared the energy losses of these systems with various types of loads and this lets us to evaluate work processes of many technical devices.

  15. Splitting of the resistive transition of copper oxide superconductors: Intrinsic double superconducting transitions versus extrinsic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomar, A.; Curras, S.R.; Veira, J.A.; Vidal, F.

    1996-01-01

    To prove the possible existence of an intrinsic double superconducting transition in the high-temperature copper oxide superconductors (HTSC), an effect recently attributed by various groups to different intrinsic properties of these materials (including unconventional wave pairing), we present in this paper high resolution data of the electrical resistivity, ρ(T), around the superconducting transition of different single crystal and polycrystal YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ samples. The analysis of the temperature derivative of these ρ(T) data strongly suggests that (i) with a temperature resolution well to within 20 mK, the intrinsic resistive transition of the HTSC does not present any double transition anomaly and (ii) the double peak structure observed in dρ(T)/dT by some authors is probably an extrinsic effect (associated with stoichiometric inhomogeneities in some cases, and with experimental artifacts in other cases). copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Transitions to Synchrony in Coupled Bursting Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamala, Mukeshwar; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Ding, Mingzhou

    2004-01-01

    Certain cells in the brain, for example, thalamic neurons during sleep, show spike-burst activity. We study such spike-burst neural activity and the transitions to a synchronized state using a model of coupled bursting neurons. In an electrically coupled network, we show that the increase of coupling strength increases incoherence first and then induces two different transitions to synchronized states, one associated with bursts and the other with spikes. These sequential transitions to synchronized states are determined by the zero crossings of the maximum transverse Lyapunov exponents. These results suggest that synchronization of spike-burst activity is a multi-time-scale phenomenon and burst synchrony is a precursor to spike synchrony.

  17. Transitions to synchrony in coupled bursting neurons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhamala, Mukeshwar; Jirsa, Viktor K.; Ding Mingzhou

    2004-01-01

    Certain cells in the brain, for example, thalamic neurons during sleep, show spike-burst activity. We study such spike-burst neural activity and the transitions to a synchronized state using a model of coupled bursting neurons. In an electrically coupled network, we show that the increase of coupling strength increases incoherence first and then induces two different transitions to synchronized states, one associated with bursts and the other with spikes. These sequential transitions to synchronized states are determined by the zero crossings of the maximum transverse Lyapunov exponents. These results suggest that synchronization of spike-burst activity is a multi-time-scale phenomenon and burst synchrony is a precursor to spike synchrony

  18. Modelling the energy transition in cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Felix [Wuppertal Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Schwarze, Bjoern; Spiekermann, Klaus; Wegener, Michael [Spiekermann und Wegener Urban and Regional Research, Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-09-01

    The history of cities is a history of energy transitions. In the medieval city heating and cooking occurred with wood and peat. The growth of the industrial city in the 19th century was built on coal and electricity. The sprawling metropolis of the 20th century was made possible by oil and gas. How will the city of the 21st century look after the next energy transition from fossil to renewable energy? This paper reports on the extension of an urban land-use transport interaction model to a model of the energy transition in the Ruhr Area, a five-million agglomeration in Germany. The paper presents the planned model extensions and how they are to be integrated into the model and shows first preliminary results.

  19. No energy transition without a smart network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funnell, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Influencing the demand for energy and modifying the means of production while introducing new uses are part of a quite complicated equation. Smart electricity grids are very important for solving this equation and indispensable for the energy transition. Since they deeply alter jobs in this sector, they are forcing industrialists to draw up a genuine strategy. ABB is convinced that a successful energy transition involves using three levers: the evolution of consumer behavior patterns; the regulatory and legal framework; and the deployment of technical solutions. As for the last, ABB can, owing to its strong experiences and skills, advise decision-makers about the changes necessary in existing networks so as to open the way for this transition toward a sustainable world

  20. Vortex dynamics in superconducting transition edge sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, S.; Maehata, K.; Iyomoto, N.; Asano, T.; Shinozaki, B.

    2018-02-01

    The temperature dependence of the electrical resistance (R-T) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics has been measured and analyzed in a 40 nm thick Ti thin film, which is used as a transition edge sensor (TES). The analyses of the I-V characteristics with the vortex-antivortex pair dissociation model indicate the possible existence of the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) transition in two-dimensional superconducting Ti thin films. We investigated the noise due to the vortices' flow in TESs. The values of the current noise spectral density in the TESs were estimated by employing the vortex dynamics caused by the BKT transition in the Ti thin films. The estimated values of the current noise spectral density induced by the vortices' flow were in respectable agreement with the values of excess noise experimentally observed in the TESs with Ti/Au bilayer.

  1. Transition sum rules in the shell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yi; Johnson, Calvin W.

    2018-03-01

    An important characterization of electromagnetic and weak transitions in atomic nuclei are sum rules. We focus on the non-energy-weighted sum rule (NEWSR), or total strength, and the energy-weighted sum rule (EWSR); the ratio of the EWSR to the NEWSR is the centroid or average energy of transition strengths from an nuclear initial state to all allowed final states. These sum rules can be expressed as expectation values of operators, which in the case of the EWSR is a double commutator. While most prior applications of the double commutator have been to special cases, we derive general formulas for matrix elements of both operators in a shell model framework (occupation space), given the input matrix elements for the nuclear Hamiltonian and for the transition operator. With these new formulas, we easily evaluate centroids of transition strength functions, with no need to calculate daughter states. We apply this simple tool to a number of nuclides and demonstrate the sum rules follow smooth secular behavior as a function of initial energy, as well as compare the electric dipole (E 1 ) sum rule against the famous Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn version. We also find surprising systematic behaviors for ground-state electric quadrupole (E 2 ) centroids in the s d shell.

  2. Hamilton : the electric city

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, R [Richard Gilbert Consultant, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2006-04-13

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. Hamilton : the electric city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R.

    2006-01-01

    The City of Hamilton has launched an extensive energy planning exercise that examines the possibility of steep increases in oil and natural gas prices. This report examined and illustrated the issue of oil and gas price points. The report also examined and presented the city's role in an era of energy constraints, focusing on the city's transit system and its vehicle fleet. In addition, in response to City Council's direction, the report presented the aerotropolis proposal and discussed freight transport issues. Specific topics of discussion included oil and natural gas prospects; prospects for high oil and natural gas prices; impacts of fuel price increases; strategic planning objectives for energy constraints; reducing energy use by Hamilton's transport and in buildings; and land-use planning for energy constraints. Energy production opportunities involve the use of solar energy; wind energy; deep lake water cooling (DLWC); hydro-electric power; energy from waste; biogas production; district energy; and local food production. Economic and social development through preparing for energy constraints and matters raised by city council were also presented. The report also demonstrated how an energy-based strategy could be paid for and its components approved. The next steps for Hamilton were also identified. refs., tabs., figs

  4. 2016 annual electricity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Generation: Declines in generation were primarily seen with oil-fired, nuclear and coal-fired capacity in 2016. Nuclear power generation decreased due to the closure of several plants to conduct tests requested by French nuclear safety authority ASN starting in November. Nearly 20% of demand was met with generation from renewable sources. In 2016, total electricity generation capacity increased by 1,700 MW (+1.3%), to 130,818 MW, on the back of renewable energy development (+2,200 MW), which more than offset the contraction in thermal generation capacity. Consumption: Annual power consumption stabilised in France for the sixth consecutive year. Increasingly efficient appliances once again contributed to this trend. Markets: France's exchange balance decreased due to the drop in domestic nuclear power generation. Flexibility: RTE made further progress in 2016 toward implementing the capacity mechanism, the first delivery year of which started on 1 January 2017. This mechanism requires that suppliers obtain generation or demand response capacity certificates to show that they are covering their customers' annual consumption during peak demand periods. Network: RTE's investments are a reflection of the significant effort that will be required to meet the challenges of the energy transition over the coming years

  5. Army Transitions Hybrid Electric Technology to FCS Manned Ground Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    completely new way of maneuvering on the battlefield. The system’s advanced energy storage, power generation, regenerative braking and power management... categories , including mixing, coat- ing and winding; electrolyte filling; cir- cuit breaker bussing and closing; electri- cal formation; and battery

  6. NREL Evaluates Performance of Fast-Charge Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-16

    This real-world performance evaluation is designed to enhance understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of electric buses in transit operation and to provide unbiased technical information to other agencies interested in adding such vehicles to their fleets. Initial results indicate that the electric buses under study offer significant fuel and emissions savings. The final results will help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals. help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals.

  7. Computational thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Qin, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    . The method has been validated against the analytical solution of current distribution and experimental observation of microstructure evolution. It provides a basis for the design, prediction and implementation of the electric current metallurgy. The applicability of the theory is discussed in the derivations.......A priori derivation for the extra free energy caused by the passing electric current in metal is presented. The analytical expression and its discrete format in support of the numerical calculation of thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy have been developed. This enables the calculation...... of electric current distribution, current induced temperature distribution and free energy sequence of various phase transitions in multiphase materials. The work is particularly suitable for the study of magnetic materials that contain various magnetic phases. The latter has not been considered in literature...

  8. An Electrically Switchable Metal-Organic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Carlos A.; Martin, Paul C.; Schaef, Todd; Bowden, Mark E.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Dang, Liem; Xu, Wu; Chen, Xilin; McGrail, B. Peter

    2014-08-01

    Crystalline metal organic framework (MOF) materials containing interconnected porosity can be chemically modified to promote stimulus-driven (light, magnetic or electric fields) structural transformations that can be used in a number of devices. Innovative research strategies are now focused on understanding the role of chemical bond manipulation to reversibly alter the free volume in such structures of critical importance for electro-catalysis, molecular electronics, energy storage technologies, sensor devices and smart membranes. In this letter, we study the mechanism for which an electrically switchable MOF composed of Cu(TCNQ) (TCNQ = 7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane) transitions from a high-resistance state to a conducting state in a reversible fashion by an applied potential. The actual mechanism for this reversible electrical switching is still not understood even though a number of reports are available describing the application of electric-field-induced switching of Cu(TCNQ) in device fabrication.

  9. Balancing renewable on intra day electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokol, R.; Bems, J.

    2012-01-01

    Intra day electricity markets contribute to facilitate transition from conventional sources to renewable which need to be balanced on real-time basic due to the unpredictable nature of weather. This paper describes the way from regional electricity markets to a single pan-european market model which is target model of the European Commission. Single liquid intra day electricity market where market participants can balance their portfolios is prerequisite to a full utilisation of renewable power sources and a solution for some problems experienced by TSOs with loop and parallel flows from neighbouring countries. Integrated German and French intra day electricity market which uses Flexible Intra day Trading Scheme is described in this paper as a market which could be extended further to the CEE region with very poor liquidity of its local intra day markets. (Authors)

  10. Environmental consequences of electricity sector reforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, N.

    1999-01-01

    Worldwide, the electricity industry is in the process of undergoing fundamental transitions. The reform process typically involves one or more of the following changes: commercialisation, privatisation, unbundling/restructuring and introduction of competition. The environmental impacts of these changes pull in different directions. There is concern that restructured electricity markets may not always incorporate adequately the environmental impacts of electricity resource development and consumption decisions. However, the electricity sector reform process also offers an opportunity to promote positive environmental changes: because the sector is already in flux, it may be easier to address environmental issues. The paper gives an overview of power sector reform in six countries where reforms have already been implemented, and concludes that reform measures will have to be accompanied by competitively neutral regulations in order to stimulate investment in environmentally sound technologies, including renewable and energy efficient technologies. (author)

  11. Research on service strategy of electricity selling company under the reform of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhuhan; Meng, Shiyu; Dou, Jinyue; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun

    2017-10-01

    The opening of the sale side of electricity market is an important goal of the new round of power system reform in China, and it is necessary to speed up the establishment and development of the electricity selling companies to achieve this goal. First of all, this paper defines the key problems, which are needed to be solved in the establishment of the sale side market, such as demand side response, optimization of users' power consumption mode, profit mode of electricity selling companies and fair competition in the market. On this basis, this paper analyzes the business of electricity selling company, from the aspects of the transition of business ideas, improving the energy efficiency level, providing integrated energy solutions and innovating business management mode; and then, the service strategies of electricity selling companies are put forward.

  12. Allowed and forbidden transition parameters for Fe XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive set of fine structure energy levels, oscillator strengths (f), line strengths (S), and radiative decay rates (A) for bound-bound transitions in Fe XV is presented. The allowed electric dipole (E1) transitions were obtained from the relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method which is based on the close coupling approximation. A total of 507 fine structure energy levels with n ≤ 10, l ≤ 9, and 0 ≤ J ≤ 10 are found. They agree within 1% with the available observed energies. These energy levels yield a total of 27,812 E1, same-spin multiplets and intercombination transitions. The A values are in good agreement with those compiled by NIST and other existing values for most transitions. Forbidden transitions are obtained from a set of 20 configurations with orbitals ranging from 1s to 5f using the relativistic code SUPERSTRUCTURE (SS) in the Breit-Pauli approximation. From a set of 123 fine structure levels, a total of 6962 S and A values are presented for forbidden electric quadrupole (E2), electric octupole (E3), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions. The energies from SS calculations agree with observed energies to within 1-3%. A values for E2, M1 transitions agree very well with the available values for most transitions while those for M2 transitions show variable agreement. The large set of transition parameters presented should be applicable for both diagnostics and spectral modeling in the X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical regions of astrophysical plasmas.

  13. Workers in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Rutkowski, Michael

    1995-01-01

    After Central and Eastern European and Central Asian economies abandoned central planning, nearly 195 million workers had to adjust to new rules of work and life. Most transition economies have not yet fully committed themselves to the rules of the market place. A few that have are already enjoying growth in wages and employment; in other countries, labor income growth is still to come. Reform has not been so well accepted in countries that were forced to enter the transition. Transition brou...

  14. Transition and Social networks

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, Raghu; Pawson, N.

    2011-01-01

    School leavers with learning disabilities often face difficulties in making a smooth transition from school to college, employment or more broadly, to adult life. The transition phase is traumatic for the young person with learning disabilities and their families as it often results in the loss of friendships, relationships and social networks. The aim of this chapter is to explore the issues of transition from adolescence to adulthood for young people with learning disabilities and its effe...

  15. Swiss electricity statistics 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This detailed article discusses the following subjects: Survey of electricity supply in Switzerland in 1996; The Swiss electricity balance; Electric power generation; Electric power consumption; Generation, consumption and loads on selected days; Energy trade with other countries; Expansion capacities until 2003; Financial situation and appendix. (orig./RHM) [de

  16. Thermodynamics of phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofta, H.

    1972-01-01

    The phenomenology of the phase transitions has been considered. The definitions of thermodynamic functions and parameters, as well as those of the phase transitions, are given and some of the relations between those quantities are discussed. The phase transitions classification proposed by Ehrenfest has been described. The most important features of phase transitions are discussed using the selected physical examples including the critical behaviour of ferromagnetic materials at the Curie temperature and antiferromagnetic materials at the Neel temperature. Some aspects of the Ehrenfest's equations, that have been derived, for the interfacial lines and surfaces are considered as well as the role the notion of interfaces. (S.B.)

  17. The Energy Transition Chronicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelletti, Floriane; Vallar, Jean-Pierre; Wyssling, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Energy Cities provides local authorities with support for implementing their own energy transition process. The Proposals for the energy transition of cities and towns (www.energy-cities.eu/30proposals) are illustrated with around a hundred of inspirational examples from all over Europe. In this document composed of five case reports, Energy Cities goes further and tells the tale of energy transition success stories. Because it is important to show that energy transition is 'possible'. Why, how, with whom, for what results? We interviewed local players and decision-makers to find out more. Here are their stories

  18. Transit Benefit Program Data -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — This data set contains information about any US government agency participating in the transit benefits program, funding agreements, individual participating Federal...

  19. Theoretical study of structure of electric field in helical toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2001-06-01

    A set of transport equations is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the electric field. The structure of the electric field is studied by use of the theoretical model for the anomalous transport diffusivities. The steep gradient of the electric field is obtained at the electric domain. The suppression of the anomalous transport diffusivity is studied in the presence of the strong shear of the electric field. The hard transition with the multiple ambipolar solutions is examined in the structure of the radial electric field. The details of the structure of the electric domain interface are investigated. (author)

  20. X-ray transitions in highly charged neonlike ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; von Gjoeler, S.; Bitter, M.

    1987-11-01

    Wavelength measurements of n=3 to n=2 transitions in neonlike Xe 44+ , La 47+ , Nd 50+ , and Eu 53+ have been made using a high-resolution Bragg-crystal spectrometer on the Princeton Large Torus tokamak. The measurements cover the wavelength regions 2.00 to 3.00 (angstrom) and include the electric dipole, and the electric and magnetic quadrupole transitions. The measured wavelengths are compared to energy levels obtained from a multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock calculation. Systematic differences between the experimental and theoretical values are found, which vary smoothly with atomic number. The magnitude of the differences depends on the particular type of transition and ranges from -2.8 eV to +2.2 eV. Inclusion of electron correlation corrections due to ground state correlations and (super) Coster-Kronig type fluctuations in the theoretical energies is shown to reduce the differences for some but not all types of transitions