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Sample records for electric form factor

  1. Neutron electric form factor via recoil polarimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Bradley Plaster; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G En /G Mn , was measured via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic d((pol-e),e(prime)(pol-n)p) reaction at three values of Q 2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15 and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. Preliminary data indicate that G En follows the Galster parameterization up to Q 2 = 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 and appears to rise above the Galster parameterization at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2

  2. Electric Form Factor of the Neutron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerbach, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Recent polarization-based precision measurements of the nucleons' elastic electric form factors have led to surprising results. The measurement of the ratio of the proton's electromagnetic form factors, μpGE^p/GM^p, was found to drop nearly linearly with Q^2 out to at least 5 GeV^2, inconsistent with the older Rosenbluth-type experiments. A recent measurement of GE^n, the neutron's electric form-factor saw GE^n does not fall off as quickly as commonly expected up to Q^2 1.5 GeV^2. Extending this study, a precision measurement of GE^n up to Q^2=3.5 GeV^2 was completed in Hall A at Jefferson Lab. The ratio GE^n/GM^n was measured through the beam-target asymmetry A of electrons quasi-elastically scattered off polarized neutrons in the reaction ^3He(e,e' n). The experiment took full advantage of the electron beam, recent target developments, as well as two detectors new to Jefferson Lab. The measurement used the accelerator's 100% duty-cycle high-polarization (typically 84%) electron beam and a new, hybrid optically-pumped polarized ^3He target which achieved in-beam polarizations in excess of 50%. A medium acceptance (80msr) open-geometry magnetic spectrometer (BigBite) detected the scattered electron, while a geometrically matched neutron detector observed the struck neutron. Preliminary results from this measurement will be discussed and compared to modern calculations of GE^n.

  3. Strong CP violation and the neutron electric dipole form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuckei, J.; Dib, C.; Faessler, A.; Gutsche, T.; Kovalenko, S. G.; Lyubovitskij, V. E.; Pumsa-ard, K.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the neutron electric dipole form factor induced by the CP-violating θ term of QCD within a perturbative chiral quark model which includes pion and kaon clouds. On this basis, we derive the neutron electric dipole moment and the electron-neutron Schiff moment. From the existing experimental upper limits on the neutron electric dipole moment, we extract constraints on the θ parameter and compare our results with other approaches

  4. Neutron charge radius and the neutron electric form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, T. R.; Crawford, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    For nearly forty years, the Galster parametrization has been employed to fit existing data for the neutron electric form factor, G E n , vs the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q 2 . Typically this parametrization is constrained to be consistent with experimental data for the neutron charge radius. However, we find that the Galster form does not have sufficient freedom to accommodate reasonable values of the radius without constraining or compromising the fit. In addition, the G E n data are now at sufficient precision to motivate a two-parameter fit (or three parameters if we include thermal neutron data). Here we present a modified form of a two-dipole parametrization that allows this freedom and fits both G E n (including recent data at both low and high four-momentum transfer) and the charge radius well with simple, well-defined parameters. Analysis reveals that the Galster form is essentially a two-parameter approximation to the two-dipole form but becomes degenerate if we try to extend it naturally to three parameters.

  5. Electric form factor of the proton through recoil polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, V.

    2000-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon, G E and G M , describe the charge and current distribution inside the nucleon and thus are quite intimately related to its structure. Jefferson Lab experiment 93-027 measured P l and Pt, the longitudinal and transverse recoil proton polarization, respectively, for the 1 H(e-vector,e'p-vector) reaction in the four-momentum transfer squared range of 0.5 to 3.5 GeV 2 , using the Hall A facility with two high resolution spectrometers and a Focal Plane Polarimeter. The ratio G Ep /G Mp is directly proportional to the ratio P t /P l . These data have unprecedented precision, and show for the first time that the Q 2 dependence of G Ep and G Mp is very different. (author)

  6. The nucleon electric dipole form factor from dimension-six time-reversal violation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, J.; Mereghetti, E.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; van Kolck, U.

    2011-01-01

    We calculate the electric dipole form factor of the nucleon that arises as a low-energy manifestation of time-reversal violation in quark-gluon interactions of effective dimension 6: the quark electric and chromoelectric dipole moments, and the gluon chromoelectric dipole moment. We use the

  7. The neutron electric form factor to Q² = 1.45 (GeV/c)²

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaster, Bradley [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-02-01

    The nucleon elastic electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities needed for an understanding of nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. The evolution of the Sachs electric and magnetic form factors with Q2, the square of the four-momentum transfer, is related to the distribution of charge and magnetization within the nucleon. High precision measurements of the nucleon form factors are essential for stringent tests of our current theoretical understanding of confinement within the nucleon. Measurements of the neutron form factors, in particular, those of the neutron electric form factor, have been notoriously difficult due to the lack of a free neutron target and the vanishing integral charge of the neutron. Indeed, a precise measurement of the neutron electric form factor has eluded experimentalists for decades; however, with the advent of high duty-factor polarized electron beam facilities, experiments employing polarization degrees of freedom have finally yielded the first precise measurements of this fundamental quantity. Following a general overview of the experimental and theoretical status of the nucleon form factors, a detailed description of an experiment designed to extract the neutron electric form factor from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in quasielastic 2H(e, e')1H scattering is presented. The experiment described here employed the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility's longitudinally polarized electron beam, a magnetic spectrometer for detection of the scattered electron, and a neutron polarimeter designed specifically for this experiment. Measurements were conducted at three Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c)2, and the final results extracted from an analysis of the data acquired in this experiment are reported and compared with recent theoretical predictions for the nucleon form factors.

  8. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.

    2014-03-01

    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q 2 in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV 2 . The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μ p G E p /G M p . This quantity decreases with Q 2 in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.

  9. Effects of the d-state quarks on the nucleon electric form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Y.J.; Kong, K.J.; Cheon, I.T.

    1987-11-01

    Considering the d-orbital excitation of a quark in the bag, we calculate the nucleon electric form factors in the cloudy bag model. In these calculations, we have taken into account the πNN, πΔN and πγ form factors though neglecting the c.m. correction. It turns out that the neutron charge form factor is very sensitive to the d-state quark admixture in the overall region of the momentum transfer but the proton charge form factor remains unchanged. Taking the d-state quark admixture in the intermediate state baryons, we can obtain the nucleon rms radii in remarkable agreement with the experimental values. We also investigate the roles of Δ particles in the nucleon charge form factors. (author). 20 refs, 10 figs

  10. Extraction of the neutron electric form factor from measurements of inclusive double spin asymmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulkosky, V.; Jin, G.; Long, E.; Zhang, Y.-W.; Mihovilovic, M.; Kelleher, A.; Anderson, B.; Higinbotham, D. W.; Širca, S.; Allada, K.; Annand, J. R. M.; Averett, T.; Bertozzi, W.; Boeglin, W.; Bradshaw, P.; Camsonne, A.; Canan, M.; Cates, G. D.; Chen, C.; Chen, J.-P.; Chudakov, E.; De Leo, R.; Deng, X.; Deur, A.; Dutta, C.; El Fassi, L.; Flay, D.; Frullani, S.; Garibaldi, F.; Gao, H.; Gilad, S.; Gilman, R.; Glamazdin, O.; Golge, S.; Gomez, J.; Hansen, J.-O.; Holmstrom, T.; Huang, J.; Ibrahim, H.; de Jager, C. W.; Jensen, E.; Jiang, X.; Jones, M.; Kang, H.; Katich, J.; Khanal, H. P.; King, P.; Korsch, W.; LeRose, J.; Lindgren, R.; Lu, H.-J.; Luo, W.; Markowitz, P.; Meekins, D.; Meziane, M.; Michaels, R.; Moffit, B.; Monaghan, P.; Muangma, N.; Nanda, S.; Norum, B. E.; Pan, K.; Parno, D.; Piasetzky, E.; Posik, M.; Punjabi, V.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Qian, X.; Qiang, Y.; Qui, X.; Riordan, S.; Saha, A.; Sawatzky, B.; Shabestari, M.; Shahinyan, A.; Shoenrock, B.; John, J. St.; Subedi, R.; Tobias, W. A.; Tireman, W.; Urciuoli, G. M.; Wang, D.; Wang, K.; Wang, Y.; Watson, J.; Wojtsekhowski, B.; Ye, Z.; Zhan, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zheng, X.; Zhao, B.; Zhu, L.; Jefferson Lab Hall A Collaboration

    2017-12-01

    Background: Measurements of the neutron charge form factor, GEn, are challenging because the neutron has no net charge. In addition, measurements of the neutron form factors must use nuclear targets which require accurately accounting for nuclear effects. Extracting GEn with different targets and techniques provides an important test of our handling of these effects. Purpose: The goal of the measurement was to use an inclusive asymmetry measurement technique to extract the neutron charge form factor at a four-momentum transfer of 1 (GeV/c ) 2 . This technique has very different systematic uncertainties than traditional exclusive measurements and thus serves as an independent check of whether nuclear effects have been taken into account correctly. Method: The inclusive quasielastic reaction 3He ⃗(e ⃗,e') was measured at Jefferson Laboratory. The neutron electric form factor, GEn, was extracted at Q2=0.98 (GeV/c ) 2 from ratios of electron-polarization asymmetries measured for two orthogonal target spin orientations. This Q2 is high enough that the sensitivity to GEn is not overwhelmed by the neutron magnetic contribution, and yet low enough that explicit neutron detection is not required to suppress pion production. Results: The neutron electric form factor, GEn, was determined to be 0.0414 ±0.0077 (stat)±0.0022 (syst) , providing the first high-precision inclusive extraction of the neutron's charge form factor. Conclusions: The use of the inclusive quasielastic 3He ⃗(e ⃗,e') with a four-momentum transfer near 1 (GeV/c ) 2 has been used to provide a unique measurement of GEn. This new result provides a systematically independent validation of the exclusive extraction technique results and implies that the nuclear corrections are understood. This is contrary to the proton form factor where asymmetry and differential cross section measurements have been shown to have large systematic differences.

  11. Isospin Mixing in the Nucleon and 4He and the Nucleon Strange Electric Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viviani, M.; Girlanda, L.; Kievsky, A.; Marcucci, L. E.; Rosati, S.; Schiavilla, R.; Kubis, B.; Lewis, R.

    2007-01-01

    In order to isolate the contribution of the nucleon strange electric form factor to the parity-violating asymmetry measured in 4 He(e-vector,e ' ) 4 He experiments, it is crucial to have a reliable estimate of the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) corrections in both the nucleon and 4 He. We examine this issue in the present Letter. Isospin admixtures in the nucleon are determined in chiral perturbation theory, while those in 4 He are derived from nuclear interactions, including explicit ISB terms. A careful analysis of the model dependence in the resulting predictions for the nucleon and nuclear ISB contributions to the asymmetry is carried out. We conclude that, at the low momentum transfers of interest in recent measurements reported by the HAPPEX Collaboration at Jefferson Lab, these contributions are of comparable magnitude to those associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor

  12. Isospin mixing in the nucleon and He-4 and the nucleon strange electric form-factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Viviani; R. Schiavilla; B. Kubis; R. Lewis; L. Girlanda; A. Kievsky; L.E. Marcucci; S. Rosati

    2007-01-01

    In order to isolate the contribution of the nucleon strange electric form factor to the parity-violating asymmetry measured in 4 He((rvec e),e(prime)) 4 He experiments, it is crucial to have a reliable estimate of the magnitude of isospin-symmetry-breaking (ISB) corrections in both the nucleon and 4 He. We examine this issue in the present letter. Isospin admixtures in the nucleon are determined in chiral perturbation theory, while those in 4 He are derived from nuclear interactions, including explicit ISB terms. A careful analysis of the model dependence in the resulting predictions for the nucleon and nuclear ISB contributions to the asymmetry is carried out. We conclude that, at the low momentum transfers of interest in recent measurements reported by the HAPPEX collaboration at Jefferson Lab, these contributions are of comparable magnitude to those associated with strangeness components in the nucleon electric form factor

  13. Lattice calculation of electric dipole moments and form factors of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramczyk, M.; Aoki, S.; Blum, T.; Izubuchi, T.; Ohki, H.; Syritsyn, S.

    2017-07-01

    We analyze commonly used expressions for computing the nucleon electric dipole form factors (EDFF) F3 and moments (EDM) on a lattice and find that they lead to spurious contributions from the Pauli form factor F2 due to inadequate definition of these form factors when parity mixing of lattice nucleon fields is involved. Using chirally symmetric domain wall fermions, we calculate the proton and the neutron EDFF induced by the C P -violating quark chromo-EDM interaction using the corrected expression. In addition, we calculate the electric dipole moment of the neutron using a background electric field that respects time translation invariance and boundary conditions, and we find that it decidedly agrees with the new formula but not the old formula for F3. Finally, we analyze some selected lattice results for the nucleon EDM and observe that after the correction is applied, they either agree with zero or are substantially reduced in magnitude, thus reconciling their difference from phenomenological estimates of the nucleon EDM.

  14. Electric form factors of the octet baryons from lattice QCD and chiral extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale and CSSM; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). JSC; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: CSSM and QCDSF/UKQCD Collaborations

    2014-03-15

    We apply a formalism inspired by heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularization to dynamical 2+1-flavor CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration lattice QCD simulation results for the electric form factors of the octet baryons. The electric form factor of each octet baryon is extrapolated to the physical pseudoscalar masses, after finite-volume corrections have been applied, at six fixed values of Q{sup 2} in the range 0.2-1.3 GeV{sup 2}. The extrapolated lattice results accurately reproduce the experimental form factors of the nucleon at the physical point, indicating that omitted disconnected quark loop contributions are small. Furthermore, using the results of a recent lattice study of the magnetic form factors, we determine the ratio μ{sub p}G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p}. This quantity decreases with Q{sup 2} in a way qualitatively consistent with recent experimental results.

  15. Deuteron A(Q2) structure function and the neutron electric form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platchkov, S.; Amroun, A.; Auffret, S.; Cavedon, J.M.; Dreux, P.; Duclos, J.; Frois, B.; Goutte, D.; Hachemi, H.; Martino, J.

    1989-01-01

    We present new measurements of the deuteron A(Q 2 ) structure function in the momentum transfer region between 1 and 18 fm -2 . The accuracy of the data ranges from 2% to 6%. We investigate the sensitivity of A(Q 2 ) to the nucleon-nucleon interaction and to the neutron electric form factor G E n . Our analysis shows that below 20 fm -2 G E n can be inferred from these data with a significantly improved accuracy. The model dependence of this analysis is discussed

  16. Neutron electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.; Madey, R.; Eden, T.; Markowitz, P.; Rutt, P.M.; Beard, K.; Anderson, B.D.; Baldwin, A.R.; Keane, D.; Manley, D.M.; Watson, J.W.; Zhang, W.M.; Kowalski, S.; Bertozzi, W.; Dodson, G.; Farkhondeh, M.; Dow, K.; Korsch, W.; Tieger, D.; Turchinetz, W.; Weinstein, L.; Gross, F.; Mougey, J.; Ulmer, P.; Whitney, R.; Reichelt, T.; Chang, C.C.; Kelly, J.J.; Payerle, T.; Cameron, J.; Ni, B.; Spraker, M.; Barkhuff, D.; Lourie, R.; Verst, S.V.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Jiang, W.-D.; Flanders, B.; Pella, P.; Arenhoevel, H.

    1992-01-01

    Nucleon form factors provide fundamental input for nuclear structure and quark models. Current knowledge of neutron form factors, particularly the electric form factor of the neutron, is insufficient to meet these needs. Developments of high-duty-factor accelerators and polarization-transfer techniques permit new experiments that promise results with small sensitivities to nuclear models. We review the current status of the field, our own work at the MIT/Bates linear accelerator, and future experimental efforts

  17. Neutron electric form factor up to Q2 = 1.47 GeV/c2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madey, Richard; Semenov, Andrei; Taylor, S.; Aghalaryan, Aram; Crouse, Erick; MacLachlan, Glen; Plaster, Bradley; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; Baker, O.; Alan Baldwin; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Christy, E.; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Areg Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; Manley, D.; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Smith, G.; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; Watson, J. W.; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The ratio of the electric to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g /equiv G En /G Mn , was measured via recoil polarimetry (R.G. Arnold, C.E. Carlson, F. Gross, Phys. Rev. C 23, 363 (1981)) from the quasielastic 2 H (/mathop(e)/limitse' /mathop(n)/limits) 1H reaction at three values of Q 2 (viz, 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ) in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The data reveal that GEn continues to follow the Galster parameterization up to Q 2 = 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 and rises above the Galster parameterization at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2

  18. The d(e, e'p)n reaction and the nuetron electric form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dieperink, A.E.L.

    1978-01-01

    An accurate determination of the electric form factor of the neutron, Gsub(En), is important both for our understanding of the structure of the nucleons, and for the description of electron scattering on nuclear many-body systems. At present only reliable model-independent information on Gsub(En) is available for four-momentum transfer (qsub(μ)) 2 →0 from the scattering of thermal neutrons off atoms. Electron scattering offers the possibility to obtain information at higher (qsub(μ)) 2 . However, since electrons can only be scattered off neutrons embedded in a many-body target the extraction of Gsub(En) will in general be affected by nuclear structure uncertainties. Some methods to obtain information on Gsub(En) in e-d experiments are discussed. (Auth.)

  19. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at MAMI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seimetz, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the Mainz Microtron the electric form factor of the neutron, G E,n , has been measured in two kinds of double polarisation experiments. The most recent results have been obtained by recoil polarimetry from the quasi-elastic D(e->,e ' n->)p reaction at squared four-momentum transfers Q 2 =0.3,0.6, and 0.8(GeV/c) 2 . A further data point at 0.67(GeV/c) 2 has been extracted from quasi-elastic scattering of polarised electrons on H->e3. We present the methods and results of our experiments as well as an overview on the precise G E,n data available at present

  20. The electric dipole form factor of the nucleon in chiral perturbation theory to sub-leading order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mereghetti, E.; de Vries, J.; Hockings, W. H.; Maekawa, C. M.; van Kolck, U.

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole form factor (EDFF) of the nucleon stemming from the QCD (theta) over bar term and from the quark color-electric dipole moments is calculated in chiral perturbation theory to sub-leading order. This is the lowest order in which the isoscalar EDFF receives a calculable,

  1. Weak electric and magnetic form factors for semileptonic baryon decays in an independent-quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Dash, B.K.; Das, M.

    1985-01-01

    Weak electric and magnetic form factors for semileptonic baryon decays are calculated in a relativistic quark model based on the Dirac equation with the independent-quark confining potential of the form (1+γ 0 )V(r). The values obtained for (g 2 /g 1 ), for various decay modes in a model with V(r) = a'r 2 , are roughly of the same order as those predicted in the MIT bag model. However in a similar model with V(r) = (a/sup nu+1/r/sup ν/+V 0 ), the (g 2 /g 1 ) values agree with the nonrelativistic results of Donoghue and Holstein. Incorporating phenomenologically the effect of nonzero g 2 in the ratio (g 1 /f 1 ), we have estimated the values for (f 2 /f 1 ) for various semileptonic transitions. It is observed that SU(3)-symmetry breaking does not generate significant departures in (f 2 /f 1 ) values from the corresponding Cabibbo values

  2. Disconnected electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Walter

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary results of a calculation of disconnected nucleon electromagnetic factors factors on the lattice are presented. The implementation of the numerical subtraction scheme is outlined. A comparison of results for electric and magnetic disconnected form factors on two lattice sizes with those of the Kentucky group is presented. Unlike previous results, the results found in this calculation are consistent with zero in these sectors

  3. The Electric Dipole Form Factor of the Nucleon in Chiral Perturbation Theory to Sub-leading Order

    CERN Document Server

    Mereghetti, E; Hockings, W H; Maekawa, C M; van Kolck, U

    2011-01-01

    The electric dipole form factor (EDFF) of the nucleon stemming from the QCD theta term and from the quark color-electric dipole moments is calculated in chiral perturbation theory to sub-leading order. This is the lowest order in which the isoscalar EDFF receives a calculable, non-analytic contribution from the pion cloud. In the case of the theta term, the expected lower bound on the deuteron electric dipole moment is |d_d| > 1.4 10^(-4) \\theta e fm. The momentum dependence of the isovector EDFF is proportional to a non-derivative time-reversal-violating pion-nucleon coupling, and the scale for momentum variation ---appearing, in particular, in the radius of the form factor--- is the pion mass.

  4. Possibility of neutron electric form factor etermination in the d-vector(e,e'p-vector)n reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakh, G.I.

    1990-01-01

    The polarization of protons produced in the vector-polarized deuteron disintegration by unpolarized electrons has been analyzed. The sensitivities of the polarization observation to the neutron electric form factor G en and also to different parametrizations of the deuteron wave functions (DWF) have been investigated in the framework of the relativistic impulse approximation. The present method of the G en determination does not require the use of the longitudinally polarized electron beams. 34 refs.; 9 figs

  5. Electroweak form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S.K.

    2002-01-01

    The present status of electroweak nucleon form factors and the N - Δ transition form factors is reviewed. Particularly the determination of dipole mass M A in the axial vector form factor is discussed

  6. Measurement of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron through d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongguo Zhu; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Anklin, H.; Arenhoevel, H.; Chris Armstrong; C. Bernet; Werner Boeglin; Herbert Breuer; Paul Brindza; D. Brown; S. Bueltmann; Roger Carlini; Nicholas Chant; Anthony Cowley; Donald Crabb; Samuel Danagoulian; D. B. Day; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; Yusuf Farah; Renee Fatimi; Kenneth Garrow; Chris Harris; Markus Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; M. Kaufmann; Mahbub Khandaker; Gunther Kubon; Jechiel Lichtenstadt; Richard Lindgren; Robert Lourie; Allison Lung; David Mack; Sudhir Malik; Pete Markowitz; Kenneth McFarlane; Paul McKee; Dustin McNulty; Geoffrey Milanovich; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; M. Muehlbauer; Thomas Petitjean; Yelena Prok; Daniela Rohe; Emmanuel Rollinde; Oscar Rondon-Aramayo; Philip Roos; Reyad Sawafta; Ingo Sick; C. Smith; Tim Southern; Michael Steinacher; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Raphael Tieulent; Al Tobias; Bill Vulcan; Glen Warren; H. Woehrle; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Marko Zeier; Jianguo Zhao; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-01-01

    We report the first measurement using a solid polarized target of the neutron electric form factor G n E via d-vector(e-vector, e'n)p. G n E was determined from the beam-target asymmetry in the scattering of longitudinally polarized electrons from polarized deuterated ammonia ( 15 ND 3 ). The measurement was performed in Hall C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in quasifree kinematics with the target polarization perpendicular to the momentum transfer. The electrons were detected in a magnetic spectrometer in coincidence with neutrons in a large solid angle segmented detector. We find G n E = 0.04632±0.00616(stat)±0.00341(syst) at Q 2 = 0.495 (GeV/c) 2

  7. Mesonic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic D. R. Bonnet; Robert G. Edwards; George T. Fleming; Randal Lewis; David Richards

    2003-07-22

    We have started a program to compute the electromagnetic form factors of mesons. We discuss the techniques used to compute the pion form factor and present preliminary results computed with domain wall valence fermions on MILC asqtad lattices, as well as Wilson fermions on quenched lattices. These methods can easily be extended to rho-to-gamma-pi transition form factors.

  8. Soil Forming Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    It! What is Soil? Chip Off the Old Block Soil Forming Factors Matters of Life and Death Underneath It All Wise Choices A World of Soils Soil Forming Factors 2 A Top to Bottom Guide 3 Making a Soil Monolith 4 Soil Orders 5 State Soil Monoliths 6 Where in the Soil World Are You? >> A Top to

  9. Electroweak form factors of the Skyrmion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braaten, E.; Sze-Man Tse; Willcox, C.

    1986-01-01

    The electroweak form factors of baryons are studied in the semiclassical approximation to the Skyrme model. General expressions for the form factors are given for arbitrary choices of the Skyrme-model Lagrangian. They are applied to the original two-parameter Skyrme model to compute the electric, magnetic, and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon and the electromagnetic nucleon-Δ transition form factors. The dependence of the form factors on the momentum transfer is compared with phenomenological dipole parametrizations

  10. A Measurement of the neutron electric form factor at very large momentum transfer using polaried electrions scattering from a polarized helium-3 target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelleher, Aidan [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. Of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3 He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. Gn E was measured to be 0.0242 ± 0.0020(stat) ± 0.0061(sys) and 0.0247 ± 0.0029(stat) ± 0.0031(sys) at Q2 = 1.7 and 2.5 GeV2 , respectively.

  11. Electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desplanques, B.

    1987-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors, in first approximation, are sensitive to spatial distribution of nucleons and to their current. In second approximation, more precise effects are concerned, whose role is increasing with momentum transfer and participating essentially of short range nuclei description. They concern of course the nucleon-nucleon interaction while approaching each other and keeping their free-state identity, but also mutually polarizing one the other. In this last effect, radial and orbital excitations of nucleon, the nucleon mesonic cloud modification and the nucleon antinucleon pair excitation are included. In this paper, these contributions are discussed while trying to find the important elements for a good description of form factors. Current questions are also discussed. Light nuclei are essentially concerned [fr

  12. Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvornikov, M.S.; Studenikin, A.I.

    2004-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors of a massive neutrino are studied in a minimally extended standard model in an arbitrary R ξ gauge and taking into account the dependence on the masses of all interacting particles. The contribution from all Feynman diagrams to the electric, magnetic, and anapole form factors, in which the dependence of the masses of all particles as well as on gauge parameters is accounted for exactly, are obtained for the first time in explicit form. The asymptotic behavior of the magnetic form factor for large negative squares of the momentum of an external photon is analyzed and the expression for the anapole moment of a massive neutrino is derived. The results are generalized to the case of mixing between various flavors of the neutrino. Explicit expressions are obtained for the electric, magnetic, and electric dipole and anapole transitional form factors as well as for the transitional electric dipole moment

  13. Pion form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryong Ji, C.; Pang, A.; Szczepaniak, A. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-04-01

    It is pointed out that the correct criterion to define the legal PQCD contribution to the exclusive processes in the lightcone perturbative expansion should be based on the large off-shellness of the lightcone energy in the intermediate states. In the lightcone perturbative QCD calculation of the pion form factor, the authors find that the legal PQCD contribution defined by the lightcone energy cut saturates in the smaller Q{sup 2} region compared to that defined by the gluon four-momentum square cut. This is due to the contribution by the highly off-energy-shell gluons in the end point regions of the phase space, indicating that the gluon four-momentum-square cut may have cut too much to define the legal PQCD.

  14. Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marc Vanderhaeghen; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi

    2007-10-01

    There has been much activity in the measurement of the elastic electromagnetic proton and neutron form factors in the last decade, and the quality of the data has greatly improved by performing double polarization experiments, in comparison with previous unpolarized data. Here we review the experimental data base in view of the new results for the proton, and neutron, obtained at JLab, MAMI, and MIT-Bates. The rapid evolution of phenomenological models triggered by these high-precision experiments will be discussed, including the recent progress in the determination of the valence quark generalized parton distributions of the nucleon, as well as the steady rate of improvements made in the lattice QCD calculations.

  15. The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron via Recoil Polarimetry to Q2 1.47 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley Plaster; Richard Madey; Andrei Semenov; Simon Taylor; Aram Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Chenyu Yan; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; Paul Brewer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Kenneth Garrow; Calvin Howell; Paul Gueye; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Samuel Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2003-01-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration conducted measurements of the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, G n E/G n M, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic 2 H((rvec e),e/(rvec n)) 1 H reaction at three values of Q 2 [viz., 0.45, 1.15, and 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 ] in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The preliminary results for G n E at Q 2 = 0.45 and 1.15 (GeV/c) 2 are consistent with the Galster parameterization; however, the preliminary result for G n E at Q 2 = 1.47 (GeV/c) 2 lies slightly above the Galster parameterization

  16. A New EM CKM Matrix: Implications of the Nucleon Strange Quark Content, Anomalous Magnetic Moments of Nucleons and Electric and Magnetic Nucleon Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Thomas

    2013-10-01

    A new electromagnetic neutral-current quark mixing matrix, analog to the well-known Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) weak charge-current matrix, is proposed to account for the strange quark content of the neutron and proton and part of the anomalous axial vector magnetic moments. The EM-CKM matrix is shown to be equivalent to the weak-CKM matrix following an EM to weak gauge symmetry transformation, demonstrating the universality of the Standard Model (SM) CKM quark mixing matrix. The electric and magnetic form factors are reformulated using a new QCD three quark nucleon gyromagnetic factor, Dirac and Pauli form factors and anomalous kappa factors. The old 1943 Jauch form factors which have been systematically used and developed for many years is shown to be in stark disagreement with the new global set of experimental polarized electron-proton scattering data whereas the reformulated SM parameter set of this study is shown to agree very well, lending strong support for this new EM SM approach.

  17. Measurements of the Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q2=0.45 and 1.13 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigeyuki Tajima

    2003-01-01

    Precise measurements of the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, over a wide range of the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q2, are important for understanding nucleon and nuclear electromagnetic structure. In the non-relativistic limit, the electric and magnetic form factors are related to the charge and magnetization distribution inside a nucleon, respectively. The measured values of the form factors also serve as an important test for nucleon models. Among the four nucleon form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron, Gn E, is the most difficult one to measure and therefore has been very poorly known especially in the region Q2 > 1 (GeV/c)2 due to the lack of a free neutron target and the small value of Gn E. The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration measured the ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor of the neutron, g = Gn E/Gn M, at three acceptance-averaged Q2 values of 0.45, 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c)2 using the quasi-elastic 2H(∼e, e0∼n)1H reaction. In our experiment, an electron was scattered quasielastically from a neutron in a liquid-deuterium target, and the electron was detected in an electron spectrometer in coincidence with the neutron which was detected in a neutron polarimeter. The polarimeter was used to analyze the polarization of the recoil neutrons by measuring the np elastic scattering asymmetry. The experiment was performed in Hall-C at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility during the period from September 2000 to April 2001. The value of g was determined from the measured ratio of the sideways and longitudinal components of the neutron polarization vector. The values for Gn E were computed from our measured values of g = Gn E/Gn M using the Gn M values obtained from a fit to the world data. The E93-038 collaboration reported the first measurements of Gn E using polarization techniques at Q2 greater than 1 (GeV/c)2. Furthermore, our measurements of Gn E at the two higher Q2 values of 1.13 and 1.45 (Ge

  18. Nucleon Form Factors Using Spin Degrees of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Mark

    2002-01-01

    An overview of recent measurements of the neutron and proton electromagnetic form factors from double polarization experiments. Spin observables are sensitive to the product of nucleon form factor which allows access to the small nucleon electric form factors

  19. Electric form factor of the neutron from the 2H(e-->,e'n-->)1H reaction at Q2=0.255 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. Eden; R. Madey; W.-M. Zhang; B. D. Anderson; H. Arenhvel; A. R. Baldwin; D. Barkhuff; K. B. Beard; W. Bertozzi; J. M. Cameron; C. C. Chang; G. W. Dodson; K. Dow; M. Farkhondeh; J. M. Finn; B. S. Flanders; C. Hyde-Wright; W.-D. Jiang; D. Keane; J. J. Kelly; W. Korsch; S. Kowalski; R. Lourie; D. M. Manley; P. Markowitz; J. Mougey; B. Ni; T. Payerle; P. J. Pella; T. Reichelt; P. M. Rutt; M. Spraker; D. Tieger; W. Turchinetz; P. E. Ulmer; S. Van Verst; J. W. Watson; L. B. Weinstein; and R. R. Whitney

    1994-01-01

    We determined the electric form factor GnE of the neutron from the quasielastic 2H(e-->,e'n-->)1H reaction at a central squared four-momentum transfer Q2=0.255 (GeV/c)2 with a longitudinally polarized electron beam of 868 MeV and a low (∼0.8%) duty factor. A neutron polarimeter designed and constructed specifically for this experiment was used to measure the sideways polarization of the recoil neutron, which was detected in coincidence with the scattered electron. Theoretical calculations have established that this polarization-transfer technique for quasielastic scattering produces a value of GnE that shows little sensitivity to the influence of final-state interactions, meson-exchange currents, isobar configurations, and deuteron structure. The value for GnE from this measurement is 0.066 ± 0.036 ± 0.009

  20. Electromagnetic Hadronic Form-Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, Robert G.

    2005-01-01

    We present a calculation of the nucleon electromagnetic form-factors as well as the pion and rho to pion transition form-factors in a hybrid calculation with domain wall valence quarks and improved staggered (Asqtad) sea quarks

  1. Electrically assisted forming modeling and control

    CERN Document Server

    Salandro, Wesley A; Bunget, Cristina; Mears, Laine; Roth, John T

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the latest research findings and applications of Electrically-Assisted Forming (EAF) – whereby metals are formed under an electric current field – this book explains how such a process produces immediate improved formability of metals beyond the extent of thermal softening, and allows metals to be formed to greater elongation with lower mechanical energy as well as allowing for lightweight brittle metals such as magnesium and titanium to be formed without external heating or annealing, enabling the more effective use of these lightweight metals in design. Including case studies that illustrate and support the theoretical content and real-world applications of the techniques discussed, this book also serves to enrich readers understanding of the underlying theories that influence electro-plastic behaviour. The authors have extensive experience in studying Electrically-Assisted Forming and have written extensively on the topic with publications including experimental works, t...

  2. Electromagnetic form factors of hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zidell, V.S.

    1976-01-01

    A vector meson dominance model of the electromagnetic form factors of hadrons is developed which is based on the use of unstable particle propagators. Least-square fits are made to the proton, neutron, pion and kaon form factor data in both the space and time-like regions. A good fit to the low-energy nucleon form factor data is obtained using only rho, ω, and phi dominance, and leads to a determination of the vector meson resonance parameters in good agreement with experiment. The nucleon-vector meson coupling constants obey simple sum rules indicating that there exists no hard core contribution to the form factors within theoretical uncertainties. The prediction for the electromagnetic radii of the proton is in reasonable agreement with recent experiments. The pion and kaon charge form factors as deduced from the nucleon form factors assuming vector meson universality are compared to the data. The pion form factor agrees with the data in both the space and time-like regions. The pion charge radius is in agreement with the recent Dubna result, but the isovector P-wave pion-pion phase shift calculated from the theory disagrees with experiment. A possible contribution to the form factors from a heavy rho meson is also evaluated

  3. Calculation of pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, N.; Amirarjomand, S.

    1975-09-01

    The pion form factor is calculated using the structure function Wsub(2), which incorporates kinematical constraints, threshold behaviour and scaling. The Bloom-Gilman sum rule is used and only the two leading Regge trajectories are taken into account

  4. TRASYS form factor matrix normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for adjusting a TRASYS enclosure form factor matrix to unity. This approach is not limited to closed geometries, and in fact, it is primarily intended for use with open geometries. The purpose of this approach is to prevent optimistic form factors to space. In this method, nodal form factor sums are calculated within 0.05 of unity using TRASYS, although deviations as large as 0.10 may be acceptable, and then, a process is employed to distribute the difference amongst the nodes. A specific example has been analyzed with this method, and a comparison was performed with a standard approach for calculating radiation conductors. In this comparison, hot and cold case temperatures were determined. Exterior nodes exhibited temperature differences as large as 7 C and 3 C for the hot and cold cases, respectively when compared with the standard approach, while interior nodes demonstrated temperature differences from 0 C to 5 C. These results indicate that temperature predictions can be artificially biased if the form factor computation error is lumped into the individual form factors to space.

  5. TS/EL ELECTRICAL WORK REQUEST FORM

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    To facilitate the processing of requests for minor electrical installation work to be carried out by the TS/EL group, a new procedure designed to improve contacts and exchange of information with customers has been set up. The procedure comprises a check to determine whether the TS/EL or the TS/FM group is responsible for the area where the electrical work is to be done. If the work is to be performed by the EL group, an on-line request form must be completed. The following steps must be completed: On a web browser, use the link http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/el/el.htm In the left-hand menu choose ‘Demande de Travaux Electriques’ Enter the building number to check which group to contact and click ‘FIND’ If the area is: Under FM’s responsibility:\tCall 77777 Under EL’s responsibility:\tClick the link to the work form, complete it and send it (click ‘ENVOYER’) IMPORTANT This form is for minor electrical installation requests only. Please call 72201 in t...

  6. Zeros in the electromagnetic and hadronic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martini, A.F.; Menon, M.J.; Montanha, J.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the evidences for the existence of zeros in the electric and in the hadronic form factors of the proton. We show that the shape of both form factors are similar, but there is indication that the hadronic form factors can depend on the energy. (author)

  7. Strange mesonic transition form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goity, J.L.; Musolf, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The strange-quark vector current ρ-to-π meson transition form factor is computed at one-loop order using strange meson intermediate states. A comparison is made with a φ-meson dominance model estimate. We find that one-loop contributions are comparable in magnitude to those predicted by φ-meson dominance. It is possible that the one-loop contribution can make the matrix element as large as those of the electromagnetic current mediating vector meson radiative decays. However, due to the quadratic dependence of the one-loop results on the hadronic form factor cutoff mass, a large uncertainty in the estimate of the loops is unavoidable. These results indicate that non-nucleonic strange quarks could contribute appreciable in moderate-parallel Q 2 parallel parity-violating electron-nucleus scattering measurements aimed at probing the strange-quark content of the nucleon. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Baryon electromagnetic form factors at BESIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dbeyssi Alaa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities which parameterize the electric and magnetic structure of hadrons. This contribution reports on the measurements of baryon electromagnetic form factors at the BESIII experiment in Beijing. The Beijing e+e− collider BEPCII is a double-ring symmetric collider running at √s between 2.0 and 4.6 GeV. Baryon electromagnetic form factors can be measured at BESIII in direct e+e−-annihilation and in initial state radiation processes. Based on the data collected by the BESIII detector at 12 center of mass energies between 2.23 and 3.67 GeV, the e+e− → p̄p cross section and the time-like proton form factor is measured. Preliminary results from the analysis of the initial state radiation process e+e− → p̄pγ using a data set of 7.408 fb−1 collected at center-of-mass energies between 3.773 and 4.6 GeV, are also presented. The cross section for e+e−→Λ¯Λ${e^ + }{e^ - } \\to \\bar \\Lambda \\Lambda $ is measured based on 40.5 pb−1 data collected at 4 energy points from the threshold up to 3.08 GeV. Preliminary results on the total cross section and the Λ effective form factor are shown. Ongoing analysis based on the high luminosity energy scan from 2015 and from radiative return at different √s are also described.

  9. Factorization and pion form factor in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.

    1979-01-01

    The behaviour of the pion electromagnetic form factor (EMFF) in the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is discussed. Pion is considered to be a quark-antiquark bound state. It is proposed to use an OPE description of the bound state structure by matrix elements of certain local gauge-invariant operators. Short-distance quark interactions is proved using a direct analysis of perturbation theory in the α-parametric representation of the Feynman diagrams. It is shown that the short-distance parton picture privides a self-consistent description of the large Q 2 momentum behaviour of the pion EMFF in QCD. Pion EMFF asymptotics is expressed in terms of fu fundamental constants of the theory

  10. Measurement of the electric neutron form factor in the reaction 3vector (He)(vector e,e'n)pp at Q2=1.58 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlimme, Bjoern Soeren

    2012-01-01

    Electromagnetic nucleon form factors are fundamental quantities which are closely related to the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon. The evolution of the electric and magnetic Sachs form factors G E and G M with Q 2 , the negative square of the four momentum transfer in the electromagnetic scattering process, is directly connected with the spatial charge and current distributions in the nucleon by means of a Fourier transform. Therefore precise measurements of the form factors over a wide Q 2 range are essential for a quantitative understanding of the nucleon structure. Owing to the lack of a free neutron target measurements of the neutron form factors prove to be difficult compared to the measurements on the proton. Consequently the available neutron data is less precise, and the measured Q 2 range is smaller. In particular the electric neutron Sachs form factor G n E is difficult to measure; due to the vanishing net charge of the neutron, G n E is small compared to the other nucleon form factors. G n E characterizes the charge distribution of the electrically neutral neutron, hence it is very sensitive to the inner structure of the neutron. In the present work G n E was determined from beam helicity asymmetries in the quasielastic scattering process 3 vector (He)(vector e,e'n)pp at a momentum transfer Q 2 =1.58 (GeV/c) 2 . The measurement took place in Mainz at the electron accelerator facility Mainz Microtron within the A1 collaboration in the summer of 2008. Longitudinally polarized electrons with an energy of 1.508 GeV impinged on a polarized 3 He gas target which served as an effective polarized neutron target. The scattered electrons were detected in coincidence with the recoil neutrons; a magnetic spectrometer was used for the electron detection, the contribution of quasielastic scattering off the protons was restricted through the detection of the neutron via a plastic scintillator matrix. Cross section asymmetries with respect to the electron

  11. Study on electric parameters of wild and cultivated cotton forms being in normal state and irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazirov, N.N.; Kamalov, N.; Norbaev, N.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation effect on electric conductivity of tissues in case of alternating current, electrical capacity and cell impedance has been studied. Gamma irradiation of seedlings results in definite changes of electric factors of cells (electric conductivity, electric capacity, impedance). It is shown that especially strong changes have been revealed during gamma irradiation of radiosensitive wild form of cotton plants. The deviation of cell electric factors from the standard depends on the violation of evolutionally composed ion heterogeneity and cell colloid system state, which results in changes in their structure and metabolism in them

  12. Electromagnetic form factors of the Ω- in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Korzec, T.; Koutsou, G.; Negele, J. W.; Proestos, Y.

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the omega baryon (Ω - ) electromagnetic form factors using N f =2+1 domain-wall fermion configurations for three pion masses in the range of about 350 to 300 MeV. We compare results obtained using domain-wall fermions with those of a mixed-action (hybrid) approach, which combines domain-wall valence quarks on staggered sea quarks, for a pion mass of about 350 MeV. We pay particular attention in the evaluation of the subdominant electric quadrupole form factor to sufficient accuracy to exclude a zero value, by constructing a sequential source that isolates it from the dominant form factors. The Ω - magnetic moment, μ Ω - , and the electric charge and magnetic radius, E0/M1 2 >, are extracted for these pion masses. The electric quadrupole moment is determined for the first time using dynamical quarks.

  13. Strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrou, C.; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Jansen, K.; Kallidonis, C.; Koutsou, G.; Avilés-Casco, A. Vaquero

    2018-05-01

    We evaluate the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors using an ensemble of gauge configurations generated with two degenerate maximally twisted mass clover-improved fermions with mass tuned to approximately reproduce the physical pion mass. In addition, we present results for the disconnected light quark contributions to the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Improved stochastic methods are employed leading to high-precision results. The momentum dependence of the disconnected contributions is fitted using the model-independent z-expansion. We extract the magnetic moment and the electric and magnetic radii of the proton and neutron by including both connected and disconnected contributions. We find that the disconnected light quark contributions to both electric and magnetic form factors are nonzero and at the few percent level as compared to the connected. The strange form factors are also at the percent level but more noisy yielding statistical errors that are typically within one standard deviation from a zero value.

  14. On form factors of boundary changing operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Z., E-mail: bajnok.zoltan@wigner.mta.hu [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest 114 (Hungary); Hollo, L., E-mail: hollo.laszlo@wigner.mta.hu [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, P.O.B. 49, H-1525 Budapest 114 (Hungary); Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24, rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France)

    2016-04-15

    We develop a form factor bootstrap program to determine the matrix elements of local, boundary condition changing operators. We propose axioms for these form factors and determine their solutions in the free boson and Lee–Yang models. The sudden change in the boundary condition, caused by an operator insertion, can be interpreted as a local quench and the form factors provide the overlap of any state before the quench with any outgoing state after the quench.

  15. INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS ON THE FORMING OF ELECTRIC ARC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. O. Vakulenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of work is a comparative analysis of chemical compounds influence on the process of electric arc forming and condition of its burning. Methodology. Material for an electrode was a wire 3 mm in diameter of low carbon steel with contain of carbon 0.15%. As chemical compounds, which determine the terms of forming of arc welding were used kaolin; CaCO3 with the admixtures of gypsum to 60%; SiO2 and Fe – Si with the iron concentration to 50%. Researches were conducted at the use of direct electric current and the arc of reverse polarity. As a source of electric current the welding transformer of type PSO-500 was used. On the special stand an initial gap between the electrode and metal-plate was equal to 1–1.5 mm. The interelectrode interval was filled with the probed chemical compounds and it was formed an electric arc. In the moment of electric arc arise the values of electric current and the arc voltage were determined. After the natural break of electric arc, the final size of the gap between electrodes was accepted as the maximal value of the arc lengths. Findings. In the conditions of experiment the metal transfer in interelectrode interval corresponded to the drop mechanism. According to external characteristics the ratio between the maximal arc length and the power of electric discharge has the appearance of exponential dependence. Specific power of electric arc characterizes environment of interelectrode interval in the moment of arc forming per unit of its length. Originality. 1. On the basis of influence analysis of the studied chemical compounds on the formation processes of electric arc inversely proportional relationship between the power of the electric current and the maximum arc length to the moment of its natural break is defined. 2. The ratio between the maximal arc length and the power of electric current with sufficiently high correlation coefficient is subjected to the exponential dependence. Influence of

  16. Measurements of the neutron electric to magnetic form factor ratio GEn/GMn via the 2H(e→,e'n→)1H reaction to Q2=1.45 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaster, B.; Semenov, A.Yu.; Semenova, I.A.; Aghalaryan, A.; Asaturyan, R.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Stepanyan, S.; Tadevosyan, V.; Crouse, E.; Finn, J.M.; Perdrisat, C.; Roche, J.; MacLachlan, G.; Opper, A.K.; Tajima, S.; Churchwell, S.; Howell, C.R.; Tireman, W.; Ahmidouch, A.; Anderson, B. D.

    2006-01-01

    We report values for the neutron electric to magnetic form factor ratio, G En /G Mn , deduced from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in the quasielastic 2 H(e→,e ' n→) 1 H reaction, at three Q 2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c) 2 . The data at Q 2 =1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c) 2 are the first direct experimental measurements of G En employing polarization degrees of freedom in the Q 2 >1 (GeV/c) 2 region and stand as the most precise determinations of G En for all values of Q 2

  17. Measurements of the neutron electric to magnetic form-factor ratio GEn/GMn via the 2H((rvec e), e(prime)(rvec n)) 1H reaction to Q2 = 1.45-(GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley Plaster; A.Yu. Semenov; A. Aghalaryan; Erick Crouse; Glen MacLachlan; Shigeyuki Tajima; William Tireman; Abdellah Ahmidouch; Brian Anderson; Hartmuth Arenhovel; Razmik Asaturyan; O. Baker; Alan Baldwin; David Barkhuff; Herbert Breuer; Roger Carlini; Michael Christy; Steve Churchwell; Leon Cole; Samuel Danagoulian; Donal Day; T. Eden; Mostafa Elaasar; Rolf Ent; Manouchehr Farkhondeh; Howard Fenker; John Finn; Liping Gan; Ashot Gasparian; Kenneth Garrow; Paul Gueye; Calvin Howell; Bitao Hu; Mark Jones; James Kelly; Cynthia Keppel; Mahbubul Khandaker; Wooyoung Kim; Stanley Kowalski; Allison Lung; David Mack; Richard Madey; D. Manley; Pete Markowitz; Joseph Mitchell; Hamlet Mkrtchyan; Allena Opper; Charles Perdrisat; Vina Punjabi; Brian Raue; Tilmann Reichelt; Joerg Reinhold; Julie Roche; Yoshinori Sato; Nikolai Savvinov; Irina Semenova; Wonick Seo; Neven Simicevic; Gregory Smith; Stepan Stepanyan; Vardan Tadevosyan; Liguang Tang; Shawn Taylor; Paul Ulmer; William Vulcan; John Watson; Steven Wells; Frank Wesselmann; Stephen Wood; Seunghoon Yang; Lulin Yuan; Wei-Ming Zhang; Hong Guo Zhu; Xiaofeng Zhu

    2006-01-01

    We report values for the neutron electric to magnetic form factor ratio, G En /G Mn , deduced from measurements of the neutron's recoil polarization in the quasielastic 2 H((rvec e), e(prime)(rvec n)) 1 H reaction, at three Q 2 values of 0.45, 1.13, and 1.45 (GeV/c) 2 . The data at Q 2 = 1.13 and 1.45 (GeV/c) 2 are the first direct experimental measurements of GEn employing polarization degrees of freedom in the Q 2 > 1 (GeV/c) 2 region and stand as the most precise determinations of GEn for all values of Q 2

  18. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian, E-mail: kubis@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for {sup 4}He.

  19. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon’s strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for 4 He.

  20. Calculation of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renner, D.B.; Brower, R.; Dolgov, D.; Eicker, N.; Lippert, Th.; Negele, J.W.; Pochinsky, A.; Schilling, K.

    2003-01-01

    The formalism is developed to express nucleon matrix elements of the electromagnetic current in terms of form factors consistent with the translational, rotational, and parity symmetries of a cubic lattice. We calculate the number of these form factors and show how appropriate linear combinations approach the continuum limit

  1. The Electric Form Factor of the Neutron at Q2 = 1.17 and 1.47(GeV/c)2 from the 2H (e, en)' H reaction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tireman, William [Kent State Univ., Kent, OH (United States)

    2003-12-01

    The Jefferson Laboratory E93-038 collaboration measured the ratio of the electric form factor to the magnetic form factor of the neutron, g = Gne/Gnm, via recoil polarimetry from the quasielastic 2H(e,en)1 H reaction at q2 = 0.45, 1.17 and 1.47 (GeV/c)2 in Hall C of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. A polarimeter designed specifically for E93-038 was used to measure the up-down scattering asymmetry from the transverse component of the recoil neutron's polarization vector, and a dipole magnet located in front of the polarimeter was used to precess the polarization vector in the scattering plane through an angle of x. Sequential measurements of the scattering asymmetry with the polarization vector precessed through angles χ = 0° and χ = ±90° for Q2 = 1.47 (GeV/c)2 were made during January 2001 and through angles χ = ±40° for Q2 = 1.17 (GeV/c)2 during April 2001 and will be reported on in this dissertation. This ratio method removes the need to know the analyzing power

  2. A Measurement of the Neutron Electric Form Factor in Dvec ($\\vec{e}$,e'n)p Quasielastic Scattering at Q2=0.5(GeV/c)2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Hongguo [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2000-08-01

    The form factors of the neutron give information on fundamental properties of the nucleons and provide a critical testing ground for models based on QCD. In late 1998, Jefferson Lab (JLAB) experiment E93-026 measured the spin-dependent part of the exclusive (e, e'n) scattering cross section from a polarized deuterated ammonia (15ND3) target at a four momentum transfer squared of Q2 = 0.5 (GeV/c)2. A longitudinally polarized electron beam was scattered from the polarized target and the quasi-elastically scattered electron was detected in coincidence with the knocked-out neutron. The data have been analyzed in terms of the spin-correlation parameter, or the electron-deuteron vector asymmetry (A$V\\atop{ed}$), of (e, e'n) to determine the neutron electric form factor G$n\\atop{E}$. The result is consistent with data from existing experiments and shows a good agreement with the Galster parameterization of G$n\\atop{E}$ within experimental uncertainty.

  3. Numerical study of the lattice meson form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woloshyn, R.M.; Kobos, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The electric form factor of the pseudo-Goldstone meson (the generic pion) is calculated in quenched lattice quantum chromodynamics with SU(2) color. Charge radii are calculated for different values of the bare-quark mass. The results are in agreement with the physically reasonable expectation that heavier quarks have distributions of smaller radius

  4. Method of forming an electrically conductive cellulose composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Barbara R [Oak Ridge, TN; O'Neill, Hugh M [Knoxville, TN; Woodward, Jonathan [Ashtead, GB

    2011-11-22

    An electrically conductive cellulose composite includes a cellulose matrix and an electrically conductive carbonaceous material incorporated into the cellulose matrix. The electrical conductivity of the cellulose composite is at least 10 .mu.S/cm at 25.degree. C. The composite can be made by incorporating the electrically conductive carbonaceous material into a culture medium with a cellulose-producing organism, such as Gluconoacetobacter hansenii. The composites can be used to form electrodes, such as for use in membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells.

  5. Electric Charge as a Form of Imaginary Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric charge is considered as a form of imaginary energy. With this consideration, the energy of an electrically charged particle is a complex number. The real part is proportional to the mass, while the imaginary part is proportional to the electric charge. The energy of an antiparticle is given by conjugating the energy of its corresponding particle. Newton's law of gravity and Coulomb's law of electric force are classically unified into a single expression of the interaction between the complex energies of two electrically charged particles. Interaction between real energies (or masses is the gravitational force. Interaction between imaginary energies (or electric charges is the electromagnetic force. Since radiation is also a form of real energy, there are another two types of interactions between real energies: the mass-radiation interaction and the radiation-radiation interaction. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon, we can derive the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done by the radiation-radiation interaction on a photon, we can obtain a radiation redshift. This study suggests the electric charge as a form of imaginary energy, so that classically unifies the gravitational and electric forces and derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift.

  6. The pion form factor from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, J. van der

    2004-01-01

    We calculate the electromagnetic form factor of the pion in quenched lattice QCD. The non-perturbatively improved Sheikoleslami-Wohlert lattice action is used together with the O(a) improved current. We calculate form factor for pion masses down to mπ = 380 MeV. We compare the mean square radius for the pion extracted from our form factors to the value obtained from the 'Bethe Salpeter amplitude'. Using (quenched) chiral perturbation theory, we extrapolate our results towards the physical pion mass

  7. Measurement of the pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dally, E.; Hauptman, J.; May, C.

    1977-01-01

    The pion form factor has been measured in the momentum transfer range of 0.03( 2 by scattering pions from atomic electrons in a liquid hydrogen target. The pion form factor is defined to be the elastic scattering cross section divided by that predicted for a point pion. The experiment has been performed in a 100 GeV/c negative pion beam incident on a 50 cm liquid hydrogen target at Fermi laboratory. The corrected form factor equals 0.33+-0.06 f 2 . Vector dominance predicts 0.40 f 2

  8. Apparatus for electrical-assisted incremental forming and process thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2018-04-24

    A process and apparatus for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component. The process can include providing an incremental forming machine, the machine having at least one arcuate tipped tool and at least electrode spaced a predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is operable to perform a plurality of incremental deformations on the sheet metal component using the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is also operable to apply an electric direct current through the electrode into the sheet metal component at the predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool while the machine is forming the sheet metal component.

  9. Small Form Factor RFID Applicator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed development of a small form factor Astrobee dedicated RFID label applicator will allow current and future free flying vehicles to place RFID labels...

  10. Heavy meson form factors from QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, A.F.; Georgi, H.; Grinstein, B.

    1990-01-01

    We calculate the leading QCD radiative corrections to the relations which follow from the decoupling of the heavy quark spin as the quark mass goes infinity and from the symmetry between systems with different heavy quarks. One of the effects we calculate gives the leading q 2 -dependence of the form factor of a heavy quark, which in turn dominates the q 2 -dependence of the form factors of bound states of the heavy quark with light quarks. This, combined with the normalization of the form factor provided by symmetry, gives us a first principles calculation of the heavy meson (or baryon) form factors in the limit of very large heavy quark mass. (orig.)

  11. Make Projects Small Form Factor PCs

    CERN Document Server

    Wessels, Duane

    2006-01-01

    Shoebox sized and smaller, small-form-factor PCs can pack as much computing muscle as a full-sized desktop computer. They consumer less power, have few or no moving parts, and are very quiet. Whether you plan to use one as a standalone PC or want to embed it in your next hacking project, a small-form-factor PC can be a lot of fun to build. Make Projects: Small Form Factor PCs is the only book available that shows you how to build small-form-factor PCs -- from kits and from scratch -- that are more interesting and more personalized than what a full-sized PC can give you. Included in the book

  12. Parallel Integer Factorization Using Quadratic Forms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMath, Stephen S

    2005-01-01

    .... In 1975, Daniel Shanks used class group infrastructure to modify the Morrison-Brillhart algorithm and develop Square Forms Factorization, but he never published his work on this algorithm or provided...

  13. Electromagnetic form factors at large momenta from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, A. J.; Dragos, J.; Horsley, R.; Nakamura, Y.; Perlt, H.; Pleiter, D.; Rakow, P. E. L.; Schierholz, G.; Schiller, A.; Somfleth, K.; Stüben, H.; Young, R. D.; Zanotti, J. M.; Qcdsf/Ukqcd/Cssm Collaborations

    2017-12-01

    Accessing hadronic form factors at large momentum transfers has traditionally presented a challenge for lattice QCD simulations. Here, we demonstrate how a novel implementation of the Feynman-Hellmann method can be employed to calculate hadronic form factors in lattice QCD at momenta much higher than previously accessible. Our simulations are performed on a single set of gauge configurations with three flavors of degenerate mass quarks corresponding to mπ≈470 MeV . We are able to determine the electromagnetic form factors of the pion and nucleon up to approximately 6 GeV2 , with results for the ratio of the electric and magnetic form factors of the proton at our simulated quark mass agreeing well with experimental results.

  14. Hadron collisions and the fifth form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokshitzer, Yu.L.; Marchesini, G.

    2005-01-01

    Logarithmically enhanced effects due to radiation of soft gluons at large angles in 2->2 QCD scattering processes are treated in terms of the ''fifth form factor'' that accompanies the four collinear singular Sudakov form factors attached to incoming and outgoing hard partons. Unexpected symmetry under exchange of internal and external variables of the problem is pointed out for the anomalous dimension that governs soft gluon effects in hard gluon-gluon scattering

  15. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Aquino, Afonso Rodrigues de

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. Once outlined the environmental impacts from each form of electric energy generation, they were correlated and compared considering the area of the power plant implantation, the generation capacity, the efficiency, the power and the cost per kW. There is no totally clean form of electric energy generation. There is, however, generation without emission of gases responsible for the green house effect. Therefore, all forms of energy generation are important for a country; in other words, the best situation is the diversity of the energy matrix. (author)

  16. Magnetic form factors of the trinucleons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiavilla, R; Pandharipande, V R; Riska, Dan-Olof

    1989-11-01

    The magnetic form factors of 3H and 3He are calculated with the Monte Carlo method from variational ground-state wave functions obtained for the Argonne and Urbana two- and three-nucleon interactions. The electromagnetic current operator contains one- and two-body terms that are constructed so as to satisfy the continuity equation with the two-nucleon potential in the Hamiltonian. The results obtained with the Argonne two-nucleon interaction are in overall agreement with the empirical values. It appears that the remaining theoretical uncertainty, in the calculation of these form factors from a given interaction model, is dominated by that in the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. It is found that the isovector magnetic form factors are rather sensitive to the details of the isospin-dependent tensor force, and they are much better reproduced with the Argonne than the Urbana potential. The isoscalar magnetic form factors appear to be sensitive to the spin-orbit interactions, and are better reproduced with the Urbana potential. The Argonne potential has a stronger τ1∙τ2 tensor force, while the Urbana one has a shorter-range spin-orbit interaction.

  17. Asymptotics of Heavy-Meson Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Grozin, A.G.; Grozin, Andrey G.; Neubert, Matthias

    1997-01-01

    Using methods developed for hard exclusive QCD processes, we calculate the asymptotic behaviour of heavy-meson form factors at large recoil. It is determined by the leading- and subleading-twist meson wave functions. For $1\\ll |v\\cdot v'|\\ll m_Q/\\Lambda$, the form factors are dominated by the Isgur--Wise function, which is determined by the interference between the wave functions of leading and subleading twist. At $|v\\cdot v'|\\gg m_Q/\\Lambda$, they are dominated by two functions arising at order $1/m_Q$ in the heavy-quark expansion, which are determined by the leading-twist wave function alone. The sum of these contributions describes the form factors in the whole region $|v\\cdot v'|\\gg 1$. As a consequence, there is an exact zero in the form factor for the scattering of longitudinally polarized $B^*$ mesons at some value $v\\cdot v'\\sim m_b/\\Lambda$, and an approximate zero in the form factor of $B$ mesons in the timelike region ($v\\cdot v'\\sim -m_b/\\Lambda$). We obtain the evolution equations and sum rules ...

  18. Color-kinematic duality for form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V.; Yang, Gang

    2012-12-01

    Recently a powerful duality between color and kinematics has been proposed for integrands of scattering amplitudes in quite general gauge theories. In this paper the duality proposal is extended to the more general class of gauge theory observables formed by form factors. After a discussion of the general setup the existence of the duality is verified in two and three loop examples in four dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which involve the stress energy tensor multiplet. In these cases the duality reproduces known results in a particularly transparent and uniform way. As a non-trivial application we obtain a very simple form of the integrand of the four-loop two-point (Sudakov) form factor which passes a large set of unitarity cut checks.

  19. Color-kinematic duality for form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boels, Rutger H.; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Tarasov, Oleg V.; Yang, Gang [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2012-12-15

    Recently a powerful duality between color and kinematics has been proposed for integrands of scattering amplitudes in quite general gauge theories. In this paper the duality proposal is extended to the more general class of gauge theory observables formed by form factors. After a discussion of the general setup the existence of the duality is verified in two and three loop examples in four dimensional maximally supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory which involve the stress energy tensor multiplet. In these cases the duality reproduces known results in a particularly transparent and uniform way. As a non-trivial application we obtain a very simple form of the integrand of the four-loop two-point (Sudakov) form factor which passes a large set of unitarity cut checks.

  20. Hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syukurilla, L., E-mail: tmart@fisika.ui.ac.id; Mart, T., E-mail: tmart@fisika.ui.ac.id [Department Fisika, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Depok, 164242 (Indonesia)

    2014-09-25

    We have revisited the effect of hadronic form factors in kaon photoproduction process by utilizing an isobaric model developed for kaon photoproduction off the proton. The model is able to reproduce the available experimental data nicely as well as to reveal the origin of the second peak in the total cross section, which was the main source of confusion for decades. Different from our previous study, in the present work we explore the possibility of using different hadronic form factors in each of the KΛN vertices. The use of different hadronic form factors, e.g. dipole, Gaussian, and generalized dipole, has been found to produce a more flexible isobar model, which can provide a significant improvement in the model.

  1. Paramagnetic form factors from itinerant electron theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke, J.F.; Liu, S.H.; Liu, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    Elastic neutron scattering experiments performed over the past two decades have provided accurate information about the magnetic form factors of paramagnetic transition metals. These measurements have traditionally been analyzed in terms of an atomic-like theory. There are, however, some cases where this procedure does not work, and there remains the overall conceptual problem of using an atomistic theory for systems where the unpaired-spin electrons are itinerant. We have recently developed computer codes for efficiently evaluating the induced magnetic form factors of fcc and bcc itinerant electron paramagnets. Results for the orbital and spin contributions have been obtained for Cr, Nb, V, Mo, Pd, and Rh based on local density bands. By using calculated spin enhancement parameters, we find reasonable agreement between theory and neutron form factor data. In addition, these zero parameter calculations yield predictions for the bulk susceptibility on an absolute scale which are in reasonable agreement with experiment in all treated cases except palladium

  2. Weak form factors of beauty baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, M.A.; Lyubovitskij, V.E.

    1992-01-01

    Full analysis of semileptonic decays of beauty baryons with J p =1/2 2 and J p =3/2 2 into charmed ones within the Quark Confinement Model is reported. Weak form factors and decay rates are calculated. Also the heavy quark limit m Q →∞ (Isgur-Wise symmetry) is examined. The weak heavy-baryon form factors in the Isgur-Wise limit and 1/m Q -corrections to them are computered. The Ademollo-Gatto theorem is spin-flavour symmetry of heavy quarks is checked. 33 refs.; 1 fig.; 9 tabs

  3. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors with Wilson fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.; Horsley, R.

    2007-10-01

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors continue to be of major interest for experimentalists and phenomenologists alike. They provide important insights into the structure of nuclear matter. For a range of interesting momenta they can be calculated on the lattice. The limiting factor continues to be the value of the pion mass. We present the latest results of the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with two dynamical, non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  4. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors with Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors continue to be of major interest for experimentalists and phenomenologists alike. They provide important insights into the structure of nuclear matter. For a range of interesting momenta they can be calculated on the lattice. The limiting factor continues to be the value of the pion mass. We present the latest results of the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with two dynamical, non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  5. Chiral analysis of baryon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gail, T.A.

    2007-11-08

    This work presents an extensive theoretical investigation of the structure of the nucleon within the standard model of elementary particle physics. In particular, the long range contributions to a number of various form factors parametrizing the interactions of the nucleon with an electromagnetic probe are calculated. The theoretical framework for those calculations is chiral perturbation theory, the exact low energy limit of Quantum Chromo Dynamics, which describes such long range contributions in terms of a pion-cloud. In this theory, a nonrelativistic leading one loop order calculation of the form factors parametrizing the vector transition of a nucleon to its lowest lying resonance, the {delta}, a covariant calculation of the isovector and isoscalar vector form factors of the nucleon at next to leading one loop order and a covariant calculation of the isoscalar and isovector generalized vector form factors of the nucleon at leading one loop order are performed. In order to perform consistent loop calculations in the covariant formulation of chiral perturbation theory an appropriate renormalization scheme is defined in this work. All theoretical predictions are compared to phenomenology and results from lattice QCD simulations. These comparisons allow for a determination of the low energy constants of the theory. Furthermore, the possibility of chiral extrapolation, i.e. the extrapolation of lattice data from simulations at large pion masses down to the small physical pion mass is studied in detail. Statistical as well as systematic uncertainties are estimated for all results throughout this work. (orig.)

  6. Simple parametrization of nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    This Brief Report provides simple parametrizations of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using functions of Q 2 that are consistent with dimensional scaling at high Q 2 . Good fits require only four parameters each for G Ep , G Mp , and G Mn and only two for G En

  7. From form factors to generalized parton distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus

    2013-06-15

    I present an extraction of generalized parton distributions from selected data on the electromagnetic nucleon form factors. The extracted distributions can in particular be used to quantify the contribution to the proton spin from the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks, as well as their transverse spatial distribution inside the proton.

  8. Form factor expansion for thermal correlators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozsgay, B.; Takács, G.

    2010-01-01

    We consider finite temperature correlation functions in massive integrable quantum field theory. Using a regularization by putting the system in finite volume, we develop a novel approach (based on multi-dimensional residues) to the form factor expansion for thermal correlators. The first few terms

  9. Electron form factors of deformable nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartakovskii, V.K.; Isupov, V.Yu.

    1988-01-01

    Using the smallness of the deformation parameter of the nucleus, we obtain simple explicit expressions for the form factors of electroexcitation of the low-lying rotation-vibration states of light, deformable, even-even nuclei. The expressions satisfactorily describe the experimental data on the excitation of collective nuclear states by the inelastic scattering of fast electrons

  10. The electric conductivity of some forms of sintered synthetic zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susic, M.; Petrovic, V.; Ristic, M.; Petranovic, N.

    1978-01-01

    Some forms of synthetic zeolites were sintered and their electric conductivity was measured. The conductivity was observed in correlation with the conductivity of non-sintered pressed samples. Also the change in microstructural constituents in the course of the process of sintering was observed with an optical microscope. It has been found that there is a considerable change in conductivity due to sintering as well as a change in the activation energy for conduction. Also the porosity is noticeably changed. A marked affect of the nature of counter ions on the electric conductivity is shown

  11. Perturbative QCD and electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, C.E.; Gross, F.

    1987-01-01

    We calculate nucleon magnetic form factors using perturbative QCD for several distribution amplitudes including a general one given in terms of Appell polynomials. We find that the magnitude and sign of both nucleon magnetic form factors can be explained within perturbative QCD. The observed normalization of G/sub Mp/ requires that the distribution amplitude be broader than its superhigh momentum transfer limit, and the G/sub Mn//G/sub Mp/ data may require the distribution amplitude to be asymmetric, in accord with distribution amplitudes derived from QCD sum rules. Some speculation as to how an asymmetric distribution amplitude can come about is offered. Finally, we show that the soft contributions corresponding to the particular distribution amplitudes we use need not be bigger than the data. 16 refs., 6 figs

  12. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Koutsou, G.; Negele, J. W.; Tsapalis, A.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the isovector nucleon electromagnetic form factors in quenched and unquenched QCD on the lattice using Wilson fermions. In the quenched theory we use a lattice of spatial size 3 fm at β=6.0 enabling us to reach low momentum transfers and a lowest pion mass of about 400 MeV. In the unquenched theory we use two degenerate flavors of dynamical Wilson fermions on a lattice of spatial size 1.9 fm at β=5.6 and lowest pion mass of about 380 MeV enabling comparison with the results obtained in the quenched theory. that unquenching effects are small for the pion masses considered in this work. We compare our lattice results to the isovector part of the experimentally measured form factors

  13. Nucleon form factors. Probing the chiral limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Dept.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)

    2006-10-15

    The electromagnetic form factors provide important hints for the internal structure of the nucleon and continue to be of major interest for experimentalists. For an intermediate range of momentum transfers the form factors can be calculated on the lattice. However, reliability of the results is limited by systematic errors due to the required extrapolation to physical quark masses. Chiral effective field theories predict a rather strong quark mass dependence in a range which was yet unaccessible for lattice simulations. We give an update on recent results from the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with Nf=2, non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions at very small quark masses down to 340 MeV pion mass, where we start to probe the relevant quark mass region. (orig.)

  14. Form factors of heavy mesons in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shifman, M.A.; Vysotsky, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    Logarithmic corrections to form factors of mesons built from heavy quarks are dirived in the framework of quantum chromodynamics. The reactions e + e - → etasub(c)γ and H → J/PSIγ are considered as an example. A novel feature as compared to the well studied problem of the pion form factor is the existence of the transformations between the quark-antiquark state c anti c and the gluonic one. O(αsub(s)) corrections are calculated exactly. An infinite series of the leading logarithmic terms is summed up with the help of the operator technique. Apart from already known results for quark operators some new results referring to gluon operators and their mixing with the quark ones are used. Two alternative derivations of the multiplicatively renormalizable operators are given. The first one reduces to a direct computation of the mixing matrix and its diagonalization, the second derivation is based on conformal symmetry considerations

  15. Nucleon form factors. Probing the chiral limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.; Horsley, R.

    2006-10-01

    The electromagnetic form factors provide important hints for the internal structure of the nucleon and continue to be of major interest for experimentalists. For an intermediate range of momentum transfers the form factors can be calculated on the lattice. However, reliability of the results is limited by systematic errors due to the required extrapolation to physical quark masses. Chiral effective field theories predict a rather strong quark mass dependence in a range which was yet unaccessible for lattice simulations. We give an update on recent results from the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with Nf=2, non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions at very small quark masses down to 340 MeV pion mass, where we start to probe the relevant quark mass region. (orig.)

  16. Elastic form factors at higher CEBAF energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petratos, G.G. [Kent State Univ., OH (United States)

    1994-04-01

    The prospects for elastic scattering from few body systems with higher beam energies at CEBAF is presented. The deuteron and{sup 3}He elastic structure functions A(Q{sup 2}) can be measured at sufficiently high momentum transfers to study the transition between the conventional meson-nucleon and the constituent quark-gluon descriptions. Possible improvements in the proton magnetic form factor data are also presented.

  17. Baryon form factors in chiral perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, B.; Meissner, U.G. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernphysik

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic form factors of the ground state baryon octet to fourth order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. Predictions for the {sigma}{sup -} charge radius and the {lambda}-{sigma}{sup 0} transition moment are found to be in excellent agreement with the available experimental information. Furthermore, the convergence behavior of the hyperon charge radii is shown to be more than satisfactory. (orig.)

  18. Electromagnetic form factors of composite systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are examined for a spin-zero, two-body composite system with emphasis on the case of small momentum transfer and/or deep (relativistic) binding. Perturbation theory calculations are first performed using spin-zero and then spin-one-half constituents. A dispersion representation of the bound-state vertex function is conjectured first for scalar and then for fermion constituents. Then a relativistic effective range approximation (RERA) is developed for each case and applied to the calculation of the electromagnetic form factor. The approach is applied to the study of the charge radii of the K 0 and K + mesons. The K/sub l3/ form factor is calculated in the fermion constituent RERA model, and restrictions are imposed on the model parameters from available experimental data. With these restrictions the limits 0.24fm less than or equal to √[abs. value ( 2 >/sub K 0 /)] less than or equal to = 0.36fm and 0.66fm less than or equal to = √( 2 >/sub K + /) less than or equal to 0.79fm are obtained for the kaon charge radii, and -.22 less than or equal to xi less than or equal to -.13 is found for the ratio of the neutral to charged kaon charge radius squared

  19. Environmental evaluation of different forms of electric energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guena, Ana Maria de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Electric energy has an important function in the modem world; it is fundamental for progress and development. The electricity discovery allowed improvements in several areas: health, water and food supply, quality of life and sanitary conditions, and contributed also to the establishment of the capitalist and consumption society. The use of oil as an energy generation source was the impulse for the industrial revolution and machines, motors and generators were developed contributing to the progress This also brought the pollutant gases emission (CO 2 , CO, SO x and NO x ) and other substances that had contributed to the greenhouse effect, the ozone hole and the acid rain, modifying the balance of the planet. The development and implementation of other forms of energy generation caused local changes, where they were installed, giving rise to environmental impacts. This work presents an evaluation about different forms of electrical energy generation and the environmental impacts relative to each one of them. Five forms of electric energy generation were considered: thermoelectric, nuclear, hydroelectric, wind and solar energy. The implementation and the development of the petroleum industry in the world and in Brazil are presented. The geology of the oil, its extraction and quality improvement, besides details of the functioning of three types of thermoelectric power plants - coal, gas and oil - are also discussed. The specific as well as the environmental impacts they have in common are highlighted. The impacts originated from the deactivation of each one of them are also pointed out. The discovery and the development of nuclear energy in Brazil and in the world as well as the functioning of a nuclear power plant, the impacts generated by its operation and decommissioning are presented. The history, functioning and development of hydroelectric energy generation in Brazil, characterized by the great plants, are related to environmental aspects The environmental

  20. Form factors and excitations of topological solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, David J.; Rajantie, Arttu

    2011-01-01

    We show how the interaction properties of topological solitons in quantum field theory can be calculated with lattice Monte Carlo simulations. Topologically nontrivial field configurations are key to understanding the nature of the QCD vacuum through, for example, the dual superconductor picture. Techniques that we have developed to understand the excitations and form factors of topological solitons, such as kinks and 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, should be equally applicable to chromoelectric flux tubes. We review our results for simple topological solitons and their agreement with exact results, then discuss our progress towards studying objects of interest to high energy physics.

  1. Recent Studies of Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilad, Shalev

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of nucleons are fundamental quantities in nucleon structure. As such, they have been studied extensively both theoretically and experimentally. Significant progress has been made with new measurements at Jlab, MAMI and MIT-Bates, with emphases on expanding the momentum-transfer range and on higher precision. In this paper, we describe the status of this field and present new results from measurements at both low and high momentum transfers. We also compare the experimental data to model predictions, and mention possible implications of the new results to other fields.

  2. Medium modifications of nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horikawa, T. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, School of Science, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)]. E-mail: bentz@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp

    2005-11-28

    We use the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model as an effective quark theory to investigate the medium modifications of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. By using the equation of state of nuclear matter derived in this model, we discuss the results based on the naive quark-scalar diquark picture, the effects of finite diquark size, and the meson cloud around the constituent quarks. We apply this description to the longitudinal response function for quasielastic electron scattering. RPA correlations, based on the nucleon-nucleon interaction derived in the same model, are also taken into account in the calculation of the response function.

  3. Axial nucleon form factors from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Constantinou, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon axial form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon axial charge is obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass enabling comparison with experiment.

  4. Magnetic form factors of rare earth ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckman, H.W.

    1976-01-01

    The magnetic scattering of neutrons by atoms has been investigated by exploiting its similarity to the radiation problem in spectroscopy. Expressions for the magnetic scattering amplitude were developed for cases in whcih an atom in the l/sup n/ electronic configuration is described either by a relativistic or nonrelativistic Hamiltonian. For each of these cases, it has been shown that the magnetic scattering amplitude can be expressed in terms of relativistic or nonrelativistic matrix elements of magnetic and electric multipole operators. For a nonrelativistic atom, the calculation of these matrix elements has been separated into evaluating radial matrix elements and matrix elements of Racah tensors W/(sup 0,k)k/ and W/(sup 1,k')k/. For a relativistic atom the effective operator approach has been used to define effective multipole operators so that a relativistic result is obtained by taking matrix elements of these effective operators between nonrelativistic states of the atom. The calculation of matrix elements of these effective operators has been reduced to evaluating relativistic radial integrals and matrix elements of the Racah tensors taken between nonrelativistic states of the atom. It is shown tha for the case of elastic scattering by either a relativistic or nonrelativistic atom in single Russel-Saunders state, the magnetic scattering amplitude can be written in the conventional form p(vector q)vector q/sub m/.vector sigma. General expressions for p(vector q) as well as elastic magnetic form factorshave been obtained. The formalism has been illustrated throughout by applying it to the case of scattering by rare earth ions

  5. Form factors of heavy mesons in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shifman, M A; Vysotsky, M I [Moskovskii Inst. Theoreticheskoj i Ehksperimental' noj Fiziki (USSR)

    1981-08-10

    We discuss logarithmic corrections to form factors of mesons built from heavy quarks. The reactions e/sup +/e/sup -/ ..-->.. etasub(c)..gamma.. and H ..-->.. J/psi..gamma.. are considered as an example. A novel feature as compared to the well-studied problem of the pion form factor is the existence of transitions between the quark-antiquark state canti c and the gluonic one. O(..cap alpha..sub(s)) corrections are calculated exactly. An infinite series of the leading logarithmic terms (..cap alpha..sub(s)ln(Q/sup 2//m/sup 2/sub(c)))sup(n) is summed up with the help of the operator technique. Apart from results already known for quark operators, we use some new results referring to gluon operator and their mixing with those made from quarks. Two alternative derivations of the multiplicatively renormalizable operators are given. The first one reduces to a direct computation of the mixing matrix and its diagonalization, the second is based on conformal symmetry considerations.

  6. Helium Compton Form Factor Measurements at CLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutier, Eric J.-M. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et Cosmologie

    2013-07-01

    The distribution of the parton content of nuclei, as encoded via the generalized parton distributions (GPDs), can be accessed via the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) process contributing to the cross section for leptoproduction of real photons. Similarly to the scattering of light by a material, DVCS provides information about the dynamics and the spatial structure of hadrons. The sensitivity of this process to the lepton beam polarization allows to single-out the DVCS amplitude in terms of Compton form factors that contain GPDs information. The beam spin asymmetry of the $^4$He($\\vec {\\mathrm e}$,e$' \\gamma ^4$He) process was measured in the experimental Hall B of the Jefferson Laboratory to extract the real and imaginary parts of the twist-2 Compton form factor of the $^4$He nucleus. The experimental results reported here demonstrate the relevance of this method for such a goal, and suggest the dominance of the Bethe-Heitler amplitude to the unpolarized process in the kinematic range explored by the experiment.

  7. Factors influencing electric utility expansion. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masud, E. [ed.

    1977-01-01

    This report, Vol. 2, submitted by the General Electric Co., identifies factors that should be considered in planning interconnected systems and discusses how these factors relate to one another. The objective is to identify all the factors and classify them by their use and importance in arriving at a decision. Chapter 2 discusses the utility system and its system behavior characteristics, emphasizing behavior that affects the planning of the bulk-power generation and transmission system. Chapter 3 introduces interconnection planning by discussing the new system characteristics brought to operation and planning. Forty-two factors associated with cost, reliability, constraints, and coordination are related to each other by factor trees. Factor trees display the relationship of one factor such as reliability to more-detailed factors which in turn are further related to individual characteristics of facilities. These factor trees provide a structure to the presentation. A questionnaire including the 42 factors was completed by 52 system planners from utility companies and government authorities. The results of these questionnaires are tabulated and presented with pertinent discussion of each factor. Chapter 4 deals with generation planning, recognizing the existence of interconnections. Chapter 5 addresses transmission planning, questions related to reliability and cost measures and constraints, and factors related to both analytical techniques and planning procedures. The chapter ends with a discussion of combined generation-transmission planning. (MCW)

  8. Measurement of the elastic electron-proton cross section and separation of the electric and magnetic form factor in the Q{sup 2} range from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan C

    2010-09-24

    The electromagnetic form factors of the proton are fundamental quantities sensitive to the distribution of charge and magnetization inside the proton. Precise knowledge of the form factors, in particular of the charge and magnetization radii provide strong tests for theory in the non-perturbative regime of QCD. However, the existing data at Q{sup 2} below 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} are not precise enough for a hard test of theoretical predictions. For a more precise determination of the form factors, within this work more than 1400 cross sections of the reaction H(e, e{sup '})p were measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI using the 3-spectrometer-facility of the A1-collaboration. The data were taken in three periods in the years 2006 and 2007 using beam energies of 180, 315, 450, 585, 720 and 855 MeV. They cover the Q{sup 2} region from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} with counting rate uncertainties below 0.2% for most of the data points. The relative luminosity of the measurements was determined using one of the spectrometers as a luminosity monitor. The overlapping acceptances of the measurements maximize the internal redundancy of the data and allow, together with several additions to the standard experimental setup, for tight control of systematic uncertainties. To account for the radiative processes, an event generator was developed and implemented in the simulation package of the analysis software which works without peaking approximation by explicitly calculating the Bethe-Heitler and Born Feynman diagrams for each event. To separate the form factors and to determine the radii, the data were analyzed by fitting a wide selection of form factor models directly to the measured cross sections. These fits also determined the absolute normalization of the different data subsets. The validity of this method was tested with extensive simulations. The results were compared to an extraction via the standard Rosenbluth technique. The dip structure in G{sub E} that was seen in the

  9. Measurement of the elastic electron-proton cross section and separation of the electric and magnetic form factor in the Q2 range from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernauer, Jan C.

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic form factors of the proton are fundamental quantities sensitive to the distribution of charge and magnetization inside the proton. Precise knowledge of the form factors, in particular of the charge and magnetization radii provide strong tests for theory in the non-perturbative regime of QCD. However, the existing data at Q 2 below 1 (GeV/c) 2 are not precise enough for a hard test of theoretical predictions. For a more precise determination of the form factors, within this work more than 1400 cross sections of the reaction H(e, e ' )p were measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI using the 3-spectrometer-facility of the A1-collaboration. The data were taken in three periods in the years 2006 and 2007 using beam energies of 180, 315, 450, 585, 720 and 855 MeV. They cover the Q 2 region from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c) 2 with counting rate uncertainties below 0.2% for most of the data points. The relative luminosity of the measurements was determined using one of the spectrometers as a luminosity monitor. The overlapping acceptances of the measurements maximize the internal redundancy of the data and allow, together with several additions to the standard experimental setup, for tight control of systematic uncertainties. To account for the radiative processes, an event generator was developed and implemented in the simulation package of the analysis software which works without peaking approximation by explicitly calculating the Bethe-Heitler and Born Feynman diagrams for each event. To separate the form factors and to determine the radii, the data were analyzed by fitting a wide selection of form factor models directly to the measured cross sections. These fits also determined the absolute normalization of the different data subsets. The validity of this method was tested with extensive simulations. The results were compared to an extraction via the standard Rosenbluth technique. The dip structure in G E that was seen in the analysis of the previous world data

  10. Measurement of the elastic electron-proton cross section and separation of the electric and magnetic form factor in the Q{sup 2} range from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernauer, Jan C.

    2010-09-24

    The electromagnetic form factors of the proton are fundamental quantities sensitive to the distribution of charge and magnetization inside the proton. Precise knowledge of the form factors, in particular of the charge and magnetization radii provide strong tests for theory in the non-perturbative regime of QCD. However, the existing data at Q{sup 2} below 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} are not precise enough for a hard test of theoretical predictions. For a more precise determination of the form factors, within this work more than 1400 cross sections of the reaction H(e, e{sup '})p were measured at the Mainz Microtron MAMI using the 3-spectrometer-facility of the A1-collaboration. The data were taken in three periods in the years 2006 and 2007 using beam energies of 180, 315, 450, 585, 720 and 855 MeV. They cover the Q{sup 2} region from 0.004 to 1 (GeV/c){sup 2} with counting rate uncertainties below 0.2% for most of the data points. The relative luminosity of the measurements was determined using one of the spectrometers as a luminosity monitor. The overlapping acceptances of the measurements maximize the internal redundancy of the data and allow, together with several additions to the standard experimental setup, for tight control of systematic uncertainties. To account for the radiative processes, an event generator was developed and implemented in the simulation package of the analysis software which works without peaking approximation by explicitly calculating the Bethe-Heitler and Born Feynman diagrams for each event. To separate the form factors and to determine the radii, the data were analyzed by fitting a wide selection of form factor models directly to the measured cross sections. These fits also determined the absolute normalization of the different data subsets. The validity of this method was tested with extensive simulations. The results were compared to an extraction via the standard Rosenbluth technique. The dip structure in G{sub E} that was seen in the

  11. Pion transition form factor in k{sub T} factorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hsiang-nan [Academica Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Physics; Tsing-Hua Univ., Hsinchu, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Phyiscs; National Cheng-Kung Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Physics; National Cheng-Chi Univ, Taipei, Taiwan (China). Inst. of Applied Physics; Mishima, Satoshi [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2009-07-15

    It has been pointed out that the recent BaBar data on the {pi}{gamma}{sup *} {yields} {gamma} transition form factor F{sub {pi}}{sub {gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) at low (high) momentum transfer squared Q{sup 2} indicate an asymptotic (flat) pion distribution amplitude. These seemingly contradictory observations can be reconciled in the k{sub T} factorization theorem: the increase of the measured Q{sup 2}FF{sub {pi}}{sub {gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for Q{sup 2} > 10 GeV{sup 2} is explained by convoluting a k{sub T} dependent hard kernel with a flat pion distribution amplitude, k{sub T} being a parton transverse momentum. The low Q{sup 2} data are accommodated by including the resummation of {alpha}{sub s} ln{sup 2}x, x being a parton momentum fraction, which provides a stronger suppression at the endpoints of x. The next-to-leading-order correction to the pion transition form factor is found to be less than 20% in the considered range of Q{sup 2}. (orig.)

  12. Parallel Integer Factorization Using Quadratic Forms

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McMath, Stephen S

    2005-01-01

    Factorization is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. In secure digital communication, security of the commonly used RSA public key cryptosystem depends on the difficulty of factoring large integers...

  13. Up- and Down-Quark Contributions to the Nucleon Form Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qattan I. A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent measurements of the neutron s electric to magnetic form factors ratio, Rn = µnGnE/GnM, up to 3.4 (GeV/c2 combined with existing Rp = µpGpE/GpM measurements in the same Q2 range allowed, for the first time, a separation of the up- and downquark contributions to the form factors at high Q2, as presented by Cates, et al.. Our analysis expands on the original work by including additional form factor data, applying two-photon exchange (TPE corrections, and accounting for the uncertainties associated with all of the form factor measurements.

  14. Disconnected-Sea Quarks Contribution to Nucleon Electromagnetic Form Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufian, Raza Sabbir

    We present comprehensive analysis of the light and strange disconnected-sea quarks contribution to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors. The lattice QCD estimates of strange quark magnetic moment GsM (0) = -0.064(14)(09) microN and the mean squared charge radius E = -0.0043(16)(14) fm2 are more precise than any existing experimental measurements and other lattice calculations. The lattice QCD calculation includes ensembles across several lattice volumes and lattice spacings with one of the ensembles at the physical pion mass. We have performed a simultaneous chiral, infinite volume, and continuum extrapolation in a global fit to calculate results in the continuum limit. We find that the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is -0.022(11)(09) microN and to the nucleon mean square charge radius is -0.019(05)(05) fm 2. The most important outcome of this lattice QCD calculation is that while the combined light-sea and strange quarks contribution to the nucleon magnetic moment is small at about 1%, a negative 2.5(9)% contribution to the proton charge radius and a relatively larger positive 16.3(6.1)% contribution to the neutron charge radius come from the sea quarks in the nucleon. For the first time, by performing global fits, we also give predictions of the light-sea and strange quarks contributions to the nucleon electric and magnetic form factors at the physical point and in the continuum and infinite volume limits in the momentum transfer range of 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 0.5 GeV2.

  15. Effects of an electromagnetic quark form factor on meson properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestre-Brac, B.

    2002-01-01

    A form factor is introduced in the quark electromagnetic current. Its effect is analyzed on charge mean square radii and form factors in the mesonic sector. The decay of a vector meson into lepton-antilepton pair is also affected. Two different expressions for the form factors, and two different types of quark potential are tested and some relativistic kinematical corrections are proposed. In any case the introduction of a quark form factor greatly improves the agreement with experimental data

  16. Form factors in (HI,HI') direct reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Y.H.

    1981-01-01

    Using the semiclassical theory, the inelastic transition form factors are analyzed. For the first order form factors, we find that: (i) In the strong absorption limit, the Austern-Blair theory is a good approximation to the inelastic form factor--even in highly mismatched reactions. (ii) In weak to moderate absorption, the amplitude of the inelastic form factor oscillates due to overlapping potential resonances. The internal part of the form factor can be expressed in a simple form, which may easily be used to analyze heavy-ion inelastic scattering. (iii) In the presence of an isolated resonance, the inelastic form factor is enhanced greatly at the resonance due to multiple reflections inside the potential well. The second order form factors contain two terms, i.e. the one-step direct process (OSD) term and the two-step process (TS) term. It is found that: (i) In the strong absorption limit, OSD and TS form factors are equally important and interfere destructively near the grazing angular momentum. The Austern-Blair theory gives satisfactory results for well-matched reactions. The angular distributions of the mutual and double excitations are out of phase compared with that of the single excitation. (ii) For the weak absorption case, the internal part of the TS form factor is so enhanced that the OSD form factor can simply be neglected. The internal TS form factor can be parameterized in a form proportional to the internal-wave elastic Smatrix, where the angular distribution shows characteristically refractive phenomenon

  17. MesonNet Workshop on Meson Transition Form Factors

    CERN Document Server

    Eidelman, S; Hanhart, C; Kubis, B; Kupsc, A; Leupold, S; Moskal, P; Schadmand, S

    2012-01-01

    The mini-proceedings of the Workshop on Meson Transition Form Factors held in Cracow from May 29th to 30th, 2012 introduce the meson transition form factor project with special emphasis on the interrelations between the various form factors (on-shell, single off-shell, double off-shell). Short summaries of the talks presented at the workshop follow.

  18. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors using lattice simulations at the physical point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia; Constantinou, M.; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Kallidonis, C.; Koutsou, G.; Jansen, K.; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, A.

    2017-01-01

    We present results for the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using an ensemble of maximally twisted mass clover-improved fermions with pion mass of about 130 MeV. We use multiple sink-source separations and three analysis methods to probe ground-state dominance. We evaluate both the connected and disconnected contributions to the nucleon matrix elements. We find that the disconnected quark loop contributions to the isoscalar matrix elements are small giving an upper bound of up to 2% of the connected and smaller than its statistical error. We present results for the isovector and isoscalar electric and magnetic Sachs form factors and the corresponding proton and neutron form factors. By fitting the momentum dependence of the form factors to a dipole form or to the z-expansion we extract the nucleon electric and magnetic radii, as well as, the magnetic moment. We compare our results to experiment as well as to other recent lattice QCD calculations.

  19. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors using lattice simulations at the physical point

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexandrou, C. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Cyprus Univ., Nicosia (Cyprus). Dept. of Physics; Constantinou, M. [Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hadjiyiannakou, K.; Kallidonis, C.; Koutsou, G. [The Cyprus Institute, Nicosia (Cyprus). Computation-based Science and Technology Research Center; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC; Vaquero Aviles-Casco, A. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-09-20

    We present results for the nucleon electromagnetic form factors using an ensemble of maximally twisted mass clover-improved fermions with pion mass of about 130 MeV. We use multiple sink-source separations and three analysis methods to probe ground-state dominance. We evaluate both the connected and disconnected contributions to the nucleon matrix elements. We find that the disconnected quark loop contributions to the isoscalar matrix elements are small giving an upper bound of up to 2% of the connected and smaller than its statistical error. We present results for the isovector and isoscalar electric and magnetic Sachs form factors and the corresponding proton and neutron form factors. By fitting the momentum dependence of the form factors to a dipole form or to the z-expansion we extract the nucleon electric and magnetic radii, as well as, the magnetic moment. We compare our results to experiment as well as to other recent lattice QCD calculations.

  20. Chou-Yang model and PHI form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazal-e-Aleem; Saleem, M.; Rafique, M.

    1988-03-01

    By using the deduced differential cross-section data for PHIp elastic scattering at 175 GeV/c in the Chou-Yang model, the PHI form factor has been computed and parametrized. Then in conjunction with the proton form factor this form factor is used in the pristine Chou-Yang model to obtain differential cross-section data at Fermilab energies. The theoretical results agree with the experimental measurements, endorsing the conjecture that the hadronic form factor of neutral particle is proportional to its magnetic form factor.

  1. Electromagnetic form factors in the light-front dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karmanov, V.A.; Smirnov, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown that the electromagnetic vertex of a nucleus (and of any bound system), expressed through the wave function in the light-front dynamics at relativistic values of momentum transfer, contains a contribution of nonphysical form factors which increases the total number of invariant form factors (for the deuteron from 3 up to 11). This fact explains an ambiguity in the form factors calculated previously. The physical and nonphysical form factors are covariantly separated. Explicit expressions for physical form factors of systems with spin 0, 1/2 and 1 through the vertex functions are obtained. (orig.)

  2. THE FACTORS FORMING QUALITY OF GRANULATED SUGAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Kulneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar, with good taste and high caloric, is one of the most popular human food. Consumers sugar must be sure that the sugar under normal conditions of use is of high quality and is not harmful to the health of the product. One reason for the decline in the quality of sugar is bacterial contamination. This is because the sugar industry products are good targets for the development of different groups of microorganisms, e.g., Bacillus subtilis, Clostridium perfringes, Leuconostoc dextranicum, Torula alba, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Sarcina lutea and others. These organisms are affected with beets, and then with sugar beet chips and diffusion juice fall into the processing line of sugar production. Their number in the diffusion juice varies and depends on many facto rs such as the quality of raw materials, the quality of cleaning beet root colonization of transporter-washing and the supply of water to the diffusion process, the temperature of the diffusion and others. In the diffusion unit has the most favorable conditions for the development of micro-organisms. Some of them, especially resistant bacteria and thermophilic bacteria or their spores, forming a capsule which protects against external influences occur in the final product sugar. When injected into the fresh crop of product (juice, syrup, they begin to multiply rapidly, causing difficulties in the process. The higher seeding beet microorganisms, the more they decompose and emit sucrose metabolism byproducts. To reduce the negative impact of microbiological and reduce losses from decomposition of sucrose conducted research on the possibility of using chlorine-containing substances in the sugar industry. It was established experimentally that the investigated chlorinated drug has bacteriostatic action and can be recommended for use in sugar beet production.

  3. The QCD form factor of massive quarks and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moch, S.

    2009-11-01

    We review the electromagnetic form factor of heavy quarks with emphasis on the QCD radiative corrections at two-loop order in the perturbative expansion. We discuss important properties of the heavy-quark form factor such as its exponentiation in the high-energy limit and its role in QCD factorization theorems for massive n-parton amplitudes. (orig.)

  4. On the ππ continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Ruiz de Elvira, J.; Hammer, H.-W.; Meißner, U.-G.

    2016-11-01

    We present an improved determination of the ππ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the ππ→bar{N} N partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the ππ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius.

  5. On the ππ continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Ruiz de Elvira, J.; Hammer, H.W.; Meissner, U.G.

    2016-01-01

    We present an improved determination of the ππ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the ππ → anti NN partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the ππ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius. (orig.)

  6. On the ππ continuum in the nucleon form factors and the proton radius puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferichter, M. [University of Washington, Institute for Nuclear Theory, Seattle, WA (United States); Kubis, B.; Ruiz de Elvira, J. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Hammer, H.W. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Meissner, U.G. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Institute for Advanced Simulation, and Juelich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    We present an improved determination of the ππ continuum contribution to the isovector spectral functions of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors. Our analysis includes the most up-to-date results for the ππ → anti NN partial waves extracted from Roy-Steiner equations, consistent input for the pion vector form factor, and a thorough discussion of isospin-violating effects and uncertainty estimates. As an application, we consider the ππ contribution to the isovector electric and magnetic radii by means of sum rules, which, in combination with the accurately known neutron electric radius, are found to slightly prefer a small proton charge radius. (orig.)

  7. Asymptotical behaviour of pion electromagnetic form factor in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.

    1978-01-01

    In the framework of the renormalizable quantum field theory a new approach is developed to the investigation of asymptotical behaviour of two-particle bound state electromagnetic form factor. It is shown that the behaviour of the pion EM form factor in quantum chromodynamics at sufficiently large momentum transfers is controlled by the short-distance dynamics only. The formula is obtained which expresses the asymptotical behaviour of the pion form factor in terms of the fundamental constants of the theory

  8. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, L., E-mail: laleh.safari@ist.ac.at [IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Santos, J. P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Amaro, P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jänkälä, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Fratini, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  9. Greenhouse gas emission factors of purchased electricity from interconnected grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Ling; Liang, Sai; Qu, Shen; Zhang, Yanxia; Xu, Ming; Jia, Xiaoping; Jia, Yingtao; Niu, Dongxiao; Yuan, Jiahai; Hou, Yong; Wang, Haikun; Chiu, Anthony S.F.; Hu, Xiaojun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new accounting framework is proposed for GHG emission factors of power grids. • Three cases are used to demonstrate the proposed framework. • Comparisons with previous system boundaries approve the necessity. - Abstract: Electricity trade among power grids leads to difficulties in measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors of purchased electricity. Traditional methods assume either electricity purchased from a grid is entirely produced locally (Boundary I) or imported electricity is entirely produced by the exporting grid (Boundary II) (in fact a blend of electricity produced by many grids). Both methods ignore the fact that electricity can be indirectly traded between grids. Failing to capture such indirect electricity trade can underestimate or overestimate GHG emissions of purchased electricity in interconnected grid networks, potentially leading to incorrectly accounting for the effects of emission reduction policies involving purchased electricity. We propose a “Boundary III” framework to account for emissions both directly and indirectly caused by purchased electricity in interconnected gird networks. We use three case studies on a national grid network, an Eurasian Continent grid network, and North Europe grid network to demonstrate the proposed Boundary III emission factors. We found that the difference on GHG emissions of purchased electricity estimated using different emission factors can be considerably large. We suggest to standardize the choice of different emission factors based on how interconnected the local grid is with other grids.

  10. On Noether symmetries and form invariance of mechanico-electrical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Jingli; Chen Liqun

    2004-01-01

    This Letter focuses on form invariance and Noether symmetries of mechanico-electrical systems. Based on the invariance of Hamiltonian actions for mechanico-electrical systems under the infinitesimal transformation of the coordinates, the electric quantities and the time, the authors present the Noether symmetry transformation, the Noether quasi-symmetry transformation, the generalized Noether quasi-symmetry transformation and the general Killing equations of Lagrange mechanico-electrical systems and Lagrange-Maxwell mechanico-electrical systems. Using the invariance of the differential equations, satisfied by physical quantities, such as Lagrangian, non-potential general forces, under the infinitesimal transformation, the authors propose the definition and criterions of the form invariance for mechanico-electrical systems. The Letter also demonstrates connection between the Noether symmetries and the form invariance of mechanico-electrical systems. An example is designed to illustrate these results

  11. Future Measurements of the Nucleon Elastic Electromagnetic Form Factors at Jefferson Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilfoyle, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    The elastic, electromagnetic form factors are fundamental observables that describe the internal structure of protons, neutrons, and atomic nuclei. Jefferson Lab in the United States has completed the 12 GeV Upgrade that will open new opportunities to study the form factors. A campaign to measure all four nucleon form factors (electric and magnetic ones for both proton and neutron) has been approved consisting of seven experiments in Halls A, B, and C. The increased energy of the electron beam will extend the range of precision measurements to higher Q2 for all four form factors together. This combination of measurements will allow for the decomposition of the results into their quark components and guide the development of a QCD-based understanding of nuclei in the non-perturbative regime. I will present more details on the 12 GeV Upgrade, the methods used to measure the form factors, and what we may learn.

  12. Complex life forms may arise from electrical processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elson Edward C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is still not an appealing and testable model to explain how single-celled organisms, usually following fusion of male and female gametes, proceed to grow and evolve into multi-cellular, complexly differentiated systems, a particular species following virtually an invariant and unique growth pattern. An intrinsic electrical oscillator, resembling the cardiac pacemaker, may explain the process. Highly auto-correlated, it could live independently of ordinary thermodynamic processes which mandate increasing disorder, and could coordinate growth and differentiation of organ anlage.

  13. Measurements of the nucleon form factors at large momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andivahis, L.; Bosted, P.; Lung, A.; Arnold, R.; Keppel, C.; Rock, S.; Spengos, M.; Szalata, Z.; Tao, L.; Stuart, L.; Dietrich, F.; Alster, J.; Lichtenstadt, J.; Chang, C.; Dodge, W.; Gearhart, R.; Kuhn, S.; Gomez, J.; Griffioen, K.; Hicks, R.; Miskimen, R.; Peterson, G.; Rokni, S.; Hyde-Wright, C.; Swartz, K.; Petratos, G.; Sakumoto, W.

    1992-12-01

    New measurements of the electric G E (Q 2 ) and magnetic G M (Q 2 ) form factors of the nucleons are reported. The proton data cover the Q 2 range from 1.75 to 8.83 (GeV/c) 2 and the neutron data from 1.75 to 4.00 (GeV/c) 2 , more than doubling the range of previous data. Scaled by the dipole fit, G D (Q 2 ), the results for G Mp (Q 2 )/μ p G D (Q 2 ) decrease smoothly from 1.05 to 0.92, while G Ep (Q 2 )/G D (Q 2 ) is consistent with unity. The preliminary results for Gm.(Q2)1 GD(Q2) consistent with unity, while F En 2 is consistent with zero at all values of Q 2 . Comparisons are made to QCD Sum Rule, diquark, constituent quark, and VMD models, none of which agree with all of the new data

  14. Nucleon mass difference and off-shell form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimel, I.

    1981-08-01

    The use of off-shell form factors in calculating the proton-neutron mass difference is advocated. These form factors appear in a Cottingham rotated Born-like expression for the mass difference and could lead to a good value for Δ = M sub(p) - M sub(n). (Author) [pt

  15. The heavy quark form factors at two loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Behring, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Marquard, P.; Rana, N. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Falcioni, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group

    2017-12-15

    We compute the two-loop QCD corrections to the heavy quark form factors in case of the vector, axial-vector, scalar and pseudo-scalar currents up to second order in the dimensional parameter ε=(4-D)/2. These terms are required in the renormalization of the higher order corrections to these form factors.

  16. Model of separated form factors for unilamellar vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, M.A.; Aksenov, V.L.; Lesieur, P.; Lombardo, D.; Kiselev, A.M.

    2001-01-01

    A new model of separated form factors is proposed for the evaluation of small-angle neutron scattering curves from large unilamellar vesicles. The validity of the model was checked via comparison with the model of a hollow sphere. The model of separated form factors and the hollow sphere model give a reasonable agreement in the evaluation of vesicle parameters

  17. Molecular form factors in X-ray crystallography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewegen, P.P.M.; Feil, D.

    1969-01-01

    The calculation of molecular form factors from ab initio molecular electronic wavefunctions is discussed, and a scheme for application to X-ray diffraction structure analysis is given. The method is used to calculate the form factor of the NH+4 molecular ion from three accurate molecular

  18. Surface sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fratamico, G.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical calculation has been performed to investigate the sensitivity of nuclear-knock-out form factors to nuclear-surface behaviour of bound-state wave functions. The result of our investigation suggests that one can extract the bound-state behaviour at the surface from experimental information on nuclear-knock-out form factors

  19. Analytic properties of form factors in strictly confining models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csikor, F.

    1979-12-01

    An argument is presented showing that strict confinement implies the possible existence of an (unwanted) branch point at q 2 =0 in the form factors. In case of a bag extended to infinity in the relative time, the branch point is certainly there (provided that the form factor is non zero at q 2 =0). (author)

  20. Relationship Domain of Form Six Teachers Thinking in Teaching with External Factors of Form Six Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    bin Pet, Mokhtar; Sihes, Ahmad Johari Hj

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine the external factors of form six teachers who can influence thinking domain form six teachers in their teaching. This study was conducted using a quantitative approach using questionnaires. A total of 300 form six teacher schools in Johor were chosen as respondents. The findings were obtained as student background…

  1. Nucleon form factors in dispersively improved chiral effective field theory. II. Electromagnetic form factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcón, J. M.; Weiss, C.

    2018-05-01

    We study the nucleon electromagnetic form factors (EM FFs) using a recently developed method combining chiral effective field theory (χ EFT ) and dispersion analysis. The spectral functions on the two-pion cut at t >4 Mπ2 are constructed using the elastic unitarity relation and an N /D representation. χ EFT is used to calculate the real functions J±1(t ) =f±1(t ) /Fπ(t ) (ratios of the complex π π →N N ¯ partial-wave amplitudes and the timelike pion FF), which are free of π π rescattering. Rescattering effects are included through the empirical timelike pion FF | Fπ(t) | 2 . The method allows us to compute the isovector EM spectral functions up to t ˜1 GeV2 with controlled accuracy (leading order, next-to-leading order, and partial next-to-next-to-leading order). With the spectral functions we calculate the isovector nucleon EM FFs and their derivatives at t =0 (EM radii, moments) using subtracted dispersion relations. We predict the values of higher FF derivatives, which are not affected by higher-order chiral corrections and are obtained almost parameter-free in our approach, and explain their collective behavior. We estimate the individual proton and neutron FFs by adding an empirical parametrization of the isoscalar sector. Excellent agreement with the present low-Q2 FF data is achieved up to ˜0.5 GeV2 for GE, and up to ˜0.2 GeV2 for GM. Our results can be used to guide the analysis of low-Q2 elastic scattering data and the extraction of the proton charge radius.

  2. Comments on electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachs, R.G.; Wali, K.C.

    1989-01-01

    This paper draws the concept of nucleon form factors further to consider the electromagnetic aspect based on the magnetic moment of the nucleon. These are seen as valid physical interpretations of form factors in electron-nucleon interactions. A linear combination of two functions, associated with charge radius, is derived, which agreed well with experimental results. The paper also expands the specific form to include relativistic cases and consider appropriate frames of reference. (UK)

  3. Stochastic factor model for electricity spot price-the case of the Nordic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehvilaeinen, Iivo; Pyykkoenen, Tuomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic factor based approach to mid-term modeling of spot prices in deregulated electricity markets. The fundamentals affecting the spot price are modeled independently and a market equilibrium model combines them to form spot price. Main advantage of the model is the transparency of the generated prices because each underlying factor and the dynamics between factors can be modeled and studied in detail. Paper shows realistic numerical examples on the forerunner Scandinavian electricity market. The model is used to price an exotic electricity derivative

  4. Stochastic factor model for electricity spot price - the case of the Nordic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vehvilainen, I.; Pyykkoenen, T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic factor based approach to mid-term modeling of spot prices in deregulated electricity markets. The fundamentals affecting the spot price are modeled independently and a market equilibrium model combines them to form spot price. Main advantage of the model is the transparency of the generated prices because each underlying factor and the dynamics between factors can be modeled and studied in detail. Paper shows realistic numerical examples on the forerunner Scandinavian electricity market. The model is used to price an exotic electricity derivative. (author)

  5. Magnetic field influence on substructure formed by electric spark treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reza Rahbari, G.; Ivanov, A.N.

    1996-01-01

    The substructure of surface layer (about 10 microns thick) has been studied by x-ray line broadening technique in the samples of plain carbon steel (0.45%C) after electric spark doping with and without magnetic field (MF). The applied spark pulse energy was 0.12 J and MF induction varied from 0 to 0.08 T. The electrode material was the same as that of the treated sample. It has been observed that the MF reduces the tensile residual surface stresses from 660 ± 15MPa (no MF) to 260 ± 15MPa (B=0.053 T). The analysis of x-ray line broadening has revealed only the existence of microstrains, which are dependent of the MF magnitude. The microstrains have been related to the randomly distributed dislocation with the density of about 3x10 sup 11 cm sup -2

  6. New large-Nc relations for the electromagnetic nucleon-to-Δ form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vladimir Pascalutsa; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2006-01-01

    We establish relations which express the three N → Δ transition form factors in terms of the nucleon form factors. These relations are based on the known large-N c relation between the N → Δ electric quadrupole moment and the neutron charge radius, and a newly derived large-N c relation between the electric quadrupole (E2) and Coulomb quadrupole (C2) transitions. Namely, in the large-N c limit we find C2=E2. We show that these relations provide predictions for the N → Δ electromagnetic form factors which are found to be in very good agreement with experiment for moderate momentum transfers. They also provide constraints for the N → Δ GPDs

  7. Form factors in the projected linear chiral sigma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberto, P.; Coimbra Univ.; Bochum Univ.; Ruiz Arriola, E.; Fiolhais, M.; Urbano, J.N.; Coimbra Univ.; Goeke, K.; Gruemmer, F.; Bochum Univ.

    1990-01-01

    Several nucleon form factors are computed within the framework of the linear chiral soliton model. To this end variational means and projection techniques applied to generalized hedgehog quark-boson Fock states are used. In this procedure the Goldberger-Treiman relation and a virial theorem for the pion-nucleon form factor are well fulfilled demonstrating the consistency of the treatment. Both proton and neutron charge form factors are correctly reproduced, as well as the proton magnetic one. The shapes of the neutron magnetic and of the axial form factors are good but their absolute values at the origin are too large. The slopes of all the form factors at zero momentum transfer are in good agreement with the experimental data. The pion-nucleon form factor exhibits to great extent a monopole shape with a cut-off mass of Λ=690 MeV. Electromagnetic form factors for the vertex γNΔ and the nucleon spin distribution are also evaluated and discussed. (orig.)

  8. Absorptive form factors for high-energy electron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, D.M.; King, Q.A.

    1990-01-01

    The thermal diffuse scattering contribution to the absorptive potential in high-energy electron diffraction is calculated in the form of an absorptive contribution to the atomic form factor. To do this, the Einstein model of lattice vibrations is used, with isotropic Debye-Waller factors. The absorptive form factors are calculated as a function of scattering vector s and temperature factor M on a grid which enables polynomial interpolation of the results to be accurate to better than 2% for much of the ranges 0≤Ms 2 ≤6 and 0≤M≤2 A 2 . The computed values, together with an interpolation routine, have been incorporated into a Fortran subroutine which calculates both the real and absorptive form factors for 54 atomic species. (orig.)

  9. Pseudoscalar form factors in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, K.; Mawatari, K.; Yokoya, H.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the pseudoscalar transition form factors of nucleon for quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production in tau-neutrino nucleon scattering via the charged current interactions. Although the pseudoscalar form factors play an important role for the τ production in neutrino-nucleon scattering, these are not known well. In this Letter, we examine their effects in quasi-elastic scattering and Δ resonance production and find that the cross section, Q 2 distribution, and spin polarization of the produced τ ± leptons are quite sensitive to the pseudoscalar form factors

  10. Anomaly, mixing and transition form factors of pseudoscalar mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klopot, Yaroslav; Oganesian, Armen; Teryaev, Oleg

    2011-01-01

    We derive the exact non-perturbative QCD sum rule for the transition form factors of η and η ′ using the dispersive representation of axial anomaly. This sum rule allows to express the transition form factors entirely in terms of meson decay constants. Using this sum rule several mixing schemes were analyzed and compared to recent experimental data. A good agreement with experimental data on η,η ′ transition form factors in the range from real to highly virtual photons was obtained.

  11. Anomaly, mixing and transition form factors of pseudoscalar mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klopot, Yaroslav, E-mail: klopot@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Oganesian, Armen, E-mail: armen@itep.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Teryaev, Oleg, E-mail: teryaev@theor.jinr.ru [Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joliot-Curie 6, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)

    2011-10-15

    We derive the exact non-perturbative QCD sum rule for the transition form factors of {eta} and {eta}{sup Prime} using the dispersive representation of axial anomaly. This sum rule allows to express the transition form factors entirely in terms of meson decay constants. Using this sum rule several mixing schemes were analyzed and compared to recent experimental data. A good agreement with experimental data on {eta},{eta}{sup Prime} transition form factors in the range from real to highly virtual photons was obtained.

  12. Form factors and QCD in spacelike and timelike region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.P. Bakulev; A.V. Radyushkin; N.G. Stefanis

    2000-01-01

    The authors analyze the basic hard exclusive processes: πγ * γ-transition, pion and nucleon electromagnetic form factors, and discuss the analytic continuation of QCD formulas from the spacelike q 2 2 > 0 of the relevant momentum transfers. They describe the construction of the timelike version of the coupling constant α s . They show that due to the analytic continuation of the collinear logarithms each eigenfunction of the evolution equation acquires a phase factor and investigate the resulting interference effects which are shown to be very small. They found no sources for the K-factor-type enhancements in the perturbative QCD contribution to the hadronic form factors. To study the soft part of the pion electromagnetic form factor, they use a QCD sum rule inspired model and show that there are non-canceling Sudakov double logarithms which result in a K-factor-type enhancement in the timelike region

  13. Form factors and QCD in spacelike and timelike regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakulev, A. P.; Radyushkin, A. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze the basic hard exclusive processes, the πγ * γ-transition and the pion and nucleon electromagnetic form factors, and discuss the analytic continuation of QCD formulas from the spacelike q 2 2 >0 of the relevant momentum transfers. We describe the construction of the timelike version of the coupling constant α s . We show that due to the analytic continuation of the collinear logarithms, each eigenfunction of the evolution equation acquires a phase factor and investigate the resulting interference effects which are shown to be very small. We find no sources for the K-factor-type enhancements in the perturbative QCD contribution to the hadronic form factors. To study the soft part of the pion electromagnetic form factor, we use a QCD sum rule inspired model and show that there are noncanceling Sudakov double logarithms which result in a K-factor-type enhancement in the timelike region

  14. Infrared photons and gluons and the electromagnetic quark form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholz, B.

    1982-01-01

    A method for a consistent treatment of the infrared behaviour of QED and QCD is presented. As an application of the method the calculation of the electromagnetic quark form factor is discussed. (M.F.W.)

  15. Hadronic Form Factors in Asymptotically Free Field Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, D. J.; Treiman, S. B.

    1974-01-01

    The breakdown of Bjorken scaling in asymptotically free gauge theories of the strong interactions is explored for its implications on the large q{sup 2} behavior of nucleon form factors. Duality arguments of Bloom and Gilman suggest a connection between the form factors and the threshold properties of the deep inelastic structure functions. The latter are addressed directly in an analysis of asymptotically free theories; and through the duality connection we are then led to statements about the form factors. For very large q{sup 2} the form factors are predicted to fall faster than any inverse power of q{sup 2}. For the more modest range of q{sup 2} reached in existing experiments the agreement with data is fairly good, though this may well be fortuitous. Extrapolations beyond this range are presented.

  16. Hadron form factors in the constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardarelli, F.; Salme', G.; Simula, S.; Pace, E.

    1998-01-01

    Hadron electromagnetic form factors are evaluated in a light-front constituent quark model based on the eigenfunctions of a mass operator, including in the q-q interaction a confining term and a one-gluon-exchange term (OGE). The spin-dependent part of the interaction plays an essential role for obtaining both a proper fit of the experimental nucleon electromagnetic form factors and the faster than dipole decrease of the magnetic N-P 33 (1232) transition form factor. The effects of the D wave, produced by the tensor part of the OGE interaction, on the quadrupole and Coulomb N-P 33 (1232) transition form factors have been found to be negligible. (author)

  17. Finite volume form factors in the presence of integrable defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajnok, Z.; Buccheri, F.; Hollo, L.; Konczer, J.; Takacs, G.

    2014-01-01

    We developed the theory of finite volume form factors in the presence of integrable defects. These finite volume form factors are expressed in terms of the infinite volume form factors and the finite volume density of states and incorporate all polynomial corrections in the inverse of the volume. We tested our results, in the defect Lee–Yang model, against numerical data obtained by truncated conformal space approach (TCSA), which we improved by renormalization group methods adopted to the defect case. To perform these checks we determined the infinite volume defect form factors in the Lee–Yang model exactly, including their vacuum expectation values. We used these data to calculate the two point functions, which we compared, at short distance, to defect CFT. We also derived explicit expressions for the exact finite volume one point functions, which we checked numerically. In all of these comparisons excellent agreement was found

  18. Dispersive analysis of the pion transition form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, M.; Kubis, B.; Leupold, S.; Niecknig, F.; Schneider, S. P.

    2014-11-01

    We analyze the pion transition form factor using dispersion theory. We calculate the singly-virtual form factor in the time-like region based on data for the cross section, generalizing previous studies on decays and scattering, and verify our result by comparing to data. We perform the analytic continuation to the space-like region, predicting the poorly-constrained space-like transition form factor below , and extract the slope of the form factor at vanishing momentum transfer . We derive the dispersive formalism necessary for the extension of these results to the doubly-virtual case, as required for the pion-pole contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon.

  19. The connected prescription for form factors in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandhuber, A.; Hughes, E.; Panerai, R.; Spence, B.; Travaglini, G. [Centre for Research in String Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy,Queen Mary University of London,Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-23

    We propose a connected prescription formula in twistor space for all tree-level form factors of the stress tensor multiplet operator in N=4 super Yang-Mills, which is a generalisation of the expression of Roiban, Spradlin and Volovich for superamplitudes. By introducing link variables, we show that our formula is identical to the recently proposed four-dimensional scattering equations for form factors. Similarly to the case of amplitudes, the link representation of form factors is shown to be directly related to BCFW recursion relations, and is considerably more tractable than the scattering equations. We also discuss how our results are related to a recent Grassmannian formulation of form factors, and comment on a possible derivation of our formula from ambitwistor strings.

  20. Normalization Of Thermal-Radiation Form-Factor Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuyuki, Glenn T.

    1994-01-01

    Report describes algorithm that adjusts form-factor matrix in TRASYS computer program, which calculates intraspacecraft radiative interchange among various surfaces and environmental heat loading from sources such as sun.

  1. Classical limit of diagonal form factors and HHL correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajnok, Zoltan [MTA Lendület Holographic QFT Group, Wigner Research Centre,H-1525 Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Janik, Romuald A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University,ul. Łojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland)

    2017-01-16

    We propose an expression for the classical limit of diagonal form factors in which we integrate the corresponding observable over the moduli space of classical solutions. In infinite volume the integral has to be regularized by proper subtractions and we present the one, which corresponds to the classical limit of the connected diagonal form factors. In finite volume the integral is finite and can be expressed in terms of the classical infinite volume diagonal form factors and subvolumes of the moduli space. We analyze carefully the periodicity properties of the finite volume moduli space and found a classical analogue of the Bethe-Yang equations. By applying the results to the heavy-heavy-light three point functions we can express their strong coupling limit in terms of the classical limit of the sine-Gordon diagonal form factors.

  2. Conformal symmetry and pion form factor: Soft and hard contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2006-01-01

    We discuss a constraint of conformal symmetry in the analysis of the pion form factor. The usual power-law behavior of the form factor obtained in the perturbative QCD analysis can also be attained by taking negligible quark masses in the nonperturbative quark model analysis, confirming the recent AdS/CFT correspondence. We analyze the transition from soft to hard contributions in the pion form factor considering a momentum-dependent dynamical quark mass from an appreciable constituent quark mass at low momentum region to a negligible current quark mass at high momentum region. We find a correlation between the shape of nonperturbative quark distribution amplitude and the amount of soft and hard contributions to the pion form factor

  3. ELECTROMAGENTIC FORM FACTORS OF THE PROTON AND NEUTRON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffy, T. A.; Hofstadter, R.; Hughes, E. B.; Janssens, T.; Yearian, M. R.

    1963-06-15

    Proton form factors in the four-momentum-transfer range q/sup 2/ = 4.6 to 32.0 f/sup -2/ and neutron form factors in the range q/sup 2/ = 2.5 to 10.0 f/ sup -2/ are measured by means of electron elastic scattering by protons and electron inelastic scattering by deuterons. (T.F.H.)

  4. Low-energy analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian.; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2001-01-01

    We analyze the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon to fourth order in relativistic baryon chiral perturbation theory. We employ the recently proposed infrared regularization scheme and show that the convergence of the chiral expansion is improved as compared to the heavy-fermion approach. We also discuss the inclusion of vector mesons and obtain an accurate description of all four-nucleon form factors for momentum transfer squared up to Q 2 ≅0.4 GeV 2

  5. Hyperon decay form factors in chiral perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacour, Andre; Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon vector form factors up to O(p 4 ) in covariant baryon chiral perturbation theory. Partial higher-order contributions are obtained, and we discuss chiral extrapolations of the vector form factor at zero momentum transfer. In addition we derive low-energy theorems for the subleading moments in hyperon decays, the weak Dirac radii and the weak anomalous magnetic moments, up to O(p 4 )

  6. Form factors and other measures of strangeness in the nucleon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Feldmann, T. [Siegen Univ. (Germany). Theoretische Physik I; Kroll, P. [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik

    2007-11-15

    We discuss the phenomenology of strange-quark dynamics in the nucleon, based on experimental and theoretical results for electroweak form factors and for parton densities. In particular, we construct a model for the generalized parton distribution that relates the asymmetry s(x)- anti s(x) between the longitudinal momentum distributions of strange quarks and antiquarks with the form factor F{sup s}{sub 1}(t), which describes the distribution of strangeness in transverse position space. (orig.)

  7. Form factors and other measures of strangeness in the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, M.; Feldmann, T.; Kroll, P.

    2007-11-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of strange-quark dynamics in the nucleon, based on experimental and theoretical results for electroweak form factors and for parton densities. In particular, we construct a model for the generalized parton distribution that relates the asymmetry s(x)- anti s(x) between the longitudinal momentum distributions of strange quarks and antiquarks with the form factor F s 1 (t), which describes the distribution of strangeness in transverse position space. (orig.)

  8. From quarks and gluons to baryon form factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Gernot

    2012-04-01

    I briefly summarize recent results for nucleon and [Formula: see text] electromagnetic, axial and transition form factors in the Dyson-Schwinger approach. The calculation of the current diagrams from the quark-gluon level enables a transparent discussion of common features such as: the implications of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and quark orbital angular momentum, the timelike structure of the form factors, and their interpretation in terms of missing pion-cloud effects.

  9. Form factors of the finite quantum XY-chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorgov, Nikolai

    2011-01-01

    Explicit factorized formulas for the matrix elements (form factors) of the spin operators σ x and σ y between the eigenvectors of the Hamiltonian of the finite quantum periodic XY-chain in a transverse field were derived. The derivation is based on the relations between three models: the model of quantum XY-chain, Ising model on 2D lattice and N = 2 Baxter-Bazhanov-Stroganov τ (2) -model. Due to these relations we transfer the formulas for the form factors of the latter model recently obtained by the use of separation of variables method to the model of quantum XY-chain. Hopefully, the formulas for the form factors will help in analysis of multipoint dynamic correlation functions at a finite temperature. As an example, we re-derive the asymptotics of the two-point correlation function in the disordered phase without the use of the Toeplitz determinants and the Wiener-Hopf factorization method.

  10. Current algebra constraints on K13 form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    New theoretical constraints on the divergence form factor in K 13 decays are derived. The assumptions underlying the derivation are presented. The constraints on the divergence form factor are derived and summarized in the form of a theorem. It is shown that the finiteness of the leakage charge is a natural consequence of the parallelΔI vectorparallel = 1 / 2 rule. The Lorentz invariance of current algebra sum rules is discussed. The theorem is rederived within the context of the conserved vector current hypothesis. Finally, the implications of the present work are noted with attention being paid to both the theoretical and experimental consequences

  11. Describing the nucleon electromagnetic form factors at high momentum transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theussl, L.; Desplanques, B.; Silvestre-Brac, B.; Varga, K.

    1999-01-01

    Electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon are calculated within the framework of a non-relativistic constituent-quark model. The emphasis is put on the reliability and accuracy of present day numerical methods used to solve the three-body problem. The high-q 2 behaviour of the form factors is determined by the form of the wave function at short distances and, due to the small absolute values that one deals with, an accurate solution is essential. Refs. 5, figs. 2 (author)

  12. Asymptotic behavior of composite-particle form factors and the renormalization group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.; Mueller, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Composite-particle form factors are studied in the limit of large momentum transfer Q. It is shown that in models with spinor constituents and either scalar or gauge vector gluons, the meson electromagnetic form factor factorizes at large Q 2 and is given by independent light-cone expansions on the initial and final meson legs. The coefficient functions are shown to satisfy a Callan-Symanzik equation. When specialized to quantum chromodynamics, this equation leads to the asymptotic formula of Brodsky and Lepage for the pion electromagnetic form factor. The nucleon form factors G/sub M/(Q 2 ), G/sub E/(Q 2 ) are also considered. It is shown that momentum flows which contribute to subdominant logarithms in G/sub M/(Q 2 ) vitiate a conventional renormalization-group interpretation for this form factor. For large Q 2 , the electric form factor G/sub E/(Q 2 ) fails to factorize, so that a renormalization-group treatment seems even more unlikely in this case

  13. Overview of factors affecting the leachability of nuclear waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    An overview of various factors that affect the leachability of nuclear waste forms is presented. The factors affect primarily the leaching system (temperature, for example), the leachant (pH, for example), or the solid being leached (surface condition, for example). A qualitative understanding exists of the major factors affecting leaching, but further studies are needed to establish leaching mechanisms and develop predictive models. 67 refs

  14. How well do we know the electromagnetic form factors of the proton?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrington, J.

    2003-01-01

    Several experiments have extracted proton electromagnetic form factors from elastic cross section measurements using the Rosenbluth technique. Global analyses of these measurements indicate approximate scaling of the electric and magnetic form factors (μ p G E p /G M p ≅1), in contrast to recent polarization transfer measurements from Jefferson Lab. We present here a global reanalysis of the cross section data aimed at understanding the disagreement between the Rosenbluth extraction and the polarization transfer data. We find that the individual cross section measurements are self-consistent, and that the new global analysis yields results that are still inconsistent with polarization measurements. This discrepancy indicates a fundamental problem in one of the two techniques, or a significant error in polarization transfer or cross section measurements. An error in the polarization data would imply a large error in the extracted electric form factor, while an error in the cross sections implies an uncertainty in the extracted form factors, even if the form factor ratio is measured exactly

  15. Lifestyle factors in U.S. residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanquist, Thomas F.; Orr, Heather; Shui Bin; Bittner, Alvah C.

    2012-01-01

    A multivariate statistical approach to lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption is described and illustrated. Factor analysis of selected variables from the 2005 U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) identified five lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns associated with air conditioning, laundry usage, personal computer usage, climate zone of residence, and TV use. These factors were also estimated for 2001 RECS data. Multiple regression analysis using the lifestyle factors yields solutions accounting for approximately 40% of the variance in electricity consumption for both years. By adding the household and market characteristics of income, local electricity price and access to natural gas, variance accounted for is increased to approximately 54%. Income contributed ∼1% unique variance to the models, indicating that lifestyle factors reflecting social and behavioral patterns better account for consumption differences than income. Geographic segmentation of factor scores shows distinct clusters of consumption and lifestyle factors, particularly in suburban locations. The implications for tailored policy and planning interventions are discussed in relation to lifestyle issues. - Highlights: ► Illustrates lifestyle analysis of residential electricity consumption. ► Lifestyle factors based on social and behavioral decisions and equipment use. ► Regression models using lifestyle factors account for 40% of consumption variance. ► Lifestyle factors are stable over time when applied to other data sets. ► Energy reduction opportunities are identified by segmentation analysis.

  16. Wind turbine cost of electricity and capacity factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    Wind turbines are currently designed to minimize the cost of electricity at the wind turbine (the busbar cost) in a given wind regime, ignoring constraints on the capacitor factor (the ratio of the average power output to the maximum power output). The trade-off between these two quantities can be examined in a straightforward fashion; it is found that the capacitor factor can be increased by a factor of 1.3 above its value at the cost minimum for a 10 percent increase in the cost of electricity. This has important implications for the large scale integration of wind electricity on utility grids where the cost of transmission and storage may be a significant fraction of the cost of delivered electricity. (Author)

  17. Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belushkin, M.

    2007-09-29

    The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the {pi}{pi}, K anti K and the {rho}{pi} continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)

  18. Dispersion-theoretical analysis of the nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belushkin, M.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the proton and the neutron is of fundamental importance for the study of the strong interaction dynamics over a wide range of momentum transfers. The nucleon form factors encode information on the internal structure of the nucleon as probed by the electromagnetic interaction, and, to a certain extent, reflect the charge and magnetisation distributions within the proton and the neutron. In this thesis we report on our investigation of the electromagnetic form factors of the proton and the neutron with dispersion relation techniques, including known experimental input on the ππ, K anti K and the ρπ continua and perturbative QCD constraints. We include new experimental data on the pion form factor and the nucleon form factors in our simultaneous analysis of all four form factors in both the space- and the timelike regions for all momentum transfers, and perform Monte- Carlo sampling in order to obtain theoretical uncertainty bands. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results on the pion cloud of the nucleon, the nucleon radii and the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule, and present our results of a model-independent approach to estimating two-photon effects in elastic electron-proton scattering. (orig.)

  19. Electromagnetic form factors at large momenta from lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Alexander J.; Dragos, J.; Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI; Horsley, R.

    2017-01-01

    Accessing hadronic form factors at large momentum transfers has traditionally presented a challenge for lattice QCD simulations. Here we demonstrate how a novel implementation of the Feynman-Hellmann method can be employed to calculate hadronic form factors in lattice QCD at momenta much higher than previously accessible. Our simulations are performed on a single set of gauge configurations with three flavours of degenerate mass quarks corresponding to m_π∼470 MeV. We are able to determine the electromagnetic form factors of the pion and nucleon up to approximately 6 GeV"2, with results for G_E/G_M in the proton agreeing well with experimental results.

  20. Two-loop SL(2) form factors and maximal transcendentality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loebbert, Florian; Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand’s numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  1. Two-body form factors at high Q2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, F.; Keister, B.D.

    1983-02-01

    The charge form factor of a scalar deuteron at high momentum transfer is examined in a model employing scalar nucleons and mesons. With an eye toward establishing consistency criteria for more realistic calculations, several aspects of the model are examined in detail: the role of nucleon and meson singularities in the one-loop impulse diagram, the role of positive-and negative-energy nucleons, and the relationship to time-ordered perturbation theory. It is found that at large Q 2 (1) the form factor is dominated by a term in which the spectator nucleon is on the mass shell, and (2) the meson singularity structure of the d-n-p vertex function is unimportant in determining the overall high-Q 2 behaviour of the form factor

  2. Computation of 3D form factors in complex environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulon, N.

    1989-01-01

    The calculation of radiant interchange among opaque surfaces in a complex environment poses the general problem of determining the visible and hidden parts of the environment. In many thermal engineering applications, surfaces are separated by radiatively non-participating media and may be idealized as diffuse emitters and reflectors. Consenquently the net radiant energy fluxes are intimately related to purely geometrical quantities called form factors, that take into account hidden parts: the problem is reduced to the form factor evaluation. This paper presents the method developed for the computation of 3D form factors in the finite-element module of the system TRIO, which is a general computer code for thermal and fluid flow analysis. The method is derived from an algorithm devised for synthetic image generation. A comparison is performed with the standard contour integration method also implemented and suited to convex geometries. Several illustrative examples of finite-element thermal calculations in radiating enclosures are given

  3. Two-loop SL(2) form factors and maximal transcendentality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loebbert, Florian [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Sieg, Christoph [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Mathematik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark); Yang, Gang [CAS Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics,Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100190 (China); Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-12-19

    Form factors of composite operators in the SL(2) sector of N=4 SYM theory are studied up to two loops via the on-shell unitarity method. The non-compactness of this subsector implies the novel feature and technical challenge of an unlimited number of loop momenta in the integrand’s numerator. At one loop, we derive the full minimal form factor to all orders in the dimensional regularisation parameter. At two loops, we construct the complete integrand for composite operators with an arbitrary number of covariant derivatives, and we obtain the remainder functions as well as the dilatation operator for composite operators with up to three covariant derivatives. The remainder functions reveal curious patterns suggesting a hidden maximal uniform transcendentality for the full form factor. Finally, we speculate about an extension of these patterns to QCD.

  4. Evaluation of E2 form factor = 24Mg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinelli, J.R.; Moreira, J.R.

    1988-11-01

    Longitudinal and transverse electron scattering form factors for the 2 + state at 1.37 Mev of the 24 Mg nucleus was evaluated with rotational model wavefunctions. Four different approaches were used for the transverse E2 form factor: PHF, cranking model, ridig rotor and irrotational flow. For the nuclear intrinsic wavefunction, the Nilsson model was assumed in all approaches yielding the calculation of the form factor in PWBA and DWBA. The results are discussed and compared with a recent measurement performed with 180 0 electron scattered from this state. The DWBA calculation, taking into account first order corrections shows that PHF and irrotational flow models give the best agreements with the available data and compete in quality with more complex calculation performed under the 'shell model' approach. (author) [pt

  5. Master integrals for the four-loop Sudakov form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boels, Rutger; Kniehl, Bernd A.; Yang, Gang; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

    2015-08-01

    The light-like cusp anomalous dimension is a universal function in the analysis of infrared divergences. In maximally (N=4) supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory (SYM) in the planar limit, it is known, in principle, to all loop orders. The non-planar corrections are not known in any theory, with the first appearing at the four-loop order. Probably the simplest quantity which contains this correction is the four-loop two-point form factor of the stress tensor multiplet. This form factor was obtained in integrand form in a previous work for N=4 SYM, up to a single parameter. In this work, a reduction of the appearing integrals obtained by solving integration-by-parts (IBP) identities using (a tweaked version of) Reduze is reported. The form factor is shown to be independent of the remaining parameter at integrand level due to an intricate pattern of cancellations after IBP reduction. The appearing master integrals are cross-checked using algebraic techniques explored in the Mint package. The latter results provide the basis of master integrals applicable to generic form factors, including those in Quantum Chromodynamics. Remaining bottlenecks to completing the computation of the four-loop non-planar cusp anomalous dimension in N=4 SYM and beyond are identified.

  6. Master integrals for the four-loop Sudakov form factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger H. Boels

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The light-like cusp anomalous dimension is a universal function in the analysis of infrared divergences. In maximally (N=4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory (SYM in the planar limit, it is known, in principle, to all loop orders. The non-planar corrections are not known in any theory, with the first appearing at the four-loop order. The simplest quantity which contains this correction is the four-loop two-point form factor of the stress tensor multiplet. This form factor was largely obtained in integrand form in a previous work for N=4 SYM, up to a free parameter. In this work, a reduction of the appearing integrals obtained by solving integration-by-parts (IBP identities using a modified version of Reduze is reported. The form factor is shown to be independent of the remaining parameter at integrand level due to an intricate pattern of cancellations after IBP reduction. Moreover, two of the integral topologies vanish after reduction. The appearing master integrals are cross-checked using independent algebraic-geometry techniques explored in the Mint package. The latter results provide the basis of master integrals applicable to generic form factors, including those in Quantum Chromodynamics. Discrepancies between explicitly solving the IBP relations and the MINT approach are highlighted. Remaining bottlenecks to completing the computation of the four-loop non-planar cusp anomalous dimension in N=4 SYM and beyond are identified.

  7. Nucleon quark structure and strong meson-nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efimov, G.V.; Ivanov, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The nucleon is considered as a three-quark system in virton-quark model. The main statistic properties of proton and neutron are calculated: magnetic moments, electromagnetic radii, G A /G V ratio in weak neutron decay. Strong meson-nucleon form factors which determine nucleon-nucleon potential are obtained as a function of squared transfer momentum of mesons. The results are compared with phenomenological form factors used for description of phases of NN-scattering in the one-boson-, exchange model

  8. Towards a dispersive determination of the pion transition form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, Stefan; Hoferichter, Martin; Kubis, Bastian; Niecknig, Franz; Schneider, Sebastian P.

    2018-01-01

    We start with a brief motivation why the pion transition form factor is interesting and, in particular, how it is related to the high-precision standard-model calculation of the gyromagnetic ratio of the muon. Then we report on the current status of our ongoing project to calculate the pion transition form factor using dispersion theory. Finally we present and discuss a wish list of experimental data that would help to improve the input for our calculations and/or to cross-check our results.

  9. Towards a dispersive determination of the pion transition form factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leupold Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We start with a brief motivation why the pion transition form factor is interesting and, in particular, how it is related to the high-precision standard-model calculation of the gyromagnetic ratio of the muon. Then we report on the current status of our ongoing project to calculate the pion transition form factor using dispersion theory. Finally we present and discuss a wish list of experimental data that would help to improve the input for our calculations and/or to cross-check our results.

  10. Covariance dynamics and symmetries, and hadron form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, M.S.; Cloet, I.C.; Roberts, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    We summarize applications of Dyson-Schwinger equations to the theory and phenomenology of hadrons. Some exact results for pseudoscalar mesons are highlighted with details relating to the U A (1) problem. We describe inferences from the gap equation relating to the radius of convergence for expansions of observables in the current-quark mass. We recapitulate upon studies of nucleon electromagnetic form factors, providing a comparison of the ln-weighted ratios of Pauli and Dirac form factors for the neutron and proton.

  11. Measurement of the Charged Pion Electromagnetic Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Volmer; David Abbott; H. Anklin; Chris Armstrong; John Arrington; K. Assamagan; Steven Avery; Oliver K. Baker; Henk Blok; C. Bochna; Ed Brash; Herbert Breuer; Nicholas Chant; Jim Dunne; Tom Eden; Rolf Ent; David Gaskell; Ron Gilman; Kenneth Gustafsson; Wendy Hinton; Garth Huber; Hal Jackson; Mark K. Jones; Cynthia Keppel; P.H. Kim; Wooyoung Kim; Andi Klein; Doug Koltenuk; Meme Liang; George Lolos; Allison Lung; David Mack; D. McKee; David Meekins; Joseph Mitchell; H. Mkrtchian; B. Mueller; Gabriel Niculescu; Ioana Niculescu; D. Pitz; D. Potterveld; Liming Qin; Juerg Reinhold; I.K. Shin; Stepan Stepanyan; V. Tadevosian; L.G. Tang; R.L.J. van der Meer; K. Vansyoc; D. Van Westrum; Bill Vulcan; Stephen Wood; Chen Yan; W.X. Zhao; Beni Zihlmann

    2001-01-01

    Separated longitudinal and transverse structure functions for the reaction 1H(e,eprime pi+)n were measured in the momentum transfer region Q2=0.6-1.6 (GeV/c)**2 at a value of the invariant mass W=1.95 GeV. New values for the pion charge form factor were extracted from the longitudinal cross section by using a recently developed Regge model. The results indicate that the pion form factor in this region is larger than previously assumed and is consistent with a monopole parameterization fitted to very low Q2 elastic data

  12. Form factors and structure functions of hadrons in parton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkonskij, N.Yu.

    1979-01-01

    The hadron charge form factors and their relation to the deep-inelastic lepton-production structure functions in the regions of asymptotically high and small momentum transfer Q 2 are studied. The nucleon and pion charge radii are calculated. The results of calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data. The K- and D-meson charge radii are estimated. In the region of asymptotically high Q 2 the possibility of Drell-Yan-West relation violation is analyzed. It is shown, that for pseudoscalar mesons this relation is violated. The relation between the proton and neutron form factor asymptotics is obtained

  13. Deuteron form factor measurements at low momentum transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schlimme B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A precise measurement of the elastic electron-deuteron scattering cross section at four-momentum transfers of 0.24 fm−1 ≤ Q ≤ 2.7 fm−1 has been performed at the Mainz Microtron. In this paper we describe the utilized experimental setup and the necessary analysis procedure to precisely determine the deuteron charge form factor from these data. Finally, the deuteron charge radius rd can be extracted from an extrapolation of that form factor to Q2 = 0.

  14. Proton electromagnetic form factors: present status and future perspectives at PANDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasi-Gustafsson E.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data and models on electromagnetic proton form factors are reviewed, highlighting the contribution foreseen by the PANDA collaboration. Electromagnetic hadron form factors contain essential information on the internal structure of hadrons. Precise and surprising data have been obtained at electron accelerators, applying the polarization method in electron-proton elastic scattering. At electron-positron colliders, using initial state radiation, BABAR measured proton time-like form factors in a wide time-like kinematical region and the BESIII collaboration will measure very precisely proton and neutron form factors in the threshold region. In the next future an antiproton beam with momentum up to 15 GeV/c will be available at FAIR (Darmstadt. Measurements of the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− by the PANDA collaboration will contribute to the individual determination of electric and magnetic form factors in the time-like region of momentum transfer squared, as well as to their first determination in the unphysical region (below the kinematical threshold, through the reaction p̅ + p → e+ + e− + π0. From the discussion on feasibility studies at PANDA, we focus on the consequences of such measurements in view of an unified description of form factors in the full kinematical region. We present models which have the necessary analytical requirements and apply to the data in the whole kinematical region.

  15. The Nucleon Axial Form Factor and Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron Scott [Chicago U.

    2017-01-01

    The study of neutrino oscillation physics is a major research goal of the worldwide particle physics program over the upcoming decade. Many new experiments are being built to study the properties of neutrinos and to answer questions about the phenomenon of neutrino oscillation. These experiments need precise theoretical cross sections in order to access fundamental neutrino properties. Neutrino oscillation experiments often use large atomic nuclei as scattering targets, which are challenging for theorists to model. Nuclear models rely on free-nucleon amplitudes as inputs. These amplitudes are constrained by scattering experiments with large nuclear targets that rely on the very same nuclear models. The work in this dissertation is the rst step of a new initiative to isolate and compute elementary amplitudes with theoretical calculations to support the neutrino oscillation experimental program. Here, the eort focuses on computing the axial form factor, which is the largest contributor of systematic error in the primary signal measurement process for neutrino oscillation studies, quasielastic scattering. Two approaches are taken. First, neutrino scattering data on a deuterium target are reanalyzed with a model-independent parametrization of the axial form factor to quantify the present uncertainty in the free-nucleon amplitudes. The uncertainties on the free-nucleon cross section are found to be underestimated by about an order of magnitude compared to the ubiquitous dipole model parametrization. The second approach uses lattice QCD to perform a rst-principles computation of the nucleon axial form factor. The Highly Improved Staggered Quark (HISQ) action is employed for both valence and sea quarks. The results presented in this dissertation are computed at physical pion mass for one lattice spacing. This work presents a computation of the axial form factor at zero momentum transfer, and forms the basis for a computation of the axial form factor momentum dependence

  16. Perturbative corrections to B → D form factors in QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Ming; Wei, Yan-Bing; Shen, Yue-Long; Lü, Cai-Dian

    2017-06-01

    We compute perturbative QCD corrections to B → D form factors at leading power in Λ/ m b , at large hadronic recoil, from the light-cone sum rules (LCSR) with B-meson distribution amplitudes in HQET. QCD factorization for the vacuum-to- B-meson correlation function with an interpolating current for the D-meson is demonstrated explicitly at one loop with the power counting scheme {m}_c˜ O(√{Λ {m}_b}) . The jet functions encoding information of the hard-collinear dynamics in the above-mentioned correlation function are complicated by the appearance of an additional hard-collinear scale m c , compared to the counterparts entering the factorization formula of the vacuum-to- B-meson correction function for the construction of B → π from factors. Inspecting the next-to-leading-logarithmic sum rules for the form factors of B → Dℓν indicates that perturbative corrections to the hard-collinear functions are more profound than that for the hard functions, with the default theory inputs, in the physical kinematic region. We further compute the subleading power correction induced by the three-particle quark-gluon distribution amplitudes of the B-meson at tree level employing the background gluon field approach. The LCSR predictions for the semileptonic B → Dℓν form factors are then extrapolated to the entire kinematic region with the z-series parametrization. Phenomenological implications of our determinations for the form factors f BD +,0 ( q 2) are explored by investigating the (differential) branching fractions and the R( D) ratio of B → Dℓν and by determining the CKM matrix element |V cb | from the total decay rate of B → Dμν μ .

  17. On form factors and correlation functions in twistor space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, Laura; Mitev, Vladimir; Staudacher, Matthias; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we continue our study of form factors and correlation functions of gauge-invariant local composite operators in the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the vertices for these operators obtained in our recent papers (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.011601; 10.1007/JHEP06(2016)162 ), we show how to calculate the twistor-space diagrams for general N k MHV form factors via the inverse soft limit, in analogy to the amplitude case. For general operators without α-dot indices, we then reexpress the NMHV form factors from the position-twistor calculation in terms of momentum twistors, deriving and expanding on a relation between the two twistor formalisms previously observed in the case of amplitudes. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation of generalized form factors and correlation functions as well as the extension to loop level, in particular providing an argument promised in https://www.doi.org/10.1002/prop.201400085.

  18. Heavy quark form factors at two loops in perturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablinger, J.; Schneider, C.; Behring, A.; Falcioni, G.

    2017-11-01

    We present the results for heavy quark form factors at two-loop order in perturbative QCD for different currents, namely vector, axial-vector, scalar and pseudo-scalar currents, up to second order in the dimensional regularization parameter. We outline the necessary computational details, ultraviolet renormalization and corresponding universal infrared structure.

  19. Generation of truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    7. Original Research Article. Generation of truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor ... as 6×His tagged using E.coli BL21 (DE3) expression system. The protein was ... proapoptotic signaling cascade through TNFR1. [5] which is ...

  20. Pion form factor within QCD instanton vacuum model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorokhov, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Instanton induced pion wave function is constructed. It provides an intrinsic k 1 dependence which suppress soft virtual one-gluon exchanges and thus legitimate the perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations of the pion electromagnetic form factor in the region of momentum transfers above the scale. (author)

  1. Form factors and charge radii in a quantum chromodynamics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tic form factors and charge radii of D, Ds,B,Bs and Bc mesons in a quantum chromodynamics. (QCD)-inspired ... as pointed out in [12,13], one can expect a similar success here too. .... 0 were large and the formalism failed to account for large ...

  2. Dispersive analysis of the pion transition form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoferichter, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, ExtreMe Matter Institute EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Kubis, B.; Niecknig, F.; Schneider, S.P. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany); Leupold, S. [Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen foer fysik och astronomi, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-11-15

    We analyze the pion transition form factor using dispersion theory. We calculate the singly-virtual form factor in the time-like region based on data for the e{sup +}e{sup -} → 3π cross section, generalizing previous studies on ω, φ → 3π decays and γπ → ππ scattering, and verify our result by comparing to e{sup +}e{sup -} → π{sup 0}γ data. We perform the analytic continuation to the space-like region, predicting the poorlyconstrained space-like transition form factor below 1 GeV, and extract the slope of the form factor at vanishing momentum transfer a{sub π} = (30.7 ± 0.6) x 10{sup -3}. We derive the dispersive formalism necessary for the extension of these results to the doubly-virtual case, as required for the pion-pole contribution to hadronic light-by-light scattering in the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon. (orig.)

  3. Measurement of the pion form factor at higher energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, D.J. [CEBAF, Newport News, VA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    One of the strongest arguments for increasing the nominal CEBAF beam energy to equal or exceed 6 GeV is that one would be able to make quality high Q{sup 2} measurements of the charged pion form factor.

  4. Δ(1232) Axial Charge and Form Factors from Lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, Constantia; Gregory, Eric B.; Korzec, Tomasz; Koutsou, Giannis; Negele, John W.; Sato, Toru; Tsapalis, Antonios

    2011-01-01

    We present the first calculation on the Δ axial vector and pseudoscalar form factors using lattice QCD. Two Goldberger-Treiman relations are derived and examined. A combined chiral fit is performed to the nucleon axial charge, N to Δ axial transition coupling constant and Δ axial charge.

  5. On form factors and correlation functions in twistor space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koster, Laura [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Mitev, Vladimir [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Institut für Physik, WA THEP,Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz,Staudingerweg 7, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Staudacher, Matthias [Institut für Mathematik, Institut für Physik und IRIS Adlershof,Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin,Zum Großen Windkanal 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Wilhelm, Matthias [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University,Blegdamsvej 17, 2100 Copenhagen Ø (Denmark)

    2017-03-24

    In this paper, we continue our study of form factors and correlation functions of gauge-invariant local composite operators in the twistor-space formulation of N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. Using the vertices for these operators obtained in our recent papers (DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.011601; 10.1007/JHEP06(2016)162 ), we show how to calculate the twistor-space diagrams for general N{sup k}MHV form factors via the inverse soft limit, in analogy to the amplitude case. For general operators without α-dot indices, we then reexpress the NMHV form factors from the position-twistor calculation in terms of momentum twistors, deriving and expanding on a relation between the two twistor formalisms previously observed in the case of amplitudes. Furthermore, we discuss the calculation of generalized form factors and correlation functions as well as the extension to loop level, in particular providing an argument promised in https://www.doi.org/10.1002/prop.201400085.

  6. Heavy quark form factors at two loops in perturbative QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablinger, J.; Schneider, C. [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation (RISC); Behring, A. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie; Bluemlein, J.; Freitas, A. de; Marquard, P.; Rana, N. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Falcioni, G. [Nikhef, Amsterdam (Netherlands). Theory Group

    2017-11-15

    We present the results for heavy quark form factors at two-loop order in perturbative QCD for different currents, namely vector, axial-vector, scalar and pseudo-scalar currents, up to second order in the dimensional regularization parameter. We outline the necessary computational details, ultraviolet renormalization and corresponding universal infrared structure.

  7. Statictical Analysis Of The Conditioning Factors Of Urban Electric Consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segura D'Rouville, Juan Joel; Suárez Carreño, Franyelit María

    2017-01-01

    This research work presents the analysis of the most important factors that condition the urban residential electricity consumption. This study shows the quantitative parameters conditioning the electricity consumption. This sector of analysis has been chosen because there is disaggregated information of which are the main social and technological factors that determine its behavior, growth, with the objective of elaborating policies in the management of the electric consumption. The electrical demand considered as the sum of the powers of all the equipment that are used in each of the instants of a full day, is related to the electrical consumption, which is not but the value of the power demanded by a determined consumer Multiplied by the time in which said demand is maintained. In this report we propose the design of a probabilistic model of prediction of electricity consumption, taking into account mainly influential social and technological factors. The statistical process of this database is done through the Stat Graphics software version 4.1, for its extensive didactic in the accomplishment of calculations and associated methods. Finally, the correlation of the variables was performed to classify the determinants in a specific way and thus to determine the consumption of the dwellings. (author)

  8. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Markus [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kroll, Peter [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany). Fachbereich Physik; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik

    2013-02-15

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale {mu}=2 GeV to be J{sup u}{sub v}=0.230{sup +0.009}{sub -0.024} and J{sup d}{sub v}=-0.004{sup +0.010}{sub -0.016}.

  9. Form factors and radiation widths of the giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.Yu.

    1990-01-01

    Simple analytic relations for the form factors of inelastic electron scattering in the Born approximation and radiation widths of the isovector and isoscalar giant multipole resonances are derived. The dynamic relationship between the volume and surface density vibrations were taken into account in this calculation. The form factors in the Born approximation were found to be in satisfactory agreement with experimental data in the region of small transferred momenta. The radiation widths of isoscalar multipole resonances increase when the number of nucleons increase as A 1/3 , and for isovector resonances this dependence has the form f(A)A 1/3 , where f(A) is a slowly increasing function of A. Radiation widths well fit the experimental data

  10. Nucleon form factors, generalized parton distributions and quark angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diehl, Markus; Kroll, Peter; Regensburg Univ.

    2013-02-01

    We extract the individual contributions from u and d quarks to the Dirac and Pauli form factors of the proton, after a critical examination of the available measurements of electromagnetic nucleon form factors. From this data we determine generalized parton distributions for valence quarks, assuming a particular form for their functional dependence. The result allows us to study various aspects of nucleon structure in the valence region. In particular, we evaluate Ji's sum rule and estimate the total angular momentum carried by valence quarks at the scale μ=2 GeV to be J u v =0.230 +0.009 -0.024 and J d v =-0.004 +0.010 -0.016 .

  11. Local electrical properties of thermally grown oxide films formed on duplex stainless steel surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L. Q.; Yang, B. J.; He, J. Y.; Qiao, L. J.

    2018-06-01

    The local electrical properties of thermally grown oxide films formed on ferrite and austenite surfaces of duplex stainless steel at different temperatures were investigated by Current sensing atomic force microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES). The current maps and XPS/AES analyses show that the oxide films covering austenite and ferrite surfaces formed at different temperatures exhibit different local electrical characteristics, thickness and composition. The dependence of electrical conductivity of oxide films covering austenite and ferrite surface on the formation temperature is attributed to the film thickness and semiconducting structures, which is intrinsically related to thermodynamics and kinetics process of film grown at different temperature. This is well elucidated by corresponding semiconductor band structures of oxide films formed on austenite and ferrite phases at different temperature.

  12. The Factors of Forming the National HR-Management Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena P. Kostenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There are some factors considered in this article, which influence the forming of national HR-management model. The group-forming criterion is the nature of factors, that determine the system of HR-management as a system of corporate culture values, norms and rules of organizational behavior, ways of realization some important managing functions and dominating approaches to make decisions. This article shows that the plurality of combinations in different factors leads to forming the unique HR-management model. The geoclimatic factor influences the principles of the labor organization (orientation primarily on individual or collective forms of labor, attitude to the management experience of other countries, attitude to resources, etc., the distribution of labor resources, the level of labor mobility, and the psychosocial type of employee. Models of man's labor behavior are constituted In the process of historical development. Attention is focused on the formation of a national HR-model, such as the conducted socio-economic policy, the characteristics of the institutional environment, economic goals and priorities of the country's development, the level of development and the nature of the national productive forces and economic structures. Much attention was paid to the analysis of the historically formed value system and labor traditions, which influence the approaches to HR-management. As far as religion influences the model of person’s inclusion in labor, motives of labor behavior, management culture of a certain employee, preferred payment etc., we examined how the main traditional religions (Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Hinduism influence the HR-management system in different countries.

  13. Form factor of some types of toroidal solenoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryavko, V.I.; Litvinenko, Yu.A.

    1979-01-01

    Obtained were the type of dependence between consumed power and formed field for toroidal helical-wound solenoids and the expression for the form factor analogous to the Fabry coefficient for cylindrical solenoids. Determined were optimum dimensions of the helical winding of ''forceless'' toroidal solenoids satisfying the condition of the formation of maximum field at minimum consumed power. Investigations also covered some types of conventional toroidal solenoids. Presented in the paper diagrams permitted to chose dimensions of the considered toroidal solenoids according to their consumed power and winding material volume

  14. Measurement of weak meson form factors in spacelike regions

    CERN Document Server

    Brene, N

    1973-01-01

    With the construction of high energy, high intensity accelerators (NAL & CERN, SPS) investigation of neutrino scattering on virtual pions, a la Chew-Low, becomes experimentally possible. The process nu +N to mu /sup -/+K+ Delta is analysed to extract the usual K/sub l3/ form factor(s) for spacelike momentum transfer. A model calculation suggests that f/sub +/(T) can be determined reasonably well from a triple differential cross section, whereas only rough information on f /sub -/(T) may be obtained from the transverse polarization of the muon. The experiment proposed requires scanning of several millions of bubble chamber pictures. (14 refs).

  15. Electromagnetic form factors and vertex constants for 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blokhintsev, L.D.; Shvarts, I.A.

    1977-01-01

    It has been assumed that the main contribution to the rapidly changing part of the charge form factor of 6 Li provides the amplitude of the triangle diagram containing virtual lines of deuteron and α particle. The vertex constant G 2 for the 6 Li→α+d decay is expressed through the nuclear charge radii for 6 Li, d, and α. Taking into account coulomb interaction in the vertex of the 6 Li→α+d reaction increases G 2 by about a factor of two. The account of virtuality of a deuteron cluster also leads to an increase in G 2

  16. FACTORS DECREASING HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY DEMAND – A QUALITATIVE APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimon ELBAZ

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Reducing energy consumption through changes in individual consumers’ behaviors is one of the most important challenges of the present society and near future. Our qualitative study, based on semi-structured interviews, deals with the investigation of household consumer behavior, in order to explore ways for reducing the electricity demand, in the particular cultural context of a country with high levels of energy consumption in both summer and winter times – Israel. Various approaches, coming from economics, sociology, psychology or education were tested, for limiting the use of a particular, invisible and intangible merchandise - electricity. The main objective of the present study was to determine consumers’ perceptions about the various approaches that could be used to decrease the domestic demand and consumption of electricity. A secondary objective was to identify, based on consumers’ perceptions, the factors of influence that could be used in future quantitative researches and governance strategies. We found out that investigated families have a high level of education in the field of electricity consumption and marketing campaigns, which would make the classic energy educational approach less efficient. Household electricity consumers in Israel have awareness and willingness not to waste or consume electricity beyond what is necessary, but the necessary level is positioned quite high. The social comparison approach appears to be ineffective, as well, even if it proved its efficiency in other cultures. The psychological and the economic approach could be partially efficient, if certain influence factors are widely used. These factors include mainly the magnitude of the savings, the perceived behavioral control, the personal thermal comfort and the pro-environmental attitude. The most important managerial implication concerns the strategies that could be conceived by electricity companies and national authorities – based on un

  17. Revisiting the pion's scalar form factor in chiral perturbation theory

    CERN Document Server

    Juttner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The quark-connected and the quark-disconnected Wick contractions contributing to the pion's scalar form factor are computed in the two and in the three flavour chiral effective theory at next-to-leading order. While the quark-disconnected contribution to the form factor itself turns out to be power-counting suppressed its contribution to the scalar radius is of the same order of magnitude as the one of the quark-connected contribution. This result underlines that neglecting quark-disconnected contributions in simulations of lattice QCD can cause significant systematic effects. The technique used to derive these predictions can be applied to a large class of observables relevant for QCD-phenomenology.

  18. SU(3) breaking in hyperon transition vector form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Rakow, P.E.L.

    2015-08-01

    We present a calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon transition vector form factors to O(p 4 ) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularisation. Both octet and decuplet degrees of freedom are included. We formulate a chiral expansion at the kinematic point Q 2 =-(M B 1 -M B 2 ) 2 , which can be conveniently accessed in lattice QCD. The two unknown low-energy constants at this point are constrained by lattice QCD simulation results for the Σ - →n and Ξ 0 →Σ + transition form factors. Hence we determine lattice-informed values of f 1 at the physical point. This work constitutes progress towards the precise determination of vertical stroke V us vertical stroke from hyperon semileptonic decays.

  19. Sine-Gordon breather form factors and quantum field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babujian, H; Karowski, M

    2002-01-01

    Using the results of previous investigations on sine-Gordon form factors, exact expressions of all breather matrix elements are obtained for several operators: all powers of the fundamental Bose field, general exponentials of it, the energy-momentum tensor and all higher currents. Formulae for the asymptotic behaviour of bosonic form factors are presented which are motivated by Weinberg's power counting theorem in perturbation theory. It is found that the quantum sine-Gordon field equation holds, and an exact relation between the 'bare' mass and the renormalized mass is obtained. Also a quantum version of a classical relation for the trace of the energy-momentum is proved. The eigenvalue problem for all higher conserved charges is solved. All results are compared with perturbative Feynman graph expansions and full agreement is found

  20. Nucleon form factors on the lattice with light dynamical fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Haegler, P.; Horsley, R.

    2007-09-01

    The electromagnetic form factors provide important insight into the internal structure of the nucleon and continue to be of major interest for experiment and phenomenology. For an intermediate range of momenta the form factors can be calculated on the lattice. However, the reliability of the results is limited by systematic errors mostly due to the required extrapolation to physical quark masses. Chiral effective field theories predict a rather strong quark mass dependence in a range which was yet inaccessible for lattice simulations. We give an update on recent results from the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with dynamical N f =2, non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  1. Nucleon form factors on the lattice with light dynamical fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goeckeler, M. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Haegler, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik T39; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (GB). School of Physics] (and others)

    2007-09-15

    The electromagnetic form factors provide important insight into the internal structure of the nucleon and continue to be of major interest for experiment and phenomenology. For an intermediate range of momenta the form factors can be calculated on the lattice. However, the reliability of the results is limited by systematic errors mostly due to the required extrapolation to physical quark masses. Chiral effective field theories predict a rather strong quark mass dependence in a range which was yet inaccessible for lattice simulations. We give an update on recent results from the QCDSF collaboration using gauge configurations with dynamical N{sub f}=2, non-perturbatively O(a)-improved Wilson fermions at pion masses as low as 350 MeV. (orig.)

  2. Quark-flavor mixing and the nucleon strangeness form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.

    1995-01-01

    We have calculated the strangeness form factors of the nucleon G E s (Q), G M s (Q) and G A s (Q) and the electromagnetic form factors G E N (Q) as well, by using a relativistic constituent quark model of the nucleon wave function on the light-cone. Octet of Goldstone bosons (π, K, η) are assumed to induce the SU flavor mixing among the light constituent quarks; d-→K+s →d for example, and this mechanism induces the strangeness content in the nucleon. To calculate the meson-loop corrections to the electroweak couplings of constituent quarks, we have employed two models of the quark-meson vertex; (1) composite model of the Goldstone bosons (2) and (3) chiral quark Lagrangian. The loop momenta are regulated in a gauge-invariant way for both models

  3. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA-FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dbeyssi, Alaa; Capozza, Luigi; Deiseroth, Malte; Froehlich, Bertold; Khaneft, Dmitry; Mora Espi, Maria Carmen; Noll, Oliver; Rodriguez Pineiro, David; Valente, Roserio; Zambrana, Manuel; Zimmermann, Iris [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz, Mainz (Germany); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Mainz (Germany); Marchand, Dominique; Tomasi-Gustafsson, Egle; Wang, Ying [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    Electromagnetic form factors are fundamental quantities which describe the intrinsic electric and magnetic distributions of hadrons. Time-like proton form factors are experimentally accessible through the annihilation processes anti p+p <-> e{sup +}+e{sup -}. Their measurement in the time-like region had been limited by the low statistics achieved by the experiments. This contribution reports on the results of Monte Carlo simulations for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at PANDA (antiProton ANnihilation at DArmstadt). In frame of the PANDARoot software, the statistical precision at which the proton form factors will be determined is estimated. The signal (anti p+p → e{sup +}+e{sup -}) identification and the suppression of the main background process (anti p+p → π{sup +}+π{sup -}) are studied. Different methods have been used and/or developed to generate and analyse the processes of interest. The results show that time-like proton form factors will be measured at PANDA with unprecedented statistical accuracy.

  4. Generation of truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To produce truncated recombinant form of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), cysteine-rich domain 2 (CRD2) and CRD3 regions of the receptor were generated using pET28a and E. coli/BL21. Methods: DNA coding sequence of CRD2 and CRD3 was cloned into pET28a vector and the corresponding ...

  5. Coverlayer fabrication for small form factor optical disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hwan; Lee, Seung-Won; Kim, Jin-Hong

    2004-09-01

    Two different coverlayers made of UV resin and coversheet were prepared for small form factor optical disks. Thin coverlayer of 10 mm and thick coverlayer of 80 mm were fabricated for flying optical head and non-flying optical head, respectively. Thickness uniformity was analyzed for both coverlayers, and new designs to diminish a ski-jump phenomenon were suggested. Mechanical properties of protective film made of UV resin were investigated.

  6. Nucleon structure functions, resonance form factors, and duality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovsky, V.V.; Struminsky, B.V.

    2003-01-01

    The behavior of nucleon structure functions in the resonance region is explored. For form factors that describe resonance production, expressions are obtained that are dependent on the photon virtuality Q 2 , which have a correct threshold behavior, and which take into account available experimental data on resonance decay. Resonance contributions to nucleon structure functions are calculated. The resulting expressions are used to investigate quark-hadron duality in electron-nucleon scattering by taking the example of the structure function F 2

  7. Stackable Form-Factor Peripheral Component Interconnect Device and Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somervill, Kevin M. (Inventor); Ng, Tak-kwong (Inventor); Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo (Inventor); Malekpour, Mahyar R. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A stackable form-factor Peripheral Component Interconnect (PCI) device can be configured as a host controller or a master/target for use on a PCI assembly. PCI device may comprise a multiple-input switch coupled to a PCI bus, a multiplexor coupled to the switch, and a reconfigurable device coupled to one of the switch and multiplexor. The PCI device is configured to support functionality from power-up, and either control function or add-in card function.

  8. QCD constraints for the electromagnetic form factor of the pion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machet, B.

    1980-07-01

    Using the modulus representation, we derive constraints for the behaviour of the electromagnetic form factor of the pion in the time like region [1 GeV 2 , + infinity[, from information given by perturbative QCD in the space like region [-μ 2 , - infinity[. A phenomenological μ dependent upper bound for the exponent of the first non leading logarithmic correction is deduced. Restrictions and problems of the method are discussed

  9. Massive three-loop form factor in the planar limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henn, Johannes [PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Johannes Gutenberg University,Staudingerweg 9, 55099 Mainz (Germany); Smirnov, Alexander V. [Research Computing Center, Moscow State University,119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Smirnov, Vladimir A. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Moscow State University,119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),Wolfgang-Gaede Straße 1, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Steinhauser, Matthias [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT),Wolfgang-Gaede Straße 1, 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2017-01-17

    We compute the three-loop QCD corrections to the massive quark-anti-quark-photon form factors F{sub 1} and F{sub 2} in the large-N{sub c} limit. The analytic results are expressed in terms of Goncharov polylogarithms. This allows for a straightforward numerical evaluation. We also derive series expansions, including power suppressed terms, for three kinematic regions corresponding to small and large invariant masses of the photon momentum, and small velocities of the heavy quarks.

  10. Helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voutier, E.; Furget, C.; Knox, S. [Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    The study of the hadron structure in the high Q{sup 2} range contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the confinement of quarks and gluons. Among the numerous experimental candidates sensitive to these mechanisms, the helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton is a privileged observable since it is controlled by non-perturbative effects. The authors investigate here the feasibility of high Q{sup 2} measurements of this form factor by means of the recoil polarization method in the context of the CEBAF 8 GeV facility. For that purpose, they discuss the development of a high energy proton polarimeter, based on the H({rvec p},pp) elastic scattering, to be placed at the focal plane of a new hadron spectrometer. It is shown that this experimental method significantly improves the knowledge of the helicity non-conserving form factor of the proton up to 10 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 2}.

  11. Meson Transition Form Factors in Light-Front Holographic QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC; Cao, Fu-Guang; /Massey U.; de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.

    2011-06-22

    We study the photon-to-meson transition form factors (TFFs) F{sub M{gamma}}(Q{sup 2}) for {gamma}{gamma}* {yields} M using light-front holographic methods. The Chern-Simons action, which is a natural form in 5-dimensional anti-de Sitter (AdS) space, leads directly to an expression for the photon-to-pion TFF for a class of confining models. Remarkably, the predicted pion TFF is identical to the leading order QCD result where the distribution amplitude has asymptotic form. The Chern-Simons form is local in AdS space and is thus somewhat limited in its predictability. It only retains the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction, and further, it projects out only the asymptotic form of the meson distribution amplitude. It is found that in order to describe simultaneously the decay process {pi}{sup 0} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} and the pion TFF at the asymptotic limit, a probability for the q{bar q} component of the pion wavefunction P{sub q{bar q}} = 0.5 is required; thus giving indication that the contributions from higher Fock states in the pion light-front wavefunction need to be included in the analysis. The probability for the Fock state containing four quarks (anti-quarks) which follows from analyzing the hadron matrix elements, P{sub q{bar q}q{bar q}} {approx} 10%, agrees with the analysis of the pion elastic form factor using light-front holography including higher Fock components in the pion wavefunction. The results for the TFFs for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} mesons are also presented. The rapid growth of the pion TFF exhibited by the BABAR data at high Q{sup 2} is not compatible with the models discussed in this article, whereas the theoretical calculations are in agreement with the experimental data for the {eta} and {eta}{prime} TFFs.

  12. High school physics teacher forms of thought about simple electric circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukozer, H.

    2005-01-01

    According to some researches on students and on science teachers, they have same conceptual difficulties about simple electric circuits and these affect their further learning or/and teaching. [2], [5], [8], [9], [11], [13]. The main aim of this study was to investigate in-service high school physics teachers form of thought about simple electric circuits. In this purpose a test that was developed by Kucukozer [7], contains eight questions related to simple electric circuits was applied to in-service physics teachers (25 subjects) in various Anatolian Teacher High School in Turkey. After analyzing and evaluating of their data, it was found that, the physics teachers have conceptual difficulties about simple electric circuits, especially the concepts about source of stationary current and current usage

  13. The nucleon as a test case to calculate vector-isovector form factors at low energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leupold, Stefan

    2018-01-01

    Extending a recent suggestion for hyperon form factors to the nucleon case, dispersion theory is used to relate the low-energy vector-isovector form factors of the nucleon to the pion vector form factor. The additionally required input, i.e. the pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes are determined from relativistic next-to-leading-order (NLO) baryon chiral perturbation theory including the nucleons and optionally the Delta baryons. Two methods to include pion rescattering are compared: a) solving the Muskhelishvili-Omnès (MO) equation and b) using an N/D approach. It turns out that the results differ strongly from each other. Furthermore the results are compared to a fully dispersive calculation of the (subthreshold) pion-nucleon amplitudes based on Roy-Steiner (RS) equations. In full agreement with the findings from the hyperon sector it turns out that the inclusion of Delta baryons is not an option but a necessity to obtain reasonable results. The magnetic isovector form factor depends strongly on a low-energy constant of the NLO Lagrangian. If it is adjusted such that the corresponding magnetic radius is reproduced, then the results for the corresponding pion-nucleon scattering amplitude (based on the MO equation) agree very well with the RS results. Also in the electric sector the Delta degrees of freedom are needed to obtain the correct order of magnitude for the isovector charge and the corresponding electric radius. Yet quantitative agreement is not achieved. If the subtraction constant that appears in the solution of the MO equation is not taken from nucleon+Delta chiral perturbation theory but adjusted such that the electric radius is reproduced, then one obtains also in this sector a pion-nucleon scattering amplitude that agrees well with the RS results.

  14. The nucleon as a test case to calculate vector-isovector form factors at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leupold, Stefan [Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen foer Fysik och Astronomi, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2018-01-15

    Extending a recent suggestion for hyperon form factors to the nucleon case, dispersion theory is used to relate the low-energy vector-isovector form factors of the nucleon to the pion vector form factor. The additionally required input, i.e. the pion-nucleon scattering amplitudes are determined from relativistic next-to-leading-order (NLO) baryon chiral perturbation theory including the nucleons and optionally the Delta baryons. Two methods to include pion rescattering are compared: a) solving the Muskhelishvili-Omnes (MO) equation and b) using an N/D approach. It turns out that the results differ strongly from each other. Furthermore the results are compared to a fully dispersive calculation of the (subthreshold) pion-nucleon amplitudes based on Roy-Steiner (RS) equations. In full agreement with the findings from the hyperon sector it turns out that the inclusion of Delta baryons is not an option but a necessity to obtain reasonable results. The magnetic isovector form factor depends strongly on a low-energy constant of the NLO Lagrangian. If it is adjusted such that the corresponding magnetic radius is reproduced, then the results for the corresponding pion-nucleon scattering amplitude (based on the MO equation) agree very well with the RS results. Also in the electric sector the Delta degrees of freedom are needed to obtain the correct order of magnitude for the isovector charge and the corresponding electric radius. Yet quantitative agreement is not achieved. If the subtraction constant that appears in the solution of the MO equation is not taken from nucleon+Delta chiral perturbation theory but adjusted such that the electric radius is reproduced, then one obtains also in this sector a pion-nucleon scattering amplitude that agrees well with the RS results. (orig.)

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF LIMITING FACTORS ON ELECTRIC MACHINES ELECTROMAGNETIC POWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Konstantin K. Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of electromechanical transducers single capacity is one of the main ways of their efficiency upgrading. The article discusses the impact of the main electromagnetic and me-chanical factors on the power, transmitted through the air gap of DC electric machines.

  16. Electrical Machines: Turn-to-Turn Capacitance in Formed Windings with Rectangular Cross-Section Wire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djukic, Nenad; Encica, L.; Paulides, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Calculation of turn-to-turn capacitance (Ctt) in electrical machines (EMs) with formed windings with rectangular cross-section wire is presented. Three calculation methods are used for the calculation of Ctt in case of rectangular conductors – finite element (FE) method and two previously published

  17. Efficiency and environmental factors in the US electricity transmission industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Manuel; Orea, Luis; Pollitt, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    The electricity industry in most developed countries has been restructured over recent decades with the aim of improving both service quality and firm performance. Regulated segments (e.g. transmission) still provide the infrastructure for the competitive segments and represent a significant share of the total price paid by final customers. However there is a lack of empirical studies that analyse firms' performance in the electricity transmission sector. In this paper an empirical analysis of US electricity transmission companies is conducted for the period 2001–2009. We use alternative stochastic frontier models that allow us to identify the determinants of firms' inefficiency. These models also permit us to control for weather conditions, potentially one of the most decisive uncontrollable factors in electricity transmission. Our results suggest that weather conditions clearly have an influence on transmission costs and that there is room for improvement in the management of US electricity transmission systems. Regulators should also be aware that more adverse conditions generate higher levels of inefficiency, and that achieving long-term efficiency improvements tends to worsen firms' short-term relative performance. - Highlights: • We analyse firms' performance in the US electricity transmission industry. • Alternative SFA models are estimated to identify determinants of firms' efficiency. • Our results indicate that firms' efficiency has declined and diverged over time. • We find that more adverse conditions generate higher levels of inefficiency.

  18. Factors affecting the cost and competitiveness of nuclear electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertel, E.; Stevens, G.H.

    1996-01-01

    The general context in which are carried out the investment choices of the electric sector has evolved in a significant way during these last years and the changes are to a certain extent irreversible. Economic globalization, deregulation of the electricity market, privatisation of electricity producers, and increasing awareness of environmental issues are modifying the policy-making landscape and the criteria and priorities of decision-makers in the power sector. Competitiveness remains a cornerstone for evaluating and choosing alternative technologies in the process of planning and decision-making for electricity system expansion or power plant replacement. Nevertheless, the production costs analysis inserts factors which were not taking before into account as for instance social impacts, health and environmental effects. These new approaches better reveal the total costs of the different production means. They will certainly lead to different choices than those based on the whole comparison of direct costs supported by producers. The economic studies carried out by the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD (NEA) cover all the preceding aspects and give objective information on the competitiveness of nuclear electricity. The nuclear industry has today the necessary means to take up the challenges of the electricity new markets. (O.M.)

  19. Relativistic form factors for clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, A.N.; Kumari, I.

    1977-01-01

    Using a simple variant of an argument employed by Licht and Pagnamenta (LP) on the effect of Lorentz contraction on the elastic form factors of clusters with nonrelativistic wave functions, it is shown how their result can be generalized to inelastic form factors so as to produce (i) a symmetrical appearance of Lorentz contraction effects in the initial and final states, and (ii) asymptotic behavior in accord with dimensional scaling theories. A comparison of this result with a closely analogous parametric form obtained by Brodsky and Chertok from a propagator chain model leads, with plausible arguments, to the conclusion of an effective mass M for the cluster, with M 2 varying as the number n of the quark constituents, instead of as n 2 . A further generalization of the LP formula is obtained for an arbitrary duality-diagram vertex, again with asymptotic behavior in conformity with dimensional scaling. The practical usefulness of this approach is emphasized as a complementary tool to those of high-energy physics for phenomenological fits to data up to moderate values of q 2

  20. Physical factors affecting the electrically assisted thermal bitumen recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogdanov, I.I.; Torres, J.-A.; Kamp, A.M. [CHLOE, University of Pau (France); Corre, B. [CSTJF, Total (France)

    2011-07-01

    In the heavy oil industry, thermal processes are used to enhance oil recovery by increasing the reservoir temperature which results in better oil mobility. Low frequency heating (LFH) is a technology using electrical conductivity of connate water to propagate current between electrodes, thus generating heat in the reservoir through the Joule effect. During the preheating and production periods, many physical factors may affect the LFH process and the aim of this study was to determine which factors affect the process and how, using a particular pattern of electrodes. Simulations were conducted using the CMG Stars reservoir simulator under different configurations, conditions and parameters. Important physical properties and operational conditions affecting the LFH process were determined and results showed that convection heat, bulk electrical conductivity and power distribution can be improved by salt water circulation. This paper highlighted the physical factors affecting LFH efficiency and these findings will be useful for future process design.

  1. Forms and factors of peer violence and victimisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to explore the latent structure of violence and victimisation based on the factor analysis of the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ, as well as to examine the correlates of violence and victimisation. The sample included 649 secondary school students (61.8% male from the urban area. Besides the PVVQ, the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH was administered. Based on parallel analysis, three factors were extracted in the violence domain, as well as in the victimisation domain of the PVVQ. The factors were interpreted as a physical, verbal and relational form of violence and victimisation, which is in line with common classifications. The correlations of those forms with the aggressiveness dimensions were positive. The relationships with gender, school grade and school achievement referred to the importance of interaction effects between the mentioned characteristics of students and the tendency towards violence or being exposed to it. The main result is that boys from lower school grades and students with lower school achievement in general, are more prone to manifesting physical violence and more often are the target of physical violence. These groups of students are the target groups for preventive programs. The resulting effects indicated the complexity of the violence phenomenon and pointed to the need to consider the wider context of student’s characteristics in the determination of violence. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179037 i br. 179053

  2. Nigeria's electric power sector reform: what should form the key objectives?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeme, J.; Ebohon, O.J.

    2005-01-01

    Nigeria's electric power sector requires substantial reform if the country's economic development and poverty alleviation program is to be realised. This understanding is behind the reform programme recently initiated by the Nigerian government with the goal of privatising the national electric power monopoly, NEPA. Currently, the country faces serious energy crisis due to declining electricity generation from domestic power plants which are basically dilapidated, obsolete, unreliable and in an appalling state of disrepair, reflecting the poor maintenance culture in the country and gross inefficiency of the public utility provider. Building on an analysis of the major shortcomings of the current electric power company, this paper presents the central issues that should form the key objectives of the proposed reform. This include corporatization of the electric power industry, increasing access and power delivery capacity, constraining the costs of the power industry and increasing efficiency and share of renewables in energy generation, as well as minimising environmental damage. We conclude with the observation that efforts at reform will not yield the desired result if the current end-user inefficiency is not constrained. As Nigeria implements its national utility privatisation programme, it is hoped that this review will benefit policy makers and emerging managers and providers of electricity service in the country

  3. Dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoferichter, M.; Ditsche, C.; Kubis, B.; Meißner, U.-G.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the recently proposed Roy-Steiner equations for pion-nucleon ( πN) scattering [1], we derive a system of coupled integral equations for the π π to overline N N and overline K K to overline N N S-waves. These equations take the form of a two-channel Muskhelishvili-Omnès problem, whose solution in the presence of a finite matching point is discussed. We use these results to update the dispersive analysis of the scalar form factor of the nucleon fully including overline K K intermediate states. In particular, we determine the correction {Δ_{σ }} = σ ( {2M_{π }^2} ) - {σ_{{π N}}} , which is needed for the extraction of the pion-nucleon σ term from πN scattering, as a function of pion-nucleon subthreshold parameters and the πN coupling constant.

  4. Baryon octet electromagnetic form factors in a confining NJL model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel E. Carrillo-Serrano

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic form factors of the baryon octet are studied using a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio model which utilizes the proper-time regularization scheme to simulate aspects of colour confinement. In addition, the model also incorporates corrections to the dressed quarks from vector meson correlations in the t-channel and the pion cloud. Comparison with recent chiral extrapolations of lattice QCD results shows a remarkable level of consistency. For the charge radii we find the surprising result that rEp

  5. CEBAF at higher energies and the kaon electromagnetic form factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, O.K.

    1994-04-01

    The electromagnetic production of strangeness, the physics of exciting systems having strangeness degrees of freedom (production of hadrons with one or more strange constituent quarks) using electromagnetic probes (real or virtual photons), is one of the frontier areas of research which will be investigated at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) when it becomes operational. CEBAF is expected to have an important impact upon this field of research using its specialized set of detection instruments and high quality electron beam. This paper focusses upon one aspect of the associated production of strangeness - the determination of the kaon electromagnetic form factor at high squared momentum transfers.

  6. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.; Humboldt Univ. Berlin

    2011-02-01

    We present results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cut-off effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon magnetic moment, Dirac and Pauli radii are obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass allowing for a comparison with experiment. (orig.)

  7. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in twisted mass lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P. A.; Papinutto, M.; Guichon, P.; Jansen, K.; Korzec, T.; Constantinou, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present results on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors within lattice QCD using two flavors of degenerate twisted mass fermions. Volume effects are examined using simulations at two volumes of spatial length L=2.1 fm and L=2.8 fm. Cutoff effects are investigated using three different values of the lattice spacings, namely a=0.089 fm, a=0.070 fm and a=0.056 fm. The nucleon magnetic moment, Dirac and Pauli radii are obtained in the continuum limit and chirally extrapolated to the physical pion mass allowing for a comparison with experiment.

  8. Nucleon form factors with NF=2 twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexandrou, C.; Korzec, T.; Brinet, M.; Carbonell, J.; Harraud, P.A.; Jansen, K.

    2009-10-01

    We present results on the electromagnetic and axial nucleon form factors using two degenerate flavors of twisted mass fermions on lattices of spatial size 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm and a lattice spacing of about 0.09 fm. We consider pion masses in the range of 260-470MeV.We chirally extrapolate results on the nucleon axial charge, the isovector Dirac and Pauli root mean squared radii and magnetic moment to the physical point and compare to experiment. (orig.)

  9. The pion form factor within the hidden local symmetry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benayoun, M.; David, P.; DelBuono, L.; Leruste, P.; O'Connell, H.B.

    2003-01-01

    We analyze a pion form factor formulation which fulfills the Analyticity requirement within the Hidden Local Symmetry (HLS) Model. This implies an s-dependent dressing of the ρ-γ VMD coupling and an account of several coupled channels. The corresponding function F π (s) provides nice fits of the pion form factor data from s=-0.25 to s=1 GeV 2 . It is shown that the coupling to KK has little effect, while ωπ 0 improves significantly the fit probability below the φ mass. No need for additional states like ρ(1450) shows up in this invariant-mass range. All parameters, except for the subtraction polynomial coefficients, are fixed from the rest of the HLS phenomenology. The fits show consistency with the expected behaviour of F π (s) at s=0 up to O(s 2 ) and with the phase shift data on δ 1 1 (s) from threshold to somewhat above the φ mass. The ω sector is also examined in relation with recent data from CMD-2. (orig.)

  10. Analytical and unitary approach in mesons electromagnetic form factor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptaj, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the dissertation thesis we address several topics related to the domain of particle physics. All of them represent interesting open problems that can be connected to the elastic or transition electromagnetic form factors of mesons, the form factors being the main objects of our interest. Our ambition is to contribute to the solution of these problems and use for that purpose known analytic properties of the form factors and the unitarity condition. These two tools are very powerful in the low energy domain (such as bound states of partons), where the perturbative QCD looses its validity. This is the motivation for construction of the unitary and analytic (U and A) models of studied form factors, that enable us to get the majority of our results. We use the U and A model to evaluate the contribution of the processes e"+e"- → Pγ, P = π"0, η, η to the muon magnetic anomaly a_μ in the lowest order of the hadronic vacuum polarization. For the contribution a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (π"+π"-) we demonstrate, that the use of the model leads to a dramatic error reduction with respect to the results of other authors. We also get a shift in the central value in the 'correct' direction, that brings the theoretical value closer to the experimental one. This results encourages us to use the model also for the evaluation of a_μ"h"a"d","L"O (P_γ). These contributions are smaller, however the precision of the experiment makes their evaluation necessary. We further use the U and A model of the transition form factors of π"0, η and η"' mesons to predict the partial decay widths of these particles Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In this way we make an independent cross check of the PDG table values. We find an agreement in the case of Γ_η_→_γ_γ and Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ, even a smaller uncertainty for Γ_η_"'_→_γ_γ. In the case of Γ_π_"0_→_γ_γ we find a disagreement that points to an interesting problem. We wonder whether it could be

  11. Measurement of the $\\Lambda_{b}^{0}$ Decay Form Factor

    CERN Document Server

    Abdallah, J; Adam, W; Adzic, P; Albrecht, T; Alderweireld, T; Alemany-Fernandez, R; Allmendinger, T; Allport, P P; Amaldi, Ugo; Amapane, N; Amato, S; Anashkin, E; Andreazza, A; Andringa, S; Anjos, N; Antilogus, P; Apel, W D; Arnoud, Y; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Augustin, J E; Augustinus, A; Baillon, Paul; Ballestrero, A; Bambade, P; Barbier, R; Bardin, Dimitri Yuri; Barker, G; Baroncelli, A; Battaglia, Marco; Baubillier, M; Becks, K H; Begalli, M; Behrmann, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benekos, N C; Benvenuti, Alberto C; Bérat, C; Berggren, M; Berntzon, L; Bertrand, D; Besançon, M; Besson, N; Bloch, D; Blom, M; Bluj, M; Bonesini, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, P S L; Borisov, G; Botner, O; Bouquet, B; Bowcock, T J V; Boyko, I; Bracko, M; Brenner, R; Brodet, E; Brückman, P; Brunet, J M; Bugge, L; Buschmann, P; Calvi, M; Camporesi, T; Canale, V; Carena, F; Castro, N; Cavallo, F R; Chapkin, M M; Charpentier, P; Checchia, P; Chierici, R; Shlyapnikov, P; Chudoba, J; Chung, S U; Cieslik, K; Collins, P; Contri, R; Cosme, G; Cossutti, F; Costa, M J; Crawley, B; Crennell, D J; Cuevas-Maestro, J; D'Hondt, J; Dalmau, J; Da Silva, T; Da Silva, W; Della Ricca, G; De Angelis, A; de Boer, Wim; De Clercq, C; De Lotto, B; De Maria, N; De Min, A; De Paula, L S; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Simone, A; Doroba, K; Drees, J; Dris, M; Eigen, G; Ekelöf, T J C; Ellert, M; Elsing, M; Espirito-Santo, M C; Fanourakis, G K; Fassouliotis, D; Feindt, M; Fernández, J; Ferrer, A; Ferro, F; Flagmeyer, U; Föth, H; Fokitis, E; Fulda-Quenzer, F; Fuster, J A; Gandelman, M; García, C; Gavillet, P; Gazis, E N; Gokieli, R; Golob, B; Gómez-Ceballos, G; Gonçalves, P; Graziani, E; Grosdidier, G; Grzelak, K; Guy, J; Haag, C; Hallgren, A; Hamacher, K; Hamilton, K; Haug, S; Hauler, F; Hedberg, V; Hennecke, M; Herr, H; Hoffman, J; Holmgren, S O; Holt, P J; Houlden, M A; Hultqvist, K; Jackson, J N; Jarlskog, G; Jarry, P; Jeans, D; Johansson, E K; Johansson, P D; Jonsson, P; Joram, C; Jungermann, L; Kapusta, F; Katsanevas, S; Katsoufis, E C; Kernel, G; Kersevan, Borut P; Kerzel, U; Kiiskinen, A P; King, B T; Kjaer, N J; Kluit, P; Kokkinias, P; Kourkoumelis, C; Kuznetsov, O; Krumshtein, Z; Kucharczyk, M; Lamsa, J; Leder, G; Ledroit, F; Leinonen, L; Leitner, R; Lemonne, J; Lepeltier, V; Lesiak, T; Liebig, W; Liko, D; Lipniacka, A; Lopes, J H; López, J M; Loukas, D; Lutz, P; Lyons, L; MacNaughton, J; Malek, A; Maltezos, S; Mandl, F; Marco, J; Marco, R; Maréchal, B; Margoni, M; Marin, J C; Mariotti, C; Markou, A; Martínez-Rivero, C; Masik, J; Mastroyiannopoulos, N; Matorras, F; Matteuzzi, C; Mazzucato, F; Mazzucato, M; McNulty, R; Meroni, C; Meyer, W T; Myagkov, A; Migliore, E; Mitaroff, W A; Mjörnmark, U; Moa, T; Moch, M; Mönig, K; Monge, R; Montenegro, J; Moraes, D; Moreno, S; Morettini, P; Müller, U; Münich, K; Mulders, M; Mundim, L M; Murray, W; Muryn, B; Myatt, Gerald; Myklebust, T; Nassiakou, M; Navarria, Francesco Luigi; Nawrocki, K; Nicolaidou, R; Nikolenko, M; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V F; Olshevskii, A G; Onofre, A; Orava, Risto; Österberg, K; Ouraou, A; Oyanguren, A; Paganoni, M; Paiano, S; Palacios, J P; Palka, H; Papadopoulou, T D; Pape, L; Parkes, C; Parodi, F; Parzefall, U; Passeri, A; Passon, O; Peralta, L; Perepelitsa, V F; Perrotta, A; Petrolini, A; Piedra, J; Pieri, L; Pierre, F; Pimenta, M; Piotto, E; Podobnik, T; Poireau, V; Pol, M E; Polok, G; Poropat, P; Pozdnyakov, V; Pukhaeva, N; Pullia, Antonio; Rames, J; Ramler, L; Read, A; Rebecchi, P; Rehn, J; Reid, D; Reinhardt, R; Renton, P B; Richard, F; Rídky, J; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, D; Romero, A; Ronchese, P; Rosenberg, E I; Roudeau, Patrick; Rovelli, T; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V; Ryabtchikov, D; Sadovskii, A; Salmi, L; Salt, J; Savoy-Navarro, A; Schwickerath, U; Segar, A; Sekulin, R L; Siebel, M; Sissakian, A N; Smadja, G; Smirnova, O G; Sokolov, A; Sopczak, A; Sosnowski, R; Spassoff, Tz; Stanitzki, M; Stocchi, A; Strauss, J; Stugu, B; Szczekowski, M; Szeptycka, M; Szumlak, T; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Taffard, A C; Tegenfeldt, F; Timmermans, J; Tkatchev, L G; Tobin, M; Todorovova, S; Tomé, B; Tonazzo, A; Tortosa, P; Travnicek, P; Treille, D; Tristram, G; Trochimczuk, M; Troncon, C; Turluer, M L; Tyapkin, I A; Tyapkin, P; Tzamarias, S; Uvarov, V; Valenti, G; van Dam, P; Van Eldik, J; Van Lysebetten, A; Van Remortel, N; Van Vulpen, I B; Vegni, G; Veloso, F; Venus, W A; Verdier, P; Verzi, V; Vilanova, D; Vitale, L; Vrba, V; Wahlen, H; Washbrook, A J; Weiser, C; Wicke, D; Wickens, J H; Wilkinson, G; Winter, M; Witek, M; Yushchenko, O P; Zalewska-Bak, A; Zalewski, Piotr; Zavrtanik, D; Zhuravlov, V; Zimin, N I; Zinchenko, A I; Zupan, M

    2004-01-01

    The form factor of Lambda_b^0 baryons is estimated using 3.46 10^6 hadronic Z decays collected by the DELPHI experiment between 1992 and 1995. Charmed Lambda_c^+ baryons fully reconstructed in the pK-pi+, pK0_S, and Lambda pi+pi+pi- modes, are associated to a lepton with opposite charge in order to select Lambda_b^0 -> Lambda_c^+ l^- anti-nu_l decays. From a combined likelihood and event rate fit to the distribution of the Isgur-Wise variable w, and using the Heavy Quark Effective Theory (HQET), the slope of the b-baryon form factor is measured to be: rho-hat^2 = 2.03 +/- 0.46 (stat) ^{+0.72}_{-1.00} (syst). The exclusive semileptonic branching fraction Br(Lambda_b^0 -> Lambda_c^+ l^- anti-nu_l) can be derived from rho-hat^2 and is found to be (5.0^{+1.1}_{-0.8} (stat) ^{+1.6}_{-1.2} (syst))%. Limits on other branching fractions are also obtained.

  12. Small form factor optical fiber connector evaluation for harsh environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, W. Joe, Jr.; Chuska, Richard F.; Switzer, Robert; Blair, Diana E.

    2011-09-01

    For the past decade NASA programs have utilized the Diamond AVIM connector for optical fiber assemblies on space flight instrumentation. These connectors have been used in communications, sensing and LIDAR systems where repeatability and high performance are required. Recently Diamond has released a smaller form factor optical fiber connector called the "Mini-AVIM" which although more compact still includes the tight tolerances and the ratcheting feature of the heritage AVIM. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Photonics Group in the Parts, Packaging and Assembly Technologies Office has been performing evaluations of this connector to determine how it compares to the performance of the AVIM connector and to assess its feasibility for harsh environmental applications. Vibration and thermal testing were performed on the Mini-AVIM with both multi-mode and single-mode optical fiber using insitu optical transmission monitoring. Random vibration testing was performed using typical launch condition profiles for most NASA missions but extended to 35 Grms, which is much higher than most requirements. Thermal testing was performed incrementally up to a range of -55°C to +125°C. The test results include both unjacketed fiber and cabled assembly evaluations. The data presented here indicate that the Mini-AVIM provides a viable option for small form factor applications that require a high performance optical fiber connector.

  13. Strangeness Vector and Axial-Vector Form Factors of the Nucleon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pate Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A revised global fit of electroweak ep and vp elastic scattering data has been performed, with the goal of determining the strange quark contribution to the vector and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon in the momentum-transfer range 0 < Q2 < 1 GeV2. The two vector (electric and magnetic form factors GsE(Q2 and GsM(Q2 are strongly constrained by ep elastic scattering data, while the major source of information on the axial-vector form factor GsA(Q2 is vp scattering data. Combining the two kinds of data into a single global fit makes possible additional precision in the determination of these form factors, and provides a unique way to determine the strange quark contribution to the nucleon spin, ΔS , independently of leptonic deep-inelastic scattering. The fit makes use of data from the BNL-E734, SAMPLE, HAPPEx, G0, and PVA4 experiments; we will also compare the result of the fit with recent data from MiniBooNE, and anticipate how this fit can be improved when new data from MicroBooNE become available.

  14. The electromagnetic Sigma-to-Lambda hyperon transition form factors at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granados, Carlos; Leupold, Stefan; Perotti, Elisabetta

    2017-01-01

    Using dispersion theory the low-energy electromagnetic form factors for the transition of a Sigma to a Lambda hyperon are related to the pion vector form factor. The additionally required input, i.e. the two-pion-Sigma-Lambda amplitudes are determined from relativistic next-to-leading-order (NLO) baryon chiral perturbation theory including the baryons from the octet and optionally from the decuplet. Pion rescattering is again taken into account by dispersion theory. It turns out that the inclusion of decuplet baryons is not an option but a necessity to obtain reasonable results. The electric transition form factor remains very small in the whole low-energy region. The magnetic transition form factor depends strongly on one not very well determined low-energy constant of the NLO Lagrangian. One obtains reasonable predictive power if this low-energy constant is determined from a measurement of the magnetic transition radius. Such a measurement can be performed at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). (orig.)

  15. The electromagnetic Sigma-to-Lambda hyperon transition form factors at low energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, Carlos [Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen foer Fysik och Astronomi (Sweden); Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States); Leupold, Stefan; Perotti, Elisabetta [Uppsala Universitet, Institutionen foer Fysik och Astronomi (Sweden)

    2017-06-15

    Using dispersion theory the low-energy electromagnetic form factors for the transition of a Sigma to a Lambda hyperon are related to the pion vector form factor. The additionally required input, i.e. the two-pion-Sigma-Lambda amplitudes are determined from relativistic next-to-leading-order (NLO) baryon chiral perturbation theory including the baryons from the octet and optionally from the decuplet. Pion rescattering is again taken into account by dispersion theory. It turns out that the inclusion of decuplet baryons is not an option but a necessity to obtain reasonable results. The electric transition form factor remains very small in the whole low-energy region. The magnetic transition form factor depends strongly on one not very well determined low-energy constant of the NLO Lagrangian. One obtains reasonable predictive power if this low-energy constant is determined from a measurement of the magnetic transition radius. Such a measurement can be performed at the future Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). (orig.)

  16. High-precision calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Jeremy [Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz (Germany); Meinel, Stefan [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Engelhardt, Michael G. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States); Krieg, Stefan [Bergische Univ., Wuppertal (Germany); Julich Supercomputing Centre, Julich (Germany); Laeuchli, Jesse [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Negele, John W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Orginos, Kostas [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Pochinsky, Andrew [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Syritsyn, Sergey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-08-26

    We report a direct lattice QCD calculation of the strange nucleon electromagnetic form factors GsE and GsM in the kinematic range 0 ≤ Q2 ≤ 1.2GeV2. For the first time, both GsE and GsM are shown to be nonzero with high significance. This work uses closer-to-physical lattice parameters than previous calculations, and achieves an unprecented statistical precision by implementing a recently proposed variance reduction technique called hierarchical probing. We perform model-independent fits of the form factor shapes using the z-expansion and determine the strange electric and magnetic radii and magnetic moment. As a result, we compare our results to parity-violating electron-proton scattering data and to other theoretical studies.

  17. A rough multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a new continuous-time mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility, and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, roughness, and our approach explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein–Uhlenbeck-based model and a rough model. Further, through the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating – and making inference on – the degree of roughness. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial for accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model on recent data from six European energy exchanges and find statistical evidence of roughness in five out of six markets. As an application of our model, we show how, in these five markets, a rough component improves short term forecasting of the prices. - Highlights: • Statistical modeling of electricity spot prices • Multi-factor decomposition • Roughness • Electricity price forecasting

  18. Hadron spectroscopy and form factors at quark level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, S.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, N.N.; Mitra, A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The theoretical status of hadrons as quark composites is examined from the point of view of a simultaneous understanding of their on-shell (mass spectra) and off-shell (form factors, transition amplitudes) properties. Greater stress is laid on light quark systems which are more sensitive to the confinement regime, and more prone to relativistic effects than on heavy quarkonia (on which many reviews exist). Two broad theoretical approaches obeying Lorentz and gauge invariance are identified: (i) QCD sum rules as a means of extrapolation from high to low energies; and (ii) dynamical equations for providing a microcausal link in the opposite direction (from low to high energies). The latter represents the major focus of attention in this article, with the Bethe-Salpeter Equation (BSE) providing a formal plank for a comparative assessment of several models. The Null-plane ansatz which facilitates the reduction of the 4-D BSE to a covariant 3-D form also provides the language for its comparison with other covariant 3-D equations. In particular, attention is drawn to the interesting possibility of reconstructing the 4-D BS wave function from its 3-D form (in a two-tier fashion) as a practical tool for generating higher Fock-space components (qq effects) in the BS wave function, and (more interestingly) for a clean separation between soft and hard QCD effects. To illustrate one such practical tool for an integrated view of different hadronic sectors within a single framework, the results of a two-tier BS model are presented in respect of qq-bar, qqq, gg, ggg, gqq-bar states and compared with experiment as well as with the results of other contemporary models. The N.R Resonating Group Method, which becomes necessary for bigger (six-quark) systems is briefly discussed from the point of view of its compatibility with a relativistic form of quark dynamics motivated from the BSC. (Author)

  19. One method of determination of charge neutron form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubnikov, S.V.

    1983-01-01

    Polarization vector of recoil nucleon in deuteron electric disintegration by polarized electrons is calculated based on relativistic integral representation for current of deUteron electro-disintegration

  20. Exposing metal and silicate charges to electrical discharges: Did chondrules form by nebular lightning?

    OpenAIRE

    Güttler, C.; Poppe, T.; Wasson, J. T.; Blum, J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the hypothesis that dust aggregates were transformed to meteoritic chondrules by nebular lightning, we exposed silicatic and metallic dust samples to electric discharges with energies of 120 to 500 J in air at pressures between 10 and 10^5 Pa. The target charges consisted of powders of micrometer-sized particles and had dimensions of mm. The dust samples generally fragmented leaving the major fraction thermally unprocessed. A minor part formed sintered aggregates of 50...

  1. Electrically Tunable g Factors in Quantum Dot Molecular Spin States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, M. F.; Scheibner, M.; Ponomarev, I. V.; Stinaff, E. A.; Bracker, A. S.; Korenev, V. L.; Reinecke, T. L.; Gammon, D.

    2006-11-01

    We present a magnetophotoluminescence study of individual vertically stacked InAs/GaAs quantum dot pairs separated by thin tunnel barriers. As an applied electric field tunes the relative energies of the two dots, we observe a strong resonant increase or decrease in the g factors of different spin states that have molecular wave functions distributed over both quantum dots. We propose a phenomenological model for the change in g factor based on resonant changes in the amplitude of the wave function in the barrier due to the formation of bonding and antibonding orbitals.

  2. 18 CFR 141.51 - FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. 141.51 Section 141.51 Conservation of...) § 141.51 FERC Form No. 714, Annual Electric Balancing Authority Area and Planning Area Report. (a) Who... Policies Act, 16 U.S.C. 2602, operating a balancing authority area, and any group of electric utilities...

  3. Discount factor in planning decision of electric sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J.L.; Maurer, L.T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Researchers and technicians have been giving a lot of attention to the issue of discount factor in planning in the electric sector. In this paper we review the most important points under consideration, attempting to broaden the discussion and stimulate the creativity of the technicians involved with the sector. There appears to be an emerging consensus that the discount factor to be used must consider the capital costs associated with the main financial sources utilized. The traditional factor of 10% per year must be re-evaluated and augmented, in order to best reflect long range economical and financial conditions. The paper emphasizes the importance of the discount factor to several decisions made within the sector, including energy conservation. Because of the relevance of the topic to Brazil future, we strongly suggest the utilization of sensitivity analysis techniques. (author)

  4. Pion form factor in QCD at intermediate momentum transfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, V. M.; Khodjamirian, A.; Maul, M.

    2000-04-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of the electromagnetic pion form factor in the light-cone sum rule approach, including radiative corrections and higher-twist effects. The comparison to the existing data favors the asymptotic profile of the pion distribution amplitude and allows us to estimate the deviation: [∫du/uφπ(u)]/[∫du/uφasπ(u)]=1.1+/-0.1 at the scale of 1 GeV. Special attention is paid to the precise definition and interplay of soft and hard contributions at intermediate momentum transfer, and to the matching of the sum rule to the perturbative QCD prediction. We observe a strong numerical cancellation between the soft (end-point) contribution and power-suppressed hard contributions of higher twist, so that the total nonperturbative correction to the usual PQCD result turns out to be of the order of 30% for Q2~1 GeV2.

  5. Five-meson VDM fits to the nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehrotra, S.; Roos, M.

    1975-01-01

    Nucleon electromagnetic form factor data in the spacelike and the timelike regions are fitted with a VDM sum of (up to five) isovector and isoscalar pole terms. Finite width effects are included in the rho and the rhosup(,) terms. The effects of including the rhosup(,) and the psi(3105) are studied. Good fits are found only when the rhosup(,) is allowed to have a too low mass (1.2-1.4 GeV) and when in addition some of the couplings or other derived quantities disagree with other estimates. It is concluded that VDM is unable to describe the data unless one introduces a number of yet unknown mesons, such as ωsup(,), phisup(,), rhosup(,)(1.2), etc. (author)

  6. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Finite-lattice form factors in free-fermion models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorgov, N; Lisovyy, O

    2011-01-01

    We consider the general Z 2 -symmetric free-fermion model on the finite periodic lattice, which includes as special cases the Ising model on the square and triangular lattices and the Z n -symmetric BBS τ (2) -model with n = 2. Translating Kaufman's fermionic approach to diagonalization of Ising-like transfer matrices into the language of Grassmann integrals, we determine the transfer matrix eigenvectors and observe that they coincide with the eigenvectors of a square lattice Ising transfer matrix. This allows us to find exact finite-lattice form factors of spin operators for the statistical model and the associated finite-length quantum chains, of which the most general is equivalent to the XY chain in a transverse field

  8. Meson Form Factors and Deep Exclusive Meson Production Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Tanja [The Catholic Univ. of America, Washington, DC (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Pion and kaon electroproduction data play a unique role in Nature and our understanding of them is essential for explaining hadron structure. Precision longitudinaltransverse separated pion and kaon cross sections are of particular interest. They allow for the extraction of meson form factors and validation of understanding of hard exclusive and semi-inclusive reactions (π+, K+, π0, γ) towards 3D hadron imaging and potential future flavor decomposition. We review recent data and present prospects for deep exclusive pion and kaon electroproduction at the 12 GeV Jefferson Lab including the prospects to use projected charged- and neutral pion data to further determine the spin, charge-parity and flavor of GPDs, including the helicity-flip GPDs.

  9. Conformal anomaly of generalized form factors and finite loop integrals

    CERN Document Server

    Chicherin, Dmitry

    2017-01-01

    We reveal a new mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking at Born level. It occurs in generalized form factors with several local operators and an on-shell state of massless particles. The effect is due to hidden singularities on collinear configurations of the momenta. This conformal anomaly is different from the holomorphic anomaly of amplitudes. We present a number of examples in four and six dimensions. We find an application of the new conformal anomaly to finite loop momentum integrals with one or more massless legs. The collinear region around a massless leg creates a contact anomaly, made visible by the loop integration. The anomalous conformal Ward identity for an $\\ell-$loop integral is a 2nd-order differential equation whose right-hand side is an $(\\ell-1)-$loop integral. We show several examples, in particular the four-dimensional scalar double box.

  10. Current correlators and form factors in the resonance region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosell, I. [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Matematicas y de la Computacion, Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera, c/Sant Bartomeu 55, E-46115 Alfara del Patriarca, Valencia (Spain); IFIC, Universitat de Valencia - CSIC, Apt. Correus 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2009-01-15

    Within Resonance Chiral Theory and in the context of QCD current correlators at next-to-leading order in 1/N{sub C}, we have analyzed the two-body form factors which include resonances as a final state. The short-distance constraints have been studied. One of the main motivations is the estimation of the chiral low-energy constants at subleading order, that is, keeping full control of the renormalization scale dependence. As an application we show the resonance estimation of some coupling, L{sub 10}{sup r}({mu}{sub 0})=(-4.4{+-}0.9).10{sup -3} and C{sub 87}{sup r}({mu}{sub 0})=(3.1{+-}1.1).10{sup -5}.

  11. Alternative forms of energy transmission from OTEC plants. [Chemical and electrical

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konopka, A.; Biederman, N.; Talib, A.; Yudow, B.

    1977-01-01

    The transmission of OTEC-derived chemical and electrical energy is compared. The chemical energy-carriers considered are the following: gaseous and liquid hydrogen, liquid ammonia, methanol, gasoline, hydrazine hydrate, anhydrous hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), 1,7-Octadiyne, and tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene. The assessment assumes that each of the above energy carriers were transported by barge and/or pipeline. The delivered costs were then compared with transmission of electricity by submarine cables. Because chemical and electrical energy are not equivalent, however, their comparison can only be done after the outputs are converted to a common form. Thus, in addition to presenting the delivered cost and overall energy efficiency of the chemical energy-carriers, we have provided a discussion of the equipment, costs, and efficiencies of converting the hydrogen and ammonia delivered into electricity, and the electricity delivered into hydrogen and ammonia. A concise technical assessment and economic analysis of components associated with the conversion, storage, transportation, and shore-based receiving facilities for the conversion of OTEC mechanical energy to chemical energy is provided and compared to the conversion and transmission of electrical power. Results concerning the hydrogen and ammonia analysis were determined as part of the OTEC program at IGT from May 1975 through May 1976 under Contract No. NSF-C1008 (AER-75-00033) with the National Science Foundation and ERDA. Information concerning carbonaceous fuels and high-energy fuels production was developed as part of the current IGT OTEC program under Contract No. E(49-18)-2426 with ERDA.

  12. 18 CFR 260.300 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 260.300 Section 260... ENERGY APPROVED FORMS, NATURAL GAS ACT STATEMENTS AND REPORTS (SCHEDULES) § 260.300 FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription...

  13. Impact Study on Power Factor of Electrical Load in Power Distribution System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syirrazie Che Soh; Harzawardi Hasim; Ahmad Asraf, A.S.

    2014-01-01

    Low Power Factor of electrical loads cause high current is drawn from power supply. The impact of this circumstance is influenced by impedance of electrical load. Therefore, the key consideration of this study is how impedance of electrical loads influence power factor of electrical loads, and then power distribution as the whole. This study is important to evaluate the right action to mitigate low power factor effectively for electrical energy efficiency purpose. (author)

  14. Measurement of the electric neutron form factor in the reaction {sup 3}vector (He)(vector e,e'n)pp at Q{sup 2}=1.58 (GeV/c){sup 2}; Messung des elektrischen Neutronen-Formfaktors in der Reaktion {sup 3}vector (He)(vector e,e'n)pp bei Q{sup 2}=1.58 (GeV/c){sup 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlimme, Bjoern Soeren

    2012-01-15

    Electromagnetic nucleon form factors are fundamental quantities which are closely related to the electromagnetic structure of the nucleon. The evolution of the electric and magnetic Sachs form factors G{sub E} and G{sub M} with Q{sup 2}, the negative square of the four momentum transfer in the electromagnetic scattering process, is directly connected with the spatial charge and current distributions in the nucleon by means of a Fourier transform. Therefore precise measurements of the form factors over a wide Q{sup 2} range are essential for a quantitative understanding of the nucleon structure. Owing to the lack of a free neutron target measurements of the neutron form factors prove to be difficult compared to the measurements on the proton. Consequently the available neutron data is less precise, and the measured Q{sup 2} range is smaller. In particular the electric neutron Sachs form factor G{sup n}{sub E} is difficult to measure; due to the vanishing net charge of the neutron, G{sup n}{sub E} is small compared to the other nucleon form factors. G{sup n}{sub E} characterizes the charge distribution of the electrically neutral neutron, hence it is very sensitive to the inner structure of the neutron. In the present work G{sup n}{sub E} was determined from beam helicity asymmetries in the quasielastic scattering process {sup 3}vector (He)(vector e,e'n)pp at a momentum transfer Q{sup 2}=1.58 (GeV/c){sup 2}. The measurement took place in Mainz at the electron accelerator facility Mainz Microtron within the A1 collaboration in the summer of 2008. Longitudinally polarized electrons with an energy of 1.508 GeV impinged on a polarized {sup 3}He gas target which served as an effective polarized neutron target. The scattered electrons were detected in coincidence with the recoil neutrons; a magnetic spectrometer was used for the electron detection, the contribution of quasielastic scattering off the protons was restricted through the detection of the neutron via a

  15. IEEE 1588 Time Synchronization Board in MTCA.4 Form Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłoński, G.; Makowski, D.; Mielczarek, A.; Orlikowski, M.; Perek, P.; Napieralski, A.; Makijarvi, P.; Simrock, S.

    2015-06-01

    Distributed data acquisition and control systems in large-scale scientific experiments, like e.g. ITER, require time synchronization with nanosecond precision. A protocol commonly used for that purpose is the Precise Timing Protocol (PTP), also known as IEEE 1588 standard. It uses the standard Ethernet signalling and protocols and allows obtaining timing accuracy of the order of tens of nanoseconds. The MTCA.4 is gradually becoming the platform of choice for building such systems. Currently there is no commercially available implementation of the PTP receiver on that platform. In this paper, we present a module in the MTCA.4 form factor supporting this standard. The module may be used as a timing receiver providing reference clocks in an MTCA.4 chassis, generating a Pulse Per Second (PPS) signal and allowing generation of triggers and timestamping of events on 8 configurable backplane lines and two front panel connectors. The module is based on the Xilinx Spartan 6 FPGA and thermally stabilized Voltage Controlled Oscillator controlled by the digital-to-analog converter. The board supports standalone operation, without the support from the host operating system, as the entire control algorithm is run on a Microblaze CPU implemented in the FPGA. The software support for the card includes the low-level API in the form of Linux driver, user-mode library, high-level API: ITER Nominal Device Support and EPICS IOC. The device has been tested in the ITER timing distribution network (TCN) with three cascaded PTP-enabled Hirschmann switches and a GPS reference clock source. An RMS synchronization accuracy, measured by direct comparison of the PPS signals, better than 20 ns has been obtained.

  16. Microscopic models for hadronic form factors and vertex functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santhanam, I.; Bhatnagar, S.; Mitra, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    We review the status of nucleon (N) and few-nucleon form factors (f.f.'s) from the view-point of a gradual unfolding of successively inner degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) with increase in q 2 . To this end we focus attention on the problem of a microscopic formulation of hadronic vertex functions (v.f.) from the point of view of their key role in understanding the physics of a large variety of few-hadron reactions on the one hand, and their practical usefulness in articulating the internal dynamics of hadron and few-hadron systems on the other hand. The criterion of an integrated view from low-energy spectroscopy to high-q 2 amplitudes is employed to emphasize the desirability of formulations in terms of relativistic dynamical equations based on Lorentz and gauge invariance in preference to phenomenological models, which often require additional assumptions beyond their original premises to extend their applicability domains. In this respect, the practical possibilities of the Bethe-Salpeter equation (BSE) in articulating the necessary dynamical ingredients are emphasized on a two-tier basis, the basis constants (3) being pre-determined from the mass spectral data (1 st stage) in preparation for the construction of the hadron-quark vertex functions (2 nd stage). An explicit construction is outlined for meson-quark and baryon-quark vertex functions as well as of meson-nucleon vertex functions in a stepwise fashion. The role of the latter as basic parameter-free ingredients is discussed for possible use in the more serious treatment in the current literature of quark-meson level (α) and meson-isobar (β) d.o.f. in 2-N and 3-N form factor studies. Since most of these studies are characterized by the use of RGM techniques at the six-quark level, a comparative discussion is also given of several contemporary RGM based models. Finally, the concrete prospects for employing such hardon-quark vertex functions for evaluating pp-bar annihilation amplitudes are briefly indicated

  17. Recent Progress on the Factorization Method for Electrical Impedance Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Harrach

    2013-01-01

    method was introduced by Kirsch for inverse scattering problems and extended to electrical impedance tomography (EIT by Brühl and Hanke. Since these pioneering works, substantial progress has been made on the theoretical foundations of the method. The necessary assumptions have been weakened, and the proofs have been considerably simplified. In this work, we aim to summarize this progress and present a state-of-the-art formulation of the Factorization Method for EIT with continuous data. In particular, we formulate the method for general piecewise analytic conductivities and give short and self-contained proofs.

  18. Factorization of heavy-to-light form factors in soft-collinear effective theory

    CERN Document Server

    Beneke, Martin; Feldmann, Th.

    2004-01-01

    Heavy-to-light transition form factors at large recoil energy of the light meson have been conjectured to obey a factorization formula, where the set of form factors is reduced to a smaller number of universal form factors up to hard-scattering corrections. In this paper we extend our previous investigation of heavy-to-light currents in soft-collinear effective theory to final states with invariant mass Lambda^2 as is appropriate to exclusive B meson decays. The effective theory contains soft modes and two collinear modes with virtualities of order m_b*Lambda (`hard-collinear') and Lambda^2. Integrating out the hard-collinear modes results in the hard spectator-scattering contributions to exclusive B decays. We discuss the representation of heavy-to-light currents in the effective theory after integrating out the hard-collinear scale, and show that the previously conjectured factorization formula is valid to all orders in perturbation theory. The naive factorization of matrix elements in the effective theory ...

  19. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  20. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. Nucleon form factors and hidden symmetry in holographic QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, D.K.; Rho, M.; Yee, H.-U.; Yi, P.

    2007-10-01

    The vector dominance of the electromagnetic (EM) form factors both for mesons and baryons arises naturally in holographic QCD, where both the number of colors and the 't Hooft coupling are taken to be very large, offering a bona-fide derivation of the notion of vector dominance. The crucial ingredient for this is the infinite tower of vector mesons in the approximations made which share features that are characteristic of the quenched approximation in lattice QCD. We approximate the infinite sum by contributions from the lowest four vector mesons of the tower which turn out to saturate the charge and magnetic moment sum rules within a few % and compute them totally free of unknown parameters for momentum transfers Q 2 approx.= 1 GeV 2 . We identify certain observables that can be reliably computed within the approximations and others that are not, and discuss how the improvement of the latter can enable one to bring holographic QCD closer to QCD proper. (author)

  2. Conformal anomaly of generalized form factors and finite loop integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicherin, Dmitry; Sokatchev, Emery

    2018-04-01

    We reveal a new mechanism of conformal symmetry breaking at Born level. It occurs in generalized form factors with several local operators and an on-shell state of massless particles. The effect is due to hidden singularities on collinear configurations of the momenta. This conformal anomaly is different from the holomorphic anomaly of amplitudes. We present a number of examples in four and six dimensions. We find an application of the new conformal anomaly to finite loop momentum integrals with one or more massless legs. The collinear region around a massless leg creates a contact anomaly, made visible by the loop integration. The anomalous conformal Ward identity for an ℓ-loop integral is a 2nd-order differential equation whose right-hand side is an (ℓ - 1)-loop integral. It could serve as a new useful tool to find/test analytic expressions for conformal integrals. We illustrate this point with several examples of known integrals. We propose a new differential equation for the four-dimensional scalar double box.

  3. Baryon form factors at high momentum transfer and generalized parton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoler, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Nucleon form factors at high momentum transfer t are treated in the framework of generalized parton distributions (GPD's). The possibility of obtaining information about parton high transverse momentum components by application of GPD's to form factors is discussed. This is illustrated by applying an ad hoc 2-body parton wave function to elastic nucleon form factors F 1 and F 2 , the N→Δ transition magnetic form factor G M * , and the wide angle Compton scattering form factor R 1

  4. Electric fields in the sheath formed in a 300 mm, dual frequency capacitive argon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnat, E V; Miller, P A; Hebner, G A; Paterson, A M; Panagopoulos, T; Hammond, E; Holland, J

    2007-01-01

    The spatial structure and temporal evolution of the electric fields in a sheath formed in a dual frequency, 300 mm capacitive argon discharge are measured as functions of relative mixing between a low frequency current and a high frequency current. It is found that the overall structure of the sheath (potential across the sheath and the thickness of the sheath) are dominated by the lower frequency component while (smaller) oscillations in these quantities are dictated by the higher frequency component. Comparisons of the measured spatial and temporal profiles are made for Lieberman's and Robiche et al sheath model and with a particle in a cell calculation

  5. Nucleon Structure and Hyperon Form Factors from Lattice QCD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin,H.W.

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point. to be 1.23(5), consistent with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(2G), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon {Sigma} and {Xi} axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g{sub {Sigma}{Sigma}} = 0.441(14) and g{sub {Xi}{Xi}} = -0.277(11).

  6. Nucleon Structure and hyperon form factors from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Huey-Wen

    2007-06-11

    In this work, I report the latest lattice QCD calculations of nucleon and hyperon structure from chiral fermions in 2+1-flavor dynamical simulations. All calculations are done with a chirally symmetric fermion action, domain-wall fermions, for valence quarks. I begin with the latest lattice results on the nucleon structure, focusing on results from RBC/UKQCD using 2+1-flavor chiral fermion actions. We find the chiral-extrapolated axial coupling constant at physical pion mass point to be 1.23(5), consistant with experimental value. The renormalization constants for the structure functions are obtained from RI/MOM-scheme non-perturbative renormalization. We find first moments of the polarized and unpolarized nucleon structure functions at zero transfer momentum to be 0.133(13) and 0.203(23) respectively, using continuum chiral extrapolation. These are consistent with the experimental values, unlike previous calculations which have been 50% larger. We also have a prediction for the transversity, which we find to be 0.56(4). The twist-3 matrix element is consistent with zero which agrees with the prediction of the Wandzura-Wilczek relation. In the second half of this work, I report an indirect dynamical estimation of the strangeness proton magnetic moments using mixed actions. With the analysis of hyperon form factors and using charge symmetry, the strangeness of proton is found to be -0.066(26), consistent with the Adelaide-JLab Collaboration's result. The hyperon Sigma and Xi axial coupling constants are also performed for the first time in a lattice calculation, g_SigmaSigma = 0.441(14) and g_XiXi = -0.277(11).

  7. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiying, Ou; Lei, Zhao; Hongwei, Diao; Jun, Zhang; Wenjing, Wang

    2011-05-01

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells.

  8. Optical and electrical properties of porous silicon layer formed on the textured surface by electrochemical etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ou Weiying; Zhao Lei; Diao Hongwei; Zhang Jun; Wang Wenjing, E-mail: wjwangwj@126.com [Key Laboratory of Solar Thermal Energy and Photovoltaic System, Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-05-15

    Porous silicon (PS) layers were formed on textured crystalline silicon by electrochemical etching in HF-based electrolyte. Optical and electrical properties of the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation are studied. Moreover, the influences of the initial structures and the anodizing time on the optical and electrical properties of the surfaces after PS formation are investigated. The results show that the TMAH textured surfaces with PS formation present a dramatic decrease in reflectance. The longer the anodizing time is, the lower the reflectance. Moreover, an initial surface with bigger pyramids achieved lower reflectance in a short wavelength range. A minimum reflectance of 3.86% at 460 nm is achieved for a short anodizing time of 2 min. Furthermore, the reflectance spectrum of the sample, which was etched in 3 vol.% TMAH for 25 min and then anodized for 20 min, is extremely flat and lies between 3.67% and 6.15% in the wavelength range from 400 to 1040 nm. In addition, for a short anodizing time, a slight increase in the effective carrier lifetime is observed. Our results indicate that PS layers formed on a TMAH textured surface for a short anodization treatment can be used as both broadband antireflection coatings and passivation layers for the application in solar cells. (semiconductor technology)

  9. Rough electricity: a new fractal multi-factor model of electricity spot prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Mikkel

    We introduce a new mathematical model of electricity spot prices which accounts for the most important stylized facts of these time series: seasonality, spikes, stochastic volatility and mean reversion. Empirical studies have found a possible fifth stylized fact, fractality, and our approach...... explicitly incorporates this into the model of the prices. Our setup generalizes the popular Ornstein Uhlenbeck-based multi-factor framework of Benth et al. (2007) and allows us to perform statistical tests to distinguish between an Ornstein Uhlenbeck-based model and a fractal model. Further, through...... the multi-factor approach we account for seasonality and spikes before estimating - and making inference on - the degree of fractality. This is novel in the literature and we present simulation evidence showing that these precautions are crucial to accurate estimation. Lastly, we estimate our model...

  10. Forecasting Electricity Market Price for End Users in EU28 until 2020—Main Factors of Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Pezzutto

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The scope of the present investigation is to provide a description of final electricity prices development in the context of deregulated electricity markets in EU28, up to 2020. We introduce a new methodology to predict long-term electricity market prices consisting of two parts: (1 a self-developed form of Porter’s five forces analysis (PFFA determining that electricity markets are characterized by a fairly steady price increase. Dominant driving factors come out to be: (i uncertainty of future electricity prices; (ii regulatory complexity; and (iii generation overcapacities. Similar conclusions derive from (2 a self-developed form of multiple-criteria decision analysis (MCDA. In this case, we find that the electricity market particularly depends on (i market liberalization and (ii the European Union (EU’s economy growth. The applied methodologies provide a novel contribution in forecasting electricity price trends, by analyzing the sentiments, expectations, and knowledge of industry experts, through an assessment of factors influencing the market price and goals of key market participants. An extensive survey was conducted, interviewing experts all over Europe showed that the electricity market is subject to a future slight price increase.

  11. Cytokinin response factors regulate PIN-FORMED auxin transporters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimášková, M.; O'Brien, J.A.; Khan, M.; Van Noorden, G.; Ötvös, K.; Vieten, A.; De Clercq, E.; Van Haperen, J.M.A.; Cuesta, C.; Hoyerová, Klára; Vanneste, S.; Marhavý, P.; Wabnik, K.; Van Breusegem, F.; Nowack, M.; Murphy, A.; Friml, J.; Weijers, D.; Beeckman, T.; Benková, E.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, NOV (2015), s. 8717 ISSN 2041-1723 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : ARABIDOPSIS -THALIANA * ROOT-MERISTEM * TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 11.329, year: 2015

  12. Conservative flight with a varying load factor and closed form ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Conservative flight performance of an aircraft with constant load factor was analysed by ... Within the frame work of flat earth hypotheses the equations of motion of an aircraft as obtained by ..... load factor function if this inequality holds good.

  13. The forming process of magnesium alloy for Japanese home electric components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, A. [Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Kadoma, Osaka (Japan); Higashi, K. [Osaka Prefecture Univ., Sakai, Osaka (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Magnesium alloys have replaced resins as a material for the components of electronic products such as cell phone and notebook personal computer mainly, because of their lightness and rigidity. Thin walls, a complicated shape, and high appearance quality are all needed in the external parts. Die-casting and injection molding are the main method of manufacturing magnesium alloy parts. The optimal cast conditions and mold design have been investigated in order that a few defects such as surface cracks and mold cavities in casting parts would be reduced. Instead of cast, plastic forming technologies such as warm drawing and hot forging have been developed to form thinner walls and less defects. Plastic formability of magnesium alloy in hot working is dependent on a grain size of material. The material with fine grains has advantage of being formed at high strain rate. The characteristics of forming processes of magnesium parts for Japanese home electric appliances are compared in the viewpoint of quality, cost, and productivity. (orig.)

  14. B-decay form factors from QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offen, Nils

    2008-01-01

    In the Standard Model of particle physics there is only one source of CP-violation. Namely, a single complex phase in the unitary 3 x 3 CKM-Matrix governing flavor transitions in the weak interaction. The unitarity is usually visualized by a triangle in the complex ρ - η-plane. Therefore testing this framework comes down to measuring weak decays, relating observables to sides and angles of this so called Unitarity Triangle(UT). Particular interest in this respect is payed to decays of mesons containing a heavy b-quark, giving the opportunity to alone determine all parameters of the UT. Doing this is far from easy. Besides tedious experimental measurements the theoretical calculations are plagued by hadronic quantities which cannot be determined by perturbation theory. In this work several of these quantities so called form factors are computed using the well known method of light cone sum rules(LCSR). Two different setups have been used. One, established in this work, utilizing a correlation function with an on-shell B-Meson and one following the traditional calculation by taking the light meson on-shell. Both using light cone expansion in the respective on-shell mesons distribution amplitudes. While the first approach allows to calculate a whole bunch of phenomenologically interesting quantities by just changing Dirac-structures of the relevant currents it has the drawback that it does not have access to the well developed twist expansion of the latter. To incorporate higher Fock-state contributions the first models for three-particle distribution amplitudes of the B-Meson have been derived. α s -corrections remain out of the scope of this work. Nevertheless does a comparison with more sophisticated methods show an encouraging numerical agreement. In the second setup all known corrections especially the never verified α s -corrections to Twist three terms have been recalculated and a competitive result for the CKM-matrixelement vertical stroke V ub vertical

  15. 18 CFR 141.400 - FERC Form No. 3-Q, Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., Quarterly financial report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies. 141.400 Section 141..., licensees, and natural gas companies. (a) Prescription. The quarterly report of electric utilities, licensees, and natural gas companies, designated as FERC Form No. 3-Q, is prescribed for the reporting...

  16. Evaluation of electrical conductivity in high-pressure plasmas formed in xenon with sodium as additive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novakovic, N V [Faculty of Philosophy, Nis (Yugoslavia); Stojilkovic, S M [Faculty of Electronics, Nis (Yugoslavia); Milic, B S [Dept. of Physics and Meteorology, Faculty of Natural and Mathematical Sciences, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1990-02-01

    Results of a numerical evaluation of the electrical conductivity in high-pressure plasmas of intermediate degrees of ionization formed in xenon with, respectively, 1% and 10% of sodium are presented, for temperatures between 2000 K and 20 000 K, and for pressures ranging from the normal atmospheric value p{sub atm} = 0.1 MPa up to 2.5 MPa. The equilibrium plasma composition, necessary for the evaluations, was determined on the ground of the Saha equations combined with the charge conservation relation and the assumption that the pressure remained constant in the course of temperature variations. The ionization energy lowering, required in conjunction with the Saha equations, was obtained with the aid of a modified expression for the plasma Debye radius proposed previously. The electron elastic collisions with the charged particles were described by the Spitzer-Haerm (or, rather, Rutherford) formula, and those with the neutrals were taken into account by a polynomial formula interpolating some selected experimental results. The evaluated electrical conductivity is found to increase with the pressure at fixed temperature (except in the mixture with 10% of sodium, in which case an indistinct maximum at p = 10 p{sub atm} can be seen for 6000 K). This feature is opposite to what is found in pure xenon plasma and, except in the upper part of the temperature range analysed, agrees well with the behaviour of pure alkaline vapours. The numerical values obtained for the electrical conductivity are smaller than the figures resulting from the approximate formulae commonly used in numerical estimates of this transport coefficient in moderately non-ideal plasmas of intermediate degrees of ionization, much in accordance with the trends suggested by the experiment. (orig.).

  17. Electrical properties of fluorine-doped ZnO nanowires formed by biased plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yicong; Song, Xiaomeng; Zhang, Zhipeng; She, Juncong; Deng, Shaozhi; Xu, Ningsheng; Chen, Jun

    2018-05-01

    Doping is an effective method for tuning electrical properties of zinc oxide nanowires, which are used in nanoelectronic devices. Here, ZnO nanowires were prepared by a thermal oxidation method. Fluorine doping was achieved by a biased plasma treatment, with bias voltages of 100, 200, and 300 V. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the nanowires treated at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V featured low crystallinity. When the bias voltage was 300 V, the nanowires showed single crystalline structures. Photoluminescence measurements revealed that concentrations of oxygen and surface defects decreased at high bias voltage. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy suggested that the F content increased as the bias voltage was increased. The conductivity of the as-grown nanowires was less than 103 S/m; the conductivity of the treated nanowires ranged from 1 × 104-5 × 104, 1 × 104-1 × 105, and 1 × 103-2 × 104 S/m for bias voltage treatments at 100, 200, and 300 V, respectively. The conductivity improvements of nanowires formed at bias voltages of 100 and 200 V, were attributed to F-doping, defects and surface states. The conductivity of nanowires treated at 300 V was attributed to the presence of F ions. Thus, we provide a method of improving electrical properties of ZnO nanowires without altering their crystal structure.

  18. Forms and factors of peer violence and victimisation

    OpenAIRE

    Dinić Bojana; Sokolovska Valentina; Milovanović Ilija; Oljača Milan

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore the latent structure of violence and victimisation based on the factor analysis of the Peer Violence and Victimisation Questionnaire (PVVQ), as well as to examine the correlates of violence and victimisation. The sample included 649 secondary school students (61.8% male) from the urban area. Besides the PVVQ, the Aggressiveness questionnaire AVDH was administered. Based on parallel analysis, three factors were extra...

  19. Matter density distributions and elastic form factors of some two ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmed N Abdullah

    2017-08-31

    Aug 31, 2017 ... include the proton, neutron and matter density distributions, the corresponding rms radii, the binding energy per nucleon and the charge form ... the nuclear structure models based on the experimental data for stable nuclei ... Most exotic nuclei are so short lived that they cannot be used as targets at rest.

  20. Iso-vector form factors of the delta and nucleon in QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozpineci, A.

    2012-01-01

    Form factors are important non-perturbative properties of hadrons. They give information about the internal structure of the hadrons. In this work, iso-vector axial-vector and iso-vector tensor form factors of the nucleon and the iso-vector axial-vector Δ→N transition form factor calculations in QCD Sum Rules are presented.

  1. Two neutron transfer form factor for the reaction 42Ca(p,t)40Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.H.

    1978-01-01

    In an attempt to better interpret experimental data concerning the two-neutron pickup process 42 Ca(p,t) 40 Ca, a detailed study of the form factors associated with the reaction is carried out. A set of coupled integro-differential equations describing these form factors is derived, starting from a microscopic, model-independent Hamiltonian. These equations allow contributions to the form factors from hole terms as well as from the particle and so-called ''continuum'' states, which were previously studied. An approximate solution of the form factor equations is obtained by neglecting the coupling terms and expressing the form factor in terms of a set of Sturmian states. Form factors for the transition to the 40 Ca ground state (O 1 + ) are calculated using various sets of Sturmian states. The inclusion of hole states is found to have a major effect upon both the shape of the form factor and the size of the related cross section. Finally, a comparison is made between the O 1 + form factors calculated using Sturmian states and a O 1 + form factor obtained using Sturmian states and a O 1 + form factor obtained using the coexistence model. It is found that a form factor based on Sturmian particle and hole states is very similar to the form factor obtained from the coexistence model calculation

  2. Towards a Resolution of the Proton Form Factor Problem: New Electron and Positron Scattering Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adikaram, D.; Rimal, D.; Weinstein, L. B.; Raue, B.; Khetarpal, P.; Bennett, R. P.; Arrington, J.; Brooks, W. K.; Adhikari, K. P.; Afanasev, A. V.; Amaryan, M. J.; Anderson, M. D.; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Avakian, H.; Ball, J.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Biselli, A. S.; Bono, J.; Boiarinov, S.; Briscoe, W. J.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Careccia, S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Charles, G.; Colaneri, L.; Cole, P. L.; Contalbrigo, M.; Crede, V.; D'Angelo, A.; Dashyan, N.; De Vita, R.; De Sanctis, E.; Deur, A.; Djalali, C.; Dodge, G. E.; Dupre, R.; Egiyan, H.; El Alaoui, A.; El Fassi, L.; Elouadrhiri, L.; Eugenio, P.; Fedotov, G.; Fegan, S.; Filippi, A.; Fleming, J. A.; Fradi, A.; Garillon, B.; Gilfoyle, G. P.; Giovanetti, K. L.; Girod, F. X.; Goetz, J. T.; Gohn, W.; Golovatch, E.; Gothe, R. W.; Griffioen, K. A.; Guegan, B.; Guidal, M.; Guo, L.; Hafidi, K.; Hakobyan, H.; Hanretty, C.; Harrison, N.; Hattawy, M.; Hicks, K.; Holtrop, M.; Hughes, S. M.; Hyde, C. E.; Ilieva, Y.; Ireland, D. G.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Jenkins, D.; Jiang, H.; Jo, H. S.; Joo, K.; Joosten, S.; Kalantarians, N.; Keller, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kim, A.; Kim, W.; Klein, A.; Klein, F. J.; Koirala, S.; Kubarovsky, V.; Kuhn, S. E.; Livingston, K.; Lu, H. Y.; MacGregor, I. J. D.; Markov, N.; Mattione, P.; Mayer, M.; McKinnon, B.; Mestayer, M. D.; Meyer, C. A.; Mirazita, M.; Mokeev, V.; Montgomery, R. A.; Moody, C. I.; Moutarde, H.; Movsisyan, A.; Camacho, C. Munoz; Nadel-Turonski, P.; Niccolai, S.; Niculescu, G.; Osipenko, M.; Ostrovidov, A. I.; Park, K.; Pasyuk, E.; Peña, C.; Pisano, S.; Pogorelko, O.; Price, J. W.; Procureur, S.; Prok, Y.; Protopopescu, D.; Puckett, A. J. R.; Ripani, M.; Rizzo, A.; Rosner, G.; Rossi, P.; Roy, P.; Sabatié, F.; Salgado, C.; Schott, D.; Schumacher, R. A.; Seder, E.; Sharabian, Y. G.; Simonyan, A.; Skorodumina, I.; Smith, E. S.; Smith, G. D.; Sober, D. I.; Sokhan, D.; Sparveris, N.; Stepanyan, S.; Stoler, P.; Strauch, S.; Sytnik, V.; Taiuti, M.; Tian, Ye; Trivedi, A.; Ungaro, M.; Voskanyan, H.; Voutier, E.; Walford, N. K.; Watts, D. P.; Wei, X.; Wood, M. H.; Zachariou, N.; Zana, L.; Zhang, J.; Zhao, Z. W.; Zonta, I.; CLAS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    There is a significant discrepancy between the values of the proton electric form factor, GEp, extracted using unpolarized and polarized electron scattering. Calculations predict that small two-photon exchange (TPE) contributions can significantly affect the extraction of GEp from the unpolarized electron-proton cross sections. We determined the TPE contribution by measuring the ratio of positron-proton to electron-proton elastic scattering cross sections using a simultaneous, tertiary electron-positron beam incident on a liquid hydrogen target and detecting the scattered particles in the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector. This novel technique allowed us to cover a wide range in virtual photon polarization (ɛ ) and momentum transfer (Q2) simultaneously, as well as to cancel luminosity-related systematic errors. The cross section ratio increases with decreasing ɛ at Q2=1.45 GeV2 . This measurement is consistent with the size of the form factor discrepancy at Q2≈1.75 GeV2 and with hadronic calculations including nucleon and Δ intermediate states, which have been shown to resolve the discrepancy up to 2 - 3 GeV2 .

  3. Estimation of droplet charge forming out of an electrified ligament in the presence of a uniform electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osman, H; Castle, G S P; Adamiak, K; Fan, H T; Simmer, J

    2015-01-01

    The charge on a liquid droplet is a critical parameter that needs to be determined to accurately predict the behaviour of the droplet in many electrostatic applications, for example, electrostatic painting and ink-jet printing. The charge depends on many factors, such as the liquid conductivity, droplet and ligament radii, ligament length, droplet shape, electric field intensity, space charge, the presence of adjacent ligaments and previously formed droplets. In this paper, a 2D axisymmetric model is presented which can be used to predict the electric charge on a conductive spherical droplet ejected from a single ligament directly supplied with high voltage. It was found that the droplet charging levels for the case of isolated electrified ligaments are as much as 60 times higher than that in the case of ligaments connected to a planar high voltage electrode. It is suggested that practical atomization systems lie somewhere between these two extremes and that a better model was achieved by developing a 3D approximation of a linear array of ligaments connected to an electrode having variable width. The effect on droplet charge and its radius was estimated for several cases of different boundary conditions. (paper)

  4. Recruitment of bloom-forming cyanobacteria and its driving factors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on most of the literature, this paper reviewed the progress made in following aspects: cognition to cyanobacteria recruitment, various traps for studying cyanobacteria recruitment in lakes, recruitment patterns of some species of cyanobacteria, and the driving factors for recruitment. Additionally, perspective studies of ...

  5. [XPS analysis of beads formed by fuse breaking of electric copper wire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Meng, Qing-Shan; Wang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Wei; Di, Man

    2010-05-01

    The in-depth composition of beads formed by fuse breaking of the electric copper wire in different circumstances was studied by XPS with Ar+ ion sputtering. In addition, the measured Auger spectra and the calculated Auger parameters were compared for differentiation of the substances of Cu and Cu2O. Corresponding to the sputtering depth, the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover may be distinguished as three portions: surface layer with a drastic decrease in carbon content; intermediate layer with a gentle change in oxygen content and gradually diminished carbon peak, and consisting of Cu2O; transition layer without Cu2O and with a rapid decrease in oxygen content. While the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the copper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out may be distinguished as two portions: surface layer with carbon content decreasing quickly; subsurface layer without Cu2O and with carbon and oxygen content decreasing gradually. Thus, it can be seen that there was an obvious interface between the layered surface product and the substrate for the first type of bead, while as to the second type of bead there was no interface. As a result, the presence of Cu2O and the quantitative results can be used to identify the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover and the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the cupper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out, as a complementary technique for the judgments of fire cause.

  6. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2018-01-30

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite\\'s conductivity based on these parameters.

  7. Addition of electric arc furnace dust in hot metal changing the form of addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de; Vieira, Estefano Aparecido; Telles, Victor Bridi; Grillo, Felipe Fardin; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to study the incorporation of the mass of electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), by addition in hot metal (1.78% Si) at a temperature of 1,400 degrees Celsius. The EAFD is from a steel plant producing long steel. The addition of the EAFD was as received, in the form of briquettes without agitation of the hot metal and in the form of briquettes with agitation of the hot metal. Previously, the EAFD was characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. The achievement of fusion experiments in laboratory scale, took place in a vertical tubular furnace with temperature control. The fusion experiments to assess the incorporation of EAFD mass used graphite crucibles. After cooling, the hot metal and the slag, remaining in the crucible, were weighed to do a mass balance. A flow of inert gas (argon) was maintained inside the furnace during the experiments. Results show that the experiment with addition of EAFD as received presents the best result of incorporating the mass of the final hot metal (1.73%) combined with the lowest percentage of volatilized mass of EAFD (46.52%). The experiment addition of EAFD in the form of briquette with agitation of hot metal presents the lowest percentage of slag mass (4.58%). The zinc content of volatilized EAFD (64.30%) is higher than the zinc content of the imported ore concentrate (52%) and zinc content of the national ore concentrate (12% to 39%). The presence of lead and cadmium in the slag characterizing it as a hazardous solid waste. (author)

  8. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Han, F.; Lubineau, G.

    2018-04-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in the remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite’s conductivity based on these parameters.

  9. Computational modeling of electrically conductive networks formed by graphene nanoplatelet-carbon nanotube hybrid particles

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel; Han, Fei; Lubineau, Gilles

    2018-01-01

    One strategy to ensure that nanofiller networks in a polymer composite percolate at low volume fractions is to promote segregation. In a segregated structure, the concentration of nanofillers is kept low in some regions of the sample. In turn, the concentration in remaining regions is much higher than the average concentration of the sample. This selective placement of the nanofillers ensures percolation at low average concentration. One original strategy to promote segregation is by tuning the shape of the nanofillers. We use a computational approach to study the conductive networks formed by hybrid particles obtained by growing carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs). The objective of this study is (1) to show that the higher electrical conductivity of these composites is due to the hybrid particles forming a segregated structure and (2) to understand which parameters defining the hybrid particles determine the efficiency of the segregation. We construct a microstructure to observe the conducting paths and determine whether a segregated structure has indeed been formed inside the composite. A measure of efficiency is presented based on the fraction of nanofillers that contribute to the conductive network. Then, the efficiency of the hybrid-particle networks is compared to those of three other networks of carbon-based nanofillers in which no hybrid particles are used: only CNTs, only GNPs, and a mix of CNTs and GNPs. Finally, some parameters of the hybrid particle are studied: the CNT density on the GNPs, and the CNT and GNP geometries. We also present recommendations for the further improvement of a composite's conductivity based on these parameters.

  10. Study of Ion Beam Forming Process in Electric Thruster Using 3D FEM Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Jin, Xiaolin; Hu, Quan; Li, Bin; Yang, Zhonghai

    2015-11-01

    There are two algorithms to simulate the process of ion beam forming in electric thruster. The one is electrostatic steady state algorithm. Firstly, an assumptive surface, which is enough far from the accelerator grids, launches the ion beam. Then the current density is calculated by theory formula. Secondly these particles are advanced one by one according to the equations of the motions of ions until they are out of the computational region. Thirdly, the electrostatic potential is recalculated and updated by solving Poisson Equation. At the end, the convergence is tested to determine whether the calculation should continue. The entire process will be repeated until the convergence is reached. Another one is time-depended PIC algorithm. In a global time step, we assumed that some new particles would be produced in the simulation domain and its distribution of position and velocity were certain. All of the particles that are still in the system will be advanced every local time steps. Typically, we set the local time step low enough so that the particle needs to be advanced about five times to move the distance of the edge of the element in which the particle is located.

  11. Analysis on factors affecting household customers decision in using electricity at peak time and its correlation towards saving electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasasa, Linus; Marbun, Parlin; Mariza, Ita

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study and analyse the factors affecting customer decisions in using electricity at peak-load hours (between 17.00 to 22.00 WIB) and their behaviors towards electricity conservation in Indonesian household. The underlying rationale is to influence a reduction in energy consumption by stimulating energy saving behaviors, thereby reducing the impact of energy use on the environment. How is the correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity? The primary data is obtained by distributing questionnaires to customers of PT. PLN Jakarta Raya and Tangerang Distribution from Household segment. The data is analysed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) and AMOS Software. The research is finding that all factors (Personal, Social, PLN Services, Psychological, and Cultural) are positively influence customer decision in using electricity at peak load hours. There is a correlation between the decisions in using electricity during peak load hours with the household customer's behavior towards saving electricity.

  12. Which Factors Can Protect Against Range Stress in Everyday Usage of Battery Electric Vehicles? Toward Enhancing Sustainability of Electric Mobility Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke, Thomas; Rauh, Nadine; Günther, Madlen; Trantow, Maria; Krems, Josef F

    2016-02-01

    The objective of the present research was to advance understanding of factors that can protect against range anxiety, specifically range stress in everyday usage of battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Range anxiety is a major barrier to the broad adoption of sustainable electric mobility systems. To develop strategies aimed at overcoming range anxiety, a clear understanding of this phenomenon and influencing factors is needed. We examined range anxiety in the form of everyday range stress (ERS) in a field study setting. Seventy-two customers leased a BEV for 3 months. The field study was specifically designed to enable examination of factors that can contribute to lower ERS. In particular, study design and sample recruitment were targeted at generating vehicle usage profiles that would lead to relatively frequent experience of situations requiring active management of range resources and thereby potentially leading to experienced range stress. Less frequent encounter with critical range situations, higher practical experience, subjective range competence, tolerance of low range, and experienced trustworthiness of the range estimation system were related to lower ERS. Moreover, range stress was found to be related to range satisfaction and BEV acceptance. The results underline the importance of the human factors perspective to overcome range anxiety and enhance sustainability of electric mobility systems. Trustworthiness should be employed as a key benchmark variable in the design of range estimation systems, and assistance systems should target increasing drivers' adaptive capacity (i.e., resilience) to cope with critical range situations. © 2015, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.

  13. Factors Influencing the Behavioural Intention towards Full Electric Vehicles: An Empirical Study in Macau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan K. W. Lai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the factors that influence individual intentions towards the adoption of full electric vehicles. A sample including 308 respondents was collected on the streets of Macau. The collected data were analysed by confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The results demonstrate that environmental concerns and the perception of environmental policy are antecedent factors of the perception of full electric vehicles, which influences the behavioural intention to purchase full electric vehicles. This study also finds that the perception of economic benefit is one of the key factors influencing the adoption of full electric vehicles. Vehicle operators seek economic benefits from future long-term fuel savings, high energy efficiency, and cheap electricity. Thus, a government striving to promote low-carbon transportation needs to scale up its efforts to enhance citizens’ environmental concerns and to establish proper environmental policy as well as to provide long-term financial and strategic support for electric vehicles.

  14. Human factors research in Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry creation of safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    To prevent accident of nuclear power plant, Human Factors Center was built in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry in July 1987. It developed an evaluation method of human error cases and an application method of human factors information. Now it continues analysis and application of human factors information, development of training/work support tools and research/experiment of human behavior. Japan-Human Performance Evaluation System (J-HPES) was developed as an analytical system for analysis and evaluation of human factors related to the trouble and for using the result as the common property by storage the analytical results. J-HPES has a standard procedure consisted of collecting and analyzing data and proposing the countermeasures. The analytical results are arranged by 4 kinds of charts by putting into the form of a diagram. Moreover, it tries to find the causes with indirect and potential causes. Two kinds of materials, Caution Report and Human Factors Precept by means of Illustrations, are published. People can gain access to HFC database by URL http://criepi.denken.or.jp/CRIEPI/HFC/DB. To prevent these accidents, creation of human factors culture has been required. Five kinds of teaching materials and the training method are developed. (S.Y.)

  15. Meson widths and form factor at intermediate momentum transfer in nonperturbative QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, B.L.; Smilga, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    A general method is proposed for the QCD based calculations of form factors at intermediate momentum transfer Q 2 and of the partial widths of the low-lying meson resonances. The basic idea is to use the QCD sum rules for the vertex functions. With this method the pion electromagnetic form factor along with electromagnetic form factors of rho- and A 1 mesons and transition form factors γπ → A 1 at 0.5 2 2 are calculated. The widths rho+2π and A 1 → rhoπ are also determined. +.he results are in a good agreement with experiment

  16. Calculation of the Nucleon Axial Form Factor Using Staggered Lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Aaron S. [Fermilab; Hill, Richard J. [Perimeter Inst. Theor. Phys.; Kronfeld, Andreas S. [Fermilab; Li, Ruizi [Indiana U.; Simone, James N. [Fermilab

    2016-10-14

    The nucleon axial form factor is a dominant contribution to errors in neutrino oscillation studies. Lattice QCD calculations can help control theory errors by providing first-principles information on nucleon form factors. In these proceedings, we present preliminary results on a blinded calculation of $g_A$ and the axial form factor using HISQ staggered baryons with 2+1+1 flavors of sea quarks. Calculations are done using physical light quark masses and are absolutely normalized. We discuss fitting form factor data with the model-independent $z$ expansion parametrization.

  17. Electromagnetic form factors of the ρ meson in light cone QCD sum rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, T.M.; Savci, M.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic form factors of the ρ meson in light cone QCD sum rules. We find that the ratio of the magnetic and charge form factors is larger than 2 at all values of Q 2 (Q 2 ≥0.5 GeV 2 ). The values of the individual form factors at fixed values of Q 2 predicted by the light cone QCD sum rules are quite different compared to the results of other approaches. These results can be checked in the future, when more precise data on ρ meson form factors is available

  18. Electric and electrochemical properties of surface films formed on copper in the presence of bicarbonate anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirkiae, P.; Saario, T.; Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M.

    1999-01-01

    Copper is used as an outer shield of cast iron canisters planned for storage of spent nuclear fuel. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of bicarbonate (HCO 3 - ) anions on the stability of the copper oxide film. The work consists of a brief literature survey and an experimental part, in which voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc resistance measurements via the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) technique were used. The studies reported in the literature indicated that HCO 3 - ions increase the solubility of copper in the stability region of Cu(II). Thus they render the oxide film formed on copper susceptible to local damage and to localised corrosion at high potentials. Unfortunately, despite the great importance of bicarbonates in copper corrosion, most of the environments used in the electrochemical and corrosion studies are not comparable with repository conditions. In the existing studies either the bicarbonate concentrations or pH of the solutions were too high. In addition, no such studies were available, in which not only the effect of carbonate ions, but also possible synergetic effects of them with other aggressive ions would have been clarified. The voltammetric results of the experimental part of this work point to a bilayer structure of the anodic film on copper in neutral solutions containing HCO 3 - ions. The transport of ionic defects through a thin continuous p-type semiconductor layer was concluded to be the rate limiting step of the anodic oxidation of copper in the stability region of monovalent copper and in the mixed oxide (Cu(I)/Cu(II) oxide) region. Films formed in the divalent copper region did not show well-pronounced semiconductor behaviour. Substantial evidence was found in the voltammetric, CER and impedance results for the increased defectiveness of the anodic film in the Cu(II) region. The oxidation rate of copper in

  19. Electric and electrochemical properties of surface films formed on copper in the presence of bicarbonate anions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirkiae, P.; Saario, T.; Maekelae, K.; Laitinen, T.; Bojinov, M. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Copper is used as an outer shield of cast iron canisters planned for storage of spent nuclear fuel. The copper shield is responsible for the corrosion protection of the canister. The aim of the present work was to study the influence of bicarbonate (HCO{sub 3}{sup -}) anions on the stability of the copper oxide film. The work consists of a brief literature survey and an experimental part, in which voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and dc resistance measurements via the Contact Electric Resistance (CER) technique were used. The studies reported in the literature indicated that HCO{sub 3}{sup -} ions increase the solubility of copper in the stability region of Cu(II). Thus they render the oxide film formed on copper susceptible to local damage and to localised corrosion at high potentials. Unfortunately, despite the great importance of bicarbonates in copper corrosion, most of the environments used in the electrochemical and corrosion studies are not comparable with repository conditions. In the existing studies either the bicarbonate concentrations or pH of the solutions were too high. In addition, no such studies were available, in which not only the effect of carbonate ions, but also possible synergetic effects of them with other aggressive ions would have been clarified. The voltammetric results of the experimental part of this work point to a bilayer structure of the anodic film on copper in neutral solutions containing HCO{sub 3}{sup -}ions. The transport of ionic defects through a thin continuous p-type semiconductor layer was concluded to be the rate limiting step of the anodic oxidation of copper in the stability region of monovalent copper and in the mixed oxide (Cu(I)/Cu(II) oxide) region. Films formed in the divalent copper region did not show well-pronounced semiconductor behaviour. Substantial evidence was found in the voltammetric, CER and impedance results for the increased defectiveness of the anodic film in the Cu(II) region. The

  20. Ethylene Removal in Strong Electric Field Formed by Floating Multi-Electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Takeshi

    Ethylene gas that contains the acetic acid ester element can be removed by applying the pulse voltage to the floating multi-electrode device. This phenomenon is caused in the weak discharge by the strong electric field between the narrow electrodes. This device is possible in very small electric power (apples, and 3.5ppm/30min for 2 melons. However, ethylene gas that doesn't contain the acetic acid ester cannot be removed (ex. ethylene pure gas and Japanese apricot).

  1. Studying the influence of pore water electrical conductivity on the formation factor, as estimated based on electrical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loefgren, Martin (Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)); Vecernik, Petr; Havlova, Vaclava (Waste Disposal Dept., Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc. (Czech Republic))

    2009-11-15

    In this report the geometric formation factor, as obtained in tracer tests, is compared with the apparent formation factor, as obtained by electrical methods. This should provide information on the data uncertainty associated with the electrical methods utilised in situ within the SKB site investigation programme. Generally, if directly estimating the formation factor from the apparent formation factor, there is a risk of substantial overestimations. This is especially the case at shallow depth at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn sites, where the groundwater is of low salinity. This study is performed on nine drill core samples from the Forsmark and Oskarshamn sites. The formation factor and apparent formation factor of these samples have previously been determined by the through diffusion method, using HTO as the tracer, and by the electrical resistivity method, as part of the site investigation programme. The study is divided in two parts where part 2 was performed successfully, while part 1 suffered from problems. In part 2, eight rock samples were saturated by either a 0.05 or 0.1 M NaCl electrolyte. These electrolytes should represent the groundwater at repository depth. The formation factor of these samples was obtained by the through-electromigration (TEM) method, using iodide as the tracer. In addition, the apparent formation factors were obtained by electrical resistivity methods using direct current and alternating current at 10, 100, and 2,000 Hz. The measurements were performed in duplicates or triplicates, and generally a good reproducibility was achieved. As expected, the apparent formation factors were a few times larger than the TEM formation factor for the same sample. The ratio of the apparent formation factors and TEM formation factors range between about 2 and 12, where larger ratios were found for rock samples of low formation factors. The results were compared with modelled apparent formation factors, where input data were a range of formation

  2. Studying the influence of pore water electrical conductivity on the formation factor, as estimated based on electrical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loefgren, Martin; Vecernik, Petr; Havlova, Vaclava

    2009-11-01

    In this report the geometric formation factor, as obtained in tracer tests, is compared with the apparent formation factor, as obtained by electrical methods. This should provide information on the data uncertainty associated with the electrical methods utilised in situ within the SKB site investigation programme. Generally, if directly estimating the formation factor from the apparent formation factor, there is a risk of substantial overestimations. This is especially the case at shallow depth at the Forsmark and Oskarshamn sites, where the groundwater is of low salinity. This study is performed on nine drill core samples from the Forsmark and Oskarshamn sites. The formation factor and apparent formation factor of these samples have previously been determined by the through diffusion method, using HTO as the tracer, and by the electrical resistivity method, as part of the site investigation programme. The study is divided in two parts where part 2 was performed successfully, while part 1 suffered from problems. In part 2, eight rock samples were saturated by either a 0.05 or 0.1 M NaCl electrolyte. These electrolytes should represent the groundwater at repository depth. The formation factor of these samples was obtained by the through-electromigration (TEM) method, using iodide as the tracer. In addition, the apparent formation factors were obtained by electrical resistivity methods using direct current and alternating current at 10, 100, and 2,000 Hz. The measurements were performed in duplicates or triplicates, and generally a good reproducibility was achieved. As expected, the apparent formation factors were a few times larger than the TEM formation factor for the same sample. The ratio of the apparent formation factors and TEM formation factors range between about 2 and 12, where larger ratios were found for rock samples of low formation factors. The results were compared with modelled apparent formation factors, where input data were a range of formation

  3. Operational demands as determining factor for electric bus charging infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, R.; Van Den Hoed, R.

    2016-01-01

    Many cities in Europe have ambitious goals when it comes to making their public transport buses emission free. This article outlines the reasoning behind the choices made in the city of Amsterdam with regards to charging infrastructure for electric buses. Emphasising the importance of operational

  4. Form factors in quantum integrable models with GL(3)-invariant R-matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakuliak, S., E-mail: pakuliak@theor.jinr.ru [Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, JINR, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, 141700 Dolgoprudny, Moscow Reg. (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259 Moscow (Russian Federation); Ragoucy, E., E-mail: eric.ragoucy@lapth.cnrs.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique LAPTH, CNRS and Université de Savoie, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Slavnov, N.A., E-mail: nslavnov@mi.ras.ru [Steklov Mathematical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-04-15

    We study integrable models solvable by the nested algebraic Bethe ansatz and possessing GL(3)-invariant R-matrix. We obtain determinant representations for form factors of off-diagonal entries of the monodromy matrix. These representations can be used for the calculation of form factors and correlation functions of the XXX SU(3)-invariant Heisenberg chain.

  5. Recoil of the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and axial form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klabucar, D.; Picek, I.

    1984-03-01

    A recent method of boosting the bag is extended to the pion-surrounded nucleon bag and developed for the calculation of low-energy nucleon form factors. The usefulness of the method is illustrated by the induced pseudoscalar form factor where both the inclusion of the pion field and the non-vanishing momentum transfer are necessary. (Auth.)

  6. Gluing operation and form factors of local operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshov, A. E.

    2018-04-01

    The gluing operation is an effective way to get form factors of both local and non-local operators starting from different representations of on-shell scattering amplitudes. In this paper it is shown how it works on the example of form factors of operators from stress-tensor operator supermultiplet in Grassmannian and spinor helicity representations.

  7. Enhancing reactor availability factor by diagnostic monitoring and data acquisition of electrical equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, G.

    2006-01-01

    Electrical energy has made significant contribution to rapid growth of industrial activity in the country. Development and improvement of energy conversion devices or electrical apparatus have supported the growth. Reliability is probably the most important factor in electrical supply system, not only to give uninterrupted service but to provide an economic supply. Regular diagnostic testing of electrical equipments will make a significant contribution to the reliability of electrical supply. The purpose of diagnostic monitoring is to recognize the development of faults at an early stage, which consequently allows greater freedom to schedule the outages resulting in lower downtime and lower capitalized losses. The insulation constitutes the heart of any electrical/power equipment. The insulation in power equipment in normal condition undergoes certain changes in the physical, chemical, electrical and mechanical properties. The change with respect to time in the presence of an influencing factor, more often a stress (electrical) is referred to as ageing. The deterioration of insulating material plays an important role in the assessing the condition of electrical equipments. The systematic diagnostic tests are also part of the maintenance program to ensure the continued serviceability of electrical equipments, by replacing or repairing the components likely to fail, as revealed by the test. Diagnostic tests are carried out on various electrical equipments for detection of incipient fault, location and judging their severity. (author)

  8. The influence of financial incentives and other socio-economic factors on electric vehicle adoption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierzchula, William; Bakker, Sjoerd; Maat, Kees; Wee, Bert van

    2014-01-01

    Electric vehicles represent an innovation with the potential to lower greenhouse gas emissions and help mitigate the causes of climate change. However, externalities including the appropriability of knowledge and pollution abatement result in societal/economic benefits that are not incorporated in electric vehicle prices. In order to address resulting market failures, governments have employed a number of policies. We seek to determine the relationship of one such policy instrument (consumer financial incentives) to electric vehicle adoption. Based on existing literature, we identified several additional socio-economic factors that are expected to be influential in determining electric vehicle adoption rates. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we examined the relationship between those variables and 30 national electric vehicle market shares for the year 2012. The model found financial incentives, charging infrastructure, and local presence of production facilities to be significant and positively correlated to a country's electric vehicle market share. Results suggest that of those factors, charging infrastructure was most strongly related to electric vehicle adoption. However, descriptive analysis suggests that neither financial incentives nor charging infrastructure ensure high electric vehicle adoption rates. - Highlights: • This research analyzes electric vehicle adoption of 30 countries in 2012. • Financial incentives and charging infrastructure were statistically significant factors. • Country-specific factors help to explain diversity in national adoption rates. • Socio-demographic variables e.g., income and education level were not significant

  9. 48 CFR 247.372 - DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1654, Evaluation... Transportation in Supply Contracts 247.372 DD Form 1654, Evaluation of Transportation Cost Factors. Contracting personnel may use the DD Form 1654 to furnish information to the transportation office for development of...

  10. Separating form factor and nuclear model effects in quasielastic neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieske, Joseph

    2017-09-01

    When studying neutrino oscillations an understanding of charged current quasielastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleus scattering is imperative. This interaction depends on a nuclear model as well as knowledge of form factors. In the past, CCQE data from the MiniBooNE experiment was analyzed assuming the Relativistic Fermi Gas (RFG) nuclear model, an axial dipole form factor in, and using the the z-expansion for the axial form factor in. We present the first analysis that combines a non-RFG nuclear model, in particular the Correlated Fermi Gas nuclear model (CFG) of, and the z expansion for the axial form factor. This will allow us to separate form factor and nuclear model effects in CCQE scattering. This project was supported through the Wayne State University REU program under NSF Grant PHY-1460853 and by the DOE Grant DE-SC0007983.

  11. Skyrme-model πNN form factor and nucleon-nucleon interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzwarth, G.; Machleidt, R.

    1997-01-01

    We apply the strong πNN form factor, which emerges from the Skyrme model, in the two-nucleon system using a one-boson-exchange (OBE) model for the nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction. Deuteron properties and phase parameters of NN scattering are reproduced well. In contrast to the form factor of monopole shape that is traditionally used in OBE models, the Skyrme form factor leaves low-momentum transfers essentially unaffected while it suppresses the high-momentum region strongly. It turns out that this behavior is very appropriate for models of the NN interaction and makes it possible to use a soft pion form factor in the NN system. As a consequence, the πN and the NN systems can be described using the same πNN form factor, which is impossible with the monopole. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  12. Deuteron form factors and e-d polarization observables for the Paris and Graz-II potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.; Plessas, W.; Mathelitsch, L.

    1983-01-01

    Elastic e-d scattering is studied employing the meson-theoretical Paris potential and the non-local separable Graz-II potential. Electric and magnetic form factors are calculated with inclusion of meson-exchange currents and compared to existing experimental data. Deuteron vector and tensor polarizations are predicted and discussed in relation to the deuteron wave functions of the potential models considered. Thereby the off-shell behaviour of the Graz-II interaction is found to be close to that one of the Paris potential over the most important domain of low and moderate off-shell moments. (Author)

  13. The G0 experiment at Jefferson laboratory: Measurement of the weak neutral form factors of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furget, C.

    2005-01-01

    The G0 experiment aims to measure parity-violating asymmetries in elastic electron-proton and quasi-elastic electron-deuteron scattering. This experimental program allows to perform the separation of the electric and magnetic weak neutral and axial form factors for three different momentum transfers 0.3, 0.5 and 0.8 (GeV/c)2. The first part of the experiment has been performed in Hall C of Jefferson Laboratory with a commissioned setup. A preliminary analysis of the data has provided a first estimate of the main systematic uncertainties. The analysis to determine the actual physics asymmetries is proceeding

  14. The scalar and electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon in dispersively improved Chiral EFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Jose Manuel [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2018-04-01

    We present a method for calculating the nucleon form factors of G-parity-even operators. This method combines chiral effective field theory (χEFT) and dispersion theory. Through unitarity we factorize the imaginary part of the form factors into a perturbative part, calculable with χEFT, and a non-perturbative part, obtained through other methods. We consider the scalar and electromagnetic (EM) form factors of the nucleon. The results show an important improvement compared to standard chiral calculations, and can be used in analysis of the low-energy properties of the nucleon.

  15. Heavy-to-light form factors for non-relativistic bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, G.; Feldmann, Th.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate transition form factors between non-relativistic QCD bound states at large recoil energy. Assuming the decaying quark to be much heavier than its decay product, the relativistic dynamics can be treated according to the factorization formula for heavy-to-light form factors obtained from the heavy-quark expansion in QCD. The non-relativistic expansion determines the bound-state wave functions to be Coulomb-like. As a consequence, one can explicitly calculate the so-called 'soft-overlap' contribution to the transition form factor

  16. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  17. Remarks on electromagnetic form factors of hadrons in the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainshtein, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1977-01-01

    Relations between the transversal and longitudinal parts of elastic and quasielastic form factors are studied within the quark model. It is shown that for an even number of the constituent quarks the longitudinal part dominates while for an odd number the transversal part is the largest one. Consequences form this result are considered for deuteron form factor and for matrix elements of the electromagnetic transitions between π, rho, A 1 mesons

  18. Influence factor analysis of atmospheric electric field monitoring near ground under different weather conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Haojiang; Wei, Guanghui; Cui, Yaozhong; Chen, Yazhou

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of atmospheric electric field near ground plays a critical role in atmospheric environment detecting and lightning warning. Different environmental conditions (e.g. buildings, plants, weather, etc.) have different influences on the data's coherence in an atmospheric electric field detection network. In order to study the main influence factors of atmospheric electric field monitoring under different weather conditions, with the combination of theoretical analysis and experiments, the electric field monitoring data on the ground and on the top of a building are compared in fair weather and thunderstorm weather respectively in this paper. The results show that: In fair weather, the field distortion due to the buildings is the main influence factor on the electric field monitoring. In thunderstorm weather, the corona ions produced from the ground, besides the field distortion due to the buildings, can also influence the electric field monitoring results.

  19. Form factors of Ising spin and disorder fields on the Poincare disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyon, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    Using recent results concerning form factors of certain scaling fields in the massive Dirac theory on the Poincare disc, we find expressions for the form factors of Ising spin and disorder fields in the massive Majorana theory on the Poincare disc. In particular, we verify that these recent results agree with the factorization properties of the fields in the Dirac theory representing tensor products of spin and of disorder fields in the Majorana theory

  20. Assessment of risk factors for death in electrical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokov, William

    2009-02-01

    Fatal high-voltage injuries present a problem which has not yet been studied sufficiently in the context of interaction between the human body and electricity, as a technical, anthropogenic and natural phenomenon. The forensic medicine records of 291 cases of death caused by high-voltage current for a 41-year-long period (1965-2006) were examined in retrospect. The descriptive statistical analyses were made using the SPSS 11.0 software. Death was found to result most commonly from contact between the deceased and elements of the power transmission and distribution grid: (41.24%), and from the action of lightning: (32.3%), the difference in their relative share being insignificant. Much more rarely, death was due to contact with construction and repair electrical devices: (7.56%), or with elements of the power transport railway infrastructure: (6.87%). Death resulting from contact with agricultural electrical devices was only occasional: (0.68%). The victims' average age was 36.19 years. Our analysis indicates that the relative share (43.98%) of the victims is the highest in the age period between 25 and 44. The ratio between women and men is 1:21.38.

  1. The Research of Regression Method for Forecasting Monthly Electricity Sales Considering Coupled Multi-factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangbo; Liu, Junhui; Li, Tiantian; Yin, Shuo; He, Xinhui

    2018-01-01

    The monthly electricity sales forecasting is a basic work to ensure the safety of the power system. This paper presented a monthly electricity sales forecasting method which comprehensively considers the coupled multi-factors of temperature, economic growth, electric power replacement and business expansion. The mathematical model is constructed by using regression method. The simulation results show that the proposed method is accurate and effective.

  2. Cogeneration/auto production influences form sugar cane bagasse for the electric power market in Northeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, P.G. da; Fiscina, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    This work intends to evaluate to what extent the co-generation/auto production influences the electric power market. For that purpose, two sceneries have been developed considering sugar cane bagasse remains, taking as a basis the historic content (per Northeast state) and the energy policy for PROALCOOL. The installed potential in plants/distilleries for utilization of the bagasse industrial remains has also been considered. It has been determined the investments required for new facilities, enabling the use of all bagasse remains for electric energy, the benefits for the North/Northeast electric system resulting from such measures (as the decrease in deficit risks), and the value of energy sale by the system auto producers/co-generators. (author)

  3. Electrical behaviour of ceramic breeder blankets in pebble form after γ-radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Carella

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium orthosilicate (Li4SiO4 ceramics in from of pebble bed is the European candidate for ITER testing HCPB (Helium Cooled Pebble Bed breeding modules. The breeder function and the shielding role of this material, represent the areas upon which attention is focused. Electrical measurements are proposed for monitoring the modification created by ionizing radiation and at the same time provide information on lithium movement in this ceramic structure. The electrical tests are performed on pebbles fabricated by Spray-dryer method before and after gamma-irradiation through a 60Co source to a fluence of 4.8 Gy/s till a total dose of 5 ∗ 105 Gy. The introduction of thermal annealing treatments during the electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS measurements points out the recombination effect of the temperature on the γ-induced defects.

  4. Development of a new forming process with vertical rolls for electric-resistance-welded pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutani, W; Nakajima, K

    1981-01-01

    The features of a new process (VRF process) for forming pipes by constraining the strip edges with undriven vertical rolls are described. The equipment characteristics and forming characteristics are compared with conventional processes. The VRF process can reduce edge stretch, forming energy, equipment and energy costs. 27 refs.

  5. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, David K.; He, Qing

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  6. A Factor Analytic Study of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory Adult Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Janet; Wilson, George V.

    1988-01-01

    A factor analysis was conducted on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory-Adult Short Form using 237 college students and 43 female office workers in Australia. Factors were found corresponding with three of the four subscales: general self, social self-peers, and home-parents (family). No factor related to the school-academic (work) subscale. (SLD)

  7. Survey of new forms of organization and financing constructions in the Dutch solar electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, M.; Laurensse, S.; Simon, T.

    2011-01-01

    In the title project the focus is on organizations and projects in the Dutch market for solar electricity, characterized by: minimal dependence on subsidies (state aid), the removal of high initial investments by users (financing), and structures that can easily be extended or replicated (scale) [nl

  8. Molecular determinants of magnesium-dependent synaptic plasticity at electrical synapses formed by connexin36

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Prado, Nicolás; Chapuis, Sandrine; Panjkovich, Alejandro; Fregeac, Julien; Nagy, James I.; Bukauskas, Feliksas F.

    2014-08-01

    Neuronal gap junction (GJ) channels composed of connexin36 (Cx36) play an important role in neuronal synchronization and network dynamics. Here we show that Cx36-containing electrical synapses between inhibitory neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus are bidirectionally modulated by changes in intracellular free magnesium concentration ([Mg2+]i). Chimeragenesis demonstrates that the first extracellular loop of Cx36 contains a Mg2+-sensitive domain, and site-directed mutagenesis shows that the pore-lining residue D47 is critical in determining high Mg2+-sensitivity. Single-channel analysis of Mg2+-sensitive chimeras and mutants reveals that [Mg2+]i controls the strength of electrical coupling mostly via gating mechanisms. In addition, asymmetric transjunctional [Mg2+]i induces strong instantaneous rectification, providing a novel mechanism for electrical rectification in homotypic Cx36 GJs. We suggest that Mg2+-dependent synaptic plasticity of Cx36-containing electrical synapses could underlie neuronal circuit reconfiguration via changes in brain energy metabolism that affects neuronal levels of intracellular ATP and [Mg2+]i.

  9. An experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from low-level radioactive waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, D.R.; Pietrzak, R.F.; Fuhrmann, M.; Colombo, P.

    1988-09-01

    This report represents the results of an experimental survey of the factors that affect leaching from several types of solidified low-level radioactive waste forms. The goal of these investigations was to determine those factors that accelerate leaching without changing its mechanism(s). Typically, although not in every case,the accelerating factors include: increased temperature, increased waste loading (i.e., increased waste to binder ratio), and decreased size (i.e., decreased waste form volume to surface area ratio). Additional factors that were studied were: increased leachant volume to waste form surface area ratio, pH, leachant composition (groundwaters, natural and synthetic chelating agents), leachant flow rate or replacement frequency and waste form porosity and surface condition. Other potential factors, including the radiation environment and pressure, were omitted based on a survey of the literature. 82 refs., 236 figs., 13 tabs

  10. Comparison of different boost transformations for the calculation of form factors in relativistic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theussl, L.; Noguera, S.; Amghar, A.; Desplanques, B.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of different boost expressions, pertinent to the instant, front and point forms of relativistic quantum mechanics, is considered for the calculation of the ground-state form factor of a two-body system in simple scalar models. Results with a Galilean boost as well as an explicitly covariant calculation based on the Bethe-Salpeter approach are given for comparison. It is found that the present so-called point-form calculations of form factors strongly deviate from all the other ones. This suggests that the formalism which underlies them requires further elaboration. A proposition in this sense is made. (author)

  11. A measurement of the space-like pion electromagnetic form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Badelek, B.; Batignani, G.; Bedeschi, F.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bosisio, L.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giazotto, A.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Codino, A.; Enorini, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Satta, L.; Spillantini, P.; Zallo, A.

    1986-01-01

    The pion form factor has been measured in the space-like q 2 region 0.014 to 0.26 (GeV/c) 2 by scattering 300 GeV pions from the electrons of a liquid hydrogen target. A detailed description is given of the apparatus, data analysis and corrections to the data. The mean square charge radius extracted from the data is model-dependent. We find that a form which includes a realistic description of the form factor phase gives a similar result to the naive pole form, and conclude π 2 >=0.439±0.008 fm 2 . (orig.)

  12. Measurement of the form factor in the decay K+ → π0e+vsub(e)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyn, H.U.

    1974-01-01

    Following an introduction into the theory of the K(l3) decay, the fundamentals for the measuring methods of the form factor are derived. The choice of the quantity of nuclear events, the problems of the detection probabilities and of the background, and the form factor analysis are dealt with in detail. The analysis shows that the form factor can be very well described by a linear parametrization. The upper limits for scalar and tensorial interaction contributions are given; these results confirm the validity of the V-A theory also for strangeness-changing decays. (BJ/LH) [de

  13. Strange mesons and kaon-to-pion transition form factors from holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abidin, Zainul; Carlson, Carl E.

    2009-01-01

    We present a calculation of the K l3 transition form factors using the AdS/QCD correspondence. We also solidify and extend our ability to calculate quantities in the flavor-broken versions of AdS/QCD. The normalization of the form factors is a crucial ingredient for extracting |V us | from data, and the results obtained here agree well with results from chiral perturbation theory and lattice gauge theory. The slopes and curvature of the form factors agree well with the data, and with what results are available from other methods of calculation.

  14. The B → D*lv form factor at zero recoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simone, J.N.; Hashimoto, S.; El-Khadra, A.X.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Mackenzie, P.B.; Ryan, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a model independent lattice QCD method for determining the deviation from unity for h A1 (1), the B → D*lv form factor at zero recoil. We extend the double ratio method previously used to determine the B → Dlv form factor. The bulk of statistical and systematic errors cancel in the double ratios we consider, yielding form factors which promise to reduce present theoretical uncertainties in the determination of parallel V cb parallel. We present results from a prototype calculation at a single lattice spacing corresponding to β = 5.7

  15. Delta and Omega electromagnetic form factors in a Dyson-Schwinger/Bethe-Salpeter approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diana Nicmorus, Gernot Eichmann, Reinhard Alkofer

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic form factors of the Delta and the Omega baryons within the Poincare-covariant framework of Dyson-Schwinger and Bethe-Salpeter equations. The three-quark core contributions of the form factors are evaluated by employing a quark-diquark approximation. We use a consistent setup for the quark-gluon dressing, the quark-quark bound-state kernel and the quark-photon interaction. Our predictions for the multipole form factors are compatible with available experimental data and quark-model estimates. The current-quark mass evolution of the static electromagnetic properties agrees with results provided by lattice calculations.

  16. On form factors of the conjugated field in the non-linear Schroedinger model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.K.

    2011-05-15

    Izergin-Korepin's lattice discretization of the non-linear Schroedinger model along with Oota's inverse problem provides one with determinant representations for the form factors of the lattice discretized conjugated field operator. We prove that these form factors converge, in the zero lattice spacing limit, to those of the conjugated field operator in the continuous model. We also compute the large-volume asymptotic behavior of such form factors in the continuous model. These are in particular characterized by Fredholm determinants of operators acting on closed contours. We provide a way of defining these Fredholm determinants in the case of generic paramaters. (orig.)

  17. On the large-Q2 behavior of the pion transition form factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gernot Eichmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the transition of non-perturbative to perturbative QCD in situations with possible violations of scaling limits. To this end we consider the singly- and doubly-virtual pion transition form factor π0→γγ at all momentum scales of symmetric and asymmetric photon momenta within the Dyson–Schwinger/Bethe–Salpeter approach. For the doubly virtual form factor we find good agreement with perturbative asymptotic scaling laws. For the singly-virtual form factor our results agree with the Belle data. At very large off-shell photon momenta we identify a mechanism that introduces quantitative modifications to Efremov–Radyushkin–Brodsky–Lepage scaling.

  18. Giant electrical power factor in single-walled chiral carbon nanotube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mensah, S.Y.; Allotey, F.K.A.; Mensah, N.G.; Nkrumah, G.

    2001-10-01

    Using the semiclassical approach we studied the thermoelectrical properties of single-walled chiral carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). We predict a giant electrical power factor and hence proposed the use of carbon nanotubes as thermoelements for refrigeration. (author)

  19. Interaction between droplets in a ternary microemulsion evaluated by the relative form factor method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagao, Michihiro; Seto, Hideki; Yamada, Norifumi L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the concentration dependence of the interaction between water droplets coated by a surfactant monolayer using the contrast variation small-angle neutron scattering technique. In the first part, we explain the idea of how to extract a relatively model free structure factor from the scattering data, which is called the relative form factor method. In the second part, the experimental results for the shape of the droplets (form factor) are described. In the third part the relatively model free structure factor is shown, and finally the concentration dependence of the interaction potential between droplets is discussed. The result indicates the validity of the relative form factor method, and the importance of the estimation of the model free structure factor to discuss the nature of structure formation in microemulsion systems

  20. Declaration and authorization forms for the fabrication, distribution or use of radioactive sources or electric generators of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This document gathers all the forms to be completed when declaring or when asking for an authorization for the fabrication, retailing or use of radioactive sources or electric equipment generating ionizing radiation. These forms can concern all domains (use of sealed radioactive sources, possession and use of a particle accelerator or of radionuclides, import or export of radionuclides or of products containing radionuclides), or the use of such materials or equipment in the medical sector, or the fabrication and use in industry or research, or in user's guides for radioactive sources

  1. Estimation of Equivalent Thermal Conductivity for Impregnated Electrical Windings Formed from Profiled Rectangular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    Ayat, Sabrina S; Wrobel, Rafal; Goss, James; Drury, David

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve accuracy and reduce model setting-up, and solving time in thermal analysis of electrical machines, transformers and wound passive components, the multi-material winding region is frequently homogenised. The existing winding homogenization techniques are predo-minantly focused on winding constructions with round conductors, where thermal conductivity across conductors is usually assumed to be isotropic. However, for the profiled rectangular conductors that assumption is no ...

  2. Meson form factors and covariant three-dimensional formulation of composite model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1978-01-01

    An approach is developed which is applied in the framework of the relativistic quark model to obtain explicit expressions for meson form factors in terms of covariant wave functions of the two-quark system. These wave functions obey the two-particle quasipotential equation in which the relative motion of quarks is singled out in a covariant way. The exact form of the wave functions is found using the transition to the relativistic configurational representation with the help of the harmonic analysis on the Lorentz group instead of the usual Fourier expansion and then solving the relativistic difference equation thus obtained. The expressions found for form factors are transformed into the three-dimensional covariant form which is a direct geometrical relativistic generalization of analogous expressions of the nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and provides the decrease of the meson form factor by the Fsub(π)(t) approximately t -1 law as -t infinity, in the Coulomb field

  3. Energy efficiency and CO2: is electricity the key factor?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Y.

    2007-07-01

    Europe must face soon to the depletion of fossil energy resources. Efficiency in end energy uses is a key to prepare this challenge. First, the report shows that significant energy efficiency capacities remain in the main economy sectors in France and Europe: buildings, industry, transportation. The key technologies, mainly electricity-driven, are briefly presented, together with the related main tracks for R and D: heat pumps, thermal insulation, induction and mechanical vapour compression for industry, plugged hybrid vehicle, LED sources for lighting. Their ability to decrease CO2 emissions is shown. Control equipment and users behaviour are pointed out, mainly with the key role of price energy with recent French experience : load shifting, peak shaving. Finally, the report shows that a firm policy, based on high performance equipments, could lead to a significant decrease of energy needs in France around 2030.

  4. Relativistic corrections to the form factors of Bc into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruilin

    2018-06-01

    We investigated the form factors of the Bc meson into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium using the nonrelativistic QCD effective theory. Through the analytic computation, the next-to-leading order relativistic corrections to the form factors were obtained, and the asymptotic expressions were studied in the infinite bottom quark mass limit. Employing the general form factors, we discussed the exclusive decays of the Bc meson into P-wave orbitally excited charmonium and a light meson. We found that the relativistic corrections lead to a large correction for the form factors, which makes the branching ratios of the decay channels B (Bc ± →χcJ (hc) +π± (K±)) larger. These results are useful for the phenomenological analysis of the Bc meson decays into P-wave charmonium, which shall be tested in the LHCb experiments.

  5. Applicability of perturbative QCD and NLO power corrections for the pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh Tsungwen

    2002-01-01

    As is well recognized, the asymptotic of the perturbative QCD prediction for the pion form factor is much smaller than the upper end of the data. We investigate this problem. We first evaluate the next-to-leading-order (NLO) power correction for the pion form factor. The corrected form factor contains nonperturbative parameters which are determined from a χ 2 fit to the data. Interpreting these parameters leads to the fact that the involved strong interaction coupling constant should be identified as an effective coupling constant under a nonperturbative QCD vacuum. If the scale associated with the effective coupling constant is identified as 2 Q 2 , then Q 2 , the momentum transfer square for the pion form factor to be measured, can have a value about 1 GeV 2 , and , the averaged momentum fraction variable, can locate around 0.5. This circumstance is consistent with the asymptotic model for the pion wave function

  6. Study of the electromagnetic form factors of Helium-3 and Tritium nuclei by electron scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amroun, A.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate measurements of the tritium electromagnetic form factor demonstrated that, when the exchange currents are included, the theoretical and the experimental data are in agreement. Similar calculations carried out on helium-3 were not satisfactory. In this investigation, a new electromagnetic form factor of helium-3 is measured. The transfer zone of the diffraction spectra concerning the first minimum and the second maximum is considered. The aim of the study is to test on both nuclei the validity and the uncertainties of the models. The scattering of electrons on helium-3 is analyzed. The experiment was performed in the Saclay linear accelerator. The isoscalar and isovector form factors could be differentiated. By comparing the theoretical and the experimental data, it is demonstrated that the use of three body forces in the calculations has no effect on the form factor results [fr

  7. The proton electromagnetic form factor F2 and quark orbital angular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Protein; electromagnetic form factors; perturbative QCD; quark orbital angular momentum. ... Failures of the ASD approach to correctly predict ex- perimental ... The success of the formalism is the correct prediction of the Q2 scaling behavior of ...

  8. The three-loop form factor in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehrmann, Thomas [Universitaet Zuerich (Switzerland); Henn, Johannes [IAS Princeton (United States); Huber, Tobias [Universitaet Siegen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    We present the calculation of the Sudakov form factor in N=4 super Yang-Mills theory to the three-loop order. At leading colour, the latter is expressed in terms of planar and non-planar loop integrals. We show that it is possible to choose a representation in which each loop integral has uniform transcendentality in the Riemann {zeta}-function. We comment on the expected exponentiation of the infrared divergences and the values of the three-loop cusp and collinear anomalous dimensions in dimensional regularisation. We also compare the form factor in N=4 super Yang-Mills to the leading transcendentality pieces of the quark and gluon form factor in QCD. Finally, we investigate the ultraviolet properties of the form factor in D>4 dimensions.

  9. Inelastic magnetic electron scattering form factors of the 26 Mg nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Magnetic electron scattering (3) form factors with core polarization effects, ... to 3+ states of the 26Mg nucleus have been studied using shell model calculations. ... The wave functions of the radial single-particle matrix elements have been ...

  10. Constraints on the [Formula: see text] form factor from analyticity and unitarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B; Caprini, I; Kubis, B

    Motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic [Formula: see text] form factor and certain experimental data, we investigate this form factor using analyticity and unitarity in a framework known as the method of unitarity bounds. We use a QCD correlator computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD as input, and exploit unitarity and the positivity of its spectral function, including the two-pion contribution that can be reliably calculated using high-precision data on the pion form factor. From this information, we derive upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the [Formula: see text] form factor in the elastic region. The results provide a significant check on those obtained with standard dispersion relations, confirming the existence of a disagreement with experimental data in the region around [Formula: see text].

  11. Virtual photons in the pion form factors and the energy-momentum tensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian E-mail: b.kubis@fz-juelich.de; Meissner, Ulf-G. E-mail: ulf-g.meissner@fz-juelich.de

    2000-05-22

    We evaluate the vector and scalar form factor of the pion in the presence of virtual photons at next-to-leading order in two-flavor chiral perturbation theory. We also consider the scalar and tensor pion form factors of the energy-momentum tensor. We find that the intrinsic electromagnetic corrections are very small for the vector as well as the charged pion scalar form factor. The scalar radius of the neutral pion is reduced by two percent. We perform infrared regularization by considering electron-positron annihilation into pions and the decay of a light Higgs boson into a pion pair. We discuss the detector resolution dependent contributions to the various form factors and pion radii.

  12. Constraints on the ωπ form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, I.; Kubis, B.

    2014-01-01

    Motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic ωπ form factor and certain experimental data, we investigate this form factor using analyticity and unitarity in a framework known as the method of unitarity bounds. We use a QCD correlator computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD as input, and exploit unitarity and the positivity of its spectral function, including the two-pion contribution that can be reliably calculated using high-precision data on the pion form factor. From this information, we derive upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the ωπ form factor in the elastic region. The results provide a significant check on those obtained with standard dispersion relations, confirming the existence of a disagreement with experimental data in the region around 0.6 GeV. (orig.)

  13. Virtual photons in the pion form factors and the energy-momentum tensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian; Meissner, Ulf-G.

    2000-01-01

    We evaluate the vector and scalar form factor of the pion in the presence of virtual photons at next-to-leading order in two-flavor chiral perturbation theory. We also consider the scalar and tensor pion form factors of the energy-momentum tensor. We find that the intrinsic electromagnetic corrections are very small for the vector as well as the charged pion scalar form factor. The scalar radius of the neutral pion is reduced by two percent. We perform infrared regularization by considering electron-positron annihilation into pions and the decay of a light Higgs boson into a pion pair. We discuss the detector resolution dependent contributions to the various form factors and pion radii

  14. Constraints on the ωπ form factor from analyticity and unitarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthanarayan, B. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for High Energy Physics, Bangalore (India); Caprini, I. [Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O.B. MG-6, Magurele (Romania); Kubis, B. [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen-und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-12-01

    Motivated by the discrepancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the electromagnetic ωπ form factor and certain experimental data, we investigate this form factor using analyticity and unitarity in a framework known as the method of unitarity bounds. We use a QCD correlator computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD as input, and exploit unitarity and the positivity of its spectral function, including the two-pion contribution that can be reliably calculated using high-precision data on the pion form factor. From this information, we derive upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the ωπ form factor in the elastic region. The results provide a significant check on those obtained with standard dispersion relations, confirming the existence of a disagreement with experimental data in the region around 0.6 GeV. (orig.)

  15. Model for next-to-leading order threshold resummed form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aglietti, Ugo; Ricciardi, Giulia

    2004-01-01

    We present a model for next-to-leading order resummed threshold form factors based on a timelike coupling recently introduced in the framework of small x physics. Improved expressions for the form factors in N-space are obtained which are not plagued by Landau-pole singularities, as the included absorptive effects - usually neglected - act as regulators. The physical reason is that, because of faster decay of gluon jets, there is not enough resolution time to observe the Landau pole. Our form factors reduce to the standard ones when the absorptive parts related to the coupling are neglected. The inverse transform from N-space to x-space can be done directly without any prescription and we obtain analytical expressions for the form factors, which are well defined in all x-space

  16. Effects of Velocity-Dependent Force on the Magnetic Form Factors of Odd-Z Nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tie-Kuang, Dong; Zhong-Zhou, Ren

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the effects of the velocity-dependent force on the magnetic form factors and magnetic moments of odd-Z nuclei. The form factors are calculated with the harmonic-oscillator wavefunctions. It is found that the contributions of the velocity-dependent force manifest themselves in the very large momentum transfer region (q ≥ 4fm- 1 ). In the low and medium q region the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are very small compared with those without this force. However, in the high-q region the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are larger than the normal form factors. The diffraction structures beyond the existing experimental data are found after the contributions of the velocity-dependent force are included. The formula of the correction to the single particle magnetic moment due to the velocity-dependent force is reproduced exactly in the long-wavelength limit (q = 0) of the M1 form factor

  17. Asymptotic dynamics of QCD, coherent states and the quark form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steiner, F.; Dahmen, H.D.

    1980-05-01

    The method of asymptotic dynamics for large times developed by Kulish and Fadde'ev for QED is applied to QCD. We study the solution and calculate the on shell quark form factor in leading logarithmic order. (orig.)

  18. ELECTRIC FACTORS INFLUENCING THE COMPLEX EROSION PROCESSING BY INTRODUCING THE ELECTROLYTE THROUGH THE TRANSFER OBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alin Nioata

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric and electrochemical complex erosion processing is influenced by a great number of factors acting in tight interdependence and mutually influencing one another for achieving the stability of the processing process and achieving the final technological characteristics.The values taking part in developing the fundamental phenomena of the mechanism of complex erosion prevailing and contributes to the definition of technological characteristics, are factors.The paper presents the U potential difference and electric strength I as determining factors of the complex erosion process as well as other factors deriving from them: the current density, the power of the supply source.

  19. Extrapolation of π-meson form factor, zeros in the analyticity domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, P.T.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of a stable extrapolation from the cut to an arbitrary interior of the analyticity domain for the pion form factor is formulated and solved. As it is shown a stable solution can be derived if module representations with the Karleman weight function are used as the analyticity conditions. The case when the form factor has zeros is discussed. If there are zeros in the complex plane they must be taken into account when determining the extrapolation function

  20. Measurement of the energy dependence of the form factor $f_{+}$ in $K^{0}_{e3}$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Apostolakis, Alcibiades J; Backenstoss, Gerhard; Bargassa, P; Behnke, O; Benelli, A; Bertin, V; Blanc, F; Bloch, P; Carlson, P J; Carroll, M; Cawley, E; Chertok, M B; Danielsson, M; Dejardin, M; Derré, J; Ealet, A; Eleftheriadis, C; Fetscher, W; Fidecaro, Maria; Filipcic, A; Francis, D; Fry, J; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gamet, R; Gerber, H J; Go, A; Haselden, A; Hayman, P J; Henry-Coüannier, F; Hollander, R W; Jon-And, K; Kettle, P R; Kokkas, P; Kreuger, R; Le Gac, R; Leimgruber, F; Mandic, I; Manthos, N; Marel, Gérard; Mikuz, M; Miller, J; Montanet, François; Müller, A; Nakada, Tatsuya; Pagels, B; Papadopoulos, I M; Pavlopoulos, P; Polivka, G; Rickenbach, R; Roberts, B L; Ruf, T; Schäfer, M; Schaller, L A; Schietinger, T; Schopper, A; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thibault, C; Touchard, F; Touramanis, C; van Eijk, C W E; Vlachos, S; Weber, P; Wigger, O; Wolter, M; Zavrtanik, D; Zimmerman, D

    2000-01-01

    Neutral-kaon decays to \\pielnu\\ % recorded by the CPLEAR experimentwere analysed to determine the $q^2$ dependence of the \\Kzet\\ electroweak form factor $f_+$. Based on $365\\,612$ events,this form factor was found to have a linear dependence on $q^2$with a slope $\\lambda_+ = 0.0245 \\pm 0.0012_{\\text{stat}} \\pm 0.0022_{\\text{syst}}$.

  1. The spin-dependent neutralino-nucleus form factor for 127I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ressell, M.T.

    1996-01-01

    We present the results of detailed shell model calculations of the spin-dependent elastic form factor for the nucleus 127 I. the calculations were performed in extremely large model spaces which adequately describe the configuration mixing in this nucleus. Good agreement between the calculated and experimental values of the magnetic moment are found. Other nuclear observables are also compared to experiment. The dependence of the form factor upon the model space and effective interaction is discussed

  2. Relativistic two-fermion equations with form factors and anomalous magnetic moment interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, S.

    1977-04-01

    Relativistic equations for two-fermion systems are derived from quantum field theory taking into account the form factors of the particles. When the q 2 dependence of the form factors is disregarded, in the static approximation, the two-fermion equations with Coulomb and anomalous magnetic moment interactions are obtained. Separating the angular variables, a sixteen-component relativistic radial equation are finally given

  3. Proton and neutron charge form factors in soliton model with dilaton-quarkonium fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magar, E.N.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Tkachev, O.G.; Novozhilov, V.Yu.

    1997-01-01

    Nucleon electromagnetic form factors are considered in the framework of the generalized Skyrme model with dilaton-quarkonium fields. In our first publication we got big discrepancy between calculated form factors and dipole approximation formula. Here we have reasonably good accordance between them in finite impulse region after vector meson dominance has been taken into account. Omega- and rho-mesons have been included only into hadron structure of the photon

  4. Precise measurement of the neutron magnetic form factor from quasielastic 3 rvec He(rvec e,e')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, H.

    1997-01-01

    Polarized 3 He targets have proven to be a useful tool for studying the electric and magnetic form factors of the neutron, and the spin structure of the neutron. The neutron magnetic form factor at low Q 2 was determined previously at MIT-Bates from the quasielastic 3 rvec He(rvec e, e ' ) process. New experiment was planned at TJNAF to systematically measure the inclusive 3 He quasielastic transverse asymmetry, A T ' , at Q 2 = 0.1 - 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 with high statistical and systematic accuracy. A 2% statistical uncertainty is aimed at all the pro- posed values of Q 2 , and 3% systematic uncertainty for A T ' can be achieved for this experiment. The precise data will constrain theoretical calculations of 3 He quasielastic asymmetry. Furthermore, the neutron magnetic form factor at Q 2 = 0.1 - 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 will be extracted from the measured asymmetries with an overall uncertainty of 2%. Precise measurements of G n M at low Q 2 will resolve the discrepancy among the existing data in the same Q 2 region

  5. Determination of strange form factors of nucleon by parity violation asymmetry by polarized electron-proton elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardillier, Johann

    1999-01-01

    In the quark model, the proton is described as a system of three quarks UUD. However, recent experiments (CERN, SLAC) have shown that the strange quarks may contribute in a significant way to the mass and the spin of the proton. The HAPPEX experiment gives one further knowledge about the question of the role the strange quarks play inside the proton. It measures parity violating asymmetry in the scattering of polarized electrons from a proton because the latter is sensitive to the contribution of the strange quarks to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The observed asymmetry is in the order of a few ppm (part per million). The main difficulty of the experiment is to identify, to estimate and to minimize, as much as possible, all the systematic effects which could give rise to false asymmetries. This thesis discusses the principle of the HAPPEX experiment, its implementation at the Jefferson Lab (JLab), the processing and the analysis of the data, the systematic errors, and finally presents the result of the first data taking (1999) and its present interpretation. The HAPPEX experiment has measured, at Q 2 = 0.5 (GeV/c) 2 , a strange quarks contribution of (1.0 ± 2.3)% to the electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. The statistics and the systematic effects (measure of the electron beam polarization and knowledge of the neutron electric form factor) contribute equally to the error. (author)

  6. Meson form factors and covariant three-dimensional formulation of the composite model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.B.; Solovtsov, I.L.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus is developed which allows within the relativistic quark model, to find explicit expressions for meson form factors in terms of the wave functions of two-quark system that obey the covariant two-particle quasipotential equation. The exact form of wave functions is obtained by passing to the relativistic configurational representation. As an example, the quark Coulomb interaction is considered

  7. Light meson form factors at high Q2 from lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koponen, Jonna; Zimermmane-Santos, André; Davies, Christine; Lepage, G. Peter; Lytle, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Measurements and theoretical calculations of meson form factors are essential for our understanding of internal hadron structure and QCD, the dynamics that bind the quarks in hadrons. The pion electromagnetic form factor has been measured at small space-like momentum transfer |q2| theory is applicable. This leaves a gap in the intermediate Q2 where the form factors are not known. As a part of their 12 GeV upgrade Jefferson Lab will measure pion and kaon form factors in this intermediate region, up to Q2 of 6 GeV2. This is then an ideal opportunity for lattice QCD to make an accurate prediction ahead of the experimental results. Lattice QCD provides a from-first-principles approach to calculate form factors, and the challenge here is to control the statistical and systematic uncertainties as errors grow when going to higher Q2 values. Here we report on a calculation that tests the method using an ηs meson, a 'heavy pion' made of strange quarks, and also present preliminary results for kaon and pion form factors. We use the nf = 2 + 1 + 1 ensembles made by the MILC collaboration and Highly Improved Staggered Quarks, which allows us to obtain high statistics. The HISQ action is also designed to have small dicretisation errors. Using several light quark masses and lattice spacings allows us to control the chiral and continuum extrapolation and keep systematic errors in check. Warning, no authors found for 2018EPJWC.17506016.

  8. Cutting through form factors and cross sections of non-protected operators in N=4 SYM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Dhritiman; Sieg, Christoph; Wilhelm, Matthias; Yang, Gang

    2015-01-01

    We study the form factors of the Konishi operator, the prime example of non-protected operators in N=4 SYM theory, via the on-shell unitarity method. Since the Konishi operator is not protected by supersymmetry, its form factors share many features with amplitudes in QCD, such as the occurrence of rational terms and of UV divergences that require renormalization. A subtle point is that this operator depends on the spacetime dimension. This requires a modification when calculating its form factors via the on-shell unitarity method. We derive a rigorous prescription that implements this modification to all loop orders and obtain the two-point form factor up to two-loop order and the three-point form factor to one-loop order. From these form factors, we construct an IR-finite cross-section-type quantity, namely the inclusive decay rate of the (off-shell) Konishi operator to any final (on-shell) state. Via the optical theorem, it is connected to the imaginary part of the two-point correlation function. We extract the Konishi anomalous dimension up to two-loop order from it.

  9. Outsourcing decision factors in publicly owned electric utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, James Edward

    Purpose. The outsourcing of services in publicly owned electric utilities has generated some controversy. The purpose of this study was to explore this controversy by investigating the relationships between eight key independent variables and a dependent variable, "manager perceptions of overall value of outsourced services." The intent was to provide data so that utilities could make better decisions regarding outsourcing efforts. Theoretical framework. Decision theory was used as the framework for analyzing variables and alternatives used to support the outsourcing decision-making process. By reviewing these eight variables and the projected outputs and outcomes, a more predictive and potentially successful outsourcing effort can be realized. Methodology. A survey was distributed to a sample of 323 publicly owned electric utilities randomly selected from a population of 2,020 in the United States. Analysis of the data was made using statistical techniques including the Chi-Square, Lambda, Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation, as well as the Hypothesis Test, Rank Correlation, to test for relationships among the variables. Findings. Relationships among the eight key variables and perceptions of the overall value of outsourced services were generally weak. The notable exception was with the driving force (reason) for outsourcing decisions where the relationship was strongly positive. Conclusions and recommendations. The data in support of the research questions suggest that seven of the eight key variables may be weakly predictive of perceptions of the overall value of outsourced services. However, the primary driving force for outsourcing was strongly predictive. The data also suggest that many of the sampled utilities did not formally address these variables and alternatives, and therefore may not be achieving maximal results. Further studies utilizing customer perceptions rather than those of outsourcing service managers are recommended. In addition, it is

  10. Human Factors Evaluation of Advanced Electric Power Grid Visualization Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greitzer, Frank L.; Dauenhauer, Peter M.; Wierks, Tamara G.; Podmore, Robin

    2009-04-01

    This report describes initial human factors evaluation of four visualization tools (Graphical Contingency Analysis, Force Directed Graphs, Phasor State Estimator and Mode Meter/ Mode Shapes) developed by PNNL, and proposed test plans that may be implemented to evaluate their utility in scenario-based experiments.

  11. Monitoring the effects of chelating agents and electrical fields on active forms of Pb and Zn in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasbian, Iman; Safari Sinegani, Ali Akbar

    2013-11-01

    The application of electrical fields and chelating agents is an innovative hybrid technology used for the decontamination of soil polluted by heavy metals. The effects of four center-oriented electrical fields and chelating agents on active fractions of lead and zinc were investigated in this pot experiment. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a synthetic chelator and cow manure extract (CME) and poultry manure extract (PME) as natural chelators were applied to the pots (2 g kg(-1)) 30 days after the first irrigation. Two weeks later, four center-oriented electrical fields were applied in each pot (in three levels of 0, 10, and 30 V) for 1 h each day for 14 days. The soil near the cathode and anodes was collected and analyzed as cathodic and anodic soil, respectively. Results indicated that the soluble-exchangeable fraction of lead and zinc were decreased in the cathodic soil, while the carbonate-bound fractions were increased. In the anodic soil, however, the opposite result was observed. EDTA enhanced the soluble-exchangeable form of the metals in both anodic and cathodic soils. Furthermore, the amounts of carbonate-bound heavy metals were increased by the application of CME in both soils. The organic-bound fraction of the metals was increased by the application of natural chelators, while electrical fields had no significant impacts on this fraction.

  12. Ex Vivo Assay of Electrical Stimulation to Rat Sciatic Nerves: Cell Behaviors and Growth Factor Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhiyong; Bondarenko, Olexandr; Wang, Dingkun; Rouabhia, Mahmoud; Zhang, Ze

    2016-06-01

    Neurite outgrowth and axon regeneration are known to benefit from electrical stimulation. However, how neuritis and their surroundings react to electrical field is difficult to replicate by monolayer cell culture. In this work freshly harvested rat sciatic nerves were cultured and exposed to two types of electrical field, after which time the nerve tissues were immunohistologically stained and the expression of neurotrophic factors and cytokines were evaluated. ELISA assay was used to confirm the production of specific proteins. All cell populations survived the 48 h culture with little necrosis. Electrical stimulation was found to accelerate Wallerian degeneration and help Schwann cells to switch into migratory phenotype. Inductive electrical stimulation was shown to upregulate the secretion of multiple neurotrophic factors. Cellular distribution in nerve tissue was altered upon the application of an electrical field. This work thus presents an ex vivo model to study denervated axon in well controlled electrical field, bridging monolayer cell culture and animal experiment. It also demonstrated the critical role of electrical field distribution in regulating cellular activities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. High energy approximations for nuclear knockout form factors at small momentum transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amado, R.D.; Cannata, F.; Dedonder, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    We obtain an explicit approximate expression for the nucleon knockout form factor at small momentum transfer induced by a scalar probe in a single particle model in terms of the momentum space bound state wave function. Our form preserves the orthogonality constraint without using explicitly the final state scattering wave function. We examine the leading large momentum behavior of the momentum space wave function and of correction terms to our expression for the form factor in the case where the bound state is an s state

  14. Single-Spin Polarization Effects and the Determination of Timelike Proton Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S

    2003-10-24

    We show that measurements of the proton's polarization in e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} strongly discriminate between analytic forms of models which fit the proton form factors in the spacelike region. In particular, the single-spin asymmetry normal to the scattering plane measures the relative phase difference between the timelike G{sub E} and G{sub M} form factors. The expected proton polarization in the timelike region is large, of order of several tens of percent.

  15. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (Short Form) in Chinese Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Lin, Wenwen; Oei, Tian P. S.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated cross-cultural differences in the factor structure and psychometric properties of the Young Schema Questionnaire (short form; YSQ-SF). The participants were 712 Chinese undergraduate students. The total sample was randomly divided into two sub-samples. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) was conducted on questionnaire results…

  16. Spontaneous magnetization of quantum XY-chain from finite chain form-factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorgov, N.Z.

    2010-01-01

    Using the explicit factorized formulas for matrix elements (form-factors) of the spin operators between vectors of the Hamiltonian of a finite quantum XY-chain in a transverse field, the spontaneous magnetization for σ x and σ y is re-derived in a simple way.

  17. Multilevel Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villares, Elizabeth; Mariani, Melissa; Sink, Christopher A.; Colvin, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    Researchers analyzed data from elementary teachers (N = 233) to further establish the psychometric soundness of the Teacher My Class Inventory-Short Form. Supporting previous psychometric research, confirmatory factor analyses findings supported the factorial validity of the hypothesized five-factor solution. Internal reliability estimates were…

  18. An analysis of the welfare and distributive implications of factors influencing household electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Jordán, Desiderio; Río, Pablo del; Peñasco, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    The deep economic crisis and the sharp rise in electricity prices have reduced electricity demand by Spanish households. This paper aims to analyse the responsiveness of household electricity demand and the welfare effects related to both factors in the 2006–2012 period by applying a demand model estimated with the quantile regression method. The results show that the electricity consumption of medium-high income households is particularly responsive to price increases, whereas that of medium-low income households is more responsive to changes in income. The retail electricity price increases and the economic crisis have led to lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand and higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. The joint impact of those two factors on the welfare of lower-income households is higher in relative terms (i.e., as a share of household income) than for other income groups. These results suggest that the economic crisis and increases in retail electricity prices have had detrimental welfare effects, especially on the lower-income segment of the population. They should be considered when financing climate and energy policies through the electricity bill and provide a rationale to take such support, which pushes the retail electricity price upwards, out of the electricity bill. - Highlights: • Impact of the economic crisis and higher electricity prices on electricity demand. • Analysis of the welfare effects. • Lower and steeper U-shape price elasticities of demand. • Higher and steeper N-shape income elasticities of demand. • Welfare of lower-income households more negatively affected.

  19. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  20. Electromagnetic and axial-vector form factors of the quarks and nucleon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahiya, Harleen; Randhawa, Monika

    2017-11-01

    In light of the improved precision of the experimental measurements and enormous theoretical progress, the nucleon form factors have been evaluated with an aim to understand how the static properties and dynamical behavior of nucleons emerge from the theory of strong interactions between quarks. We have analyzed the vector and axial-vector nucleon form factors (GE,Mp,n(Q2) and GAp,n(Q2)) using the spin observables in the chiral constituent quark model (χCQM) which has made a significant contribution to the unraveling of the internal structure of the nucleon in the nonperturbative regime. We have also presented a comprehensive analysis of the flavor decomposition of the form factors (GEq(Q2), GMq(Q2) and GAq(Q2) for q = u,d,s) within the framework of χCQM with emphasis on the extraction of the strangeness form factors which are fundamental to determine the spin structure and test the chiral symmetry breaking effects in the nucleon. The Q2 dependence of the vector and axial-vector form factors of the nucleon has been studied using the conventional dipole form of parametrization. The results are in agreement with the available experimental data.

  1. Charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanov, V.K.; Zemlyanaya, E.V.; Kadrev, D.N.; Antonov, A.N.; Spasova, K.; Anagnostatos, G.S.; Ginis, P.; Giapitzakis, J.

    1999-01-01

    The transition densities and form factors of 0 + , 2 + , and 3 - states in 12 C are calculated in alpha-cluster model using the triangle frame with clusters in the vertices. The wave functions of nucleons in the alpha clusters are taken as they were obtained in the framework of the models used for the description of the 4 He form factor and momentum distribution which are based on the one-body density matrix construction. They contain effects of the short-range NN correlations, as well as the d-shell admixtures in 4 He. Calculations and the comparison with the experimental data show that visible effects on the form and magnitude of the 12 C form factors take place, especially at relatively large momentum transfers

  2. The dependence of the nuclear charge form factor on short range correlations and surface fluctuation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massen, S. E.; Garistov, V. P.; Grypeos, M. E.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of nuclear surface fluctuations on harmonic oscillator elastic charge form factor of light nuclei are investigated, simultaneously approximating the short-range correlations through a Jastrow correlation factor. Inclusion of the surface fluctuation effects within this description, by truncating the cluster expansion at the two-body part, is found to improve somewhat the fit to the elastic charge form-factor of 16 O and 40 Ca. However, the convergence of the cluster expansion is expected to deteriorate. An additional finding is that surface-fluctuation correlations produce a drastic change in the asymptotic behaviour of the point-proton form-factor, which now falls off quite slowly (i.e. as const.q -4 ) at large values of the momentum transfer q

  3. The NE11 experiment at SLAC and the neutron form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, L.M.; Lung, A.; Bosted, P.E.

    1993-05-01

    The neutron electromagnetic form factors G En and G Mn , which reflect the charge and magnetization distributions within the neutron, are of fundamental importance for understanding nucleon structure, and are necessary for calculations of processes involving the electromagnetic interaction with complex nuclei. These quantities are functions of Q 2 , the four-momentum transfer squared. SLAC experiment NE11 has measured these form factors out to a Q 2 of 4.0 (GeV/c) 2 with high precision, and the results have been recently published. This paper provides some additional details on the extraction of G Mn and G En from the NE11 measurements. Several formalisms have been developed over the years which attempt to understand the nucleon form factors using basic physical principles. Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) models are based on superpositions of photon couplings to various vector mesons. These models generally involve free parameters which are fit to form factor data at low Q 2 , and are not expected to be valid at high Q 2 . For asymptotically large Q 2 , dimensional scaling methods and perturbative Quantum Chromodynamics (pQCD) predict form factor behavior at large Q 2 , but they do not make absolute magnitude predictions. To describe the form factor behavior at intermediate values of Q 2 , a hybrid model by Gari and Kruempelmann (GK) uses VMD constraints at low Q 2 and pQCD constraints at high Q 2 . Free parameters in the model are adjusted to fit existing form factor data. Other approaches include the use of QCD sum rules to make absolute predictions, diquark models, and relativistic constituent quark models

  4. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  5. Graphene/phase change material nanocomposites: light-driven, reversible electrical resistivity regulation via form-stable phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunming; Mi, Hongyi; Zheng, Qifeng; Ma, Zhenqiang; Gong, Shaoqin

    2015-02-04

    Innovative photoresponsive materials are needed to address the complexity of optical control systems. Here, we report a new type of photoresponsive nanomaterial composed of graphene and a form-stable phase change material (PCM) that exhibited a 3 orders of magnitude change in electrical resistivity upon light illumination while retaining its overall original solid form at the macroscopic level. This dramatic change in electrical resistivity also occurred reversibly through the on/off control of light illumination. This was attributed to the reversible phase transition (i.e., melting/recrystallization) behavior of the microscopic crystalline domains present in the form-stable PCM. The reversible phase transition observed in the graphene/PCM nanocomposite was induced by a reversible temperature change through the on/off control of light illumination because graphene can effectively absorb light energy and convert it to thermal energy. In addition, this graphene/PCM nanocomposite also possessed excellent mechanical properties. Such photoresponsive materials have many potential applications, including flexible electronics.

  6. Data on the electromagnetic pion form factor and p-wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnicka, S.; Meshcheryakov, V.A.; Milko, J.

    1980-01-01

    The pion form factor absolute value data (free of the omega meson contribution) are unified with the P-wave isovector ππ phase shift. The resultant real and imaginary parts of the pion form factor are described by means of the Pade approximation. All the data, which involve the pion form factor experimental points from the range of momenta - 0.8432 GeV 2 2 , the pion charge radius, and the P-wave isovector ππ phase shift in the elastic region (including also the generally accepted value of the scattering length) are mutually consistent. The data themselves through the Pade approximation reveal that the aforementioned consistency can be achieved only if the pion form factor left-hand cut from the second Riemann sheet is taken into account. Almost in all of the considered Pade approximations one stable pion form factor zero is found in the space-like region, which might indicate the existence of a diffraction minimum in the differential cross section for elastic e - π scattering as a consequence of the constituent structure of the pion like in the case of the electron elastic scattering on nuclei

  7. Critical success factors for BOT electric power projects in China: Thermal power versus wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Zhen-Yu. [School of Business Administration, North China Electric Power University, Beijing 102206 (China); Zuo, Jian; Zillante, George [School of Natural and Built Environments, University of South Australia, Adelaide 5001 (Australia); Wang, Xin-Wei [Shandong Nuclear Power Equipment Manufacturing Co. Ltd, Haiyang, Shandong 265118 (China)

    2010-06-15

    Chinese electric power industry has adopted Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) approach in a number of projects to alleviate the pressure of sole state-owned investment. The Chinese government has taken enormous efforts to create an environment to facilitate the application of BOT approach in electric power projects. Moreover, the growing attention on the sustainability issues puts the traditional major source of electricity - thermal power project under more strict scrutiny. As a result, various renewable energy projects, particularly the wind power projects have involved private sector funds. Both thermal power and wind power projects via BOT approach have met with a varying degree of success. Therefore, it is imperative to understand the factors contributing towards the success of both types of BOT power projects. Using an extensive literature survey, this paper identifies 31 success factors under 5 categories for Chinese BOT electric power projects. This is followed by a questionnaire survey to exam relative significance of these factors. The results reveal the different levels of significance of success factors for BOT thermal power projects versus wind power projects. Finally, survey results were analyzed to explore the underlying construction and distributions among the identified success factors. This study provides a valuable reference for all involved parties that are interested in developing BOT electric power projects in China. (author)

  8. Assesment of influncing factors on mechanical and electrical properties of Al/Cu joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvaraj, R. Meby; Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss

    2018-05-01

    Joining of dissimilar materials opens up challenging opportunities in todays technology. Al/Cu weldments are used in applications that demands corrosion resistance, thermal and electrical conducting properties. In dissimilar joining mechanical and thermal properties result in large stress gradients during heating. The Al-Cu joints are lighter, cheaper and have conductivity equal to copper alloy. The main scope of this study is to assess the influencing factors of Al/Cu joints in mechanical and electrical properties. It includes the influence of the dilution between the base metals, influence of physical properties, influence of welding parameters, influence of filler metal, influence of heat treatment, and influence of electrical properties

  9. Structure analysis of aluminium silicon manganese nitride precipitates formed in grain-oriented electrical steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernier, Nicolas; Xhoffer, Chris; Van De Putte, Tom; Galceran, Montserrat; Godet, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    We report a detailed structural and chemical characterisation of aluminium silicon manganese nitrides that act as grain growth inhibitors in industrially processed grain-oriented (GO) electrical steels. The compounds are characterised using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX) and energy filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), while their crystal structures are analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and TEM in electron diffraction (ED), dark-field, high-resolution and automated crystallographic orientation mapping (ACOM) modes. The chemical bonding character is determined using electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Despite the wide variation in composition, all the precipitates exhibit a hexagonal close-packed (h.c.p.) crystal structure and lattice parameters of aluminium nitride. The EDX measurement of ∼ 900 stoichiometrically different precipitates indicates intermediate structures between pure aluminium nitride and pure silicon manganese nitride, with a constant Si/Mn atomic ratio of ∼ 4. It is demonstrated that aluminium and silicon are interchangeably precipitated with the same local arrangement, while both Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ are incorporated in the h.c.p. silicon nitride interstitial sites. The oxidation of the silicon manganese nitrides most likely originates from the incorporation of oxygen during the decarburisation annealing process, thus creating extended planar defects such as stacking faults and inversion domain boundaries. The chemical composition of the inhibitors may be written as (AlN) x (SiMn 0.25 N y O z ) 1−x with x ranging from 0 to 1. - Highlights: • We study the structure of (Al,Si,Mn)N inhibitors in grain oriented electrical steels. • Inhibitors have the hexagonal close-packed symmetry with lattice parameters of AlN. • Inhibitors are intermediate structures between pure AlN and (Si,Mn)N with Si/Mn ∼ 4. • Al and Si share the same local arrangement; Mn is incorporated in both Mn 2+ and Mn 3+ . • Oxygen

  10. Light, rest mass and electric charge quanta all formed by neutrinos?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Guang

    In high energy physics experiments the electric charge and rest mass of particles can commonly transform into the photons, vice versa. Its reason QFT can only give a vague answer: based on the particle creation and annihilation operators. There are not more clear answers or conjecture? At least, light, electric charge and rest mass should have a collective structure component, if not, the transformation is unable understanding. An elementary answer is that neutrino and antineutrino as their collective structure component. In the paper ‘Chen Qiliang & Wang Bin, The formation and characteristics of Chen Shaoguang's formula, China Science &Technology Overview 127101-103 (2011)’, the lowest energy state vertical polarized left spin 1/2 neutrino and right spin 1/2 antineutrino are just the left, right advance unit quanta la _{0}nuυ, ra nuυ _{0} and left, right back unit quanta lb (0) nuυ, rb nuυ (0) , it again compose into spin 1 unit photon la-ra _{0}nuυnuυ _{0} and back-photon lb-rb (0) nuυnuυ (0) , spin 0 unit rest mass ra-rb nuυ _{0}nuυ (0) and anti-mass la-lb _{0}nuυ (0) nuυ, spin 0 unit positive charge la-rb _{0}nuυnuυ (0) and negative charge ra-lb nuυ _{0} (0) nuυ. The physical vacuum is the even collocation of non-combinational nuυ _{0} or _{0}nuυ. It accord to the high energy physics experimental results of the transformation among the photons, masses quanta and charges quanta. In my paper ‘Quanta turn-advance ism, China Science && Technology Overview 131 192-210 (2011)’, QFT four-dimensional uncertainty principle and momentum-energy conservation law had been generalized as a five-dimensional equations: de Broglie wavelength as a position vector \\underline{q}= (i c t, r, s), momentum \\underline{P} = (i E / c, P, U c), \\underline{q} = i h / \\underline{P}, \\underline{q} \\underline{q} = 0, \\underline{P} \\underline{P} = 0, Sigma∑ \\underline{P} = \\underline{P} (0) . The five-dimensional time-space-spin had been quantized as a

  11. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at overlinePANDA at FAIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, B.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kümmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, F.; Lisowski, E.; Michałek, M.; Poznański, P.; Płażek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Pyszniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Böhm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Nicmorus Marinescu, D.; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Löchner, S.; Lühning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C. J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Täschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, V. A.; Astakhov, V.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B. V.; Davydov, Y.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A. G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E. K.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Lobanov, V. I.; Makarov, A. F.; Malinina, L. V.; Malyshev, V.; Olshevskiy, A. G.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A. A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M. G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N. B.; Skachkova, A. N.; Strokovsky, E. A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopianov, A.; Zaporozhets, S. A.; Zhuravlev, N. I.; Zorin, A. G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R. F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J. S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M. N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P. N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P. J.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J. C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Pütz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Xu, H.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Liu, Z.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H. H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Martínez, M.; Michel, M.; Mora Espí, M. C.; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflüger, S.; Pitka, A.; Rodríguez Piñeiro, D.; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A. K.; Parmar, A.; Roy, B.; Sonika, G.; Fritzsch, C.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.; Hetz, B.; Hüsken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Wessels, J. P.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Limphirat, A.; Srisawad, P.; Yan, Y.; Barnyakov, M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K.; Blinov, A. E.; Blinov, V. E.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Kononov, S.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Kuyanov, I. A.; Martin, K.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S.; Sokolov, A.; Tikhonov, Y.; Atomssa, E.; Kunne, R.; Marchand, D.; Ramstein, B.; van de Wiele, J.; Wang, Y.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Levin, A.; Melnik, Y.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Roy, U.; Yabsley, B.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhdanov, A.; Makonyi, K.; Preston, M.; Tegner, P.; Wölbing, D.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Rai, A. K.; Godre, S.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Olave, J.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M. P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Hu, J.; Lavezzi, L.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Calen, H.; Ikegami Andersson, W.; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Papenbrock, M.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Galnander, B.; Diaz, J.; Pothodi Chackara, V.; Chlopik, A.; Kesik, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Steinschaden, D.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-10-01

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at overlinePANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel bar{p}p→ e+e- is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. bar{p}p→ π+π-, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance.

  12. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, B. [Aligarth Muslim Univ., Aligarth (India). Physics Dept.; Erni, W.; Krusche, B. [Basel Univ. (Switzerland); Collaboration: The PANDA Collaboration; and others

    2016-10-15

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at PANDA(FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel anti pp → e{sup +}e{sup -} is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. anti pp → π{sup +}π{sup -}, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance. (orig.)

  13. Strange and charge symmetry violating electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, P.E.

    2016-01-01

    We summarise recent work based on lattice QCD simulations of the electromagnetic form factors of the octet baryons from the CSSM/QCDSF/UKQCD collaborations. After an analysis of the simulation results using techniques to approach the infinite volume limit and the physical pseudoscalar masses at non-zero momentum transfer, the extrapolated proton and neutron form factors are found to be in excellent agreement with those extracted from experiment. Given the success of these calculations, we describe how the strange electromagnetic form factors may be estimated from these results under the same assumption of charge symmetry used in experimental determinations of those quantities. Motivated by the necessity of that assumption, we explore a method for determining the size of charge symmetry breaking effects using the same lattice results. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic and Scalar Pion form factor in the Kroll-Lee-Zumino model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, C.A.; Jottar, J.I.; Loewe, M.; Willers, B.

    2009-01-01

    The renormalizable Abelian quantum field theory model of Kroll, Lee, and Zumino is used at the one loop level to compute vertex corrections to the tree-level, Vector Meson Dominance (VMD) electromagnetic pion form factor. These corrections, together with the one-loop vacuum polarization contribution, imply a resulting electromagnetic pion form factor in excellent agreement with data in the whole range of accessible momentum transfers in the space-like region. The time-like form factor, which reproduces the Gounaris-Sakurai formula at and near the rho-meson peak, is unaffected by the vertex correction at order O(g 2 ). The KLZ model is also used to compute the scalar radius of the pion at the one loop level, finding π 2 > S =0.40fm 2 . This value implies for the low energy constant of chiral perturbation theory l-bar 4 =3.4

  15. Form factor of relativistic two-particle system and covariant hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skachkov, N.; Solovtsov, I.

    1979-01-01

    Based on the hamiltonian formulation of quantum field theory proposed by Kadyshevsky the three-dimensional relativistic approach is developed for describing the form factors of composite systems. The main features of the diagram technique appearing in the covariant hamiltonian formulation of field theory are discussed. The three-dimensional relativistic equation for the vertex function is derived and its connection with that for the quasipotential wave function is found. The expressions are obtained for the form factor of the system through equal-time two-particle wave functions both in momentum and relativistic configurational representations. An explicit expression for the form factor is found for the case of two-particle interaction through the Coulomb potential

  16. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B.; Krusche, B.; Steinacher, M.; Walford, N.; Liu, B.; Liu, H.; Liu, Z.; Shen, X.; Wang, C.; Zhao, J.; Albrecht, M.; Erlen, T.; Fink, M.; Heinsius, F.; Held, T.; Holtmann, T.; Jasper, S.; Keshk, I.; Koch, H.; Kopf, B.; Kuhlmann, M.; Kümmel, M.; Leiber, S.; Mikirtychyants, M.; Musiol, P.; Mustafa, A.; Pelizäus, M.; Pychy, J.; Richter, M.; Schnier, C.; Schröder, T.; Sowa, C.; Steinke, M.; Triffterer, T.; Wiedner, U.; Ball, M.; Beck, R.; Hammann, C.; Ketzer, B.; Kube, M.; Mahlberg, P.; Rossbach, M.; Schmidt, C.; Schmitz, R.; Thoma, U.; Urban, M.; Walther, D.; Wendel, C.; Wilson, A.; Bianconi, A.; Bragadireanu, M.; Caprini, M.; Pantea, D.; Patel, B.; Czyzycki, W.; Domagala, M.; Filo, G.; Jaworowski, J.; Krawczyk, M.; Lisowski, F.; Lisowski, E.; Michałek, M.; Poznański, P.; Płażek, J.; Korcyl, K.; Kozela, A.; Kulessa, P.; Lebiedowicz, P.; Pysz, K.; Schäfer, W.; Szczurek, A.; Fiutowski, T.; Idzik, M.; Mindur, B.; Przyborowski, D.; Swientek, K.; Biernat, J.; Kamys, B.; Kistryn, S.; Korcyl, G.; Krzemien, W.; Magiera, A.; Moskal, P.; Pyszniak, A.; Rudy, Z.; Salabura, P.; Smyrski, J.; Strzempek, P.; Wronska, A.; Augustin, I.; Böhm, R.; Lehmann, I.; Marinescu, D. Nicmorus; Schmitt, L.; Varentsov, V.; Al-Turany, M.; Belias, A.; Deppe, H.; Dzhygadlo, R.; Ehret, A.; Flemming, H.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Gromliuk, A.; Gruber, L.; Karabowicz, R.; Kliemt, R.; Krebs, M.; Kurilla, U.; Lehmann, D.; Löchner, S.; Lühning, J.; Lynen, U.; Orth, H.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Saito, T.; Schepers, G.; Schmidt, C.J.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Täschner, A.; Traxler, M.; Ugur, C.; Voss, B.; Wieczorek, P.; Wilms, A.; Zühlsdorf, M.; Abazov, V.; Alexeev, G.; Arefiev, V.A.; Astakhov, V.; Barabanov, M. Yu.; Batyunya, B.V.; Davydov, Y.; Dodokhov, V. Kh.; Efremov, A.; Fechtchenko, A.; Fedunov, A.G.; Galoyan, A.; Grigoryan, S.; Koshurnikov, E.K.; Lobanov, Y. Yu.; Lobanov, V.I.; Makarov, A.F.; Malinina, L.V.; Malyshev, V.; Olshevskiy, A.G.; Perevalova, E.; Piskun, A.A.; Pocheptsov, T.; Pontecorvo, G.; Rodionov, V.; Rogov, Y.; Salmin, R.; Samartsev, A.; Sapozhnikov, M.G.; Shabratova, G.; Skachkov, N.B.; Skachkova, A.N.; Strokovsky, E.A.; Suleimanov, M.; Teshev, R.; Tokmenin, V.; Uzhinsky, V.; Vodopianov, A.; Zaporozhets, S.A.; Zhuravlev, N.I.; Zorin, A.G.; Branford, D.; Glazier, D.; Watts, D.; Böhm, M.; Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Lehmann, A.; Pfaffinger, M.; Uhlig, F.; Dobbs, S.; Seth, K.; Tomaradze, A.; Xiao, T.; Bettoni, D.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta Ramusino, A.; Dalpiaz, P.; Drago, A.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Savrie, M.; Akishina, V.; Kisel, I.; Kozlov, G.; Pugach, M.; Zyzak, M.; Gianotti, P.; Guaraldo, C.; Lucherini, V.; Bersani, A.; Bracco, G.; Macri, M.; Parodi, R.F.; Biguenko, K.; Brinkmann, K.; Di Pietro, V.; Diehl, S.; Dormenev, V.; Drexler, P.; Düren, M.; Etzelmüller, E.; Galuska, M.; Gutz, E.; Hahn, C.; Hayrapetyan, A.; Kesselkaul, M.; Kühn, W.; Kuske, T.; Lange, J.S.; Liang, Y.; Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Nazarenko, S.; Novotny, R.; Quagli, T.; Reiter, S.; Rieke, J.; Rosenbaum, C.; Schmidt, M.; Schnell, R.; Stenzel, H.; Thöring, U.; Ullrich, M.; Wagner, M.N.; Wasem, T.; Wohlfahrt, B.; Zaunick, H.; Ireland, D.; Rosner, G.; Seitz, B.; Deepak, P.N.; Kulkarni, A.; Apostolou, A.; Babai, M.; Kavatsyuk, M.; Lemmens, P.J.; Lindemulder, M.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.; Schakel, P.; Smit, H.; Tiemens, M.; van der Weele, J.C.; Veenstra, R.; Vejdani, S.; Dutta, K.; Kalita, K.; Kumar, A.; Roy, A.; Sohlbach, H.; Bai, M.; Bianchi, L.; Büscher, M.; Cao, L.; Cebulla, A.; Dosdall, R.; Gillitzer, A.; Goldenbaum, F.; Grunwald, D.; Herten, A.; Hu, Q.; Kemmerling, G.; Kleines, H.; Lehrach, A.; Nellen, R.; Ohm, H.; Orfanitski, S.; Prasuhn, D.; Prencipe, E.; Pütz, J.; Ritman, J.; Schadmand, S.; Sefzick, T.; Serdyuk, V.; Sterzenbach, G.; Stockmanns, T.; Wintz, P.; Wüstner, P.; Xu, H.; Zambanini, A.; Li, S.; Li, Z.; Sun, Z.; Rigato, V.; Isaksson, L.; Achenbach, P.; Corell, O.; Denig, A.; Distler, M.; Hoek, M.; Karavdina, A.; Lauth, W.; Merkel, H.; Müller, U.; Pochodzalla, J.; Sanchez, S.; Schlimme, S.; Sfienti, C.; Thiel, M.; Ahmadi, H.; Ahmed, S.; Bleser, S.; Capozza, L.; Cardinali, M.; Dbeyssi, A.; Deiseroth, M.; Feldbauer, F.; Fritsch, M.; Fröhlich, B.; Jasinski, P.; Kang, D.; Khaneft, D.; Klasen, R.; Leithoff, H.H.; Lin, D.; Maas, F.; Maldaner, S.; Marta, M.; Michel, M.; Espí, M. C. Mora; Morales Morales, C.; Motzko, C.; Nerling, F.; Noll, O.; Pflüger, S.; Pitka, A.; Piñeiro, D. Rodríguez; Sanchez-Lorente, A.; Steinen, M.; Valente, R.; Weber, T.; Zambrana, M.; Zimmermann, I.; Fedorov, A.; Korjik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Boukharov, A.; Malyshev, O.; Marishev, I.; Balanutsa, V.; Balanutsa, P.; Chernetsky, V.; Demekhin, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Fedorets, P.; Gerasimov, A.; Goryachev, V.; Chandratre, V.; Datar, V.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumawat, H.; Mohanty, A.K.; Parmar, A.; Roy, B.; Sonika, G.; Fritzsch, C.; Grieser, S.; Hergemöller, A.; Hetz, B.; Hüsken, N.; Khoukaz, A.; Wessels, J.P.; Khosonthongkee, K.; Kobdaj, C.; Limphirat, A.; Srisawad, P.; Yan, Y.; Barnyakov, M.; Barnyakov, A. Yu.; Beloborodov, K.; Blinov, A.E.; Blinov, V.E.; Bobrovnikov, V.S.; Kononov, S.; Kravchenko, E.A.; Kuyanov, I.A.; Martin, K.; Onuchin, A.P.; Serednyakov, S.; Sokolov, A.; Tikhonov, Y.; Atomssa, E.; Kunne, R.; Marchand, D.; Ramstein, B.; van de Wiele, J.; Wang, Y.; Boca, G.; Costanza, S.; Genova, P.; Montagna, P.; Rotondi, A.; Abramov, V.; Belikov, N.; Bukreeva, S.; Davidenko, A.; Derevschikov, A.; Goncharenko, Y.; Grishin, V.; Kachanov, V.; Kormilitsin, V.; Levin, A.; Melnik, Y.; Minaev, N.; Mochalov, V.; Morozov, D.; Nogach, L.; Poslavskiy, S.; Ryazantsev, A.; Ryzhikov, S.; Semenov, P.; Shein, I.; Uzunian, A.; Vasiliev, A.; Yakutin, A.; Tomasi-Gustafsson, E.; Roy, U.; Yabsley, B.; Belostotski, S.; Gavrilov, G.; Izotov, A.; Manaenkov, S.; Miklukho, O.; Veretennikov, D.; Zhdanov, A.; Makonyi, K.; Preston, M.; Tegner, P.; Wölbing, D.; Bäck, T.; Cederwall, B.; Rai, A.K.; Godre, S.; Calvo, D.; Coli, S.; De Remigis, P.; Filippi, A.; Giraudo, G.; Lusso, S.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Rivetti, A.; Wheadon, R.; Balestra, F.; Iazzi, F.; Introzzi, R.; Lavagno, A.; Olave, J.; Amoroso, A.; Bussa, M.P.; Busso, L.; De Mori, F.; Destefanis, M.; Fava, L.; Ferrero, L.; Greco, M.; Hu, J.; Lavezzi, L.; Maggiora, M.; Maniscalco, G.; Marcello, S.; Sosio, S.; Spataro, S.; Birsa, R.; Bradamante, F.; Bressan, A.; Martin, A.; Calen, H.; Andersson, W. Ikegami; Johansson, T.; Kupsc, A.; Marciniewski, P.; Papenbrock, M.; Pettersson, J.; Schönning, K.; Wolke, M.; Galnander, B.; Diaz, J.; Chackara, V. Pothodi; Chlopik, A.; Kesik, G.; Melnychuk, D.; Slowinski, B.; Trzcinski, A.; Wojciechowski, M.; Wronka, S.; Zwieglinski, B.; Bühler, P.; Marton, J.; Steinschaden, D.; Suzuki, K.; Widmann, E.; Zmeskal, J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of simulations for future measurements of electromagnetic form factors at \\PANDA (FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision at which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel $\\bar p p \\to e^+ e^-$ is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. the $\\bar p p \\to \\pi^+ \\pi^-$, is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistic and systematic uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using to the two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam condition and detector performances.

  17. High Precision Measurement of the Proton Elastic Form Factor Ratio at Low Q2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiaohui Zhan

    2009-12-01

    A high precision measurement of the proton elastic form factor ratio µpGEp/GMp in the range Q2 = 0.3–0.7 GeV2/c2 was performed using recoil polarimetry in Jefferson Lab Hall A. In this low Q2 range, previous data from LEDEX [5] along with many fits and calculations [2, 3, 4] indicate substantial deviations of the ratio from unity. In this new measurement, with 80% polarized electron beam for 24 days, we are able to achieve <1% statistical uncertainty. Preliminary results are a few percent lower than expected from previous world data and fits, indicating a smaller GEp at this region. Beyond the intrinsic interest in nucleon structure, the improved form factor measurements also have implications for DVCS, determinations of the proton Zemach radius and strangeness form factors through parity violation experiments.

  18. 1/mQ corrections to form factors and extraction of |Vcb|

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, J.; Chao, K.

    1997-01-01

    Form factors for 0 - →0 - and 0 - →1 - mesonic transitions in the heavy quark limit and the 1/m Q corrections are analyzed model independently within the Bethe-Salpeter (BS) formalism. The analysis shows that the BS formalism has spin-flavor symmetry in the heavy quark limit and respects Luke's theorem when the 1/m Q corrections are taken into account. All form factors for B→D (*) transitions beyond the zero recoil point are estimated in a relativistic constituent quark model based on the BS formalism. Using these form factors we calculate the branching ratios for the semileptonic decays B→D (*) l + ν l and extract the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix element |V cb |. We get |V cb |=0.042±0.003 which is consistent with the current world average. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  19. Holographic estimate of the meson cloud contribution to nucleon axial form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, G.

    2018-04-01

    We use light-front holography to estimate the valence quark and the meson cloud contributions to the nucleon axial form factor. The free couplings of the holographic model are determined by the empirical data and by the information extracted from lattice QCD. The holographic model provides a good description of the empirical data when we consider a meson cloud mixture of about 30% in the physical nucleon state. The estimate of the valence quark contribution to the nucleon axial form factor compares well with the lattice QCD data for small pion masses. Our estimate of the meson cloud contribution to the nucleon axial form factor has a slower falloff with the square momentum transfer compared to typical estimates from quark models with meson cloud dressing.

  20. Bethe Ansatz and exact form factors of the O(N) Gross Neveu-model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babujian, Hrachya M.; Foerster, Angela; Karowski, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We apply previous results on the O(N) Bethe Ansatz http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1751-8113/45/5/055207, http://arxiv.org/abs/1204.3479, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP11(2013)089 to construct a general form factor formula for the O(N) Gross-Neveu model. We examine this formula for several operators, such as the energy momentum, the spin-field and the current. We also compare these results with the 1/N expansion of this model and obtain full agreement. We discuss bound state form factors, in particular for the three particle form factor of the field. In addition for the two particle case we prove a recursion relation for the K-functions of the higher level Bethe Ansatz.

  1. Feasibility studies of time-like proton electromagnetic form factors at PANDA at FAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.

    2016-01-01

    Simulation results for future measurements of electromagnetic proton form factors at PANDA(FAIR) within the PandaRoot software framework are reported. The statistical precision with which the proton form factors can be determined is estimated. The signal channel anti pp → e + e - is studied on the basis of two different but consistent procedures. The suppression of the main background channel, i.e. anti pp → π + π - , is studied. Furthermore, the background versus signal efficiency, statistical and systematical uncertainties on the extracted proton form factors are evaluated using two different procedures. The results are consistent with those of a previous simulation study using an older, simplified framework. However, a slightly better precision is achieved in the PandaRoot study in a large range of momentum transfer, assuming the nominal beam conditions and detector performance. (orig.)

  2. Approach to modeling of the fast energy discharge in cryogenic systems in the form of an electric arc

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting magnets are supplied with a few kA of electric current and can store a large amount of energy. Therefore, cryogenic systems which are comprised of such magnets are subject to the risk of fast energy discharge from the magnets themselves in the form of an electric arc. The arcing can be a result of failure in the insulation of an electric circuit or in the connection between the magnet and its current lead. During the discharge, energy can be partially dissipated into the cryogen and partially into the cryogenic system metallic structure. The part of the energy that is transferred to the metallic structure will strongly heat up the metal surface, which can lead to material burning. In this case, the cryogen will flow through the perforation to the insulation vacuum space, which can trigger a rapid increase in pressure in the vacuum enclosure. However, the discharged energy that has been stored in the cryogen also causes a rapid increase in cryogenic pressure. Hence, the proper estimation of the...

  3. The electricity exchange. On the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading as seen from the viewpoint of market sociology; Die Stromboerse. Ueber Form und latente Funktionen des boerslichen Stromhandels aus marktsoziologischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giacovelli, Sebastian

    2014-07-01

    Electricity exchange trading in Germany has existed since the year 2000. Since this time, the Leipzig electricity exchange, a reference market for off-exchange electricity trading, has operated in an environment marked by both criticism and acceptance. Taking this field of controversy as a point of departure the present empirical study in market sociology undertakes to investigate the organisation and latent functions of electricity exchange trading. The ensuing analysis provides answers to questions as to how prices are formed on the electricity exchange and what officially incommunicable functions are served by price formation on exchanges.

  4. Thermodynamic model for the elastic form factor in diffraction scattering of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grashin, A.F.; Evstratenko, A.S.; Lepeshkin, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    An explicit expression is obtained for the differential pp(p-bar)-scattering cross section in the diffraction-cone region by employing the thermodynamic model for the elastic form factor previously proposed in Ref. 4. Data for the energy region 16.3≤(s)/sup 1/2/ ≤546 GeV have been analyzed and significant deviations have been discovered from the commonly used approximations in the form of linear or quadratic exponentials

  5. Constraints on the ωπ Form Factor from Analyticity and Unitarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthanarayan, B.; Caprini, Irinel; Kubis, Bastian

    Form factors are important low-energy quantities and an accurate knowledge of these sheds light on the strong interactions. A variety of methods based on general principles have been developed to use information known in different energy regimes to constrain them in regions where experimental information needs to be tested precisely. Here we review our recent work on the electromagnetic ωπ form factor in a model-independent framework known as the method of unitarity bounds, partly motivated by the discre-pancies noted recently between the theoretical calculations of the form factor based on dispersion relations and certain experimental data measured from the decay ω → π0γ*. We have applied a modified dispersive formalism, which uses as input the discontinuity of the ωπ form factor calculated by unitarity below the ωπ threshold and an integral constraint on the square of its modulus above this threshold. The latter constraint was obtained by exploiting unitarity and the positivity of the spectral function of a QCD correlator, computed on the spacelike axis by operator product expansion and perturbative QCD. An alternative constraint is obtained by using data available at higher energies for evaluating an integral of the modulus squared with a suitable weight function. From these conditions we derived upper and lower bounds on the modulus of the ωπ form factor in the region below the ωπ threshold. The results confirm the existence of a disagreement between dispersion theory and experimental data on the ωπ form factor around 0:6 GeV, including those from NA60 published in 2016.

  6. Measurement of the form factor ratios in semileptonic decays of charm mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Zaliznyak

    1999-01-01

    I have measured the form factor ratios r 2 = A 2 (0)/A 1 (0) and r V = V (0)/A 1 (0) in the semileptonic charm meson decay D + → (anti K) *0 e + ν e from data collected by the Fermilab E791 collaboration. Form factors are introduced in the calculation of the hadronic current in semileptonic decays of strange, charm, or bottom mesons, such as D + → (anti K) *0 e + ν e . Semileptonic decays provide insight into quark coupling to the W boson since the leptonic and hadronic amplitudes in the Feynman diagram for the decay are completely separate. There are no strong interactions between the final state leptons and quarks. A number of theoretical models predict the values of the form factors for D + → (anti K) *0 e + ν e , though there is a large range of predictions. E791 is a hadroproduction experiment that recorded over 20 billion interactions with a 500 GeV π - beam incident on five thin targets during the 1991-92 Fermilab fixed-target run. Approximately 3000 D + → (anti K) *0 e + ν e decays are fully reconstructed. In order to extract the form factor ratios from the data, I implement a multidimensional unbinned maximum likelihood fit with a large sample of simulated (Monte Carlo) D + → (anti K) *0 e + ν e events. The large E791 data sample provides the most precise measurement of the form factor ratios to date. The measured values for the form factor ratios are r 2 = 0.71 ± 0.08 ± 0.09 and r V = 1.84 ± 0.11 ± 0.08. These results are in good agreement with some Lattice Gauge calculations. However the agreement with quark model predictions is not as good

  7. Form factors for semileptonic Bs→Klν decays in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, Felix Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We present an exploratory study of the calculation of the form factor f + (q 2 ) for the semileptonic decay B s →Klν in large-volume lattice QCD simulations with two dynamical sea quark flavours using O(a) improved Wilson fermions. We discuss the computation of relevant two- and three-point functions and consider complementary methods how these can be combined to obtain the form factor. In particular, we put forward the strategy of a combined fit in which data of all correlators enter and which has as fit parameters energies and amplitudes of the correlators and the form factor. The b quark is treated in HQET; our present analysis focuses on the static limit. Meanwhile, we have developed the code and performed the measurements of all needed O(1/m h ) corrections which will be used as soon as their coefficients will have been computed by the ALPHA collaboration. In order to be able to measure the form factor at the same value of the momentum transfer q 2 on all ensembles, we impose twisted boundary conditions on the s and b quarks that allow for a free tuning of the quark momenta and thus of q 2 . We perform measurements on a subset of N f =2 CLS gauge configurations, obtaining the form factor at three different lattice spacings and roughly the same pion mass of about 330 MeV. Using these, we carry out a continuum extrapolation and observe that it is relatively flat in a 2 . A measurement at a different pion mass indicates that quark mass effects are small. We compare our continuum value of the form factor with recently published results of other collaborations and observe a good agreement.

  8. Electrically Small Magnetic Dipole Antennas With Quality Factors Approaching the Chu Lower Bound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav; Yaghjian, Arthur D.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the quality factor Q for electrically small current distributions and practical antenna designs radiating the TE10 magnetic dipole field. The current distributions and the antenna designs employ electric currents on a spherical surface enclosing a magneto-dielectric material...... numerically. It is found that for a given antenna size and permittivity there is an optimum permeability that ensures the lowest possible Q, and this optimum permeability is inversely proportional to the square of the antenna electrical radius. When the relative permittivity is equal to 1, the optimum...... permeability yields the quality factor Q that constitutes the lower bound for a magnetic dipole antenna with a magneto-dielectric core. Furthermore, the smaller the antenna the closer its quality factor Q can approach the Chu lower bound. Simulated results for the TE10-mode multiarm spherical helix antenna...

  9. The co-integration analysis of factors affecting electricity consumption : a case study of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kongruang, C. [Thaksin Univ., Songkhla (Thailand). Faculty of Economics and Business; Waewsak, J. [Thaksin Univ., Phatthalung (Thailand). Dept. of Physics, Solar and Wind Energy Research Lab

    2008-07-01

    A study was conducted in which the main determinants of electricity demand in Thailand were investigated. Time-series analysis methods were used, notably the unit root test, the Johansen co-integration test and an error correction model (ECM). The objective was to determine the factors affecting short and long-run electricity consumption. This paper presented annual time series data from 1971 to 2006. The unit root test revealed that all series are non-stationary. The Johansen co-integration test revealed the co-integration between variables and the existence of the long-term relationship between them. Electricity consumption accelerated with the increase in gross domestic product (GDP) and population. In contrast, an increase in commodity price would reduce electricity consumption. The coefficient of population indicated that an increase of 1 million in total population would result in an increase in electricity consumption of 0.099 per cent. Last, the results of ECM revealed that nearly 21 per cent of long-term disequilibrium is adjusted to the current period. The factors that affect electricity consumption include GDP growth, inflation rate and population growth. It was concluded that Thailand should prepare for additional power generation from clean energy sources such as solar, biomass and wind energy. Thailand's Energy Policy and Planning Office revealed that electricity consumption in 2008 would be over 130,000 GWh with per capita consumption at nearly 2,000 kWh. The power peak demand will be nearly 24,000 MW in 2008. This result was based on the forecasting model that considered only GDP growth. However, electricity consumption depends not only on the GDP growth, but also upon the other key variables such as population, electricity selling price, consumer price index and temperature. 17 refs., 5 tabs., 4 figs.

  10. Lattice study of D and D{sub s} meson form factors with twisted boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ning; Wu, Ya-Jie [Xi' an Technological University, School of Science, Xi' an (China)

    2017-03-15

    We present results on the D and D{sub s} meson electromagnetic form factors using N{sub f} = 2 twisted mass Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics (LQCD) gauge configurations. In this simulation, to access spatial components of momenta that are different from the integer multiples of 2π/L, we apply twisted boundary conditions to compute corresponding correlation functions. Electromagnetic form factors with more small four-momentum transfer are determined, and further we fit the electromagnetic charge radius for D and D{sub s} mesons, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of the J /ψ →π0γ* transition form factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubis, Bastian; Niecknig, Franz

    2015-02-01

    In view of the first measurement of the branching fraction for J /ψ →π0e+e- by the BESIII collaboration, we analyze what can be learned on the corresponding transition form factor using dispersion theory. We show that light-quark degrees of freedom dominate the spectral function, in particular two-pion intermediate states. Estimating the effects of multipion states as well as charmonium, we arrive at a prediction for the complete form factor that should be scrutinized experimentally in the future.

  12. Charge symmetry violation in the electromagnetic form factors of the proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M.; Pleiter, D.; Stueben, H.

    2015-03-01

    Experimental tests of QCD through its predictions for the strange-quark content of the proton have been drastically restricted by our lack of knowledge of the violation of charge symmetry (CSV). We find unexpectedly tiny CSV in the proton's electromagnetic form factors by performing the first extraction of these quantities based on an analysis of lattice QCD data. The resulting values are an order of magnitude smaller than current bounds on proton strangeness from parity violating electron-proton scattering experiments. This result paves the way for a new generation of experimental measurements of the proton's strange form factors to challenge the predictions of QCD.

  13. Extraction of the bare form factors for the semi-leptonic Bs decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahr, F.; Banerjee, D.; Koren, M.; Simma, H.; Sommer, R.

    2017-01-01

    The computation of the form factors for the B s →lν decay is presented. The b quark is treated by means of Heavy Quark Effective Theory, currently in the static approximation. In these proceedings we discuss the extraction of the bare matrix elements from lattice data through a combined fit to two- and three-point correlation functions, as well as by considering suitable ratios. The different methods agree concerning the extracted form factors and approximately 2% accuracy is reached. The non-perturbative renormalization and matching to QCD is described in accompanying proceedings.

  14. Strange quark content in the nucleon and the strange quark vector current form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubnicka, S.; Dubnickova, A.Z.

    1996-12-01

    A behaviour of the form factors of the nucleon matrix element of the strange quark vector current in the momentum range of the planned measurements in MIT/Bates and CEBAF is predicted theoretically without using any of the experimental information on the nucleon electromagnetic structure. The corresponding leading nonvanishing moments of the nucleon vector strangeness distribution are comparable with the values obtained by other authors in the framework of the method based on the vector meson pole fit of the isoscalar electromagnetic form factors of the nucleon. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs

  15. Light Cone Sum Rules for gamma*N ->Delta Transition Form Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V.M. Braun; A. Lenz; G. Peters; A. Radyushkin

    2006-02-01

    A theoretical framework is suggested for the calculation of {gamma}* N {yields} {Delta} transition form factors using the light-cone sum rule approach. Leading-order sum rules are derived and compared with the existing experimental data. We find that the transition form factors in a several GeV region are dominated by the ''soft'' contributions that can be thought of as overlap integrals of the valence components of the hadron wave functions. The ''minus'' components of the quark fields contribute significantly to the result, which can be reinterpreted as large contributions of the quark orbital angular momentum.

  16. Constructing Nucleon Operators on a Lattice for Form Factors with High Momentum Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syritsyn, Sergey [Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States); Gambhir, Arjun S. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Musch, Bernhard U. [Univ. of Regensburg (Germany); Orginos, Konstantinos [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We present preliminary results of computing nucleon form factor at high momentum transfer using the 'boosted' or 'momentum' smearing. We use gauge configurations generated with N f = 2 + 1dynamical Wilson-clover fermions and study the connected as well as disconnected contributions to the nucleon form factors. Our initial results indicate that boosted smearing helps to improve the signal for nucleon correlators at high momentum. However, we also find evidence for large excited state contributions, which will likely require variational analysis to isolate the boosted nucleon ground state.

  17. Parity Violation in Elastic Electron-Proton Scattering and the Proton's Strange Magnetic Form Factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spayde, D. T.; Averett, T.; Barkhuff, D.; Beck, D. H.; Beise, E. J.; Benson, C.; Breuer, H.; Carr, R.; Covrig, S.; DelCorso, J.

    2000-01-01

    We report a new measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry in elastic electron scattering from the proton at backward scattering angles. This asymmetry is sensitive to the strange magnetic form factor of the proton as well as electroweak axial radiative corrections. The new measurement of A=-4.92±0.61±0.73 ppm provides a significant constraint on these quantities. The implications for the strange magnetic form factor are discussed in the context of theoretical estimates for the axial corrections. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  18. Q resolution calculation of small angle neutron scattering spectrometer and analysis of form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Liang; Peng Mei; Wang Yan; Sun Liangwei; Chen Bo

    2011-01-01

    The calculational methods of Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS) spectrometer Q resolution function and its correlative Q standard difference were introduced. The effects of Q standard difference were analysed with the geometry lay out of spectrometer and the spread of neutron wavelength. The one dimension Q resolution Gaussian function were analysed. The form factor curve of ideal solid sphere and two different instrument arrangement parameter was convoluted respectively and the different smearing curve of form factor was obtained. The combination of using the Q resolution function to more accurately analysis SANS data. (authors)

  19. Extraction of the bare form factors for the semi-leptonic B{sub s} decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahr, F.; Banerjee, D.; Koren, M.; Simma, H.; Sommer, R. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-01-12

    The computation of the form factors for the B{sub s}→lν decay is presented. The b quark is treated by means of Heavy Quark Effective Theory, currently in the static approximation. In these proceedings we discuss the extraction of the bare matrix elements from lattice data through a combined fit to two- and three-point correlation functions, as well as by considering suitable ratios. The different methods agree concerning the extracted form factors and approximately 2% accuracy is reached. The non-perturbative renormalization and matching to QCD is described in accompanying proceedings.

  20. Counting and tensorial properties of twist-two helicity-flip nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhang; Ji Xiangdong

    2005-01-01

    We perform a systematic analysis on the off-forward matrix elements of the twist-two quark and gluon helicity-flip operators. By matching the allowed quantum numbers and their crossing channel counterparts (a method developed by Ji and Lebed), we systematically count the number of independent nucleon form factors in off-forward scattering of matrix elements of these quark and gluon spin-flip operators. In particular, we find that the numbers of independent nucleon form factors of twist-two, helicity-flip quark (gluon) operators are 2n-1 (2n-5) if n is odd, and 2n-2 (2n-6) if n is even, with n≥2 (n≥4). We also analyze and write down the tensorial/Lorentz structure and kinematic factors of the expansion of these operators' matrix elements in terms of the independent form factors. These generalized form factors define the off-forward quark and gluon helicity-flip distributions in the literature

  1. Contribution of meson exchange currents to magnetic form factor of a few complex nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathiot, J.F.

    1981-12-01

    We were interested in the contribution of meson exchange currents (MEC) to the magnetic form factor (MFF) of 49 Ti, 51 V, 87 Sr, 93 Nb at high momentum transfer (1.8 fm -1 to 3.2 fm -1 ). We found that the contribution of tensor correlations to the 1 S 0 - 3 S 1 transition of MEC (adding the 3 D 1 tensor part to the 3 S 1 relative state) multiply the previous calculations by a factor of 2.5 to 4. The sensitivity of MEC to the hadronic form factor is also estimated. It remains of discrepancy of a factor 2 for the MFF at 3 fm -1 for the first three nuclei [fr

  2. [Current situations and problem analysis of influencing factors of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on forming quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Nian; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Wan, Na; Li, Yuan-Hui; Li, Hui-Ting; Yang, Ming

    2018-04-01

    The compressibility of tablets is the essential operating unit during the preparation of traditional Chinese medicine tablets, as well as a complicated process. Therefore, it is of great significance to comprehensively study the influencing factors on the formation process. This paper aimed to review the evaluation methods for the tablet forming quality and highlight the effects of material powder properties, excipients and preparation technology on the quality of traditional Chinese medicine tablets on the basis of relevant literatures. Furthermore, the common problems in tablet forming process are also analyzed to provide useful references for the development of tablet forming quality of traditional Chinese medicines. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Cholesky-like Factorization of Symmetric Indefinite Matrices and Orthogonalization with Respect to Bilinear Forms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rozložník, Miroslav; Okulicka-Dłużewska, F.; Smoktunowicz, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2015), s. 727-751 ISSN 0895-4798 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : symmetric indefinite matrices * Cholesky-like factorization * orthogonalization techniques * indefinite bilinear forms * Gram-Schmidt process * rounding error analysis Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.883, year: 2015

  4. The Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: Psychometric Equivalence of the Turkish Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eksi, Füsun

    2016-01-01

    This study intends to examine the psychometric properties of the Turkish version of the short form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI-SF). The study group consists of a total of 526 university students (54% were female) whose ages range from 18 to 32. In the translational equivalence study made over a two-week interval, the FFNI-SF…

  5. The proton electromagnetic form factor F2 and quark orbital angular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We analyse the proton electromagnetic form factor ratio (2)= 2(2)/1(2) as a function of momentum transfer 2 within perturbative QCD. We find that the prediction for (2) at large momentum transfer depends on the exclusive quark wave functions, which are unknown. For a wide range of wave functions we ...

  6. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in a relativistic quark model with chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.

    1987-01-01

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors are computed in an independent quark model based on the Dirac equation. Corrections for centre-of-mass motion and pion-cloud effects are incorporated. Results for static quantities are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. (author)

  7. Nucleon electromagnetic form factors in a relativistic quark model with chiral symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N; Das, M

    1987-05-01

    The nucleon electromagnetic form factors are computed in an independent quark model based on the Dirac equation. Corrections for centre-of-mass motion and pion-cloud effects are incorporated. Results for static quantities are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Proton Form Factor Puzzle and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) Two-Photon Exchange Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rimal, Dipak [Florida Intl Univ., Miami, FL (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The electromagnetic form factors are the most fundamental observables that encode information about the internal structure of the nucleon. This dissertation explored dependence of R on kinematic variables such as squared four-momentum transfer (Q2) and the virtual photon polarization parameter (ε).

  9. Elastic and inelastic form factors of the Ne20 in the Hartree-Fock approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, S.A.C. de.

    1977-01-01

    Properties of Ne 20 fundamental band are studied such as particle densities and elastic and inelastic form factors. A two body interaction is used and its matrix elements involve only the independent particle states of the 1s-0d shell [pt

  10. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Ho Sun

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm3, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  11. A small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester using a resonant frequency-down conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kyung Ho; Kim, Young-Cheol [Department of System Dynamics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Eun, E-mail: jekim@cu.ac.kr [School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Catholic University of Daegu, 13-13 Hayang-Ro, Hayang-Eup, Gyeongsan-Si, Gyeongsangbuk-Do 712-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    While environmental vibrations are usually in the range of a few hundred Hertz, small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvesters will have higher resonant frequencies due to the structural size effect. To address this issue, we propose a resonant frequency-down conversion based on the theory of dynamic vibration absorber for the design of a small-form-factor piezoelectric vibration energy harvester. The proposed energy harvester consists of two frequency-tuned elastic components for lowering the first resonant frequency of an integrated system but is so configured that an energy harvesting beam component is inverted with respect to the other supporting beam component for a small form factor. Furthermore, in order to change the unwanted modal characteristic of small separation of resonant frequencies, as is the case with an inverted configuration, a proof mass on the supporting beam component is slightly shifted toward a second proof mass on the tip of the energy harvesting beam component. The proposed small-form-factor design capability was experimentally verified using a fabricated prototype with an occupation volume of 20 × 39 × 6.9 mm{sup 3}, which was designed for a target frequency of as low as 100 Hz.

  12. On the D → K-bar*e+νe form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Ivanov, A.N.; Troitskaya, N.I.

    1994-01-01

    The infinite mass effective theory, when a heavy quark mass goes to infinity, and chiral perturbation theory at the quark level, based on the extended Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model, are applied for the calculation of the D → K-bar * e + ν e decay form factors. The theoretical results agree with experimental data. (author). 16 refs

  13. Effects of core polarization and meson exchange currents on electromagnetic form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arima, Akito [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ikegami, Hidetsugu; Muraoka, Mitsuo [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Magnetic form factors observed by electron scattering provide good evidence for core polarization and meson exchange currents. Their effects are discussed by taking /sup 17/O, /sup 51/V, /sup 207/Pb /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi and /sup 12/C.

  14. Electromagnetic transition form factor of the η meson with WASA-at-COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Ankita [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Indore (India); Collaboration: WASA-at-COSY-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this work is to measure the transition form factor of the η meson. The transition form factor describes the internal structure of a particle. The precise determination of the transition form factor of the η meson is possible through the η→γe{sup +} e{sup -} Dalitz decay. When a particle is point-like then its decay rate can be calculated within QED. However, the complex structure of the particle modifies its decay rate. The transition form factor is determined by comparing the lepton-antilepton invariant mass distribution with QED. η mesons are produced using the reaction pp→ppη at a beam kinetic energy of 1.4 GeV at the COSY accelerator of Forschungszentrum Juelich and decay particles of the η meson are detected with the WASA detector. In the higher invariant mass region recent theoretical calculations slightly deviate from the the data. With the high statistics dataset we expect precise results in the higher invariant mass region. The status of the analysis is reported.

  15. Constraints on the Kl3 form factors from analyticity and unitarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-10-05

    in. Abstract. The Kπ form factors are investigated at low energies by the method of unitarity bounds adapted so as to include information on the phase and modulus along the elastic region of the unitarity cut. Using as input the ...

  16. Thermodynamic limit of particle-hole form factors in the massless XXZ Heisenberg chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitanine, N. [Univ. de Bourgogne (France). IMB, UMR 5584 du CNRS; Kozlowski, K.K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Maillet, J.M.; Terras, V. [ENS Lyon (France). UMR 5672 du CNRS, Lab. de Physique; Slavnov, N.A. [Steklov Mathematical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-15

    We study the thermodynamic limit of the particle-hole form factors of the XXZ Heisenberg chain in the massless regime. We show that, in this limit, such form factors decrease as an explicitly computed power-law in the system size. Moreover, the corresponding amplitudes can be obtained as a product of a ''smooth'' and a ''discrete'' part: the former depends continuously on the rapidities of the particles and holes, whereas the latter has an additional explicit dependence on the set of integer numbers that label each excited state in the associated logarithmic Bethe equations. We also show that special form factors corresponding to zero-energy excitations lying on the Fermi surface decrease as a power-law in the system size with the same critical exponents as in the longdistance asymptotic behavior of the related two-point correlation functions. The methods we develop in this article are rather general and can be applied to other massless integrable models associated to the six-vertex R-matrix and having determinant representations for their form factors. (orig.)

  17. Macroscopic folded form factors for 12C + 12C inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Satchler, G.R.; Stokstad, R.G.; Wieland, R.M.

    1976-01-01

    The angular distributions for the scattering of carbon-12 from carbon-12 at 117.1 MeV are shown as is also the result of coupled-channel calculations for the elastic and inelastic scattering using these folded form factors

  18. Electromagnetic Transition Form Factor of the η meson with WASA-at-COSY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, A.

    2016-11-01

    In this work we present a study of the Dalitz decay η → γe+e-. The aim of this work is to measure the transition form factor of the η meson. The transition form factor of the η meson describes the electromagnetic structure of the meson. The study of the Dalitz decay helps to calculate the transition form factor of the η meson. When a particle is point-like it's decay rate can be calculated within QED. However, the complex structure of the meson modifies its decay rate. The transition form factor is determined by comparing the lepton-antilepton invariant mass distribution with QED. For this study data on proton-proton reaction at a beam energy of 1.4 GeV has been collected with WASA-at-COSY detector at Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany. In the higher invariant mass region recent theoretical calculations slightly deviate from the fit to the data. We expect better results in the higher invariant mass region than previous measurements. The preliminary results of the analysis will be presented.

  19. Electromagnetic Transition Form Factor of the η meson with WASA-at-COSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goswami A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a study of the Dalitz decay η → γe+e−. The aim of this work is to measure the transition form factor of the η meson. The transition form factor of the η meson describes the electromagnetic structure of the meson. The study of the Dalitz decay helps to calculate the transition form factor of the η meson. When a particle is point-like it’s decay rate can be calculated within QED. However, the complex structure of the meson modifies its decay rate. The transition form factor is determined by comparing the lepton-antilepton invariant mass distribution with QED. For this study data on proton-proton reaction at a beam energy of 1.4 GeV has been collected with WASA-at-COSY detector at Forschungszentrum Juelich, Germany. In the higher invariant mass region recent theoretical calculations slightly deviate from the fit to the data. We expect better results in the higher invariant mass region than previous measurements. The preliminary results of the analysis will be presented.

  20. The relativistic rotation of spin and asymptotic behaviour of the form factor of the composite system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trubnikov, S.V.

    1984-01-01

    The relativistic rotation of nucleon spin in addition to deuteron spin leads to the appearance of the new term in the deuteron charge form factor (DCFF). This term is absent in the traditional approaches and essentially influences the asymptotic behaviour of DCFF. General formulae are obtained for the DCFF asymptotics in the relativistic and nonrelativistic impulse approximation

  1. The charge form factor of pseudoscalar mesons in a relativistic constituent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardarelli, F.; Pace, E. [Univ. of Rome, Roma (Italy); Grach, I.L. [Inst. of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1994-04-01

    The charge form factor of pseudoscalar mesons has been investigated in the light-cone formalism, up to Q{sup 2} relevant to CEBAF energies. The consequences of adopting the meson wave functions generated through the Godfrey-Isgur q{bar q} potential, which reproduces the mass spectra, are discussed.

  2. Tensor form factor for the D → π(K) transitions with Twisted Mass fermions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubicz, Vittorio; Riggio, Lorenzo; Salerno, Giorgio; Simula, Silvano; Tarantino, Cecilia

    2018-03-01

    We present a preliminary lattice calculation of the D → π and D → K tensor form factors fT (q2) as a function of the squared 4-momentum transfer q2. ETMC recently computed the vector and scalar form factors f+(q2) and f0(q2) describing D → π(K)lv semileptonic decays analyzing the vector current and the scalar density. The study of the weak tensor current, which is directly related to the tensor form factor, completes the set of hadronic matrix element regulating the transition between these two pseudoscalar mesons within and beyond the Standard Model where a non-zero tensor coupling is possible. Our analysis is based on the gauge configurations produced by the European Twisted Mass Collaboration with Nf = 2 + 1 + 1 flavors of dynamical quarks. We simulated at three different values of the lattice spacing and with pion masses as small as 210 MeV and with the valence heavy quark in the mass range from ≃ 0.7 mc to ≃ 1.2mc. The matrix element of the tensor current are determined for a plethora of kinematical conditions in which parent and child mesons are either moving or at rest. As for the vector and scalar form factors, Lorentz symmetry breaking due to hypercubic effects is clearly observed in the data. We will present preliminary results on the removal of such hypercubic lattice effects.

  3. Urban form and psychosocial factors : Do they interact for leisure-time walking?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beenackers, Mariëlle A.; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Prins, Richard G.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Burdorf, Alex; Van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This cross-sectional study uses an adaptation of a social-ecological model on the hierarchy of walking needs to explore direct associations and interactions of urban-form characteristics and individual psychosocial factors for leisure-time walking. METHODS: Questionnaire data (n = 736)

  4. Current algebra method for form factors and strong decays with hard pions and kaons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1969-01-01

    The F K /F Π ratio between the kaon and pion decay couplings in one lepton pair, sum rules for Weinberg spectral functions, form factor renormalization of the K l3 decay because of the SU(3) symmetry violation and the calculations of strong decays of the K* and K A strange resonances are presented and discussed. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Theory of Inclusive Scattering of Polarized Electrons by Polarized $^{3}$He and the Neutron Form Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Atti, C. Ciofi degli; Pace, E.; Salmé, G.

    1993-01-01

    The theory of inclusive lepton scattering of polarized leptons by polarized J = 1/2 hadrons is presented and the origin of different expressions for the polarized nuclear response function appearing in the literature is explained. The sensitivity of the longitudinal asymmetry upon the neutron form factors is investigated.

  6. Influencing Factors and Development Trend Analysis of China Electric Grid Investment Demand Based on a Panel Co-Integration Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinchao Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electric grid investment demand analysis is significant to reasonably arranging construction funds for the electric grid and reduce costs. This paper used the panel data of electric grid investment from 23 provinces of China between 2004 and 2016 as samples to analyze the influence between electric grid investment demand and GDP, population scale, social electricity consumption, installed electrical capacity, and peak load based on co-integration tests. We find that GDP and peak load have positive influences on electric grid investment demand, but the impact of population scale, social electricity consumption, and installed electrical capacity on electric grid investment is not remarkable. We divide different regions in China into the eastern region, central region, and western region to analyze influence factors of electric grid investment, finally obtaining key factors in the eastern, central, and western regions. In the end, according to the analysis of key factors, we make a prediction about China’s electric grid investment for 2020 in different scenarios. The results offer a certain understanding for the development trend of China’s electric grid investment and contribute to the future development of electric grid investment.

  7. The Synergistic Effect between Electrical and Chemical Factors in Plasma Gene/Molecule-Transfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinno, Masafumi

    2016-09-01

    This study has been done to know what kind of factors in plasma and processes on cells promote plasma gene/molecule transfection. We have discovered a new plasma source using a microcapillary electrode which enables high transfection efficiency and high cell survivability simultaneously. However, the mechanism of the transfection by plasma was not clear. To clarify the transfection mechanisms by micro plasma, we focused on the effects of electrical (current, charge, field, etc.) and chemical (radicals, RONS, etc.) factors generated by the micro plasma and evaluated the contribution weight of three groups of the effects and processes, i.e. electrical, chemical and biochemical ones. At first, the necessity of the electrical factors was estimated by the laser produced plasma (LPP). Mouse L-929 fibroblast cell was cultured on a 96-well plate or 12-well micro slide chamber. Plasmids pCX-EGFP in Tris-EDTA buffer was dropped on the cells and they were exposed to the capillary discharge plasma (CDP) or the LPP. In the case of the CDP, the plasma was generated between the tip of the capillary electrode and the cells so that both electrical and chemical factors were supplied to the cells. In this setup, about 20% of average transfection efficiency was obtained. In the case of the LPP, the plasma was generated apart from the cells so that electrical factors were not supplied to the cells. In this setup, no transfection was observed. These results show that the electrical factors are necessary for the plasma gene transfection. Next, the necessity of the chemical factors was estimated the effect of catalase to remove H2O2 in CDP. The transfection efficiency decreased to 0.4 by scavenging H2O2 with catalase. However, only the solution of H2O2 caused no gene transfection in cells. These results shows that H2O2 is important species to cause gene/molecule transfection but still needs a synergistic effect with electrical or other chemical factors. This work was partly supported by

  8. Development and Examination of the Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Short Form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Sarah A; Suzuki, Takakuni; Lynam, Donald R; Crego, Cristina; Widiger, Thomas A; Miller, Joshua D; Samuel, Douglas B

    2018-01-01

    The Five-Factor Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory (FFOCI) is an assessment of obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) that is based on the conceptual framework of the five-factor model (FFM) of personality. The FFOCI has 12 subscales that assess those five-factor model facets relevant to the description of OCPD. Research has suggested that the FFOCI scores relate robustly to existing measures of OCPD and relevant scales from general personality inventories. Nonetheless, the FFOCI's length-120 items-may limit its clinical utility. This study derived a 48-item FFOCI-Short Form (FFOCI-SF) from the original measure using item response theory methods. The FFOCI-SF scales successfully recreated the nomological network of the original measure and improved discriminant validity relative to the long form. These results support the use of the FFOCI-SF as a briefer measure of the lower-order traits associated with OCPD.

  9. A framework for the calculation of the ΔNγ* transition form factors on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agadjanov, Andria; Bernard, Véronique; Meißner, Ulf-G.; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2014-01-01

    Using the non-relativistic effective field theory framework in a finite volume, we discuss the extraction of the ΔNγ * transition form factors from lattice data. A counterpart of the Lüscher approach for the matrix elements of unstable states is formulated. In particular, we thoroughly discuss various kinematic settings, which are used in the calculation of the above matrix element on the lattice. The emerging Lüscher–Lellouch factor and the analytic continuation of the matrix elements into the complex plane are also considered in detail. A full group-theoretical analysis of the problem is made, including the partial-wave mixing and projecting out the invariant form factors from data

  10. Electrical tortuosity, Kozeny’s factor and cementation factor modelled for chalk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katika, Konstantina; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2015-01-01

    saturated core plugs to determine the cementation factor, m. This value differs from the one Archie used to describe his equation and best describes the formation factor based on experimental data. Based on this m, we determine the formation factor, F, and the tortuosity, τ. We use this value of τ...

  11. The Effects of in Situ-Formed Silver Nanoparticles on the Electrical Properties of Epoxy Resin Filled with Silver Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwang-Seok Song

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for preparing epoxy/silver nanocomposites was developed via the in situ formation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs within the epoxy resin matrix while using silver nanowires (AgNWs as a conductive filler. The silver–imidazole complex was synthesized from silver acetate (AgAc and 1-(2-cyanoethyl-2-ethyl-4-methylimidazole (imidazole. AgNPs were generated in situ during the curing of the epoxy resin through the thermal decomposition of the AgAc–imidazole complex, which was capable of reducing Ag+ to Ag by itself. The released imidazole acted as a catalyst to cure the epoxy. Additionally, after the curing process, the in situ-generated AgNPs were stabilized by the formed epoxy network. Therefore, by using the thermal decomposition method, uniformly dispersed AgNPs of approximately 100 nm were formed in situ in the epoxy matrix filled with AgNWs. It was observed that the nanocomposites containing in situ-formed AgNPs exhibited isotropic electrical properties in the epoxy resins in the presence of AgNWs.

  12. Form factors of descendant operators: reduction to perturbed M(2,2s+1) models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav

    2015-01-01

    In the framework of the algebraic approach to form factors in two-dimensional integrable models of quantum field theory we consider the reduction of the sine-Gordon model to the Φ 13 -perturbation of minimal conformal models of the M(2,2s+1) series. We find in an algebraic form the condition of compatibility of local operators with the reduction. We propose a construction that make it possible to obtain reduction compatible local operators in terms of screening currents. As an application we obtain exact multiparticle form factors for the compatible with the reduction conserved currents T ±2k , Θ ±(2k−2) , which correspond to the spin ±(2k−1) integrals of motion, for any positive integer k. Furthermore, we obtain all form factors of the operators T 2k T −2l , which generalize the famous TT̄ operator. The construction is analytic in the s parameter and, therefore, makes sense in the sine-Gordon theory.

  13. Sudakov resummation for subleading SCET currents and heavy-to-light form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Richard J.; Becher, Thomas; Lee, Seung J.; Neubert, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    The hard-scattering contributions to heavy-to-light form factors at large recoil are studied systematically in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET). Large logarithms arising from multiple energy scales are re-summed by matching QCD onto SCET in two stages via an intermediate effective theory. Anomalous dimensions in the intermediate theory are computed, and their form is shown to be constrained by conformal symmetry. Renormalization-group evolution equations are solved to give a complete leading-order analysis of the hard-scattering contributions, in which all single and double logarithms are re-summed. In two cases, spin-symmetry relations for the soft-overlap contributions to form factors are shown not to be broken at any order in perturbation theory by hard-scattering corrections. One-loop matching calculations in the two effective theories are performed in sample cases, for which the relative importance of renormalization-group evolution and matching corrections is investigated. The asymptotic behavior of Sudakov logarithms appearing in the coefficient functions of the soft-overlap and hard-scattering contributions to form factors is analyzed. (author)

  14. Operational Water Withdrawal and Consumption Factors for Electricity Generation Technology in China—A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinjing Gao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As two indispensable resources for human development, energy and water are closely related. China, as the world’s largest consumer of electricity, is also experiencing very serious water shortages. Understanding the water consumption intensity in various types of electric power production technologies according to China’s national conditions is a prerequisite for understanding the potential impact of electrical power production on water resources. Therefore, following the steps of a meta-analysis, this paper provides a literature review on operational water withdrawal and consumption factors for electricity generation technology in China. We observed that 50% of water consumption for electricity generation was for coal power, whereas there was no research on the water consumption intensity of natural gas power generation, and a shortage of studies on water intake during electrical power production. The average water consumption intensity of hydropower is the largest. The results indicate that compared with other fuel types, hydropower is not a sustainable energy with respect to water conservation, and the study of hydropower applications should be improved in China.

  15. Development of a Short Form of the Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory: the FFNI-SF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Emily D; Miller, Joshua D; Few, Lauren R; Campbell, W Keith; Widiger, Thomas A; Crego, Cristina; Lynam, Donald R

    2015-09-01

    The Five-Factor Narcissism Inventory (FFNI; Glover, Miller, Lynam, Crego, & Widiger, 2012) is a 148-item self-report inventory of 15 traits designed to assess the basic elements of narcissism from the perspective of a 5-factor model. The FFNI assesses both vulnerable (i.e., cynicism/distrust, need for admiration, reactive anger, and shame) and grandiose (i.e., acclaim seeking, arrogance, authoritativeness, entitlement, exhibitionism, exploitativeness, grandiose fantasies, indifference, lack of empathy, manipulativeness, and thrill seeking) variants of narcissism. The present study reports the development of a short-form version of the FFNI in 4 diverse samples (i.e., 2 undergraduate samples, a sample recruited from MTurk, and a clinical community sample) using item response theory. The validity of the resultant 60-item short form was compared against the validity of the full scale in the 4 samples at both the subscale level and the level of the grandiose and vulnerable composites. Results indicated that the 15 subscales remain relatively reliable, possess a factor structure identical to the structure of the long-form scales, and manifest correlational profiles highly similar to those of the long-form scales in relation to a variety of criterion measures, including basic personality dimensions, other measures of grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, and indicators of externalizing and internalizing psychopathology. Grandiose and vulnerable composites also behave almost identically across the short- and long-form versions. It is concluded that the FFNI-Short Form (FFNI-SF) offers a well-articulated assessment of the basic traits comprising grandiose and vulnerable narcissism, particularly when assessment time is limited. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Optical and Electrical Characteristics of Graphene Double Layer Formed by a Double Transfer of Graphene Single Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Jun; Bae, Gi Yoon; Chun, Sungwoo; Park, Wanjun

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate formation of double layer graphene by means of a double transfer using two single graphene layers grown by a chemical vapor deposition method. It is observed that shiftiness and broadness in the double-resonance of Raman scattering are much weaker than those of bilayer graphene formed naturally. Transport characteristics examined from transmission line measurements and field effect transistors show the similar behavior with those of single layer graphene. It indicates that interlayer separation, in electrical view, is large enough to avoid correlation between layers for the double layer structure. It is also observed from a transistor with the double layer graphene that molecules adsorpted on two inner graphene surfaces in the double layered structure are isolated and conserved from ambient environment.

  17. Electricity consumption in Morocco: Stochastic Gompertz diffusion analysis with exogenous factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, R.; Gutierrez-Sanchez, R.; Nafidi, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a means of using stochastic diffusion processes to model the total consumption of electrical power (including distribution and transport losses) in Morocco, as recorded by the official data for total sales published by Office Nationale de l'Electricite (ONE), the Moroccan electricity authority. Two models of univariate stochastic diffusion were used: the time-homogeneous Gompertz Diffusion Process (HGDP) and the time-non-homogeneous Gompertz Diffusion Process (NHGDP). The methodology proposed is based on the analysis of the trend function; this requires the analyst to obtain fits and forecasts for the consumption of electrical power by means of the estimated trend function (conditioned and non-conditioned). This latter function is obtained from the mean value of the process and the maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) of the parameters of the model. This estimation and the subsequent statistical inference are based on the discretised observation of the variable 'electricity consumption in Morocco', using annual data for the period 1980-2001. The fit and forecast are improved by using macroeconomic exogenous factors such as the gross domestic product per inhabitant (GDP/inhab), the final domestic consumption (FDC) and the gross fixed capital formation (GFCF). The results obtained show that NHGDP (with the above three exogenous factors) provides an adequate fit and medium-term forecast of electricity consumption in Morocco

  18. Effect of metallurgical factors on the bulk magnetic properties of non-oriented electrical steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Pampa, E-mail: pampaghosh@gmail.com [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Chromik, Richard R., E-mail: richard.chromik@mcgill.ca [Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, McGill University, 3610 University Street, Montreal, Que., Canada H3A 0C5 (Canada); Knight, Andrew M. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alta., Canada T6G 2V4 (Canada); Wakade, Shekhar G. [GM Powertrain, General Motors Company, 823 Joslyn Avenue, Building B, 4AJ35, Pontiac, MI 48340-2920 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    Non-oriented electrical steel (NOES) is one of the most common material used in electrical motors. Core loss and permeability are the most important properties that the motor manufacturers look for. Both these properties are structure sensitive and depend on several metallurgical factors; such as chemistry, grain size, crystallographic texture, cleanliness and stress states in non-oriented electrical steels. It has been observed in this course of the study that the grain size and Si content of NOES are the primary controlling factors to core loss, especially at higher frequencies. On the contrary, crystallographic texture plays an important role at lower frequencies. At higher frequency, core loss increases with increasing grain size and decreasing Si content of the steels. Small difference in grain size (∼50 μm) at lower frequency range has little influence on the magnetic properties but has significant adverse effect as frequency reaches high enough. - Highlights: • Magnetic properties of a set of electrical steels were measured. • Crystallographic texture, chemistry and grain size were studied for their effects on core loss and permeability. • Structure–magnetic property relationships were identified for the electrical steels.

  19. The Electro-Excitation Form Factors for Low-Lying States of 7Li Nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dakhl, Z.A.; Salih, L.; Al-Qazaz, B.S.

    2010-01-01

    The transverse electron scattering form factors have been studied for low -lying excited states of 7 L i nucleus. These states are specified by JπT= (0.478MeV),(4.63MeV) and(6.68MeV). The transitions to these states are taking place by both isoscalar and isovector components. These form factors have been analyzed in the framework of the multi-nucleon configuration mixing of harmonic oscillator shell model with size parameter b r ms=1.74fm. The universal two-body of Cohen-Kurath is used to generate the 1p-shell wave functions. The core polarization effects are included in the calculations through effective g-factors and resolved many discrepancies with experiments. A higher configuration effect outside the 1p-shell model space, such as the 2p-shell, enhances the form factors for q-values and reproduces the data. The present results are compared with other theoretical models. PACS: 25.30.Bf Elastic electron scattering - 25.30.Dh Inelastic electron scattering to specific states - 21.60.Cs Shell model - 27.20. +n 5≤ A ≥19

  20. 1/M corrections to baryonic form factors in the quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Tseng, B.

    1996-01-01

    Weak current-induced baryonic form factors at zero recoil are evaluated in the rest frame of the heavy parent baryon using the nonrelativistic quark model. Contrary to previous similar work in the literature, our quark model results do satisfy the constraints imposed by heavy quark symmetry for heavy-heavy baryon transitions at the symmetric point v·v'=1 and are in agreement with the predictions of the heavy quark effective theory for antitriplet-antitriplet heavy baryon form factors at zero recoil evaluated to order 1/m Q . Furthermore, the quark model approach has the merit that it is applicable to any heavy-heavy and heavy-light baryonic transitions at maximum q 2 . Assuming a dipole q 2 behavior, we have applied the quark model form factors to nonleptonic, semileptonic, and weak radiative decays of the heavy baryons. It is emphasized that the flavor suppression factor occurring in many heavy-light baryonic transitions, which is unfortunately overlooked in most literature, is very crucial towards an agreement between theory and experiment for the semileptonic decay Λ c →Λe + ν e . Predictions for the decay modes Λ b →J/ψΛ, Λ c →pφ, Λ b →Λγ, Ξ b →Ξγ, and for the semileptonic decays of Λ b , Ξ b, c, and Ω b are presented. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  1. Society demands for the quality of education as a factor of modern education space forming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Svetlana V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors research the problems of increasing in modern conditions society demands for qualitative characteristics of education services. The quality of education is considered as one of the determining factors of forming educational space. The paper analyzes the influence of social and economic conditions inherent in the post-industrial era on forming and transforming of education space at the modern stage of society development, shows the ways to overcome emerging contradictions. The authors pay special attention to the significance of project approach in solving the problems of improving education quality.

  2. Influence of beam divergence on form-factor in X-ray diffraction radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergeeva, D.Yu.; Tishchenko, A.A.; Strikhanov, M.N.

    2015-01-01

    Diffraction radiation from divergent beam is considered in terms of radiation in UV and X-ray range. Scedastic form of Gaussian distribution of the particle in the bunch, i.e. Gaussian distribution with changing dispersion has been used, which is more adequate for description of divergent beams than often used Gaussian distribution with constant dispersion. Both coherent and incoherent form-factors are taken into account. The conical diffraction effect in diffraction radiation is proved to make essential contribution in spectral-angular characteristics of radiation from a divergent beam

  3. Measurement of the form factor ratios in semileptonic decays of charm mesons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaliznyak, Renata [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1998-05-01

    I have measured the form factor ratios r2 = A2 (0)/A1 (0) and rV = V (0)/A1 (0) in the semileptonic charm meson decay D+ → $\\bar{K}$*0 e+ve from data collected by the Fermilab E791 collaboration. Form factors are introduced in the calculation of the hadronic current in semileptonic decays of strange, charm, or bottom mesons, such as D+ → $\\bar{K}$*0 e+ ve . Semileptonic decays provide insight into quark coupling to the W boson since the leptonic and hadronic amplitudes in the Feynman diagram for the decay are completely separate. There are no strong interactions between the final state leptons and quarks. A number of theoretical models predict the values of the form factors for D+ → $\\bar{K}$*0 e+ ve , though there is a large range of predictions. E791 is a hadroproduction experiment that recorded over 20 billion interactions with a 500 GeV π- beam incident on five thin targets during the 1991-92 Fermilab fixed-target run. Approximately 3000 D+ → $\\bar{K}$*0 e+ ve decays are fully reconstructed. In order to extract the form factor ratios from the data, I implement a multidimensional unbinned maximum likelihood fit with a large sample of simulated (Monte Carlo) D+ → $\\bar{K}$*0 e+ve events. The large E791 data sample provides the most precise measurement of the form factor ratios to date. The measured values for the form factor ratios are r2 = 0.71 ± 0.08 ± 0.09 and rV = 1.84 ± 0.11 ±} 0.08. These results are in good agreement with some Lattice Gauge calculations. However the agreement with quark model predictions is not as good.

  4. Forming Factors And Builder Indicators Of Brand Personality Models In Traditional Retail Traders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunelly Asra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to find the factors forming and indicator builder model of brand personality of traditional retail traders through measuring the influence of retail mix and culture. The formation of brand personality uses Aaker brand personality dimension to 250 consumers in Bengkalis Regency. The type of research is causal research design. The research variables are brand personality Retail Mix and Brand Personality. Data collection is done by probability sampling with purposive method. Data analysis was done by perception analysis frequency distribution and multiple regression using SPSS version 21.0. The results of this study are The factor of retail mix partially has a positive and significant impact on the brand personality of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency. Factor cultural partially does not affect the brand personality of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency. Simultaneously retail mix and cultural have positive and significant influence on traditional brand traders brand personality in Bengkalis Regency. Initial forming factor of brand personality model of traditional retail traders in Bengkalis Regency is Retail Mix Factor. Indicator of the model of traditional traders brand personality builder in Bengkalis are sincerity excitement competence sophistication competence ruggedness.

  5. Factor XII-independent activation of the bradykinin-forming cascade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joseph, Kusumam; Tholanikunnel, Baby G; Bygum, Anette

    2013-01-01

    and assayed for kallikrein formation. C1-INH was removed from factor XII-deficient plasma by means of immunoadsorption. RESULTS: We demonstrate that prekallikrein-HK will activate to kallikrein in phosphate-containing buffers and that the rate is further accelerated on addition of heat shock protein 90...... the prekallikrein-HK complex to prevent HK cleavage either by prekallikrein or by prekallikrein-HK autoactivation to generate kallikrein. In patients with hereditary angioedema, kallikrein and bradykinin formation can occur without invoking factor XII activation, although the kallikrein formed can rapidly activate...

  6. EFFECTS OF NEUTRINO ELECTROMAGNETIC FORM FACTORS ON NEUTRINO INTERACTION WITH FINITE TEMPERATURE ELECTRON MATTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anto Sulaksono

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential cross-section of neutrino interaction with dense and warm electron gasses has been calculated by takinginto account the neutrino electromagnetic form factors. The significant effect of electromagnetic properties of neutrinocan be found if the neutrino dipole moment, μ ν , is ≥ 5.10-9 μB and neutrino charge radius, Rv, is ≥ 5.10-6 MeV-1. Theimportance of the retarded correction, detailed balance and Pauli blocking factors is shown and analyzed. Many-bodyeffects on the target matter which are included via random phase approximation (RPA correlation as well as photoneffective mass are also investigated.

  7. High-throughput spectrometer designs in a compact form-factor: principles and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. M.

    2013-05-01

    Many compact, portable Raman spectrometers have entered the market in the past few years with applications in narcotics and hazardous material identification, as well as verification applications in pharmaceuticals and security screening. Often, the required compact form-factor has forced designers to sacrifice throughput and sensitivity for portability and low-cost. We will show that a volume phase holographic (VPH)-based spectrometer design can achieve superior throughput and thus sensitivity over conventional Czerny-Turner reflective designs. We will look in depth at the factors influencing throughput and sensitivity and illustrate specific VPH-based spectrometer examples that highlight these design principles.

  8. X - FACTOR EVALUATION UNDER RPI-X REGULATION FOR INDIAN ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION UTILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAVAN KHETRAPAL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available With regulators’ growing interest in improving operational efficiency and quality supply, the time is nearing when performance based regulation will become norm for regulating the distribution tariff in Indian electricity distribution sector. In this context, the State Electricity Regulatory Commissions proposed replacing rate-of-return regulation with most commonly used performance based regulatory regime, i.e., Price Cap regulation also known as RPI-X (Retail Price Index - Productivity Offset regulatory framework. However, the potential problem associated with applying price cap regulation scheme in practice is the determination of productivity offset or X factor used in price caps setting. This paper proposed an approach to calculate the X-factor for 58 government-owned and privately-owned electricity distribution utilities in India during a five year period from 2007/08 to 2011/12. A Stochastic Frontier model through an input distance function is first applied to compute the Malmquist Total Factor Productivity (TFP and the estimated TFP is then used to calculate the utility-specific X-factor. With rely on calculated X-factor, the distribution utilities would be able to cap either on prices or revenues thus accounting the inflation in the tariff determination. This will be more realistic approach as compared to cost plus approach.

  9. Proton Form Factors And Related Processes in BaBar by ISR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferroli, R.B.; /Enrico Fermi Ctr., Rome /INFN, Rome

    2007-02-12

    BaBar has measured with unprecedented accuracy e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} from the threshold up to Q{sub p{bar p}}{sup 2} {approx} 20 GeV{sup 2}/c{sup 4}, finding out an unexpected cross section, with plateaux and drops. In particular it is well established a sharp drop near threshold, where evidence for structures in multihadronic channels has also been found. Other unexpected and spectacular features of the Nucleon form factors are reminded, the behavior of space-like G{sub E}{sup p}/G{sub M}{sup p} and the neutron time-like form factors.

  10. Form factors of ηc in light-front quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang; Lih, Chong-Chung

    2013-01-01

    We study the form factors of the η c meson in the light-front quark model. We explicitly show that the transition form factor of η c → γ * γ as a function of the momentum transfer is consistent with the experimental data by the BaBar collaboration, while the decay constant of η c is found to be f η c = 230.5 +52.2 -61.0 and 303.6 +115.2 -116.4 MeV for η c ∝ c anti c by using two η c → γγ decay widths of 5.3 ± 0.5 and 7.2 ± 2.1 keV, given by Particle Data Group and Lattice QCD calculation, respectively. (orig.)

  11. Form factors of {eta}{sub c} in light-front quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Chao-Qiang [Chongqing University of Posts and Telecommunications, College of Mathematics and Physics, Chongqing (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China); Lih, Chong-Chung [Shu-Zen College of Medicine and Management, Department of Optometry, Kaohsiung Hsien (China); National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Physics Division, Hsinchu (China); National Tsing Hua University, Department of Physics, Hsinchu (China)

    2013-08-15

    We study the form factors of the {eta}{sub c} meson in the light-front quark model. We explicitly show that the transition form factor of {eta}{sub c} {yields} {gamma}{sup *}{gamma} as a function of the momentum transfer is consistent with the experimental data by the BaBar collaboration, while the decay constant of {eta}{sub c} is found to be f{sub {eta}{sub c}} = 230.5{sup +52.2}{sub -61.0} and 303.6{sup +115.2}{sub -116.4} MeV for {eta}{sub c} {proportional_to} c anti c by using two {eta}{sub c} {yields} {gamma}{gamma} decay widths of 5.3 {+-} 0.5 and 7.2 {+-} 2.1 keV, given by Particle Data Group and Lattice QCD calculation, respectively. (orig.)

  12. Chiral-model of weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of octet baryons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubodera, K.; Kohyama, Y.; Tsushima, K.; Yamaguchi, T.

    1989-01-01

    For baryon spectroscopy, magnetic moments and weak interaction form factors provide valuable information, and the impressive amount of available experimental data on these quantities for the octet baryons invites detailed investigations. The authors of this paper have made extensive studies of the weak-interaction form factors and magnetic moments of the octet baryons within the framework of the volume-type cloudy-bag model (v-type CBM). The clouds of all octet mesons have been included. Furthermore, we have taken into account in a unified framework various effects that were so far only individually discussed in the literature. Thus, the gluonic effects, center-of-mass (CM0 corrections, and recoil corrections have been included). In this talk, after giving a brief summary of some salient features of the results, we discuss a very interesting application of our model to the problem of the spin content of nucleons

  13. Calculations of electromagnetic nucleon form factors and electroexcitation amplitudes of isobars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warns, M.; Schroeder, H.; Pfeil, W.; Rollnik, H.

    1989-03-01

    In this paper, we present numerical results for electroproduction amplitudes of proton resonances and electromagnetic nucleon form factors calculated in a relativized quark model. Interactions with both transversely and longitudinally polarized virtual photons were considered. Contributions of the different effects included in our approach have been analysed through a sample comparison with the available data. We also discuss the validity of the usual single-quark transition ansatz and possible parametrizations of the potential acting between the constituent quarks of the baryon. Impressive agreement is obtained with the nucleon form factor data up to squared momentum transfers of 2.5 GeV 2 , but still some problems remain with the Δ(1232) and higher resonances. (orig.)

  14. Predictions of baryon form factors for the electromagnetic and weak interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiehlmann, H.D.

    1978-05-01

    The electromagnetic and weak form factors of the baryon matrix elements (with B the nucleon or the Λ(1232)-resonance) are determined via sumrules by the experimentally known form factors of the nucleon matrix element for momentum transfers 0 2 2 . The operator Jμ denotes either the electromagnetic current or the weak hypercharge-conserving current of the I. class. The sumrules are derived from the superconvergence of properly chosen reaction amplitudes. The results allow an absolute determination of the cross sections of a series of peripheral reactions. An important and interesting consequence for the considered matrix elements of the weak current is that the properties of CVC of PCAC follow from the sumrules without additional assumptions. Finally the predictions of relativistic SU(6)-models are checked. One gets surprisingly a good confirmation of the essential results of these models, the reliability of which has almost been unknown on account of a series of speculative assumptions. (orig.) [de

  15. Strange mesonic transition form factor in the chiral constituent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, H.; Ramsey-Musolf, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    The form factor g ρπ (S) (Q 2 ) of the strange vector current transition matrix element left-angle ρ|bar sγ μ s|π right-angle is calculated within the chiral quark model. A strange vector current of the constituent U and D quarks is induced by kaon radiative corrections and this mechanism yields the nonvanishing values of g ρπ (S) (0). The numerical result at the photon point is consistent with the one given by the φ-meson dominance model, but the falloff in the Q 2 dependence is faster than the monopole form factor. Mesonic radiative corrections are also examined for the electromagnetic ρ-to-π and K * -to-K transition amplitudes. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  16. Measurement of time-like baryon electro-magnetic form factors in BESIII

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales Morales, Cristina; Dbeyssi, Alaa [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Ahmed, Samer Ali Nasher; Lin, Dexu; Rosner, Christoph; Wang, Yadi [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Maas, Frank [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Institut fuer Kernphysik, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); PRISMA Cluster of Excellence, Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: BESIII-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    BEPCII is a symmetric electron-positron collider located in Beijing running at center-of-mass energies between 2.0 and 4.6 GeV. This energy range allows BESIII experiment to measure baryon form factors both from direct electron-positron annihilation and from initial state radiation processes. We present results on direct electron-positron annihilation into proton anti-proton and preliminary results on direct electron-positron annihilation into lambda anti-lambda based on data collected by BESIII in 2011 and 2012. Finally, expectations on the measurement of nucleon and hyperon electro-magnetic form factors from the BESIII high luminosity energy scan in 2015 and from initial state radiation processes at different center-of-mass energies are also shown.

  17. Semi-Leptonic weak decay form factors of LAMBDAb and SIGMAb(OMEGAb) to proton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haghigat, M.

    1996-01-01

    The matrix elements of the semi-leptonic weak decays of Λ b and of Σ b Ω b to proton are calculated, in the Bethe-Salpeter formalism. We propose a protonic wave function in terms of its dynamically indistinguishable constituent quarks. We show that there are two universal form factors for Λ b → P and four for Σ b (OMEGA b ) → P decays. They depend, as expected, on the Lorentz scalar Υ 1 .Υ 2 , whereΥ 1 and Υ 2 , are the velocities of the baryons. On the first order perturbation approximation, however, the two and the four form factors degenerate to one expression for each of the two decays. (author). 14 refs

  18. Asymptotics of pion electromagnetics form factor in scale invariant quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efremov, A.V.; Radyushkin, A.V.

    1976-01-01

    A consistent relativistic approach is proposed to the investigation of asymptotic behaviour of form factor of a system, composed of two spinor particles, interacting with the vector of (pseudo) scalar neutral field. It is shown that the assumption of finite and small asymptotical value of quark-gluon interaction invariant charge at small distances (g 9 2 9 2 ln(-Q 2 ) 2 values (Q 2 is squared momentum)

  19. Freezing of the QCD coupling constant and the pion form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A.C.; Mihara, A.; Natale, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The possibility that the QCD coupling constant (α s ) has an infrared finite behavior (freezing) has been extensively studied in recent years. We compare phenomenological values of the 'frozen' the QCD running coupling between different classes of solutions obtained through non-perturbative Schwinger-Dyson Equations. With these solutions were computed QCD predictions for the asymptotic pion form factor which, in turn, were compared with experiment. (author)

  20. On the form factors of relevant operators and their cluster property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acerbi, C.; Valleriani, A.; Mussardo, G.

    1996-09-01

    We compute the Form Factors of the relevant scaling operators in a class of integrable models without internal symmetries by exploiting their cluster properties. Their identification is established by computing the corresponding anomalous dimensions by means of Delfino-Simonetti-Cardy sum-rule and further confirmed by comparing some universal ratios of the nearby non-integrable quantum field theories with their independent numerical determination. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs, 16 tabs