WorldWideScience

Sample records for electric generating facilities

  1. Environmental compliance audits of electric generating facilities - a practical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staker, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    As environmental regulations expand in complexity and number, and as regulatory agencies place more emphasis on enforcing regulations, it is increasingly important that electric utilities perform periodic environmental compliance audits to determine if their facilities are in compliance with federal, state, and local environmental regulations. Explicit commitment by the utility's top management and careful planning and execution of an audit are key elements in the effectiveness of an audit. This paper is directed to electric utility environmental managers and company management. The paper presents a practical approach for planning and performing a multi-media environmental compliance of an electric generating facility

  2. Transmission cost minimization strategies for wind-electric generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R. [Northern States Power Company, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Integrating wind-electric generation facilities into existing power systems presents opportunities not encountered in conventional energy projects. Minimizing outlet cost requires probabilistic value-based analyses appropriately reflecting the wind facility`s operational characteristics. The wind resource`s intermittent nature permits relaxation of deterministic criteria addressing outlet configuration and capacity required relative to facility rating. Equivalent capacity ratings of wind generation facilities being a fraction of installed nameplate rating, outlet design studies contingency analyses can concentrate on this fractional value. Further, given its non-dispatchable, low capacity factor nature, a lower level of redundancy in outlet facilities is appropriate considering the trifling contribution to output unreliability. Further cost reduction opportunities arise from {open_quotes}wind speed/generator power output{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}wind speed/overhead conductor rating{close_quotes} functions` correlation. Proper analysis permits the correlation`s exploitation to safely increase line ratings. Lastly, poor correlation between output and utility load may permit use of smaller conductors, whose higher (mostly off-peak) losses are economically justifiable.

  3. Gas supply planning for new gas-fired electricity generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slocum, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores several key issues in gas supply planning for new gas fired electric generation facilities. This paper will have two main sections, as follows: developing the gas supply plan for a gas-fired electricity generation facility and exploring key gas supply contract pricing issues

  4. Native American Technical Assistance and Training for Renewable Energy Resource Development and Electrical Generation Facilities Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. David Lester

    2008-10-17

    The Council of Energy Resource Tribes (CERT) will facilitate technical expertise and training of Native Americans in renewable energy resource development for electrical generation facilities, and distributed generation options contributing to feasibility studies, strategic planning and visioning. CERT will also provide information to Tribes on energy efficiency and energy management techniques.This project will provide facilitation and coordination of expertise from government agencies and private industries to interact with Native Americans in ways that will result in renewable energy resource development, energy efficiency program development, and electrical generation facilities management by Tribal entities. The intent of this cooperative agreement is to help build capacity within the Tribes to manage these important resources.

  5. Economic impacts of zebra mussels on drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Nancy A; O'Neill, Charles R; Knuth, Barbara A; Brown, Tommy L

    2007-07-01

    Invasions of nonnative species such as zebra mussels can have both ecological and economic consequences. The economic impacts of zebra mussels have not been examined in detail since the mid-1990s. The purpose of this study was to quantify the annual and cumulative economic impact of zebra mussels on surface water-dependent drinking water treatment and electric power generation facilities (where previous research indicated the greatest impacts). The study time frame was from the first full year after discovery in North America (Lake St. Clair, 1989) to the present (2004); the study area was throughout the mussels' North American range. A mail survey resulted in a response rate of 31% for electric power companies and 41% for drinking water treatment plants. Telephone interviews with a sample of nonrespondents assessed nonresponse bias; only one difference was found and adjusted for. Over one-third (37%) of surveyed facilities reported finding zebra mussels in the facility and almost half (45%) have initiated preventive measures to prevent zebra mussels from entering the facility operations. Almost all surveyed facilities (91%) with zebra mussels have used control or mitigation alternatives to remove or control zebra mussels. We estimated that 36% of surveyed facilities experienced an economic impact. Expanding the sample to the population of the study area, we estimated 267 million dollars (BCa 95% CI = 161 million dollars - 467 million dollars) in total economic costs for electric generation and water treatment facilities through late 2004, since 1989. Annual costs were greater (44,000 dollars/facility) during the early years of zebra mussel infestation than in recent years (30,000 dollars). As a result of this and other factors, early predictions of the ultimate costs of the zebra mussel invasion may have been excessive.

  6. Advanced exergoenvironmental assessment of a natural gas-fired electricity generating facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Açıkkalp, Emin; Aras, Haydar; Hepbasli, Arif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergoenvironmental analysis was conducted for an electricity generating facility. • Exergy destructions and environmental effects were divided into parts. • Environmental relations between the components were determined. • Environmental improvement strategies of the system were determined. - Abstract: This paper presents conventional and advanced exergoenvironmental analyses of an electricity generation facility located in the Eskisehir Industry Estate Zone, Turkey. This facility consists of gas turbine and steam cycles, which generate electrical power of approximately 37 MW and 18 MW, respectively. Exergy efficiency of the system is 0.402 and exergy destruction rate of the system is 78.242 MW. Unit exergy cost of electrical power generated by the system is 25.66 $/GJ and total exergoeconomic factor of the system is 0.279. Conventional exergy analysis method was applied to the system first. Next, exergy environmental impacts of exergy destruction rate within the facility’s components were divided into four parts generally, as endogenous, exogenous, avoidable and unavoidable environmental impact of exergy destruction rate. Through this analysis, improvement potential of the environmental impacts of the components and the overall system and the environmental relations between the components were then determined. Finally, exergoenvironmental factor was determined as 0.277 and environmental impact of the electricity was 8.472 (Pts/h). The system has 33% development potential for environmental impacts while its components have weak relations because of big endogenous parts of environmental impacts (80%). It may be concluded that advanced exergoenvironmental analysis indicated that priority should be given to the GT and CC, while defining the improvement strategies

  7. A methodology to identify stranded generation facilities and estimate stranded costs for Louisiana's electric utility industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Robert Frank, III

    1998-12-01

    The electric utility industry in the United States is currently experiencing a new and different type of growing pain. It is the pain of having to restructure itself into a competitive business. Many industry experts are trying to explain how the nation as a whole, as well as individual states, will implement restructuring and handle its numerous "transition problems." One significant transition problem for federal and state regulators rests with determining a utility's stranded costs. Stranded generation facilities are assets which would be uneconomic in a competitive environment or costs for assets whose regulated book value is greater than market value. At issue is the methodology which will be used to estimate stranded costs. The two primary methods are known as "Top-Down" and "Bottom-Up." The "Top-Down" approach simply determines the present value of the losses in revenue as the market price for electricity changes over a period of time into the future. The problem with this approach is that it does not take into account technical issues associated with the generation and wheeling of electricity. The "Bottom-Up" approach computes the present value of specific strandable generation facilities and compares the resulting valuations with their historical costs. It is regarded as a detailed and difficult, but more precise, approach to identifying stranded assets and their associated costs. This dissertation develops a "Bottom-Up" quantitative, optimization-based approach to electric power wheeling within the state of Louisiana. It optimally evaluates all production capabilities and coordinates the movement of bulk power through transmission interconnections of competing companies in and around the state. Sensitivity analysis to this approach is performed by varying seasonal consumer demand, electric power imports, and transmission inter-connection cost parameters. Generation facility economic dispatch and transmission interconnection bulk power transfers, specific

  8. Visibility and Visual Characteristics of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System Power Tower Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Robert [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Abplanalp, Jennifer M. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted to document the visibility and visual characteristics of the Ivanpah Solar Electric Generating System (ISEGS), a utility-scale solar power tower facility located on land administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management in southern California. Study activities consisted of field observations of the ISEGS facility and comparison of the observations made in the field with the visual contrast assessments and visual simulations in the ISEGS Final Environmental Impact Statement (Final EIS) and supporting documents created prior to ISEGS construction. Field observations of ISEGS were made from 19 locations within 35 mi (56 km) of the facility in the course of one week in September 2014. The study results established that reflected sunlight from the receivers was the primary source of visual contrast from the operating ISEGS facility. The ISEGS facility was found to be a major source of visual contrast for all observations up to 20 mi (32 km), and was easily visible at 35 mi. Glare from individual heliostats was frequently visible, and often brighter than the reflected light from the receivers. Heliostat glare caused discomfort for one or more viewers at distances up to 20 mi. The ISEGS power blocks were brightly lit at night, and were conspicuous at the observation distance of approximately 6 mi (10 km). The facility is substantially brighter and is seen more clearly in the field than in photographs of the facility or in the prepared simulations, which were based on photographs. The simulations of the ISEGS facility in the Final EIS, which were evaluated as part of this study, sometimes lacked spatial accuracy and realism. The evaluated simulations generally under-represented the actual visual contrast from the project, and some of the contrast ratings in the Final EIS predicted substantially lower levels of visual contrast than were actually observed for the operating facility.

  9. Electromagnetic Fields Associated with Commercial Solar Photovoltaic Electric Power Generating Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, R A; Hooper, H C; Sias, G G; Mezei, G; Hung, P; Kavet, R

    2015-01-01

    The southwest region of the United States is expected to experience an expansion of commercial solar photovoltaic generation facilities over the next 25 years. A solar facility converts direct current generated by the solar panels to three-phase 60-Hz power that is fed to the grid. This conversion involves sequential processing of the direct current through an inverter that produces low-voltage three-phase power, which is stepped up to distribution voltage (∼12 kV) through a transformer. This study characterized magnetic and electric fields between the frequencies of 0 Hz and 3 GHz at two facilities operated by the Southern California Edison Company in Porterville, CA and San Bernardino, CA. Static magnetic fields were very small compared to exposure limits established by IEEE and ICNIRP. The highest 60-Hz magnetic fields were measured adjacent to transformers and inverters, and radiofrequency fields from 5-100 kHz were associated with the inverters. The fields measured complied in every case with IEEE controlled and ICNIRP occupational exposure limits. In all cases, electric fields were negligible compared to IEEE and ICNIRP limits across the spectrum measured and when compared to the FCC limits (≥0.3 MHz).

  10. Environmental review report of an electrical generation facility to be located at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, D.; Ross, J.; Mountain, D.; Kahal, M.

    1998-05-01

    The Bentech Group, Inc. (Bentech) applied for a certificate of public convenience and necessity (CPCN) to construct and operate an electric generating system at the Oaks Sanitary Landfill in Laytonsville, Maryland. The focus of the environmental review is to evaluate potential impacts of the proposed electric generation system to air quality, noise, terrestrial, ecological, ground water, surface water, socioeconomic, aesthetic, and cultural resources. This document presents the results of the environmental review analysis, and includes the State's recommended license conditions for operating the electric generating system, which the PSC incorporated into the CPCN

  11. Electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear heart pacer having a heat-to-electricity converter including a solid-state thermoelectric unit embedded in rubber which is compressed to impress hydrostatic precompression on the unit is described. The converter and the radioactive heat source are enclosed in a container which includes the electrical circuit components for producing and controlling the pulses; the converter and components being embedded in rubber. The portions of the rubber in the converter and in the container through which heat flows between the radioactive primary source and the hot junction and between the cold junction and the wall of the container are of thermally conducting silicone rubber. The 238 Pu primary radioactive source material is encapsuled in a refractory casing of WC-222 (T-222) which in turn is encapsuled in a corrosion-resistant casing of platinum rhodium, a diffusion barrier separating the WC-222 and the Pt--Rh casings. The Pt--Rh casing is in a closed basket of tantalum. The tantalum protects the Pt--Rh from reacting with other materials during cremation of the host, if any. The casings and basket suppress the transmission of hard x rays generated by the alpha particles from the 238 Pu. The outside casing of the pacer is typically of titanium but its surface is covered by an electrically insulating coating, typically epoxy resin, except over a relatively limited area for effective electrical grounding to the body of the host. It is contemplated that the pacer will be inserted in the host with the exposed titanium engaging a non-muscular region of the body

  12. Environmental challenges and opportunities of the evolving North American electricity market : European electricity generating facilities: an overview of European regulatory requirements and standardization efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, L.

    2002-06-01

    Several factors are affecting power generating facilities, such as the opening of both electricity and gas markets, and the pressure applied on generators and governments to ensure a steady energy supply for consumers. An additional factor is the pressure for the closing of nuclear power facilities. European siting and emissions requirements for coal-fired and natural gas generating facilities were presented in this background paper. In addition, the author provided an overview of the standardization process in place in Europe. The European Union and its functioning were briefly described, as well as a listing of relevant organizations. The current trends were examined. The document first introduced the European Union, and the next section dealt with Regulatory regime: the internal energy market. The third section examined the issue of Regulatory regime: generation and environmental regulations. Section four presented environmental management systems, followed by a section on standardization. Section six discussed European organizations involved in electricity issues, while the following section dealt with European commission programs. The last section briefly looked at the trends in the electricity sector, broaching topics such as compliance, electricity generation, and emissions trading. 52 refs., 2 tabs

  13. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinske, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.) [de

  14. WRI 50: Strategies for Cooling Electric Generating Facilities Utilizing Mine Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph J. Donovan; Brenden Duffy; Bruce R. Leavitt; James Stiles; Tamara Vandivort; Paul Ziemkiewicz

    2004-11-01

    Power generation and water consumption are inextricably linked. Because of this relationship DOE/NETL has funded a competitive research and development initiative to address this relationship. This report is part of that initiative and is in response to DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41719-0. Thermal electric power generation requires large volumes of water to cool spent steam at the end of the turbine cycle. The required volumes are such that new plant siting is increasingly dependent on the availability of cooling circuit water. Even in the eastern U.S., large rivers such as the Monongahela may no longer be able to support additional, large power stations due to subscription of flow to existing plants, industrial, municipal and navigational requirements. Earlier studies conducted by West Virginia University (WV 132, WV 173 phase I, WV 173 Phase II, WV 173 Phase III, and WV 173 Phase IV in review) have identified that a large potential water resource resides in flooded, abandoned coal mines in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin, and likely elsewhere in the region and nation. This study evaluates the technical and economic potential of the Pittsburgh Coal Basin water source to supply new power plants with cooling water. Two approaches for supplying new power plants were evaluated. Type A employs mine water in conventional, evaporative cooling towers. Type B utilizes earth-coupled cooling with flooded underground mines as the principal heat sink for the power plant reject heat load. Existing mine discharges in the Pittsburgh Coal Basin were evaluated for flow and water quality. Based on this analysis, eight sites were identified where mine water could supply cooling water to a power plant. Three of these sites were employed for pre-engineering design and cost analysis of a Type A water supply system, including mine water collection, treatment, and delivery. This method was also applied to a ''base case'' river-source power plant, for comparison. Mine

  15. A distributed process monitoring system for nuclear powered electrical generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweney, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Duke Power Company is one of the largest investor owned utilities in the United States, with a service area of 20,000 square miles extending across North and South Carolina. Oconee Nuclear Station, one of Duke Power's three nuclear generating facilities, is a three unit pressurized water reactor site and has, over the course of its 15-year operating lifetime, effectively run out of plant processing capability. From a severely overcrowded cable spread room to an aging overtaxed Operator Aid Computer, the problems with trying to add additional process variables to the present centralized Operator Aid Computer are almost insurmountable obstacles. This paper reports that for this reason, and to realize the inherent benefits of a distributed process monitoring and control system, Oconee has embarked on a project to demonstrate the ability of a distributed system to perform in the nuclear power plant environment

  16. Apparatus for isolating electric generators or like other facilities upon occurrence of earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshimitsu, Satoru.

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent, upon occurrence of failures in a facility with poor earthquake-proof performance, undesired secondary effects caused by the above failures from prevailing on other facilities with excellent earthquake-proof performance. Constitution: An isolation valve is disposed at the midway of pipeways communicating facilities of different earthquake-proof performances. When the occurrence of earthquake and the magnitude thereof are detected and judged by an earthquake detection and control device, the isolation valve between the facility of excellent earthquake-proof performance and the facility of poor earthquake-proof performance is opened. Consequently, if the facility of poor earthquake-proof performance is failed, no fluid is issued from the facility of the excellent earthquake-proof performance to thereby improve the earthquake safety. (Kawakami, Y.)

  17. Emergency preparedness for nuclear electric generating facilities in foreign countries: A brief survey of practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuller, C R [Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers, Seattle, WA (United States); Marcus, A A; Hanhardt, Jr, A M; Selvin, M; Huelshoff, M [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This report summarizes the emergency plans for accidents at nuclear power plants in Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, Canada, and France. Soviet Union documents were examined, but no published information was found on the subject. The study of foreign plans was to determine what U.S. planners might learn that could be useful to them. Plans of the foreign countries were published before the nuclear accident at Three Mile Island and reflected a generally accepted premise that a serious nuclear emergency would never occur. Therefore, there are few ideas of immediate use to U.S. planners. Most countries have since begun to re-examine their emergency planning. The study also discusses the emergency action levels, warning systems, evacuation management and procedures, and public information and education for people living near nuclear power plants and defines roles of nuclear facility operators and roles of the government. (author)

  18. Decommissioning of the nuclear facilities-radio-isotope thermo-electrical generators in the Republic of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Kamalov, D.

    2010-01-01

    One of peaceful uses of the nuclear energy is the production of electrical energy by using the phenomenon of fission of radioactive strontium in the radio-isotope thermo-electrical generators (RITEGs) to supply with energy lighthouses, radio-lighthouses and radio meteorological stations. They are installed in the remote territories far from the people’s dwellings and do not require presence of the personnel to maintain them. Republic of Tajikistan as other republics of the ex-Soviet Union used the radio isotope thermo- electrical generators (RITEGs) as sources for autonomous hydro- and meteorological navigational equipment, which was placed in the hard-to-reach mountainous regions. In the ex-Soviet Union, the RITEGs were under constant surveillance. But, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, hundreds of these small devices equipped with powerful sources of radiation remained out of control. Radioactive substance contained in them may be easily used as a source of radiation dispersion. By applying Strontium-90 as a material for a bomb one can disperse this radioactive substance after exploding the bomb. Having exploded one of such “dirty bombs” a terrorist may contaminate several cities by the radioactive materials. It was determined that there are around 1 000 RITEGs on the territory of the Russian Federation and approximately 30- on the territory of other states. It is presumed that approximately 1500 RITEGs were manufactured in the USSR. The exploitation period of all the RITEGs is around 10 years. At present, all the RITEGs which were in circulation have finalized their functionality period and should be withdrawn from the utilization. In Tajikistan, Tajikhydromet is the user of the RITEGs. The manufacturer of the RITEGs, according to the documentation, was the All-Russian Institute of Technological Physics and Automation in Moscow. The documents were sent to the plant-producer. According to the unofficial sources, during the times of the Soviet Union 15

  19. Strategies for the co-operation between power generation facilities and power sales organisations in the European electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bammert, U.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how the public utilities in Hannover, Germany, have developed a strategy for the operation of their power generation facilities and power distribution network as independent yet co-operating units. Three models that were examined are described: 'free-sailing', where generation and distribution were kept completely independent, the 'wedding' model, where they were closely tied together and 'Enercity', a mixture of both models. The various rules necessary and the degrees of freedom needed to implement the 'Enercity' model are discussed, as are the advantages it offers to both the power generation and the sales units

  20. Solar thermal electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasemagha, Khairy Ramadan

    1993-01-01

    This report presents the results of modeling the thermal performance and economic feasibility of large (utility scale) and small solar thermal power plants for electricity generation. A number of solar concepts for power systems applications have been investigated. Each concept has been analyzed over a range of plant power ratings from 1 MW(sub e) to 300 MW(sub e) and over a range of capacity factors from a no-storage case (capacity factor of about 0.25 to 0.30) up to intermediate load capacity factors in the range of 0.46 to 0.60. The solar plant's economic viability is investigated by examining the effect of various parameters on the plant costs (both capital and O & M) and the levelized energy costs (LEC). The cost components are reported in six categories: collectors, energy transport, energy storage, energy conversion, balance of plant, and indirect/contingency costs. Concentrator and receiver costs are included in the collector category. Thermal and electric energy transport costs are included in the energy transport category. Costs for the thermal or electric storage are included in the energy storage category; energy conversion costs are included in the energy conversion category. The balance of plant cost category comprises the structures, land, service facilities, power conditioning, instrumentation and controls, and spare part costs. The indirect/contingency category consists of the indirect construction and the contingency costs. The concepts included in the study are (1) molten salt cavity central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-C-Salt); (2) molten salt external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Salt); (3) sodium external central receiver with sodium storage (PFCR/RE-Na); (4) sodium external central receiver with salt storage (PFCR/R-E-Na/Salt); (5) water/steam external central receiver with oil/rock storage (PFCR/R-E-W/S); (6) parabolic dish with stirling engine conversion and lead acid battery storage (PFDR/SLAB); (7) parabolic dish

  1. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  2. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  3. Thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.C.; Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.

    1986-01-01

    A thermoacoustic magnetohydrodynamic electrical generator is described comprising a magnet having a magnetic field, an elongate hollow housing containing an electrically conductive liquid and a thermoacoustic structure positioned in the liquid, heat exchange means thermally connected to the thermoacoustic structure for inducing the liquid to oscillate at an acoustic resonant frequency within the housing. The housing is positioned in the magnetic field and oriented such that the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid are substantially orthogonal to one another, first and second electrical conductor means connected to the liquid on opposite sides of the housing along an axis which is substantially orthogonal to both the direction of the magnetic field and the direction of oscillatory motion of the liquid, an alternating current output signal is generated in the conductor means at a frequency corresponding to the frequency of the oscillatory motion of the liquid

  4. Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities | Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research | NREL Facilities Power Electronics and Electric Machines Facilities NREL's power electronics and electric machines thermal management experimentation facilities feature a wide range of four researchers in discussion around a piece of laboratory equipment. Power electronics researchers

  5. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  6. Electricity Generation Baseline Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, Jeffrey [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marcy, Cara [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCall, James [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bloom, Aaron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Aabakken, Jorn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Cole, Wesley [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jenkin, Thomas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Porro, Gian [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Liu, Chang [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ganda, Francesco [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Boardman, Richard [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tarka, Thomas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Brewer, John [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Schultz, Travis [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of national laboratory analysts over the period October 2015 to May 2016 and is part of a series of studies that provide background material to inform development of the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). The report focuses specifically on U.S. power sector generation. The report limits itself to the generation sector and does not address in detail parallel issues in electricity end use, transmission and distribution, markets and policy design, and other important segments. The report lists 15 key findings about energy system needs of the future.

  7. Electric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carney, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    An electric power generator of the type employing a nuclear heat source and a thermoelectric converter is described wherein a transparent thermal insulating medium is provided inside an encapsulating enclosure to thermally insulate the heat source and thermoelectric generator. The heat source, the thermoelectric converter, and the enclosure are provided with facing surfaces which are heat-reflective to a substantial degree to inhibit radiation of heat through the medium of the encapsulating enclosure. Multiple reflective foils may be spaced within the medium as necessary to inhibit natural convection of heat and/or further inhibit radiation

  8. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  9. Electricity generation cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bald, M.

    1984-01-01

    Also questions of efficiency play a part in the energy discussion. In this context, the economic evaluation of different energy supply variants is of importance. Especially with regard to the generation of electric power there have been discussions again and again during the last years on the advantage of the one or the other kind of electric power generation. In the meantime, a large number of scientific studies has been published on this topic which mainly deal with comparisons of the costs of electric power generated by hard coal or nuclear energy, i.e. of those energy forms which still have the possibilities of expansion. The following part shows a way for the evaluation of efficiency comparisons which starts from simplified assumptions and which works with arithmetical aids, which don't leave the area of the fundamental operations. The general comprehensibility is paid for with cuts on ultimate analytical and arithmetical precision. It will, however, turn out that the results achieved by this method don't differ very much from those which have been won by scientific targets. (orig./UA) [de

  10. Aseismatic design and safety of nuclear power generation facilities. Research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In order to contribute to the aseismatic design of nuclear power generation facilities, this Research Institute has carried out the observation on the site of buildings in Matsushiro earthquake, the experiment on a large vibration table, the vibration experiment on actual buildings and so on, thus made clear the method of evaluating the dynamic model of buildings and foundation grounds. Also it cooperated in the determination of input earthquake motion which is important for aseismatic design by carrying out the evaluation of the activity of faults the observation of strong earthquakes, and the elucidation and evaluation of the characteristics of earthquake motion. It has made the standard for evaluating the fault activity and the stability in earthquakes of the foundation and surrounding grounds of power stations. The development of new underground location technology, the location on Quaternary grounds and the location on the sea, and the research on developing the aseismatic construction of FBRs are in progress. The survey and evaluation of fault activities, the evaluation of earthquake input, the limit state design of important outdoor structures, the new location technology for nuclear power stations, and the development of the buckling and base isolation design of FBRs are reported. (K.I.)

  11. Next generation storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlesser, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    With diminishing requirements for plutonium, a substantial quantity of this material requires special handling and ultimately, long-term storage. To meet this objective, we at Los Alamos, have been involved in the design of a storage facility with the goal of providing storage capabilities for this and other nuclear materials. This paper presents preliminary basic design data, not for the structure and physical plant, but for the container and arrays which might be configured within the facility, with strong emphasis on criticality safety features

  12. Facile synthesis of polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam with catalytic activity comparable to Pt for the poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Tiantian; Li, Kan; Shen, Zhemin; Sun, Tonghua; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2016-01-01

    Polypyrrole functionalized nickel foam is facilely prepared through the potentiostatic electrodeposition. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam functions as a hydrogen-evolution cathode in a rotating disk photocatalytic fuel cell, in which hydrogen energy and electric power are generated by consuming organic wastes. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam cathode exhibits stable catalytic activities after thirteen continuous runs. Compared with net or plate structure, the Ni foam with a unique three-dimensional reticulate structure is conducive to the electrodeposition of PPy. Compared with Pt-group electrode, PPy-coated Ni foam shows a satisfactory catalytic performance for the H2 evolution. The combination of PPy and Ni forms a synergistic effect for the rapid trapping and removal of proton from solution and the catalytic reduction of proton to hydrogen. The PPy-functionalized Ni foam could be applied in photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical generation of H2. In all, we report a low cost, high efficient and earth abundant PPy-functionalized Ni foam with a satisfactory catalytic activities comparable to Pt for the practical application of poly-generation of hydrogen and electricity.

  13. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hursen, T.F.; Kolenik, S.A.; Purdy, D.L.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  14. Nuclear power generation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Mitsuji.

    1996-01-01

    Main steams are introduced from a moisture separation device for removing moisture content of the main steams to a low pressure turbine passing through a cross-around pipe. A condensate desalter comprising a mixed floor-type desalting tower using granular ion exchange resins is disposed at the downstream of the main condensator by way of condensate pipelines, and a feedwater heater is disposed at the downstream. Structural members of the main condensator are formed by weather proof steels. Low alloy steels are used partially or entirely for the cross-around pipe, gas extraction pipelines, heat draining pipelines, inner structural members other than pipelines in the feedwater heater, and the body and the inner structural members of the moisture separator. Titanium or a titanium alloy is used for the pipelines in the main condensator. With such a constitution, BWR type reactor facilities, in which the concentration of cruds inflown to the condensate cleanup system is reduced to simplify the condensate cleanup device can be obtained. (I.N.)

  15. An assessment of the adequacy of generation and transmission facilities to meet electricity needs in Ontario: From January 2002 to December 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    A ten year forecast of electric power generation and transmission capacity, covering the period 2002 to 2011, is provided. The assessment of the Independent Market Operator is that based on existing and proposed facilities, Ontario has a reliable supply of electricity for the next ten years under a wide variety of conditions, even without taking advantage of opportunities to improve the efficiency of the Ontario electricity market. The key assumptions underlying this forecast were a median growth scenario, with energy demand growing at 1.2 per cent per year, from 152 terawatt-hours in 2002 to 168 terrawatt-hours at the end of the forecast period. Median increase in peak demand is expected to rise from 23,700 MW to 26,000 MW at the end of the period. A low demand growth scenario (0.8 per cent ) and a high demand growth scenario (1.7 per cent) were also studied. Support from neighbouring systems was assumed to be limited to the magnitude of existing firm purchase contracts already identified by the IMO. The Pickering A units are assumed to be recommissioned in 2002 on schedule, but the two Bruce A units, also announced to be returning to service during the period, have not been included in the calculations. This forecast also estimates the collective impact of all proposed new generation projects that have been identified to the IMO. If all generation proposals are built and operated, the amount of generation that is exclusively gas fuelled would comprise about 21 per cent of all installed capacity by 2005. Another 6 per cent would be dual-fuelled with gas. It is the judgement of the IMO that the transmission interfaces studied are capable of supplying the various transmission zones under the generation and demand scenarios considered in this study. A major transmission addition , i.e. 1,250 MW high voltage direct current (HVDC) interconnection between Ontario and Quebec near Ottawa, will improve transfer capabilities between the two provinces. This interconnection

  16. Small-scale electricity generating facilities from natural gas : a measure to mitigate the greenhouse effect; Microgeneracion de energia con gas natural: una medida efectiva para mitigar el cambio climatico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez, A. M.

    2002-07-01

    The forthcoming liberalization of the gas and electricity markets in Europe, in conjunction with the increase of the global energy consumption in the near future are enabling the development of natural gas alternatives to traditional large-scale centralized power plants. They emerged from research suggesting that the use of small-scale electricity generating facilities dispersed throughout the electrical network, provides the electricity system with measurable technical, economic and environmental benefits. In this sense, the distributed generation powered by cogeneration systems offers the biggest measure to mitigate the greenhouse effect due to the carbon dioxide. (Author)

  17. Gas turbine electric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masaaki; Yuhara, Tetsuo.

    1993-01-01

    When troubles are caused to a boundary of a gas turbine electric generator, there is a danger that water as an operation medium for secondary circuits leaks to primary circuits, to stop a plant and the plant itself can not resume. Then in the present invention, helium gases are used as the operation medium not only for the primary circuits but also for the secondary circuits, to provide so-called a direct cycle gas turbine system. Further, the operation media of the primary and secondary circuits are recycled by a compressor driven by a primary circuit gas turbine, and the turbine/compressor is supported by helium gas bearings. Then, problems of leakage of oil and water from the bearings or the secondary circuits can be solved, further, the cooling device in the secondary circuit is constituted as a triple-walled tube structure by way of helium gas, to prevent direct leakage of coolants into the reactor core even if cracks are formed to pipes. (N.H.)

  18. Heat and electricity generating methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buter, J.

    1977-01-01

    A short synopsis on the actual methods of heating of lodgings and of industrial heat generation is given. Electricity can be generated in steam cycles heated by burning of fossil fuels or by nuclear energy. A valuable contribution to the electricity economy is produced in the hydroelectric power plants. Besides these classical methods, also the different procedures of direct electricity generation are treated: thermoelectric, thermionic, magnetohydrodynamic power sources, solar and fuel cells. (orig.) [de

  19. Alternative solutions for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuenstle, K.

    1976-01-01

    Ten illustrations - mainly comparitive ones - dealing with the possibilities of an economical energy conversion, in particular electricity generation, in the FRG are explained and commented upon. (UA) [de

  20. Scenarios of Expansion to Electric Generation Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Somoza-Cabrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the building scenarios of expansion to electric generation capacity enough to supply the demand to 2050. We were using the LEAP facility (Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System, to simulate dispatch of electricity at minimum cost. Finally, we show the cost-benefice analysis of the technologies availability, included externality and CO2 emission limited. However that we included the externals cost in this analysis, it results insufficient to closed gap between fossil and renewable technologies of electric generation. Nevertheless, in some opportunities the renewable options had very important participations in the minimal cost scenario of expansion.

  1. Hydroelectric Generating Facilities General Permit ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-28

    The Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permits (HYDROGP) for Discharges at Hydroelectric Generating Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG360000) and New Hampshire (NHG360000) and Tribal Lands in the State of Massachusetts was published in the Federal Register on December 7, 2009 (see 74 Fed. Reg. No. 233, pages 64074 - 64075).

  2. Geothermal electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliasson, E.T.

    1991-01-01

    Geothermal conversion, as discussed here, is the conversion of the heat bound within the topmost three kilometres of the upper crust of the earth into useful energy, principally electricity. The characteristics of a geothermal reservoir and its individual technical features are highly site-specific. Applications therefore must be designed to match the specific geothermal reservoir. An estimate of the electric energy potential world-wide made by the Electric Power Research Institute (United States) in 1978 and based on sustaining a continuous 30-year operation is given in the box at the right for comparison purposes only. 8 refs, 5 figs

  3. Method for protecting an electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnle, Barry W.; Roberts, Jeffrey B.; Folkers, Ralph W.

    2008-11-18

    A method for protecting an electrical generator which includes providing an electrical generator which is normally synchronously operated with an electrical power grid; providing a synchronizing signal from the electrical generator; establishing a reference signal; and electrically isolating the electrical generator from the electrical power grid if the synchronizing signal is not in phase with the reference signal.

  4. THERMO-ELECTRIC GENERATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, K.C.

    1958-07-22

    The conversion of heat energy into electrical energy by a small compact device is descrtbed. Where the heat energy is supplied by a radioactive material and thermopIIes convert the heat to electrical energy. The particular battery construction includes two insulating discs with conductive rods disposed between them to form a circular cage. In the center of the cage is disposed a cup in which the sealed radioactive source is located. Each thermopile is formed by connecting wires from two adjacent rods to a potnt on an annular ring fastened to the outside of the cup, the ring having insulation on its surface to prevent electrica1 contact with the thermopiles. One advantage of this battery construction is that the radioactive source may be inserted after the device is fabricated, reducing the radiation hazard to personnel assembling the battery.

  5. Heat operated cryogenic electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, J.C.; Wang, T.C.; Saffren, M.M.; Elleman, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    An electrical generator useful for providing electrical power in deep space, is disclosed. The subject electrical generator utilizes the unusual hydrodynamic property exhibited by liquid helium as it is converted to and from a superfluid state to cause opposite directions of rotary motion for a rotor cell thereof. The physical motion of said rotor cell is employed to move a magnetic field provided by a charged superconductive coil mounted on the exterior of said cell. An electrical conductor is placed in surrounding proximity to said cell to interact with the moving magnetic field provided by the superconductive coil and thereby generate electrical energy. A heat control arrangement is provided for the purpose of causing the liquid helium to be partially converted to and from a superfluid state by being cooled and heated, respectively. (U.S.)

  6. US/USSR cooperative program in open-cycle MHD electrical power gneration. Joint test report No. 2: tests in the U-25B facility; MHD generator test No. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tempelmeyer, K.E.; Sokolov, Y.N.

    1979-04-01

    The third joint test with a Soviet U-25B MHD generator and a US superconducting magnet system (SCMS) was conducted in the Soviet U-25B Facility. The primary objectives of the 3rd test were: (1) to operate the facility and MHD channel over a wider range of test parameters, and (2) to study the performance of all components and systems of the flow train at increased mass flow rates of combustion products (up to 4 kg/s), at high magnetic-field induction (up to 5 T), and high values of the electrical field in the MHD generator. The third test has demonstrated that all components and systems of the U-25B facility performed reliably. The electric power generated by the MHD generaor reached a maximum of 575 kW during this test. The MHD generator was operated under electrical loading conditions for 9 hours, and the combustor for a total of approximately 14 hours. Very high Hall fields (2.1 kV/m) were produced in the MHD channel, with a total Hall voltage of 4.24 kV. A detailed description is given of (1) performance of all components and systems of the U-25B facility, (2) analysis of the thermal, gasdynamic, and electrical characteristics of the MHD generator, (3) results of plasma diagnostic studies, (4) studies of vibrational characteristics of the flow train, (5) fluctuation of electrodynamic and gasdynamic parameters, (6) interaction of the MHD generator with the superconducting magnet, and (7) an operational problem, which terminated the test

  7. The Birth of Nuclear-Generated Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I), built in Idaho in 1949, generated the first usable electricity from nuclear power on December 20, 1951. More importantly, the reactor was used to prove that it was possible to create more nuclear fuel in the reactor than it consumed during operation -- fuel breeding. The EBR-I facility is now a National Historic Landmark open to the public.

  8. The Birth of Nuclear-Generated Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claflin, D.J. POC

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-I (EBR-I), built in Idaho in 1949, generated the first usable electricity from nuclear power on December 20, 1951. More importantly, the reactor was used to prove that it was possible to create more nuclear fuel in the reactor than it consumed during operation -- fuel breeding. The EBR-I facility is now a National Historic Landmark open to the public

  9. Energy demand of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drahny, M.

    1992-01-01

    The complex energy balance method was applied to selected electricity generation subsystems. The hydroelectric, brown coal based, and nuclear based subsystems are defined. The complex energy balance basically consists in identifying the mainstream and side-stream energy inputs and outputs for both the individual components and the entire electricity generation subsystem considered. Relationships for the complete energy balance calculation for the i-th component of the subsystem are given, and its side-stream energy inputs and outputs are defined. (J.B.). 4 figs., 4 refs

  10. Electricity generation using electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halas, Nancy J.; Nordlander, Peter; Neumann, Oara

    2017-08-22

    In general, in one aspect, the invention relates to a system to create vapor for generating electric power. The system includes a vessel comprising a fluid and a complex and a turbine. The vessel of the system is configured to concentrate EM radiation received from an EM radiation source. The vessel of the system is further configured to apply the EM radiation to the complex, where the complex absorbs the EM radiation to generate heat. The vessel of the system is also configured to transform, using the heat generated by the complex, the fluid to vapor. The vessel of the system is further configured to sending the vapor to a turbine. The turbine of the system is configured to receive, from the vessel, the vapor used to generate the electric power.

  11. Electricity trade: Generating benefits for British Columbians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Electricity has been traded in British Columbia since the turn of the century. In 1988, the provincial government established the British Columbia Power Exchange Corporation (Powerex) to conduct electricity trade activities in order to make the most efficient use of the electrial system and generate benefits for British Columbians. The trade is made possible by an interconnected system linking producers and consumers in western Canada and the USA. Provincial participants in the trade include British Columbia Hydro, independent power producers, and cogenerators. Benefits of the electricity trade include generation of revenue from sale of surplus power, being able to buy electricity when the mainly hydroelectric provincial system is in a drought condition or when major shutdowns occur, and enabling postponement of development of new power projects. Powerex conducts its trade under provincial and federal permits and licenses. Different types of trade contracts are negotiated depending on the amount and availability of electricity and the kind of trade being conducted. Exchanges and coordination agreements allow transfer and return between utilities with no net export occurring, allowing balancing of loads between different reigons. Surplus electricity is bought or sold on a short- or long-term basis and on firm or non-firm terms. Electricity exports are not subsidized and are only allowed if the electricity is surplus to provincial needs and can be sold at a profit. A new provincial policy allows private industry to export long-term firm electricity; this involves construction of new private-sector generating facilities solely for the purpose of export. 1 fig

  12. Health and safety impacts of nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel electric generation in California. Volume 9. Methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nero, A.V.; Quinby-Hunt, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    This report sets forth methodologies for review of the health and safety aspects of proposed nuclear, geothermal, and fossil-fuel sites and facilities for electric power generation. The review is divided into a Notice of Intention process and an Application for Certification process, in accordance with the structure to be used by the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission, the first emphasizing site-specific considerations, the second examining the detailed facility design as well. The Notice of Intention review is divided into three possible stages: an examination of emissions and site characteristics, a basic impact analysis, and an assessment of public impacts. The Application for Certification review is divided into five possible stages: a review of the Notice of Intention treatment, review of the emission control equipment, review of the safety design, review of the general facility design, and an overall assessment of site and facility acceptability

  13. Projected costs of generating electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Previous editions of Projected Costs of Generating Electricity have served as the reference in this field for energy policy makers, electricity system analysts and energy economists. The study is particularly timely in the light of current discussions of energy policy in many countries. The joint IEA/NEA study provides generation cost estimates for over a hundred power plants that use a variety of fuels and technologies. These include coal-fired, gas-fired, nuclear, hydro, solar and wind plants. Cost estimates are also given for combined heat and power plants that use coal, gas and combustible renewables. Data and information for this study were provided by experts from 19 OECD member countries and 3 non-member countries. The power plants examined in the study use technologies available today and considered by participating countries as candidates for commissioning by 2010-2015 or earlier. Investors and other decision makers will also need to take the full range of other factors into account (such as security of supply, risks and carbon emissions) when selecting an electricity generation technology. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies ultimately depends on many parameters: there is no clear-cut ''winner''. Major issues related to generation costs addressed in the report include: descriptions of state-of-the-art generation technologies; the methodologies for incorporating risk in cost assessments; the impact of carbon emission trading; and how to integrate wind power into the electricity grid. An appendix to the report provides country statements on generation technologies and costs. Previous studies in the series were published in 1983, 1986, 1990, 1993 and 1998. (author)

  14. Centralized electricity generation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaujay, J.

    2000-01-01

    In Africa, over 90 per cent of the suburban and rural populations do not have access to electricity, even if it represents the engine and consequence of change on the continent. A global approach represents the best way to meet the extensive needs of the continent. The author briefly reviewed the recent projects implemented in Africa to meet the increasing demand. Diesel generators were used to satisfy demand in small electrical sectors (less than 1000 MW), hydroelectricity or combustion turbines were used for medium electrical sectors (1000 to 5000 MW). A discussion of the technologies followed, touching on diesel electric stations and combustion turbines. Both methods meet environmental standards as they apply to emission control and noise control. The choice between the two technologies must be based on required unit power, site isolation, access to gas, and the cost of available combustibles. Hydroelectric power has great potential in the sub-Sahara region, and the challenges faced by each project are similar: difficulty in finding the required financing, meeting the environmental constraints, and the distribution of the energy. A modular nuclear reactor project for the generation of electricity is being developed by ESKOM Enterprises, in association with the British Nuclear Fuel Limited and PECCO and progress will be closely monitored. Decision makers must ensure that appropriate decisions are made in a reasonable time frame to allow sufficient time to develop a project to implementation. Demand requirements must be examined closely, technology adequately selected in order to come up with a financing plan. 4 tabs

  15. Electromechanically generating electricity with a gapped-graphene electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressen, Donald; Golovchenko, Jene

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the fabrication and operation of a gapped-graphene electric generator (G-GEG) device. The G-GEG generates electricity from the mechanical oscillation of droplets of electrolytes and ionic liquids. The spontaneous adsorption of ionic species on graphene charges opposing electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) on each half of the device. Modulating the area of contact between the droplet and graphene leads to adsorption/desorption of ions, effectively charging/discharging each EDLC and generating a current. The flow of current supports a potential difference across the G-GEG due to the device's internal impedance. Both the magnitude and polarity of the induced current and voltage show a strong dependence on the type of ionic species used, suggesting that certain ions interact more strongly with graphene than others. We find that a simple model circuit consisting of an AC current source in series with a resistor and a time-varying capacitor accurately predicts the device's dynamic behavior. Additionally, we discuss the effect of graphene's intrinsic quantum capacitance on the G-GEG's performance and speculate on the utility of the device in the context of energy harvesting.

  16. Apparatuses and methods for generating electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R; Tremblay, Paul L

    2013-08-06

    Apparatuses and methods relating to generating an electric field are disclosed. An electric field generator may include a semiconductive material configured in a physical shape substantially different from a shape of an electric field to be generated thereby. The electric field is generated when a voltage drop exists across the semiconductive material. A method for generating an electric field may include applying a voltage to a shaped semiconductive material to generate a complex, substantially nonlinear electric field. The shape of the complex, substantially nonlinear electric field may be configured for directing charged particles to a desired location. Other apparatuses and methods are disclosed.

  17. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plante, J.

    1998-01-01

    Every 3 to 4 years, the NEA undertakes a study on projected costs of generating electricity in OECD countries. This started in 1983 and the last study (1997) has just be completed. All together 5 studies were performed, the first three dealing with nuclear and coal options, while the 1992 and 1997 included also the gas option. The goal of the study is to compare, country by country, generating costs of nuclear, coal-fired and gas-fired power plants that could be commissioned in the respondent countries by 2005-2010

  18. Projected costs of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the outcomes of a study on the projected costs of generating electricity. It presents the latest data available on electricity generating costs for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal, gas, nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal. The study reaches 2 key conclusions. First, at a 5% real interest rate, nuclear energy is the most competitive solution for base-load electricity generation followed by coal-fired plants without carbon capture and natural gas-fired combined plants. It should be noted that coal with carbon capture has not reached a commercial phase. Second, at a 10% interest rate, nuclear remains the most competitive in Asia and North America but in Europe, coal without carbon capture equipment, followed by coal with carbon capture equipment, and gas-fired combined cycle turbines are overall more competitive than nuclear energy. The results highlight the paramount importance of interest rates (this dependence is a direct consequence of the nuclear energy's high capital costs) and of the carbon price. For instance if we assume a 10% interest rate and a cost of 50 dollar per tonne of CO 2 , nuclear energy would become competitive against both coal and gas. (A.C.)

  19. Effective use of electric power facilities and promotion of energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokumitsu, Iwao

    1999-01-01

    The capacity of Japan's commercial electric power facilities has been increased to more than 200 million kw. In order to provide a stable supply of electric power to meet constantly fluctuaring electric power demands, Japan's power plants generate electricity using an optimal combination of facilities, with nuclear power and coal-fired thermoelectric power providing the base load supply. In the use of electric power, moreover, measures are being implemented to reduce generation costs, conserve energy, and cut carbon dioxide emissions by reducing maximum output and equalizing the load. This report presents information concerning measures for improving the efficiency of electric power facilities operation, equalizing the load and promoting energy conservation. (author)

  20. Ministry of ordinance determining the technical standard concerning atomic energy facilities for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The ministerial ordinance provides for the technical standards for the power generation of nuclear facilities; i.e., electric power facilities generating electricity with nuclear energy for motive power, according to the Electricity Enterprises Act. The contents are as follows: protection against fires, aseismatic design, radiation protective barriers, structural protection for sitings, reactor installation, safety measures, materials and structures, safety valves, pressure resistance tests, reactor core, radiation shields, reactor cooling, emergency core cooling system, facility equipment, alarm system, reactor control system, reactor control room, fuel storage facility, fuel handling facility, ventilation equipment, radioactive contamination prevention, radioactive waste management facility, reactor containment facility, and so on. (Kubozono, M.)

  1. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J. [Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  2. Mini-biomass electric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, G. [International Applied Engineering, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Awareness of the living standards achieved by others has resulted in a Russian population which is yearning for a higher standard of living. Such a situation demands access to affordable electricity in remote areas. Remote energy requirements creates the need to transport power or fossil fuels over long distances. Application of local renewable energy resources could eliminate the need for and costs of long distance power supply. Vast forest resources spread over most of Russia make biomass an ideal renewable energy candidate for many off-grid villages. The primary objective for this preliminary evaluation is to examine the economic feasibility of replacing distillate and gasoline fuels with local waste biomass as the primary fuel for village energy in outlying regions of Russia. Approximately 20 million people live in regions where Russia`s Unified Electric System grid does not penetrate. Most of these people are connected to smaller independent power grids, but approximately 8 million Russians live in off-grid villages and small towns served by stand-alone generation systems using either diesel fuel or gasoline. The off-grid villages depend on expensive distillate fuels and gasoline for combustion in small boilers and engines. These fuels are used for both electricity generation and district heating. Typically, diesel generator systems with a capacity of up to 1 MW serve a collective farm, settlement and their rural enterprises (there are an estimated 10,000 such systems in Russia). Smaller gasoline-fueled generator systems with capacities in the range of 0.5 - 5 kW serve smaller farms or rural enterprises (there are about 60,000 such systems in Russia).

  3. Investment in Electricity Generation and Transmission: Decision Making Under Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conejo, Antonio J.; Baringo, Luis; Kazempour, Jalal

    This book provides an in-depth analysis of investment problems pertaining to electric energy infrastructure, including both generation and transmission facilities. The analysis encompasses decision-making tools for expansion planning, reinforcement, and the selection and timing of investment...... undergraduate and graduate students in the fields of electric energy systems, operations research, management science, and economics. Practitioners in the electric energy sector will also benefit from the concepts and techniques presented here....

  4. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  5. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  6. External costs of nuclear-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotaru, I.; Glodeanu, F.; Popescu, D.; Andrei, V.

    2004-01-01

    External costs of nuclear power include: future financial liabilities arising from decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear facilities, health and environmental impacts of radioactivity releases in routine operation, radioactive waste disposal and effects of severe accidents. The nuclear energy industry operates under regulations that impose stringent limits to atmospheric emissions and liquid effluents from nuclear facilities as well as requiring the containment and confinement of solid radioactive waste to ensure its isolation from the biosphere as long as it may be harmful for human health and the environment. The capital and operating costs of nuclear power plants and fuel cycle facilities already internalize a major portion of the above-mentioned potential external costs, and these are reflected in the prices paid by consumers of nuclear-generated electricity. The externality related to potential health and environmental impacts of radioactive releases during routine operations have been assessed in a large number of comprehensive studies, in particular the ExternE project that was created in the framework of the European Commission. With regard to effects of severe nuclear accidents, a special legal regime, the third-party liability system, has been implemented to provide limited third party liability coverage in the event of a nuclear accident. The nuclear plant owners are held liable for some specified first substantial part of damages to third parties, and must secure insurance coverage adequate to cover this part. The Government provides coverage for some specified substantial second part of the damages, with any remaining damages to be considered by the national legislation. Thus, the costs of an incident or accident are fully internalized in the costs borne by the nuclear plant owners. Externalities of energy are not limited to environmental and health related impacts, but may result also from macro-economic, policy or strategic factors not reflected

  7. Electric Motor-Generator for a Hybrid Electric Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Odvářka, Erik; Mebarki, Abdeslam; Gerada, David; Brown, Neil; Ondrůšek, Čestmír

    2009-01-01

    Several topologies of electrical machines can be used to meet requirements for application in a hybrid electric vehicle. This paper describes process of an electric motor-generator selection, considering electromagnetic, thermal and basic control design. The requested electrical machine must develop 45 kW in continuous operation at 1300 rpm with field weakening capability up to 2500 rpm. Both radial and axial flux topologies are considered as potential candidates. A family of axial flux machi...

  8. Third Generation Flywheels for electric storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricci, Michael, R.; Fiske, O. James

    2008-02-29

    frequency regulation, where Power Rings could cut costs, reduce fuel consumption, eliminate emissions, and reduce the need for new power plants. Other applications include hybrid diesel-electric locomotives, grid power quality, support for renewable energy, spinning reserve, energy management, and facility deferral. Decreased need for new generation and transmission alone could save the nation $2.5 billion per year. Improved grid reliability could cut economic losses due to poor power quality by tens of billions of dollars per year. A large export market for this technology could also develop. Power Ring technology will directly support the EERE mission, and the goals of the Distributed Energy Technologies Subprogram in particular, by helping to reduce blackouts, brownouts, electricity costs, and emissions, by relieving transmission bottlenecks, and by greatly improving grid power quality.

  9. A Decision Model for Choosing Among Photovoltaic Technologies to Generate Electricity at Grid-Connected Air Force Facilities: A Value-Focused Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    goals, but it is also carries significant political interest. 1.1.4. Photovoltaic Effect A monocrystalline silicon photovoltaic cell (Figure 2) is...developed the industry by creating small photovoltaic panels to power watches and calculators (Archer, 2001; Wronski and Carlson, 2001). Amorphous silicon...Clinton, 1999). One particularly promising renewable energy source is solar energy converted to electricity by solar photovoltaic panels . Previous

  10. Effect of liquid waste discharges from steam generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, H.E. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    This report contains a summary of the effects of liquid waste discharges from steam electric generating facilities on the environment. Also included is a simplified model for use in approximately determining the effects of these discharges. Four basic fuels are used in steam electric power plants: three fossil fuels--coal, natural gas, and oil; and uranium--presently the basic fuel of nuclear power. Coal and uranium are expected to be the major fuels in future years. The following power plant effluents are considered: heat, chlorine, copper, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, pH, oil and grease, iron, zinc, chrome, phosphorus, and trace radionuclides.

  11. Effect of liquid waste discharges from steam generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, H.E. Jr.

    1977-09-01

    This report contains a summary of the effects of liquid waste discharges from steam electric generating facilities on the environment. Also included is a simplified model for use in approximately determining the effects of these discharges. Four basic fuels are used in steam electric power plants: three fossil fuels--coal, natural gas, and oil; and uranium--presently the basic fuel of nuclear power. Coal and uranium are expected to be the major fuels in future years. The following power plant effluents are considered: heat, chlorine, copper, total dissolved solids, suspended solids, pH, oil and grease, iron, zinc, chrome, phosphorus, and trace radionuclides

  12. New generation of heavy ion facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    A report is given on the status of major heavy ion accelerator projects that are funded and under construction and a few still in the proposal state. New facilities that are expected to become operational between now and the mid-1980's are reviewed. The major directions being pursued by this next generation of machines and new features being introduced are discussed

  13. Gas in electricity generation [In New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devine, K.

    1995-01-01

    Gas is New Zealand's major thermal fuel for electricity generation. This paper describes what influences the volumes of gas burnt by ECNZ, and forecasts future gas demands for electricity generation. It also reviews the uncertainties associated with these forecasts and likely competition in building new electricity generating stations and outlines the strategy now being formulated to accommodate them. Because ECNZ's generation system is hydro-based, relatively small rapid changes in hydrological conditions can significantly affect the amount of gas used. This situation will change over time with major increases in thermal generation likely to be needed over the next 20 years. However, there are considerable uncertainties on gas supply and electricity demand levels in the long run, which will complicate investment and fuel decisions. (Author)

  14. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  15. Sun, wind and electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huacuz V, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The X-Calak hybrid system was totally implemented in March, 1993 trhough an agreement with Sandia Laboratories (US), the private enterprise Condumex and the Electrical Research Institute (IIE). About 5 0 variables are continuously measured by an electronic data acquisition system and are pre-processed each 15 minutes averages in to be stored. The information is retrieved by cellular phone to be analyzed in detail. (Author)

  16. Realistic generation cost of solar photovoltaic electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Parm Pal; Singh, Sukhmeet

    2010-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (SPV) power plants have long working life with zero fuel cost and negligible maintenance cost but requires huge initial investment. The generation cost of the solar electricity is mainly the cost of financing the initial investment. Therefore, the generation cost of solar electricity in different years depends on the method of returning the loan. Currently levelized cost based on equated payment loan is being used. The static levelized generation cost of solar electricity is compared with the current value of variable generation cost of grid electricity. This improper cost comparison is inhibiting the growth of SPV electricity by creating wrong perception that solar electricity is very expensive. In this paper a new method of loan repayment has been developed resulting in generation cost of SPV electricity that increases with time like that of grid electricity. A generalized capital recovery factor has been developed for graduated payment loan in which capital and interest payment in each installment are calculated by treating each loan installment as an independent loan for the relevant years. Generalized results have been calculated which can be used to determine the cost of SPV electricity for a given system at different places. Results show that for SPV system with specific initial investment of 5.00 cents /kWh/year, loan period of 30 years and loan interest rate of 4% the levelized generation cost of SPV electricity with equated payment loan turns out to be 28.92 cents /kWh, while the corresponding generation cost with graduated payment loan with escalation in annual installment of 8% varies from 9.51 cents /kWh in base year to 88.63 cents /kWh in 30th year. So, in this case, the realistic current generation cost of SPV electricity is 9.51 cents /kWh and not 28.92 cents /kWh. Further, with graduated payment loan, extension in loan period results in sharp decline in cost of SPV electricity in base year. Hence, a policy change is required

  17. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  18. Comparative risk assessment for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoene, E.; Kallenbach, U.

    1988-01-01

    The following conclusions are drawn: There is no 'zero-risk option' in electricity generation. Risk comparison meets with considerable problems relating to available data and methods. Taking into account the existing uncertainties, technology ranking in terms of risks involved cannot be done, but the major risk elements of the various electricity generating systems can be clearly identified. The risks defined cannot be interpreted so as to lead to an abolishment of certain techniques due to risks involved, particularly if one sees the risks from electricity generation in relation to other health hazards. The use of coal for electricity generation clearly ranks top with regard to occupational risks and hazards to public health. (orig./HP) [de

  19. Optimization Methodologies of Mixed Electrical Generators in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article deals of the optimization of renewable energy electric generators, for the alimentation of radio telecommunication systems. ... Have at one's the energetic and economic models, and simulation tools, we effected an optimization ...

  20. Operating experience of steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sureshkumar, V.A.; Madhusoodhanan, G.; Noushad, I.B.; Ellappan, T.R.; Nashine, B.K.; Sylvia, J.I.; Rajan, K.K.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2006-01-01

    Steam Generator (SG) is the vital component of a Fast Reactor. It houses both water at high pressure and sodium at low pressure separated by a tube wall. Any damage to this barrier initiates sodium water reaction that could badly affect the plant availability. Steam Generator Test Facility (SGTF) has been set up in Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) to test sodium heated once through steam generator of 19 tubes similar to the PFBR SG dimension and operating conditions. The facility is also planned as a test bed to assess improved designs of the auxiliary equipments used in Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR). The maximum power of the facility is 5.7 MWt. This rating is arrived at based on techno economic consideration. This paper covers the performance of various equipments in the system such as Electro magnetic pumps, Centrifugal sodium pump, in-sodium hydrogen meters, immersion heaters, and instrumentation and control systems. Experience in the system operation, minor modifications, overall safety performance, and highlights of the experiments carried out etc. are also brought out. (author)

  1. Generation of electricity from wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debroy, S.K.; Behera, S.; Murty, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk power can be generated by using a chain of wind mills with the current level of technology. Wind turbine technology has improved considerably resulting in better efficiency, availability and capacity factor including a significant reduction in the cost of manufacture and installation

  2. Electricity market opening and electricity generation system's expansion in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosnjek, Z.; Vidmar, M.; Bregar, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Slovenia is rapidly adopting the European Union (EU) legislation to make itself ready to be admitted the fifteen EU member countries. In the area of energy or electricity supply industry, Slovenia has consequently enforced the Energy law, which in its essence follows the idea of the Directive 96/92/EC. Globally, the Directive defines common rules of the internal electricity market within EU. Any EU member country is responsible for assuring a competitive electricity market and implementing corresponding instruments as foreseen by the Directive. The share of the national market opening is calculated on the basis of eligible customers' consumption versus the overall consumption in a particular member country. Also, the Directive defines the rate of the electricity market opening. It is interesting to note that the EU member countries have been opening their national electricity markets at a greater speed than specified by the Directive. The overall Slovenian Electricity Supply Industry shall have to adapt itself to new imperatives, whereby the greatest changes will by all means take place in the area of electricity generation. As the reaction of eligible domestic market customers is quite unpredictable, the direct electricity import from foreign countries can only be estimated on a variant basis. EU countries that have deregulated their electricity market have been, step by step, gaining valuable experiences. The majority of them show a considerable pressure on having prices of the EPS generation sector reduced. A similar development can by all means be expected in Slovenia, too. it is expected that the major burden of the electricity market liberalisation and electric power interconnecting within EU will be carried by the EPS generation sector. The analyses of developed variants show that the burden, imposed by the transition onto the market economy, will be predominantly carried by the coal fired electricity supply industry. Further development of electricity

  3. Lewis Research Center space station electric power system test facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birchenough, Arthur G.; Martin, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center facilities were developed to support testing of the Space Station Electric Power System. The capabilities and plans for these facilities are described. The three facilities which are required in the Phase C/D testing, the Power Systems Facility, the Space Power Facility, and the EPS Simulation Lab, are described in detail. The responsibilities of NASA Lewis and outside groups in conducting tests are also discussed.

  4. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately

  5. The HART I augmented electric gun facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikse, D.A.; Ciesar, J.A.; Wehrli, H.A.; Rimersma, H.; Docherty, E.F.; Pipich, C.W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on an augmented electric gun system that has been commissioned. This system, called HART I (Hypervelocity Augmented Railgun Test), is built around a double augmented rail arrangement with a 1.27-cm square bore. It is powered by the SUVAC II 5.6-MJ distributed capacitor power supply. This arrangement allows operation in a simple, series augmented, or transaugmented gun system configuration. The objective of this facility is to perform materials research augmentation studies, and armature development in the 10-km/s regime. Armature masses of 2 to 4 g will be accelerated in a 4-m long barrel. Baseline bore materials will begin with conventional G9/GlidCop systems and then move into pyrolytic boron nitride/refractory materials. Hybrids, plasma, and ablation stabilized armature systems are planned. The gun system is instrumented with plasma and rail B probes for inbore velocity measurements. In addition, breech and muzzle voltages, currents, and external velocities are measured. The HART I system is currently performing hypervelocity experiments to verify the augmentation models

  6. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This rule is established under the provisions of the law for the redevelopment of the surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Persons who install power generating facilities under the law include general electric power enterprises and wholesale electric power enterprises defined under the electric enterprises act and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of these facilities defined under the law is 350,000 kilo-watts output for atomic and thermal power generating facilities, 10,000 kilo-watts output for the facilities utilizing geothermal energy, 100,000 kilo-watts output for facilities whose main fuel is coal, and 1,000 kilo-watts output for hydraulic power generating facilities, etc. The facilities closely related to atomic power generation include the reprocessing and examination facilities of fuel materials spent in atomic power reactors, the reactors installed by the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute for studying on the safety of atomic power reactors, the experimental fast reactors and the uranium enrichment facilities established by the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The public facilities in this rule are those for communication, sport and recreation, environment hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Governors of prefectures who intend to get approval under the law shall file redevelopment plans to the competent minister through the Minister of the International Trade and Industry. (Okada, K.)

  7. Optimised deployment of hydro-power generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werlen, K.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses how the opening-up of the European electricity market has led to the creation of more room for manoeuvre in the deployment of the generation capacity of dam and pumped-storage-based hydropower facilities and low-head power stations. Software tools for the optimisation of the operation of power generation facilities that can take care of complex hydraulic interdependencies are described. The use of the software for the assessment of new installations being planned or of older installations being extended is examined. The influence of climatic conditions, market prices for power, the general requirements placed on the system and other influences on financial gain are looked at. The article makes recommendations on those factors influencing the design of the software and for its optimal use in practice

  8. Impact of Hurricane Andrew on FPL generation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brannen, W.F.; Adams, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    In the pre-dawn hours of August 25, 1992, Hurricane Andrew made landfall in southern Dade County, Florida. The storm approached directly from the east and moved rapidly across the State and into the Gulf of Mexico. Andrew's intense winds caused unprecedented devastation to structures and facilities in its path. Not surprisingly, Florida Power and Light's (FPL) generation, transmission and distribution facilities in south Florida also suffered extensive damage. Two of FPL's electrical generating sites were located in the direct path of the storm and received its full brunt. This paper presents a review of the damage sustained by those plants, an overview of the unique recovery challenges encountered and a summary of the lessons learned from this experience

  9. Developments in fossil fuel electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, A.; Argiri, M.

    1993-01-01

    A major part of the world's electricity is generated by the combustion of fossil fuels, and there is a significant environmental impact due to the production of fossil fuels and their combustion. Coal is responsible for 63% of the electricity generated from fossil fuels; natural gas accounts for about 20% and fuel oils for 17%. Because of developments in supply and improvements in generating efficiencies there is apparently a considerable shift towards a greater use of natural gas, and by the year 2000 it could provide 25% of the world electricity output. At the same time the amount of fuel oil burned will have decreased. The means to minimize the environmental impact of the use of fossil fuels, particularly coal, in electricity production are considered, together with the methods of emission control. Cleaner coal technologies, which include fluidized bed combustion and an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), can reduce the emissions of NO x , SO 2 and CO 2 . (author)

  10. Thermo-electrical systems for the generation of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitschi, A.; Froehlich, K.

    2010-01-01

    This article takes a look at theoretical models concerning thermo-electrical systems for the generation of electricity and demonstrations of technology actually realised. The potentials available and developments are discussed. The efficient use of energy along the whole generation and supply chain, as well as the use of renewable energy sources are considered as being two decisive factors in the attainment of a sustainable energy supply system. The large amount of unused waste heat available today in energy generation, industrial processes, transport systems and public buildings is commented on. Thermo-electric conversion systems are discussed and work being done on the subject at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich is discussed. The findings are discussed and results are presented in graphical form

  11. Electric power generation the changing dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tagare, D M

    2011-01-01

    "This book offers an analytical overview of established electric generation processes, along with the present status & improvements for meeting the strains of reconstruction. These old methods are hydro-electric, thermal & nuclear power production. The book covers climatic constraints; their affects and how they are shaping thermal production. The book also covers the main renewable energy sources, wind and PV cells and the hybrids arising out of these. It covers distributed generation which already has a large presence is now being joined by wind & PV energies. It covers their accommodation in the present system. It introduces energy stores for electricity; when they burst upon the scene in full strength are expected to revolutionize electricity production. In all the subjects covered, there are references to power marketing & how it is shaping production. There will also be a reference chapter on how the power market works"--Provided by publisher.

  12. STG-ET: DLR electric propulsion test facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Neumann

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available DLR operates the High Vacuum Plume Test Facility Göttingen – Electric Thrusters (STG-ET. This electric propulsion test facility has now accumulated several years of EP-thruster testing experience. Special features tailored to electric space propulsion testing like a large vacuum chamber mounted on a low vibration foundation, a beam dump target with low sputtering, and a performant pumping system characterize this facility. The vacuum chamber is 12.2m long and has a diameter of 5m. With respect to accurate thruster testing, the design focus is on accurate thrust measurement, plume diagnostics, and plume interaction with spacecraft components. Electric propulsion thrusters have to run for thousands of hours, and with this the facility is prepared for long-term experiments. This paper gives an overview of the facility, and shows some details of the vacuum chamber, pumping system, diagnostics, and experiences with these components.

  13. Electric distribution systems and embedded generation capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderaro, V.; Galdi, V.; Piccolo, A.; Siano, P.

    2006-01-01

    The main policy issues of European States are sustainable energy supply promotion and liberalization of energy markets, which introduced market competition in electricity production and created support mechanisms to encourage renewable electricity production and consumption. As a result of liberalization, any generator, including small-scale and renewable energy based units, can sell electricity on the free market. In order to meet future sustainability targets, connection of a higher number of Distributed Generation (DG) units to the electrical power system is expected, requiring changes in the design and operation of distribution electricity systems, as well as changes in electricity network regulation. In order to assist distribution system operators in planning and managing DG connections and in maximizing DG penetration and renewable sources exploitation, this paper proposed a reconfiguration methodology based on a Genetic Algorithm (GA), that was tested on a 70-bus system with DG units. The simulation results confirmed that the methodology represents a suitable tool for distribution system operators when dealing with DG capacity expansion and power loss issues, providing information regarding the potential penetration network-wide and allowing maximum exploitation of renewable generation. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs

  14. Quasi-Static Electric Field Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generazio, Edward R. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A generator for producing an electric field for with an inspection technology system is provided. The generator provides the required variable magnitude quasi-static electric fields for the "illumination" of objects, areas and volumes to be inspected by the system, and produces human-safe electric fields that are only visible to the system. The generator includes a casing, a driven, non-conducting and triboelectrically neutral rotation shaft mounted therein, an ungrounded electrostatic dipole element which works in the quasi-static range, and a non-conducting support for mounting the dipole element to the shaft. The dipole element has a wireless motor system and a charging system which are wholly contained within the dipole element and the support that uses an electrostatic approach to charge the dipole element.

  15. Natural gas and electricity generation in Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of this article is on electricity generation in Queensland. Black coal accounted for 97 percent, while natural gas made up only 1 percent of the fuel used in thermal power generation in 1997-98. The share of natural gas in thermal electricity generation is expected to rise to 21 percent by 2014-2015, because of the emphasis on natural gas in Queensland's new energy policy. Since 1973-1974, Queensland has led the way in electricity consumption, with an average annual growth rate of 6.8 percent but the average thermal efficiency has fallen from 38.0 percent in 1991-1992, to 36.6 percent in 1997-1998

  16. Generating Electricity from Water through Carbon Nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Chen, Peining; Peng, Huisheng

    2018-01-09

    Over the past ten years, electricity generation from water in carbon-based materials has aroused increasing interest. Water-induced mechanical-to-electrical conversion has been discovered in carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanotubes and graphene, through the interaction with flowing water as well as moisture. In this Concept article, we focus on the basic principles of electric energy harvesting from flowing water through carbon nanomaterials, and summarize the material modification and structural design of these nanogenerators. The current challenges and potential applications of power conversion with carbon nanomaterials are finally highlighted. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The Order is based on the prescriptions of the Law for the Arrangement of Surrounding Areas of Power Generating Facilities. Those establishing power generating facilities are general and wholesale electric enterprisers provided for by the Electricity Enterprises Act as well as the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The generating capacity is specified as 350,000 kilowatts for nuclear and steam power generating facilities, 150,000 kilowatts for those set up by the Corporation, 100,000 kilowatts for those using coal as main fuel, and 10,000 kilowatts for water power generation and geothermal plants. The facilities closely connected to nuclear power generation include the reprocessing facilities and test and examination facilities for nuclear fuel materials used for power-generating nuclear reactors, reactors used for the research on the safety of power generating reactors, and experimental reactors for fast breeder reactors. The public facilities consist of communication facilities, and the facilities for sports and recreations, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting, etc. Prefectural governors ought to file the arrangement plans to the competent minister through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission prescribed by the Law. The subsidy is not granted to the expenses of the enterprises undertaken by the nation or those enterprises, a part of the expenses of which is borne or subsidized by the nation. (Okada, K.)

  18. A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabisky, E.S.

    1996-01-01

    The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price

  19. Design of very high speed electric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labollita, Santiago

    2008-01-01

    This work approaches the design process of an electric generator suitable for running efficiently at high speed, driven by a turbo shaft.The axial flux concept was used.For the mechanical design of the prototype, cooling capacity and mounting method were considered, looking for simplicity of the parts evolved. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets were used as magnetic source.For the electrical design, a calculation tool was developed in order to predict the prototype electrical parameters and optimize its geometry.The goal was to obtain 1 kW of electric power at a speed of 100,000 rpm.The efficiency and electrical behaviour of the prototype were characterized at speeds between 2,000 rpm and 30,000 rpm and then the behaviour at the design condition was predicted by obtaining an equivalent electric circuit.The estimated load voltage was 237 V as well as an electrical efficiency of 95%.Eddy current effects were not recognized. Increase of the internal resistance and decree of inductance were observed while raising the electric frequency.Finally, an electronic system was developed in order to use the prototype as a c.c. motor. Global performance was measured according to different supply characteristic. An optimum supply voltage was found.A maximum efficiency of 63% was reached. [es

  20. Electrohydrodynamic simulation of electrically controlled droplet generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Yun; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas; Gersem, Herbert De; Steinhausen, Christoph; Lamanna, Grazia; Weigand, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a full electrohydrodynamic simulation approach which allows for the accurate modeling of droplet dynamics under the influence of transient electric fields. The model takes into account conductive, capacitive as well as convective electrical currents in the fluid. • Simulation results are shown for an electrically driven droplet generator using highly conductive acetone droplets and low conductivity pentane droplets, respectively. Excellent agreement with measurement is found. • We investigate the operation characteristic of the droplet generator by computing droplet sizes and detachment times with respect to the applied voltage. • The droplet charging effect is demonstrated for pentane droplets as well as for acetone droplets under long voltage pulses. We show that due to the very different relaxation times, the charging behavior of the two liquids is very different. • We demonstrate that due to this behavior, also the detachment mechanisms for acetone and pentane droplets are different. For low conductivity (pentane) droplets, droplet detachment is only possible after the electric fields are switched off. This is because the effective electric polarization force points upwards, thus, inhibiting the detachment of the droplet from the capillary tip. - Abstract: An electrohydrodynamic model for the simulation of droplet formation, detachment and motion in an electrically driven droplet generator is introduced. The numerical approach is based on the coupled solution of the multiphase flow problem with the charge continuity equation. For the latter, a modified convection-conduction model is applied, taking into account conductive, capacitive as well as convective electrical currents in the fluid. This allows for a proper description of charge relaxation phenomena in the moving fluid. In particular, the charge received by the droplet after detachment is an important parameter influencing the droplet dynamics in the test chamber

  1. Electrical, Magnetic, and Optical Measurement Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides tools necessary for electrical, magnetic, and optical characterization of bulk and thin-film materials. This includes the ability to determine the...

  2. Experimental facilities for Generation IV reactors research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krecanova, E.; Di Gabriele, F.; Berka, J.; Zychova, M.; Macak, J.; Vojacek, A.

    2013-06-01

    Centrum Vyzkumu Rez (CVR) is research and development Company situated in Czech Republic and member of the UJV group. One of its major fields is material research for Generation IV reactor concepts, especially supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR), very high temperature/gas-cooled fast reactor (VHTR/GFR) and lead-cooled fast reactor (LFR). The CVR is equipped by and is building unique experimental facilities which simulate the environment in the active zones of these reactor concepts and enable to pre-qualify and to select proper constructional materials for the most stressed components of the facility (cladding, vessel, piping). New infrastructure is founded within the Sustainable Energy project focused on implementation the Generation IV and fusion experimental facilities. The research of SCWR concept is divided to research and development of the constructional materials ensured by SuperCritical Water Loop (SCWL) and fuel components research on Fuel Qualification Test loop (SCWL-FQT). SCWL provides environment of the primary circuits of European SCWR, pressure 25 MPa, temperature 600 deg. C and its major purpose is to simulate behavior of the primary medium and candidate constructional materials. On-line monitoring system is included to collect the operational data relevant to experiment and its evaluation (pH, conductivity, chemical species concentration). SCWL-FQT is facility focused on the behavior of cladding material and fuel at the conditions of so-called preheater, the first pass of the medium through the fuel (in case of European SCWR concept). The conditions are 450 deg. C and 25 MPa. SCWL-FQT is unique facility enabling research of the shortened fuel rods. VHTR/GFR research covers material testing and also cleaning methods of the medium in primary circuit. The High Temperature Helium Loop (HTHL) enables exposure of materials and simulates the VHTR/GFR core environment to analyze the behavior of medium, especially in presence of organic compounds and

  3. New electricity generating installations - Czech experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biza, K.; Pazdera, F.; Zdarek, J.

    2004-01-01

    Economically and technically are analysed alternatives for new electricity generation installations (GEN 111+ NPPs, finalization of NPPs under construction, lifetime extension of existing NPPs, coal plants and gas plants). Described are experienced with NPP Temelin (lessons learned from its design, construction, start-up and resent operation and service experience) and new Czech Energy Policy, where the nuclear energy is an important source for electricity generation. Discussed is also impact of potential trading with CO 2 limits and strategy on minimization of dependence on energy from politically unstable regions. Underlined is important role of preparation of young generation for safe and reliable long term operation of NPPs. General recommendation is to orient on finalization of NPPs under construction, lifetime extension of existing NPPs and long term orientation on new generation of NPPs (GEN III+ and GEN IV). (author)

  4. Power generation investment in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Most IEA countries are liberalizing their electricity markets, shifting the responsibility for financing new investment in power generation to private investors. No longer able to automatically pass on costs to consumers, and with future prices of electricity uncertain, investors face a much riskier environment for investment in electricity infrastructure. This report looks at how investors have responded to the need to internalize investment risk in power generation. While capital and total costs remain the parameters shaping investment choices, the value of technologies which can be installed quickly and operated flexibly is increasingly appreciated. Investors are also managing risk by greater use of contracting, by acquiring retail businesses, and through mergers with natural gas suppliers. While liberalization was supposed to limit government intervention in the electricity market, volatile electricity prices have put pressure on governments to intervene and limit such prices. This study looks at several cases of volatile prices in IEA countries' electricity markets, and finds that while market prices can be a sufficient incentive for new investment in peak capacity, government intervention into the market to limit prices may undermine such investment

  5. Dispersed generation: impact on the electricity system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfanti, M.; Merlo, M.; Silvestri, A.

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the impact of Dispersed Generation (D G) on the national electricity system, by proposing a practical approach for determining the current capacity of the networks to accepts this form of generation (hosting capacity). With the prospect of an increasing intake of D G, we finally draft a possible evolution of distribution networks based on the integration of energy and information networks. [it

  6. The projected costs of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes the outcomes from the joint report between the Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Energy Agency of the OECD on the projected costs of generating electricity. The study contains data on electricity generating costs for almost 200 power plants provided by 17 OECD member countries, 4 non-OECD countries and 4 industrial companies or industry organisations. The paper presents the projected costs of generating electricity calculated according to common methodological rules on the basis of the data provided by participating countries and organisations. Data were received for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal, gas, nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal. Cost estimates were also provided for combined heat and power plants, as well as for coal plants that include carbon capture. As in previous studies of the same series, all costs and benefits were discounted or capitalised to the date of commissioning in order to calculate the state of the electricity costs per MWh, based on plant operating lifetime data. In addition, the paper contains a discussion of a number of factors affecting the cost of capital, the outlook for carbon capture and storage and the working of electricity markets. (Author)

  7. Electricity generation: a case study in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaygusuz, K.

    1999-01-01

    Large-scale electricity generation provides versatile energy of the highest quality. Today, fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas are the primary sources of this energy. However, these fossil energy sources are limited and using fossil energy sources has the undesirable effect of releasing emissions that burden the environment and alter the climate. Therefore, governments and companies all over the world should find new and renewable energy sources. On the other hand, over the past two decades, power station construction programs in the developing countries accounted for nearly 30% of total public investment. In a large number of these countries, shortages of electricity have become a critical constraint to economic growth. In Turkey, from 1980 to 1995, the amount for electricity generated increased about fourfold from 23,275 Gwh to 86,247 Gwh, and annual growth rates were in the double digits. This is a good development, but not enough for Turkey. (author)

  8. Expansion planning for electrical generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The guidebook outlines the general principles of electric power system planning in the context of energy and economic planning in general. It describes the complexities of electric system expansion planning that are due to the time dependence of the problem and the interrelation between the main components of the electric system (generation, transmission and distribution). Load forecasting methods are discussed and the principal models currently used for electric system expansion planning presented. Technical and economic information on power plants is given. Constraints imposed on power system planning by plant characteristics (particularly nuclear power plants) are discussed, as well as factors such as transmission system development, environmental considerations, availability of manpower and financial resources that may affect the proposed plan. A bibliography supplements the references that appear in each chapter, and a comprehensive glossary defines terms used in the guidebook

  9. Partnership for electrical generation technology education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, R. S.; Beaty, L.; Holman, R.

    2006-01-01

    This Engineering Technician education effort adapts an existing two-year Instrumentation and Control (I and C) education program into a model that is focused on electrical-generation technologies. It will also locally implement a program developed elsewhere with National Science Foundation funding, aimed at public schools, and adapt it to stimulate pre-college interest in pursuing energy careers in general. (authors)

  10. Understanding social acceptance of electricity generation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronfman, Nicolás C.; Jiménez, Raquel B.; Arévalo, Pilar C.; Cifuentes, Luis A.

    2012-01-01

    Social acceptability is a determinant factor in the failure or success of the government's decisions about which electricity generation sources will satisfy the growing demand for energy. The main goal of this study was to validate a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources. In the model, social acceptance of an energy source is directly caused by perceived risk and benefit and also by social trust in regulatory agencies (both directly and indirectly, through perceived risk and benefit). Results from a web-based survey of Chilean university students demonstrated that data for energy sources that are controversial in Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro, and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model, whereas data for non conventional renewable energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal and tidal) did not. Perceived benefit had the greatest total effect on acceptability, thus emerging as a key predictive factor of social acceptability of controversial electricity generation sources. Further implications for regulatory agencies are discussed. - Highlights: ► We tested a causal trust-acceptability model for electricity generation sources in Chile. ► Data for controversial energy sources in the Chilean society (fossil fuels, hydro and nuclear power) fit the hypothesized model. ► Data for non conventional renewable energy sources did not fit the data. ► Perceived benefit showed the greatest total effect on acceptability.

  11. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ennison, I.; Dzobo, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  12. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep

    2014-01-01

    Under the 10 th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels

  13. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder; Sivapalan, Subarna; Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A.

    2014-10-01

    Under the 10th Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  14. Implementation of optimum solar electricity generating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Balbir Singh Mahinder, E-mail: balbir@petronas.com.my; Karim, Samsul Ariffin A., E-mail: samsul-ariffin@petronas.com.my [Department of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Sivapalan, Subarna, E-mail: subarna-sivapalan@petronas.com.my [Department of Management and Humanities, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Najib, Nurul Syafiqah Mohd; Menon, Pradeep [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24

    Under the 10{sup th} Malaysian Plan, the government is expecting the renewable energy to contribute approximately 5.5% to the total electricity generation by the year 2015, which amounts to 98MW. One of the initiatives to ensure that the target is achievable was to establish the Sustainable Energy Development Authority of Malaysia. SEDA is given the authority to administer and manage the implementation of the feed-in tariff (FiT) mechanism which is mandated under the Renewable Energy Act 2011. The move to establish SEDA is commendable and the FiT seems to be attractive but there is a need to create awareness on the implementation of the solar electricity generating system (SEGS). In Malaysia, harnessing technologies related to solar energy resources have great potential for implementation. However, the main issue that plagues the implementation of SEGS is the intermittent nature of this source of energy. The availability of sunlight is during the day time, and there is a need for electrical energy storage system, so that there is electricity available during the night time as well. The meteorological condition such as clouds, haze and pollution affects the SEGS as well. The PV based SEGS is seems to be promising electricity generating system that can contribute towards achieving the 5.5% target and will be able to minimize the negative effects of utilizing fossil fuels for electricity generation on the environment. Malaysia is committed to Kyoto Protocol, which emphasizes on fighting global warming by achieving stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. In this paper, the technical aspects of the implementation of optimum SEGS is discussed, especially pertaining to the positioning of the PV panels.

  15. Principles of tariff determination for NPP electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratnikov, B.E.; Gitel'man, L.D.; Artemov, Yu.N.; Fiantsev, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    Foundations of price-setting and order of accounting arrangement for NPP electric power are considered. NPP tariffs are established proceeding from standard costs of power generation. The standards are differentiated as to NPP groups, depending on technical, regional and natural geographic factors, taking into account the facility type, unit capacity and the number of similar NPP units. The conclusion is made that under conditions of NPP economic independence expansion and creation of prerequisites for going over to self-financing principles and also due to the qualitatively new stage of nuclear power generation development the level of efficiency, forseen by the tariffs, should be increased

  16. Outline of electric power facility plan in fiscal year 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    As to the electric power facility plan in fiscal year 1988, 15 designated electric power enterprises made the notification to the Minister of International Trade and Industry in March, 1988. This outline of the facility plan summarized the plans of 66 enterprises in total, including the plans of municipally operated, joint thermal power and other enterprises in addition to the above 15. In order to ensure the stable supply of electric power, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry considers that it is indispensable to purposefully develop electric power sources and the facilities for distribution along this facility plan. The forecast for fiscal year 1997 is : total electric power demand 778.2 billion kWh, maximum power demand 151.21 million kW, and yearly load factor 56.9 %. This is equivalent to the yearly growth of 2.4 %. In fiscal year 1988, it is planned to present 29 plants of 2760 MW to the Power Source Development Coordination Council. The breakdown is : hydroelectricity 140 MW, thermal power 2010 MW, and nuclear power 610 MW. The Ministry guides electric power enterprises so as to realize the diversification of electric power sources. Also the increase of transmission and transformation facilities, the plan of equipment investment and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. A large electrically excited synchronous generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This invention relates to a large electrically excited synchronous generator (100), comprising a stator (101), and a rotor or rotor coreback (102) comprising an excitation coil (103) generating a magnetic field during use, wherein the rotor or rotor coreback (102) further comprises a plurality...... adjacent neighbouring poles. In this way, a large electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) is provided that readily enables a relatively large number of poles, compared to a traditional EESG, since the excitation coil in this design provides MMF for all the poles, whereas in a traditional EESG...... each pole needs its own excitation coil, which limits the number of poles as each coil will take up too much space between the poles....

  18. Sustainability evaluation of decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Hennings, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized power generation is gaining significance in liberalized electricity markets. An increasing decentralization of power supply is expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of decentralized electricity generation according to the overall concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a hierarchically structured set of sustainability criteria, four future scenarios for Germany are assessed, all of which describe different concepts of electricity supply in the context of the corresponding social and economic developments. The scenarios are developed in an explorative way according to the scenario method and the sustainability criteria are established by a discursive method with societal actors. The evaluation is carried out by scientific experts. By applying an expanded analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation is conducted that identifies dissent among the experts. The results demonstrate that decentralized electricity generation can contribute to climate protection. The extent to which it simultaneously guarantees security of supply is still a matter of controversy. However, experts agree that technical and economic boundary conditions are of major importance in this field. In the final section, the article discusses the method employed here as well as implications for future decentralized energy supply. (author)

  19. Technical descriptions of Hudson River electricity generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchison, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    Six fossil-fueled and one nuclear electricity generating plants are sited along the Hudson River estuary between kilometers 8 and 228, measured from the river mouth. Their aggregate rated capacity is 5,798 MW of electricity; operating at that capacity they would withdraw cooling water from the river at the rate of 1.5 x 10 to the 9th power cu m/d and reject heat at the rate of 155 x 10 to the 9th power kcal/d. Three of these plants, the fossil-fueled Roseton and Bowline and the nuclear Indian Point facilities; account for 75% of total rated capacity, 62% of maximum water withdrawal, and 79% of potential heat rejection. These three plants and a proposed pumped-storage facility at Cornwall, all sited between km 60 and 106, were the focus of environmental litigation. The Indian Point plant normally operates at 100% generation capacity; the other plants may experience daily operating load changes that vary from approximately 50% to 100% of total generation capacity, depending on system electrical demand or economic considerations. All plants experience periodic unscheduled outages for repairs. 6 refs., 7 figs

  20. Sustainability considerations for electricity generation from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Annette; Strezov, Vladimir; Evans, Tim J.

    2010-01-01

    The sustainability of electricity generation from biomass has been assessed in this work according to the key indicators of price, efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions, availability, limitations, land use, water use and social impacts. Biomass produced electricity generally provides favourable price, efficiency, emissions, availability and limitations but often has unfavorably high land and water usage as well as social impacts. The type and growing location of the biomass source are paramount to its sustainability. Hardy crops grown on unused or marginal land and waste products are more sustainable than dedicated energy crops grown on food producing land using high rates of fertilisers. (author)

  1. Renewable energy technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorpe, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    The output of electricity supplied by some renewable sources cannot be easily predicted in advance because of their dependence on naturally varying phenomena (e.g. wind or sunshine). To accommodate this variability within the grid, additional amounts of conventional plant might be maintained in reserve, which would add to the overall system cost. This paper examines some aspects of renewable energy technologies for electricity generation as well as factors to be considered in the incorporation of renewables within a grid. 7 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  2. Electrical-Generation Scenarios for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S.; Krakowski, R.A.

    2002-03-01

    The China Energy Technology Program (CETP) used both optimizing and simulation energy- economic-environmental (E3) models to assess tradeoffs in the electricity-generation sector for a range of fuel, transport, generation, and distribution options. The CETP is composed of a range of technical tasks or activities, including Energy Economics Modeling (EEM, optimizations), Electric Sector Simulation (ESS, simulations), Life Cycle Analyses (LCA, externalization) of energy systems, and Multi-Criteria Decision Analyses (MCDA, integration). The scope of CETP is limited to one province (Shandong), to one economic sector (electricity), and to one energy sector (electricity). This document describes the methods, approaches, limitations, sample results, and future/needed work for the EEM ( optimization-based modeling) task that supports the overall goal of CETP. An important tool used by the EEM task is based on a Linear Programming (LP) optimization model that considers 17 electricity-generation technologies utilizing 14 fuel forms (type, composition, source) in a 7-region transportation model of China's electricity demand and supply system over the period 2000-2030; Shandong is one of the seven regions modeled. The China Regional Electricity Trade Model (CRETM) is used to examine a set of energy-environment-economy E3-driven scenarios to quantify related policy implications. The development of electricity production mixes that are optimized under realistically E3 constraints is determined through regional demands for electricity that respond to exogenous assumptions on income (GDP) and electricity prices through respective time-dependent elasticities. Constraints are applied to fuel prices, transportation limits, resource availability, introduction (penetration) rates of specific technology, and (where applicable) to local, regional, and countrywide emission rates of CO{sub 2}, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Importantly, future inter- regional energy flows are optimized with

  3. Environmental effects of the electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez Ocon, C.

    1991-01-01

    Every manner to generate electricity has effects on environment and on the way of life of human society. Nevertheless electricity is a way of secondary energy handy and clean and is also frequently the more efficient, and for its reason its use is growing in countries with a rate superior to the increase in national gross product. This is particularly remarkable in Mexico where still exist population sectors without electricity services and where the demand per capita is left behind with respect to other economic indicators. In the last years, preoccupation for environmental effects in human activities, especially that related with the production and use of energy, has been increasing. 'Acid rain', air and water pollution, destruction of stratospheric ozone layer, global heating, radioactive wastes storage, land use, destruction of tropical forest, inundation of archaeological ruins, extintion of animal and vegetable species, are examples of problems daily expound to society (Author)

  4. Sports Facilities Development and Urban Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Maassoumeh Barghchi; Dasimah B.   Omar; Mohd S.   Aman

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: One major issue on sports facilities construction is the question of their funding and justification for investment. Due to, requirement of huge money for construction, constant maintenance costs and ancillary needs, which are almost certainly with substantial public investment, therefore, sports facilities have been considered. Further, sports facilities construction boom have been started for more than two decades. Approach: Recent sports facilities construction was not p...

  5. Natural gas poised to penetrate deeper into electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, R.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes how advancements in gas supply, distribution and storage, coupled with new options in combustion equipment, continue to expand the use of natural gas for electric generation. The challenge is to meet the increasing demand while keeping prices competitive with other fuels--and keep a small band of skeptics at bay. To prepare for the projected growth in gas consumption, the natural-gas industry has invented in new infrastructure and technologies. Pipelines have been built; storage facilities have been expanded; and highly precise flow measurement stations have been installed. To mitigate supply and price risk, suppliers are offering short-, mid-, or long-term contracts which include service options and guarantees. In spite of these preparations, not all power producers are comfortable with the potential tidal wave of gas-fired capacity. Reason: It limits the electric-generation resource base to one fuel for future capacity

  6. Options of electric generation and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin del Campo M, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a study on the sustainability of the main electricity generation options is presented. The study is based on a matrix of sustainability indicators developed in Switzerland. A revision of some sustainability studies performed in countries with certain energy diversity and with experience in nuclear power plants operation, is done. Studies, in general, are performed for the power plant life cycle, taking into account economic aspects, fuel prices impact on electricity generation costs, fuel reserves indicators and material consumption. Air emission, waste production and human health impact data are also presented. All the results lead to confirm that nuclear energy has a high degree of sustainability vis a vis other options based on fossil fuels and renewable. Finally some comments are presented in order to highlight the importance that nuclear energy might have in the sustainable development of Mexico. (Author)

  7. The SEPnet coil demonstrates electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Clare; Hare, Jonathan

    2009-11-01

    The South East Physics Network (SEPnet) (www.sepnet.ac.uk/gcse.php) is exploring various ways to enhance physics learning and A-level uptake, including a series of interactive GCSE revision events. The first event, which includes talks and various physics exhibits by leading teachers and educators, is on energy and the exhibition—called 'Who will keep the lights on?'—is travelling around southern UK venues. Here we describe the demonstration that shows how electricity is generated.

  8. Wind turbines - generating noise or electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbine technology has made great strides in the past few years. Annual energy output is up by two orders of magnitude and nacelle weight and noise has been halved. Computational fluid dynamics has paid a part in advancing knowledge of air flow and turbulence around wind generators. Current research is focused on how to increase turbine size and improve efficiency. A problem is that while larger wind turbines will produce cheaper electricity, the noise problem will mean that the number of acceptable sites will decrease. The biggest wind generators will need about 800 m clearance from the nearest house. (UK)

  9. Generation of electricity using liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodwin, F.E.

    1992-01-01

    With liquid metal magnetohydrodynamics, a column of molten lead is passed through a magnetic field, thereby generating a voltage potential according to Faraday's law. The molten lead is propelled through a closed loop by steam from water injected just above where the lead is heated at the bottom of the loop. This water in turn boils explosively, propelling the lead upward through the loop and past the point where the steam escapes through a separator. Electricity can be generated more efficiently from steam with LMMHD than with conventional turbines. With the DC current generated by LMMHD, industriell cogeneration is seen as the most likely application, where the byproduct steam still has enough pressure to also power other steam-driven machinery. Furthermore, the byproduct steam is essentially lead-free since the operating temperature of the LMMHD generator is well below the temperature where lead could dissolve into the steam. (orig.) [de

  10. Projected costs of generating electricity - 2010 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the seventh in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. It presents the latest data available for a wide variety of fuels and technologies, including coal and gas (with and without carbon capture), nuclear, hydro, onshore and offshore wind, biomass, solar, wave and tidal as well as combined heat and power (CHP). It provides levelised costs of electricity (LCOE) per MWh for almost 200 plants, based on data covering 21 countries (including four major non-OECD countries), and several industrial companies and organisations. For the first time, the report contains an extensive sensitivity analysis of the impact of variations in key parameters such as discount rates, fuel prices and carbon costs on LCOE. Additional issues affecting power generation choices are also examined. The study shows that the cost competitiveness of electricity generating technologies depends on a number of factors which may vary nationally and regionally. Readers will find full details and analyses, supported by over 130 figures and tables, in this report which is expected to constitute a valuable tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies and climate change

  11. Coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-03-01

    This report examines coal-fired electricity generation in Ontario and recommends actions to be taken by the provincial government to protect the environment. The recommendations are also designed to assist in making decisions about the environmental safeguards needed for a competitive electricity industry. The report examines air emissions from coal-fired generating plants in the larger context of air pollution in the province; summarizes background information on key air pollutants; provides an individual profile of all coal-fired power stations in the province; and benchmarks Ontario's emissions performance by comparing it with 19 nearby U.S. jurisdictions. Current and proposed environmental controls for fossil fuel power generation in the province are elaborated. Options for maximizing environmental performance and the framework for strengthening environmental protection are reviewed. The report also contains a series of findings and recommendations which are deemed necessary before the moratorium imposed on the sale of coal-fired electricity plants imposed in May 2000, can be lifted. tabs., figs

  12. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonin, T.V.; Mundo, M.Q.; Venida, L.L.; Arriola, H.; Madrio, E.

    2001-01-01

    The development of a country specific data base on energy sources, facilities and technologies is presented in this paper. It also identified feasible national electricity generating options and electric power system expansion alternatives for the period 2000-2020, and conducted comparative assessments of these options based on economic and environmental considerations. The possible role of nuclear power in the country's future electric energy was also studied. The comparison of three electricity generating options were considered: coal-fired thermal power plant without flue gas desulfurization (FGD), coal-fired thermal power plant with FGD and combined cycle power plant with 300 MW generating capacity each. Based on the analysis of three alternatives, the use of coal-fired power plants equipped with flue gas desulfurization (FGD) should be seriously considered. The government is expected to pursue the full development of local energy sources such as hydropower, geothermal, coal, natural gas and other new and renewable energy sources. However, there will still be a major need for imported oil and coal fuel which will likely supply unidentified energy sources beyond 2010. In the case of nuclear power, the government has not firmed up definite plans for any construction of nuclear power plants after 2010. However, the long term energy development plan still includes the operation of at least two nuclear power plants by the 2020 and this long term range program has not been revised in the recent published updates. (Author)

  13. Emerging technologies in electricity generation : an energy market assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-03-01

    Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) monitors the supply of electricity as well as its demand in both domestic and export markets. It monitors the main drivers affecting current trends in generation, demand, prices, infrastructure additions, and inter-regional and international trade. This document presented an assessment of renewable and other emerging technologies that are considered to have significant promise and increased application in Canada over the longer term. It provided comprehensive information on the status and prospects for these technologies, related issues and regional perspectives. Alternative and renewable resources and demand management are becoming more important in addressing air quality issues and supply adequacy. In preparation of this report, staff at the NEB participated in a series of informal meetings with electric utilities, independent power producers, provincial energy regulators, power system operators and those engaged in technology development. The report involved on-site information gathering at wind farms, small hydro facilities, biomass, solar and geothermal operations and other facilities associated with emerging energy technologies such as fuel cells and ocean energy. Clean coal technologies that refer to methods by which emissions from coal-fired generation can be reduced were also evaluated. It was noted that the prospects for emerging technologies vary among the provinces and territories depending on regional resources, provincial government policies and strategies regarding fuel preferences. It was noted that currently in Canada, only 3 per cent of the installed generating capacity consists of emerging technologies. This low penetration is due to the low cost of electricity derived from conventional sources and to the structure of the industry in which large publicly owned utilities have historically opted for large central generating stations. It was suggested that the large increase in fossil fuel prices, public concern

  14. Economical evaluation of electricity generation considering externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Kordy, M.N.; Badr, M.A.; Abed, K.A.; Ibrahim, Said M.A.

    2002-01-01

    The economics of renewable energy are the largest barrier to renewable penetration. Nevertheless, the strong desire to reduce environmental emissions is considered a great support for renewable energy sources. In this paper, a full analysis for the cost of the kWh of electricity generated from different systems actually used in Egypt is presented. Also renewable energy systems are proposed and their costs are analyzed. The analysis considers the external cost of emissions from different generating systems. A proposed large scale PV plant of 3.3 MW, and a wind farm 11.25 MW grid connected at different sites are investigated. A life cycle cost analysis for each system was performed using the present value criterion. The comparison results showed that wind energy generation has the lowest cost, followed by a combined cycle-natural gas fired system. A photovoltaic system still uses comparatively expensive technology for electricity generation; even when external costs are considered the capital cost of photovoltaic needs to be reduced by about 60% in order to be economically competitive. (Author)

  15. Dynamic Response Testing in an Electrically Heated Reactor Test Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Morton, T. J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-nuclear testing can be a valuable tool in development of a space nuclear power or propulsion system. In a non-nuclear test bed, electric heaters are used to simulate the heat from nuclear fuel. Standard testing allows one to fully assess thermal, heat transfer, and stress related attributes of a given system, but fails to demonstrate the dynamic response that would be present in an integrated, fueled reactor system. The integration of thermal hydraulic hardware tests with simulated neutronic response provides a bridge between electrically heated testing and full nuclear testing. By implementing a neutronic response model to simulate the dynamic response that would be expected in a fueled reactor system, one can better understand system integration issues, characterize integrated system response times and response characteristics, and assess potential design improvements at a relatively small fiscal investment. Initial system dynamic response testing was demonstrated on the integrated SAFE-100a heat pipe cooled, electrically heated reactor and heat exchanger hardware, utilizing a one-group solution to the point kinetics equations to simulate the expected neutronic response of the system (Bragg-Sitton, 2005). The current paper applies the same testing methodology to a direct drive gas cooled reactor system, demonstrating the applicability of the testing methodology to any reactor type and demonstrating the variation in system response characteristics in different reactor concepts. In each testing application, core power transients were controlled by a point kinetics model with reactivity feedback based on core average temperature; the neutron generation time and the temperature feedback coefficient are provided as model inputs. Although both system designs utilize a fast spectrum reactor, the method of cooling the reactor differs significantly, leading to a variable system response that can be demonstrated and assessed in a non-nuclear test facility.

  16. 7 CFR 1726.125 - Generating plant facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... desulfurization system, particulate removal system, electric wiring and control systems, mechanical equipment installation (including turbine installation and plant piping), power plant building (foundation and... installations. Engineering services, turbine/generator, civil works and powerhouse construction, electrical...

  17. Insufficient incentives for investment in electricity generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuhoff, K. [Cambridge University (United Kingdom). Dept. of Applied Economics; De Vries, L. [Delft University of Technology (Netherlands). Faculty of Technology, Policy and Management

    2004-12-01

    In theory, competitive electricity markets provide incentives for efficient investment in generation capacity. We show that if consumers and investors are risk averse, investment is efficient only if investors in generation capacity can sign long-term contracts with consumers. Otherwise the uncovered price risk increases financing costs, reduces equilibrium investment levels, distorts technology choice towards less capital-intensive generation and reduces consumer utility. We observe insufficient levels of long-term contracts in existing markets, possibly because retail companies are not credible counter-parties if their final customers can switch easily between them. With a consumer franchise, retailers can sign long-term contracts, but this solution comes at the expense of retail competition. Alternative capacity mechanisms to stimulate investment are discussed. (author)

  18. Electricity generation in a sustainable development perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saradhi, I.V.

    2003-01-01

    The increasing impact of energy technologies on the environment and possible effects on future generations has been a cause of concern in recent years. This has resulted in an awareness regarding the need for viewing the role of electricity production by different methods, using different fuels/sources, in a sustainable development perspective, which calls for the needs of the present generation to be met without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. This papers deals with some of the relevant issues in this regard. The world and the Indian energy scenarios are presented, followed by the data on the consequent carbon-dioxide emissions. The green house effect and the possible means of carbon sequestration are explained briefly. The important role nuclear energy can play in a sustainable development perspective is discussed, considering the various aspects such as resources, safety, radiological protection, cost externalities and environment impact. (author)

  19. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM LANDFILL GAS IN TURKEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Nezih Kamil

    2018-05-08

    Landfill gas (LFG)-to-energy plants in Turkey were investigated, and the LFG-to-energy plant of a metropolitan municipal landfill was monitored for 3 years. Installed capacities and actual gas engine working hours were determined. An equation was developed to estimate the power capacity for LFG-to-energy plants for a given amount of landfilled waste. Monitoring the actual gas generation rates enabled determination of LFG generation factors for Turkish municipal waste. A significant relationship (R = 0.524, p kitchen waste generation behaviors influenced by the ambient temperature. However, no significant correlation was found between the ambient temperature and the generated LFG. A temperature buffering capacity was inferred to exist within the landfill, which enables the anaerobic reactions to continue functioning even during cold seasons. The average LFG and energy generation rates were 45 m 3 LFG/ton waste landfilled and 0.08 MWh/ton waste landfilled, respectively. The mean specific LFG consumption for electricity generation was 529 ± 28 m 3 /MWh.

  20. Electricity generation from digitally printed cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawa, Marin; Fantuzzi, Andrea; Bombelli, Paolo; Howe, Christopher J; Hellgardt, Klaus; Nixon, Peter J

    2017-11-06

    Microbial biophotovoltaic cells exploit the ability of cyanobacteria and microalgae to convert light energy into electrical current using water as the source of electrons. Such bioelectrochemical systems have a clear advantage over more conventional microbial fuel cells which require the input of organic carbon for microbial growth. However, innovative approaches are needed to address scale-up issues associated with the fabrication of the inorganic (electrodes) and biological (microbe) parts of the biophotovoltaic device. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of using a simple commercial inkjet printer to fabricate a thin-film paper-based biophotovoltaic cell consisting of a layer of cyanobacterial cells on top of a carbon nanotube conducting surface. We show that these printed cyanobacteria are capable of generating a sustained electrical current both in the dark (as a 'solar bio-battery') and in response to light (as a 'bio-solar-panel') with potential applications in low-power devices.

  1. Hydraulic turbines uses for rural electric generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genta, J.; Nunes, V.

    1994-01-01

    The micro turbines use for electric generation either in autonomous systems or in connection to the national net is presented like an alternative whose viability has been studied in the Agreement taken place between the UTE Administracion Nacional de Usinas y transmisiones Electricas y la Facultad de Ingenieria. The Agreement S tudy for the Installation of Micro turbines that initially considered areas far from the national electric net it extended then to near areas to the same one to analyze the cogeneration alternative. They were considered smaller and bigger powers than 1 MW and up to 5MW. For the whole study range a methodology is described of calculate primary, starting from a minimum of field information that allows a first estimate of viability of a certain place and the selection of the turbine type, for a later detailed study

  2. Short-time action electric generators to power physical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glebov, I.A.; Kasharskij, Eh.G.; Rutberg, F.G.; Khutoretskij, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements to be met by power-supply sources of the native electrophysical facilities have been analyzed and trends in designing foreign electric machine units of short-time action have been considered. Specifications of a generator, manufactured in the form of synchronous bipolar turbogenerator with an all-forged rotor with indirect air cooling of the rotor and stator windings are presented. Front parts of the stator winding are additionally fixed using glass-textolite rings, brackets and gaskets. A flywheel, manufactured in the form of all-forged steel cylinder is joined directly with the generator rotor by means of a half-coupling. An acceleration asynchronous engine with a phase rotor of 4 MW nominal capacity is located on the opposite side of the flywheel. The generator peak power is 242 MVxA; power factor = 0.9; energy transferred to the load 5per 1 pulse =00 MJ; the flywheel weight 81 t

  3. Electrical energy and cost for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, G.A.

    1983-01-01

    An operational scenario has been developed for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) based on the System Requirements, our experience with existing systems, and discussions with the project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to predict the amount of electrical energy needed for running the facility. A generic type listing is included for the equipment considered in each system

  4. Electrical energy and cost for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, G.A.

    1983-02-01

    An operational scenario for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility has been developed based on System Requirements, experience with existing systems, and discussions with project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to project the electrical energy required for the facility. Each system is listed showing the equipment that has been considered, the amount of power requested, and in most cases, the power that it is now connected

  5. CO2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissel, Steffen; Mayer-Spohn, Oliver; Fahl, Ulrich; Blesl, Markus; Voss, Alfred

    2008-01-01

    A survey of LCA studies on nuclear electricity generation revealed life cycle CO 2 emissions ranging between 3 g/kWhe to 60 g/kWhe and above. Firstly, this paper points out the discrepancies in studies by estimating the CO 2 emissions of nuclear power generation. Secondly, the paper sets out to provide critical review of future developments of the fuel cycle for light water reactors and illustrates the impact of uncertainties on the specific CO 2 emissions of nuclear electricity generation. Each step in the fuel cycle will be considered and with regard to the CO 2 emissions analysed. Thereby different assumptions and uncertainty levels are determined for the nuclear fuel cycle. With the impacts of low uranium ore grades for mining and milling as well as higher burn-up rates future fuel characteristics are considered. Sensitivity analyses are performed for all fuel processing steps, for different technical specifications of light water reactors as well as for further external frame conditions. (authors)

  6. The enforcement order for the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The order is defined under the law for arrangement of surrounding areas of power generating facilities. Establishers of power generating facilities shall be hereunder general electric enterprisers, wholesale electric enterprisers and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. The scale of power generating facilities provided by the order is 350,000 kilo-watts for atomic and steam power generation and 5,000 kilo-watts for hydroelectric power. Equipment closely related to atomic power generation shall include facilities for reprocessing and examination of nuclear fuel materials spent for power generating reactors, reactors used for research of the safety of power generating reactors, experimental fast breeding reactors and experimental uranium enrichment facilities. Requisites for the extent of industrial accumulation are that the area belongs to those self-governing bodies whose industrial accumulation is more than the 8th degree. Public facilities specified are those for communication, sports or recreation, environmental hygiene, education and culture, medicine, social welfare, fire fighting and heat supplying, etc. Governors of the prefectures shall file arrangement programs to the Minister in charge through the Minister of International Trade and Industry to get the permission stipulated by the law. Subsidies shall not be paid to those enterprises which are executed by the government or a part of the expenses is born or supported by it. (Okada, K.)

  7. Life cycle assessment, electricity generation and sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aumonier, S.

    1998-01-01

    When making a choice between alternatives, in whatever field, it is essential to have regard for the complete set of costs and benefits, in the widest possible sense, that will result in each case. The preferred option should be that which confers the maximum benefit, although relevant objectives will often conflict and its identification may be far from straightforward. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an environmental accounting tool for measuring the inputs and outputs of an option, whether a product, a process or an activity. This paper explains the principles and methodologies involved in LCA, its application to the nuclear sector, and to electricity generating options and sustainable development. (author)

  8. Profitability analysis of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colmenar-Santos, Antonio; Campíñez-Romero, Severo; Pérez-Molina, Clara; Castro-Gil, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Spain exhibits a high level of energy dependence and has significant solar energy resources. These two facts have given rise to the prominence that renewable energy, particularly solar photovoltaic technology, has enjoyed in recent years, supported by a favorable regulatory framework. Currently, the Spanish Government is providing new ways in energy policy to enhance and accelerate the development of low-power photovoltaic generation facilities for self-consumption by introducing energy policies for feed-in payments of surplus electricity. Such facilities are an example of distributed electrical generation with important benefits for the environment and the rest of the electrical system because, when properly managed, they can help improve the system’s stability and reduce overall losses. By analyzing household demand and solar photovoltaic energy resources, the profitability of such facilities is considered in this article, taking into account the technical and economic impact of storage systems and proposing models for feed-in payments of surplus electricity, in an attempt to assess whether this method of electricity generation versus the method of conventionally supplied power from a grid at a regulated tariff can rival each other economically, in terms of parity. - Highlight: ► The use of grid-connected photovoltaic facilities for household electricity self-sufficiency is presented. ► The need for legal frameworks that include retributive mechanisms for the surplus energy is pointed out. ► Two models are proposed for the remuneration of surplus energy generated. ► Models show economic profitability without feed-in-tariff or compensations. ► Facilities described offer ancillary services for grid stability and smart-grid integration.

  9. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coen, J.J.; Delene, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total

  10. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuriyama, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  11. Is solar PV generated electricity cheap in South Africa?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roro, Kittessa T

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation reflects on photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in South Africa, and whether it is a cheaper alternative to current generated electricity in the country. It is projected that by 2019 the installed capacity of PV could...

  12. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    Economic constraints require that a food irradiation processing facility have a throughput of approximately 1 MGy ton/day (0.91 MGy m.t./day) requiring 3 MegaCuries (MCi) of cobalt-60 at each site. This requirement means that the total world amount of cobalt-60 would have to be increased by about 60 percent just to handle the California almond and raisin crop during peak season. It is doubtful that public opinion would allow the increased distribution of radioactive isotopes, with the resultant burden upon the transportation networks, as a price to be paid to eat irradiated food. Electric sources have characteristics that allow the production of more penetrating, uniform, and efficient radiation that is available from nuclear isotopes. The heart of the electric radiation source is the electron accelerator. At present, there are no accelerators commercially available that can meet the requirements for food irradiation processing. However, the U.S. Department of Defense-funded beam weapons programs have provided a very promising accelerator technology at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. If this technology were to be commercialized, it appears that the required accelerators would be available for US$1.5 million apiece, and quite possibly for less than this amount. A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost, assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed for 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton ($6.59/m.t.)

  13. Acoustic assessment report for Toronto Hydro Energy Services Inc. Ashbridge's Bay power generation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, F.; Shinbin, N.

    2010-04-01

    This acoustic assessment report was conducted to determine the potential noise impacts of a biogas cogeneration plant that will be located on a street in a primarily industrial area of Toronto, Ontario. The facility will be comprised of seven 1.416 MW biogas-fired reciprocating engine generators and a single flare. The report presented results obtained from noise level calculations and noise modelling studies of the on-site equipment at the planned facility. The cogeneration plant will utilize biogas produced in existing digesters to generate electricity and hot water. The biogas will be produced by anaerobic digestion from municipal sewage waste at an adjacent facility. It is expected that the facility will generate 9.912 MW of electricity from the generators. Heat resulting from the biogas combustion process is recovered from engine and exhaust flue gases by heat exchangers. The facility will operate continuously. Significant noise sources at the facility include generator exhaust gas stacks; air intake points; building ventilation fans; and roof-top heat dump radiators. Sound power levels determined for each of the noise sources were based upon worst-case operating scenarios. Results of the assessment indicated that the facility is in compliance with all Ministry of the Environment (MOE) requirements. 5 refs., 10 tabs., 4 figs.

  14. The role of advanced nuclear plants in reducing the environmental and economic impact of greenhouse emissions on electrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redding, J.; Veitch, C.

    1995-01-01

    The paper discusses the potential impact of imposing economic penalties (externalities) in an effort to reduce emission levels and environmental effect of existing and newly constructed electric facilities, on the selection of generation technology and fuel type, and how the nuclear industry's efforts to develop the next generation of nuclear power facilities will provide an economic, low emission generating option to meet the expanding global electrical needs. The efforts of the US nuclear industry to improve the performance and economics of the existing and next generation facilities are presented, focusing on General Electric's Advanced Boiling Water Reactor and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Creation of a new-generation research nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girchenko, A.A.; Matyushin, A.P.; Kudryavtsev, E.M.; Skopin, V.P.; Shchepelev, R.M.

    2013-01-01

    The SO-2M research nuclear facility operated on the industrial area of the institute. The facility is now removed from service. In view of this circumstance, it is proposed to restore the facility at the new qualitative level, i.e., to create a new-generation research nuclear facility with a very high safety level consisting of a subcritical bench and a proton accelerator (electronuclear facility). Competitive advantages and design features have been discussed and the productive capacity of the research nuclear facility under development has been evaluated [ru

  16. Thermophotovoltaic Arrays for Electrical Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarnoff Corporation

    2003-01-01

    Sarnoff has designed an integrated array of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells based on the In(Al)GaAsSb/GaSb materials system. These arrays will be used in a system to generate electrical power from a radioisotope heat source that radiates at temperatures from 700 to 1000 C. Two arrays sandwich the slab heat source and will be connected in series to build voltage. Between the arrays and the heat source is a spectral control filter that transmits above-bandgap radiation and reflects below-bandgap radiation. The goal is to generate 5 mW of electrical power at 3 V from a 700 C radiant source. Sarnoff is a leader in antimonide-based TPV cell development. InGaAsSb cells with a bandgap of 0.53 eV have operated at system conversion efficiencies greater than 17%. The system included a front-surface filter, and a 905 C radiation source. The cells were grown via organo-metallic vapor-phase epitaxy. Sarnoff will bring this experience to bear on the proposed project. The authors first describe array and cell architecture. They then present calculated results showing that about 80 mW of power can be obtained from a 700 C radiator. Using a conservative array design, a 5-V output is possible

  17. Location of an electric source facility and local area promotion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimohirao, Isao

    1999-01-01

    Here were described on energy demand and supply, energy policy and local area promotion policy for basic problems important on location of electric source facilities. At present, co-existence business between electricity business and electric source location area is lacking in its activity. It seems to be necessary to enforce some systems to intend to promote it earnestly, and to effort to promote industry promotions such as introduction of some national projects, induction of electricity cost reduction for a means of business invitation, and so forth. And it is necessary to promote them under cooperations with electricity businesses, governments, universities and communities for the industrial promotion and fixation of the youth at local areas. In order to realize such necessities, further larger efforts are expected for national and local governments. (G.K.)

  18. Projected costs of generating electricity - 2005 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The joint IEA/NEA study provides generation cost estimates for over a hundred power plants that use a variety of fuels and technologies. These include coal-fired, gas-fired, nuclear, hydro, solar and wind plants. Cost estimates are also given for combined heat and power plants that use coal, gas and combustible renewables. Data and information for this study were provided by experts from 19 OECD member countries and 3 non-member countries. The power plants examined in the study use technologies available today. The study shows that the competitiveness of alternative generation sources and technologies ultimately depends on many parameters: there is no clear-cut 'winner'. Major issues related to generation costs addressed in the report include: descriptions of state-of-the-art generation technologies; the methodologies for incorporating risk in cost assessments; the impact of carbon emission trading; and how to integrate wind power into the electricity grid. 24 figs., 38 tabs., 11 apps.

  19. Laser peening applications for next generation of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, J.; Truong, C.; Walter, M.; Chen, H.-L.; Hackel, L.

    2008-01-01

    Generation of electricity by nuclear power can assist in achieving goals of reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Increased safety and reliability are necessary attributes of any new nuclear power plants. High pressure, hot water and radiation contribute to operating environments where Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) and hydrogen embrittlement can lead to potential component failures. Desire for improved steam conversion efficiency pushes the fatigue stress limits of turbine blades and other rotating equipment. For nuclear reactor facilities now being designed and built and for the next generations of designs, laser peening could be incorporated to provide significant performance life to critical subsystems and components making them less susceptible to fatigue, SCC and radiation induced embrittlement. These types of components include steam turbine blades, hubs and bearings as well as reactor components including cladding material, housings, welded assemblies, fittings, pipes, flanges, vessel penetrations, nuclear waste storage canisters. Laser peening has proven to be a commercial success in aerospace applications and has recently been put into use for gas and steam turbine generators and light water reactors. An expanded role for this technology for the broader nuclear power industry would be a beneficial extension. (author)

  20. Electric vehicle charge patterns and the electricity generation mix and competitiveness of next generation vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Murata, Akinobu; Endo, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy system of whole of Japan is analyzed in this study. • An advanced model based on MARKAL is used for the energy system analysis. • The impact of charge patterns of EVs on electricity generation mix is evaluated. • Technology competitiveness of the next generation vehicles is also evaluated. - Abstract: The nuclear accident of 2011 brought about a reconsideration of the future electricity generation mix of power systems in Japan. A debate on whether to phase out nuclear power plants and replace them with renewable energy sources is taking place. Demand-side management becomes increasingly important in future Japanese power systems with a large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. This paper considers the charge control of electric vehicles (EVs) through demand-side management. There have been many studies of the control or operation methods of EVs known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G), and it is important to evaluate both their short-term and long-term operation. In this study, we employ energy system to evaluate the impact of the charge patterns of EVs on both the electricity generation mix and the technology competitiveness of the next generation vehicles. An advanced energy system model based on Market Allocation (MARKAL) is used to consider power system control in detail

  1. Microscale air quality impacts of distributed power generation facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaguer, Eduardo P; Knipping, Eladio; Shaw, Stephanie; Ravindran, Satish

    2016-08-01

    The electric system is experiencing rapid growth in the adoption of a mix of distributed renewable and fossil fuel sources, along with increasing amounts of off-grid generation. New operational regimes may have unforeseen consequences for air quality. A three-dimensional microscale chemical transport model (CTM) driven by an urban wind model was used to assess gaseous air pollutant and particulate matter (PM) impacts within ~10 km of fossil-fueled distributed power generation (DG) facilities during the early afternoon of a typical summer day in Houston, TX. Three types of DG scenarios were considered in the presence of motor vehicle emissions and a realistic urban canopy: (1) a 25-MW natural gas turbine operating at steady state in either simple cycle or combined heating and power (CHP) mode; (2) a 25-MW simple cycle gas turbine undergoing a cold startup with either moderate or enhanced formaldehyde emissions; and (3) a data center generating 10 MW of emergency power with either diesel or natural gas-fired backup generators (BUGs) without pollution controls. Simulations of criteria pollutants (NO2, CO, O3, PM) and the toxic pollutant, formaldehyde (HCHO), were conducted assuming a 2-hr operational time period. In all cases, NOx titration dominated ozone production near the source. The turbine scenarios did not result in ambient concentration enhancements significantly exceeding 1 ppbv for gaseous pollutants or over 1 µg/m(3) for PM after 2 hr of emission, assuming realistic plume rise. In the case of the datacenter with diesel BUGs, ambient NO2 concentrations were enhanced by 10-50 ppbv within 2 km downwind of the source, while maximum PM impacts in the immediate vicinity of the datacenter were less than 5 µg/m(3). Plausible scenarios of distributed fossil generation consistent with the electricity grid's transformation to a more flexible and modernized system suggest that a substantial amount of deployment would be required to significantly affect air quality on

  2. Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangfang

    have any apparent structure, and that using overly simple policies can be considerably suboptimal. I thus develop and analyze a triple-threshold policy that I show to be near-optimal. Using a financial engineering price model and calibrating it to data from the New York Independent System Operator, I show that storage can substantially increase the monetary value of a wind farm: If transmission capacity is tight, the majority of this value arises from reducing curtailment and time-shifting generation; if transmission capacity is abundant this value stems primarily from time-shifting generation and arbitrage. In addition, I find that while more storage capacity always increases the average energy sold to the market, it may actually decrease the average wind energy sold when transmission capacity is abundant. In Chapter 3, I examine how electricity storage can be used to help match electricity supply and demand. Conventional wisdom suggests that when supply exceeds demand, any electricity surpluses should be stored for future resale. However, because electricity prices can be negative, another potential strategy of dealing with surpluses is to destroy them. Using real data, I find that for a merchant who trades electricity in a market, the strategy of destroying surpluses is potentially more valuable than the conventional strategy of storing surpluses. In Chapter 4, I study how the operation and valuation of electricity storage facilities can be affected by their physical characteristics and operating dynamics. Examples are the degradation of energy capacity over time and the variation of round-trip efficiency at different charging/discharging rates. These dynamics are often ignored in the literature, thus it has not been established whether it is important to model these characteristics. Specifically, it remains an open question whether modeling these dynamics might materially change the prescribed operating policy and the resulting valuation of a storage facility. I

  3. A decision support model for reducing electric energy consumption in elementary school facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Taehoon; Koo, Choongwan; Jeong, Kwangbok

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Decision support model is developed to reduce CO 2 emission in elementary schools. ► The model can select the school to be the most effective in energy savings. ► Decision tree improved the prediction accuracy by 1.83–3.88%. ► Using the model, decision-maker can save the electric-energy consumption by 16.58%. ► The model can make the educational-facility improvement program more effective. -- Abstract: The South Korean government has been actively promoting an educational-facility improvement program as part of its energy-saving efforts. This research seeks to develop a decision support model for selecting the facility expected to be effective in generating energy savings and making the facility improvement program more effective. In this research, project characteristics and electric-energy consumption data for the year 2009 were collected from 6282 elementary schools located in seven metropolitan cities in South Korea. In this research, the following were carried out: (i) a group of educational facilities was established based on electric-energy consumption, using a decision tree; (ii) a number of similar projects were retrieved from the same group of facilities, using case-based reasoning; and (iii) the accuracy of prediction was improved, using the combination of genetic algorithms, the artificial neural network, and multiple regression analysis. The results of this research can be useful for the following purposes: (i) preliminary research on the systematic and continuous management of educational facilities’ electric-energy consumption; (ii) basic research on electric-energy consumption prediction based on the project characteristics; and (iii) practical research for selecting an optimum facility that can more effectively apply an educational-facility improvement program as a decision support model.

  4. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  5. Economics of generating electricity from nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boadu, H.O.

    2001-01-01

    The paper reviews and compares experiences and projected future construction and electricity generation costs for nuclear and fossil fired power plants. On the basis of actual operating experience, nuclear power has been demonstrated to be economically competitive with other base load generation options, and international studies project that this economic competitiveness will be largely maintained in the future, over a range of conditions and in a number of countries. However, retaining and improving this competitive position requires concerted efforts to ensure that nuclear plants are constructed within schedule and budgets, and are operated reliably and efficiently. Relevant cost impacting factors is identified, and conclusions for successful nuclear power plant construction and operation are drawn. The desire to attain sustainable development with balanced resource use and control of the environmental and climate impacts of energy systems could lead to renewed interest in nuclear power as an energy source that does not emit greenhouse gases, thus contributing to a revival of the nuclear option. In this regard, mitigation of emissions from fossil-fuelled power plants could lead to restrictions of fossil fuel use and/or result in higher costs of fossil based generation, thus improving the economic competitiveness of nuclear power (au)

  6. Neutron generator instrumentation at the Department 2350 Neutron Generator Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, T.C.; Mowrer, G.R.

    1979-06-01

    The computer and waveform digitizing capability at the test facility has allowed several changes in the techniques used to test neutron generators. These changes include methods used to calibrate the instrumentation and changes in the operation of the test facility. These changes have increased the efficiency of the test facility as well as increasing both timing and amplitude accuracy of neutron generator waveforms

  7. Performance study of thermo-electric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, G.; Manaswini, D.; Kotebavi, Vinod; R, Nagaraja S.

    2017-07-01

    Devices like automobiles, stoves, ovens, boilers, kilns and heaters dissipate large amount of waste heat. Since most of this waste heat goes unused, the efficiency of these devices is drastically reduced. A lot of research is being conducted on the recovery of the waste heat, among which Thermoelectric Generators (TEG) is one of the popular method. TEG is a semiconductor device that produces electric potential difference when a thermal gradient develops on it. This paper deals with the study of performance of a TEG module for different hot surface temperatures. Performance characteristics used here are voltage, current and power developed by the TEG. One side of the TEG was kept on a hot plate where uniform heat flux was supplied to that. And the other side was cooled by supplying cold water. The results show that the output power increases significantly with increase in the temperature of the hot surface.

  8. Vogtle Electric Generating Plant ETE Analysis Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diediker, Nona H.; Jones, Joe A.

    2006-12-09

    Under contract with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), staff from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and Sandia National Laboratory (SNL)-Albuquerque reviewed the evacuation time estimate (ETE) analysis dated April 2006 prepared by IEM for the Vogtle Electric Generating Plant (VEGP). The ETE analysis was reviewed for consistency with federal regulations using the NRC guidelines in Review Standard (RS)-002, Supplement 2 and Appendix 4 to NUREG-0654, and NUREG/CR-4831. Additional sources of information referenced in the analysis and used in the review included NUREG/CR-6863 and NUREG/CR-6864. The PNNL report includes general comments, data needs or clarifications, and requests for additional information (RAI) resulting from review of the ETE analysis.

  9. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  10. Economics of coal-based electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemming, D F; Johnston, R; Teper, M

    1979-01-01

    The report deals with base-load electricity generation from coal and compares the economics of four alternative technologies: conventional pulverised-fuel (PF) boiler with steam cycle; atmospheric fluidised-bed (AFB) boiler with steam cycle; pressurised fluidised-bed (PFB) boiler with combined cycle; and integrated air-blown coal gasification with combined cycle systems are compared for both a high sulphur (3.5%) coal with environmental regulations requiring 85% sulphur removal, and for a low sulphur coal without sulphur removal. The results indicate that there is no single clear 'winner' among the advanced technologies. The optimum system depends on coal price, required rate-of-return, sulphur content of the coal, taxation regime etc. (34 refs.) (Available from IEA Coal Research, Economic Assessment Service)

  11. Environmental and economic assessment of landfill gas electricity generation in Korea using LEAP model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ho-Chul; Park, Jin-Won; Kim, Ho-Seok; Shin, Eui-Soon

    2005-01-01

    As a measure to establish a climate-friendly energy system, Korean government has proposed to expand landfill gas (LFG) electricity generation capacity. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impacts of LFG electricity generation on the energy market, the cost of generating electricity and greenhouse gases emissions in Korea using a computer-based software tool called 'Long-range Energy Alternative Planning system' (LEAP) and the associated 'Technology and Environmental Database'. In order to compare LFG electricity generation with existing other generating facilities, business as usual scenario of existing power plants was surveyed, and then alternative scenario investigations were performed using LEAP model. Different alternative scenarios were considered, namely the base case with existing electricity facilities, technological improvement of gas engine and LFG maximum utilization potential with different options of gas engine (GE), gas turbine (GT), and steam turbine (ST). In the technological improvement scenario, there will be 2.86 GWh or more increase in electricity output, decrease of 45 million won (Exchange rate (1$=1200 won)). in costs, and increase of 10.3 thousand ton of CO 2 in global warming potentials due to same period (5 year) of technological improvement. In the maximum utilization potential scenario, LFG electricity generation technology is substituted for coal steam, nuclear, and combined cycle process. Annual cost per electricity product of LFG electricity facilities (GE 58MW, GT 53.5MW, and ST 54.5MW) are 45.1, 34.3, and 24.4 won/kWh, and steam turbine process is cost-saving. LFG-utilization with other forms of energy utilization reduces global warming potential by maximum 75% with compared to spontaneous emission of CH 4 . LFG electricity generation would be the good solution for CO 2 displacement over the medium term and additional energy profits

  12. Distributed Generation of Electricity and its Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed generation refers to technologies that generate electricity at or near where it will be used. Learn about how distributed energy generation can support the delivery of clean, reliable power to additional customers.

  13. International comparison of electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.; Stevens, G.H.; Wigley, K.

    1989-01-01

    The paper reviews the principal findings of successive studies of projected comparative generation costs for base-load electricity production conducted by Nuclear Energy Agency working groups, including a current study jointly sponsored by the International Energy Agency. It concludes that over the six years 1983-1989 nuclear generation costs have remained steady or slightly declined in the majority of OECD countries. This represents an excellent result in view of the difficulties that have arisen in many countries during the period. Nuclear power is projected to maintain a significant advantage in most OECD countries on an assessment basis reflecting utility experience and discount rates employed by the majority of participants. However, nuclear's projected advantage has declined due to a significant fall in projected coal prices which have decreased by 50% since 1983. This decline is only slightly offset by increased capital and operating costs for coal-fired plant. If rates of return sought by utilities were higher or if coal prices prove lower than utilities project then the economic balance between nuclear and coal-fired power would be further reduced and could in some instances be reversed. To improve on its competitiveness nuclear power will have to continue to control capital costs through replication and reduced construction schedules and to improve plant availability to maximise output

  14. The PBMR electric power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez S, G.; Santacruz I, I.; Martin del Campo M, C.

    2003-01-01

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  15. Hydroelectric Generating Facilities General Permit (HYDROGP) for Massachusetts & New Hampshire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Documents, links & contacts for the Notice of Availability of the Final NPDES General Permits (HYDROGP) for Discharges at Hydroelectric Generating Facilities in Massachusetts (MAG360000) and New Hampshire (NHG360000) and Tribal Lands in the State of MA.

  16. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility, Diesel Generator Fire Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, G

    2000-01-01

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the Fire Protection and Detection System installed by Project W-441 (Cold Vacuum Drying Facility and Diesel Generator Building) functions as required by project specifications.

  18. Nuclear Power's Role in Generating Electricity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falk, Justin

    2008-01-01

    This study assesses the commercial viability of advanced nuclear technology as a means of meeting future demand for electricity by comparing the costs of producing electricity from different sources...

  19. Electricity generation using microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohan, Y.; Manoj Muthu Kumar, S.; Das, D. [Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2008-01-15

    Conversion of biomass into electricity is possible using microbial fuel cells (MFCs). The present paper deals with the studies of a two-chambered salt bridge MFC using Enterobacter cloacae IIT-BT 08 in MYG medium. The effect of different electron mediators, concentration of the mediator, ionic strength (salt concentration) of the medium and the surface area of the salt-bridge in contact with the anode and cathode chambers on the power generation in MFCs are reported. In the case of methyl viologen (MV) (0.1 mM) as the electron mediator, the voltage generation was 0.4 V but no current was detected. Different concentrations of methylene blue (MB) were also studied as the mediator. A maximum voltage of 0.37 V was seen at 0.05 mM MB, whereas a maximum current and power of 56.7{mu} A and 19.2{mu} W, respectively, were observed in the case of 0.03 mM MB with a voltage of 0.34 V. The corresponding power density and current density of 9.3mW/m{sup 2} and 27.6mA/m{sup 2}, respectively, were obtained. When the surface area of the salt bridge in contact with the anode and cathode chambers was increased, a proportionate improvement in the power output from 19.2 to 708{mu} W was detected. The maximum power density and current density of 236mW/m{sup 2} and 666.7mA/m{sup 2}, respectively, which are found to be very promising for a salt bridge MFC were observed. (author)

  20. Energy-storage technologies and electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, Peter J.; Bain, Euan J.

    2008-01-01

    As the contribution of electricity generated from renewable sources (wind, wave and solar) grows, the inherent intermittency of supply from such generating technologies must be addressed by a step-change in energy storage. Furthermore, the continuously developing demands of contemporary applications require the design of versatile energy-storage/power supply systems offering wide ranges of power density and energy density. As no single energy-storage technology has this capability, systems will comprise combinations of technologies such as electrochemical supercapacitors, flow batteries, lithium-ion batteries, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) and kinetic energy storage. The evolution of the electrochemical supercapacitor is largely dependent on the development of optimised electrode materials (tailored to the chosen electrolyte) and electrolytes. Similarly, the development of lithium-ion battery technology requires fundamental research in materials science aimed at delivering new electrodes and electrolytes. Lithium-ion technology has significant potential, and a step-change is required in order to promote the technology from the portable electronics market into high-duty applications. Flow-battery development is largely concerned with safety and operability. However, opportunities exist to improve electrode technology yielding larger power densities. The main barriers to overcome with regard to the development of SMES technology are those related to high-temperature superconductors in terms of their granular, anisotropic nature. Materials development is essential for the successful evolution of flywheel technology. Given the appropriate research effort, the key scientific advances required in order to successfully develop energy-storage technologies generally represent realistic goals that may be achieved by 2050

  1. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, D.; Duengen, H.; Wilhelm, M.

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA) [de

  2. Using sewerage system to generate electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, J.

    2005-01-01

    The development of the sanitary engineering has paralleled and contributed to the growth of the city. Without an adequate supply of safe water, the great city could not exist and life in it would be both unpleasant and dangerous unless human and other waste were promptly removed. The concentration of population in relatively small areas has made the task of sanitary engineer more complex. The cities, towns and villages are being polluted ground water and surface water. Industries also demand more and better water from all available sources. The rivers receive ever-increasing amount of sewage and industrial wastes and thus resulting more attention to the water treatment, stream pollution and complicated phenomena of self-purification. In many developing countries there is no such treatment plants for the sewerage water. Rivers receive large amount of polluted water and resulting many diseases. Thus self-purification and treatment plants playa vital role in sanitation. The other benefit is now introducing as Generating electricity from Sewerage System. (author)

  3. Rotary-Atomizer Electric Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C. T.

    2015-03-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the centrifugal force and creates "atomized" droplets at its edge. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer is that the centrifugal force exerted on the fluid on a smooth, large surface is not only a robust form of acceleration, as it avoids clogging, but also easily allows high throughput, and produces high electrical power. We successfully demonstrate an output power of 4.9 mW and a high voltage up to 3120 V. At present, the efficiency of the system is still low (0.14%). However, the conversion mechanism of the system is fully interpreted in this paper, permitting a conceptual understanding of system operation and providing a roadmap for system optimization. This observation will open up a road for building power-generation systems in the near future.

  4. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  5. Obstacles to the penetration of electric generation markets by natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleede, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews and compares the advantages and disadvantages that electric power generators have in generating electricity from a variety of fuel sources. It then goes on to emphasize the use of natural gas and how it can become more competitive in the electric generation field. The paper is based primarily on experiences by the author during his employment with the New England Electric System (NEES). The author reviews the source of electricity for this utility and describes the percentages of each fuel source. It then goes on to specifically discuss the planned natural gas-fired projects in the utility system. The paper outlines the NEES strategy of diversification with respect to gas suppliers and describes the important considerations it used when planning for electric generation with gas. These include determining pressure requirements needed by the gas distribution system when the gas-generators come on-line; determining the placement of the generators within the overall system (i.e. peak load facilities, base load facilities, etc.); contracting flexibility because of the need to vary the amount of gas taken; and the ability to manage pipeline capacity and gas supplies when they are not needed

  6. Research and development activities of a neutron generator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darsono Sudjatmoko; Pramudita Anggraita; Sukarman Aminjoyo

    2000-01-01

    The neutron generator facility at YNRC is used for elemental analysis, nuclear data measurement and education. In nuclear data measurement the focus is on re-evaluating the existing scattered nuclear activation cross-section to obtain systematic data for nuclear reactions such as (n,p), (n,α), and (n,2n). In elemental analysis it is used for analyzing the Nitrogen (N), Phosphor (P) and Potassium (K) contents in chemical and natural fertilizers (compost), protein in rice, soybean, and corn and pollution level in rivers. The neutron generator is also used for education and training of BATAN staff and university students. The facility can also produce neutron generator components. (author)

  7. Development of the ultra high efficiency thermal power generation facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sano, Toshihiro

    2010-09-15

    In order to prevent global warming, attention is focused on nuclear power generation and renewable energy such as wind and solar power generation. The electric power suppliers of Japan are aiming to increase the amount of nuclear and non-fossil fuel power generation over 50% of the total power generation by 2020. But this means that the remaining half will still be of thermal power generation using fossil fuel and will still play an important role. Under such circumstances, further efficiency improvement of the thermal power generation and its aggressive implementation is ongoing in Japan.

  8. Generation capacity adequacy in interdependent electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Finon, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the practical problems related to long-term security of supply in regional electricity markets with transmission constraints. Differences between regulatory policies and market designs in terms of generation adequacy policies may distort the normal functioning of the neighboring markets, as well as the reliability of supply. We test the effect of heterogeneous regulatory design between two interdependent markets: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. We rely on a long-term market simulation model in system dynamics that characterizes expansion decision in a competitive regime. The results show that differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. We examine both the short and long terms effect, and how free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other. The main finding is that the lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. - Research highlights: → We model the long-term dynamic of two interdependent markets. → We examine both the short and long terms effect of heterogeneous regulatory design: energy-only market, price-capped market without capacity mechanisms and price-capped markets with forward capacity contracts obligation. → Differences in market designs affect both price and reliability of supply in the two markets. → Lack of harmonization between local markets in policies to ensure capacity adequacy may lead to undesirable side effects. → Free-riding may occur where capacity adequacy policies are adopted in one market but not the other.

  9. Solar electric power generation photovoltaic energy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Krauter, Stefan CW

    2007-01-01

    Solar electricity is a viable, environmentally sustainable alternative to the world's energy supplies. In support, this work examines the various technical parameters of photovoltaic systems. It analyzes the study of performance and yield (including optical, thermal, and electrical parameters and interfaces).

  10. Assessment of wind energy potential for electricity generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wind energy is proposed as an alternative source of electricity to fossil fuel generators .... can be connected to the national grid line to supplement the shortfall that arises during the dry ... systems are environmentally friendly. By generating ...

  11. statistical analysis of wind speed for electrical power generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    sites are suitable for the generation of electrical energy. Also, the results ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. 36, No. ... parameter in the wind-power generation system. ..... [3] A. Zaharim, A. M Razali, R. Z Abidin, and K Sopian,.

  12. Experimental study of camel powered electricity generation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakhar, O. P.; Choudhary, Rahul Raj; Budaniya, Mukesh; Kumar, Ashish

    2018-05-01

    Developing nations are facing a huge gap in generation and demand of electricity across the world. In present scenario the demand of electricity is increasing day by day and the shortfall of electricity has become one of the major obstructions in the development of rural areas. There is a big gap between electricity supply and demand. In India it is very difficult that to give twenty four hours electric supply in rural areas. The traditional use of camel as draught animal, for the purpose of transport of goods and agricultural work, has been drastically reduced during last few decades, due to advancements and cheaper availability of mechanical machineries. In this research paper we experimentally studied the camel powered electricity generation system at National Research Centre on Camels (NRCC) Bikaner. Camel Energy in form of high torque low speed can be converted into low torque high speed through motion converting system i.e. gear and pulley mechanism for high RPM output. This high RPM (more than 3000) output is used for electricity generation. The electricity generated can be used directly or stored in the battery and later may be used whenever it is required either for DC light or AC light using inverter. According to experimental study a camel can comfortably generate electricity up to 1KW by rotating shaft. The complete set up for electricity generation using camel power has been designed, developed and physically commissioned at National Research Centre on Camels (NRCC) Bikaner.

  13. Electricity Self-Generation Costs for Industrial Companies in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diboma Benjamin Salomon

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Industrial production in developing countries (DC is frequently perturbed by electric energy supply difficulties. To overcome this problem, generators are used in self-generation of energy, but this leads to an increase of electricity-related expenses. This article assesses the impact of electricity self-generation on Cameroonian industrial companies. The model described in this article is based on data collected through a survey of a representative sample of industrial companies and from numerous previous thematic and statistical studies. The results of our analyses show that expenses related to electricity in industrial companies in Cameroon have increased five times due to electricity rationing and untimely power cuts. The article also suggests some solutions to improve the electricity self-generation capacity of industrial companies.

  14. Southeast Regional Assessment Study: an assessment of the opportunities of solar electric power generation in the Southeastern United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-07-01

    The objective of this study was to identify and assess opportunities for demonstration and large scale deployment of solar electric facilities in the southeast region and to define the technical, economic, and institutional factors that can contribute to an accelerated use of solar energy for electric power generation. Graphs and tables are presented indicating the solar resource potential, siting opportunities, energy generation and use, and socioeconomic factors of the region by state. Solar electric technologies considered include both central station and dispersed solar electric generating facilities. Central stations studied include solar thermal electric, wind, photovoltaic, ocean thermal gradient, and biomass; dispersed facilities include solar thermal total energy systems, wind, and photovoltaic. The value of solar electric facilities is determined in terms of the value of conventional facilities and the use of conventional fuels which the solar facilities can replace. Suitable cost and risk sharing mechanisms to accelerate the commercialization of solar electric technologies in the Southeast are identified. The major regulatory and legal factors which could impact on the commercialization of solar facilities are reviewed. The most important factors which affect market penetration are reviewed, ways to accelerate the implementation of these technologies are identified, and market entry paths are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented. (WHK)

  15. Power Consumption Analysis of Electrical Installations at Healthcare Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Guillen-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology for power consumption estimation considering harmonic and interharmonic content and then it is compared to the power consumption estimation commonly done by commercial equipment based on the fundamental frequency, and how they can underestimate the power consumption considering power quality disturbances (PQD. For this purpose, data of electrical activity at the electrical distribution boards in a healthcare facility is acquired for a long time period with proprietary equipment. An analysis in the acquired current and voltage signals is done, in order to compare the power consumption centered in the fundamental frequency with the generalized definition of power consumption. The results obtained from the comparison in the power consumption estimation show differences between 4% and 10% of underestimated power consumption. Thus, it is demonstrated that the presence of harmonic and interharmonic content provokes a significant underestimation of power consumption using only the power consumption centered at the fundamental frequency.

  16. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electric power generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made...

  17. An integrated approach for facilities planning by ELECTRE method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbishari, E. M. Y.; Hazza, M. H. F. Al; Adesta, E. Y. T.; Rahman, Nur Salihah Binti Abdul

    2018-01-01

    Facility planning is concerned with the design, layout, and accommodation of people, machines and activities of a system. Most of the researchers try to investigate the production area layout and the related facilities. However, few of them try to investigate the relationship between the production space and its relationship with service departments. The aim of this research to is to integrate different approaches in order to evaluate, analyse and select the best facilities planning method that able to explain the relationship between the production area and other supporting departments and its effect on human efforts. To achieve the objective of this research two different approaches have been integrated: Apple’s layout procedure as one of the effective tools in planning factories, ELECTRE method as one of the Multi Criteria Decision Making methods (MCDM) to minimize the risk of getting poor facilities planning. Dalia industries have been selected as a case study to implement our integration the factory have been divided two main different area: the whole facility (layout A), and the manufacturing area (layout B). This article will be concerned with the manufacturing area layout (Layout B). After analysing the data gathered, the manufacturing area was divided into 10 activities. There are five factors that the alternative were compared upon which are: Inter department satisfactory level, total distance travelled for workers, total distance travelled for the product, total time travelled for the workers, and total time travelled for the product. Three different layout alternatives have been developed in addition to the original layouts. Apple’s layout procedure was used to study and evaluate the different alternatives layouts, the study and evaluation of the layouts was done by calculating scores for each of the factors. After obtaining the scores from evaluating the layouts, ELECTRE method was used to compare the proposed alternatives with each other and with

  18. Review on Automotive Power Generation System on Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles & Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Yap Wee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Regenerative braking is a function to recharge power bank on the Plug-in electric vehicles (PHEV and electric vehicles (EV. The weakness of this system is, it can only perform its function when the vehicle is slowing down or by stepping the brake foot pedal. In other words, the electricity recharging system is inconsistent, non-continuous and geography dependent. To overcome the weakness of the regenerative braking system, it is suggested that to apply another generator which is going to be parallel with the regenerative braking system so that continuous charging can be achieved. Since the ironless electricity generator has a less counter electromotive force (CEMF comparing to an ironcored electricity generator and no cogging torque. Applying the ironless electricity generator parallel to the regenerative braking system is seen one of the options which creates sustainable charging system compared to cored electricity generator.

  19. Feasibility Investigation for a Solar Power Generation Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    The Energy Policy Act of 2005 states that by fiscal year 2013, at least 7.5% of the energy consumed by the government must be renewable energy. In an effort to help meet this goal, Johnson Space Center (JSC) is considering installing a solar power generation facility. The purpose of this project is to conduct a feasibility investigation for such a facility. Because Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has a solar power generation facility, the first step in this investigation is to learn about KSC's facility and obtain information on how it was constructed. After collecting this information, the following must be determined: the amount of power desired, the size of the facility, potential locations for it, and estimated construction and maintenance costs. Contacts with JSC's energy provider must also be established to determine if a partnership would be agreeable to both parties. Lastly, all of this data must be analyzed to decide whether or not JSC should construct the facility. The results from analyzing the data collected indicate that a 200 kW facility would provide enough energy to meet 1% of JSC's energy demand. This facility would require less than 1 acre of land. In the map below, potential locations are shown in green. The solar power facility is projected to cost $2 M. So far, the information collected indicates that such a facility could be constructed. The next steps in this investigation include contacting JSC's energy provider, CenterPoint Energy, to discuss entering a partnership; developing a life cycle cost analysis to determine payback time; developing more detailed plans; and securing funding.

  20. Concepts of investment risks and strategies in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Joode, J.; Boots, M.G.

    2005-06-01

    This report deals with the specific investment risks in electricity generation and discusses the problems associated with energy investments in general and focus on the additional or changing risks resulting from electricity market liberalisation. The focus is on (1) risks under the control of the electricity company, and on (2) market risks, such as the risk of price changes. Ultimately, some of the approaches and strategies that enable electricity producers to counter or mitigate these risks are discussed

  1. Dismantling of the 50 MW steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, S.; Onojima, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Akai, M.; Isozaki, T.; Gunji, M.; Yatabe, T.

    1997-01-01

    We have been dismantling the 50MW Steam Generator Test Facility (50MWSGTF). The objectives of the dismantling are reuse of sodium components to a planned large scale thermal hydraulics sodium test facility and the material examination of component that have been operated for long time in sodium. The facility consisted of primary sodium loop with sodium heater by gas burner as heat source instead of reactor, secondary sodium loop with auxiliary cooling system (ACS) and water/steam system with steam temperature and pressure reducer instead of turbine. It simulated the 1 loop of the Monju cooling system. The rated power of the facility was 50MWt and it was about 1/5 of the Monju power plant. Several sodium removal methods are applied. As for the components to be dismantled such as piping, intermediate heat exchanger (IHX), air cooled heat exchangers (AC), sodium is removed by steam with nitrogen gas in the air or sodium is burned in the air. As for steam generators which material tests are planned, sodium is removed by steam injection with nitrogen gas to the steam generator. The steam generator vessel is filled with nitrogen and no air in the steam generator during sodium removal. As for sodium pumps, pump internal structure is pulled out from the casing and installed into the tank. After the installation, sodium is removed by the same method of steam generator. As for relatively small reuse components such as sodium valves, electromagnet flow meters (EMFs) etc., sodium is removed by alcohol process. (author)

  2. Electric potential differences across auroral generator interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. De Keyser

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Strong localized high-altitude auroral electric fields, such as those observed by Cluster, are often associated with magnetospheric interfaces. The type of high-altitude electric field profile (monopolar, bipolar, or more complicated depends on the properties of the plasmas on either side of the interface, as well as on the total electric potential difference across the structure. The present paper explores the role of this cross-field electric potential difference in the situation where the interface is a tangential discontinuity. A self-consistent Vlasov description is used to determine the equilibrium configuration for different values of the transverse potential difference. A major observation is that there exist limits to the potential difference, beyond which no equilibrium configuration of the interface can be sustained. It is further demonstrated how the plasma densities and temperatures affect the type of electric field profile in the transition, with monopolar electric fields appearing primarily when the temperature contrast is large. These findings strongly support the observed association of monopolar fields with the plasma sheet boundary. The role of shear flow tangent to the interface is also examined.

  3. International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen: Book of Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.; Hayden, H.

    2005-05-01

    The International Conference on Solar Concentrators for the Generation of Electricity or Hydrogen provides an opportunity to learn about current significant research on solar concentrators for generating electricity or hydrogen. The conference will emphasize in-depth technical discussions of recent achievements in technologies that convert concentrated solar radiation to electricity or hydrogen, with primary emphasis on photovoltaic (PV) technologies. Very high-efficiency solar cells--above 37%--were recently developed, and are now widely used for powering satellites. This development demands that we take a fresh look at the potential of solar concentrators for generating low-cost electricity or hydrogen. Solar electric concentrators could dramatically overtake other PV technologies in the electric utility marketplace because of the low capital cost of concentrator manufacturing facilities and the larger module size of concentrators. Concentrating solar energy also has advantages for th e solar generation of hydrogen. Around the world, researchers and engineers are developing solar concentrator technologies for entry into the electricity generation market and several have explored the use of concentrators for hydrogen production. The last conference on the subject of solar electric concentrators was held in November of 2003 and proved to be an important opportunity for researchers and developers to share new and crucial information that is helping to stimulate projects in their countries.

  4. Applied risk analysis to the future Brazilian electricity generation matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maues, Jair; Fernandez, Eloi; Correa, Antonio

    2010-09-15

    This study compares energy conversion systems for the generation of electrical power, with an emphasis on the Brazilian energy matrix. The financial model applied in this comparison is based on the Portfolio Theory, developed by Harry Markowitz. The risk-return ratio related to the electrical generation mix predicted in the National Energy Plan - 2030, published in 2006 by the Brazilian Energy Research Office, is evaluated. The increase of non-traditional renewable energy in this expected electrical generating mix, specifically, residues of sugar cane plantations and wind energy, reduce not only the risk but also the average cost of the kilowatt-hour generated.

  5. Cooling of superconducting electric generators by liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, W.; Ogata, H.

    1987-01-01

    Superconducting generators have a great potential in future electric supply systems in increasing the efficiency of generators and in enhancing the stability of power network systems. Recognition of possible advantages over gas-cooled and water-cooled generators has led research institutes and manufacturers in several countries to wage substantial research and development efforts. The authors show the electric power capacities of the test generators already built, under construction, or in the planning stage. Since earlier attempts, steady improvements in the design of generators have been made, and experience of generator operation has been accumulated

  6. Facile synthesis of degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Baolin; Finne-Wistrand, Anna; Albertsson, Ann-Christine

    2011-07-11

    Degradable and electrically conductive polysaccharide hydrogels (DECPHs) have been synthesized by functionalizing polysaccharide with conductive aniline oligomers. DECPHs based on chitosan (CS), aniline tetramer (AT), and glutaraldehyde were obtained by a facile one-pot reaction by using the amine group of CS and AT under mild conditions, which avoids the multistep reactions and tedious purification involved in the synthesis of degradable conductive hydrogels in our previous work. Interestingly, these one-pot hydrogels possess good film-forming properties, electrical conductivity, and a pH-sensitive swelling behavior. The chemical structure and morphology before and after swelling of the hydrogels were verified by FT-IR, NMR, and SEM. The conductivity of the hydrogels was tuned by adjusting the content of AT. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels was altered by the content of tetraaniline and cross-linker. The hydrogels underwent slow degradation in a buffer solution. The hydrogels obtained by this facile approach provide new possibilities in biomedical applications, for example, biodegradable conductive hydrogels, films, and scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering and controlled drug delivery.

  7. Robust Control of Aeronautical Electrical Generators for Energy Management Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomo Canciello; Alberto Cavallo; Beniamino Guida

    2017-01-01

    A new strategy for the control of aeronautical electrical generators via sliding manifold selection is proposed, with an associated innovative intelligent energy management strategy used for efficient power transfer between two sources providing energy to aeronautical loads, having different functionalities and priorities. Electric generators used for aeronautical application involve several machines, including a main generator and an exciter. Standard regulators (PI or PID-like) are normally...

  8. Electrical energy and cost for the mirror fusion test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pence, G.

    1983-01-01

    An operational scenario has been developed for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) based on the System Requirements, our experience with existing systems, and discussions with the project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to predict the amount of electrical energy needed for running the facility. A generic type listing is included for the equipment considered in each system. A figure shows the anticipated power drain during a five-minute shot sequence from the 115-kV substation, and from the 230-kV and direct feed substations. At this time, the three major substations that will be used for the MFTF-B are billed under three different rate schedules. A table lists these schedules and what they are anticipated as being when the facility becomes operational. The system availability, which is expected to be 0.7 or better, has not been factored into these calculations. This gives a worst case cost for the MFTF-B. Based on this study, it appears that our energy bill will be over $500 000 per month, on the average. This expenditure will constitute a significant portion of the budget needed to operate the MFTF-B. As the systems are refined, and a more accurate picture is obtained as to the size and operational cycles of the equipment, this report will be updated

  9. Integrated Electrical and Thermal Grid Facility - Testing of Future Microgrid Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundar Raj Thangavelu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the Experimental Power Grid Centre (EPGC microgrid test facility, which was developed to enable research, development and testing for a wide range of distributed generation and microgrid technologies. The EPGC microgrid facility comprises a integrated electrical and thermal grid with a flexible and configurable architecture, and includes various distributed energy resources and emulators, such as generators, renewable, energy storage technologies and programmable load banks. The integrated thermal grid provides an opportunity to harness waste heat produced by the generators for combined heat, power and cooling applications, and support research in optimization of combined electrical-thermal systems. Several case studies are presented to demonstrate the testing of different control and operation strategies for storage systems in grid-connected and islanded microgrids. One of the case studies also demonstrates an integrated thermal grid to convert waste heat to useful energy, which thus far resulted in a higher combined energy efficiency. Experiment results confirm that the facility enables testing and evaluation of grid technologies and practical problems that may not be apparent in a computer simulated environment.

  10. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2016-02-05

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  11. Geothermal electricity generation and desalination: an integrated process design to conserve latent heat with operational improvements

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Ng, Kim Choon; Thuw, Kyaw; Wakil Shahzad, Muhammad

    2016-01-01

    A new process combination is proposed to link geothermal electricity generation with desalination. The concept involves maximizing the utilization of harvested latent heat by passing the turbine exhaust steam into a multiple effect distillation system and then into an adsorption desalination system. Processes are fully integrated to produce electricity, desalted water for consumer consumption, and make-up water for the geothermal extraction system. Further improvements in operational efficiency are achieved by adding a seawater reverse osmosis system to the site to utilize some of the generated electricity and using on-site aquifer storage and recovery to maximize water production with tailoring of seasonal capacity requirements and to meet facility maintenance requirements. The concept proposed conserves geothermally harvested latent heat and maximizes the economics of geothermal energy development. Development of a fully renewable energy electric generation-desalination-aquifer storage campus is introduced within the framework of geothermal energy development. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis

  12. Electrically nonconductive shield for electric equipment generating ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.

    1979-01-01

    As a radiation protection shield there is proposed a nonconductive shield fabricated from epoxides or other plastics material and containing finely dispersed radiation absorbing metal. It is to be designed in such a way that it lies in the range of a high electric gradient in the equipment, close to the radiation-producing component. As suitable metals there are mentioned tin, tungsten, and lead resp. their oxides. As an example there is used an X-ray shielding. (RW) 891 RW/RW 892 MKO [de

  13. Food processing with electrically generated photon irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a portable electric food irradiation processing machine is presented and analyzed for cost assuming the required accelerators are available for $1.5 million each. It is shown that food can be processed to 1 kGy for a price of $5.98/ton

  14. Composite electric generator equipped with steam generator for heating reactor coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Masaharu; Soman, Yoshindo; Kawanishi, Kohei; Ota, Masato.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention concerns a composite electric generator having coolants, as a heating source, of a PWR type reactor or a thermonuclear reactor. An electric generator driving gas turbine is disposed, and a superheater using a high temperature exhaust gas of the gas turbine as a heating source is disposed, and main steams are superheated by the superheater to elevate the temperature at the inlet of the turbine. This can increase the electric generation capacity as well as increase the electric generation efficiency. In addition, since the humidity in the vicinity of the exit of the steam turbine is reduced, occurrence of loss and erosion can be suppressed. When cooling water of the thermonuclear reactor is used, the electric power generated by the electric generator driven by the gas turbine can be used upon start of the thermonuclear reactor, and it is not necessary to dispose a large scaled special power source in the vicinity, which is efficient. (N.H.)

  15. Schedule and cost reduction of nuclear generating facilities in Ontario study overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huterer, J.

    1991-01-01

    During the five year period 1985 to 1990, Ontario Hydro conducted a major study with the objective to reduce the cost and construction duration for future nuclear generating facilities in Ontario. This paper reports on the study called Major Projects: Schedule and Cost Reduction Study (SCRS). Ontario Hydro is a public utility with the responsibility for meeting electricity need for the province of Ontario with a population of 9.6 million. In order to adequately address future electricity needs, Ontario Hydro has developed and submitted a demand/supply plan which covers the next 25 years. The SCRS for major projects contributed to this demand/supply plan

  16. Analysis of the energy portfolio for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez S, J. R.; Alonso V, G.; Esquivel E, J.

    2016-09-01

    The planning of electricity generation systems considers several factors that must be taken into account in order to design systems that are economical, reliable and sustainable. For this purpose, the Financial Portfolio Theory is applicable to the energy portfolio or the diversification of electricity generation technologies, such as is the combined cycle, wind, thermoelectric and nuclear. This paper presents an application of the Portfolio Theory to the national energy system, based on the total generation costs for each technology, which allows determining the average variance portfolio and the respective share of each of the electricity generation technologies considered, obtaining a portfolio of electricity generation with the maximum possible return for the risk taken in the investments. This paper describes the basic aspects of the Portfolio Theory and its methodology, in which matrices are implemented for the solution of the resulting Lagrange system. (Author)

  17. Production function application attempt in electricity generation forecasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamrat, W.; Augusiak, A.

    1996-01-01

    A modified Cobb-Douglas production function is applied to evaluate level of electricity generation for medium and long term prognosis (up to 2010) in an easy and simple way. The test calculations have been done for hard coal fired power plants, based on generation data supplied in Main Statistical Office of Poland publications.The model of electricity generation is defined using data on capital of a typical productivity power plant and its employment for time series 1980-90. The test calculation results based on the parameters of Rosenbroock's optimization procedure of electricity generation model are presented. The method described is distinguished for its high accuracy as compared to classical methods despite the relatively short time series. It is suitable for studies in electricity generation policy . 1 tab

  18. On-site electric power source facility for Japanese nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oohara, T. [Incident/Failure Analysis and Evaluation Office, Nuclear Power Safety Information Research Centre, Nuclear Power Engineering Test Centre, 2nd Floor, Shuwa-Kamiyacho Bldg., 3-13, 4-Chome, Toranomon Minato-ku, Tokyo 105 (Japan)

    1986-02-15

    Trends of construction of nuclear power plants in Japan, occurrence rate of incidents/failures of electric facilities, major example of incidents/failures, their countermeasure to prevent recurrence are introduced. Furthermore, safety administration system of the Government, electric utilities and manufacturers, and various countermeasures to prevent incident/ failure of electrical facilities from the hardware and software sides are discussed. (author)

  19. On-site electric power source facility for Japanese nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oohara, T.

    1986-01-01

    Trends of construction of nuclear power plants in Japan, occurrence rate of incidents/failures of electric facilities, major example of incidents/failures, their countermeasure to prevent recurrence are introduced. Furthermore, safety administration system of the Government, electric utilities and manufacturers, and various countermeasures to prevent incident/ failure of electrical facilities from the hardware and software sides are discussed. (author)

  20. An electricity generation planning model incorporating demand response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy policies that aim to reduce carbon emissions and change the mix of electricity generation sources, such as carbon cap-and-trade systems and renewable electricity standards, can affect not only the source of electricity generation, but also the price of electricity and, consequently, demand. We develop an optimization model to determine the lowest cost investment and operation plan for the generating capacity of an electric power system. The model incorporates demand response to price change. In a case study for a U.S. state, we show the price, demand, and generation mix implications of a renewable electricity standard, and of a carbon cap-and-trade policy with and without initial free allocation of carbon allowances. This study shows that both the demand moderating effects and the generation mix changing effects of the policies can be the sources of carbon emissions reductions, and also shows that the share of the sources could differ with different policy designs. The case study provides different results when demand elasticity is excluded, underscoring the importance of incorporating demand response in the evaluation of electricity generation policies. - Highlights: ► We develop an electric power system optimization model including demand elasticity. ► Both renewable electricity and carbon cap-and-trade policies can moderate demand. ► Both policies affect the generation mix, price, and demand for electricity. ► Moderated demand can be a significant source of carbon emission reduction. ► For cap-and-trade policies, initial free allowances change outcomes significantly.

  1. Air Emission Reduction Benefits of Biogas Electricity Generation at Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2018-02-06

    Conventional processes for municipal wastewater treatment facilities are energy and materially intensive. This work quantifies the air emission implications of energy consumption, chemical use, and direct pollutant release at municipal wastewater treatment facilities across the U.S. and assesses the potential to avoid these damages by generating electricity and heat from the combustion of biogas produced during anaerobic sludge digestion. We find that embedded and on-site air emissions from municipal wastewater treatment imposed human health, environmental, and climate (HEC) damages on the order of $1.63 billion USD in 2012, with 85% of these damages attributed to the estimated consumption of 19 500 GWh of electricity by treatment processes annually, or 0.53% of the US electricity demand. An additional 11.8 million tons of biogenic CO 2 are directly emitted by wastewater treatment and sludge digestion processes currently installed at plants. Retrofitting existing wastewater treatment facilities with anaerobic sludge digestion for biogas production and biogas-fueled heat and electricity generation has the potential to reduce HEC damages by up to 24.9% relative to baseline emissions. Retrofitting only large plants (>5 MGD), where biogas generation is more likely to be economically viable, would generate HEC benefits of $254 annually. These findings reinforce the importance of accounting for use-phase embedded air emissions and spatially resolved marginal damage estimates when designing sustainable infrastructure systems.

  2. Generation of electricity by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, E W

    1976-01-01

    Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

  3. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  4. Electricity generation devices using formic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei; Zheng, Junrong

    2017-01-01

    The present disclosure relates generally to new forms of portable energy generation devices and methods. The devices are designed to covert formic acid into released hydrogen, alleviating the need for a hydrogen tank as a hydrogen source for fuel

  5. Private wind powered electricity generators for industry in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, S. S.; Stark, J.

    This paper investigates the impact of the provisions of the new Energy Act, 1983 on industrial wind-powered private generators of electricity and the effects of published tariffs on various industrial working patterns. Up to 30 percent savings can be achieved in annual electricity bill costs for an industrial generator/user of electricity working a single daily shift, if located in a favorable, 7 m/s mean annual wind speed regime. Variation of the availability charge between Electricity Boards about a base value of 0.70 pounds sterling/kVA was found to have insignificant (+ or - 1.3 percent) impact on total electricity bill costs. It was also shown that for industrial users of electricity, the simpler two-rate purchase terms were commercially adequate when compared with the four-rate alternative where expensive metering becomes necessary.

  6. Los Alamos Plutonium Facility newly generated TRU waste certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetzmacher, K.; Montoya, A.; Sinkule, B.; Maez, M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the activities being planned and implemented to certify newly generated contact handled transuranic (TRU) waste produced by Los Alamos National Laboratory's (LANL's) Plutonium Facility. Certifying waste at the point of generation is the most important cost and labor saving step in the WIPP certification process. The pedigree of a waste item is best known by the originator of the waste and frees a site from expensive characterization activities such as those associated with legacy waste. Through a cooperative agreement with LANLs Waste Management Facility and under the umbrella of LANLs WIPP-related certification and quality assurance documents, the Plutonium Facility will be certifying its own newly generated waste. Some of the challenges faced by the Plutonium Facility in preparing to certify TRU waste include the modification and addition of procedures to meet WIPP requirements, standardizing packaging for TRU waste, collecting processing documentation from operations which produce TRU waste, and developing ways to modify waste streams which are not certifiable in their present form

  7. Installation of Tc-99m generator manufacturing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, B. C.; Choung, W. M.; Park, J. H.; Park, S. H.; Kim, S. J.; Park, K. B.

    2004-01-01

    For the characteristics of radiopharmaceuticals, the manufacturing facility should be complied with the radiation safety standards for operators as well as GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) cleanness standards for production. We intensively modified the existing Radioisotope production facilities, which were installed only in radiation safety points of view, to meet cleanness criteria. And the concept of multi-barrier buffer zones was introduced to apply negative air pressure for hot cell with first priority and to continue relative positive air pressure for clean room. The manufacturing area for Tc-99m Generator can be entered only through a second change. The doors of each change area are interlocked to maintain air pressure differentials. The pass box for material transfer are also interlocked so that only one side may be opened at any one time to keep cleanness. Two door-type autoclave was installed crossing the wall between preparing room and aseptic room to keep cleanness after sterilization. Three lead hot cells were installed and final inspection including gamma survey test were performed. The clean room was installed and TAB for this facility was performed in order to acquire the necessary air flow. The filter bank for filtration of exhausted radiation air was installed and its efficiency test was performed. In this facility, radiation shielding utilities and manufacturing instruments were set up and their operating manuals were documented. Efficiency tests for every utilities and instruments were satisfied and the approval for use of the facilities was achieved from MOST (Ministry of Science and Technology). The Sam Young Unitech, the lessee of the facilities set up the equipment in the hot cell, which is needed to produce Tc-99m Generator, supported by IPPE in Russia. They are composing the systems complied with the guidelines and the regulations, and keep in contact to KFDA for acquiring its approval. It is expected to produce Tc-99m Generator within

  8. Electrostatic air filters generated by electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Biermann, A.H.; Hebard, H.D.; Lum, B.Y.; Kuhl, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents theoretical and experimental findings on fibrous filters converted to electrostatic operation by a nonionizing electric field. Compared to a conventional fibrous filter, the electrostatic filter has a higher efficiency and a longer, useful life. The increased efficiency is attributed to a time independent attraction between polarized fibers and charged, polarized particles and a time dependent attraction between charged fibers and charged, polarized particles. The charge on the fibers results from a dynamic process of charge accumulation due to the particle deposits and a charge dissipation due to the fiber conductivity

  9. Comparative Study on Electric Generation Cost of HTR with Another Electric Plant Using LEGECOST Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochamad-Nasrullah; Soetrisnanto, Arnold Y.; Tosi-Prastiadi; Adiwardojo

    2000-01-01

    Monetary and economic crisis in Indonesia resulted in impact of electricity and demand and supply planning that it has to be reevaluated. One of the reasons is budget limitation of the government as well as private companies. Considering this reason, the economic calculation for all of aspect could be performed, especially the calculation of electric generation cost. This paper will discuss the economic aspect of several power plants using fossil and nuclear fuel including High Temperature Reactor (HTR). Using Levelized Generation Cost (LEGECOST) program developed by IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency), the electric generation cost of each power plant could be calculated. And then, the sensitivity analysis has to be done using several economic parameters and scenarios, in order to be known the factors that influence the electric generation cost. It could be concluded, that the electric generation cost of HTR is cheapest comparing the other power plants including nuclear conventional. (author)

  10. Diamond Light Source - A Next Generation SR Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Materlik, G.

    2004-01-01

    After the very successful start and the by now almost 10 years operation of the 3rd generation x-ray sources ESRF, APS and Spring-8 smaller storage rings are being planned and constructed with properties emphasising applications with photon energies around the 10 keV spectral region. In the UK the Government and the medical foundation Wellcome Trust have decided to build the Diamond Light Source Facility in the South of Oxfordshire right next to the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory. The joint venture company Diamond Light Source Limited has been created to plan, construct, and operate this facility. (author)

  11. Storing the Electric Energy Produced by an AC Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, P. Simeao; Lima, Ana Paula; Carvalho, Pedro Simeao

    2010-01-01

    Producing energy from renewable energy sources is nowadays a priority in our society. In many cases this energy comes as electric energy, and when we think about electric energy generators, one major issue is how we can store that energy. In this paper we discuss how this can be done and give some ideas for applications that can serve as a…

  12. optimization methodologies of mixed electrical generators in algeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This article deals of the optimization of renewable energy electric generators, for the alimentation of radio telecommunication systems. The principals' interests of this system are the independence production, and the supplying of electric energy in isolated localities. Have at one's the energetic and economic ...

  13. Electricity generation modeling and photovoltaic forecasts in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shengnan

    With the economic development of China, the demand for electricity generation is rapidly increasing. To explain electricity generation, we use gross GDP, the ratio of urban population to rural population, the average per capita income of urban residents, the electricity price for industry in Beijing, and the policy shift that took place in China. Ordinary least squares (OLS) is used to develop a model for the 1979--2009 period. During the process of designing the model, econometric methods are used to test and develop the model. The final model is used to forecast total electricity generation and assess the possible role of photovoltaic generation. Due to the high demand for resources and serious environmental problems, China is pushing to develop the photovoltaic industry. The system price of PV is falling; therefore, photovoltaics may be competitive in the future.

  14. AIR POLLUTION: Emissions from Older Electricity Generating Units

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... While fossil fuels-coal, natural gas, and oil-account for more than two thirds of our electricity, generating units that burn these fuels are major sources of airborne emissions that pose human...

  15. Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electricity generation in Nigeria from municipal solid waste using the Swedish Wasteto-Energy Model. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... Waste-to-energy (WTE) technology in Nigeria is still at the infancy stage ...

  16. Electricity generation with natural gas or with uranium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva M, C.

    2009-10-01

    The program of works and investments of electric sector that actualize each year the Federal Commission of Electricity, include to the projects of electric power generating stations that will begin its commercial operation inside the horizon of the next ten years, in order to satisfy opportunely with appropriate reservation margins the demand of power and energy in the national interconnected system that grows year to year. In spite of its inherent advantages, in the electric sector prospective 2008-2017 are not considered explicitly to the nuclear power plants, except for the small amplification of capacity of nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde, that already is executing. In this context, the objective of this work is to present and to discuss arguments to favor and against the combined cycle and nuclear technologies, to indicate the risks and disadvantages in that it incurs the electric sector when leaning on so disproportionately on the fossil fuels for the electricity generation, in particular the natural gas, deferring to an indefinite future the installation of nuclear plants whose proven technology is economic, sure, clean and reliable and it contributes decisively to the national energy security. To mitigate the harmful effects of excessive dependence on natural gas to generate electric power, was propose alternatives to the expansion program of electric sector to year 2017, which would have as benefits the decrease of the annual total cost of electric power supply for public service, the significant reduction of natural gas imports and emissions reduction of CO 2 to the atmosphere. (Author)

  17. Seismic risk analysis for the Westinghouse Electric facility, Cheswick, Pennsylvania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    This report presents the results of a detailed seismic risk analysis of the Westinghouse Electric plutonium fuel development facility at Cheswick, Pennsylvania. This report focuses on earthquakes. The historical seismic record was established after a review of available literature, consultation with operators of local seismic arrays and examination of appropriate seismic data bases. Because of the aseismicity of the region around the site, an analysis different from the conventional closest approach in a tectonic province was adapted. Earthquakes as far from the site as 1,000 km were included, as were the possibility of earthquakes at the site. In addition, various uncertainties in the input were explicitly considered in the analysis. For example, allowance was made for both the uncertainty in predicting maximum possible earthquakes in the region and the effect of the dispersion of data about the best fit attenuation relation. The attenuation relationship is derived from two of the most recent, advanced studies relating earthquake intensity reports and acceleration. Results of the risk analysis, which include a Bayesian estimate of the uncertainties, are presented as return period accelerations. The best estimate curve indicates that the Westinghouse facility will experience 0.05 g every 220 years and 0.10 g every 1400 years. The accelerations are very insensitive to the details of the source region geometries or the historical earthquake statistics in each region and each of the source regions contributes almost equally to the cumulative risk at the site

  18. Distributed Generation Dispatch Optimization under Various Electricity Tariffs

    OpenAIRE

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2007-01-01

    The on-site generation of electricity can offer building owners and occupiers financial benefits as well as social benefits such as reduced grid congestion, improved energy efficiency, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Combined heat and power (CHP), or cogeneration, systems make use of the waste heat from the generator for site heating needs. Real-time optimal dispatch of CHP systems is difficult to determine because of complicated electricity tariffs and uncertainty in CHP equipment...

  19. Study of electrical power facilities and measures for planned outages in Japanese hemodialysis clinics after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kai; Sawa, Manami; Fujiwara, Kousaku; Hirose, Minoru; Tsuruta, Harukazu; Takeuchi, Akihiro; Ikeda, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011 caused major damage in northeastern Japan. The Kanto region experienced a massive electrical power shortage in the summer of 2011. A questionnaire was submitted to 354 hemodialysis clinics in Kanagawa prefecture and the Tokyo metropolitan area, excluding isolated islands, and 176 responses were analyzed (49.7%). The questions included evaluation of the availability of a private electricity generator, countermeasures in case of a planned outage, awareness of saving electricity, and improvement of safety of medical devices or electrical facilities after the earthquake. Only 12% of the clinics had private electricity generators and many clinics had no plans to introduce this facility. However, 96% of the clinics had established countermeasures to deal with a planned outage. Many clinics planned to provide dialysis on a different day or at a different time. All clinics had tried hard to establish procedures to save electricity in the summer of 2011, and 84% of the clinics had reconsidered and improved the safety of medical devices or electricity facilities after the earthquake. These results show that the awareness of crisis management was greatly improved in the wake of the earthquake. © 2012 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2012 International Society for Apheresis.

  20. Electricity generating system. [Wind/diesel/flywheel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, R.L.

    1992-02-05

    An electricity generating system is described which includes a water tank with electric heating elements connected to the water cooling system of a diesel engine which is heated by excess output of the system. Power in excess of that required by a load which is generated by a wind turbine driven generator runs up a flywheel and further excess is absorbed in the tank. A fan associated with a radiator connected to the tank may be operated to dissipate further excess power. When the load requirements exceed the output of the generators linked to the wind turbine and the flywheel the engine operates a synchronous alternator. (author).

  1. Electricity generation devices using formic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2017-06-22

    The present disclosure relates generally to new forms of portable energy generation devices and methods. The devices are designed to covert formic acid into released hydrogen, alleviating the need for a hydrogen tank as a hydrogen source for fuel cell power.

  2. Displacing the dinosaurs. [Diesel engine electric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    1992-05-01

    This article describes how giant power stations are being replaced by smaller, cleaner units. These include plants using combined-cycle gas turbines and diesel engines of low, medium and high speeds. The use of these diesel engines in power generation is discussed. (UK).

  3. Study of thermoelectric systems applied to electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Vian, J.G.; Astrain, D.; Martinez, A.

    2009-01-01

    A computational model has been developed in order to simulate the thermal and electric behavior of thermoelectric generators. This model solves the nonlinear system of equations of the thermoelectric and heat transfer equations. The inputs of the program are the thermoelectric parameters as a function of temperature and the boundary conditions, (room temperature and residual heat flux). The outputs are the temperature values of all the elements forming the thermoelectric generator, (performance, electric power, voltage and electric current generated). The model solves the equation system using the finite difference method and semi-empirical expressions for the convection coefficients. A thermoelectric electric power generation test bench has been built in order to validate and determine the accuracy of the computational model, which maximum error is lower than 5%. The objective of this study is to create a design tool that allows us to solve the system of equations involved in the electric generation process without needing to impose boundary conditions that are not known in the design phase, such as the temperature of the Peltier modules. With the computational model, we study the influence of the heat flux supplied as well as the room temperature on the electric power generated.

  4. Parametric utility comparison of coal and nuclear electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, K.M.

    1977-02-01

    The advantages and limitations of an explicit quantitative model for decision making are discussed. Several different quantitative models are presented, noting that the use of an expected utility maximization decision rule allows both the direct incorporation of multidimensional descriptions of the possible outcomes, and considerations of risk averse behavior. A broad class of utility functions, characterized by linear risk tolerance, was considered and extended to a multidimensional form. Choosing a multivariate risk neutral extension, using constant absolute risk aversion utility functions for monetary effects and for increased mortality, the author indicated how the parameters of this utility function can be selected to represent the decision maker's preferences, and suggest a reasonable range of values for the parameters. After describing an illustrative set of data on the risks inherent in coal burning and nuclear electricity generation facilities, the author used the chosen utility model to compare the overall risks associated with each technology, observing the effect of variations in the utility parameters and in the risk distributions on the implied preferences

  5. Outlook for gas sales for electricity generation in the Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderman, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    Issues regarding future supply and demand of natural gas as opposed to coal in the electric power generation sector, generation performance standards of coal plants, new combined cycle applications, distributed generation, and the advantages of natural gas over coal are discussed. The electricity demand and supply situation in the Northeast, present and future, and the growing movement toward green power, green power certification programs, the need and demand for disclosure of emissions and fuel source of supply, price and other customer information were summarized. Nuclear power generation and the chances of it being replaced by natural gas-fuelled generation are assessed. Some pipeline siting issues and the need for careful coordination with the electric system to minimize new corridors, are also reviewed. The advantages of natural gas in terms of technology and reduced pollution, hence cleaner air, were cited as the reasons why natural gas has almost unlimited potential as the fuel of choice well into the 21. century

  6. Proposal planning of expansion of electric power generating facilities of Rio Grande do Sul in 2008-2030 period; Proposta de planejamento de expansao do parque gerador de energia eletrica do Rio Grande do Sul no periodo 2008-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magayevski, Juliano; Santos, Joao Carlos Vernetti dos [Universidade Luterana do Brasil (PPGEAM/ULBRA), Gravatai, RS (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia, Energia, Ambiente e Materiais

    2010-07-01

    This work examines the indicators of wealth and its relations with the electricity demand for the State of Rio Grande do Sul, with a trend scenario and alternative scenarios for the electricity demand for the period 2008-2030. A capacity model was developed in order to estimate the increase of the installed capacity necessary to supply the foreseen demand. This model considers new additions of the power plants in implantation, planned and in study, from a base of information and data of the Ministry of Energy. Based on the comparison of the scenarios established with the developed model, are identified strangulations of power supply in the considered time for two of them, the participation of the primary sources capable to prevent them is explored and the total investment for realization of developed model and one established scenario that show strangulation, through hydroelectric plants, thermoelectric based on mineral coal and thermoelectric based on natural gas. (author)

  7. Natural gas and electricity generation in New South Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.

    2001-01-01

    In its Profile of the Australian Electricity Industry, ABARE noted that NSW was the first State in Australia to unbundle the operations of its State owned electricity industry. The process commenced in 1991, when the Electricity Commission of NSW was renamed Pacific Power and reorganised into six generation and transmission sectors. The power generation fuel mix for NSW in 1999-2000 was as follows: black coal, 97 percent and natural gas, 3 percent. NSW has also imported some brown coal generated electricity from Victoria in recent years. The import of cheap brown coal power from this State due to a marked increase in the availability of brown coal base-load generators in the Latrobe Valley forced some surplus black coal generating capacity in NSW to be withdrawn from the marketplace. Four generating units were closed down in 1998 two 500 MW units at Liddell and two 300 MW units at Munmorah. Further prospects for natural gas are reported to be good; its share in the thermal electricity generation market is forecasted to rise from 3 percent in 1999-2000 to 12 percent in 2014-1015

  8. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  9. Role of Energy Storage with Renewable Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Ela, E.; Kirby, B.; Milligan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar, have vast potential to reduce dependence on fossil fuels and greenhouse gas emissions in the electric sector. Climate change concerns, state initiatives including renewable portfolio standards, and consumer efforts are resulting in increased deployments of both technologies. Both solar photovoltaics (PV) and wind energy have variable and uncertain (sometimes referred to as intermittent) output, which are unlike the dispatchable sources used for the majority of electricity generation in the United States. The variability of these sources has led to concerns regarding the reliability of an electric grid that derives a large fraction of its energy from these sources as well as the cost of reliably integrating large amounts of variable generation into the electric grid. In this report, we explore the role of energy storage in the electricity grid, focusing on the effects of large-scale deployment of variable renewable sources (primarily wind and solar energy).

  10. Electric Generators and their Control for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, Lucian; Rallabandi, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    induction generator, the cage rotor induction generator, and the synchronous generator with DC or permanent magnet excitation. The operating principle, performance, optimal design, and the modeling and control of the machine-side converter for each kind of generator are adressed and evaluated. In view......The electric generator and its power electronics interface for wind turbines (WTs) have evolved rapidly toward higher reliability and reduced cost of energy in the last 40 years. This chapter describes the up-to-date electric generators existing in the wind power industry, namely, the doubly fed...... of the fact that individual power rating of WTs has increased to around 10 MW, generator design and control technologies required to reach this power rating are discussed....

  11. Superpower proton linear accelerators for neutron generators and electronuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarev, N.V.; Kozodaev, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    The report is a review of projects on the superpower proton linear accelerators (SPLA) for neutron generators (NG) and electronuclear facilities, proposed in the recent years. The beam average output capacity in these projects reaches 100 MW. The basic parameters of certain operating NGs, as well as some projected NGs will the SPLA drivers are presented. The problems on application of superconducting resonators in the SPLA as well as the issues of the SPLA reliability and costs are discussed [ru

  12. Technology standards for structure, etc. concerning nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Based on the Ordinance for the Technology Standards concerning Nuclear Power Generating Facilities, the technology standards are established for the vessels of class 1 to 4 (including reactor pressure vessels, reactor containment vessels, etc.), the pipes of class 1 to 3, safety valves, pressure test and monitoring test specimens. Those specified are materials, nondestructive tests, structures, shapes, shells, flanges, etc. for the vessels and the pipes, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  13. Rainier Biogas Manure Management and Renewable Energy Generation Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, John [King County, WA (United States)

    2017-06-06

    The Rainier Biogas project is a community manure processing and renewable energy generation facility. Construction was completed and operation initiated in 2012. It is owned and operated by Rainier Biogas, LLC in collaboration with local dairy farmers, Washington State University, and the King County Department of Natural Resources and Parks. The project receives manure from three to four partner dairy farms mostly by underground pipe. The project is located at 43218 208th Ave SE; Enumclaw, WA 98022.

  14. The production of wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    After some key data on installed wind power and its evolution in the World (notably in China and in the USA), in European countries and in France, an overview of the sector economic evolution in France in terms of jobs in different fields (fabrication, electricity production, studies and installations), this publication comments the various benefits of wind energy and its necessary framework for a sane development. Strengths are discussed: a local and clean energy source, a predictable and manageable energy source, an increasing competitiveness. Issues to be considered are also discussed: control of acoustic and landscape impacts, protection of biodiversity, management of interactions with military, meteorological and civil aviation radars, a necessary more steady and coherent regulation. After a discussion of the possibilities offered by small wind energy installations (between 1 and 36 kW), actions undertaken by the ADEME are overviewed. A conclusion outlines the role of wind energy on the supply-demand balance in the French power system, its contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the positive environmental impact, the importance of societal appropriation, and the importance of developing this sector while keeping on reducing consumptions

  15. Integrated O&M for energy generation and exchange facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Ingeteam Service, part of the Ingeteam Group, is a leading company in the provision of integrated O&M services at energy generation and exchange facilities worldwide. From its head office in the Albacete Science and Technology Park, it manages the work of the 1,300 employees that make up its global workforce, rendering services to wind farms, PV installations and power generation plants. In addition, it maintains an active participation strategy in a range of R&D+i programmes that improve the existing technologies and are geared towards new production systems and new diagnostic techniques, applied to renewables installation maintenance. (Author)

  16. Generation and release of radioactive gases in LLW disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, M.S. [Harvard School Public Health, Boston, MA (United States); Simonson, S.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    The atmospheric release of radioactive gases from a generic engineered LLW disposal facility and its radiological impacts were examined. To quantify the generation of radioactive gases, detailed characterization of source inventory for carbon-14, tritium, iodine-129, krypton-85, and radon-222, was performed in terms of their activity concentrations; their distribution within different waste classes, waste forms and containers; and their subsequent availability for release in volatile or gaseous form. The generation of gases was investigated for the processes of microbial activity, radiolysis, and corrosion of waste containers and metallic components in wastes. The release of radionuclides within these gases to the atmosphere was analyzed under the influence of atmospheric pressure changes.

  17. Electric power generation and uranium management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szergenyi, Istvan

    1989-01-01

    Assuming the present trend of nuclear power generation growth, the ratio of nuclear energy in the world power balance will double by the turn of the century. The time of reasonably exploited uranium resources can be predicted as a few decades. Therefore, new nuclear reactor types and more rational uranium management is needed to prolong life of known uranium resources. It was shown how can a better uranium utilization be expected by closed fuel cycles, and what advantages in uranium management can be expected by a better co-operation between small countries and big powers. (R.P.) 16 refs.; 4 figs

  18. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

    1992-07-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools

  19. Proposal of electric power generation from generators to water edge in the region of Sarapiqui

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Fallas, Cindy Veronica

    2013-01-01

    A proposed electric power generation is developed from generators to water edge in the region of Sarapiqui. The environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological network, hydrogeology, soil type, life zones, climatology, precipitation, temperature, evapotranspiration and water supply and demand, of rivers crossed by basin in the region of Sarapiqui, are determined by bibliographic consultations to implement the proposal. The most recent production statistics of the electric subsector of Costa Rica are described to reveal the growing annual demand and need for satisfaction. The zone of Sarapiqui is diagnosed as the right place to allow the generation of electric power from generators to water edge [es

  20. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  1. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. Once outlined the environmental impacts from each form of electric energy generation, they were correlated and compared considering the area of the power plant implantation, the generation capacity, the efficiency, the power and the cost per kW. There is no totally clean form of electric energy generation. There is, however, generation without emission of gases responsible for the green house effect. Therefore, all forms of energy generation are important for a country; in other words, the best situation is the diversity of the energy matrix. (author)

  2. Urges use of renewable energy sources to generate electric power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santizo, Rodolfo

    2001-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of generation of electric power through renewable energy sources like geothermal and wind energy. The author that is the actual Deputy Minister of Energy and Mines explains the needs of Guatemala in the sector of energy in promoting the renewable energy sources such as wind and geothermal energy because Guatemala has a potential generation by this sources

  3. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  4. Generation Companies’ Operative Strategies in the Spot Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar-Hernández J.H.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In traditional regulation the obligation to meet the consumer demand was assumed, this guaranteed to generation companies the full recovery of their costs. However, in order to achieve greater efficiency, reduce the price of electricity, meet the continuously growing electricity consumption, and equalize prices in different regions, a new structure of the electricity industry has been created, where electric energy is traded through a market. Generation company’s future cash flows depend on day to day market participation, in order to satisfy all of their financial and economic requirements. In this paper, future cash flows required to fulfill with economic and financial commitments by a generation company immerse in this new market structure are studied. For this purpose, future cash flows are considered to be dependent on a single asset: electricity. Several scenarios with different fuel prices are generated in order to estimate the generation company’s future cash flows. The response of the competing generation companies is taken into account at each scenario. The fuel price changes are modelled using a concurrent binary tree.

  5. Renewable Generators' Consortium: ensuring a market for green electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    This project summary focuses on the objectives and key achievements of the Renewable Generators Consortium (RGC) which was established to help renewable energy projects under the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO) to continue to generate in the open liberated post-1998 electricity market. The background to the NFFO is traced, and the development of the Consortium, and the attitudes of generators and suppliers to the Consortium are discussed along with the advantages of collective negotiations through the RGC, the Heads of Terms negotiations, and the success of RGC which has demonstrated the demand for green electricity

  6. Liberalization of power generation sector in the Croatian electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viskovic, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The electricity market liberalization and the restructuring of power utilities eventually leads to the establishment of a single electricity market in Europe, which is especially important for efficiency gains in electricity generation coupled with increased security of supply, economic competitiveness and fulfillment of environmental requirements. The European electricity market Directives as well as the Energy Community Treaty for South East Europe (legislative Menu) have remarkable impact on the restructuring of the Croatian power sector and the development of electricity generation. The Croatian model of restructuring includes legal un bundling (in the ownership of one holding company - Hrvatska Elektroprivreda (HEP)). The operation of HEP Group and its subsidiaries in the conditions of partially opened electricity market in an important element that shapes the interactions of competitive activities and regulated activities in the environment influenced by exogenous factors a thirteen percent electricity are controlled by the Energy Market Operator (MO), the Transmission System Operator (TSO) and the Energy Regulatory Agency (CERA). The introduction of eligible procedures and newly created operative procedures for power system operation, are creating completely new conditions for competition in the power generation sector, where almost all power plants are owned by HEP. New generating capacities in Croatia can be built through tendering and licensing procedures carried out by the Regulator. Electricity prices are still regulated by the Government (below the cost reflective level), there is a small share of industrial consumers and the annual electricity production is 12 TWh, with relatively large share of hydro plants. All these have implications on the development of the power generation sector in Croatia as well as on electricity market operation. The subject matter of this paper is an impact of power system restructuring and electricity market opening on the

  7. The Estimation of Externalities Resulting from the Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ha, Jae Joo

    2003-03-01

    The methodology, program, and the representative results for the estimation of externalities was reviewed. The review of them are based on the ExternE Project which is a representative research project for the estimation of externalities resulting from the various energy generating systems. The results for the study will be used as basic data for the comparative study on the integrated risk estimation for various energy generating systems including nuclear power plants. Also, these results will be used as comparative data in the establishment of a integrated comparative risk assessment tool and in the comparative study of the impacts resulting from the various electricity generating systems. These studies make it possible to compare the environmental impacts of nuclear power generation and other electricity generation systems. Therefore, this will of use in the enhancement of public acceptance of nuclear power generation

  8. The Estimation of Externalities Resulting from the Electricity Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Jong Tae; Ha, Jae Joo

    2003-03-15

    The methodology, program, and the representative results for the estimation of externalities was reviewed. The review of them are based on the ExternE Project which is a representative research project for the estimation of externalities resulting from the various energy generating systems. The results for the study will be used as basic data for the comparative study on the integrated risk estimation for various energy generating systems including nuclear power plants. Also, these results will be used as comparative data in the establishment of a integrated comparative risk assessment tool and in the comparative study of the impacts resulting from the various electricity generating systems. These studies make it possible to compare the environmental impacts of nuclear power generation and other electricity generation systems. Therefore, this will of use in the enhancement of public acceptance of nuclear power generation.

  9. Achieving 33% renewable electricity generation by 2020 in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmsley, Michael R.W.; Walmsley, Timothy G.; Atkins, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impacts of California, USA reaching its renewable electricity target of 33%, excluding large hydro, by 2020, which is set out in the state's RPS (Renewable Portfolio Standard). The emerging renewable electricity mix in California and surrounding states which form the WECC (Western Electricity Coordination Council) is analysed using the CEPA (Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis) and EROI (Energy Return on Energy Invested) methodologies. The reduction in emissions with increased renewables is illustrated and the challenge of maintaining high EROI levels for renewable generation is examined for low and high electricity demand growth. Results demonstrate that wind and solar PV collectively form an integral part of California reaching the 33% renewables target by 2020. Government interventions of tax rebates and subsidies, net electricity metering and a four tiered electricity price have accelerated the uptake of electricity generation from wind and solar PV. Residential uptake of solar PV is also reducing overall California electricity grid demand. Emphasis on new renewable generation is stimulating development of affordable wind and solar technology in California which has the added benefit of enhancing social sustainability through improved employment opportunities at a variety of technical levels. - Highlights: • CA (California, USA) aims to achieve 33% renewable electricity sales by 2020. • Carbon Emission Pinch Analysis is applied to the case study of CA. • Energy Return on Energy Invested analysis shows impacts of renewable energy uptake. • Solar PV and wind are the most cost and energy efficiency renewable resources in CA. • State government intervention is needed to reach the 33% renewable electricity goal.

  10. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. 2009 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of February 10, 2000, RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite), working under the aegis of the Public Authorities, periodically establishes a multi-annual forecast report on the balance of electricity supply and demand in France. The Generation Adequacy Report is one basis for the Minister for Energy, and the Public Authorities in general, to build the Multi-annual Investment Plan (referred to in this document by its French acronym PPI for Programmation Pluri-annuelle des Investissements) for electricity generation facilities, introduced by the above-mentioned law. The Generation Adequacy Report deals with the security of the French electricity supply. It intends to identify over a period of about fifteen years the risks of imbalances in continental France between the electricity demand and the generation capacity available to supply it. It enables the identification of the generation capacity required to meet the peaks of demand. The choice of generation technologies to be developed, which is dictated by environmental and economic concerns, is not covered by the Generation Adequacy Report, but is a matter for the other stakeholders in the French electric system, under the guidelines determined by the PPI. The Generation Adequacy Report is published by RTE on its web site and thus accessible to all to serve transparency and contribute to the French energy debate. This document is the fourth edition of the Generation Adequacy Report published by RTE, following its 2003, 2005 and 2007 editions. RTE publishes partial updates in-between to reflect developments in generation capacity. The last update was published in 2008. The time horizon of the 2009 edition of the Generation Adequacy Report is 2025

  11. Generation adequacy report 2009 on the electricity supply - demand balance in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of February 10, 2000, RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite), working under the aegis of the Public Authorities, periodically establishes a multi-annual forecast report on the balance of electricity supply and demand in France. The Generation Adequacy Report is one basis for the Minister for Energy, and the Public Authorities in general, to build the Multi-annual Investment Plan (referred to in this document by its French acronym PPI for Programmation Pluri-annuelle des Investissements) for electricity generation facilities, introduced by the above-mentioned law. The Generation Adequacy Report deals with the security of the French electricity supply. It intends to identify over a period of about fifteen years the risks of imbalances in continental France between the electricity demand and the generation capacity available to supply it. It enables the identification of the generation capacity required to meet the peaks of demand. The choice of generation technologies to be developed, which is dictated by environmental and economic concerns, is not covered by the Generation Adequacy Report, but is a matter for the other stakeholders in the French electric system, under the guidelines determined by the PPI. The Generation Adequacy Report is published by RTE on its web site and thus accessible to all to serve transparency and contribute to the French energy debate. This document is the fourth edition of the Generation Adequacy Report published by RTE, following its 2003, 2005 and 2007 editions. RTE publishes partial updates in-between to reflect developments in generation capacity. The last update was published in 2008. The time horizon of the 2009 edition of the Generation Adequacy Report is 2025. (author)

  12. Electricity pricing model in thermal generating stations under deregulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, P.; Ashok, S.; Moideenkutty, K.M.

    2007-01-01

    In regulated public utilities with competitive power markets, deregulation has replaced the monopoly. Under the deregulated power market, the electricity price primarily depends on market mechanism and power demand. In this market, generators generally follow marginal pricing. Each generator fixes the electricity price based on their pricing strategy and it leads to more price volatility. This paper proposed a model to determine the electricity price considering all operational constraints of the plant and economic variables that influenced the price, for a thermal generating station under deregulation. The purpose of the model was to assist existing stations, investors in the power sector, regulatory authorities, transmission utilities, and new power generators in decision-making. The model could accommodate price volatility in the market and was based on performance incentive/penalty considering plant load factor, availability of the plant and peak/ off peak demand. The model was applied as a case study to a typical thermal utility in India to determine the electricity price. It was concluded that the case study of a thermal generating station in a deregulated environment showed that the electricity price mainly depended on the gross calorific value (GCV) of fuel, mode of operation, price of the fuel, and operating charges. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  13. Design of laser source for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasrullah, K.; Mariun, N.; Yeak, J.

    2000-01-01

    New sources of energy are being investigated to meet socioeconomic needs and other trivialities. Systems employing nuclear, thermal, hydro, solar, volcano, tidal and wind power generation techniques already exist. This work describes our attempt to utilize the off-planet charge to store in super electrolytic batteries or super capacitors. The electrostatic charge on clouds can be shifted to earth through a conductive air plasma channel created by appropriate high power Q-switched and mode-locked laser. The pulsed laser may create a conducting path consisting of ionised air particles from earth to some upper atmosphere. An antenna connected to anode of the super cell or positive terminal of the super capacitor will accumulate and store this charge for future use. The cathode of the battery or negative terminal of the super capacitor may be connected to earth to complete the circuit. A large number of such series and parallel units constitute a super battery or super capacitor bank system that can be connected to the national grid through DC to AC converters (DAC) and step-up transformers. According to published data, the lightning strokes may consist of 10 - 40 strokes of 2 - 80 pts duration separated in time by 6 - 530 ms intervals. The total time elapsed in lightning strike may last as long as 1 second. Due to tropical dependence, further detailed work is required to be done on lightning regarding its temporal and spatial profiles to develop a reasonable model to explore transient charging characteristics of storage devices. Experimental work in respect of laser-inducted charge-shifting, transient charging capabilities of super storage batteries or super capacitors is underway. (Author)

  14. An exploratory game-theoretic analysis of biomass electricity generation supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasiri, Fuzhan; Zaccour, Georges

    2009-01-01

    This study proposes a game-theoretic approach to model and analyze the process of utilizing biomass for power generation considering three players: distributor, facility developer, and participating farmer. We characterize the Nash equilibrium of the sequential game and discuss its features. A special attention is devoted to the analysis of the impact of incentives and initial target on the equilibrium, in which the biomass is part of electricity production.

  15. The energetics of electric organ discharge generation in gymnotiform weakly electric fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Vielka L; Krahe, Rüdiger; Lewis, John E

    2013-07-01

    Gymnotiform weakly electric fish produce an electric signal to sense their environment and communicate with conspecifics. Although the generation of such relatively large electric signals over an entire lifetime is expected to be energetically costly, supporting evidence to date is equivocal. In this article, we first provide a theoretical analysis of the energy budget underlying signal production. Our analysis suggests that wave-type and pulse-type species invest a similar fraction of metabolic resources into electric signal generation, supporting previous evidence of a trade-off between signal amplitude and frequency. We then consider a comparative and evolutionary framework in which to interpret and guide future studies. We suggest that species differences in signal generation and plasticity, when considered in an energetics context, will not only help to evaluate the role of energetic constraints in the evolution of signal diversity but also lead to important general insights into the energetics of bioelectric signal generation.

  16. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  17. Life cycle assessment of electricity generation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoyo-Castelazo, E.; Gujba, H.; Azapagic, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents for the first time a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of electricity generation in Mexico. The electricity mix in Mexico is dominated by fossil fuels, which contribute around 79% to the total primary energy; renewable energies contribute 16.5% (hydropower 13.5%, geothermal 3% and wind 0.02%) and the remaining 4.8% is from nuclear power. The LCA results show that 225 TWh of electricity generate about 129 million tonnes of CO 2 eq. per year, of which the majority (87%) is due to the combustion of fossil fuels. The renewables and nuclear contribute only 1.1% to the total CO 2 eq. Most of the other LCA impacts are also attributed to the fossil fuel options. The results have been compared with values reported for other countries with similar electricity mix, including Italy, Portugal and the UK, showing good agreement. -- Highlights: → This paper presents for the first time a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) study of electricity generation in Mexico. → 129 million tonnes of CO 2 eq. per year are emitted from 225 TWh of electricity generated per year of which 87% is due to the combustion of fossil fuels. → Coal technologies generate 1094 g CO 2 eq./kWh, heavy fuel oil 964 g CO 2 eq./kWh, and gas 468 g CO 2 eq./kWh; by contrast, nuclear and hydro emit 12 g CO 2 eq./kWh. → Heavy fuel oil contributes most to the life cycle environmental impacts (59-97%). → The results show good agreement with values reported for other countries with similar electricity mix, including Italy, Portugal and the UK.

  18. Methods for detecting and locating leaks in containment facilities using electrical potential data and electrical resistance tomographic imaging techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, William D.; Laine, Daren L.; Laine, Edwin F.

    1997-01-01

    Methods are provided for detecting and locating leaks in liners used as barriers in the construction of landfills, surface impoundments, water reservoirs, tanks, and the like. Electrodes are placed in the ground around the periphery of the facility, in the leak detection zone located between two liners if present, and/or within the containment facility. Electrical resistivity data is collected using these electrodes. This data is used to map the electrical resistivity distribution beneath the containment liner between two liners in a double-lined facility. In an alternative embodiment, an electrode placed within the lined facility is driven to an electrical potential with respect to another electrode placed at a distance from the lined facility (mise-a-la-masse). Voltage differences are then measured between various combinations of additional electrodes placed in the soil on the periphery of the facility, the leak detection zone, or within the facility. A leak of liquid though the liner material will result in an electrical potential distribution that can be measured at the electrodes. The leak position is located by determining the coordinates of an electrical current source pole that best fits the measured potentials with the constraints of the known or assumed resistivity distribution.

  19. Examination of spent fuel radiation energy conversion for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Haneol; Yim, Man-Sung, E-mail: msyim@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Utilizing conversion of radiation energy of spent fuel to electric energy. • MCNPX modeling and experiment were used to estimate energy conversion. • The converted energy may be useful for nuclear security applications. • The converted energy may be utilized for safety applications through energy storage. - Abstract: Supply of electricity inside nuclear power plant is one of the most important considerations for nuclear safety and security. In this study, generation of electric energy by converting radiation energy of spent nuclear fuel was investigated. Computational modeling work by using MCNPX 2.7.0 code along with experiment was performed to estimate the amount of electric energy generation. The calculation using the developed modeling work was validated through comparison with an integrated experiment. The amount of electric energy generation based on a conceptual design of an energy conversion module was estimated to be low. But the amount may be useful for nuclear security applications. An alternative way of utilizing the produced electric energy could be considered for nuclear safety application through energy storage. Further studies are needed to improve the efficiency of the proposed energy conversion concept and to examine the issue of radiation damage and economic feasibility.

  20. Production inefficiency of electricity markets with hydro generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philpott, Andy; Guan, Ziming; Khazaei, Javad; Zakeri, Golbon

    2010-01-01

    Electricity market designs that decentralize decision making for participants can lead to inefficiencies in the presence of nonconvexity or missing markets. This has been shown in the case of unit-commitment problems that can make a decentralized market equilibrium less efficient than a centrally planned solution. Less attention has been focused on systems with large amounts of hydro-electric generation. We describe the results of an empirical study of the New Zealand wholesale electricity market that attempts to quantify production efficiency losses by comparing market outcomes with a counterfactual central plan. (author)

  1. Thermal hydraulic studies in steam generator test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinod, V.; Suresh Kumar, V.A.; Noushad, I.B.; Ellappan, T.R.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A 500 MWe fast breeder reactor is being constructed at Kalpakkam, India. This is a sodium cooled reactor with two primary and two secondary sodium loops with total 8 steam generators. The typical advantage of fast breeder plants is the high operating temperature of steam cycles and the high plant efficiency. To produce this high pressure and high temperature steam, once through straight tube vertical sodium heated steam generators are used. The steam is generated from the heat produced in the reactor core and being transported through primary and secondary sodium circuits. The steam generator is a 25 m high middle supported steam generator with expansion bend and 23 m heat transfer length. Steam Generator Test Facility (SGTF) constructed at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam aims at performing various tests on a 5.5 MWt steam generator. This vertically simulated test article is similar in all respects to the proposed 157 MWt steam generator module for the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), with reduced number of tubes. Heat transfer performance tests are done with this 19 tube steam generator at various load conditions. Sodium circuit for the SGTF is equipped with oil fired heater as heat source and centrifugal sodium pump, to pump sodium at 105 m 3 /hr flow rate. Other typical components like sodium to air heat exchanger, sodium purification system and hydrogen leak detection system is also present in the sodium circuit. High pressure steam produced in the steam generator is dumped in a condenser and recycled. Important tests planned in SGTF are the heat transfer performance test, stability test, endurance test and performance test of steam generator under various transients. The controlled operation of steam generator will be studied with possible control schemes. A steady state simulation of the steam generator is done with a mathematical model. This paper gives the details of heat transfer

  2. Westinghouse AP1000 Electrical Generation Costs - Meeting Marketplace Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, C. Keith

    2002-01-01

    The re-emergence of nuclear power as a leading contender for new base-load electrical generation is not an occurrence of happenstance. The nuclear industry, in general, and Westinghouse, specifically, have worked diligently with the U.S. power companies and other nuclear industry participants around the world to develop future plant designs and project implementation models that address prior problem areas that led to reduced support for nuclear power. In no particular order, the issues that Westinghouse, as an engineering and equipment supply company, focused on were: safety, plant capital costs, construction schedule reductions, plant availability, and electric generation costs. An examination of the above criteria quickly led to the conclusion that as long as safety is not compromised, simplifying plant designs can lead to positive progress of the desired endpoints for the next and later generations of nuclear units. The distinction between next and later generations relates to the readiness of the plant design for construction implementation. In setting requirement priorities, one axiom is inviolate: There is no exception, nor will there be, to the Golden Rule of business. In the electric power generation industry, once safety goals are met, low generation cost is the requirement that rules, without exception. The emphasis in this paper on distinguishing between next and later generation reactors is based on the recognition that many designs have been purposed for future application, but few have been able to attain the design pedigree required to successfully meet the requirements for next generation nuclear units. One fact is evident: Another generation of noncompetitive nuclear plants will cripple the potential for nuclear to take its place as a major contributor to new electrical generation. Only two plant designs effectively meet the economic tests and demonstrate both unparalleled safety and design credibility due to extensive progress toward engineering

  3. Vibrations measurement at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomoni, R.C.; Belinco, C.G.; Pastorini, A.J.; Sacchi, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    After the modifications made at the Embalse nuclear power plant's electrical generator to reduce its vibration level produced by electromagnetic phenomena, it was necessary to perform measurements at the new levels, under different areas and power conditions. To this purpose, a work was performed jointly with the 'Vibrations Team' of the ANSALDO Company (the generator constructor) and the Hydrodynamic Assays Division under the coordination and supervision of the plant's electrical maintenance responsible. This paper includes the main results obtained and the instrumentation criteria and analysis performed. (Author)

  4. Electric power systems advanced forecasting techniques and optimal generation scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Catalão, João P S

    2012-01-01

    Overview of Electric Power Generation SystemsCláudio MonteiroUncertainty and Risk in Generation SchedulingRabih A. JabrShort-Term Load ForecastingAlexandre P. Alves da Silva and Vitor H. FerreiraShort-Term Electricity Price ForecastingNima AmjadyShort-Term Wind Power ForecastingGregor Giebel and Michael DenhardPrice-Based Scheduling for GencosGovinda B. Shrestha and Songbo QiaoOptimal Self-Schedule of a Hydro Producer under UncertaintyF. Javier Díaz and Javie

  5. Hydrolysis Batteries: Generating Electrical Energy during Hydrogen Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Rui; Chen, Jun; Fu, Kai; Zheng, Xinyao; Wang, Teng; Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo

    2018-02-19

    The hydrolysis reaction of aluminum can be decoupled into a battery by pairing an Al foil with a Pd-capped yttrium dihydride (YH 2 -Pd) electrode. This hydrolysis battery generates a voltage around 0.45 V and leads to hydrogen absorption into the YH 2 layer. This represents a new hydrogen absorption mechanism featuring electrical energy generation during hydrogen absorption. The hydrolysis battery converts 8-15 % of the thermal energy of the hydrolysis reaction into usable electrical energy, leading to much higher energy efficiency compared to that of direct hydrolysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Facility for generating crew waste water product for ECLSS testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitekant, Alan; Roberts, Barry C.

    1990-01-01

    An End-use Equipment Facility (EEF) has been constructed which is used to simulate water interfaces between the Space Station Freedom Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) and man systems. The EEF is used to generate waste water to be treated by ECLSS water recovery systems. The EEF will also be used to close the water recovery loop by allowing test subjects to use recovered hygiene and potable water during several phases of testing. This paper describes the design and basic operation of the EEF.

  7. Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France - 2007 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Under the terms of the Law of 10 February 2000, at least every two years, RTE (Reseau de Transport d'Electricite), working under the aegis of the Government, establishes a multi-annual Generation Adequacy Report on the electricity supply-demand balance in France. A new regulatory framework specifies the methods to be used by RTE for drawing up this independent technical expert report. The Generation Adequacy Report is one of the elements used by the Minister for Energy and the Government in general, to determine the Multi-annual Investment Programme (referred to by the French acronym PPI) for investing in energy generation facilities, introduced by the above-mentioned law. RTE publishes the report, which also appears on-line on the operator's web site www.rtefrance.com. This principle of transparency means that the information can be circulated to all the players involved in the power system and helps drive the energy debate. RTE published a previous report in 2005, which was partially updated in 2006. The Generation Adequacy Report is part of measures aimed at ensuring the security of the French electricity supply. It is intended to identify the risks of imbalances between electricity demand and the generation supply available to satisfy it over a period of around fifteen years. Consequently, it identifies the generation capacity required to meet peak demand. The choice of generation technologies to be developed, which is dictated by environmental and economic concerns, is not covered by the Generation Adequacy Report, but is a matter for the other players involved in the French electric system, and more generally, the orientations determined by the PPI. In order to carry out the analysis of the overall supply- demand balance in mainland France, RTE establishes domestic electricity demand forecasts, which it then compares with expected developments in the generating fleet

  8. Dispersed solar thermal generation employing parabolic dish-electric transport with field modulated generator systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakumar, R.; Bahrami, K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of field modulated generator systems (FMGS) to dispersed solar-thermal-electric generation from a parabolic dish field with electric transport. Each solar generation unit is rated at 15 kWe and the power generated by an array of such units is electrically collected for insertion into an existing utility grid. Such an approach appears to be most suitable when the heat engine rotational speeds are high (greater than 6000 r/min) and, in particular, if they are operated in the variable speed mode and if utility-grade a.c. is required for direct insertion into the grid without an intermediate electric energy storage and reconversion system. Predictions of overall efficiencies based on conservative efficiency figures for the FMGS are in the range of 25 per cent and should be encouraging to those involved in the development of cost-effective dispersed solar thermal power systems.

  9. Nigeria electricity crisis: Power generation capacity expansion and environmental ramifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Saleh, Muneer Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Access to clean and stable electricity is essential in actualizing Nigeria's quest for joining the league of twenty most industrious nations by the year 2020 (vision 20:2020). No country can develop and sustain it development without having a minimum access to electricity for it larger percentage of its population. At present, Nigeria depends petroleum reserves and its aged hydro plant instalments for electricity generation to feed the 40% of its total population that are connected to the national grid. This paper summarizes literature on the current energy issues in Nigeria and introduces the difficulty of the issues involved. The paper also analyses the current (2010) electricity generation as well as the future expansion plans of the Government in 20 years period. The plan includes the introduction of new electrify generation technologies that have not been in used in the base year (2010). The electricity generation system of (including the future expansion plan) was simulated using the LEAP System (Long-range Energy Alternative and Planning). We also investigated the potential environmental impact of siting a nuclear power plant in one of the potential sites based on the site's specific micro-meteorology (land use) and meteorology using the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) models; AERMOD 12345. - Highlights: • This paper scrutinizes literature on Nigeria's energy crisis and presents the policies of the clean technology as solutions. • Only 40% of Nigeria's population is connected to the grid; and this population faces power problems 60% of the time. • Simulation of Nigeria electricity generation system was done. • Air dispersion modellingmodelling for radiological health risk from NPP was done

  10. Subsonic Constant-Area MHD Generator Experiments with the CNEN Blow-Down Loop Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertolini, E.; Gasparotto, M.; Gay, P.; Toschi, R. [Laboratorio Conversione Diretta, CNEN, Frascati (Italy)

    1968-11-15

    The design of the facility, described at the Salzburg Symposium, was somewhat modified following the results of the commissioning tests; the changes were mainly concerned with the thermal insulation, duct materials and caesium recovery system. The facility went into full operation in March 1967 and since then two series of MHD experiments, a total of twenty-six runs, have been performed. During the MHD runs the facility has been working mostly under the following operating conditions: stagnation temperature 1500 to 1800 Degree-Sign K; stagnation pressure-1 to 3 atm. abs.; mass How 50 to 150 g/sec; seeding 2 to 5 at.%- ; magnetic field 0 to 45 k G; Mach number 0.4 to 0.8; Hall parameter up to 6. The main purpose of the experiments was to study the performance of relatively small generators (cross-section 3 x 5 cm{sup 2}, length 8-20 cm) both when the non-equilibrium ionization is expected to be negligible and when it should be, in a very idealized model, relevant. As a first step, efforts were made to ascertain whether any of the unsatisfactory results reported in Salzburg, both for equilibrium and non-equilibrium generators, stemmed not from the basic functioning principle of an MHD small-scale generator but rather from some inadequacy of the experimental apparatus. Therefore particular attention was paid to: ceasium vaporization and mixing with helium; plasma insulation from ground; electrical insulation from ground and from each other of those electrically conductive parts of the facility which may, during the functioning, come into contact with the plasma; temperature control of the duct; purity level; duct materials; measurement system and control. In the equilibrium regime the Faraday field measured is very close to the ideal value and it reaches 80 V/cm (400 volts between electrodes); the Hall field still remains below the ideal value uB{beta}L (50% at {beta} = 3). The maximum Hall field was about 35 V/cm for a corresponding voltage of 600 V. Preionization

  11. Zebra mussels mitigation at Ontario Hydro's hydroelectric generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorneanu, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    The Great Lakes and their connecting channels have recently been invaded by a tiny freshwater mollusc that has already cost Ontario Hydro millions of dollars. Dreissena polymorpha, commonly known as the zebra mussel, entered the great lakes in ballast water carried by a ship from Europe in 1985. These mussels threaten to reduce or totally block the flow of water in auxiliary systems of any generating station, water treatment plant or municipal water facility that uses raw lake water and to cause accelerated corrosion of the metallic substrate to which they attach themselves. To satisfy the immediate need for control, chlorination was identified as the most effective interim measure to prevent the biofouling of the raw water systems. Detection and monitoring of mussels and the installation, operation, environmental constraints, benefits and deficiencies of the chemical treatment system are presented. Long term objectives for control of the mussels are to develop alternatives to chlorination (ozone, hydrogen peroxide, protective coatings, thermal shock, mechanical filtration, etc.) for application at existing facilities and for incorporation into the design of new facilities and rehabilitation programs. 3 refs., 5 figs

  12. Improvements in steam cycle electric power generating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bienvenu, Claude.

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to a steam cycle electric energy generating plants of the type comprising a fossil or nuclear fuel boiler for generating steam and a turbo alternator group, the turbine of which is fed by the boiler steam. The improvement is characterized in that use is made of a second energy generating group in which a fluid (e.g. ammoniac) undergoes a condensation cycle the heat source of said cycle being obtained through a direct or indirect heat exchange with a portion of the boiler generated steam whereby it is possible without overloading the turbo-alternator group, to accomodate any increase of the boiler power resulting from the use of another fuel while maintaining a maximum energy output. This can be applied to electric power stations [fr

  13. Equivalent Electrical Circuits of Thermoelectric Generators under Different Operating Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Siouane

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy harvesting has become a promising and alternative solution to conventional energy generation patterns to overcome the problem of supplying autonomous electrical systems. More particularly, thermal energy harvesting technologies have drawn a major interest in both research and industry. Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs can be used in two different operating conditions, under constant temperature gradient or constant heat flow. The commonly used TEG electrical model, based on a voltage source in series with an electrical resistance, shows its limitations especially under constant heat flow conditions. Here, the analytical electrical modeling, taking into consideration the internal and contact thermal resistances of a TEG under constant temperature gradient and constant heat flow conditions, is first given. To give further insight into the electrical behavior of a TEG module in different operating conditions, we propose a new and original way of emulating the above analytical expressions with usual electronics components (voltage source, resistors, diode, whose values are determined with the TEG’s parameters. Note that such a TEG emulation is particularly suited when designing the electronic circuitry commonly associated to the TEG, to realize both Maximum Power Point Tracking and output voltage regulation. First, the proposed equivalent electrical circuits are validated through simulation with a SPICE environment in static operating conditions using only one value of either temperature gradient or heat flow. Then, they are also analyzed in dynamic operating conditions where both temperature gradient and heat flow are considered as time-varying functions.

  14. Electric Generator in the System for Damping Oscillations of Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Serebryakov A.; Kamolins E.; Levin N.

    2017-01-01

    The control systems for the objects of industry, power generation, transport, etc. are extremely complicated; functional efficiency of these systems determines to a great extent the safe and non-polluting operation as well as convenience of service and repair of such objects. The authors consider the possibility to improve the efficiency of systems for damping oscillations in transport using a combination of electrical (generators of rotational and linear types) and hydraulic means. Better ef...

  15. Generating electricity at a breakwater in a moderate wave climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoolderman, J.; Reedijk, B.; Vrijling, J.K.; Molenaar, W.F.; Ten Oever, E.; Zijlema, M.

    2011-01-01

    A new concept for wave energy conversion is examined as a proof of concept for generating electricity in a moderate wave climate while being integrated in a caisson breakwater. Physical model testing is performed to analyse the preliminary efficiency of the device and to identify areas of

  16. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in fuel cell by Enterobacter aerogenes ADH 43 with many kinds of carbon sources in batch stirred tank reactor. MA Rachman, LD Eniya, Y Liasari, MM Nasef, A Ahmad, H Saidi ...

  17. Centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms using hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which the electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A centralized

  18. Improvements to the IAEA's electric generation expansion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoytchev, D.; Georgiev, S.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with the implementation of the IAEA's planning approach and software in Bulgaria. The problems encountered in the process are summarized, with emphasis on two of the limitations of the electric generation expansion model (WASP). The solutions found by Bulgarian experts to overcome these problems are also described, together with some comparative results of the tests performed. (author)

  19. Utilization of hydrogen gas production for electricity generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lecturer

    2012-05-03

    % total sugar concentration of sugar ... 107 cfu/ml, pH was nearly constant at 6.0, and finally the H2 was drifted to fuel cell to generate electrical power until 4 V ..... hybrid system, reverse micelles and by metabolic engi- neering.

  20. WASP as a planning tool of electrical generation systems expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isidoro, G.

    1984-01-01

    The ''Wien Automatic System Package'' (WASP), consists of six modules or computer programmes which assist in decision taking process in expanding an electrical generation network. A general description of this model is made and some conclusions are drawn from the data processed to this date

  1. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, H.P.; Shariat Torbaghan, S.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This

  2. Non-burn electric generation: How today's options stack up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The technical preparedness to generate electricity without burning fuel is dealt with. Nuclear, hydroelectric, solar and wind energy are recommended as the clean options. The aims of energy policy, views upon regulation, technical maturity and commercial preparedness of such variants are discussed. (Z.S.). 4 figs

  3. Improvements to the IAEA`s electric generation expansion model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoytchev, D; Georgiev, S [Committee of Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1997-09-01

    This paper deals with the implementation of the IAEA`s planning approach and software in Bulgaria. The problems encountered in the process are summarized, with emphasis on two of the limitations of the electric generation expansion model (WASP). The solutions found by Bulgarian experts to overcome these problems are also described, together with some comparative results of the tests performed. (author).

  4. Student generated assignments about electrical circuits in a computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the design of assignments by students as a knowledge-generating activity. Students were required to design assignments for 'other students' in a computer simulation environment about electrical circuits. Assignments consisted of a question, alternatives, and feedback on

  5. Nuclear Power as an Option in Electrical Generation Planning for Small Economy and Electricity Grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsic, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Implementing a NPP in countries with relatively small total GDP (small economy) and usually with small electricity grid face two major problems and constrains: the ability to obtain the considerable financial resources required on reasonable terms and to connect large NPP to small electricity grid. Nuclear generation financing in developing countries involves complex issues that need to be fully understood and dealt with by all the parties involved. The main topics covered by paper will be the: special circumstances related to the financing of NPP, costs and economic feasibility of NPP, conventional approaches for financing power generation projects in developing countries, alternative approaches for mobilizing financial resources. The safe and economic operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) requires the plant to be connected to an electrical grid system that has adequate capacity for exporting the power from the NPP, and for providing a reliable electrical supply to the NPP for safe start-up, operation and normal or emergency shut-down of the plant. Connection of any large new power plant to the electrical grid system in a country may require significant modification and strengthening of the grid system, but for NPPs there may be added requirements to the structure of the grid system and the way it is controlled and maintained to ensure adequate reliability. Paper shows the comparative assesment of differrent base load technologies as an option in electrical generation planning for small economy and electricity grid.(author).

  6. Meeting residential space heating demand with wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many electricity suppliers are faced with the challenge of trying to integrate intermittent renewables, notably wind, into their energy mix to meet the needs of those services that require a continuous supply of electricity. Solutions to intermittency include the use of rapid-response backup generation and chemical or mechanical storage of electricity. Meanwhile, in many jurisdictions with lengthy heating seasons, finding secure and preferably environmentally benign supplies of energy for space heating is also becoming a significant challenge because of volatile energy markets. Most, if not all, electricity suppliers treat these twin challenges as separate issues: supply (integrating intermittent renewables) and demand (electric space heating). However, if space heating demand can be met from an intermittent supply of electricity, then both of these issues can be addressed simultaneously. One such approach is to use off-the-shelf electric thermal storage systems. This paper examines the potential of this approach by applying the output from a 5.15 MW wind farm to the residential heating demands of detached households in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island. The paper shows that for the heating season considered, up to 500 households could have over 95 percent of their space heating demand met from the wind farm in question. The benefits as well as the limitations of the approach are discussed in detail. (author)

  7. Assessing the environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaete-Morales, Carlos; Gallego-Schmid, Alejandro; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-09-15

    Around 40% of electricity in Chile is supplied by renewables and the rest by fossil fuels. Despite the growing electricity demand in the country, its environmental impacts are as yet unknown. To address this gap, the current study presents the first comprehensive assessment of the life cycle environmental sustainability of electricity generation in Chile. Both the individual sources and the electricity mix over the past 10 years are considered. The following sources present in the electricity mix are evaluated: coal, oil, natural gas, biogas, biomass, wind, solar photovoltaics (PV) and hydropower. In total, 10 electricity technologies and 174 power plants installed across the country have been considered. Eleven environmental impacts have been estimated, including global warming, human toxicity, ecotoxicities, as well as resource and ozone layer depletion. The results reveal that hydropower is environmentally the most sustainable option across the impacts, followed by onshore wind and biogas. Electricity from natural gas has 10%-84% lower impacts than biomass for seven categories. It is also 13%-98% better than solar PV for six impacts and 17%-66% than wind for four categories. Solar PV has the highest abiotic depletion potential due to the use of scarce elements in the manufacture of panels. While electricity generation has grown by 44% in the past 10 years, all the impacts except ozone layer depletion have increased by 1.6-2.7 times. In the short term, environmental regulations should be tightened to improve the emissions control from coal and biomass plants. In the medium term, the contribution of renewables should be ramped up, primarily increasing the hydro, wind and biogas capacity. Coal and oil should be phased out, using natural gas as a transitional fuel to help the stability of the grid with the increasing contribution of intermittent renewables. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electricity Generation Through the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station of Eskom in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dladla, G.; Joubert, J.

    2015-01-01

    The poster provides information on the process of nuclear energy generation in a nuclear power plant in order to produce electricity. Nuclear energy currently provides approximately 11% of the world’s electricity needs, with Koeberg Nuclear Power Station situated in the Western Cape providing 4.4% of South Africa’s electricity needs. As Africa’s first nuclear power station, Koeberg has an installed capacity of 1910 MW of power. Koeberg’ s total net output is 1860 MW. While there are significant differences, there are many similarities between nuclear power plants and other electrical generating facilities. Uranium is used for fuel in nuclear power plants to make electricity. With the exception of solar, wind, and hydroelectric plants, all others including nuclear plants convert water to steam that spins the propeller-like blades of a turbine that spins the shaft of a generator. Inside the generator coils of wire and magnetic fields interact to create electricity. The energy needed to boil water into steam is produced in one of two ways: by burning coal, oil, or gas (fossil fuels) in a furnace or by splitting certain atoms of uranium in a nuclear energy plant. The uranium fuel generates heat through a controlled fission process fission, which is described in this poster presentation. The Koeberg Nuclear Power Station is a Pressurised water reactor (PWR). The operating method and the components of the Koeberg Power Station are also described. The nuclear waste generated at a nuclear power station is described under three headings— low-level waste, intermediate-level waste and used or spent fuel, which can be solid, liquid or gaseous. (author)

  9. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2: Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, C.; Bain, R.; Chapman, J.; Denholm, P.; Drury, E.; Hall, D.G.; Lantz, E.; Margolis, R.; Thresher, R.; Sandor, D.; Bishop, N.A.; Brown, S.R.; Cada, G.F.; Felker, F.

    2012-06-01

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%-90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT).

  10. Renewable Electricity Futures Study. Volume 2. Renewable Electricity Generation and Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustine, Chad [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bain, Richard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chapman, Jamie [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Drury, Easan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hall, Douglas G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lantz, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thresher, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bishop, Norman A. [Knight Piesold, Denver, CO (United States); Brown, Stephen R. [HDR/DTA, Portland, ME (Untied States); Cada, Glenn F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Felker, Fort [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fernandez, Steven J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Goodrich, Alan C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hagerman, George [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Neil, Sean [Ocean Renewable Energy Coalition, Portland, OR (United States); Paquette, Joshua [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tegen, Suzanne [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2012-06-15

    The Renewable Electricity Futures (RE Futures) Study investigated the challenges and impacts of achieving very high renewable electricity generation levels in the contiguous United States by 2050. The analysis focused on the sufficiency of the geographically diverse U.S. renewable resources to meet electricity demand over future decades, the hourly operational characteristics of the U.S. grid with high levels of variable wind and solar generation, and the potential implications of deploying high levels of renewables in the future. RE Futures focused on technical aspects of high penetration of renewable electricity; it did not focus on how to achieve such a future through policy or other measures. Given the inherent uncertainties involved with analyzing alternative long-term energy futures as well as the multiple pathways that might be taken to achieve higher levels of renewable electricity supply, RE Futures explored a range of scenarios to investigate and compare the impacts of renewable electricity penetration levels (30%–90%), future technology performance improvements, potential constraints to renewable electricity development, and future electricity demand growth assumptions. RE Futures was led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Learn more at the RE Futures website. http://www.nrel.gov/analysis/re_futures/

  11. Future development of the electricity systems with distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayod-Rujula, Angel A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Centro Politecnico Superior, University of Zaragoza, C/Maria de Luna, 3, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Electrical power systems have been traditionally designed taking energy from high-voltage levels, and distributing it to lower voltage level networks. There are large generation units connected to transmission networks. But in the future there will be a large number of small generators connected to the distribution networks. Efficient integration of this distributed generation requires network innovations. A development of active distribution network management, from centralised to more distributed system management, is needed. Information, communication, and control infrastructures will be needed with increasing complexity of system management. Some innovative concepts such as microgrids and virtual utilities will be presented. (author)

  12. Steam generator replacement at Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, S.; Dodo, Takashi; Negishi, Kazuo

    1995-01-01

    Eleven nuclear units are in operation at the Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc.. In seven of them, Mihama-1·2·3, Takahama-1·2, and Ohi-1·2, comparatively long duration for tube inspection and repair have been required during late annual outages. KEPCO decided to replace all steam generators in these 7 units with the latest model which was improved upon the past degradation experiences, as a result of comprehensive considerations including public confidence in nuclear power generation, maintenability, and economic efficiency. This report presents the design improvements in new steam generators, replacement techniques, and so on. (author)

  13. Regional projections of nuclear and fossil electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Delene, J.G.; Fuller, L.C.; Bowers, H.I.

    1983-12-01

    The total busbar electric generating costs were estimated for locations in ten regions of the United States for base load nuclear and coal-fired power plants with a startup date of January 1995. A complete data set is supplied which specifies each parameter used to obtain the comparative results. When the comparison is based on reference cost parameters, nuclear- and coal-fired generation costs are found to be very close in most regions of the country. Nuclear power is favored in the South Atlantic region where coal must be transported over long distances, while coal-fired generation is favored in the Central and North Central regions where large reserves of cheaply mineable coal exist. The reference data set reflects recent electric utility construction experience. Significantly lower nuclear capital investment costs would result if regulatory reform and improved construction practices were instituted. The electric power generation costs for base load oil- and natural gas-fired plants were also estimated. These plants were found to be noncompetitive in all regions for those scenarios most likely to develop. Generation cost sensitivity to changes in various parameters was examined at a reference location. The sensitivity parameters included capital investment costs, lead times, capacity factors, costs of money, and coal and uranium prices. In addition to the levelized lifetime costs, year-by-year cash flows and revenue requirements are presented. The report concludes with an analysis of the economic merits of recycling spent fuel in light-water reactors

  14. Impacts of intermittent renewable generation on electricity system costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batalla-Bejerano, Joan; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    A successful deployment of power generation coming from variable renewable sources, such as wind and solar photovoltaic, strongly depends on the economic cost of system integration. This paper, in seeking to look beyond the impact of renewable generation on the evolution of the total economic costs associated with the operation of the electricity system, aims to estimate the sensitivity of balancing market requirements and costs to the variable and non-fully predictable nature of intermittent renewable generation. The estimations reported in this paper for the Spanish electricity system stress the importance of both attributes as well as power system flexibility when accounting for the cost of balancing services. - Highlights: •A successful deployment of VRES-E strongly depends on the economic cost of its integration. •We estimate the sensitivity of balancing market requirements and costs to VRES-E. •Integration costs depend on variability, predictability and system flexibility.

  15. Generation and management of waste electric vehicle batteries in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, ChengJian; Zhang, Wenxuan; He, Wenzhi; Li, Guangming; Huang, Juwen; Zhu, Haochen

    2017-09-01

    With the increasing adoption of EVs (electric vehicles), a large number of waste EV LIBs (electric vehicle lithium-ion batteries) were generated in China. Statistics showed generation of waste EV LIBs in 2016 reached approximately 10,000 tons, and the amount of them would be growing rapidly in the future. In view of the deleterious effects of waste EV LIBs on the environment and the valuable energy storage capacity or materials that can be reused in them, China has started emphasizing the management, reuse, and recycling of them. This paper presented the generation trend of waste EV LIBs and focused on interrelated management development and experience in China. Based on the situation of waste EV LIBs management in China, existing problems were analyzed and summarized. Some recommendations were made for decision-making organs to use as valuable references to improve the management of waste EV LIBs and promote the sustainable development of EVs.

  16. Electricity generation projections of the world and Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Marcio Soares

    2002-01-01

    The world use of electricity is projected to increase by 9,570 billions kWh over a span of 20 years. Natural gas is expected to account for the largest increment in electricity generation. As a result of high oil and natural gas consumption fuel prices are projected to rise in nominal dollars over the forecast horizon. Higher capacity utilisation and fewer expected retirements of running nuclear plants have resulted in a revision of EIA's projected consumption of electricity from nuclear power. Projection of 3.6%/year in the electricity consumption in Brazil is lower than the historical correlation given by the GDP (5%) growth rate plus 1.2 to 1.7%. GDP and energy consumption growth rates for Brazil are projected to be higher than the world value, but are lower than the projected values for countries like Mexico and China. Trends in primary fuel prices and external dependence on fuel supply are important factors for the Brazilian investments on electricity generation due their impact on costs and standard of living. (author)

  17. Arrangement for matching a wind rotor to an electrical generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beusse, H

    1978-04-06

    The invention concerns an arrangement for matching a wind power machine to an electrical generator, which feeds a consumer network. According to the invention first generator using the shaft horsepower of the wind power machine feeds an electric water, which is coupled to a second generator, whose power is taken to the consumer network. The output signal of a computer which has the annemometer feeding into it controls the excitation of the motor at sufficient wind speed, so that the speed of rotation of the second generator is practically constant, and a spted regulator takes excess energy via a controlled rectifier (thyristor) to a shunt circuit of the motor, if the wind power exceeds the load taken from the output of the second generator. As an extension of the arrangement according to the invention it is proposed to arrange a Diesel engine in the shaft of the second generator, which can be controlled at constant speed by the control device, so that it takes over the missing output if the wind power is less than the load at the generator output. Apart from this, it is proposed that the loading of the wind rotor should be controlled by the control device so that it only comes in if the wind rotor has reached a stable working point after accelerating on no load.

  18. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Electric energy has an important function in the modem world; it is fundamental for progress and development. The electricity discovery allowed improvements in several areas: health, water and food supply, quality of life and sanitary conditions, and contributed also to the establishment of the capitalist and consumption society. The use of oil as an energy generation source was the impulse for the industrial revolution and machines, motors and generators were developed contributing to the progress This also brought the pollutant gases emission (CO 2 , CO, SO x and NO x ) and other substances that had contributed to the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole and the acid rain, modifying the balance of the planet. The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. The discovery and the development of nuclear energy in Brazil and in the world as well as the functioning of a nuclear power plant, the impacts generated by its operation and decommissioning are presented. The history, functioning and development of hydroelectric energy generation in Brazil, characterized by the great plants, are related to environmental aspects The environmental

  19. Nuclear reactor capable of electric power generation during in-service inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Shinsuke; Nogami, Hitoshi.

    1992-01-01

    The nuclear power plant according to the present invention can generate electric power even in a period when one of a pair of reactors is put to in-service inspection. That is, the nuclear power plant of the present invention comprises a system constitution of two nuclear reactors each of 50% thermal power and one turbine power generator of 100% electric power. Further, facilities of various systems relevant to the two reactors each of 50% thermal power, as a pair, are used in common as much as possible in order to reduce the cost for construction and maintenance/ inspection. Further, a reactor building and a turbine building disposed in adjacent with each for paired two reactors each of 50% thermal power are arranged vertically. This arrangement can facilitate the common use of the facilities for various systems and equipments to attain branching and joining of fluids in reactor feed water systems and main steam system pipelines easily with low pressure loss and low impact shocks. The facility utilization factor of such reactors is remarkably improved by doubling the period of continuous power generation. As a result, economic property is remarkably improved. (I.S.)

  20. Electricity generation in Ghana : the role of the chemist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amuasi, J.H.; Ephraim, J.H.; Glover, E.T.; Fletcher, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current electricity crisis in Ghana has mandated a holistic approach towards meeting the energy demand of the country. In this paper, a brief review of the various technologies for electricity generation is presented and the role of the chemist in each technology is identified. An emphasis is placed on the nuclear option as a plausible component of a comprehensive energy portfolio and the role of the chemist in each step of the nuclear fuel cycle is outlined. The challenges facing the chemists in the country are enumerated and recommendations for ensuring the incorporation of the nuclear option into the total energy mix of the country are presented. (author)

  1. Conceptual design of a demonstration reactor for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asaoka, Y.; Hiwatari, R.; Okano, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ise, H.; Nomoto, Y.; Kuroda, T.; Mori, S.; Shinya, K.

    2005-01-01

    Conceptual study on a demonstration plant for electric power generation, named Demo-CREST, was conducted based on the consideration that a demo-plant should have capacities both (1) to demonstrate electric power generation in a plant scale with moderate plasma performance, which will be achieved in the early stage of the ITER operation, and foreseeable technologies and materials and (2) to have a possibility to show an economical competitiveness with advanced plasma performance and high performance blanket systems. The plasma core was optimized to be a minimum size for both net electric power generation with the ITER basic plasma parameters and commercial-scale generation with advance plasma parameters, which would be attained by the end of ITER operation. The engineering concept, especially the breeding blanket structure and its maintenance scheme, is also optimized to demonstrate the tritium self-sustainability and maintainability of in-vessel components. Within the plasma performance as planned in the present ITER program, the net electric power from 0 MW to 500 MW is possible with the basic blanket system under the engineering conditions of maximum magnetic field 16 T, NBI system efficiency 50%, and NBI current drive power restricted to 200 MW. Capacities of stabilization of reversed shear plasma and the high thermal efficiency are additional factors for optimization of the advanced blanket. By replacing the blanket system with the advanced one of higher thermal efficiency, the net electric power of about 1000 MW is also possible so that the economic performance toward the commercial plant can be also examined with Demo-CREST. (author)

  2. Methodology for comparing the health effects of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhyne, W.R.; El-Bassioni, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    A methodology was developed for comparing the health risks of electricity generation from uranium and coal fuels. The health effects attributable to the construction, operation, and decommissioning of each facility in the two fuel cycle were considered. The methodology is based on defining (1) requirement variables for the materials, energy, etc., (2) effluent variables associated with the requirement variables as well as with the fuel cycle facility operation, and (3) health impact variables for effluents and accidents. The materials, energy, etc., required for construction, operation, and decommissioning of each fuel cycle facility are defined as primary variables. The materials, energy, etc., needed to produce the primary variable are defined as secondary requirement variables. Each requirement variable (primary, secondary, etc.) has associated effluent variables and health impact variables. A diverging chain or tree is formed for each primary variable. Fortunately, most elements reoccur frequently to reduce the level of analysis complexity. 6 references, 11 figures, 6 tables

  3. Differential infrared thermography applied to power generation facilities -- A case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, H.; Zayicek, P.

    1995-01-01

    The controlled and systematic application of differential thermal imaging (DIT) can be a highly promising tool for condition monitoring and predictive maintenance of electronic, electrical and mechanical elements and can dramatically improve the reliability, maintainability and operational life of certain types of elements in the power generation and distribution community. The expanded applicability of this technique has been brought about by improvements in commercial IR thermal imaging equipment and advances in the related data and image processing capacities. This paper summarizes the advantages and limitations of DIT and describes several variations of the technique. It goes on to provide an update of progress on a program initiated by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Center to apply DIT to operating elements within a power generating station environment (Wolf Creek Nuclear Facility). It traces the selection of candidate elements at some of EPRI's member facilities, the implementation of exploratory measurements on selected candidates using available on-site infrared imaging equipment and the analysis of significant findings on one specific critical element. Finally, a projection for the potential future applicability of the DIT technique is provided

  4. Nuclear Power as a Basis for Future Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pioro, Igor; Buruchenko, Sergey

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that electrical-power generation is the key factor for advances in industry, agriculture, technology and the level of living. Also, strong power industry with diverse energy sources is very important for country independence. In general, electrical energy can be generated from: 1) burning mined and refined energy sources such as coal, natural gas, oil, and nuclear; and 2) harnessing energy sources such as hydro, biomass, wind, geothermal, solar, and wave power. Today, the main sources for electrical-energy generation are: 1) thermal power - primarily using coal and secondarily - natural gas; 2) “large” hydro power from dams and rivers and 3) nuclear power from various reactor designs. The balance of the energy sources is from using oil, biomass, wind, geothermal and solar, and have visible impact just in some countries. In spite of significant emphasis in the world on using renewables sources of energy, in particular, wind and solar, they have quite significant disadvantages compared to “traditional” sources for electricity generation such as thermal, hydro, and nuclear. These disadvantages include low density of energy, which requires large areas to be covered with wind turbines or photovoltaic panels or heliostats, and dependence of these sources on Mother Nature, i.e., to be unreliable ones and to have low (20 - 40%) or very low (5 - 15%) capacity factors. Fossil-fueled power plants represent concentrated and reliable source of energy. Also, they operate usually as “fast-response” plants to follow rapidly changing electrical-energy consumption during a day. However, due to combustion process they emit a lot of carbon dioxide, which contribute to the climate change in the world. Moreover, coal-fired power plants, as the most popular ones, create huge amount of slag and ash, and, eventually, emit other dangerous and harmful gases. Therefore, Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), which are also concentrated and reliable source of energy

  5. Managing risks during the construction of a power generation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loulakis, M.C.

    1992-01-01

    The construction of a power generation facility is a substantial undertaking that involves considerable risks to all parties involved. While contractors are accustomed to dealing with risks, construction owners are typically more naive about not only the risks they are assuming in the construction of a project, but also about the role they play on the project itself. Owners and developers of power facilities must understand at the outset that their role during the construction of a project is as integral to the success of the project as that of the designer and contractor. In addition, owners should also understand that there are virtually no risks on a construction project that cannot be shifted among the contracting parties as part of the business deal. Consequently, an owner may contractually be assuming the risks of (1) unusually severe weather, (2) unexpected subsurface conditions, (3) strikes at the turbine supplier's plant or (4) changes in law - as well as the increases in price and delays to project completion associated with such risks. In light of this, a prudent owner will evaluate more than just whether there is sufficient financing to complete the construction of a contemplated project. Prudent owners will conduct a risk management review of the project structure and the contracting terms, with the primary focus being (1) the identification and analysis of the most significant risks faced, (2) a determination of how such risks can be either mitigated or eliminated, and (3) the assessment of the financial exposure to the owner should the potential risk become a reality. This paper will present the framework that owners and developers of power generation projects can use in undertaking such a risk management review

  6. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Torbaghan, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel business model for the BRPs is analyzed. • Imbalance cost of wind generation is considered in the UC-ED model. • Smart charging of EVs is included into the UC-ED problem to mitigate the imbalance cost. • Effects of smart charging on generation cost, CO 2 emissions and total network load are assessed. - Abstract: In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This paper presents an advanced UC-ED model to incorporate wind generators as RES-based units alongside conventional centralized generators. In the proposed UC-ED model, an imbalance cost is introduced reflecting the wind generation uncertainty along with the marginal generation cost. The proposed UC-ED model aims to utilize the flexibility of fleets of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to optimally compensate for the wind generation uncertainty. A case study with 15 conventional units and 3 wind farms along with a fixed-sized PEV fleet demonstrates that shifting of PEV fleets charging at times of high wind availability realizes generation cost savings. Nevertheless, the operational cost saving incurred by controlled charging appears to diminish when dispatched wind energy becomes considerably larger than the charging energy of PEV fleets. Further analysis of the results reveals that the effectiveness of PEV control strategy in terms of CO 2 emission reduction is strongly coupled with generation mix and the proposed control strategy is favored in cases where less pollutant-based plants like nuclear and hydro power are profoundly dominant.

  7. Managing congestion and intermittent renewable generation in liberalized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Friedrich

    2013-02-27

    This dissertation focuses on selected aspects of network congestion arising in liberalized electricity markets and their management methods with a special weight placed on the integration of increased renewable generation in Europe and Germany. In a first step, the theoretical concepts of congestion management are introduced complemented by a review of current management regimes in selected countries. In the second step, the European approach of managing congestion on international as well as national transmission links is analyzed and the benefits of an integrated congestion management regime are quantified. It is concluded that benefits can be achieved by a closer cooperation of national transmission system operators (TSOs). Thirdly, the German congestion management regime is investigated and the impact of higher renewable generation up to 2020 on congestion management cost is determined. It is shown that a homogeneous and jointly development of generation and transmission infrastructure is a prerequisite for the application of congestion alleviation methods and once they diverge congestion management cost tend to increase substantially. Lastly, the impact of intermittent and uncertain wind generation on electricity markets is analyzed. A stochastic electricity market model is described, which replicates the daily subsequent clearing of reserve, day ahead, and intraday market typical for European countries, and numerical results are presented.

  8. The Contribution of Electricity Generation to Greenhouse Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, Erwansyah

    2008-01-01

    The development activities has successfully increasing the human kind, but also has increasing trend the planet changes radically, because of the greenhouse effect (GHE), decreasing ozone layer and acid rain, that all could treat the living of the species-species and including man inside. The electricity generation and transportation are the main contribution of greenhouse gas (GHG), reaching 1/3 of global emission. Base on the Kyoto protocol in 1997, that all countries, alone or together agree to reduce the emission of GG of 5.2 % under the emission of the 1990. The decreasing of GHG could be reached by implementing the technology generation that contain low carbon, such a natural gas, hydro power, wind, solar and nuclear power. Diversification of electricity generation has to take into a count of environmental capacity, so the supply stability and sustainable development could be reached. The IAEA results studies indicated that the emission factor of fossil fuel 2 times greater compare to the natural gas. The emission factor of wind and biomass lie between solar and nuclear power. In the electricity generation chain, nuclear power emit the 25 g of CO 2 /kWh compare to fossil fuel emit 250 - 1250 g CO 2 /kWh. (author)

  9. Reliability payments to generation capacity in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Pringles, Rolando; Larisson, Carlos; Garcés, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Electric power is a critical input to modern economies. Generation adequacy and security of supply in power systems running under competition are currently topics of high concern for consumers, regulators and governments. In a market setting, generation investments and adequacy can only be achieved by an appropriate regulatory framework that sets efficient remuneration to power capacity. Theoretically, energy-only electricity markets are efficient and no additional mechanism is needed. Nonetheless, the energy-only market design suffers from serious drawbacks. Therefore, jointly with the evolution of electricity markets, many remunerating mechanisms for generation capacity have been proposed. Explicit capacity payment was the first remunerating approach implemented and perhaps still the most applied. However, this price-based regulation has been applied no without severe difficulties and criticism. In this paper, a new reliability payment mechanism is envisioned. Capacity of each generating unit is paid according to its effective contribution to overall system reliability. The proposed scheme has many attractive features and preserves the theoretical efficiency properties of energy-only markets. Fairness, incentive compatibility, market power mitigation and settlement rules are investigated in this work. The article also examines the requirements for system data and models in order to implement the proposed capacity mechanism. A numerical example on a real hydrothermal system serves for illustrating the practicability of the proposed approach and the resulting reliability payments to the generation units. - Highlights: • A new approach for remunerating supply reliability provided by generation units is proposed. • The contribution of each generating unit to lessen power shortfalls is determined by simulations. • Efficiency, fairness and incentive compatibility of the proposed reliability payment are assessed

  10. Switchgrass as a fuel stock for electric power generation in Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, W.J.; English, B.C.; Daly, M.; Graham, R.

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the economic feasibility of switchgrass production and utilization for electric power production in Tennessee. Economic feasibility of switchgrass utilization as a feedstock for electric power generation is related to location of production area, electric facility location, production and transport costs, and harvesting method. Analysis of the feasibility of biomass includes the internalizing of environmental costs of SO 2 and CO 2 into the coal price. A final comparison of the costs of using biomass plus a 12.5 cent/kilowatt hour subsidy is also examined. Finally, the cost savings of a reorganization of harvesting methods is evaluated and the impacts this reorganization might have on the breakeven cost of biomass is compared to the current harvesting methods. (author)

  11. Small-scale electric generators for arctic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamp, T.R.

    1995-01-01

    Forest fires that have endangered remote US Air Force sites equipped with radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) has prompted the assessment of power generating systems as substitutes for RTGs in small scale (10--120 watt) applications. A team of scientists and engineers of the US Air Forces' Wright Laboratory conductd an assessment of electrical power technologies for use by the Air Force in remote, harsh environments. The surprisingly high logistics costs of operating fossil fuel generators resulted in the extension of the assessment to non-RTG sites. The candidate power sources must operate unattended for long periods at a high level of operational reliability. Selection of the optimum power generation technology is complicated and heavily driven by the severe operating environment and compounded by the remoteness of the location. It is these site-related characteristics, more than any other, that drive the selection of a safe and economical power source for Arctic applications. A number of proven power generation technologies were evaluated. The assessment concluded that RGTs are clearly the safest, most reliable, and most economical approach to supplying electrical power for remote, difficult to assess locations. The assessment also indicated that the logistics costs associated with combustion driven generator systems could be substantially reduced through the use of conversion technologies which have been previously developed for space power applications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  12. Electrical Power Conversion of River and Tidal Power Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Gevorgian, Vahan; Wright, Alan; Donegan, James; Marnagh, Cian; McEntee, Jarlath

    2016-11-21

    As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded to include new types with promising future applications, such as river and tidal generation. Although the utilization of power electronics and electric machines in industry is phenomenal, the emphasis on system design is different for various sectors of industry. In precision control, robotics, and weaponry, the design emphasis is on accuracy and reliability with less concern for the cost of the final product. In energy generation, the cost of energy is the prime concern; thus, capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operations and maintenance expenditures (OPEX) are the major design objectives. This paper describes the electrical power conversion aspects of river and tidal generation. Although modern power converter control is available to control the generation side, the design was chosen on the bases of minimizing the CAPEX and OPEX; thus, the architecture is simple and modular for ease of replacement and maintenance. The power conversion is simplified by considering a simple diode bridge and a DC-DC power converter to take advantage of abundant and low-cost photovoltaic inverters that have well-proven grid integration characteristics (i.e., the capability to produce energy with good power quality and control real power and voltage on the grid side).

  13. Mattagami River Lake sturgeon entrainment : Little Long generating station facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyler, J.; Evers, J.; McKinley, S.; Evans, R.R.; Prevost, G.; Carson, R.; Phoenix, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project and publication is the result of a collaborative effort by other Large River Ecosystem Unit of Northeast Science (NEST), Ontario Hydro in Kapuskasing, and the New Post First Nation in Cochrane, Ontario, designed to investigate potential solutions to minimize or eliminate the problem of trapped lake sturgeon in the Adam Creek Diversion. The Adam Creek Dam is used to divert excess water from the Mattagami River hydroelectric complex which consists of the Little Long, Smoky Falls, Harmon and Kipling generating stations. The lake sturgeon entrainment problem in the area was discovered in 1990. Potential solutions to the problem include the redirection of flows to mainstream, the placement of a rope barrier, electrical deterrents, physical/electrical guidance systems, sound deterrents, gate modifications, and the continued relocation of fish. The advantages and disadvantages of each of these potential solutions are discussed. Results of the analysis indicated that perceptual and physical barriers have the greatest potential to minimize lake sturgeon entrainment in Adam Creek. 25 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs., 6 appendices

  14. Evaluation and Ranking of Geothermal Resources for Electrical Generation or Electrical Offset in Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington. Volume II.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1985-06-01

    This volume contains appendices on: (1) resource assessment - electrical generation computer results; (2) resource assessment summary - direct use computer results; (3) electrical generation (high temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (4) direct utilization (low temperature) resource assessment computer program listing; (5) electrical generation computer program CENTPLANT and related documentation; (6) electrical generation computer program WELLHEAD and related documentation; (7) direct utilization computer program HEATPLAN and related documentation; (8) electrical generation ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; (9) direct utilization ranking computer program GEORANK and related documentation; and (10) life cycle cost analysis computer program and related documentation. (ACR)

  15. Environmental degradation costs in electricity generation: The case of the Brazilian electrical matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Laura Araujo; Uturbey, Wadaed

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of including environmental degradation costs in the long-term planning of the Brazilian electricity sector. To this aim, environmental external costs associated to both hydro-power and thermal-power electricity generation are investigated. Monetary valuation methodologies are applied and environmental degradation costs, expressed in per kWh of generated energy, are obtained for the main types of generation sources of the Brazilian electricity matrix. Both local pollution due to particulate matter emissions and global warming effects are assessed. A classification of the sources from the point of view of their impact on the environment is given. Degradation costs associated to the installed capacity expansion in the Brazilian electricity sector during the time horizon 2007-2016 are estimated. These resulting costs represent lower boundary damage estimates associated only with the energy to be generated during the period. Results indicate that local pollution caused by a small number of plants could be even more costly to society than global warming and, also, show the importance of considering not only unitary damage costs but the participation of each source on the generated energy during the time horizon, as a guide to planning and policy making.

  16. Magnox Electric Littlebrook reactor inspection and repair rehearsal facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.A.; Clayton, R.; Gaydon, B.G.; Ramsey, B.H.

    1996-01-01

    Magnox reactors, although designed to be maintenance free during their operational life, have nevertheless highlighted the need for test rig facilities to train operators in the methods and techniques of reactor inspection and repair. The history of the facility for reactor engineering development (FRED) is described and its present role as a repair rehearsal facility noted. Advances in computer graphics may, in future, mean that such operator training will be virtual reality rather than analog reality based; however the need for such rigs to commission techniques and equipment and to establish performance and reliability is likely to continue. (UK)

  17. Electricity generation and environmental externalities: Case studies, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-09-28

    Electricity constitutes a critical input in sustaining the Nation`s economic growth and development and the well-being of its inhabitants. However, there are byproducts of electricity production that have an undesirable effect on the environment. Most of these are emissions introduced by the combustion of fossil fuels, which accounts for nearly 70 percent of the total electricity generated in the United States. The environmental impacts (or damages) caused by these emissions are labeled environmental ``externalities.`` Included in the generic term ``externality`` are benefits or costs resulting as an unintended byproduct of an economic activity that accrue to someone other than the parties involved in the activity. This report provides an overview of the economic foundation of externalities, the Federal and State regulatory approaches, and case studies of the impacts of the externality policies adopted by three States.

  18. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options using DECADES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez Martin, D.; Lopez Lopez, I.; Turtos Carbonell, L.

    1999-01-01

    Cuba is poor in primary energy resources. In 1998, 99.4% of electricity generated by the National Electric System came from fossil fuel with the environment implications that this Situation causes. Cuba joint DECADES project (Databases and methodologies for Comparative Assessment of Different Energy Sources) to support planning and decision making process with Appropriated tools. The paper presents the main work carried out with DECADES. An important Effort was devoted to implement the Country Specific Database, to assess power plants and Chains, to select and evaluate different expansion scenarios taking into consideration its Environment implications. At the same time an effort was dedicated to correct, test and Implement DECADES capabilities. The potential role of nuclear power in the expansion policy of Cuban electric system, the Influence of an Oil Steam Boiler project and control technology installation, were performed. Conclusions of the main task done with DECADES are presented

  19. Environmental codes of practice for steam electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-03-01

    The Design Phase Code is one of a series of documents being developed for the steam electric power generation industry. This industry includes fossil-fuelled stations (gas, oil and coal-fired boilers), and nuclear-powered stations (CANDU heavy water reactors). In this document, environmental concerns associated with water-related and solid waste activities of steam electric plants are discussed. Design recommendations are presented that will minimize the detrimental environmental effects of once-through cooling water systems, of wastewaters discharged to surface waters and groundwaters, and of solid waste disposal sites. Recommendations are also presented for the design of water-related monitoring systems and programs. Cost estimates associated with the implementation of these recommendations are included. These technical guides for new or modified steam electric stations are the result to consultation with a federal-provincial-industry task force

  20. The development of the 3. generation electric scooter in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, J.P.H.; Wu, C.T.; Hsu, C.T.; Wu, C.T.; Lo, S.-M.; Hsiau, C.

    2000-01-01

    At the present time, there are approximately 25,000 electric scooters in operation in Taiwan. Most of the customers so far have complained about the cruising range, vehicle weight, charging time, and vehicle cost. Two generations of electric scooters have already been developed by the Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI), the first generation used valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries, while the second generation used nickel-metal hydride (Ni-MH) batteries. Production of the first generation of electric scooters began in September, 1999 while the second generation is still in the cost-down engineering phase. The Government had established mandatory sales regulations, and in order to support this program and improve the overall vehicle performance, ITRI is now developing the third generation, utilizing a lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery, in addition to higher power-electronic efficiency systems. The stated objectives of the development program for the third generation are performance improvements of 25 per cent for weight, 50 per cent for the cruising range, 20 per cent for total energy efficiency, 300 per cent longer battery life at no cost increase after the government subsidy. If the goals are met, the third generation electric scooter could replace most of the 50 cc gasoline scooters in operation in Asia. Included in the presentation are the major technical facets of development for the third generation. Aluminum-casting frame is scheduled to replace the steel-welding frame. Lithium-ion battery is equipped with a battery management system to optimize battery cells and protect them. The phase angle and flux-weakening of the motor and controller are being optimized in order to increase the torque at low and high speed. The two-stage gear transmission is replaced with a single-stage timing belt transmission of a new design. The total efficiency of the vehicle will be monitored by a centralized vehicle energy management system that will control the

  1. Impact of GB transmission charging on renewable electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Government is committed to meeting its objective of producing 10% of UK electricity supplies from renewable sources by 2010, subject to the cost to the consumer being acceptable. It is generally believed that northern Scotland - and the Highlands and Islands in particular - will be a significant source of renewable energy in future, mostly in the form of wind power; wave and tidal energy may also be important. The National Grid Company (NGC) is responsible for formulating a cost-reflective and. non-discriminatory electricity transmission charging methodology for Great Britain (GB). This determines Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs, which are paid by transmission-connected generators and suppliers for the use of the high voltage transmission network. Following the publication of National Grid Company's 'GB Transmission Charging: Initial Thoughts' document on 16 December 2003, there was particular concern that the level of future Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs in northern Scotland might impede the achievement of the Government's 2010 target for renewable electricity supplies. That document and subsequent revisions indicate that generation TNUoS charges in northern Scotland were likely to be significantly higher than anywhere else in GB. The study attempts to quantify the effect of the proposed GB-wide TNUoS charging methodology on the future growth of renewable electricity so as to ascertain the impact on the likelihood of meeting the Government's 2010 target. (UK)

  2. Low-cost distributed solar-thermal-electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Minassians, Artin; Aschenbach, Konrad H.; Sanders, Seth R.

    2004-01-01

    Due to their high relative cost, solar electric energy systems have yet to be exploited on a widespread basis. It is believed in the energy community that a technology similar to photovoltaic (PV), but offered at about $1/W would lead to widespread deployment at residential and commercial sites. This paper addresses the investigation and feasibility study of a low-cost solar thermal electricity generation technology, suitable for distributed deployment. Specifically, we discuss a system based on nonimaging solar concentrators, integrated with free-piston Stirling engine devices incorporating integrated electric generation. We target concentrator-collector operation at moderate temperatures, in the range of 125°C to 150°C. This temperature is consistent with use of optical concentrators with concentration ratios on the order of 1-2. These low ratio concentrators admit wide angles of radiation acceptance and are thus compatible with no diurnal tracking, and no or only a few seasonal adjustments. Thus, costs and reliability hazards associated with tracking hardware systems are avoided. Further, we note that in the intended application, there is no shortage of incident solar energy, but rather it is the capital cost of the solar-electric system that is most precious. Thus, we outline a strategy for exploiting solar resources in a cost constrained manner. The paper outlines design issues, and a specific design for an appropriately dimensioned free-piston Stirling engine. Only standard low-cost materials and manufacturing methods are required to realize such a machine.

  3. Investment and deregulation in the electricity generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peluchon, B.

    2007-12-01

    This work addresses the issue of investment in the electricity generation industry. As the analysis of many crisis which have affected electricity markets shows, there is a systematic under-investment in peak capacity. Electricity prices are not high enough to cover fixed costs of such generators, a phenomenon that has been dubbed 'missing money' in some recent papers (Stoft). The investment decisions of a duo-poly facing random demand are then compared to those of a public monopoly. The results are that no prices may be high enough to solve the 'missing money' problem, since the duo-poly is able to exercise market power in order to maximize his profit. This results systematically in fewer peak capacity in the duo-poly case than in the public monopoly case. This remains true in the case of a n-oligopoly. The necessity of designing a mechanism remunerating capacity is thus demonstrated. Capacity markets are then analysed in the light of those results. What appears is that operating reserves are a public good and, as such, prevents capacity markets to solve the 'missing money' problem. This casts a shadow on the pursuit of deregulation in the electricity industry. (author)

  4. Electricity generation from landfill gas: a commercial view revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Limbrick, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    Wapsey's Wood power station has been generating electricity from landfill gas since 1987. Despite a good technical track record, the project did not secure a fair price for the electricity it sold until it was included in the 1991 Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation (NFFO). The NFFO has served to bring forward approximately 560 MW of renewable energy generating capacity, of which 15 per cent is fuelled by landfill gas. However, case histories such as that of Wapsey's Wood highlight the weaknesses of the current arrangements. To secure the continued steady growth of commercially robust renewable energy projects, there is a need to boost the business confidence of potential developers. The paper proposes two ways to remove the present uncertainty: simplify the application procedures, and remove the December 1998 expiry date that currently applies to power purchase agreements under the NFFO. (author)

  5. Microgrids in the Evolving Electricity Generation and DeliveryInfrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marnay, Chris; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2006-02-01

    The legacy paradigm for electricity service in most of the electrified world today is based on the centralized generation-transmission-distribution infrastructure that evolved under a regulated environment. More recently, a quest for effective economic investments, responsive markets, and sensitivity to the availability of resources, has led to various degrees of deregulation and unbundling of services. In this context, a new paradigm is emerging wherein electricity generation is intimately embedded with the load in microgrids. Development and decay of the familiar macrogrid is discussed. Three salient features of microgrids are examined to suggest that cohabitation of micro and macro grids is desirable, and that overall energy efficiency can be increased, while power is delivered to loads at appropriate levels of quality.

  6. Net energy analysis of different electricity generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This document is a report on the net energy analysis of nuclear power and other electricity generation systems. The main objectives of this document are: To provide a comprehensive review of the state of knowledge on net energy analysis of nuclear and other energy systems for electricity generation; to address traditional questions such as whether nuclear power is a net energy producer or not. In addition, the work in progress on a renewed application of the net energy analysis method to environmental issues is also discussed. It is expected that this work could contribute to the overall comparative assessment of different energy systems which is an ongoing activity at the IAEA. 167 refs, 9 figs, 5 tabs

  7. Electric Generator in the System for Damping Oscillations of Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serebryakov A.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The control systems for the objects of industry, power generation, transport, etc. are extremely complicated; functional efficiency of these systems determines to a great extent the safe and non-polluting operation as well as convenience of service and repair of such objects. The authors consider the possibility to improve the efficiency of systems for damping oscillations in transport using a combination of electrical (generators of rotational and linear types and hydraulic means. Better efficiency of functioning is achieved through automatic control over the operational conditions of such a system in order to make it adaptive to variations in the road profile and ambient temperature; besides, it is possible to produce additional electric energy.

  8. Electric Generator in the System for Damping Oscillations of Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryakov, A.; Kamolins, E.; Levin, N.

    2017-04-01

    The control systems for the objects of industry, power generation, transport, etc. are extremely complicated; functional efficiency of these systems determines to a great extent the safe and non-polluting operation as well as convenience of service and repair of such objects. The authors consider the possibility to improve the efficiency of systems for damping oscillations in transport using a combination of electrical (generators of rotational and linear types) and hydraulic means. Better efficiency of functioning is achieved through automatic control over the operational conditions of such a system in order to make it adaptive to variations in the road profile and ambient temperature; besides, it is possible to produce additional electric energy.

  9. Facts against nuclear electricity generation. 2. enlarged ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buechele, C.

    1986-01-01

    The book destroys a legend. The nuclear cartel still goes on telling the tale of safety, environmental compatibility and economic efficiency of nuclear electricity generation. But nothing in this story stands the test: Bare facts destroy the legend. Up to now, only insiders have been able to state counterarguments. The book in hand now presents in a nutshell all results and experience and facts to be brought forward against nuclear electricity generation. The material is presented in a problem-oriented, reliable and comprehensible manner. Anyone who long since suspected lies and malinformation of the public will step by step find the arguments justifying his suspicion. In an annex, Harald Gaber explains the Chernobyl disaster and its consequences. A literature index with comments is a helpful guide for further reading. (orig.) [de

  10. Conceptual Design of an Antiproton Generation and Storage Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peggs, Stephen

    2006-10-24

    The Antiproton Generation and Storage Facility (AGSF) creates copious quantities of antiprotons, for bottling and transportation to remote cancer therapy centers. The first step in the generation and storage process is to accelerate an intense proton beam down the Main Linac for injection into the Main Ring, which is a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron that accelerates the protons to high energy. The beam is then extracted from the ring into a transfer line and into a Proton Target. Immediately downstream of the target is an Antiproton Collector that captures some of the antiprotons and focuses them into a beam that is transported sequentially into two antiproton rings. The Precooler ring rapidly manipulates antiproton bunches from short and broad (in momentum) to long and thin. It then performs some preliminary beam cooling, in the fraction of a second before the next proton bunch is extracted from the Main Ring. Pre-cooled antiprotons are passed on to the Accumulator ring before the next antiprotons arrive from the target. The Accumulator ring cools the antiprotons, compressing them into a dense state that is convenient for mass storage over many hours. Occasionally the Accumulator ring decelerates a large number of antiprotons, injecting them into a Deceleration Linac that passes them into a waiting Penning trap.

  11. Conceptual Design of an Antiproton Generation and Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peggs, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    The Antiproton Generation and Storage Facility (AGSF) creates copious quantities of antiprotons, for bottling and transportation to remote cancer therapy centers. The first step in the generation and storage process is to accelerate an intense proton beam down the Main Linac for injection into the Main Ring, which is a Rapid Cycling Synchrotron that accelerates the protons to high energy. The beam is then extracted from the ring into a transfer line and into a Proton Target. Immediately downstream of the target is an Antiproton Collector that captures some of the antiprotons and focuses them into a beam that is transported sequentially into two antiproton rings. The Precooler ring rapidly manipulates antiproton bunches from short and broad (in momentum) to long and thin. It then performs some preliminary beam cooling, in the fraction of a second before the next proton bunch is extracted from the Main Ring. Pre-cooled antiprotons are passed on to the Accumulator ring before the next antiprotons arrive from the target. The Accumulator ring cools the antiprotons, compressing them into a dense state that is convenient for mass storage over many hours. Occasionally the Accumulator ring decelerates a large number of antiprotons, injecting them into a Deceleration Linac that passes them into a waiting Penning trap

  12. Efforts onto electricity and instrumentation technology for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Toshifumi

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear power generation shares more than 1/3 of all amounts of in-land generation at present, as a supplying source of stable electric energy after 2000 either. As a recent example of efforts onto electricity and instrumentation technology for nuclear power generation, there are, on instrumentation control system a new central control board aiming at reduction of operator's load, protection of human error, and upgrading of system reliability and economics by applying high level micro-processor applied technique and high speed data transfer technique to central monitoring operation and plant control protection, on a field of reactor instrumentation a new digital control rod position indicator improved of conventional system on a base of operation experience and recent technology, on a field of radiation instrumentation a new radiation instrumentation system accumulating actual results in a wide application field on a concept of application to nuclear power plant by adopting in-situ separation processing system using local network technique, and on a field of operation maintenance and management a conservation management system for nuclear generation plant intending of further effectiveness of operation maintenance management of power plant by applying of operation experience and recent data processing and communication technology. And, in the large electric apparatus, there are some generators carried out production and verification of a model one with actual size in lengthwise dimension, to correspond to future large capacity nuclear power plant. By this verification, it was proved that even large capacity generator of 1800 MVA class could be manufactured. (G.K.)

  13. Present situation and future prospects of electricity generation in Aegean Archipelago islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Zafirakis, D.

    2007-01-01

    The Aegean Archipelago is a remote Hellenic area, including several hundreds of scattered islands of various sizes. In these islands more than 600,000 people are living mainly in small remote communities. The main economical activities of the islanders are apart from tourism, seafaring, fishery, agriculture and stock farming. One of the major problems of the area is the insufficient infrastructure, strongly related with the absence of an integrated and cost-effective electrification plan. In this context, the present work is concentrated on analyzing the present situation and demonstrating the future prospects of electricity generation in the Aegean Archipelago islands. For this purpose, one should first investigate the time evolution of the corresponding electricity generation parameters (i.e. annual electricity consumption, peak power demand, capacity factor, specific fuel consumption) for the last 30 years. Subsequently, the corresponding diesel and heavy-oil consumption along with the electricity production cost for every specific autonomous power station of the area are investigated. Special attention is paid in order to estimate the contribution of renewable energy sources (RES) in the energy balance of each island. Finally, an attempt is made to describe in brief the most realistic electricity production solutions available, including the operation of hybrid RES-based power plants in collaboration with appropriate energy storage facilities. Additionally, the idea of connecting the islands of the area with the mainland and interconnecting them is also taken into consideration

  14. Feasibility of free piston generation unit for electrical power provision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey, R.; Roskilly, A.; Shaw, R.; French, C. [Newcastle Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Free piston linear engines offer the capability of providing power without the need to convert reciprocating motion into rotary motion. This allows for the utilisation of higher peak pressures during the combustion process and thus improves efficiency. The objective of this paper is to outline the potential benefits of a Free Piston Generator (FPG) and discuss the feasibility of this technology as a potential platform for electrical power provision. (authors)

  15. Asian electricity: the growing commercialisation of power generation. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The seventeen papers presented by speakers at a conference on Asian Electricity in Singapore in May 1993 are collected together in this volume. The main unifying theme is the recourse to private finance to support the expansion in power generation which is necessary to sustain growth in a number of Asian countries. One paper, however, deals specifically with the future role of nuclear power in Asia. A separate abstract has been prepared for this paper. (UK)

  16. Simulation of gaseous emissions from electricity generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellhouse, G.M.; Whittington, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    In electricity supply networks, traditional dispatch algorithms are based on features such as economics and plant availability. Annual limits on emissions from fossil-fuelled stations are regarded as a restriction and set a ceiling on generation from particular stations. With the impending introduction of financial penalties on emissions, for example cal bon taxation, algorithms will have to be developed which allow the dispatch engineer to assess the cost in real-time of different generation options involving fossil-fuelled plants. Such an algorithm is described in this paper. (UK)

  17. Comparison of approximate electrical energy generating costs in OECD countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.H.; Bertel, E.

    1996-01-01

    Costs of power generating in nuclear power plants have been predicted taking into account all factors connected with investment, maintenance, exploitation and decommissioning, basing on last OECD report. The costs have been compared with alternative solutions. In majority of OECD countries the direct costs of electricity generation are very close for nuclear fossil-fuel and gas power plants. All indirect costs such as environmental impact, public health hazard, waste management, accident risk and also public acceptance for nuclear power have been discussed. 13 refs, 5 tabs

  18. World electricity generation, nuclear power, and oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Striking changes have characterized the world's production and use of energy over the past 15 years. Most prominent have been the wide price fluctuations, politicization of world oil prices and supply, along with profound changes in patterns of production and consumption. This report, based on a study by energy analysts at Science Concepts, Inc., in the United States, traces changes in world energy supply since 1973-74 - the time of the first oil ''price shocks''. In so doing, it identifies important lessons for the future. The study focused in particular on the role of the electric power sector because the growth in fuel use in it has been accomplished without oil. Instead, the growth has directly displaced oil. In the pre-1973 era, the world relied increasingly on oil for many energy applications, including the production of electricity. By 1973, more than on-fourth of the world's electricity was produced by burning oil. By 1987, however, despite a large increase in electric demand, the use of oil was reigned back to generating less than 10% of the world's electricity. Nuclear power played a major role in this turnaround. From 1973-87, analysts at Science Concepts found, nuclear power displaced the burning of 11.7 billion barrels of oil world-wide and avoided US $323 billion in oil purchases

  19. Risk assessment of electric generation systems with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado Duarte, Yorlandys; Castillo Serpa, Alfredo M. del

    2017-01-01

    The research evaluates the risk function of an Electric Generation System (SGE) with high wind power penetration using the Sequential Monte Carlo Simulation (SMCS) method, which allows calculating indicators that characterize the performance of the SGE with expected average values. The research uses a Markov model of two states or four states according to the characteristics of the generator to simulate the instantaneous capacity. The primary sources of each conventional generator are assumed to be always available; however, wind power depends on the wind behavior in each analyzed region. In this research, the Chronological Series and Weibull models are used to model the wind behavior, and the analyzes are performed in the IEEE-RTS system. The work shows that the behavior of the probabilistic indicators used to analyze the static capacity of the SGE is determined by the model used to simulate the stochastic of the generators and by the primary energy source. (author)

  20. Solar thermal electric power generation - an attractive option for Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A

    1999-01-01

    Solar Thermal Energy is being successfully used for production of electricity in few developed countries for more than 10 years. In solar Electric Generating Systems high temperature is generated by concentrating solar energy on black absorber pipe in evacuated glass tubes. This heat is absorbed and transported with the help of high temperature oil in to highly insulated heat exchanger storage tanks. They are subsequently used to produce steam that generates power through steam turbines as in standard thermal power plants. Various components involved in Solar thermal field have been developed at the Solar Systems Laboratory of College of EME, NUST Rawalpindi. It is considered as a cost effective alternate for power generation. The research has been partially sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology under its Public Sector Development Program (PSDP) in (1996-1998). Parabolic mirror design, fabrication, polishing, installation, solar tracking, absorber pipe, glass tubes, steam generation al have been developed. This paper will cover the details of indigenous technological break through made in this direction. (author)

  1. Electric generation and ratcheted transport of contact-charged drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Charles A.; Graybill, Jason R.; Bishop, Kyle J. M.

    2017-10-01

    We describe a simple microfluidic system that enables the steady generation and efficient transport of aqueous drops using only a constant voltage input. Drop generation is achieved through an electrohydrodynamic dripping mechanism by which conductive drops grow and detach from a grounded nozzle in response to an electric field. The now-charged drops are transported down a ratcheted channel by contact charge electrophoresis powered by the same voltage input used for drop generation. We investigate how the drop size, generation frequency, and transport velocity depend on system parameters such as the liquid viscosity, interfacial tension, applied voltage, and channel dimensions. The observed trends are well explained by a series of scaling analyses that provide insight into the dominant physical mechanisms underlying drop generation and ratcheted transport. We identify the conditions necessary for achieving reliable operation and discuss the various modes of failure that can arise when these conditions are violated. Our results demonstrate that simple electric inputs can power increasingly complex droplet operations with potential opportunities for inexpensive and portable microfluidic systems.

  2. Robust Control of Aeronautical Electrical Generators for Energy Management Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Canciello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new strategy for the control of aeronautical electrical generators via sliding manifold selection is proposed, with an associated innovative intelligent energy management strategy used for efficient power transfer between two sources providing energy to aeronautical loads, having different functionalities and priorities. Electric generators used for aeronautical application involve several machines, including a main generator and an exciter. Standard regulators (PI or PID-like are normally used for the rectification of the generator voltage to be used to supply a high-voltage DC bus. The regulation is obtained by acting on a DC/DC converter that imposes the field voltage of the exciter. In this paper, the field voltage is fed to the generator windings by using a second-order sliding mode controller, resulting into a stable, robust (against disturbances action and a fast convergence to the desired reference. By using this strategy, an energy management strategy is proposed that dynamically changes the voltage set point, in order to intelligently transfer power between two voltage busses. Detailed simulation results are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed energy management strategy in different scenarios.

  3. Automation of steam generator services at public service electric & gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruickshank, H.; Wray, J.; Scull, D. [Public Service Electric & Gas, Hancock`s Bridge, NJ (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Public Service Electric & Gas takes an aggressive approach to pursuing new exposure reduction techniques. Evaluation of historic outage exposure shows that over the last eight refueling outages, primary steam generator work has averaged sixty-six (66) person-rem, or, approximately tewenty-five percent (25%) of the general outage exposure at Salem Station. This maintenance evolution represents the largest percentage of exposure for any single activity. Because of this, primary steam generator work represents an excellent opportunity for the development of significant exposure reduction techniques. A study of primary steam generator maintenance activities demonstrated that seventy-five percent (75%) of radiation exposure was due to work activities of the primary steam generator platform, and that development of automated methods for performing these activities was worth pursuing. Existing robotics systems were examined and it was found that a new approach would have to be developed. This resulted in a joint research and development project between Westinghouse and Public Service Electric & Gas to develop an automated system of accomplishing the Health Physics functions on the primary steam generator platform. R.O.M.M.R.S. (Remotely Operated Managed Maintenance Robotics System) was the result of this venture.

  4. UFISA: electric facility engineering for the service of emergy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Zapico, A.

    1997-01-01

    UFISA is the engineering company with the experience of UNION ELECTRICA FENOSA S.A. It activity began in 1990. This company offers to national and international markets the services for energy consumers and for the electricity costumers. (Author)

  5. Importance of hard coal in electricity generation in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plewa, Franciszek; Strozik, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Polish energy sector is facing a number of challenges, in particular as regards the reconstruction of production potential, diversification of energy sources, environmental issues, adequate fuels supplies and other. Mandatory implementation of Europe 2020 strategy in terms of “3x20” targets (20% reduction of greenhouse gases, 20% of energy from renewable sources, and 20% increase of efficiency in energy production) requires fast decision, which have to be coordinated with energetic safety issues, increasing demands for electric energy, and other factors. In Poland almost 80% of power is installed in coal fired power plants and energy from hard coals is relatively less expensive than from other sources, especially renewable. The most of renewable energy sources power plants are unable to generate power in amounts which can be competitive with coal fires power stations and are highly expensive, what leads o high prices of electric energy. Alternatively, new generation of coal fired coal power plants is able to significantly increase efficiency, reduce carbon dioxide emission, and generate less expensive electric power in amounts adequate to the demands of a country.

  6. Ukraine biosolids incineration project generates electricity while solving disposal problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosanke, J. [Quality Recycling Ltd., Henderson, NC (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This article described an innovative Waste-to-Energy (WtE) system that is currently being installed in the city of Odessa in the Ukraine. The city has a population of 1 million and is a major seaport on the Black Sea. Sewage sludge will be used as a biomass fuel to power an electrical generation plant. The system includes a clean-burning rotary cascading bed combustor (RCBC) linked to a boiler and an electricity-generating steam turbine. The RCBC spins in order to keep fuel cascading for maximum combustion, and is expected to burn over 50,000 tons of dewatered sewage sludge per year while generating 33,507,000 kWh of electricity per individual location. Eleven systems will be installed at major sewage processing modules in the Ukraine. A pilot program is also being conducted to test and monitor the system under United States emissions and operational standards. The RCBC is also being used to combust fuels derived from municipal solid waste (MSW) at a site in Kansas. Other fuels that can be cleanly burned using the RCBC system included high sulfur bituminous coal; anthracite coal waste; carpet and carpet scrap, and tires and rubber wastes. Studies have demonstrated that some toxic wastes can be removed using the RCBC system. It was concluded that burning negative value fuels can allow some power plants to earn revenues from disposal fees. 3 figs.

  7. Economic aspects of grid connected solar electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharabod, F.

    1993-01-01

    Experience gained with available solar thermal technologies enlighten on options for research and development on solar electricity generation. The proposed analysis of new solar technologies concerns market, costs and profit viewpoint: - Systems under development have to fit with consumers' needs and utilities' specifications, technology is not the only item to study. - Expense headings depend on technological options and operation procedures such as size of the plant, solar only or hybrid concept. - Anticipation of revenues highly depends on direct insolation quality and on local conditions for introducing the electric power generated into the network: daily direct insolation measurements and annual local load curve are prerequisite data. Strategic advantages regarding environment and sustainable development are to be pointed out, specially in industrialized countries or for projects including financing institutions. As far as generating electric power on the grid is a major challenge in the development of a number of countries in the sun belt, cooperation between industrialized and developing countries, under the auspices of international organization, has to be promoted. (Author) 12 refs

  8. Classical-Equivalent Bayesian Portfolio Optimization for Electricity Generation Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellinton H. Takada

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several electricity generation technologies based on different sources such as wind, biomass, gas, coal, and so on. The consideration of the uncertainties associated with the future costs of such technologies is crucial for planning purposes. In the literature, the allocation of resources in the available technologies has been solved as a mean-variance optimization problem assuming knowledge of the expected values and the covariance matrix of the costs. However, in practice, they are not exactly known parameters. Consequently, the obtained optimal allocations from the mean-variance optimization are not robust to possible estimation errors of such parameters. Additionally, it is usual to have electricity generation technology specialists participating in the planning processes and, obviously, the consideration of useful prior information based on their previous experience is of utmost importance. The Bayesian models consider not only the uncertainty in the parameters, but also the prior information from the specialists. In this paper, we introduce the classical-equivalent Bayesian mean-variance optimization to solve the electricity generation planning problem using both improper and proper prior distributions for the parameters. In order to illustrate our approach, we present an application comparing the classical-equivalent Bayesian with the naive mean-variance optimal portfolios.

  9. The Relationship Between Electricity Price and Wind Power Generation in Danish Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    of competitive electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system. The relationship between the electricity price (both the spot price and the regulation price) and the wind power generation in an electricity market is investigated in this paper. The spot price, the down regulation price...... and the up regulation price generally decreases when the wind power penetration in the power system increases. The statistical characteristics of the spot price for different wind power penetration are analyzed. The findings of this paper may be useful for wind power generation companies to make the optimal...... bidding strategy and may be also useful for the optimal operation of modern power systems with high wind power penetrations....

  10. Supervision of electrical and instrumentation systems and components at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The general guidelines for the supervision of nuclear facilities carried out by the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) are set forth in the guide YVL 1.1. This guide shows in more detail how STUK supervises the electrical and instrumentation systems and components of nuclear facilities

  11. Essays on investment planning in electricity generating capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gomez, Jorge

    In the first part of this study we develop and analyze two mathematical models that incorporate a time changing demand for electricity and uncertainty of input prices. The first model highlights the shortcomings in assuming a constant plant utilization under uncertainty of input prices and the effects of such assumption on the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity in a simple two period model. The second model presents sufficient restrictions to the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity problem to allow for a recursive solution. The necessary restrictions are extremely limiting to the extend that we found a solution for very simple scenarios. In our opinion, the problem is better handled in a case by case basis rather than under a general dynamic framework. Following the spirit of our conclusions of the first part of our study, in the second part we provide a methodology to simulate long-term natural gas prices, we analyze the investment prospects of nuclear and natural gas generating capacity in Mexico and provide a constraint approach for the optimal generation of hydroelectric plants in the Mexican hydroelectric system. These three problems belong to the solution of the optimal investment in electricity generating capacity in Mexico. To simulate the uncertainty of natural gas prices, we assume that natural gas prices are the sum of two stochastic processes: short-term and long-term variability. We characterize the short-term variability of natural gas prices using an Exponential General Autoregressive Conditional Heteroskedastic (EGARCH) model. The uncertainty of the long-term variability of natural gas prices is based on the long-term natural gas prices scenarios of the National Energy Modeling System of the Energy Information Administration. Equipped with a methodology to simulate long-term natural gas prices, we investigate the investment prospects of nuclear and natural gas generating capacity in Mexico using the levelized

  12. Generation of short electrical pulses based on bipolar transistorsny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gerding

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for the generation of short electrical pulses based on the minority carrier charge storage and the step recovery effect of bipolar transistors is presented. Electrical pulses of about 90 ps up to 800 ps duration are generated with a maximum amplitude of approximately 7V at 50Ω. The bipolar transistor is driven into saturation and the base-collector and base-emitter junctions become forward biased. The resulting fast switch-off edge of the transistor’s output signal is the basis for the pulse generation. The fast switching of the transistor occurs as a result of the minority carriers that have been injected and stored across the base-collector junction under forward bias conditions. If the saturated transistor is suddenly reverse biased the pn-junction will appear as a low impedance until the stored charge is depleted. Then the impedance will suddenly increase to its normal high value and the flow of current through the junction will turn to zero, abruptly. A differentiation of the output signal of the transistor results in two short pulses with opposite polarities. The differentiating circuit is implemented by a transmission line network, which mainly acts as a high pass filter. Both the transistor technology (pnp or npn and the phase of the transfer function of the differentating circuit influence the polarity of the output pulses. The pulse duration depends on the transistor parameters as well as on the transfer function of the pulse shaping network. This way of generating short electrical pulses is a new alternative for conventional comb generators based on steprecovery diodes (SRD. Due to the three-terminal structure of the transistor the isolation problem between the input and the output signal of the transistor network is drastically simplified. Furthermore the transistor is an active element in contrast to a SRD, so that its current gain can be used to minimize the power of the driving signal.

  13. BUILDOUT AND UPGRADE OF CENTRAL EMERGENCY GENERATOR SYSTEM, GENERATOR 3 AND 4 ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary D. Seifert; G. Shawn West; Kurt S. Myers; Jim Moncur

    2006-07-01

    SECTION 01000—SUMMARY OF WORK PART 1—GENERAL 1.1 SUMMARY The work to be performed under this project consists of providing the labor, equipment, and materials to perform "Buildout and Upgrade of Central Emergency Generator System, Generator 3 and 4 Electrical Installation" for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration at the Dryden Flight Research Center (NASA/DFRC), Edwards, California 93523. All modifications to existing substations and electrical distribution systems are the responsibility of the contractor. It is the contractor’s responsibility to supply a complete and functionally operational system. The work shall be performed in accordance with these specifications and the related drawings. The work of this project is defined by the plans and specifications contained and referenced herein. This work specifically includes but is not limited to the following: Scope of Work - Installation 1. Install all electrical wiring and controls for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing electrical installation for generators 1 and 2 and in accordance with drawings. Contractor shall provide as-built details for electrical installation. 2. Install battery charger systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing battery charging equipment and installation for generators 1 and 2. This may require exchange of some battery charger parts already on-hand. Supply power to new battery chargers from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. 3. Install electrical wiring for fuel/lube systems for new generators 3 and 4 to match existing installation for generators 1 and 2. Supply power to lube oil heaters and fuel system (day tanks) from panel and breakers as shown on drawings. Utilize existing conduits already routed to generators 3 and 4 to field route the new wiring in the most reasonable way possible. Add any conduits necessary to

  14. Reconstitution of Biological Molecular generators of electric current. Bacteriorhodopsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachev, L A; Frolov, V N; Kaulen, A D; Liberman, E A; Ostroumov, S A; Plakunova, V G; Semenov, A Y; Skulachev, V P

    1976-11-25

    1. Photoinduced generation of electric current by bacteriorhodopsin, incorporated into the planar phospholipid membrane, has been directly measured with conventional electrometer techniques. 2. Two methods for bacteriorhodopsin incorporation have been developed: (a) formation of planar membrane from a mixture of decane solution of phospholipids and of the fraction of violet fragments of the Halobacterium halobium membrane (bacteriorhodopsin sheets), and (b) adhesion of bacteriorhodopsin-containing reconstituted spherical membranes (proteoliposomes) to the planar membrane in the presence of Ca2+ or some other cations. In both cases, illumination was found to induce electric current generation directed across the planar membrane, an effect which was measured by macroelectrodes immersed into electrolyte solutions on both sides of the membrane. 3. The maximal values of the transmembrane electric potential were of about 150 mV at a current of about 10(-11) A. The electromotive force measured by means of counterbalancing the photoeffect by an external battery, was found to reach the value of 300 mV. 4. The action spectrum of the photoeffect coincides with the bacteriorhodopsin absorption spectrum (maximum about 570 nm). 5. Both components of the electrochemical potential of H+ ions (electric potential and delta pH) across the planar membrane affect the bacteriorhodopsin photoelectric response in a fashion which could be expected if bacteriorhodopsin were a light-dependent electrogenic proton pump. 6. La3+ ions were shown to inhibit operation of those bacteriorhodopsin which pump out H+ ions from the La3+-containing compartment. 7. The photoeffect, mediated by proteoliposomes associated with thick planar membrane, is decreased by gramicidin A at concentrations which do not influence the planar membrane resistance in the light. On the contrary, a protonophorous uncoupler, trichlorocarbonylcyanidephenylhydrazone, decreases the photoeffect only if it is added at a

  15. Generation capacity expansion planning in deregulated electricity markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak

    With increasing demand of electric power in the context of deregulated electricity markets, a good strategic planning for the growth of the power system is critical for our tomorrow. There is a need to build new resources in the form of generation plants and transmission lines while considering the effects of these new resources on power system operations, market economics and the long-term dynamics of the economy. In deregulation, the exercise of generation planning has undergone a paradigm shift. The first stage of generation planning is now undertaken by the individual investors. These investors see investments in generation capacity as an increasing business opportunity because of the increasing market prices. Therefore, the main objective of such a planning exercise, carried out by individual investors, is typically that of long-term profit maximization. This thesis presents some modeling frameworks for generation capacity expansion planning applicable to independent investor firms in the context of power industry deregulation. These modeling frameworks include various technical and financing issues within the process of power system planning. The proposed modeling frameworks consider the long-term decision making process of investor firms, the discrete nature of generation capacity addition and incorporates transmission network modeling. Studies have been carried out to examine the impact of the optimal investment plans on transmission network loadings in the long-run by integrating the generation capacity expansion planning framework within a modified IEEE 30-bus transmission system network. The work assesses the importance of arriving at an optimal IRR at which the firm's profit maximization objective attains an extremum value. The mathematical model is further improved to incorporate binary variables while considering discrete unit sizes, and subsequently to include the detailed transmission network representation. The proposed models are novel in the

  16. Nuclear Power for Electricity Generation in Ghana: Issues and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Ennison, I.

    2011-01-01

    Ghana's electricity demand has been estimated to be growing at a high rate of about 7% per annum over the last ten years. This is due to the relatively high population growth, economic aspiration of the country and the extension of electricity to rural areas. Electricity supply, on the contrary, has been unable to meet the demand due to high dependency on rain-fed hydropower plants, which started operating in 1965 and currently account for about 68% of the total installed capacity. Within the last 28 years, climatic changes and draughts have caused the nation to experience three major power crises. These climate changes resulted in low inflows and thus reduced power generation from hydropower systems. To complement the hydropower systems, the Government in 1997 installed thermal plants based on light crude oil. However, due to the high crude oil prices on the international market in recent times have made the operation of these plants very expensive. Ghana's crude oil find can boost its energy supply when the oil exploration begins somewhere in 2010. For rural cooking, domestic biomass is employed. Ghana has no domestic coal resources. The Government of Ghana is concerned with: limited further growth potential of domestic hydro; high cost of imported oil and gas and environmental issues associated with use of imported coal. Small Solar and wind generation exist in some sectors, but potential large-scale development is not envisioned for the near future. With these in mind, the President of Ghana set up a Committee involving Stakeholder Institutions to formulate the Nuclear Power Policy and develop the basic elements of Nuclear Infrastructure and to assess the viability of introducing the nuclear power option in Ghana's energy mix. Cabinet took a decision to include the nuclear power for electricity generation after the Committee submitted his report to the President in 2008. (author)

  17. Market power and technological bias in electricity generation markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twomey, Paul; Neuhoff, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult or very costly to avoid all market power in electricity markets. A recurring response is that a limited amount of market power is accepted with the justification that it is necessary to produce revenues to cover some of the fixed costs. It is assumed that all market participants benefit equally from the increased prices. However, this assumption is not satisfied if different production technologies are used. We assess the case of a generation mix of conventional generation and intermittent generation with exogenously varying production levels. If all output is sold in the spot market, then intermittent generation benefits less from market power than conventional generation. If forward contracts or option contracts are signed, then market power might be reduced but the bias against returns to intermittent generators persists. Thus allowing some level of market power as a means of encouraging investment in new generation may result in a bias against intermittent technologies or increase the costs of strategic deployment to achieve renewable quotas. (Author)

  18. Electric generating capacity planning: A nonlinear programming approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yakin, M.Z.; McFarland, J.W.

    1987-02-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear programming approach for long-range generating capacity expansion planning in electrical power systems. The objective in the model is the minimization of total cost consisting of investment cost plus generation cost for a multi-year planning horizon. Reliability constraints are imposed by using standard and practical reserve margin requirements. State equations representing the dynamic aspect of the problem are included. The electricity demand (load) and plant availabilities are treated as random variables, and the method of cumulants is used to calculate the expected energy generated by each plant in each year of the planning horizon. The resulting model has a (highly) nonlinear objective function and linear constraints. The planning model is solved over the multiyear planning horizon instead of decomposing it into one-year period problems. This approach helps the utility decision maker to carry out extensive sensitivity analysis easily. A case study example is provided using EPRI test data. Relationships among the reserve margin, total cost and surplus energy generating capacity over the planning horizon are explored by analyzing the model.

  19. Recent developments in the electricity generation market in 2014

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Following up the report on the developments in the Electricity market from last year to this case this article shall give an overview of the current developments in 2014. The year 2014 was marked by the energy sector Program of the coalition agreement, which, under the three objectives of security of supply Affordability and environmental impact which has made clear Specifications for the production side in particular with regard to the final Nuclear Phase-out phase, the announced amendment of the EEG, system stability and also Fracking. The predominant theme in 2014 this was certainly the reform of the EEG and around it rambling topics on European level. Too much uncertainty with plant operators, investors and companies in German power generation market, has led in addition to the mentioned legislative package the revision of the EU environmental and energy aid guidelines, State aid procedure of the European Commission regarding the German promotion of electricity from renewable Energy and the process in the case of Aaland Vindkraft before the ECJ. The dynamics on the generation side, inter alia through the increased connection of decentralized generation plants, result in an increasing regulation in power generation. Finally a first bill for Fracking is published at the end of 2014. [de

  20. Evaluation of a portfolio of electricity generation, using dynamics of systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco Barrera, Juan Felipe; Dyner R, Isaac

    2004-01-01

    The construction of a Technological Portfolio in charge of a firm of electricity generation in Colombia leads to its study; among other is the case of Empresas Publicas de Medellin (EEPPM.), because this company is nowadays-building new electricity projects in Colombia. EEPPM. will provide electricity using a new technology in Colombia, which is wind power, for the national grid joining hydraulic and thermal generation. A System Dynamics (SD) model was constructed to represent the national power system, specially the EEPPM. Generation facilities, combining both hydraulic and thermal plants along with the new wind farm of EEPPM, the new Technological Portfolio can be represented. SD is useful to learn about the different variables considered in the model, in order to represent interactions, delays and feedbacks that are present in the considered system. The study of the EEPPM portfolio performance allows to understand not only the impact of the high investment in wind power technology, but to study its possible benefits for the portfolio, like Risk and Value at Risk (VaR) reductions. Furthermore, the simulations show the advantage of wind power generation during dry seasons, as ENSO oscillation

  1. Nuclear-fuel-cycle facility deployment and price generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andress, D.A.

    1981-04-01

    The enrichment process and how it is to be modeled in the International Nuclear Model (INM) is described. The details of enrichment production, planning, unit price generation, demand estimation and ordering are examined. The enrichment process from both the producer's and the utility's point of view is analyzed. The enrichment separative-work-unit (SWU) contracts are also discussed. The relationship of the enrichment process with other sectors of the nuclear fuel cycle, expecially uranium mining and milling is considered. There are portions of the enrichment process that are not completely understood at the present time. These areas, which require further study, will be pinpointed in the following discussion. In many cases, e.g., the advent of SMU brokerage activities, the answers will emerge only in time. In other cases, e.g., political trends, uncertainties will always remain. It is possible to cast the uncertainties in a probabilistic framework, but this is beyond the scope of this report. INM, a comprehensive model of the international nuclear industry, simulates the market decision process based on current and future price expectations under a broad range of scenario specifications. INM determines the proper reactor mix as well as the planning, operation, and unit price generation of the attendant nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The level of detail of many of the enrichment activities presented in this report, e.g., the enrichment contracts, is too fine to be incorporated into INM. Nevertheless, they are presented in a form that is ammendable to modeling. The reasons for this are two-fold. First, it shows the level of complexity that would be required to model the entire system. Second, it presents the structural framework for a detailed, stand-alone enrichment model

  2. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report presents the results of a seismic risk analysis that focuses on all possible sources of seismic activity, with the exception of the postulated Verona Fault. The best estimate curve indicates that the Vallecitos facility will experience 30% g with a return period of roughly 130 years and 60% g with a return period of roughly 700 years

  3. Investments in electricity generation in Croatian liberalized market: energy option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Androcec, I.; Viskovic, A.; Slipac, G.

    2004-01-01

    The Republic of Croatia should have enough capacities built on its own territory to cover system's peak load at any time for ensuring a long-term reliability of its operation. According to annual increasing of electricity consumption and progressive shutdown of the oldest generating plants, the security of future electricity supply depends on new investments. The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital and enabling potential investors to realize the expected revenues (profit). The construction of generating capacities is subject of authorisation procedure or tendering procedure, by approval of the Energy Regulatory Council. The electricity market opening in Croatia is parallel process with establishment of regional energy market in South East Europe where the decision of investment in new power plant will be defined by regional investment priorities, all in the aspect of European Union enlargement. In those liberalisation conditions it is necessary to realize all possible energy options according to the Strategy of Energy Development of Republic of Croatia and to the regional energy market requirements or European Union Directives. New power plant will be realized, because of objective circumstances, through construction of gas power plant or coal power plant and possible nuclear power plant, and in much smaller size through construction of hydro power plants or power plants on renewable energy sources. The possibility of any energy option will be considered in view of: investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel price, external costs, public influence, and through investor's risk. This paper is aiming to analyse the possibility of nuclear power plant construction in Croatia as well as in other small and medium electricity grids. Nuclear option will be comprehensively considered in technical

  4. Teaching the basics of electricity using a flexible piezoelectric generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seveno, R.; Dufay, T.; El Gibari, M.; Guiffard, B.; Li, H. W.; Morsli, S.; Pichon, A.; Tanguy, E.

    2018-07-01

    Lecturer-researchers, because of the duality of their profession, can introduce students directly to their research. Stimulating student interest through practical research topics enables students to see the relevance of the teaching/learning process and thereby enhance their motivation. As a major societal issue, research on renewable energies is held in great esteem, particularly among young students with a strong interest in environmental issues. The work presented here relates to the realization of a practical class on the testing of a flexible piezoelectric generator studied as part of the ‘N-air-J’ regional research project. The particular characteristic of piezoelectric materials is that they produce electricity when compressed, which means that they can be used in energy recovery devices. The electrical model associated with this type of generator, consisting of an ideal current source in parallel with a linear capacitor and a load resistor, is sufficiently simple to understand following a course on electricity for first-year university students. High school students in their first year of a science and laboratory technology baccalaureate in France have already taken this practical class as part of a dissemination campaign on scientific culture.

  5. Virtual laboratory of electrical mini-grids with distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes Ramos, Vanessa; Barros Galhardo, Marcos André; Oliveira Barbosa, Claudomiro Fábio de; Tavares Pinho, João

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computing tool called Virtual Laboratory de Minirredes (Virtual Laboratory of Mini-grids). Using the virtual environment of the developed tool, it is possible to make remote connection/disconnection of switches and loads (resistive, inductive, capacitive and non-linear) at strategic points of the electric mini-grid with hybrid distributed generation systems (solar photovoltaic-diesel). The mini-grid has a length of about 1 km and is installed in the test area of the Grupo de Estudios e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Exergética (GEDAE) of the Universidade Federal do Pará, located in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. The developed tool has communication functions with electric parameters transducers and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This communication enables the opening and closing of contactors, resulting in different settings for the mini-grid. In addition to that, based on the proposed configuration by the user, the real-time operation status of mini-grid is presented in a graphic interface (for example, monitored electric parameters, distributed generators connected, status of disconnected switches, etc.) and the acquired data is stored. The use of the computing tool also focuses on the construction of a database, in order to obtain knowledge about the mini-grid performance under various conditions that can be set, depending on the operational strategy adopted, based on the choice of the layout, loads and power sources used in the mini-grid. (full text)

  6. The spanish electric system operation. The contribution of nuclear generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvison, M. R.; Torre, M. de la

    2009-01-01

    Operation of an electric system encloses the collection of activities which extend from affective generation dispatch to issuing instruction for network manoeuvring along with international exchange scheduling. Based on the market mechanisms that apply to energy transactions, these tasks guarantee the security of supply end consumers, which is the final goal of the System Operators actions. In Spain this function is executed by Red Electrica de Espana (REE) since 1985, after being constituted as the first Transmission and System Operator (TSO) in the world. Additionally the variations to Law 54/1997 introduced by law 17/2007 also assign REE the function of sole transmission owner in the Spanish electric system. In order to achieve the aforementioned goal, nuclear energy plays in Spain a fundamental role in electric generation thanks to its high availability rate, the predictability of its fuel recharges, its high operational reliability, its geographical location, the stability of its costs and the security of supply given by the possibility of on-site fuel storage in the power plant. (Author)

  7. Economic aspects of electricity and industrial heat generating reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.; Moulle, N.; Dutheil, F.

    1964-01-01

    The economic advantage of electricity-generating nuclear stations decreases when their size decreases. However, when a counter-pressure turbine is joined on to a reactor and the residual heat can be properly used, it can be shown that fairly low capacity nuclear equipment may compete with conventional equipment under certain realistic enough conditions. The aim of this paper is to define these special conditions under which nuclear energy can be profitable. They are connected with the location and the general economic environment of the station, the pattern of the electricity and heat demands it must meet, the level of fuel and specific capital costs, nuclear and conventional. These conditions entail certain technical and economic specifications for the reactors used in this way otherwise they are unlikely to be competitive. In addition, these results are referred to the potential steam and electricity market, which leads us to examine certain uses for the heat generated by double purpose power stations; for example, to supply combined industrial plants, various types of town heating and for removal of salt from sea water. (authors) [fr

  8. Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sens, P.F.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1986 Directorate-General XII 'Science, Research and Development' of the Commission of the European Communities has kept a watching brief on the development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electric power generation from the 'solid fuels' section of its non-nuclear energy R and D programme. It established, in 1987, the Faraday Working Group (FWG) to assess the development status of coal-fired MHD and to evaluate its potential contribution to the future electricity production in the Community. The FWG expressed as its opinion, at the end of 1987, that in sufficient data were available to justify a final answer to the question about MHD's potential contribution to future electricity production and recommended that studies be undertaken in three areas; (i) the lifetime of the generator, (ii) cost and performance of direct air preheating, (iii) cost and efficiency of seed recovery/reprocessing. These studies were contracted and results were presented in the extended FWG meeting on 15 November 1990, for an audience of about 70 people. The present volume contains the proceedings of this meeting. The introduction describes the reasons for establishing the FWG, its activities and the content of its extended meeting followed by the summary of the discussions and the concluding remarks of this meeting. The main part of the volume consists of the text either of the oral presentations during the meeting or of the final reports resulting from the studies under contract

  9. Restructuring and generation of electrical energy in the Iberian Peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, E. Fernandez; Bernat, J. Xiberta

    2007-01-01

    Portugal and Spain are on the threshold of the creation of an Iberian electricity market. In order to help its development, the power of the electric interconnection between the countries has been increased and market mechanisms designed to resolve congestion, should it arise. A system of joint supply for the Iberian Peninsula will lead to single price for the whole area except at times when the interconnection is saturated, in which case prices will be somewhat higher in the importing zone. In the medium term, the hope is that both systems will have very similar generating equipment and that their variable costs will equalize due to the substitution of the most obsolete equipment with combined cycle power stations, and to the increase of exchange capacity. The coming into effect of this market will bring about improvements in the security and efficiency of supply in both countries. There will also be some obstacles to overcome, such as, for example, the current regulatory frame deficiencies on power generation, the contacts which exist at present in Portugal between the producers and the National Electricity Network, the asymmetry of the distribution channels in each country, the differences in rates and the limited capacity for exchange. (author)

  10. Risk limitation, safety and environmental compatibility in electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the problem of meeting future electricity needs while at the same time reducing to a minimum the risks, the pollution of air and water and the environmental effects of power stations. The first resource to exploit is the ''virtual source'' represented by energy saving pursued to the limit of the possible. The second, in order of priority, is that of renewable resources as yet unused and under development. Unfortunately, in most countries these latter resources are far from sufficient: it is then necessary to choose between the use of conventional fossil fuels and nuclear fuels. In this paper it is shown that, of all the possible fossil fuels, only coal can be considered for electricity production. As a result, in meeting new electricity needs, the choice will have to be made between coal and nuclear power. Attention is directed to factors having a significant influence on this choice, particularly the risks and safety problems in the widest sense, with a view to making a global evaluation comprising not just generating stations but the entire production cycle, from the search for the primary source to the supplying of electricity to the user. The most important problems that arise in this connection are briefly analysed in the paper, which concludes with an appeal for more objectivity in providing information on energy, such information being at present very ''polluted'' and exerting a major influence on the views of experts. (author)

  11. A Review of Demand Forecast for Charging Facilities of Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiming, Han; Lingyu, Kong; Yaqi, Shen; Ying, Li; Wenting, Xiong; Hao, Wang

    2017-05-01

    The demand forecasting of charging facilities is the basis of its planning and locating, which has important role in promoting the development of electric vehicles and alleviating the energy crisis. Firstly, this paper analyzes the influence of the charging mode, the electric vehicle population and the user’s charging habits on the demand of charging facilities; Secondly, considering these factors, the recent analysis on charging and switching equipment demand forecast is divided into two methods—forecast based on electric vehicle population and user traveling behavior. Then, the article analyzes the two methods and puts forward the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, in view of the defects of current research, combined with the current situation of the development of the city and comprehensive consideration of economic, political, environmental and other factors, this paper proposes an improved demand forecasting method which has great practicability and pertinence and lays the foundation for the plan of city electric facilities.

  12. Beyond benzyl grignards: facile generation of benzyl carbanions from styrenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, R David; Rigoli, Jared W; Van Hoveln, Ryan; Neale, Samuel; Schomaker, Jennifer M

    2012-07-23

    Benzylic functionalization is a convenient approach towards the conversion of readily available aromatic hydrocarbon feedstocks into more useful molecules. However, the formation of carbanionic benzyl species from benzyl halides or similar precursors is far from trivial. An alternative approach is the direct reaction of a styrene with a suitable coupling partner, but these reactions often involve the use of precious-metal transition-metal catalysts. Herein, we report the facile and convenient generation of reactive benzyl anionic species from styrenes. A Cu(I)-catalyzed Markovnikov hydroboration of the styrenic double bond by using a bulky pinacol borane source is followed by treatment with KOtBu to facilitate a sterically induced cleavage of the C-B bond to produce a benzylic carbanion. Quenching this intermediate with a variety of electrophiles, including CO(2), CS(2), isocyanates, and isothiocyanates, promotes C-C bond formation at the benzylic carbon atom. The utility of this methodology was demonstrated in a three-step, two-pot synthesis of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (±)-flurbiprofen. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Intake-to-delivered-energy ratios for central station and distributed electricity generation in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heath, Garvin A.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2007-01-01

    In previous work, we showed that the intake fraction (iF) for nonreactive primary air pollutants was 20 times higher in central tendency for small-scale, urban-sited distributed electricity generation (DG) sources than for large-scale, central station (CS) power plants in California [Heath, G.A., Granvold, P.W., Hoats, A.S., Nazaroff, W.W., 2006. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation. Atmospheric Environment 40, 7164-7177]. The present paper builds on that study, exploring pollutant- and technology-specific aspects of population inhalation exposure from electricity generation. We compare California's existing CS-based system to one that is more reliant on DG units sited in urban areas. We use Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based exposure analysis to assess 25 existing CSs and 11 DG sources hypothetically located in the downtowns of California's most populous cities. We consider population intake of three pollutants - PM 2.5 , NO x and formaldehyde - directly emitted by five DG technologies - natural gas (NG)-fired turbines, NG internal combustion engines (ICE), NG microturbines, diesel ICEs, and fuel cells with on-site NG reformers. We also consider intake of these pollutants from existing CS facilities, most of which use large NG turbines, as well as from hypothetical facilities located at these same sites but meeting California's best-available control technology standards. After systematically exploring the sensitivity of iF to pollutant decay rate, the iFs for each of the three pollutants for all DG and CS cases are estimated. To efficiently compare the pollutant- and technology-specific exposure potential on an appropriate common basis, a new metric is introduced and evaluated: the intake-to-delivered-energy ratio (IDER). The IDER expresses the mass of pollutant inhaled by an exposed population owing to emissions from an electricity generation unit per quantity of electric

  14. Intake-to-delivered-energy ratios for central station and distributed electricity generation in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Garvin A.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In previous work, we showed that the intake fraction (iF) for nonreactive primary air pollutants was 20 times higher in central tendency for small-scale, urban-sited distributed electricity generation (DG) sources than for large-scale, central station (CS) power plants in California [Heath, G.A., Granvold, P.W., Hoats, A.S., Nazaroff, W.W., 2006. Intake fraction assessment of the air pollutant exposure implications of a shift toward distributed electricity generation. Atmospheric Environment 40, 7164-7177]. The present paper builds on that study, exploring pollutant- and technology-specific aspects of population inhalation exposure from electricity generation. We compare California's existing CS-based system to one that is more reliant on DG units sited in urban areas. We use Gaussian plume modeling and a GIS-based exposure analysis to assess 25 existing CSs and 11 DG sources hypothetically located in the downtowns of California's most populous cities. We consider population intake of three pollutants—PM 2.5, NO x and formaldehyde—directly emitted by five DG technologies—natural gas (NG)-fired turbines, NG internal combustion engines (ICE), NG microturbines, diesel ICEs, and fuel cells with on-site NG reformers. We also consider intake of these pollutants from existing CS facilities, most of which use large NG turbines, as well as from hypothetical facilities located at these same sites but meeting California's best-available control technology standards. After systematically exploring the sensitivity of iF to pollutant decay rate, the iFs for each of the three pollutants for all DG and CS cases are estimated. To efficiently compare the pollutant- and technology-specific exposure potential on an appropriate common basis, a new metric is introduced and evaluated: the intake-to-delivered-energy ratio (IDER). The IDER expresses the mass of pollutant inhaled by an exposed population owing to emissions from an electricity generation unit per quantity of electric

  15. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  16. Growth opportunities in electric generation in the 1990s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author has been asked to give a background perspective on the relative roles of two fuels, coal and natural gas, as the electric utility industry looks out over the remainder of the century and beyond. The goal of this review is to provide a better understanding of the forces shaping the competition between coal and gas, and the direction this competition is likely to take in the years ahead. In speaking to the question of the emerging role of gas in the electric utility industry, the author addresses four questions: (1) the mix of new generation planned for the 1990s; (2) the reasons for renewed interest in gas; (3) the long run potential for gas; and (4) operational challenges unique to gas. He concludes with a simple question: will gas and coal really compete, or will they serve different markets?

  17. Electric-field effects in optically generated spin transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2009-05-25

    Transport of spin-polarized electrons in semiconductors is studied experimentally. Spins are generated by optical excitation because of the selection rules governing optical transitions from heavy-hole and light-hole states to conduction-band states. Experiments designed for the control of spins in semiconductors investigate the bias-dependent spin transport process and detect the spin-polarized electrons during transport. A strong bias dependence is observed. The electric-field effects on the spin-polarized electron transport are also found to be depended on the excitation photon energy and temperature. Based on a field-dependent spin relaxation mechanism, the electric-field effects in the transport process are discussed.

  18. Generation adequacy and transmission interconnection in regional electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda, Mauricio; Saguan, Marcelo; Finon, Dominique; Pignon, Virginie

    2009-01-01

    The power system capacity adequacy has public good features that cannot be entirely solved by electricity markets. Regulatory intervention is then necessary and established methods have been used to assess adequacy and help regulators to fix this market failure. In regional electricity markets, transmission interconnections play an important role in contributing to adequacy. However, the adequacy problem and related policy are typically considered at a national level. This paper presents a simple model to study how the interconnection capacity interacts with generation adequacy. First results indicate that increasing interconnection capacity between systems improves adequacy up to a certain level; further increases do not procure additional adequacy improvements. Furthermore, besides adequacy improvement, increasing transmission capacity under asymmetric adequacy criteria or national system characteristics could create several concerns about externalities. These results imply that regional coordination of national adequacy policies is essential to internalise adequacy of cross-border effects.

  19. Tax barriers to four renewable electric generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, A.F.; Chapman, R.A.; Reilly, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    The tax loads associated with constructing and owning current and advanced solar central receiver, biomass-electric, and flash and binary cycle geothermal projects are compared to the tax loads incurred by natural gas-fired generation matched in size, hours of operation, and technology status. All but one of the eight renewable projects carry higher tax burdens under current tax codes. These higher tax loads proportionately reduce the competitiveness of renewables. Three tax neutralizing policies are applied to the renewable projects, each restoring competitiveness for some of the projects. The results show that RD and D must be accompanied with such public initiatives as tax neutrality in order for the majority of renewable projects to compete with advanced gas turbines in the emerging electric services market

  20. Economics of uranium and thorium for the generation of electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1958-09-15

    Only a few years ago there was serious talk of the prospect that economically available supplies of uranium and thorium might restrict the development of nuclear power. Now the position is reversed and the state of technical development of nuclear power threatens to restrict the market for the abundant supply of these minerals. Uranium and thorium are essentially fuels well suited to the generation of large blocks of electricity. As such, they must be assessed in relation to competitive fuels -- coal, oil and natural gas and the other large sources, namely water power. The most relevant basis is therefore a study of the demand for electric power and the costs of available sources where this demand exists. (author)

  1. Electricity generation sectors under purchase obligation: support arrangement analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-04-01

    This report aims at assessing the operation of the support arrangement by which currently benefit some electricity production sectors in France (renewable energies, co-generation) with respect to the evolution of the energy mix within the frame of energy transition. Other support arrangements presently adopted in Europe are also addressed as lessons to be learned. Criteria are established for any support arrangement. The report presents the French and European context regarding such support arrangement with purchasing obligation, and addresses the future evolutions of the European Commission. It highlights challenges for the electric system and for the energy market (impact on investments, optimization of market operation), describes and assesses the French purchasing obligation arrangement, and describes and assesses other existing support arrangements

  2. Improving nuclear generating station response for electrical grid islanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Q.B.; Kundur, P.; Acchione, P.N.; Lautsch, B.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes problems associated with the performance characteristics of nuclear generating stations which do not have their overall plant control design functions co-ordinated with the other grid controls. The paper presents some design changes to typical nuclear plant controls which result in a significant improvement in both the performance of the grid island and the chances of the nuclear units staying on-line following the disturbance. This paper focuses on four areas of the overall unit controls and turbine governor controls which could be modified to better co-ordinate the control functions of the nuclear units with the electrical grid. Some simulation results are presented to show the performance of a typical electrical grid island containing a nuclear unit with and without the changes

  3. Sustainability-guided promotion of renewable electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madlener, Reinhard; Stagl, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, the threat of global climate change, high fuel import dependence, and rapidly rising electricity demand levels have intensified the quest for more sustainable energy systems. This in turn has increased the need for policy makers to promote electricity generation from renewable energy sources. Guaranteed prices coupled with a buy-back obligation for electricity fed into the grid is a popular renewables promotion instrument, especially in Europe. More recently, driven mainly by electricity market liberalisation efforts, quota targets for the share of renewables in combination with tradable 'green' certificates (TGC) have received considerable attention. TGC offer a greater theoretical potential for economic efficiency gains, due to price competition and the greater flexibility assigned to the obliged parties. While guaranteed prices and TGC schemes support the operation of renewable energy technology systems, bidding schemes for renewable energy generation capacity are used to raise economic efficiency on the plant construction side. All of these policy instruments suffer from the shortcoming that they do not explicitly account for the often widely varying environmental, social and economic impacts of the technologies concerned. In this paper, we propose a methodology for the design of renewable energy policy instruments that is based on integrated assessment. In particular, we argue that using participatory multicriteria evaluation as part of the design of renewable energy promotion policies would make it possible: (1) to differentiate the level of promotion in a systematic and transparent manner according to their socio-ecological economic impact, and (2) to explicitly account for the preferences of stakeholders. A further problem of existing TGC and bidding schemes is that diversity of supply could be severely diminished, if few low-cost technologies were allowed to dominate the renewable energy market. To ensure a certain diversity of

  4. Feasibility Study of Biomass Electrical Generation on Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Roche; Richard Hartmann; Joohn Luton; Warren Hudelson; Roger Blomguist; Jan Hacker; Colene Frye

    2005-03-29

    The goals of the St. Croix Tribe are to develop economically viable energy production facilities using readily available renewable biomass fuel sources at an acceptable cost per kilowatt hour ($/kWh), to provide new and meaningful permanent employment, retain and expand existing employment (logging) and provide revenues for both producers and sellers of the finished product. This is a feasibility study including an assessment of available biomass fuel, technology assessment, site selection, economics viability given the foreseeable fuel and generation costs, as well as an assessment of the potential markets for renewable energy.

  5. [Electricity generation from corn steepwater using microbial fuel cell technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Na; Zhou, Shun-Gui; Zhang, Jin-Tao; Ni, Jin-Ren

    2009-02-15

    Corn steepwater containing 49,732.2 mg/L of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was used as fuel for a membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cell (MEA-MFC), which could generate electricity and treat the wastewater at the same time. During a batch experiment of 94 days with a fixed 1,000 Omega external resistance, the maximum voltage output of 525.0 mV and power density of 169.6 mW/m2 were obtained after 17 days, corresponding to the current density, internal resistance and open voltage of 440.2 mA/m2, 350 Omega and 619.5 mV, respectively. However, data showed that the coulombic efficiency was only 1.6%, suggesting very limited COD was utilized for electricity generation. At the conclusion of the test, the removals of COD and ammonia-nitrogen were achieved 51.6% and 25.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates that corn steepwater can be used for power generation in MFC with simultaneous accomplishments of wastewater treatment, providing a novel approach for the safe disposal and recycle of corn steepwater.

  6. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  7. Basic recognition on safety of nuclear electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazaki, Keiji

    1995-01-01

    The safety of nuclear electric power generation is not to inflict radiation damage on public. Natural radiation is about 1 mSv every year. As far as the core melting on large scale does not occur, there is not the possibility of exerting serious radiation effect to public. The way of thinking on ensuring the safety is defense in depth. The first protection is the prevention of abnormality, the second protection is the prevention of accidents, and the third protection is the relaxation of effect. As design base accidents, the loss of coolant accident due to the breakdown of inlet pipings of reactors and the breaking of fine tubes in steam generators are included. The suitability of location is evaluated. As the large scale accidents of nuclear power stations in the past, Chernobyl accident and Three Mile Island accident are explained. The features of the countermeasures to the accident in Mihama No. 2 plant are described. The countermeasures to severe accidents, namely accident management and general preventive maintenance are explained. The background of the nonconfidence feeling to nuclear electric power generation and the importance of opening information to public are shown. (K.I.)

  8. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  9. Proposed design criteria for a fusion facility electrical ground system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armellino, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    Ground grid design considerations for a nuclear fusion reactor facility are no different than any other facility in that the basis for design must be safety first and foremost. Unlike a conventional industrial facility the available fault energy comes not only from the utility source and in-house rotating machinery, but also from energy storage capacitor banks, collapsing magnetic fields and D.C. transmission lines. It is not inconceivable for a fault condition occurrence where all available energy can be discharged. The ground grid must adequately shunt this sudden energy discharge in a way that personnel will not be exposed by step and/or touch to hazardous energy levels that are in excess of maximum tolerable levels for humans. Fault energy discharge rate is a function of the ground grid surge impedance characteristic. Closed loop paths must be avoided in the ground grid design so that during energy discharge no stray magnetic fields or large voltage potentials between remote points can be created by circulating currents. Single point connection of equipment to the ground grid will afford protection to personnel and sensitive equipment by reducing the probability of circulating currents. The overall ground grid system design is best illustrated as a wagon wheel concept with the fusion machine at the center. Radial branches or spokes reach out to the perimeter limits designated by step-and-touch high risk areas based on soil resistivity criteria considerations. Conventional methods for the design of a ground grid with all of its radial branches are still pertinent. The center of the grid could include a deep well single ground rod element the length of which is at least equivalent to the radius of an imaginary sphere that enshrouds the immediate machine area. Special facilities such as screen rooms or other shielded areas are part of the ground grid system by way of connection to radial branches

  10. Evaluating experience with electricity generating GHG mitigation projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellis, J.

    2003-07-01

    Several programmes have been initiated to encourage the development of projects that mitigate emissions of greenhouse gases. Recent programmes have been undertaken at the national level, such as the Dutch five-track approach, including contracts with multilateral institutions, regional development banks, private banks, bilateral contracts with countries, participation in carbon funds and the ERUPT and CERUPT tenders, Japanese Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) feasibility studies, and the more recent Finnish, Austrian and Italian JI/CDM programmes. International programmes, such as the World Bank's Prototype Carbon Fund (and other WB carbon funds), have also been initiated. Individual projects not belonging to particular programmes have also been initiated under the pilot phase of 'activities implemented jointly' (AIJ) under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), or developed as CDM or Joint Implementation (JI) projects. Some CDM project activities have been formally submitted to the CDM's Executive Board (EB), who approved the first set of baseline and monitoring methodologies for CDM project activities in July 2003. There is a large variety in the type of projects that have been put forward. These include energy, industry, forestry and waste projects. This paper will focus on CDM-type projects that generate grid-connected electricity for several reasons: demand for electricity is growing rapidly in many potential host countries; many projects in the electricity sector have been developed as potential CDM and JI projects; assessing additionality and baselines is arguably more difficult for projects in the electricity sector (where a range of project types may occur as part of business-as-usual activities) than for end-of-pipe projects such as landfill gas capture and flaring or decomposition of F-gases; much work has been done on assessing appropriate methods to determine baselines in the electricity sector, at the

  11. Surplus from and storage of electricity generated by intermittent sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Data from the German electricity system for the years 2010, 2012, 2013, and 2015 are used and scaled up to a 100% supply by intermittent renewable energy sources (iRES). In the average, 330GW wind and PV power are required to meet this 100% target. A back-up system is necessary with the power of 89% of peak load. Surplus electricity accrues at high power levels. Curtailing surplus power to a large extent is found to be uneconomic. Demand-side management will suffer from the strong day-to-day variation of available surplus energy. A day storage is ineffective because of the day-night correlation of surplus power during winter. A seasonal storage loses its character when transformation losses are considered because it can contribute only after periods with excessive surplus production. The option of an oversized iRES system to feed the storage is also not effective because, in this case, energy can be taken directly from the large iRES supply, making storage superfluous. The capacities to be installed stress the difficulty to base heat supply and mobility also on iRES generated electricity in the future. As the German energy transition replaces one CO2-free electricity supply system by another one, no major reduction in CO2 emission can be expected till 2022, when the last nuclear reactor will be switched off. By 2022, an extremely oversized power supply system has to be created, which can be expected to continue running down spot-market electricity prices. The continuation of the economic response -to replace expensive gas fuel by cheap lignite- causes an overall increase in CO2 emission. The German GHG emission targets for 2020 and beyond are therefore in jeopardy.

  12. Assessing the difference. Greenhouse gas emissions of electricity generation chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spadaro, J.V.; Langlois, L.; Hamilton, B.

    2000-01-01

    Greenhouse gases have to the potential to influence global climate change by interfering with the natural process of heat exchange between the earth's atmosphere and outer space. Reducing atmospheric GHG concentrations have become an international priority as evidenced by the signing of the Kyoto Protocol, which would reduce emissions from industrialized countries (Annex 1) by about 5% below 1990 levels during the commitment period 2008-12. There are a number of technical options that could be implemented in order to achieve the proposed reduction target. As for emissions related to electricity generation, perhaps the most important factor over the near term is the improvement in efficiency of using energy at all the stages of the fuel cycle, including fuel preparation and transportation, fuel-to-electricity conversion at the power plant and at the point of end-use (which has not been considered here). Strategies for reducing methane releases during fuel mining and during gas transmission are very relevant. Switching to less carbon intensive or low carbon fuels, such as gas, nuclear power and renewables, will play a major role in reducing emissions. These changes are technically feasible using present day knowledge and experience, require minimal changes in consumer lifestyle, and represent reasonable capital turnover (gas and nuclear for baseload generation and renewables in niche markets or for peak load applications). This article has presented information on GHG emission factors for different fuels using a Full Energy Chain approach, which attempts to quantify the environmental emissions from all stages of electricity generation, i.e. 'cradle-to-grave'. Fossil-fueled technologies have the highest emission factors, with coal typically twice as high as natural gas. Considering the large variations in fuel- to-electricity conversion technology, it can be said that GHG emission factors can be an order of magnitude higher than current solar PV systems and up to two

  13. Microbial electricity generation enhances decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209 degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Yang

    Full Text Available Due to environmental persistence and biotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, it is urgent to develop potential technologies to remediate PBDEs. Introducing electrodes for microbial electricity generation to stimulate the anaerobic degradation of organic pollutants is highly promising for bioremediation. However, it is still not clear whether the degradation of PBDEs could be promoted by this strategy. In this study, we hypothesized that the degradation of PBDEs (e.g., BDE-209 would be enhanced under microbial electricity generation condition. The functional compositions and structures of microbial communities in closed-circuit microbial fuel cell (c-MFC and open-circuit microbial fuel cell (o-MFC systems for BDE-209 degradation were detected by a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 4.0, and linked with PBDE degradations. The results indicated that distinctly different microbial community structures were formed between c-MFCs and o-MFCs, and that lower concentrations of BDE-209 and the resulting lower brominated PBDE products were detected in c-MFCs after 70-day performance. The diversity and abundance of a variety of functional genes in c-MFCs were significantly higher than those in o-MFCs. Most genes involved in chlorinated solvent reductive dechlorination, hydroxylation, methoxylation and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in c-MFCs and significantly positively correlated with the removal of PBDEs. Various other microbial functional genes for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycling, as well as energy transformation process, were also significantly increased in c-MFCs. Together, these results suggest that PBDE degradation could be enhanced by introducing the electrodes for microbial electricity generation and by specifically stimulating microbial functional genes.

  14. Study Of Solar Charging Facility For Electric Vehicles In Edinburgh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Nassar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar power system decreases carbon dioxide CO2 emissions which are the lead cause of global warming. This paper presented a novel way to design a commercial solar photovoltaic PV farm to provide electricity for 10 of the Edinburgh domestic car fleet. The design is used for sizing of the solar system based on an excel spreadsheets. The results show that the proposed solar system reduces the CO2 emissions with around 95 less than the conventional energy system. Around 0.5TWh of electrical energy is required to meet Edinburgh domestic car fleet whenever converted to electrical vehicles. The PV solar panels at the investigated site has a capacity factor of around 12. The dynamic tilt angle is estimated for the investigated site while the fixed tilt angle is determined to be 49. Depending on dynamic solar panels leads to harvesting more solar energy than depending on fixed tilt angle around 14 higher energy. The meter square of land in Edinburgh receive some 950KWh per year based on the dynamic tilt angle. Around 218000 of solar panels are required to meet 10 of Edinburgh domestic car fleet.

  15. Electricity generation costs by source, and costs and benefits by substitutions of generation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, Keigo; Oda, Junichiro; Sano, Fuminori

    2015-01-01

    After Fukushima-daiichi nuclear power accident, the Japanese government assessed the electricity generation costs by source in 2011. However, the conditions have been changing, and this study newly assessed the generation costs by source using new data. The generation costs for coal, oil, gas, nuclear, PV and wind power for 2013 and 2030 were estimated. According to the analysis, coal power is the cheapest when climate change damage costs are not considered, and nuclear power is the cheapest when the climate damage costs are considered. However, under the competitive electricity market in which power companies tend to invest in power plants with short-term payback investment preference, power companies will recognize higher costs of nuclear power particularly under highly uncertain nuclear regulation policies and energy policies. The policies to reduce the uncertainties are very important. (author)

  16. WEAVE: the next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope : The next generation wide-field spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalton, Gavin; Trager, Scott C.; Abrams, Don Carlos; Carter, David; Bonifacio, Piercarlo; Aguerri, J. Alfonso L.; MacIntosh, Mike; Evans, Chris; Lewis, Ian; Navarro, Ramon; Agocs, Tibor; Dee, Kevin; Rousset, Sophie; Tosh, Ian; Middleton, Kevin; Pragt, Johannes; Terrett, David; Brock, Matthew; Benn, Chris; Verheijen, Marc; Cano Infantes, Diego; Bevil, Craige; Steele, Iain; Mottram, Chris; Bates, Stuart; Gribbin, Francis J.; Rey, Jürg; Rodriguez, Luis Fernando; Delgado, Jose Miguel; Guinouard, Isabelle; Walton, Nic; Irwin, Michael J.; Jagourel, Pascal; Stuik, Remko; Gerlofsma, Gerrit; Roelfsma, Ronald; Skillen, Ian; Ridings, Andy; Balcells, Marc; Daban, Jean-Baptiste; Gouvret, Carole; Venema, Lars; Girard, Paul

    We present the preliminary design of the WEAVE next generation spectroscopy facility for the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), principally targeting optical ground-based follow up of upcoming ground-based (LOFAR) and spacebased (Gaia) surveys. WEAVE is a multi-object and multi-IFU facility utilizing

  17. Electrical motor/generator drive apparatus and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2013-02-12

    The present disclosure includes electrical motor/generator drive systems and methods that significantly reduce inverter direct-current (DC) bus ripple currents and thus the volume and cost of a capacitor. The drive methodology is based on a segmented drive system that does not add switches or passive components but involves reconfiguring inverter switches and motor stator winding connections in a way that allows the formation of multiple, independent drive units and the use of simple alternated switching and optimized Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) schemes to eliminate or significantly reduce the capacitor ripple current.

  18. Welfare impacts of electricity generation sector reform in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toba, Natsuko

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports an empirical investigation into the welfare impacts of the introduction of private sector participation into the Philippines electricity generation sector, by liberalizing the market for independent power producers (IPPs) during the power crisis of 1990-1993. This study uses a social cost and benefit analysis. The main benefits came from IPPs, who contributed to resolving the crisis, and promoted economic and social development. Consumers and investors were net gainers, while the government lost and there was an air pollution cost. The paper concludes that the reform with private sector participation increased social welfare

  19. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetch, J.R.; Begg, L.L.; Koester, J.K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed. 10 references

  20. The perception of risks related to electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midden, C J; Daamen, D D; Verplanken, B

    1987-01-01

    Some of the key findings are discussed of psychological research on the perception of risks and attitudes with respect to the use of uranium and coal for electricity generation. It appears that attitudes are mostly not based on ideology but rather determined by a trade-off of expected risks and advantages. Lay estimates of probabilities are compared with expert judgements. In the last section attitudes of people living near existing or planned power plants are analyzed. Serious doubts are raised about the possibilities to give residents economic compensation for exposure to risks. 1 fig., 29 refs.

  1. How is Electricity Generated from Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajnef, D.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power is a proven, safe and clean source of power generation. A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor. As is typical in all conventional thermal power stations the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine: the energy released from continuous fission of the atoms of the fuel is harnessed as heat in either a gas or water, and is used to produce steam. Nuclear Reactors are classified by several methods. It can be classified by type of nuclear reaction, by the moderator material, by coolant or by generation. There are several components common to most types of reactors: fuel, moderator, control rods, coolant, and containment. Nuclear reactor technology has been under continuous development since the first commercial exploitation of civil nuclear power in the 1950s. We can mention seven key reactor attributes that illuminate the essential differences between the various generations of reactors: cost effectiveness, safety, security and non-proliferation, fuel cycle, grid appropriateness and Economics. Today there are about 437 nuclear power reactors that are used to generate electricity in about 30 countries around the world. (author)

  2. Renewable electricity generation in India—A learning rate analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, Ian

    2013-01-01

    The cost of electricity generation using renewable technologies is widely assumed to be higher than the cost for conventional generation technologies, but likely to fall with growing experience of the technologies concerned. This paper tests the second part of that statement using learning rate analysis, based on large samples of wind and small hydro projects in India, and projects likely changes in these costs through 2020. It is the first study of learning rates for renewable generation technologies in India, and only the second in any developing country—it provides valuable input to the development of Indian energy policy and will be relevant to policy makers in other developing countries. The paper considers some potential problems with learning rate analysis raised by Nordhaus (2009. The Perils of the Learning Model for Modeling Endogenous Technological Change. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper Series No. 14638). By taking account of these issues, it is possible both to improve the models used for making cost projections and to examine the potential impact of remaining forecasting problems. - Highlights: • The first learning rate analysis of wind generation costs in India. • Only the second learning rate analysis for wind in any developing country. • Reviews missing variable and related issues in learning rate analysis. • Finds a 17.7% learning rate for wind generation costs in India. • Finds no significant learning effect for small hydro

  3. An electrical dynamo that is a new technology over the generation of electricity by induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickox, B.

    1991-01-01

    This invention describes a different device for generating a type alternating electrical power. In the paper an electrical generator is described with one or more nonconductive cylinders mounted for rotation about an axis and containing at lest four pairs of permanent magnets, longitudinally spaced within the cylinder and angularly offset from each other in a helical array. Each of the magnets in each pair is radially disposed in the cylinder opposite the other and separated from the other at the cylinder axis with like poles facing each other. An electrical secondary is provided within the magnetic field of the magnets in the cylinder. A ring magnetic is oriented with an axis parallel to the cylinder axis an is relatively moveable there along. The magnetic fields acting between the ring magnet and the magnets in the cylinder rotates the cylinder to induce electrical current in the generatory secondary. A working model of this device has been constructed and tested. Other researchers are currently building and testing other similar units and various embodiments and applications of this device. This device warrants further testing and closer study

  4. Modified electrical survey for effective leakage detection at concrete hydraulic facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bomi; Oh, Seokhoon

    2018-02-01

    Three original electrode arrays for the effective leakage detection of concrete hydraulic facilities through electrical resistivity surveys are proposed: 'cross-potential', 'direct-potential' and modified tomography-like arrays. The main differences with respect to the commonly used arrays are that the current line-sources are separated from potential pole lines and floated upon the water. The potential pole lines are located directly next to the facility in order to obtain intuitive data and useful interpretations of the internal conditions of the hydraulic facility. This modified configuration of the array clearly displays the horizontal variation of the electrical field around the damaged zones of the concrete hydraulic facility, and any anomalous regions that might be found between potential poles placed across the facilities. In order to facilitate the interpretation of these modified electrical surveys, a new and creative way of presenting the measurements is also proposed and an inversion approach is provided for the modified tomography-like array. A numerical modeling and two field tests were performed to verify these new arrays and interpretation methods. The cross and direct potential array implied an ability to detect small variations of the potential field near the measurement poles. The proposed array showed the overall potential distribution across the hydraulic facility which may be used to assist in the search of trouble zones within the structure, in combination with the traditional electrical resistivity array.

  5. Additional Energy Losses from Asymmetric and Non-Sinusoidal Current in an Electrical Facility and Methods of their Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasov, Evgeny Vladimirovich; Bulyga, Leonid Leonidovich; Ushakov, Vasily Yakovlevich; Kharlov, Nikolay Nikolaevich

    2015-01-01

    Influence of the asymmetry and higher harmonics of current on the operation of an electrical facility is analyzed. The level of additional losses from the asymmetric and non-sinusoidal currents is evaluated for a 110 kV electrical network in the Siberian Region of the Russian Federation. Methods for reducing the additional energy losses in the electrical facility are suggested.

  6. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  7. Submerged electricity generation plane with marine current-driven motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehlsen, James G.P.; Dehlsen, James B.; Fleming, Alexander

    2014-07-01

    An underwater apparatus for generating electric power from ocean currents and deep water tides. A submersible platform including two or more power pods, each having a rotor with fixed-pitch blades, with drivetrains housed in pressure vessels that are connected by a transverse structure providing buoyancy, which can be a wing depressor, hydrofoil, truss, or faired tube. The platform is connected to anchors on the seafloor by forward mooring lines and a vertical mooring line that restricts the depth of the device in the water column. The platform operates using passive, rather than active, depth control. The wing depressor, along with rotor drag loads, ensures the platform seeks the desired operational current velocity. The rotors are directly coupled to a hydraulic pump that drives at least one constant-speed hydraulic-motor generator set and enables hydraulic braking. A fluidic bearing decouples non-torque rotor loads to the main shaft driving the hydraulic pumps.

  8. Wood-fired electricity generation in Eastern Ontario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-01

    The feasibility of using large areas of currently unproductive rural land in Ontario for poplar plantations which would supply fuel for wood-fired power plants was examined. Information is included on the productive potential of such poplar plantations, the technology of wood-fired steam-electric plants, costs of wood and water supplies, location of plants, cost of power generation, and socio-economic effects. It was concluded that approximately 1.7 million acres of unused land are available which could produce 7 to 10 million tons of wood fuel per year which in turn could be converted to 1600 MW/yr over the next 10 yr. No adverse environmental effects are expected. The project would economically benefit an area of high unemployment. It is recommended that a more detailed feasibility study be undertaken to establish land availability and acquisition, cost of power generation in wood-fired plants, and the economic impact of such a project. (LCL)

  9. Applications of lightweight composite materials in pulsed rotating electrical generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.A.; Maifold, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Present rotating electrical pulse power generators are limited in energy storage capability, specific energy, and peak power density by the use of iron-magnetic circuits. This paper discusses lightweight and compact iron-core homopolar generators (HPGs) which have attained specific energies of 6 kJ/kg and have the potential to achieve 8 kJ/kg in the near future. Prototype iron based pulsed alternators are the favored choice for high power to mass ratio applications and have estimated peak ratings of 180 kW/kg. In terms of total energy storage capability, these machines are limited to several hundred MJ due to the availability of large steel forgings for rotors and basic design considerations including rotor dynamics, allowable rotor tip speeds, and present high speed current collection technology

  10. Economic aspects of Solar Thermal Technologies for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, W.

    1993-01-01

    Economic results of German studies are presented, which compare the four solar thermal technologies for electricity generation (parabolic trough collector system, central receiver system, parabolic dish/Stirling system, solar chimney plant). These studies were carried out by Interatom (today Siemens/KWU) in Bergisch Gladbach, Flachglas Solartechnik in Koln and Schlaich Bergermann and Partner in Stuggart under contract of DLR in Koln. Funds were made available by the German Ministry of Research and Development (BMFT). The results indicate that all of the investigated technologies have the potential to reduce the generating costs and that in the future costs of below 0.30 DM/kWh could be expected under excellent insolation conditions (e.G. 2850 kWh/m''2 a direct insolation as in California/USA). (Author) 25 refs

  11. Halbach array motor/generators: A novel generalized electric machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, B.T.; Post, R.F.; Dreifuerst, G.R.; Bender, D.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    For many years Klaus Halbach has been investigating novel designs for permanent magnet arrays, using advanced analytical approaches and employing a keen insight into such systems. One of his motivations for this research was to find more efficient means for the utilization of permanent magnets for use in particle accelerators and in the control of particle beams. As a result of his pioneering work, high power free-electron laser systems, such as the ones built at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, became feasible, and his arrays have been incorporated into other particle-focusing systems of various types. This paper reports another, quite different, application of Klaus` work, in the design of high power, high efficiency, electric generators and motors. When tested, these motor/generator systems display some rather remarkable properties. Their success derives from the special properties which these arrays, which the authors choose to call {open_quotes}Halbach arrays,{close_quotes} possess.

  12. Generating capital: improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Beers, R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a critical discussion on improving investor confidence in Ontario's electricity industry to induce new generation investment. The reason that investor confidence is critical in the electric power industry is due to the fact that the industry is capital intensive, the asset life is long, it is impossible to model political/regulatory risk and political action is virtually inevitable. The paper concludes that ultimately private sector investors will bear little risk, the tax payer will be on the hook for almost all risk

  13. On the electric and magnetic field generation in expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, H.J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the generation of electric and magnetic fields in expanding plasmas. The theoretical model used to calculate the different field quantities in such plasmas is discussed in part 1 and is in fact an analysis of Ohm's law. A general method is given that decomposes each of the forces terms in Ohm's law in a component that induces a charge separation in the plasma and in a component that can drive current. This decomposition is unambiguous and depends upon the boundary conditions for the electric potential. It is shown that in calculating the electromagnetic field quantities in a plasma that is located in the vicinity of a boundary that imposes constraints on the electric potential, Ohm's law should be analyzed instead of the so-called induction equation. Three applications of the model are presented. A description is given of the unipolar arc discharge where both plasma and sheath effects have been taken into account. Secondly a description is presented of the plasma effects of a cathode spot. The third application of the model deals with the generation of magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas. The second part of this thesis describes the experiments on a magnetized argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. With the use of spectroscopic techniques the electron density, ion temperature and the rotation velocity profiles of the ion gas have been determined. The magnetic field generated by the plasma has been measured with the use of the Zeeman effect. Depending on the channel diameter of the nozzle of the cascaded arc, self-generated magnetic fields with axial components of the order of 1% of the externally applied mangetic field have been observed. From the measured ion rotation it has been concluded that this magnetic field is mainly generated by azimuthal electron currents. The corresponding azimuthal current density is of the order of 15% of the axial current density. The observed ion rotation is caused by electron-ion friction. (author

  14. Cost of electricity from small scale co-generation of electricity and heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, Bjoern

    2012-07-15

    There is an increasing interest in Sweden for using also small heat loads for cogeneration of electricity and heat. Increased use of small CHP-plants with heat supply capacities from a few 100 kW(h) up to 10 MW(h) cannot change the structure of the electricity supply system significantly, but could give an important contribution of 2 - 6 TWh(e) annually. The objective of this study was to clarify under what conditions electricity can be generated in small wood fired CHP-plants in Sweden at costs that can compete with those for plants using fossil fuels or nuclear energy. The capacity range studied was 2 - 10 MW(h). The results should facilitate decisions about the meaningfulness of considering CHP as an option when new heat supply systems for small communities or sawmills are planned. At the price for green certificates in Sweden, 250 - 300 SEK/MWh(e), generation costs in small wood fired CHP-plants should be below about 775 SEK/MWh(e) to compete with new nuclear power plants and below about 925 SEK/MWh(e) to compete with generation using fossil fuels.

  15. Policies to improve biomass-electricity generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coelho, Suani T.; Bolognini, Marly F.; Zylbersztajn, David

    1999-01-01

    Electricity consumption in Brazil has grown twice from 1979 to 1994 and, for the future, official forecasts estimate high risks of deficit. Brazilian generation system presents highly seasonal characteristics due to its hydroelectric origin and sugar cane origin electricity could be used as complementation for the dry period, instead of conventional thermoelectric power plants, with the corresponding environmental advantages. Nowadays, most sugar/alcohol industries in the state of Sao Paulo are energy self-sufficient and some of them already export a small electricity surplus to the grid. The potential for such surplus is significant, moreover with the introduction of more efficient technologies, but prices are not yet attractive when compared to conventional market prices, besides the existing barriers related to the current legislation. On the other hand, existing studies show that more efficient technologies become competitive when externalities are included. This paper analyses worthing methodologies, externalities-based decisions and policy mechanisms to guide governments, planners, decision-makers and managers in the correct evaluation of bioenergy use and production faced to other alternatives. (Author)

  16. Renewable energy sources for electricity generation in selected developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this report are to analyze the present status and to assess the future of selected renewable energy sources (RE) other than hydropower, i.e. wind, solar, biomass, tidal and geothermal, already in use or expected to be used for electricity generation. The report focuses on grid connected technologies leaving stand-alone power plants unconsidered. This report provides recent information on environmental impacts, costs and technical potentials related to the implementation of electricity technologies using these energy sources. The study is limited to six OECD countries, i.e. Australia, the Federal Republic of Germany, Japan, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The situation in other OECD countries is addressed where appropriate, but no comprehensive information is provided. Nevertheless, efforts are made to determine the technical potential of the renewable energy sources for ''Rest of OECD''. The time horizons in this report are 2010 and 2030. While detailed information is provided for the period until 2010, the technical potential for 2030 is discussed only qualitatively. Scenario analysis and the design of national energy and electric systems assuming different sets of objectives and boundary conditions are outside the scope of this study. Nevertheless, the information given in this report should provide input data for such a systems analysis. All the information given in this report is based on literature surveys. Any figure given is contingent on the fact that it has appeared in a paper or a publicly available technical report. 251 refs, figs and tabs

  17. Projected Costs of Generating Electricity - 2015 Edition. Executive Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This joint report by the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) is the eighth in a series of studies on electricity generating costs. As policy makers work to ensure that the power supply is reliable, secure and affordable, while making it increasingly clean and sustainable in the context of the debate on climate change, it is becoming more crucial that they understand what determines the relative cost of electricity generation using fossil fuel, nuclear or renewable sources of energy. A wide range of fuels and technologies are presented in the report, including natural gas, coal, nuclear, hydro, solar, onshore and offshore wind, biomass and biogas, geothermal, and combined heat and power, drawing on a database from surveys of investment and operating costs that include a larger number of countries than previous editions. The analysis of more than 180 plants, based on data covering 22 countries, reveals several key trends, pointing, for example, to a significant decline in recent years in the cost of renewable generation. The report also reveals that nuclear energy costs remain in line with the cost of other base-load technologies, particularly in markets that value de-carbonisation. Overall, cost drivers of the different generating technologies remain both market-specific and technology-specific. Readers will find a wealth of details and analysis, supported by over 200 figures and tables, underlining this report's value as a tool for decision makers and researchers concerned with energy policies, climate change and the evolution of power sectors around the world. (authors)

  18. Feasibility study of wind-generated electricity for rural applications in southwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, G. W.

    The parameters associated with domestic production of wind generated electricity for direct use by small farms and rural homes in the southwestern Ohio region are discussed. The project involves direct utility interfaced electricity generation from a horizontal axis, down-wind, fixed pitch, wind powered induction generator system. Goals of the project are to determine: the ability to produce useful amounts of domestic wind generated electricity in the southwestern Ohio region; economic justification for domestic wind generated electrical production; and the potential of domestic wind generated electricity for reducing dependence on non-renewable energy resources in the southwestern Ohio region.

  19. Clean generation of electric energy; Generacion limpia de energia electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez, Juan M.; Torres, Emmanuel [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados (CINVESTAV), Unidad Guadalajara (Mexico)

    2006-10-15

    This article deals on the existing alternatives of renewable energy for generation of electricity free from polluting sequels within the Mexican territory and presents a global overview on the electricity generation in Mexico. Wind power, hydraulic energy, biomass, photovoltaic and fuel cells are sources of renewable energy that could contribute to Mexico's sustainable development, for this reason it is discussed on the main sources of renewable energy in Mexico - solar and wind energy, mini-hydraulic, biomass and geothermal -, on their development and evolution, cost, insertion projects and obstacles for their correct development in this country. [Spanish] Este articulo versa sobre las alternativas de energia renovable existentes para una generacion de electricidad libre de secuelas contaminantes dentro del territorio mexicano y presenta un panorama global sobre la generacion de electricidad en Mexico. La energia eolica, hidraulica, biomasa, fotovoltaica y las celdas de combustible son fuentes de energia renovable que podrian contribuir al desarrollo sustentable de Mexico, por esto se arguye sobre las principales fuentes de energia renovable en Mexico -energia solar, eolica, minihidraulica, biomasa y geotermia-, sobre su desarrollo y evolucion, costo, proyectos de insercion y obstaculos para su correcto desarrollo en ese pais.

  20. Role of electric discharges in the generation of atmospheric vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinkevich, O. A., E-mail: oleg.sinkevich@itf.mpei.ac.ru [National Research University “MPEI,” (Russian Federation); Maslov, S. A., E-mail: sergm90@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation); Gusein-zade, N. G., E-mail: ngus@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-02-15

    The existing thermohydrodynamic and hydroelectromagnetic models of tornado are considered. The potentialities of the humid atmosphere as a heat engine generating air vortices are analyzed in detail. The ability of long-term atmospheric electric discharges to form a tornado funnel and create an initial twist of up to 10{sup –3}–10{sup –2} s{sup –1} in it are estimated. The possible effect of a lightning discharge on the initiation and evolution of the tornado is discussed. It is shown that the electric current flowing along the lightning channel can lead to helical instability and generation of a weak primary vortex. The channel formed in the atmosphere by a lightning discharge and the vortex motion of the parent thundercloud can enhance the primary vortex and promote its transformation into a tornado. Possible mechanisms of enhancement of the primary vortex created by a lightning discharge and the possibility of its transformation into a tornado in the postdischarge stage are discussed.

  1. Nuclear and conventional baseload electricity generation cost experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The experienced costs of electricity generation by nuclear and conventional plants and the expected costs of future plants are important for evaluating the economic attractiveness of various power projects and for planning the expansion of electrical generating systems. The main objective of this report is to shed some light on recent cost experience, based on well authenticated information made available by the IAEA Member States participating in this study. Cost information was provided by Canada (Ontario Hydro), Czechoslovakia, Hungary, India, the Republic of Korea and Spain. Reference is also made to information received from Brazil, China, France, Russia and the United States of America. The part of the report that deals with cost experience is Section 2, where the costs of both nuclear and fossil fired plants are reviewed. Other sections give emphasis to the analysis of the major issues and relevant cost elements influencing the costs of nuclear power plants and to a discussion of cost projections. Many of the conclusions can also be applied to conventional plants, although they are usually less important than in the case of nuclear plants. 1 ref., figs and tabs

  2. Air pollution health effects of electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-11-01

    stitutt for Atomenergi (IFA) and Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning (NILU) have undertaken a joint project with the ultimate purpose of comparing the relative air pollution health effects of gas-fired, oil-fired and uranium-fueled electric power generating plants. Phase I of the project includes a literature review on pollutant emissions and their health effects. The methods which have previouously been used to compare the relative health effects are also reviewed. The radioactive effluents from nuclear power plants are tabulated and the health effects discussed on the basis of data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, medical irradiation therapy and studies of USAEC and UKAEA employees. It is pointed out that there is no indication that chronic low-level radiation has somatic effects, and the Japanese data gives no conclusive indication of genetic effects. Background irradiation in Kerala and Guarapari and in USA is also cited. Following a brief presentation of the principal air pollutants from fossil fuels a number of studies of 'smog' incidents in the UK and USA are discussed, and a prediction equation based on multiple regression analysis is presented. Finally the methods of comparing the health effects from nuclear and fossil-fuel plants are discussed. In an appendix Lave and Freeburg's study 'Health effects of electricity generation from coal, oil and nuclear fuel' is evaluated. (JIW)

  3. Fuel cells for electricity generation from carbonaceous fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K; Formanski, V; Roes, J [Gerhard-Mercator- Universitaet - Gesamthochschule Duisburg, Fachbereich Maschinenbau/Fachgebiet Energietechnik, Duisburg (Germany); Heinzel, A [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Freiburg (Germany)

    1998-09-01

    Fuel cells, which are electrochemical systems converting chemical energy directly into electrical energy with water and heat as by-products, are of interest as a means of generating electricity which is environmentally friendly, clean and highly efficient. They are classified according to the electrolyte used. The main types of cell in order of operating temperature are described. These are: alkaline fuel cells, the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC); the phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC); the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC); the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Applications depend on the type of cell and may range from power generation on a large scale to mobile application in cars or portable systems. One of the most promising options is the PEM-fuel cell stack where there has been significant improvement in power density in recent years. The production from carbonaceous fuels and purification of the cell fuel, hydrogen, is considered. Of the purification methods available, hydrogen separation by means of palladium alloy membranes seems particular effective in reducing CO concentrations to the low levels required for PEM cells. (UK)

  4. Wind energy research activities of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halberg, N.

    1990-01-01

    The varying degrees of penetration of wind energy conversion systems (WECs) into the Dutch electricity generating system has been examined. A simulation has been carried out using wind data recorded at 6 sites spread across the area of interest in the Netherlands. The recorded wind data has been used in conjunction with a production costing model normally used by Sep (the Dutch Electricity Generating Board) for planning purposes. This model was modified to give a correct assessment of the quantity and value of fuel savings made by WECs. System studies were carried out for the year 2000 for zero wind penetration and for three distinctive penetration degrees of WECs, namely 5%, 10% and 15%. After incorporation of the WECS capacity, adjustments were made to the basic plant mix to allow the capacity credit WECs. Separate production cost simulations were executed for each distinct WECS capacity factor. Economic assessments were carried out using standard procedures. Except for the unpredictable development of fuel prices, the capital costs of the WECs proved to be the determinant for the economic viability of wind power. Significant improvements in costs and performance, as may be achieved through additional technological advances, are needed to made wind power competitive in widespread utility applications. (Author)

  5. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher; Rebois, Dylan; Scholten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels—altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas—its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal—has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  6. The greenhouse impact of unconventional gas for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hultman, Nathan; Ramig, Christopher [School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, 2101 Van Munching Hall, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Rebois, Dylan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maryland, 2181 Glenn L Martin Hall, Building 088, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Scholten, Michael [Joint Quantum Institute, University of Maryland, 2207 Computer and Space Sciences Building, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    New techniques to extract natural gas from unconventional resources have become economically competitive over the past several years, leading to a rapid and largely unanticipated expansion in natural gas production. The US Energy Information Administration projects that unconventional gas will supply nearly half of US gas production by 2035. In addition, by significantly expanding and diversifying the gas supply internationally, the exploitation of new unconventional gas resources has the potential to reshape energy policy at national and international levels-altering geopolitics and energy security, recasting the economics of energy technology investment decisions, and shifting trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In anticipation of this expansion, one of the perceived core advantages of unconventional gas-its relatively moderate GHG impact compared to coal-has recently come under scrutiny. In this paper, we compare the GHG footprints of conventional natural gas, unconventional natural gas (i.e. shale gas that has been produced using the process of hydraulic fracturing, or 'fracking'), and coal in a transparent and consistent way, focusing primarily on the electricity generation sector. We show that for electricity generation the GHG impacts of shale gas are 11% higher than those of conventional gas, and only 56% that of coal for standard assumptions.

  7. Security of electricity supply at the generation level: Problem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodilla, P.; Batlle, C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the very beginning of the restructuring process, back in 1982 in Chile, the ability of an electricity market to provide the system with the required level of security of supply has been put into question. The mistrust on the ability of the market, left to its own devices, to provide sufficient generation availability when needed, is more and more leading to the implementation of additional regulatory mechanisms. This matter is undoubtedly gaining importance and it has taken a key role in the energy regulators’ agendas. In this paper, we revisit this discussion under the light of thirty years of electricity market experience. We analyze the different reasons why, although ideally the market is supposed to provide itself an adequate security of supply at the generation level, this result is still far from being achieved in practice. - Highlights: ► Discussion on the need for capacity mechanisms is revisited. ► Reasons behind adequacy problem are analyzed. ► Regulator’s intervention to guarantee supply is most of the times justified.

  8. Electricity generation from tetrathionate in microbial fuel cells by acidophiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulonen, Mira L.K.; Kokko, Marika E.; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Puhakka, Jaakko A.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Electricity can be generated from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5. • Tetrathionate disproportionated to sulfate and elemental sulfur. • Biohydrometallurgical process waters contained electrochemically active bacteria. • Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. were identified from the MFCs. - Abstract: Inorganic sulfur compounds, such as tetrathionate, are often present in mining process and waste waters. The biodegradation of tetrathionate was studied under acidic conditions in aerobic batch cultivations and in anaerobic anodes of two-chamber flow-through microbial fuel cells (MFCs). All four cultures originating from biohydrometallurgical process waters from multimetal ore heap bioleaching oxidized tetrathionate aerobically at pH below 3 with sulfate as the main soluble metabolite. In addition, all cultures generated electricity from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5 with ferric iron as the terminal cathodic electron acceptor. The maximum current and power densities during MFC operation and in the performance analysis were 79.6 mA m −2 and 13.9 mW m −2 and 433 mA m −2 and 17.6 mW m −2 , respectively. However, the low coulombic efficiency (below 5%) indicates that most of the electrons were directed to other processes, such as aerobic oxidation of tetrathionate and unmeasured intermediates. The microbial community analysis revealed that the dominant species both in the anolyte and on the anode electrode surface of the MFCs were Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. This study provides a proof of concept that tetrathionate serves as electron donor for biological electricity production in the pH range of 1.2–2.5

  9. Utilization of oil wells for electricity generation: Performance and economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Al-Khawaja, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2015-01-01

    There is a general agreement that the climate change, which is the most important challenge facing humanity, is anthropogenic and attributed to fossil fuel consumption. Therefore, deploying more renewable energy resources is an urgent issue to be addressed. Geothermal refers to existing heat energy in deep rock and sedimentary basins. Traditionally, geothermal energy has been exploited in places with plentiful hot water at relatively shallow depth. Unfortunately, the high exploration and drilling costs of boreholes is the main barrier to the commerciality of geothermal worldwide. In oil producing countries, such problems can be overcome by utilizing oil or gas wells. The current study presents thermodynamic and economic analyses of a binary geothermal power generation system for commercial electricity generation. Two different source temperatures (100 and 120 °C) and constant sink temperature (29 °C) were considered. The optimal working fluid and optimal design that improve the performance of the plant are determined. For the current costs in Qatar, the economical analysis of 5 MW geothermal plant shows that the levelized cost of electricity for the plant varies from 5.6 to 5.2 ¢/kW. Whereas, the payback period of such plants lies between 5.8 and 4.8 years. - Highlights: • Utilizing oil well makes geothermal plant competitive with other resources. • R32 seems to be the best working fluid. • The levelized cost of electricity for geothermal plant is less than 5.6 ¢/kWh. • The payback time of geothermal plant is less than 6 years.

  10. Electricity generation from tetrathionate in microbial fuel cells by acidophiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulonen, Mira L.K., E-mail: mira.sulonen@tut.fi; Kokko, Marika E.; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Puhakka, Jaakko A.

    2015-03-02

    Highlights: • Electricity can be generated from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5. • Tetrathionate disproportionated to sulfate and elemental sulfur. • Biohydrometallurgical process waters contained electrochemically active bacteria. • Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. were identified from the MFCs. - Abstract: Inorganic sulfur compounds, such as tetrathionate, are often present in mining process and waste waters. The biodegradation of tetrathionate was studied under acidic conditions in aerobic batch cultivations and in anaerobic anodes of two-chamber flow-through microbial fuel cells (MFCs). All four cultures originating from biohydrometallurgical process waters from multimetal ore heap bioleaching oxidized tetrathionate aerobically at pH below 3 with sulfate as the main soluble metabolite. In addition, all cultures generated electricity from tetrathionate in MFCs at pH below 2.5 with ferric iron as the terminal cathodic electron acceptor. The maximum current and power densities during MFC operation and in the performance analysis were 79.6 mA m{sup −2} and 13.9 mW m{sup −2} and 433 mA m{sup −2} and 17.6 mW m{sup −2}, respectively. However, the low coulombic efficiency (below 5%) indicates that most of the electrons were directed to other processes, such as aerobic oxidation of tetrathionate and unmeasured intermediates. The microbial community analysis revealed that the dominant species both in the anolyte and on the anode electrode surface of the MFCs were Acidithiobacillus spp. and Ferroplasma spp. This study provides a proof of concept that tetrathionate serves as electron donor for biological electricity production in the pH range of 1.2–2.5.

  11. Electrical and Electronical Waste Generation in Turkey: Bursa Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güray SALİHOĞLU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Electrical and electronical equipment that gradually take more place in our daily life, spend their service life in short times and become an e-waste problem to be solved.  Because of the hazardous components they contain, e-waste can cause environmental and human health threats if they are not properly managed. If they are managed properly, they can be a valuable raw material source, since they contain valuable metals such as copper, silver, gold, palladium and recyclable components such as plastics and metals. According to a research conducted in 2014, the global e-waste amount accounts to a source worth 52 billion $; however, only 16% of this source has been properly recycled. It is important to know the potential e-waste amount and the behaviors of people in the production of e-waste to realize a proper e-waste management in our country. The amount and property of electrical and electronic equipment and e-waste generation potential per person in Bursa was investigated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared and applied to a group of people including 31 families (100 person. The questions were to investigate the behaviors in the use, replacement, and management of electrical and electronical equipment. The findings showed that usage of lamps (fluorescent and others were higher than the other equipment, and usage of mobile phones were found to be highest in terms of devices. It was also found that when the mobiles become e-waste since the owners do not want to use them, they are not just thrown away and kept at homes instead. E-waste generation potential of a person from the families investigated was estimated to be 8.14 kg/year.

  12. Is It Better to Burn or Bury Waste for Clean Electricity Generation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The generation of electricity through renewables has increased 5% since 2002. Although considerably less prominent than solar and wind, the use of municipal solid waste (MSW) to generate electricity represents roughly 14 percent of U.S. non-hydro renewable electricity generation....

  13. Research management at the Central Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broom, T.

    1986-01-01

    CEGB is responsible for power generation and transmission in England and Wales, and has a yearly production of some 230 TWh. There are three main fields of research: conventional generation and transmission, nuclear generation and environmental consequences of electricity generation. All laboratories carry out research in each field, though there are definite concentrations of specialities. The organisation of the research management changed emphasis in 1981 from an 'areal' (managing of individual institutes) to a topical approach (responsibilities for research fields). Good research requires good personnel, but also care on the part of the manager for the personal interests of the staff. There must be good cooperation between the researchers themselves, between researchers and managers, and between CEGB staff and researchers elsewhere. It is considered of prime importance that the researchers be true experts in their fields and that they maintain their scientific integrity. Other information is obtained by exchanging reports with comparable organisations, e.g. the KEMA in The Netherlands. Such an exchange requires mutual trust and research managers must therefore behave as true ambassadors. (Auth.)

  14. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro, E-mail: joserubens.maiorino@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: joao.moreira@ufabc.edu.br, E-mail: pedro.carajlescov@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (CECS/UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia, Modelagem e Ciencias Aplicadas

    2015-07-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  15. Future of nuclear energy for electricity generation in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiorino, Jose R.; Moreira, Joao M.L.; Carajlescov, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    We discuss in this paper the medium- and long- terms evolution of nuclear power in Brazil considering official governmental studies and reports prepared by research groups. The documents reviewed include the national energy balance (BEN, 2014), the short-term planning (PDEE, 2023) and long-term planning (PNE-2030) documents emitted by EPE, and studies conducted by independent institutions and researchers. The studies consider different scenarios regarding gross national product growth and institutional development for the country and conclude that nuclear power should increase its role in Brazil. The generation matrix should diversity by 2030 and 2040 with hydropower decreasing its share from today's 70 % to values between 47 and 57 %. Nuclear power is considered a viable alternative for base load electricity generation in Brazil; to reduce generation risks during dry seasons, and to facilitate the operation of the whole power generation system. The share of nuclear power may reach values between 8 % and 15 % by 2040 according to different scenarios. To meet such growth and facilitate new investments, it is necessary to change the legal framework of the sector, and allow private ownership of enterprises to build and operate nuclear power plants in the country. (author)

  16. Recovery Act: Brea California Combined Cycle Electric Generating Plant Fueled by Waste Landfill Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galowitz, Stephen

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of the Project was to maximize the productive use of the substantial quantities of waste landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill near Brea, California. An extensive analysis was conducted and it was determined that utilization of the waste gas for power generation in a combustion turbine combined cycle facility was the highest and best use. The resulting Project reflected a cost effective balance of the following specific sub-objectives: • Meeting the environmental and regulatory requirements, particularly the compliance obligations imposed on the landfill to collect, process and destroy landfill gas • Utilizing proven and reliable technology and equipment • Maximizing electrical efficiency • Maximizing electric generating capacity, consistent with the anticipated quantities of landfill gas generated and collected at the Olinda Landfill • Maximizing equipment uptime • Minimizing water consumption • Minimizing post-combustion emissions • The Project produced and will produce a myriad of beneficial impacts. o The Project created 360 FTE construction and manufacturing jobs and 15 FTE permanent jobs associated with the operation and maintenance of the plant and equipment. o By combining state-of-the-art gas clean up systems with post combustion emissions control systems, the Project established new national standards for best available control technology (BACT). o The Project will annually produce 280,320 MWh’s of clean energy o By destroying the methane in the landfill gas, the Project will generate CO2 equivalent reductions of 164,938 tons annually. The completed facility produces 27.4 MWnet and operates 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

  17. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  18. Impacts of ramping inflexibility of conventional generators on strategic operation of energy storage facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Jalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to assist a pricemaker merchant energy storage facility in making its optimal operation decisions. The facility operates in a pool-based electricity market, where the ramping capability of other resources is limited. Also, wind power resources exist in the system...

  19. Strategic sizing of energy storage facilities in electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrolahpour, Ehsan; Kazempour, Seyyedjalal; Zareipour, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a model to determine the optimasize of an energy storage facility from a strategic investor’s perspective. This investor seeks to maximize its profit through making strategic planning, i.e., storage sizing, and strategic operational, i.e., offering and bidding, decisions. We...... consider the uncertainties associated with rival generators’ offering strategies and future load levels in the proposed model. The strategic investment decisions include the sizes of charging device, discharging device and energy reservoir. The proposed model is a stochastic bi-level optimization problem......; the planning and operation decisions are made in the upper-level, and market clearing is modeled in the lower-level under different operating scenarios. To make the proposed model computationally tractable, an iterative solution technique based on Benders’ decomposition is implemented. This provides a master...

  20. Arrangement for adapting a wind wheel to an electric power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beusse, H

    1977-08-11

    The invention is concerned with a device for adapting a wind wheel to an electric power generator in such a way that the wind wheel will always be operated with a maximum performance coefficient, that another source of energy, e.g. a prime mover, can supply the power deficit if the wind power is not sufficient, and that the generator at the output of the facility is kept mains-synchronous of constant speed and constant voltage. According to the invention, the shaft power of the wind power engine is transmitted to a first generator driving an electromotor. The motor is coupled to a second generator feeding into a consumer grid. By means of an anemometer the excitation output of the motor is controled in such manner that the speed of the generator is practically constant-provided a sufficient supply of wind is available. On the shaft of the output generator a prinse mover, e.g. a Diesel engine, is mounted being controllable for contant speed by means of a controll device in such a way that the prime mover takes over the missing amount of power if the wind supply falls short of the power taken off at the generator output.

  1. Coordination Between Wind Power, Hydro Storage Facility and Conventional Generating Units According to the Annual Growth Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Shojaeean

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing trend of the consumption of the electric power and the global tendency to substitute new renewable sources of energy, this paper proposes a Monte Carlo based method to determine an optimal level of this change. Considering the limitation of the wind farms in continuous supply of electric power, hydrostatic power storage facilities are used beside wind farms so that the electric power could be stored and fed in a continuous flow into power systems. Due to the gradual exclusion of conventional generators and 5 percent annual load increments, LOLE index was used in order to calculate the amount of the wind power and the capacity of the necessary power storage facility. To this end, LOLE index was calculated for the first year as the reference index for the estimation of the amount of wind power and the capacity of the storage facility in consequent years. For the upcoming years, calculations have been made to account for the gradual exclusion of conventional generators in proportion to load increments. The proposed method has been implemented and simulated on IEEE-RTS test system.

  2. The downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle. Tome II: Electricity generating costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, Ch.; Galley, R.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Office's continuing work in the nuclear field, Mr. Christian Bataille and Mr. Robert Galley, Members of Parliament for the Nord and Aube departements respectively, published in June 1998 the first part of their investigation into the downstream side of the nuclear fuel cycle, focusing on the work done in application of the law of 30 December 1991 concerning research into radioactive waste management. This document supplements that initial technical approach with a technical and economic study of the costs of generating electricity. To begin with, the performance of existing nuclear generating plant is examined, in particular the past, present and future contributions of this plant to the growth and competitiveness of the French economy. Secondly, the competitiveness of the different generating systems is analysed with a view to the construction of new facilities, using the method of discounted average costs which is at present the standard approach governing investment decisions, and identifying the different ways in which the said systems are dealt with as regards the cost categories considered. The potential contributions of external factor analysis and the calculation of external costs are then reviewed in order to evaluate the advantages and drawbacks of the different electricity generating systems on a more global basis. The report includes more than a hundred tables of data and cost curves upon which the Rapporteurs base their comments, conclusions and recommendations

  3. Unbundling generation and transmission services for competitive electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1998-01-01

    Ancillary services are those functions performed by the equipment and people that generate, control, and transmit electricity in support of the basic services of generating capacity, energy supply, and power delivery. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) defined such services as those 'necessary to support the transmission of electric power from seller to purchaser given the obligations of control areas and transmitting utilities within those control areas to maintain reliable operations of the interconnected transmission system.' The nationwide cost of ancillary services is about $12 billion a year, roughly 10% of the cost of the energy commodity. More important than the cost, however, is the necessity of these services for bulk-power reliability and for the support of commercial transactions. FERC's landmark Order 888 included a pro forma tariff with provision for six key ancillary services. The Interconnected Operations Services Working Group identified another six services that it felt were essential to the operation of bulk-power systems. Several groups throughput the United States have created or are forming independent system operators, which will be responsible for reliability and commerce. To date, the electricity industry (including traditional vertically integrated utilities, distribution utilities, power markets and brokers, customers, and state and federal regulators) has paid insufficient attention to these services. Although the industry had made substantial progress in identifying and defining the key services, much remains to be doe to specify methods to measure the production, delivery, and consumption of these services; to identify the costs and cost-allocation factors for these services; and to develop market and operating rules for their provision and pricing. Developing metrics, determining costs, and setting pricing rules are important because most of these ancillary services are produced by the same pieces of equipment that

  4. Resolution 147/012. It authorize the Central Libertador / SA aeolian generation company to generate an aeolian electricity source by an electric power generating plant located in Maldonado town 4 AA Catastral section, and the Sistema inerconectado Nacional connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This decree authorizes the generation of electricity using aeolian energy as the primary electricity source. This project was presented by the 'Libertador / S.A' aeolian generation company with the proposal to install an electrical plant in Maldonado town. This authorization is according to the Electric Wholesale Market regulation

  5. 76 FR 51961 - Brown Bear Power, LLC, Topsham Hydroelectric Generating Facility Trust No. 1, Topsham Hydro...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-19

    ... On August 3, 2011, Brown Bear Power, LLC, Topsham Hydroelectric Generating Facility (Trust No. 1... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 4784-082] Brown Bear Power, LLC, Topsham Hydroelectric Generating Facility Trust No. 1, Topsham Hydro Partners Limited Partnership...

  6. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  7. Water releasing electric generating device for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umehara, Toshihiro; Tomohara, Yasutaka; Usui, Yoshihiko.

    1994-01-01

    Warm sea water discharged after being used for cooling in an equipment of a coastal nuclear powder plant is discharged from a water discharge port to a water discharge pit, and a conduit vessel is disposed in front of the water discharge port for receiving overflown warm sea water. The warm sea water taken to the conduit vessel is converted to a fallen flow and charged to a turbine generator under water, and electric power is generated by the water head energy of the fallen flow before it is discharged to the water discharge pit. The conduit vessel incorporates a foam preventing unit having spiral flow channels therein, so that the warm sea water taken to the conduit vessel is flown into the water discharge pit after consuming the water head energy while partially branched and flown downwardly and gives lateral component to the downwarding flowing direction. Then, warm sea water is made calm when it is flown into the water discharge pit and, accordingly, generation of bubbles on the water surface of the water discharge pit is avoided. (N.H.)

  8. Spin-polarized current generated by magneto-electrical gating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Minjie; Jalil, Mansoor Bin Abdul; Tan, Seng Ghee

    2012-01-01

    We theoretically study spin-polarized current through a single electron tunneling transistor (SETT), in which a quantum dot (QD) is coupled to non-magnetic source and drain electrodes via tunnel junctions, and gated by a ferromagnetic (FM) electrode. The I–V characteristics of the device are investigated for both spin and charge currents, based on the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The FM electrode generates a magnetic field, which causes a Zeeman spin-splitting of the energy levels in the QD. By tuning the size of the Zeeman splitting and the source–drain bias, a fully spin-polarized current is generated. Additionally, by modulating the electrical gate bias, one can effect a complete switch of the polarization of the tunneling current from spin-up to spin-down current, or vice versa. - Highlights: ► The spin polarized transport through a single electron tunneling transistor is systematically studied. ► The study is based on Keldysh non-equilibrium Green's function and equation of motion method. ► A fully spin polarized current is observed. ► We propose to reverse current polarization by the means of gate voltage modulation. ► This device can be used as a bi-polarization current generator.

  9. h-Adaptive Mesh Generation using Electric Field Intensity Value as a Criterion (in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Toyonaga, Kiyomi; Cingoski, Vlatko; Kaneda, Kazufumi; Yamashita, Hideo

    1994-01-01

    Finite mesh divisions are essential to obtain accurate solution of two dimensional electric field analysis. It requires the technical knowledge to generate a suitable fine mesh divisions. In electric field problem, analysts are usually interested in the electric field intensity and its distribution. In order to obtain electric field intensity with high-accuracy, we have developed and adaptive mesh generator using electric field intensity value as a criterion.

  10. Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, Kenneth; Ganesh, Lakshmi; Renessee, Robbert van; Ferris, Michael; Hofmann, Andreas; Williams, Brian; Sztipanovits, Janos; Hemingway, Graham; University, Vanderbilt; Bose, Anjan; Stivastava, Anurag; Grijalva, Santiago; Grijalva, Santiago; Ryan, Sarah M.; McCalley, James D.; Woodruff, David L.; Xiong, Jinjun; Acar, Emrah; Agrawal, Bhavna; Conn, Andrew R.; Ditlow, Gary; Feldmann, Peter; Finkler, Ulrich; Gaucher, Brian; Gupta, Anshul; Heng, Fook-Luen; Kalagnanam, Jayant R; Koc, Ali; Kung, David; Phan, Dung; Singhee, Amith; Smith, Basil

    2011-10-05

    The April 2011 DOE workshop, 'Computational Needs for the Next Generation Electric Grid', was the culmination of a year-long process to bring together some of the Nation's leading researchers and experts to identify computational challenges associated with the operation and planning of the electric power system. The attached papers provide a journey into these experts' insights, highlighting a class of mathematical and computational problems relevant for potential power systems research. While each paper defines a specific problem area, there were several recurrent themes. First, the breadth and depth of power system data has expanded tremendously over the past decade. This provides the potential for new control approaches and operator tools that can enhance system efficiencies and improve reliability. However, the large volume of data poses its own challenges, and could benefit from application of advances in computer networking and architecture, as well as data base structures. Second, the computational complexity of the underlying system problems is growing. Transmitting electricity from clean, domestic energy resources in remote regions to urban consumers, for example, requires broader, regional planning over multi-decade time horizons. Yet, it may also mean operational focus on local solutions and shorter timescales, as reactive power and system dynamics (including fast switching and controls) play an increasingly critical role in achieving stability and ultimately reliability. The expected growth in reliance on variable renewable sources of electricity generation places an exclamation point on both of these observations, and highlights the need for new focus in areas such as stochastic optimization to accommodate the increased uncertainty that is occurring in both planning and operations. Application of research advances in algorithms (especially related to optimization techniques and uncertainty quantification) could accelerate power

  11. CdTe Photovoltaics for Sustainable Electricity Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Amit; Sampath, Walajabad

    2016-09-01

    Thin film CdTe (cadmium telluride) is an important technology in the development of sustainable and affordable electricity generation. More than 10 GW of installations have been carried out using this technology around the globe. It has been demonstrated as a sustainable, green, renewable, affordable and abundant source of electricity. An advanced sublimation tool has been developed that allows highly controlled deposition of CdTe films onto commercial soda lime glass substrates. All deposition and treatment steps can be performed without breaking the vacuum within a single chamber in an inline process that can be conveniently scaled to a commercial process. In addition, an advanced cosublimation source has been developed to allow the deposition of ternary alloys such as Cd x Mg1- x Te to form an electron reflector layer which is expected to address the voltage deficits in current CdTe devices and to achieve very high efficiency. Extensive materials characterization, including but not limited to scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron back-scatter diffraction, has been performed to get a better understanding of the effects of processing conditions on CdTe thin film photovoltaics. This combined with computer modeling such as density function theory modeling gives a new insight into the mechanism of CdTe photovoltaic function. With all these efforts, CdTe photovoltaics has seen great progress in the last few years. Currently, it has been recorded as the cheapest source of electricity in the USA on a commercial scale, and further improvements are predicted to further reduce the cost while increasing its utilization. Here, we give an overview of the advantages of thin film CdTe photovoltaics as well as a brief review of the challenges that need to be addressed. Some fundamental studies of processing conditions for thin film CdTe are also presented

  12. ELECTRICITY GENERATION FROM SWINE WASTEWATER USING MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chimezie Jason Ogugbue

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electricity generation from swine wastewater using microbial fuel cell (MFC was investigated. Swine wastewater was collected into dual-chambered (aerobic and anaerobic fuel cell. The maximum power output using copper and carbon electrodes were 250.54 and 52.33 µW, while 10.0 and 5.0 cm salt bridge length between the cathode and anode were 279.50 and 355.26 µW, respectively. Potassium permanganate and ordinal water gave a maximum power output of 1287.8 and 13 9.18 µW. MFCs utilize microbial communities to degrade organic materials found within wastewater and converted stored chemical energy to electrical energy in a single step. The initial bacterial and fungal counts were 7.4×106 and 1.1×103 CFU ml-1. Bacterial counts steadily increased with time to 1.40×107 CFU ml-1 while fungal count declined to 4.4×106 CFU ml-1 after day 60. The declined in microbial counts may be attributed to the time necessary for acclimatization of microbes to the anode. The genera identified were Bacillus, Citrobacter, Pseudomonas, Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus and Rhizopus. These microbes acted as primary and secondary utilizers, utilizing carbon and other organics of the wastewater. Chemical parameters indicated that the biochemical oxygen demand ranged from 91.4–23.2 mg/L, giving 75% while the chemical oxygen demand ranged from 243.1–235.2 mg/L, representing 3.3%. Although, the metabolic activities of microbes were responsible for the observed degradation, leading to electricity, the overall power output depended on the distance between the anode and cathode compartment, types of electrode materials and mediators and oxygen reaction at the cathode.

  13. Development of Electricity Generation from Renewable Energy Sources in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentel, E.

    2011-12-01

    Electricity is mainly produced from coal, natural gas and hydropower in Turkey. However, almost all the natural gas and high quality coal are imported. Thus, increasing the shares of both hydro and other renewables in energy supply is necessary to decrease dependency of the country on foreign sources. In 2008, the total installed capacity of Turkey was around 42000 MW and 66 % of this was from thermal sources. The remaining 33 % was from hydro, which leaves only one percent for the other renewable energy sources. The share of renewable energy in the energy budget of Turkey has increased in the last two decades; however, in 2008, only 17 % of the total electricity generation was realized from renewable sources most of which was hydro. According to State Hydraulic Works (SHW) which is the primary executive state agency responsible for the planning, operating and managing of Turkey's water resources, Turkey utilizes only around 35% of its economically viable hydro potential. The current situation clearly demonstrates the need for increasing the share of renewables in the energy budget. New laws, such as the Electricity Market Law, have been enacted and the following items were identified by the Ministry of Energy and Natural Resources of Turkey among primary energy policies and priorities: (i) decreasing dependency on foreign resources by prioritizing utilization of natural resources, (ii) increasing the share of renewable energy resources in the energy budget of Turkey; (iii) minimization of adverse environmental impacts of production and utilization of natural resources. The government's energy policy increased investments in renewable energy resources; however lack of a needed legal framework brought various environmental and social problems with this fast development. The development of the share of renewable resources in the energy budget, current government policy, and environmental concerns related with renewables, and ideas to improve the overall benefits of

  14. Economic prospective study of the nuclear electricity generation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellat, R.; Charpin, J.M.; Dessus, B.

    2000-01-01

    In his letter dated May 7. 1999, the French Prime Minister Lionel Jospin asked Jean-Michel Charpin, Benjamin Dessus and Rene Pellat to carry out a 'study of the economic data for the whole of the nuclear sector, in particular downstream of the nuclear combustion cycle, including reprocessing'. This report had to include comparisons with other production methods for electricity and take account of environmental costs. The Prime Minister stressed in this same letter his wish to see the inquiry 'examine all of the factors forming the basis for a public decision, including intrinsic competitiveness, external factors and long-term effects, as well as the impact of different production methods upon our CO 2 gas emissions and control over the downstream part of the nuclear cycle'. Two series of questions are central to this study. The first concerns the existing nuclear facilities. In view of the inertia of a French electrical production system which is largely based upon nuclear energy and in which major investments have already been made, what room for manoeuvre remains for the public authorities and operators concerning the future of these stations? In particular: What are the economic conditions and consequences of possibly prolonging the average active life of the existing stations? What are the economic and environmental consequences of decisions concerning the continuation or stoppage of the reprocessing of irradiated fuel produced by the existing stations? The second concerns new investments likely to meet electrical demand under various scenarios. In particular: what are the technologies that may be envisaged (nuclear and non-nuclear) and in what timescale? What are the changes underway in the world that are likely to have an influence on the choices made in France? What will be the environmental consequences of these choices by the year 2050, in particular regarding greenhouse gas emissions and the quantities of transuranic elements to be stored? What will be

  15. Insulating wall materials for MHD electric power generating channels, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kazuo; Okubo, Tsutomu; Maeda, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    The various kinds of ceramic specimens were soaked in molten K 2 SO 4 at 1300 0 C for 300 hrs, the changes in porosity, volume and weight before and after the tests (hereafter, referred as the amount of change) were measured and the corrosion resistance was examined from the calculated corrosion velocity. 1) MgO and MgO-Al 2 O 3 System. Reaction products were not found, the amount of change was small, and the electrical resistivity and corrosion resistance were good. 2) MgO-BN, ZrO 2 -BN and MgO-SrZrO 3 -BN System. Of all these systems, BN in the specimens disappeared, and it turned into B 2 O 3 or other boron compounds. This reaction caused the cracking and collapse of the specimens. 3) MgO-Si 3 N 4 and MgAl 2 O 4 -Si 3 N 4 System. The specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , resulting in the large amount of change, and the reaction layer was formed on the surface. 4) Al 2 O 3 -AlN-Si 3 N 4 System. Although the specimens were attacked by molten K 2 SO 4 , the dense specimens with about 40 mol % Si 3 N 4 showed a very small amount of change, and the deterioration of electrical resistivity was small. The durability of MHD power generating operation might be improved by further controlling the production process and composition. (author)

  16. The expansion of electricity generation from renewable energies in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buesgen, Uwe; Duerrschmidt, Wolfhart

    2009-01-01

    The expansion of electricity generation from renewable sources in Germany is promoted by the Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz (EEG), which was last amended in June 2008. In a review of the EEG the political parameters, the progress achieved, and the impacts of the Act itself are set out. This Progress Report addresses cross-sectoral aspects, notably CO 2 emissions reduction, job creation, investment and turnover in the renewables industry, and that industry's prospects for the future. Trends in the individual renewables sectors are described and policy recommendations formulated, as appropriate, on this basis. The policy recommendations have been incorporated into the new EEG from 6 June 2008. The overarching goal of the new EEG is to achieve a renewables share of at least 30% in Germany's electricity consumption in 2020. This underlines the need for radical modernisation of the energy system as a whole. This article presents an overview of the content of the Progress Report and supplements it with current statistical data and research findings contained in other publications from the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMU). It also highlights the points on which the new EEG diverges from the policy recommendations contained in the Progress Report.

  17. Electricity generation from wetlands with activated carbon bioanode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudirjo, E.; Buisman, C. J. N.; Strik, D. P. B. T. B.

    2018-03-01

    Paddy fields are potential non-tidal wetlands to apply Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (PMFC) technology. World widely they cover about 160 million ha of which 13.3 million ha is located in Indonesia. With the PMFC, in-situ electricity is generated by a bioanode with electrochemically active bacteria which use primary the organic matter supplied by the plant (e.g. as rhizodeposits and plant residues). One of limitations when installing a PMFC in a non-tidal wetland is the usage of “expensive” large amounts of electrodes to overcome the poor conductivity of wet soils. However, in a cultivated wetland such as rice paddy field, it is possible to alter soil composition. Adding a conductive carbon material such as activated carbon is believed to improve soil conductivity with minimum impact on plant vitality. The objective of this research was to study the effect of activated carbon as an alternative bioanode material on the electricity output and plants vitality. Lab result shows that activated carbon can be a potential alternative for bioanode material. It can continuously deliver current on average 1.54 A/m3 anode (0.26 A/m2 PGA or 66 mW/m2 PGA) for 98 days. Based on this result the next step is to do a test of this technology in the real paddy fields.

  18. ABWR, an option for the electric generation in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez T, A.M.; Ramirez S, J.R.; Xolocostli M, J.V.

    2005-01-01

    The A BWR reactor (Advanced Boiling Water Reactor) it was developed in a project group among the Company TEPCO, (Tokyo Electric Power Company), Hitachi, Toshiba and General Electric. The A BWR is the first nuclear reactor of the type BWR third generation that entered in commercial operation in the 90 Th decade. One of those main characteristics of the A BWR are that the system of external recirculation has been eliminated, that is to say, the pumps and external recirculation pipes have been replaced by 10 internal recirculation pumps mounted in the inferior part of the pressure vessel, for that external recirculation systems neither the use of jet pumps are not needed. Another important characteristic of the A BWR is the simplification of the activation of the safety systems. The simplifications in the design of the A BWR and the use of new technologies have reduced the quantity of equipment and the time of construction compared with the previous designs of BWRs. The construction project for the A BWR consists of a period of construction from 48 to 54 months, measured since that the first concrete structure is placed until that it enters in commercial operation, in accordance with the documents liberated by G E. (Author)

  19. Big Rock Point: 35 years of electrical generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosky, T.D.

    1998-01-01

    On September 27, 1962, the 75 MWe boiling water reactor, designed and built by General Electric, of the Big Rock Point Nuclear Power Station went critical for the first time. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the plant operator, Consumers Power, had designed the plant also as a research reactor. The first studies were devoted to fuel behavior, higher burnup, and materials research. The reactor was also used for medical technology: Co-60 radiation sources were produced for the treatment of more than 120,000 cancer patients. After the accident at the Three Mile Island-2 nuclear generating unit in 1979, Big Rock Point went through an extensive backfitting phase. Personnel from numerous other American nuclear power plants were trained at the simulator of Big Rock Point. The plant was decommissioned permanently on August 29, 1997 after more than 35 years of operation and a cumulated electric power production of 13,291 GWh. A period of five to seven years is estimated for decommissioning and demolition work up to the 'green field' stage. (orig.) [de

  20. Brackish Water Desalination Coupled With Wastewater Treatment and Electricity Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Ziad Ismail

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new bio-electrochemical system was proposed for simultaneous removal of organic matters and salinity from actual domestic wastewater and synthetically prepared saline water, respectively. The performance of a three-chambered microbial osmotic fuel cell (MOFC provided with forward osmosis (FO membrane and cation exchange membrane (CEM was evaluated with respect to the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal from wastewater, electricity generation, and desalination of saline water. The MOFC wasinoculated with activated sludge and fueled with actual domestic wastewater. Results revealed that maximum removal efficiency of COD from wastewater, TDS removal efficiency from saline water, power density, and current density were 96%, 90%, 30.02 mW/m2, and 107.20 mA/m2, respectively.

  1. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft Using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, Greg A.; Chick, Lawrence A.

    2012-04-01

    This report examines the potential for Solid-Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) to provide electrical generation on-board commercial aircraft. Unlike a turbine-based auxiliary power unit (APU) a solid oxide fuel cell power unit (SOFCPU) would be more efficient than using the main engine generators to generate electricity and would operate continuously during flight. The focus of this study is on more-electric aircraft which minimize bleed air extraction from the engines and instead use electrical power obtained from generators driven by the main engines to satisfy all major loads. The increased electrical generation increases the potential fuel savings obtainable through more efficient electrical generation using a SOFCPU. However, the weight added to the aircraft by the SOFCPU impacts the main engine fuel consumption which reduces the potential fuel savings. To investigate these relationships the Boeing 787­8 was used as a case study. The potential performance of the SOFCPU was determined by coupling flowsheet modeling using ChemCAD software with a stack performance algorithm. For a given stack operating condition (cell voltage, anode utilization, stack pressure, target cell exit temperature), ChemCAD software was used to determine the cathode air rate to provide stack thermal balance, the heat exchanger duties, the gross power output for a given fuel rate, the parasitic power for the anode recycle blower and net power obtained from (or required by) the compressor/expander. The SOFC is based on the Gen4 Delphi planar SOFC with assumed modifications to tailor it to this application. The size of the stack needed to satisfy the specified condition was assessed using an empirically-based algorithm. The algorithm predicts stack power density based on the pressure, inlet temperature, cell voltage and anode and cathode inlet flows and compositions. The algorithm was developed by enhancing a model for a well-established material set operating at atmospheric pressure to reflect the

  2. Iranian Light Source Facility, A third generation light source laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Rahighi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iranian Light Source Facility (ILSF project is the first large scale accelerator facility which is currently under planning in Iran. On the basis of the present design, circumference of the 3 GeV storage ring is 528 m. Beam current and natural beam emittance are 400 mA and 0.477 nm.rad, respectively. Some prototype accelerator components such as high power solid state radio frequency amplifiers, low level RF system, thermionic RF gun, H-type dipole and quadruple magnets, magnetic measurement laboratory and highly stable magnet power supplies have been constructed at ILSF R&D laboratory

  3. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design

  4. Report on emergency electrical power supply systems for nuclear fuel cycle and reactor facilities security systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The report includes information that will be useful to those responsible for the planning, design and implementation of emergency electric power systems for physical security and special nuclear materials accountability systems. Basic considerations for establishing the system requirements for emergency electric power for security and accountability operations are presented. Methods of supplying emergency power that are available at present and methods predicted to be available in the future are discussed. The characteristics of capacity, cost, safety, reliability and environmental and physical facility considerations of emergency electric power techniques are presented. The report includes basic considerations for the development of a system concept and the preparation of a detailed system design.

  5. PBFA Z: A 50 TW/5 MJ Electrical Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielman, R. B.

    1997-05-01

    PBFA Z is a new 50 TW/5 MJ short electrical driver located at Sandia National Laboratories. We use PBFA Z to magnetically-implode solid or plasma shells. These configurations are historically known as z pinches. The pulsed power design of PBFA Z(R. B. Spielman, et al., Proc. of the Ninth IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., Albuquerque, NM 1995) is based on conventional single-pulse Marx generator, water-line pulse-forming technology used on the earlier Saturn (D. D. Bloomquist, et al., Proc. of the Sixth IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., Arlington, VA edited by P. J. Turchi and B. H. Bernstein (IEEE, New York, 1987), p. 310) and PBFA II(B. N. Turman, et al., Proc. of the Fifth IEEE Pulsed Power Conf., Arlington, VA 1985, pp. 155) accelerators. PBFA Z stores 11.4 MJ in its 36 Marx generators, couples 5 MJ in a 50 TW/100 ns pulse to the output water transmission lines, and delivers 3.4 MJ and 40 TW of electrical energy to the z-pinch load. Depending on the initial load inductance and the implosion time, we attain a peak current of 16-20 MA with a rise time of 105 ns. Current is fed to the z-pinch load through self magnetically-insulated transmission lines (MITLs). Peak electric fields in the MITLs exceed 2 MV /cm. The current from the four independent conical disk MITLs is combined together in a double post-hole vacuum convolute with an efficiency greater than 95%. The measured system performance of the water transmission lines, the vacuum insulator stack, the MITLs, and the double post-hole vacuum convolute differed from preshot predictions by ~ 5%. Using a 2-cm radius and a 2-cm length tungsten wire array with 240, 7.5-=B5m diameter wires (4.1-mg mass) as the z-pinch load, we achieved x-ray powers of 160 TW and x-ray energies of 1.85 MJ as measured by x-ray diodes and resistive bolometry.

  6. Life cycle water use for electricity generation: a review and harmonization of literature estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meldrum, J; Nettles-Anderson, S; Heath, G; Macknick, J

    2013-01-01

    This article provides consolidated estimates of water withdrawal and water consumption for the full life cycle of selected electricity generating technologies, which includes component manufacturing, fuel acquisition, processing, and transport, and power plant operation and decommissioning. Estimates were gathered through a broad search of publicly available sources, screened for quality and relevance, and harmonized for methodological differences. Published estimates vary substantially, due in part to differences in production pathways, in defined boundaries, and in performance parameters. Despite limitations to available data, we find that: water used for cooling of thermoelectric power plants dominates the life cycle water use in most cases; the coal, natural gas, and nuclear fuel cycles require substantial water per megawatt-hour in most cases; and, a substantial proportion of life cycle water use per megawatt-hour is required for the manufacturing and construction of concentrating solar, geothermal, photovoltaic, and wind power facilities. On the basis of the best available evidence for the evaluated technologies, total life cycle water use appears lowest for electricity generated by photovoltaics and wind, and highest for thermoelectric generation technologies. This report provides the foundation for conducting water use impact assessments of the power sector while also identifying gaps in data that could guide future research. (letter)

  7. Electrical conductivity of the thermal dusty plasma under the conditions of a hybrid plasma environment simulation facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukhovitskii, Dmitry I.; Petrov, Oleg F.; Hyde, Truell W.; Herdrich, Georg; Laufer, Rene; Dropmann, Michael; Matthews, Lorin S.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the inductively heated plasma generator (IPG) facility in application to the generation of the thermal dusty plasma formed by the positively charged dust particles and the electrons emitted by them. We develop a theoretical model for the calculation of plasma electrical conductivity under typical conditions of the IPG. We show that the electrical conductivity of dusty plasma is defined by collisions with the neutral gas molecules and by the electron number density. The latter is calculated in the approximations of an ideal and strongly coupled particle system and in the regime of weak and strong screening of the particle charge. The maximum attainable electron number density and corresponding maximum plasma electrical conductivity prove to be independent of the particle emissivity. Analysis of available experiments is performed, in particular, of our recent experiment with plasma formed by the combustion products of a propane-air mixture and the CeO2 particles injected into it. A good correlation between the theory and experimental data points to the adequacy of our approach. Our main conclusion is that a level of the electrical conductivity due to the thermal ionization of the dust particles is sufficiently high to compete with that of the potassium-doped plasmas.

  8. Electricity generation: options for reduction in carbon emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, H W

    2002-08-15

    largest developed source of renewable electricity, but future large-scale projects will probably be limited to the less-developed world: the best schemes in the developed countries have already been exploited. Wave and tidal can be looked on as medium- to long-term generators of electricity, as their respective industries are not as mature as competing renewable resources. Municipal solid-waste combustion and landfill gas technologies can also be seen as short term, as can their rural equivalents, agriculture and forestry waste. Any widespread exploitation of renewable energy will depend on being able to transmit the energy from source to point of use, so the implications for the electrical network from the penetration of substantial levels of renewable energy are presented. Effective management of renewable energy installations will require technical assessment of the range of exploitation strategies, to compare local production of, say, hydrogen and the more traditional transmission of electricity. Such resources will have to compete with others in any national, or grid, system and detailed economic analysis will be necessary to determine the deployment that best fits the trading regime under which the energy will be sold. Consideration will also be necessary to determine how best to control the introduction of this radically new resource such that it does not attract punitive cost overheads until it is mature enough to cope. Finally, it is inescapable that nuclear power is a proven technology that could take its place in any future generation portfolio. Unfortunately, suspicion and mistrust surround waste management and radioactivity release. Unless this is overcome, the lack of confidence engendered by this public mistrust may result in few, if any, new nuclear power stations being built. In the event of that decision, it is difficult to see how CO(2) levels can be significantly reduced: the irony is that nuclear energy may emerge as environmentally essential.

  9. Selection of facility location under environmental damage priority and using ELECTRE method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Ceren Erdin

    2011-03-01

    In the recent years, the environmental problems have reached to a vital extent, which is pushing the boundaries and far beyond daily evaluations. Industrial plants, the energy sources and uncontrolled release of pollutant gases (SO2, CO2 etc.) in the production stage have the greatest share in the occurrence of unfavorable environmental conditions. For this reason, the dimension of the problems that may arise in the production stage of industrial plants is directly related to the selection of facility location. In this study, geographical regions (a total of 7 regions) of our country have been analyzed in terms of environmental values based on their basins and the unfavorable environmental problems that are currently being experienced. Considered as such, with the directives of an expert group composed of nature scientists, the criteria and alternative areas are determined using the data gathered on ecosystem, basin characteristics, and land types. Since the primary goal is to keep the environmental damages at the minimum level, comprehensive definition of the problem is constructed by consultation of the expert group and the criteria are determined. Considering the fact that it will prevent the drawbacks generated by making decisions depending on certain stereotypes toa great extent, ELECTRE (Elimination and Choice Translating Reality English - Elimination Et Choix Traduisant la Realite) method is used to determine in which geographic region our country's industrial plants should be located.

  10. Is deintegrated electric generation efficient; A proposed empirical reserach framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox-Penner, P S [Charles River Associates Incorporated, Boston, Massachusetts (US)

    1990-01-01

    Partial or complete deregulation of public utility industries, which until recently were regulated even in market-driven economics such as the U.S. are examined. The causes and cures of this phenomenon are discussed. The purpose is to present a framework for examining empirically the net benefits to consumers from one particular form of public utility ''deregulation'': separating or deintegrating electricity generators from transmitters, and deregulating the former. The framework has been developed for this application because U.S. public utility law has permitted this particular form of ''deregulation'' to exist alongside traditional utilities for the past ten years. Hence, data are now available for comparing regulated and deregulated power generators and their interaction with the transmission system. More generally, however, the purpose of this article is to argue that the benefits of regulatory change in public utility industries must be examined on a comprehensive basis. It is not sufficient to examine one stage of the vertical production chain and conclude that deregulation will improve or hinder its performance. Rather, the long-range benefits of various industry regimes should be carefully examined from the standpoint of the consumer at the downstream end of the production process. (author) 41 refs.

  11. Generator voltage stabilisation for series-hybrid electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, P; Gladwin, D; Stewart, J; Cowley, R

    2008-04-01

    This paper presents a controller for use in speed control of an internal combustion engine for series-hybrid electric vehicle applications. Particular reference is made to the stability of the rectified DC link voltage under load disturbance. In the system under consideration, the primary power source is a four-cylinder normally aspirated gasoline internal combustion engine, which is mechanically coupled to a three-phase permanent magnet AC generator. The generated AC voltage is subsequently rectified to supply a lead-acid battery, and permanent magnet traction motors via three-phase full bridge power electronic inverters. Two complementary performance objectives exist. Firstly to maintain the internal combustion engine at its optimal operating point, and secondly to supply a stable 42 V supply to the traction drive inverters. Achievement of these goals minimises the transient energy storage requirements at the DC link, with a consequent reduction in both weight and cost. These objectives imply constant velocity operation of the internal combustion engine under external load disturbances and changes in both operating conditions and vehicle speed set-points. An electronically operated throttle allows closed loop engine velocity control. System time delays and nonlinearities render closed loop control design extremely problematic. A model-based controller is designed and shown to be effective in controlling the DC link voltage, resulting in the well-conditioned operation of the hybrid vehicle.

  12. Getting to Gender Equality in Energy Infrastructure : Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects

    OpenAIRE

    Orlando, Maria Beatriz; Janik, Vanessa Lopes; Vaidya, Pranav; Angelou, Nicolina; Zumbyte, Ieva; Adams, Norma

    2018-01-01

    Getting to Gender Equality in Electricity Infrastructure: Lessons from Electricity Generation, Transmission, and Distribution Projects examines the social and gender footprint of large-scale electricity generation, transmission, and distribution projects to establish a foundation on which further research and replication of good practices can be built. The main impact pathways analyzed are...

  13. A Theoretical Secure Enterprise Architecture for Multi Revenue Generating Smart Grid Sub Electric Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Hina

    2013-01-01

    This study is a part of the smart grid initiative providing electric vehicle charging infrastructure. It is a refueling structure, an energy generating photovoltaic system and charge point electric vehicle charging station. The system will utilize advanced design and technology allowing electricity to flow from the site's normal electric service…

  14. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  15. Comparative assessment of electricity generation options for Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecilia, Martin Del Campo; Francois, Juan Luis

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to the evaluation of sustainability of energy options for the electricity generation in Mexico. The study evaluated technologies that could be planned in the short term because their high maturity. The purpose was to rank the energy options based on the evaluation of a set of criteria grouped in impact areas for each dimension of the sustainability: economic, environmental and social. Obviously, no single technology exhibited superior performance on the basis of all the criteria and it was necessary to apply a mult criteria decision analysis (MCDA). In total this study all the decision elements were combined and integrated in an inference fuzzy logic system that takes into account the weights of different indicators. The methodology was applied to compare five technologies based on wind, nuclear, natural gas, coal, hydro and oil resources under the current Mexican conditions. In view of the features of the energy options, oil and gas are subject to limited energy resources. Coal and oil show relatively unfavorable ecological and accident risk characteristics. Gas is by far the option with the best performance among the fossil fuel options. In the case of nuclear energy, the economic, environmental and health indicators are highly favorable, however, social indicators for nuclear energy are unfavorable but they are also very controversial and additional studies must be carried out. The global sustainability of hydro, nuclear, wind and natural gas resulted very close; so these energy options must be considered in the generation expansion planning studies to search the expansion plans with the better combination of generation, energetic diversification and emissions, between other criteria

  16. What electricity generation technology to choose? The Australian energy policy challenge to 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, B.

    2006-01-01

    Demand for electricity in Australia is forecast to grow over the period to 2030 by between 2.1 percent and 2.3 percent per annum. At a minimum, in excess of 12.000 MW of new baseload generation capacity will need to be built to meet this growing demand, in addition to substantial amounts of peaking and mid-merit plant. With extensive low-cost and easily accessible reserves of coal and natural gas available for new generation facilities, investment decisions in a competitive market environment would ordinarily be largely determined by average cost considerations. However, domestic and international policy uncertainty on the future treatment of carbon emissions, anticipated development of new, lower emission generation technologies and uncertainty over future fuel prices and availability results in a difficult investment decision making environment. The competing considerations, generation options and importance of a clear and sustainable national energy policy in delivering timely, least cost new generation plant will be examined in the paper

  17. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resourcces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnold, William [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Mann, Michael [Chemical Engineering Department, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Salehfar, Hossein [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2017-03-20

    The UND-CLR Binary Geothermal Power Plant was a collaborative effort of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Continental Resources, Inc. (CRL), Slope Electric Cooperative (SEC), Access Energy, LLC (AE), Basin Electric Cooperative (BEC), Olson Construction, the North Dakota Industrial Commission Renewable Energy Council (NDIC-REC), the North Dakota Department of Commerce Centers of Excellence Program (NDDC-COE), and the University of North Dakota (UND). The primary objective of project was to demonstrate/test the technical and economic feasibility of generating electricity from non-conventional, low-temperature (90 ºC to 150 °C) geothermal resources using binary technology. CLR provided the access to 98 ºC water flowing at 51 l s-1 at the Davis Water Injection Plan in Bowman County, ND. Funding for the project was from DOE –GTO, NDIC-REC, NDD-COE, and BEC. Logistics, on-site construction, and power grid access were facilitated by Slope Electric Cooperative and Olson Construction. Access Energy supplied prototype organic Rankine Cycle engines for the project. The potential power output from this project is 250 kW at a cost of $3,400 per kW. A key factor in the economics of this project is a significant advance in binary power technology by Access Energy, LLC. Other commercially available ORC engines have efficiencies 8 to 10 percent and produce 50 to 250 kW per unit. The AE ORC units are designed to generate 125 kW with efficiencies up to 14 percent and they can be installed in arrays of tens of units to produce several MW of power where geothermal waters are available. This demonstration project is small but the potential for large-scale development in deeper, hotter formations is promising. The UND team’s analysis of the entire Williston Basin using data on porosity, formation thicknesses, and fluid temperatures reveals that 4.0 x 1019 Joules of energy is available and that 1.36 x 109 MWh of power could be produced using ORC binary power plants. Much of the

  18. An annotated bibliography: social and economic factors associated with electric power generation 1978. Report for 1970-78

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.

    1978-01-01

    A selective, annotated bibliography is presented concerning the socioeconomic impacts associated with electric power generation and related energy facilities. Abstracts were taken from studies, tables and figures in environmental reports and impact statements prepared by the energy industry, their consultants and regulatory agencies in connection with licensing and environmental requirements. The majority of the citations cover planned and operating nuclear and coal-fired steam electric generating stations and their associated transmission lines. Also included are citations covering other parts of the fossil and nuclear fuel cycles, such as mines and mills, fuel transportation and the breeder reactor. The bibliography is arranged by types of impacts including direct and indirect benefits of electricity production and transmission and internal and external costs. A state index and an author sponsor and plant name index are provided

  19. Physical‐chemical and microbiological characterization, and mutagenic activity of airborne PM sampled in a biomass‐fueled electrical production facility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohn, Corey A.; Lemieux, Christine L.; Long, Alexandra S.

    2011-01-01

    Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health probl...... includes PM from biomass combustion as well as internal combustion vehicles, may contribute to an elevated risk of adverse health effects. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2010 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.......Biomass combustion is used in heating and electric power generation in many areas of the world. Airborne particulate matter (PM) is released when biomass is brought to a facility, stored, and combusted. Occupational exposure to airborne PM within biomass‐fueled facilities may lead to health...... collected in March was more toxic than PM collected in August. Overall, airborne PM collected from the facility, especially that from the boiler room, were more toxic than PM generated from straw and wood chips. The results suggest that exposure to combustion PM in a biomass‐fueled facility, which likely...

  20. Joint environmental and cost efficiency analysis of electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, Eric; Barnum, Darold

    2009-01-01

    Fossil-fuel based electricity generation produces the largest proportion of human-related carbon pollution in the United States. Hence, fuel choices by steam plants are key determinants of the industry's impact on national and global greenhouse gas emissions, and key foci for climate change policy. Yet, little research has been done to examine the economic and environmental tradeoffs among the different types of fuels that are used by these plants. This paper applies a Data Envelopment Analysis procedure that incorporates the materials balance principle to estimate the allocations of coal, gas and oil inputs that minimize carbon emissions and costs. Using EIA 906 and FERC 423 data, the paper estimates cost/carbon tradeoffs facing two sets of plants: those that use coal and gas inputs, and those that use coal, gas and oil inputs. Findings for our three-input sample show that there would be a 79% increase in cost for moving from the cost-efficient point to the carbon efficient point, while there would be a 38% increase in carbon for moving from the carbon efficient point to the cost-efficient point. These conclusions indicate that, in general, the gap between efficient cost and efficient environmental production is wide, and would require substantial policy intervention, technological change or market adjustment before it could be narrowed. However, our examination of individual plants shows that what is true in general is often not true for specific plants. Some plants that are currently less efficient than those on the production frontier could produce the same amount of electricity with less carbon output and less fuel input. Additionally, many plants on the production frontier could improve both cost and carbon efficiency by changing their mixture of fossil-fuel inputs. (author)