WorldWideScience

Sample records for electric current-induced detachment

  1. Electric-current-induced step bunching on Si(111)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma, Yoshikazu; Aizawa, Noriyuki

    2000-01-01

    We experimentally investigated step bunching induced by direct current on vicinal Si(111)'1x1' surfaces using scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The scaling relation between the average step spacing l b and the number of steps N in a bunch, l b ∼N -α , was determined for four step-bunching temperature regimes above the 7x7-'1x1' transition temperature. The step-bunching rate and scaling exponent differ between neighboring step-bunching regimes. The exponent α is 0.7 for the two regimes where the step-down current induces step bunching (860-960 and 1210-1300 deg. C), and 0.6 for the two regimes where the step-up current induces step bunching (1060-1190 and >1320 deg. C). The number of single steps on terraces also differs in each of the four temperature regimes. For temperatures higher than 1280 deg. C, the prefactor of the scaling relation increases, indicating an increase in step-step repulsion. The scaling exponents obtained agree reasonably well with those predicted by theoretical models. However, they give unrealistic values for the effective charges of adatoms for step-up-current-induced step bunching when the 'transparent' step model is used

  2. Electric currents induced by twisted light in Quantum Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, G F; Berakdar, J

    2009-10-26

    We theoretically investigate the generation of electric currents in quantum rings resulting from the optical excitation with twisted light. Our model describes the kinetics of electrons in a two-band model of a semiconductor-based mesoscopic quantum ring coupled to light having orbital angular momentum (twisted light). We find the analytical solution, which exhibits a "circular" photon-drag effect and an induced magnetization, suggesting that this system is the circular analog of that of a bulk semiconductor excited by plane waves. For realistic values of the electric field and material parameters, the computed electric current can be as large as microA; from an applied perspective, this opens new possibilities to the optical control of the magnetization in semiconductors.

  3. Electric current induced forward and anomalous backward mass transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somaiah, Nalla; Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Praveen

    2016-01-01

    Multilayered test samples were fabricated in form of standard Blech structure, where W was used as the interlayer between SiO 2 substrate and Cu film. Electromigration test was performed at 250 °C by passing an electric current with a nominal density of 3.9  ×  10 10 A m −2 . In addition to the regular electromigration induced mass transport ensuing from the cathode towards the anode, we also observed anomalous mass transport from the anode to the cathode, depleting Cu from the anode as well. We propose an electromigration-thermomigration coupling based reasoning to explain the observed mass transport. (letter)

  4. Electric current-induced detachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms from surgical stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borden, AJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Biomaterial-centered infections of orthopedic percutaneous implants are serious complications which can ultimately lead to osteomyelitis, with devastating effects on bone and surrounding tissues, especially since the biofilm mode of growth offers protection against antibiotics and since removal

  5. Electric-current-induced detachment of Staphylococcus epidermidis strains from surgical stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Borden, AJ; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2004-01-01

    Infection of percutaneous biomaterials implants, such as fixation frames used for the repair of complicated fractures in orthopedics, is a major complication that almost inevitably leads to replacement of the implant. As antibiotic therapy usually has little impact on biomaterial-associated

  6. Electric fields and currents induced in organs of the human body when exposed to ELF and VLF electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Ronold W. P.; Sandler, Sheldon S.

    1996-09-01

    Formulas for the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields of the traveling-wave currents of three different types of three-wire, three-phase high-voltage power lines and of a typical VLF transmitter are given. From them, exposure situations for the human body are chosen which permit the analytical determination of the total current induced in that body. With this, the fraction of the total axial current, the axial current density, and the axial electric field in each organ of the body are obtained at any desired cross section. The dimensions and conductivity of these organs must be known. The electric field so obtained is the average macroscopic field in which the cells in each organ are immersed when the whole body is exposed to a known incident field. It corresponds in vivo to the electric field used in vitro to expose cells in tissues.

  7. On the electric breakdown field of the mesosphere and the influence of electron detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubert, Torsten; Chanrion, Olivier Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested recently that electron associative detachment from negative atomic oxygen ions provides an additional source of free electrons in electric discharges of the mesosphere, the sprites, and gigantic jets. Here we study attachment under some simplifying assumptions and show...... that the threshold field decreases with time and can reach values well below the conventional threshold field. The concept of a fixed threshold field therefore itself breaks down. We find that the growth rate decreases with decreasing electric field and that long exposure time of electric fields therefore is needed...

  8. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the head part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Atsuo [Yongo National Collage of Technology (Japan); Isaka, Katsuo [University of Tokushima (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has rarely been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distribution of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the asymmetrical human model have been made clear. (author)

  9. Electric field effects on the dynamics of bubble detachment from an inclined surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Morganti, N; Saccone, G

    2015-01-01

    An experimental apparatus to study bubble detachment from an inclined surface under the action of electric forces is described. It consists of a container filled with FC72 at room temperature and pressure where a train of gas bubbles is injected from an orifice. An electrostatic field can be imposed around the bubble, while the cell can be tilted from 0 to 90°. It is possible to study interface growth with the aid of high-speed cinematography. Since the interface is asymmetrical, a mirror system allowed to acquire, in the same frame, two images at 90° of the bubble. Different inclinations, injection rates and voltages were tested in order to couple the effects of shear gravity and electric field. Curvature and contact angles have been derived with appropriate interpolation methods of the profile. Force balances on the bubble were checked, finding an electric force, which, at first pulls the bubbles from the orifice, then pushes it against the surface. The motion of the center of gravity confirms this behaviour. A power balance has been developed to determine the energy contributions, revealing that surface growth incorporates both the effects of inlet power and electric field. (paper)

  10. Electric field control of deterministic current-induced magnetization switching in a hybrid ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaiming; Yang, Meiyin; Ju, Hailang; Wang, Sumei; Ji, Yang; Li, Baohe; Edmonds, Kevin William; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Bao; Zhang, Nan; Liu, Shuai; Zheng, Houzhi; Wang, Kaiyou

    2017-07-01

    All-electrical and programmable manipulations of ferromagnetic bits are highly pursued for the aim of high integration and low energy consumption in modern information technology. Methods based on the spin-orbit torque switching in heavy metal/ferromagnet structures have been proposed with magnetic field, and are heading toward deterministic switching without external magnetic field. Here we demonstrate that an in-plane effective magnetic field can be induced by an electric field without breaking the symmetry of the structure of the thin film, and realize the deterministic magnetization switching in a hybrid ferromagnetic/ferroelectric structure with Pt/Co/Ni/Co/Pt layers on PMN-PT substrate. The effective magnetic field can be reversed by changing the direction of the applied electric field on the PMN-PT substrate, which fully replaces the controllability function of the external magnetic field. The electric field is found to generate an additional spin-orbit torque on the CoNiCo magnets, which is confirmed by macrospin calculations and micromagnetic simulations.

  11. Energy conservation and conversion of electrical heating systems in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustavsson, Leif; Joelsson, Anna [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund, (Sweden)

    2007-06-15

    In this study, a Swedish house built in 1974, heated with resistance heaters was analysed. Different options for changing the heating system and electricity production were compared for this type of detached house, assuming coal-based electricity production as a reference. Changes in the fuel used, the electricity production technology, the end-use heating technology and the heat demand were analysed. The aim was to show how these different parts of the energy system interact and to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of reducing CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use by different combinations of changes. The results showed that the CO{sub 2} emission and primary energy use could be reduced by 95 and 70%, respectively, without increased heating costs in a national economic perspective. The choice of end-use heating system had a greater influence than the energy conservation measures on the parameters studied. The energy conservation measures were less cost-effective in combination with the more energy-efficient heating systems, although the fact that they reduced the heat demand, and thus also the investment cost of the new heating system, was taken into account. (Author)

  12. High and tunable spin current induced by magnetic-electric fields in a single-mode spintronic device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala Kumar, S; Jalil, M B A; Tan, S G; Liang, G-C

    2009-01-01

    We proposed that a viable form of spin current transistor is one to be made from a single-mode device which passes electrons through a series of magnetic-electric barriers built into the device. The barriers assume a wavy spatial profile across the conduction path due to the inevitable broadening of the magnetic fields. Field broadening results in a linearly increasing vector potential across the conduction channel, which increases spin polarization. We have identified that the important factors for generating high spin polarization and conductance modulation are the low source-drain bias, the broadened magnetic fields, and the high number of FM gates within a fixed channel length.

  13. The Role of an Electric Field in the Formation of a Detached Regime in Tokamak Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senichenkov, I.; Kaveeva, E.; Rozhansky, V.; Sytova, E.; Veselova, I.; Voskoboynikov, S.; Coster, D.

    2018-03-01

    Modeling of the transition to the detachment of ASDEX Upgrade tokamak plasma with increasing density is performed using the SOLPS-ITER numerical code with a self-consistent account of drifts and currents. Their role in plasma redistribution both in the confinement region and in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is investigated. The mechanism of high field side high-density formation in the SOL in the course of detachment is suggested. In the full detachment regime, when the cold plasma region expands above the X-point and reaches closed magnetic-flux surfaces, plasma perturbation in a confined region may lead to a change in the confinement regime.

  14. Current-Induced Membrane Discharge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mathias Bækbo; van Soestbergen, M.; Mani, A.

    2012-01-01

    . Salt depletion leads to a large electric field resulting in a local pH shift within the membrane with the effect that the membrane discharges and loses its ion selectivity. Since salt co-ions, H+ ions, and OH- ions contribute to OLC, CIMD interferes with electrodialysis (salt counterion removal...... neglects chemical effects and remains to be quantitatively tested. Here, we show that charge regulation and water self-ionization can lead to OLC by "current-induced membrane discharge'' (CIMD), even in the absence of fluid flow, in ion-exchange membranes much thicker than the local Debye screening length...

  15. Density distribution of currents induced inside the brain in the heat part of the human model exposed to power frequency electric field; Denryoku shuhasu no denkai ni yori jintai model tobu nonai ni yudosareru denryu mitsudo bunpu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, A. [Yonago National College of Technology, Tottori (Japan); Isaka, K. [The University of Tokushima, Tokushima (Japan); Kaune, W.

    1998-06-01

    The health effect of the weak current induced in the human body as a result of the interaction between human body and power frequency electric fields has been investigated. However, the current density inside the head part tissues of the human body exposed to the electric fields has little been discussed. In this paper, the finite element method is applied to the analysis of the current density distributions of the head part composed of scalp, skull, cerebrospinal liquid and brain tissues. The basic characteristics of the current density distributions of the brain in the bead part of the axisymmetrical human model have been made clear. 13 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Divertor detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2015-11-01

    The heat exhaust is one of the main conceptual issues of magnetic fusion reactor. In a standard operational regime the large heat flux onto divertor target reaches unacceptable level in any foreseeable reactor design. However, about two decades ago so-called ``detached divertor'' regimes were found. They are characterized by reduced power and plasma flux on divertor targets and look as a promising solution for heat exhaust in future reactors. In particular, it is envisioned that ITER will operate in a partly detached divertor regime. However, even though divertor detachment was studied extensively for two decades, still there are some issues requiring a new look. Among them is the compatibility of detached divertor regime with a good core confinement. For example, ELMy H-mode exhibits a very good core confinement, but large ELMs can ``burn through'' detached divertor and release large amounts of energy on the targets. In addition, detached divertor regimes can be subject to thermal instabilities resulting in the MARFE formation, which, potentially, can cause disruption of the discharge. Finally, often inner and outer divertors detach at different plasma conditions, which can lead to core confinement degradation. Here we discuss basic physics of divertor detachment including different mechanisms of power and momentum loss (ionization, impurity and hydrogen radiation loss, ion-neutral collisions, recombination, and their synergistic effects) and evaluate the roles of different plasma processes in the reduction of the plasma flux; detachment stability; and an impact of ELMs on detachment. We also evaluate an impact of different magnetic and divertor geometries on detachment onset, stability, in- out- asymmetry, and tolerance to the ELMs. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Award Number DE-DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD.

  17. Retinal Detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to your brain. It provides the sharp, central vision needed for reading, driving, and seeing fine detail. A retinal detachment lifts or pulls the retina from its normal position. It can occur at ...

  18. Detached Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark McBride

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Joseph Raz has introduced an interesting class of statements —detached statements— into the philosophical lexicon. In brief, such statements are (informa- tive normative statements, yet the speaker does not, in so uttering them, express or convey acceptance of the point of view of the hearer to whom they are addressed (as contrasted with committed statements, where the speaker does express or convey such acceptance. I propose to offer a novel analysis of such statements (and to clear away some confusions about them. In brief, such statements will be analysed as wide-scope normative conditionals.

  19. Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Riaz, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 58-year-old female presented to the emergency department reporting six days of progressive, atraumatic left eye vision loss. Her symptoms started with the appearance of dark spots and “spider webs,” and then progressed to darkening of vision in her left eye. She reports mild pain since yesterday. Her review of symptoms was otherwise negative. Ocular physical examination revealed normal external appearance, intact extraocular movements, and visual acuities of 20/25 OD and light/dark sensitivity OS. Fluorescein uptake was negative and slit lamp exam was unremarkable. Significant findings: Bedside ocular ultrasound revealed a serpentine, hyperechoic membrane that appeared tethered to the optic disc posteriorly with hyperechoic material underneath. These findings are consistent with retinal detachment (RD and associated retinal hemorrhage. Discussion: The retina is a layer of organized neurons that line the posterior portion of the posterior chamber of the eye. RD occurs when this layer separates from the underlying epithelium, resulting in ischemia and progressive photoreceptor degeneration, with potentially rapid and permanent vision loss if left untreated.1 Risk factors include advanced age, male sex (60%, race (Asians and Jews, and myopia and lattice degeneration.2 Bedside ultrasound (US performed by emergency physicians provides a valuable tool that has been used by ophthalmologists for decades to evaluate intraocular disease.1,3 Findings on bedside ultrasound consistent with RD include a hyperechoic membrane floating in the posterior chamber. RD usuallyremain tethered to the optic disc posteriorly and do not cross midline, a feature distinguishing them from posterior vitreous detachments. Associated retinal hemorrhage, seen as hyperechoic material under the retinal flap, can often be seen.1,2 US can also distinguish between “mac-on” and “mac-off” detachments. If the retina is still attached to the

  20. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bjerregaard Christensen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from the rest of carbon atoms. The electrical current can couple the dimer motion in a coherent fashion. The coupling, which is mediated by nonconservative and pseudo-magnetic current-induced forces, change the atomic dynamics, and thereby show their signature in this simple system. We study the atomic dynamics and current-induced vibrational instabilities using a simplified eigen-mode analysis. Our study illustrates how armchair nanoribbons can serve as a possible testbed for probing the current-induced forces.

  1. Current-induced dynamics in carbon atomic contacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Gunst, Tue; Brandbyge, Mads

    2011-01-01

    voltage, which can be used to explore current-induced vibrational instabilities due the NC/BP forces. Furthermore, using tight-binding and the Brenner potential we illustrate how Langevin-type molecular-dynamics calculations including the Joule heating effect for the carbon-chain systems can be performed...... be used to explore current-induced dynamics and instabilities. We find instabilities at experimentally relevant bias and gate voltages for the carbon-chain system. © 2011 Lü et al....... carbon chain connecting electrically gated graphene electrodes. This illustrates how the device stability can be predicted solely from the modes obtained from the Langevin equation, including the current-induced forces. We point out that the gate offers control of the current, independent of the bias...

  2. Current-induced atomic dynamics, instabilities, and Raman signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Brandbyge, Mads; Hedegard, Per

    2012-01-01

    We derive and employ a semiclassical Langevin equation obtained from path integrals to describe the ionic dynamics of a molecular junction in the presence of electrical current. The electronic environment serves as an effective nonequilibrium bath. The bath results in random forces describing Joule...... heating, current-induced forces including the nonconservative wind force, dissipative frictional forces, and an effective Lorentz-type force due to the Berry phase of the nonequilibrium electrons. Using a generic two-level molecular model, we highlight the importance of both current-induced forces...... and Joule heating for the stability of the system. We compare the impact of the different forces, and the wide-band approximation for the electronic structure on our result. We examine the current-induced instabilities (excitation of runaway "waterwheel" modes) and investigate the signature...

  3. Retinal detachment following endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelsen, P T; Marcus, D A; Bovino, J A

    1985-08-01

    Fifty-five consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of bacterial endophthalmitis were reviewed. All patients were treated with systemic, periocular, topical, and intravitreal antibiotics. In addition, 33 of the patients underwent a pars plana vitrectomy. Nine retinal detachments occurred within six months of initial diagnosis. The higher frequency of retinal detachment in the vitrectomy group (21%) as compared to those patients managed without vitrectomy (9%) may be explained by a combination of surgical complications and the increased severity of endophthalmitis in the vitrectomy group. The two patients who developed retinal detachment during vitrectomy surgery rapidly progressed to no light perception. Conversely, the repair of retinal detachments diagnosed postoperatively had a good prognosis.

  4. Negative ion detachment processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: H - and D - collisions with atomic hydrogen; collisional decomposition of SF 6 - ; two-electron loss processes in negative ion collisions; associative electron detachment; and negative ion desorption from surfaces

  5. Retinal detachment repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines Problems breathing You may not recover full vision. ... detachments can be repaired. Failure to repair the retina always results in loss of vision to some degree. After surgery, the quality of ...

  6. Serous Macular Detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Özdemir

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Serous macular detachment has only recently been recognized to occur in a significant number of eyes with macular pathology including diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, Behçet disease, Irvine-Gass syndrome and pars planitis. These serous retinal detachments associated with retinal vascular leakage are not suspected clinically or angiographically but can be diagnosed with optical coherence tomography (OCT beneath the edematous neurosensory retina. The detection of shallow foveal detachment may be helpful in better understanding the pathogenesis of these disorders. In addition, the detection of serous macular detachment may also help to better guide and assess the results of therapy in the future. (Turk J Oph thal mol 2012; 42: 146-9

  7. Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment Associated with Choroidal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Sh. Bilandarli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Review describes the theme of rhegmatogenous retinal dеtаchment associated with choroidal separation. It is rare, but quite severe eye pathology. In most cases it has a very poor prognosis. Most authors consider the retinal detachment as a primary pathogenetic part, which decompensates the production of aqueous humor by increasing the absorptive surface of the retinal pigment epithelium. Dilatation of choroidal arterioles occurs in hypotension, it leads to extravasation of protein-rich fluid in the choroidal and the suprachoroidal space. This helps to further swelling and separation of the ciliary body and the choroid with reduced production of aqueous humor and progressive hypotension. There is a high risk of developing “retino-choroidal” separation in patients with macular rupture due to localization of retinal separation and rupture rear hyaloid membrane. The protein level in aqueous humor can be increased to 70 times. It may be a result of reflux of suprachoroidal proteins through uveoscleral route and / or venous proteins through the trabecular network. In addition, the diffusion of proteins from the posterior camera and vitreous cavity is possible. This creates favorable conditions for cell proliferation that can lead to postoperative proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Typically patients have a pronounced signs of inflammation, pain, and “red eye”, which is accompanied with vision decrement. Rhegmatogenous retinal reparationcan be associated with such clinical symptoms as severe panuveit, deepening of the anterior camera and the inflammatory response in the moisture, concentric wrinkles and sagging back of the iris, posterior synechia, iridofakodenez, blurred vitreous detachment of the ciliary body, hypotension, and choroidal and retinal detachment in addition. Debatableness of etiopathogenesis and a clinical picture, which is similar to other eye diseases create significant difficulties in early diagnosis and proper treatment of

  8. Nonconservative current-induced forces: A physical interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchavdar N. Todorov

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We give a physical interpretation of the recently demonstrated nonconservative nature of interatomic forces in current-carrying nanostructures. We start from the analytical expression for the curl of these forces, and evaluate it for a point defect in a current-carrying system. We obtain a general definition of the capacity of electrical current flow to exert a nonconservative force, and thus do net work around closed paths, by a formal noninvasive test procedure. Second, we show that the gain in atomic kinetic energy over time, generated by nonconservative current-induced forces, is equivalent to the uncompensated stimulated emission of directional phonons. This connection with electron–phonon interactions quantifies explicitly the intuitive notion that nonconservative forces work by angular momentum transfer.

  9. Electric current induced prevention of biofilms on stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borden, Arnout Johannes van der

    2005-01-01

    As antibiotic therapy usually has little impact on biomaterials-associated infections, since the biofilm mode of growth offers protection, it is the aim of this thesis to investigate the prevention of infection on percutaneous pins and screws as used in the external fixator, with the aid of an

  10. Safety detaching hook specification.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, JD

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available hydraulic tensioning system The impactor must subject the safety detaching hook to an impact energy of 150 kJ minimum. A high speed digital imaging system, capable of recording at least 2000 full frames per second, shall be used to record video images... document compiled by the Contractor, detailing all major events in the production phase, including but not necessarily limited to inspection requirements, test procedures and acceptance/rejection criteria, sampling plans and equipment to be employed...

  11. Model of detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.

    1986-07-01

    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model

  12. Between Involvement and Detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomasen, Gry

    that the Department of State attempted a ‘political bargain’, with which the allies would be given political consultation and a détente in return for re-commitment to integration, whereas the Acheson Committee proposed a détente and deterrence formula in NATO to the overcome this perceived alliance disintegration....... Thus the US proposed the Harmel formula before Harmel. In general, the developments in Western Europe put the Johnson administration in a state of alarm, and the European allies therefore had a larger impact on America’s policies, except in the essentially detached nuclear policy, which...

  13. Current-Induced Transistor Sensorics with Electrogenic Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Fromherz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of transistor recording of electroactive cells are considered, when the response is determined by a current-induced voltage in the electrolyte due to cellular activity. The relationship to traditional transistor recording, with an interface-induced response due to interactions with the open gate oxide, is addressed. For the geometry of a cell-substrate junction, the theory of a planar core-coat conductor is described with a one-compartment approximation. The fast electrical relaxation of the junction and the slow change of ion concentrations are pointed out. On that basis, various recording situations are considered and documented by experiments. For voltage-gated ion channels under voltage clamp, the effects of a changing extracellular ion concentration and the enhancement/depletion of ion conductances in the adherent membrane are addressed. Inhomogeneous ion conductances are crucial for transistor recording of neuronal action potentials. For a propagating action potential, the effects of an axon-substrate junction and the surrounding volume conductor are distinguished. Finally, a receptor-transistor-sensor is described, where the inhomogeneity of a ligand–activated ion conductance is achieved by diffusion of the agonist and inactivation of the conductance. Problems with regard to a development of reliable biosensors are mentioned.

  14. [Prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, S; Riss, B

    1981-08-01

    The indications for and results of prophylactic treatment of retinal detachment during a period of five years are reported and compared with the results in the literature. Half of the cases (3 out of 6 eyes) which developed a retinal detachment had been horse-shoe tears combined with a vitreous hemorrhage. For this reason a small buckle operation is recommended in these cases, to prevent further traction. Lattice degeneration should rather be observed than treated, except in special cases: This includes eyes where the fellow eye had a detachment from a lattice degeneration, cases in which one eye is blind from an uncured detachment or has no useful visual acuity, and eyes whose fellow eye has giant tears. In aphakic eyes treatment of lattice degeneration is recommended, because the incidence of detachment from these areas is high, especially in young aphakic cases. In one aphakic eye which had been photocoagulated several times the formation of a preretinal membrane was observed.

  15. Current-induced spin polarization in InGaAs and GaAs epilayers with varying doping densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, M.; Huang, S.; Del Gaudio, D.; Occena, J.; Goldman, R. S.; Raimondi, R.; Sih, V.

    2017-11-01

    The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InxGa1 -xAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the extrinsic contributions to the spin-polarization mechanism must be considered. Theoretical calculations based on a model that includes extrinsic contributions to the spin dephasing and the spin Hall effect, in addition to the intrinsic Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling, are found to reproduce the experimental finding that the crystal direction with the smaller net spin-orbit field has larger electrical spin generation efficiency and are used to predict how sample parameters affect the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization.

  16. Probing wavenumbers of current-induced excitations in point-contact experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Wei

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Z Wei, M TsoiDepartment of Physics, Center for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology, and Texas Materials Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USAAbstract: We demonstrate how a mechanical point-contact technique can provide information on the wavenumber of spin waves excited by high-density electrical current in magnetic multilayers. By varying the size of point-contacts, we have been able to control the size of the excitation volume and therefore the wavelength of current-induced spin waves. This leads to a technique with in situ sensitivity to wavenumbers of current-induced excitations. Our detailed size-dependent measurements support the prediction that the excited wavelength is determined by the contact size.Keywords: spin transfer torque, giant magnetoresistance, spin waves, point contact

  17. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  18. Current-Induced Spin Polarization at a Single Heterojunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silov, A.; Blajnov, P.; Wolter, J.H.; Hey, R.; Ploog, K.; Averkiev, N.S.; Menendez, J.; Walle, van der C.G.

    2005-01-01

    We have experimentally achieved spin-polarization by a lateral current in a single non-magnetic semiconductor heterojunction. The effect does not require an applied magnetic field or ferromagnetic contacts. The current-induced spin orientation can be seen as the inverse of the circular

  19. Interface tuning of current-induced cooling in molecular circuits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Foti, Giuseppe; Vázquez, Héctor

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 2 (2017), s. 1082-1088 ISSN 1932-7447 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-19672S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : current-induced heating and cooling * molecular junction * Carbene Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.536, year: 2016

  20. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples fro...

  1. Current-induced runaway vibrations in dehydrogenated graphene nanoribbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Lu, Jing Tao; Hedegard, Per

    2016-01-01

    We employ a semi-classical Langevin approach to study current-induced atomic dynamics in a partially dehydrogenated armchair graphene nanoribbon. All parameters are obtained from density functional theory. The dehydrogenated carbon dimers behave as effective impurities, whose motion decouples from...

  2. [Surgical managment of retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritoglou, C; Wolf, A

    2015-05-01

    The detachment of the neurosensory retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium can be related to breaks of the retina allowing vitreous fluid to gain access to the subretinal space, to exudative changes of the choroid such as tumours or inflammatory diseases or to excessive tractional forces exerted by interactions of the collagenous vitreous and the retina. Tractional retinal detachment is usually treated by vitrectomy and exudative detachment can be addressed by treatment of the underlying condition in many cases. In rhegmatogenous retinal detachment two different surgical procedures, vitrectomy and scleral buckling, can be applied for functional and anatomic rehabilitation of our patients. The choice of the surgical procedure is not really standardised and often depends on the experience of the surgeon and other more ocular factors including lens status, the number of retinal breaks, the extent of the detachment and the amount of preexisting PVR. Using both techniques, anatomic success rates of over 90 % can be achieved. Especially in young phakic patients scleral buckling offers the true advantage to prevent the progression of cataract formation requiring cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation. Therefore, scleral buckling should be considered in selected cases as an alternative surgical option in spite of the very important technical refinements in modern vitrectomy techniques. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Odd-parity currents induced by dynamic deformations in graphene-like systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Erhu; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Reduced (3  +  1)-dimensional Dirac systems with inter-pseudo-spin and inter-valley scattering are employed to investigate current responses to (chiral) gauge fields in graphene-like systems. From (chiral) current—(chiral) current correlation functions, we derive the current responses. Except for electric currents induced by external gauge fields, we find the inter-valley scattering can break the topological nature of odd-parity currents. Given the proper conditions, this property can help us realize valley-polarized electric currents. Through the dynamic deformations generating the chiral gauge fields, we find the vortex-like currents while their profiles can be tuned by superposition of some deformations. In particular, we find a more manageable approach to realize the topological electric current by choosing a linear dynamic deformation. (paper)

  4. Distribution of ionospheric currents induced by the solar wind interaction with Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniell, R.E. Jr.; Cloutier, P.A.

    1977-01-01

    The electric currents induced in the atmosphere of a non-magnetic planet such as Venus by the interaction of the solar wind satisfy a generalized Ohm's Law relationship with tensor conductivity. The distribution of these currents within the planetary ionosphere may be calculated by a variational technique which minimizes the Joule heating over the ionospheric volume. In this paper, we present the development of the variational technique, and apply it to a model of the solar wind interaction with Venus. Potential and current distributions are shown, and the use of these distributions in determining convective transport patterns of planetary ions is discussed. (author)

  5. Current-induced switching in a magnetic insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Can Onur; Quindeau, Andy; Pai, Chi-Feng; Mann, Maxwell; Caretta, Lucas; Tang, Astera S.; Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Ross, Caroline A.; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2017-03-01

    The spin Hall effect in heavy metals converts charge current into pure spin current, which can be injected into an adjacent ferromagnet to exert a torque. This spin-orbit torque (SOT) has been widely used to manipulate the magnetization in metallic ferromagnets. In the case of magnetic insulators (MIs), although charge currents cannot flow, spin currents can propagate, but current-induced control of the magnetization in a MI has so far remained elusive. Here we demonstrate spin-current-induced switching of a perpendicularly magnetized thulium iron garnet film driven by charge current in a Pt overlayer. We estimate a relatively large spin-mixing conductance and damping-like SOT through spin Hall magnetoresistance and harmonic Hall measurements, respectively, indicating considerable spin transparency at the Pt/MI interface. We show that spin currents injected across this interface lead to deterministic magnetization reversal at low current densities, paving the road towards ultralow-dissipation spintronic devices based on MIs.

  6. Neutral current induced neutrino oscillations in a supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino

    1997-01-01

    Neutral currents induced matter oscillations of electroweak-active (anti-)neutrinos to sterile neutrinos can explain the observed motion of pulsars. In contrast to a recently proposed explanation of the pulsar birth velocities based on the electron to tau (muon) neutrino oscillations [hep-ph/9606428], the heaviest neutrino (either active or sterile) would have to have mass of order several keV.

  7. Retinal detachment in paediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, S. N.; Qureshi, N.; Azad, N.; Khan, A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the causes of retinal detachment in children and the various operative procedures requiring vitreoretinal surgical intervention for the same. Study Design: Case series. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Ophthalmology, Al-Shifa Trust Eye Hospital, Rawalpindi, from January 2006 to May 2009. Methodology: A total of 281 eyes of 258 patients, (aged 0 - 18 years) who underwent vitreo-retinal surgical intervention for retinal detachment were included. Surgical log was searched for the type of retinal detachment and its causes. Frequencies of various interventions done in these patients viz. vitrectomy, scleral buckle, use of tamponading agents, laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy were noted. Results were described as descriptive statistics. Results: Myopia was the cause in 62 (22.1%) and trauma in 51 (18.1%) of the eyes. Total retinal detachment (RD) was treated in 94 (33.5%) eyes, sub total RD in 36 (12.8%), recurrent RD in 32 (11.4%), giant retinal tear in 28 (10%), tractional RD in 15 (5.3%) and exudative RD in 2 (0.7%). Prophylactic laser or cryotherapy was applied in 74 (26.3%) of the eyes. Pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) was carried out in 159 (56.6%) eyes while scleral buckle procedure was done in 129 (45.9%) eyes. Silicon oil was used in 149 (53%), perfluorocarbon liquid in 32 (11.4%) and gas tamponade in 20 (7.1%) eyes. Conclusion: The most common cause of retinal detachment in paediatric patients was myopia, followed by trauma. Total RD was more common as compared to the other types. The most common procedure adopted was pars plana vitrectomy followed by scleral buckle procedure. (author)

  8. A review of direct experimental measurements of detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedo, J.; McLean, A. G.; Rudakov, D. L.; Watkins, J. G.

    2018-04-01

    Detached divertor plasmas feature strong radial and parallel gradients of density, temperature, electric fields and flow over the divertor volume and therefore, sampling the divertor plasma directly provides crucial knowledge to the interpretation and modeling efforts. We review the contribution of diagnostics that directly sample the plasma to the advancement of knowledge of the physics of detachment and detached divertors, such as the characteristics of the various regimes, discovery and quantification of drifts and identification of convection of heat and particles. We focus on wall probes, scanning probes, retarding field analyzers and Thomson scattering in the divertor region and also include the contribution of measurements away from the divertor that provide insight on how divertor detachment affects core, edge or pedestal conditions. Wall probes are critical as they can be installed in closed volumes of difficult access to other diagnostics and measure plasma parameters at the divertor structures, which define the plasma boundary conditions and where detachment effects are more likely to be strongest.

  9. Current-Induced Forces and Hot Spots in Biased Nanojunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Jing Tao; Christensen, Rasmus Bjerregaard; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the interplay of current-induced forces (CIFs), Joule heating, and heat transport inside a current-carrying nanoconductor. We find that the CIFs, due to the electron-phonon coherence, can control the spatial heat dissipation in the conductor. This yields a significant...... asymmetric concentration of excess heating (hot spot) even for a symmetric conductor. When coupled to the electrode phonons, CIFs drive different phonon heat flux into the two electrodes. First-principles calculations on realistic biased nanojunctions illustrate the importance of the effect....

  10. Kinematic Fitting of Detached Vertices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattione, Paul [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-05-01

    The eg3 experiment at the Jefferson Lab CLAS detector aims to determine the existence of the $\\Xi_{5}$ pentaquarks and investigate the excited $\\Xi$ states. Specifically, the exotic $\\Xi_{5}^{--}$ pentaquark will be sought by first reconstructing the $\\Xi^{-}$ particle through its weak decays, $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ and $\\Lambda\\to\\pi^{-}$. A kinematic fitting routine was developed to reconstruct the detached vertices of these decays, where confidence level cuts on the fits are used to remove background events. Prior to fitting these decays, the exclusive reaction $\\gamma D\\rightarrow pp\\pi^{-}$ was studied in order to correct the track measurements and covariance matrices of the charged particles. The $\\Lambda\\rightarrow p\\pi^{-}$ and $\\Xi^{-}\\to\\pi^{-}\\Lambda$ decays were then investigated to demonstrate that the kinematic fitting routine reconstructs the decaying particles and their detached vertices correctly.

  11. Negative ion detachment cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1992-10-01

    The authors have measured absolute cross sections for electron detachment and charge exchange for collision of O and S with atomic hydrogen, have investigated the sputtering and photodesorption of negative ions from gas covered surfaces, and have begun an investigation of photon-induced field emission of electrons from exotic structures. Brief descriptions of these activities as well as future plans for these projects are given below

  12. Variations of posterior vitreous detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi, A.; Kado, M.; Akiba, J.; Hirokawa, H.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—To identify variations in posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and establish a clinical classification system for PVD.
METHODS—400 consecutive eyes were examined using biomicroscopy and vitreous photography and classified the PVD variations—complete PVD with collapse, complete PVD without collapse, partial PVD with thickened posterior vitreous cortex (TPVC), or partial PVD without TPVC.
RESULTS—In each PVD type, the most frequently seen ocular pathologies were as follows: in complete PVD ...

  13. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Kakehashi, Akihiro; Takezawa, Mikiko; Akiba, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Akihiro Kakehashi,1 Mikiko Takezawa,1 Jun Akiba21Department of Ophthalmology, Jichi Medical University, Saitama Medical Center, Saitama, 2Kanjodori Eye Clinic, Asahikawa, JapanAbstract: Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography...

  14. Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Haney, Paul M.; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Stiles, M. D.

    2013-01-01

    In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.

  15. Current-induced torques and interfacial spin-orbit coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Haney, Paul M.

    2013-12-19

    In bilayer systems consisting of an ultrathin ferromagnetic layer adjacent to a metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an applied in-plane current induces torques on the magnetization. The torques that arise from spin-orbit coupling are of particular interest. Here we use first-principles methods to calculate the current-induced torque in a Pt-Co bilayer to help determine the underlying mechanism. We focus exclusively on the analog to the Rashba torque, and do not consider the spin Hall effect. The details of the torque depend strongly on the layer thicknesses and the interface structure, providing an explanation for the wide variation in results found by different groups. The torque depends on the magnetization direction in a way similar to that found for a simple Rashba model. Artificially turning off the exchange spin splitting and separately the spin-orbit coupling potential in the Pt shows that the primary source of the “fieldlike” torque is a proximate spin-orbit effect on the Co layer induced by the strong spin-orbit coupling in the Pt.

  16. Posterior vitreous detachment and retinal detachment after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripandelli, Guido; Coppé, Andrea Maria; Parisi, Vincenzo; Olzi, Diego; Scassa, Cecilia; Chiaravalloti, Adele; Stirpe, Mario

    2007-04-01

    To evaluate possible changes of vitreous status in emmetropic eyes after uneventful phacoemulsification surgery, and possible related complications such as the onset of retinal detachment (RD). Retrospective case series. Four hundred fifty-three emmetropic eyes from 453 patients (mean age, 62.03+/-5.57 years) subjected to uneventful phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in the capsular bag were considered in the study. They had a refractive error within +/-0.5 diopters (mean, -0.21+/-0.08). Eyes with peripheral retinal lattice degeneration were included only if asymptomatic and only if the degeneration involved one retinal quadrant. After cataract surgery, the 453 eyes were evaluated preoperatively at days 1, 15, and 30 and months 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 60. The whole period of follow-up was 5 years. Evaluation of vitreous status by biomicroscopic examination, indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy, and B-scan ultrasonography. Postoperative onset of posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and RD. After cataract surgery, a PVD occurred in 107 of 141 (75.88%) eyes without preoperative PVD or lattice degeneration. Posterior vitreous detachment occurred in 41 of 47 eyes (87.23%) with preoperative lattice degeneration and no PVD. Eyes with preoperative lattice degeneration and postoperative PVD showed a higher incidence of RD after cataract surgery (21.27%) than eyes without preoperative PVD or lattice degeneration (0.70%). In all patients with lattice degeneration, RD originated from horseshoe retinal tears on lattice areas located on the superior quadrants. No correlation was observed between the development of RD and age. Our results suggest that the onset of postoperative PVD should be considered an important risk factor for the development of RD after cataract surgery, particularly in eyes with lattice areas.

  17. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2017-05-08

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  18. Direct observation of current-induced motion of a 3D vortex domain wall in cylindrical nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.; Chuvilin, Andrey; Lopatin, Sergei; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2017-01-01

    The current-induced dynamics of 3D magnetic vortex domain walls in cylindrical Co/Ni nanowires are revealed experimentally using Lorentz microscopy and theoretically using micromagnetic simulations. We demonstrate that a spin-polarized electric current can control the reversible motion of 3D vortex domain walls, which travel with a velocity of a few hundred meters per second. This finding is a key step in establishing fast, high-density memory devices based on vertical arrays of cylindrical magnetic nanowires.

  19. Classification of posterior vitreous detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehashi, Akihiro; Takezawa, Mikiko; Akiba, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosing a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) is important for predicting the prognosis and determining the indication for vitreoretinal surgery in many vitreoretinal diseases. This article presents both classifications of a PVD by slit-lamp biomicroscopy and of a shallow PVD by optical coherence tomography (OCT). By biomicroscopy, the vitreous condition is determined based on the presence or absence of a PVD. The PVD then is classified as either a complete posterior vitreous detachment (C-PVD) or a partial posterior vitreous detachment (P-PVD). A C-PVD is further divided into a C-PVD with collapse and a C-PVD without collapse, while a P-PVD is divided into a P-PVD with shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD with shrinkage) and a P-PVD without shrinkage of the posterior hyaloid membrane (P-PVD without shrinkage). A P-PVD without shrinkage has a subtype characterized by vitreous gel attachment through the premacular hole in a posterior hyaloid membrane to the macula (P-PVD without shrinkage [M]). By OCT, a shallow PVD is classified as the absence of a shallow PVD or as a shallow PVD. A shallow PVD is then subclassified as a shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, a shallow PVD with shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex, and a peripheral shallow PVD. A shallow PVD without shrinkage of the posterior vitreous cortex has two subtypes: an age-related shallow PVD and a perifoveal PVD associated with a macular hole. PMID:24376338

  20. Outcomes in bullous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah P. Read

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions and importance: GRTs are an uncommon cause of retinal detachment. While pars plana vitrectomy with tamponade is standard in GRT management, there is variability in the use of scleral buckling and PFO in these cases. This is in contrast to retinal dialysis where scleral buckle alone can yield favorable results. Though a baseball ocular trauma is common, retinal involvement is rare compared to other sports injuries such as those occurring with tennis, soccer and golf. Sports trauma remains an important cause of retinal injury and patients should be counseled on the need for eye protection.

  1. Current-induced energy barrier suppression for electromigration from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ruoxing

    2011-08-01

    We present an efficient method for evaluating current-induced forces in nanoscale junctions, which naturally integrates into the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function formalism implemented within density functional theory. This allows us to perform dynamic atomic relaxation in the presence of an electric current while evaluating the current-voltage characteristics. The central idea consists of expressing the system energy density matrix in terms of Green\\'s functions. To validate our implementation, we perform a series of benchmark calculations, both at zero and at finite bias. First we evaluate the current-induced forces acting over an Al nanowire and compare them with previously published results for fixed geometries. Then we perform structural relaxation of the same wires under bias and determine the critical voltage at which they break. We find that although a perfectly straight wire does not break at any of the voltages considered, a zigzag wire is more fragile and snaps at 1.4 V, with the Al atoms moving against the electron flow. The critical current density for the rupture is estimated to be 9.6 × 1010 A/cm2, in good agreement with the experimentally measured value of 5 × 1010 A/cm2. Finally, we demonstrate the capability of our scheme to tackle the electromigration problem by studying the current-induced motion of a single Si atom covalently attached to the sidewall of a (4,4) armchair single-walled carbon nanotube. Our calculations indicate that if Si is attached along the current path, then current-induced forces can induce migration. In contrast, if the bonding site is away from the current path, then the adatom remains stable regardless of the voltage. An analysis based on decomposing the total force into a wind and an electrostatic component, as well as on a detailed evaluation of the bond currents, shows that this remarkable electromigration phenomenon is due solely to the position-dependent wind force. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  2. Investigation of Current Induced Spin Polarization in III-V Semiconductor Epilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luengo-Kovac, Marta

    In the development of a semiconductor spintronics device, a thorough understanding of spin dynamics in semiconductors is necessary. In particular, electrical control of electron spins is advantageous for its compatibility with present day electronics. In this thesis, we will discuss the electrical modification of the electron g-factor, which characterizes the strength of the interaction between a spin and a magnetic field, as well as investigate electrically generated spin polarizations as a function of various material parameters. We report on the modification of the electron g-factor by an in-plane electric field in an InGaAs epilayer. We performed external magnetic field scans of the Kerr rotation of the InGaAs film in order to measure the g-factor independently of the spin-orbit fields. The g-factor increases from -0.4473(0.0001) at 0 V/cm to -0.4419( 0.0001) at 50 V/cm applied along the [110] crystal axis. A comparison of temperature and voltage dependent photoluminescence measurements indicate that minimal channel heating occurs at these voltages. Possible explanations for this g-factor modification are discussed, including an increase in the electron temperature that is independent of the lattice temperature and the modification of the donor-bound electron wave function by the electric field. The current-induced spin polarization and momentum-dependent spin-orbit field were measured in InGaAs epilayers with varying indium concentrations and silicon doping densities. Samples with higher indium concentrations and carrier concentrations and lower mobilities were found to have larger electrical spin generation efficiencies. Furthermore, current-induced spin polarization was detected in GaAs epilayers despite the absence of measurable spin-orbit fields, indicating that the spin polarization mechanism is extrinsic. Temperature-dependent measurements of the spin dephasing rates and mobilities were used to characterize the relative strengths of the intrinsic D

  3. Risk factor profile in retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azad Raj

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available 150 cases of retinal detachment comprising 50 patients each of bilateral retinal detachment, unilateral retinal detachment without any retinal lesions in the fellow eve and unilateral retinal detachment with retinal lesions in the fellow eye were studied and the various associated risk factors were statistically analysed. The findings are discussed in relation to their aetiological and prognostic significance in the different types of retinal detachment. Based on these observations certain guidelines are offered which may be of value in decision making, in prophylactic detachment surgery. Tractional breaks in the superior temporal quadrant especially when symptomatic. mandate prophylactic treatment. Urgency is enhanced it′ the patient is aphakic. Associated myopia adds to the urgency. The higher incidence of initial right e′ e involvement in all groups suggests a vascular original possibly ischaemic.

  4. Detached divertor plasmas in JET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, L D; Borrass, K; Corrigan, G; Gottardi, N; Lingertat, J; Loarte, A; Simonini, R; Stamp, M F; Taroni, A [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Stangeby, P C [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Studies

    1994-07-01

    In simulations with high radiated power fractions, it is possible to produce the drop in ion current to the divertor targets typical of detached plasmas. Despite the fact that these experiments are performed on beryllium target tiles, radiation from deuterium and beryllium cannot account for the measured power losses. The neutral deuterium levels in the SOL in these plasmas are higher than the model predicts. This may be due to leakage from the divertor or to additional wall sources related to the non-steady nature of these plasmas. In contrast, a surprisingly high level of carbon is present in these discharges; higher even than would be predicted are the divertor target tiles pure carbon. This level may well be large enough to produce the measured radiation. (authors). 6 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Frank T; Lamberts, Querin J; van den Biesen, Pieter R; Rothova, Aniki

    2003-02-01

    To evaluate the frequency, high-risk factors, and visual prognosis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in patients with uveitis. Retrospective case-control study. We included 1387 consecutive patients with uveitis who consulted our uveitis clinic from January 1990 through December 1997 of whom 43 patients (46 eyes) with RRD were identified. The retinal detachment (RD) controls were 212 consecutive patients with RRD (221 eyes, first occurrence of RD, not associated with uveitis) who were admitted for surgery in the period from April 1999 to April 2000. The uveitis control group consisted of 150 age-matched patients (210 eyes) selected from the entire uveitis series. Retrospective analysis of clinical data. The presence of RRD and eventual risk factors for RRD, such as myopia, retinal lattice degeneration, prior intraocular surgery, anatomic location of uveitis, its specific diagnosis, and clinical manifestations. Furthermore, the surgical and nonsurgical outcomes of RRD, as well as the results of various treatment regimens, were analyzed. RRD was identified in 3.1% of the patients with uveitis. RRD was most frequently associated with panuveitis (6.6%). RRD was associated more frequently with infectious (7.6%) than noninfectious uveitis (2.1%). At the onset of RRD, uveitis was active in most (46%) affected eyes. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy was present in 30% of the uveitic RRD eyes at presentation in contrast to 12% of the RRD control eyes. In uveitic RRD, the retina was reattached in 59% of eyes with a single operation; the final anatomic reattachment rate was 88%. Finally, a visual acuity of less than 20/200 was present in 71% of the uveitic RRD eyes, 10% of which had no light perception. We discovered a high prevalence of RRD in patients with active panuveitis and infectious uveitis and document that uveitis in itself is a risk factor for the development of RRD. The visual prognosis of RRD in uveitis was poor because of the uveitis itself and the

  6. Experimental results from detached plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Boody, F.P.; Bush, C.E.

    1986-10-01

    Detached plasmas are formed in TFTR which have the principal property of the boundary to the high temperature plasma core being defined by a radiating layer. This paper documents the properties of TFTR ohmic-detached plasmas with a range of plasma densities at two different plasma currents

  7. Intraretinal proliferation induced by retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, S.K.; Erickson, P.A.; Lewis, G.P.; Anderson, D.H.

    1991-01-01

    Cellular proliferation after retinal detachment was studied by 3 H-thymidine light microscopic autoradiography in cats that had experimental detachments of 0.5-180 days duration. The animals underwent labeling 2 hr before death with an intraocular injection of 200 microCi of 3 H-thymidine. The number of labeled nuclei were counted in 1-micron thick tissue sections in regions of detachment, in regions of the experimental eyes that remained attached, and in control eyes that had no detachments. In the normal eye, in one that had only the lens and vitreous removed, and in the eyes with 0.5- and 1-day detachments, the number of labeled nuclei ranged from 0/mm (0.5-day detachment) to 0.38/mm (lens and vitreous removed only). By 2 days postdetachment, the number of labeled nuclei increased to 2.09/mm. The highest levels of labeling occurred in two animals with detachments of 3 (7.86/mm) and 4 (7.09/mm) days. Thereafter, the numbers declined steadily until near-baseline counts were obtained at 14 days. The number of labeled nuclei was slightly elevated in the attached regions of two animals with 3-day detachments. Labeled cell types included: Mueller cells, astrocytes, pericytes, and endothelial cells of the retinal vasculature, and both resident (microglial cells) and invading macrophages. In an earlier study RPE cells were also shown to proliferate in response to detachment. Thus, these data show that proliferation is a rapid response to detachment, reaching a maximum within 4 days, and that virtually every nonneuronal cell type in the retina can participate in this response. The data suggest that events leading to such clinical manifestations as proliferative vitreoretinopathy and subretinal fibrosis may have their beginnings in this very early proliferative response

  8. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth McElnea

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. METHODS: A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. RESULTS: Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5% of whom were male and 9 (37.5% of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0% cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3% cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6% cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. CONCLUSION: Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  9. Paediatric retinal detachment: aetiology, characteristics and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElnea, Elizabeth; Stephenson, Kirk; Gilmore, Sarah; O'Keefe, Michael; Keegan, David

    2018-01-01

    To provide contemporary data on the aetiology, clinical features and outcomes of paediatric retinal detachment. A retrospective review of all those under 16y who underwent surgical repair for retinal detachment at a single centre between the years 2008 and 2015 inclusive was performed. In each case the cause of retinal detachment, the type of detachment, the presence or absence of macular involvement, the number and form of reparative surgeries undertaken, and the surgical outcome achieved was recorded. Twenty-eight eyes of 24 patients, 15 (62.5%) of whom were male and 9 (37.5%) of whom were female, their mean age being 11.6y and range 2-16y developed retinal detachment over the eight year period studied. Trauma featured in the development of retinal detachment in 14 (50.0%) cases. Retinal detachment was associated with other ocular and/or systemic conditions in 11 (39.3%) cases. A mean of 3.0 procedures with a range of 1-9 procedures per patient were undertaken in the management of retinal detachment. Complex vitrectomy combined with scleral buckling or complex vitrectomy alone were those most frequently performed. Mean postoperative visual acuity was 1.2 logMAR with range 0.0-3.0 logMAR. In 22 of 26 (84.6%) cases which underwent surgical repair the retina was attached at last follow-up. Aggressive management of paediatric retinal detachment including re-operation increases the likelihood of anatomical success. In cases where the retinal detachment can be repaired by an external approach alone there is a more favourable visual outcome.

  10. Flux nucleation in the current-induced resistive state of a constricted type I superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, K.P.; Huebener, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    The current-induced resistive state in a constricted type I superconductor is characterized by a train of flux tubes traversing the sample perpendicular to the direction of the applied current following its nucleation at the sample edge. The temporal structure of the nucleation process can be investigated by attempting to synchronize this process with small periodic current pulses superimposed on the direct bias current. The resistive dc voltage is then to be measured as a function of the pulse parameters such as frequency and width. We have performed such experiments at 4.2 K on constricted Pb films of 6--8 μm thickness and 100 μm width. Simultaneously with the electrical measurements the dynamic behavior of the flux tubes was directly observed using a stroboscopic magnetooptical method for magnetic flux detection. Our electrical measurements clearly show how the size of the nucleated flux tubes varies with the direct bias current and the nucleation frequency. The positive wall energy in the Pb films results in a lower limit for this size as expected. The influence of the preceding flux tubes still existing within the constriction upon the flux nucleation process is revealed in detail. All observations can be understood from a consideration of the energy balance during the flux nucleation process

  11. Evidence for a New Magnetoelectric Effect of Current-Induced Magnetization in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi$_4$B

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric currents were performed for toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi$_4$B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local inversion symmetry.We found that each of the electric currents parallel to [$2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0$] and [$0001$] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces uniform magnetization in the direction of [$01\\bar{1}0$].The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essent...

  12. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment following intravitreal ocriplasmin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Madi, Haifa A.; Haynes, Richard J.; Depla, Diana; de la Cour, Morten D.; Lesnik-Oberstein, Sarit; Muqit, Mahi M. K.; Patton, Niall; Price, Nick; Steel, David H. W.

    2016-01-01

    To describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients presenting with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) after ocriplasmin (OCP) injection. Retrospective, multi-centre, observational case series with case note review. Eight patients with symptomatic vitreomacular traction (six with

  13. Current surgery of retinal detachment recurrence. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. D. Zakharov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available this review presents a detailed analysis and an experience of surgical treatment of retinal detachment recurrence associated with light silicone oil tamponade of vitreous cavity. Approaches and variants of treatment were described in the historical aspect and till now. there are considered general and particular issues in case of retinal detachment recurrence appearance, expediency and volume of intraoperative manipulations, time of operation and choice of temporary substitute of vitreous body for a purpose of postoperative tamponade of vitreous cavity.

  14. Origin of current-induced forces in an atomic gold wire: A first-principles study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandbyge, Mads; Stokbro, Kurt; Taylor, Jeremy Philip

    2003-01-01

    We address the microscopic origin of the current-induced forces by analyzing results of first principles density functional calculations of atomic gold wires connected to two gold electrodes with different electrochemical potentials. We find that current induced forces are closely related...

  15. Electric glass capturing markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikman, K.; Wikstroem, T.

    1996-11-01

    Electric glass has found its place on the construction market. In public buildings, electrically heatable windows are becoming the leading option for large glass walls. Studies on detached houses, both new and renovated, show that floor heating combined with electrically heatable windowpanes is the best choice with respect to resident`s comfort. (orig.)

  16. Electricity

    CERN Document Server

    Basford, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Electricity Made Simple covers the fundamental principles underlying every aspect of electricity. The book discusses current; resistance including its measurement, Kirchhoff's laws, and resistors; electroheat, electromagnetics and electrochemistry; and the motor and generator effects of electromagnetic forces. The text also describes alternating current, circuits and inductors, alternating current circuits, and a.c. generators and motors. Other methods of generating electromagnetic forces are also considered. The book is useful for electrical engineering students.

  17. Evidence of a New Current-Induced Magnetoelectric Effect in a Toroidal Magnetic Ordered State of UNi4B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Hiraku; Uenishi, Kenta; Miura, Naoyuki; Tabata, Chihiro; Hidaka, Hiroyuki; Yanagisawa, Tatsuya; Amitsuka, Hiroshi

    2018-03-01

    Magnetization measurements under direct electric current were performed in a toroidal magnetic ordered state of UNi4B to test a recent theoretical prediction of current-induced magnetization in a metallic system lacking local-inversion symmetry. We found that electric current parallel to [2\\bar{1}\\bar{1}0] and [0001] in the hexagonal 4-index notation induces a uniform magnetization along the [01\\bar{1}0] direction. The observed behavior of the induced magnetization is essentially consistent with the theoretical prediction; however, it also shows an inconsistency suggesting that the antiferromagnetic state of UNi4B could not be simply regarded as a uniform toroidal order in the ideal honeycomb layered structure.

  18. [Paediatric retinal detachment and hereditary vitreoretinal disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, P

    2013-09-01

    The number of retinal detachments in children is very low in comparison to the number in adults. One predisposing factor for development of paediatric retinal detachment is suffering from hereditary vitreoretinal degeneration (e.g., Stickler syndrome, Wagner syndrome, Kniest dysplasia, familial exudative vitreoretinopathy, congenital X-linked retinoschisis, Knobloch syndrome, incontinentia pigmenti, Norrie disease). Hereditary vitreoretinopathies are characterised by an abnormal-appearing vitreous gel with associated retinal changes. In most of these eyes further ocular abnormalities can be diagnosed. A group of hereditary disorders is associated with characteristic systemic abnormalities. Allied conditions should be considered in the clinical diagnosis. Vitreoretinopathies are the most common cause of inherited retinal detachment. In most eyes primary vitrectomy is necessary, and disease-specific surgical treatment is discussed. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. From detached to attached buildup complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, B.; Elvebakk, G.; Andreassen, K.

    2008-01-01

    -like ridges and possibly areas with restricted circulation. Warm-water carbonate buildups, forming ridges and isolated mounds, occur in the Gipsdalen Group (latest Serpukhovian-mid-Sakmarian), where they initially grew in a detached platform setting. The carbonate buildups are several tens of kilometres long...... deposition and buildup growth bridged the detached platform with the attached platform. In the Bjarmeland Group (Lower Permian) 0.35-4.8 km wide, 1.5-27 km long and 60-420 m thick cool-water bryozoan-dominated straight, sinuous and continuous carbonate ridges or atoll-like ridges are located on top...

  20. Raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment as complications of external retinal detachment surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawwad, M.; Khan, B.; Shah, M.A.; Qayyum, I.; Aftab, M.; Qayyum, I.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may develop raised intraocular pressure and recurrence of retinal detachment when they undergo external retinal detachment surgery. The present study was conducted to determine the postoperative rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) and recurrence of retinal detachment. Methods: The present descriptive study was conducted at Eye department of Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar on 25 patients of both genders from August 2012 to July 2014. Results: Of the 25 patients, 18 (72%) developed raised IOP in the immediate postoperative period; this figure decreased to 12 (48%) at one week. Following medical or surgical intervention in these 12 cases, there was only 1 (4%) case with mildly raised IOP at two weeks postoperative. Five (20%) cases developed recurrent retinal detachment which later resolved with treatment. There were no significant differences by age or gender. Conclusion: External Retinal Detachment Surgery raised intraocular pressure postoperatively and caused recurrence of retinal detachment. These complications were treated medically and surgically with resolution within two weeks. (author)

  1. Current-induced energy barrier suppression for electromigration from first principles

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Ruoxing; Rungger, Ivan; Sanvito, Stefano; Hou, Shimin

    2011-01-01

    We present an efficient method for evaluating current-induced forces in nanoscale junctions, which naturally integrates into the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism implemented within density functional theory. This allows us to perform

  2. Electron detachment by H- + H- collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chibisov, M.I.; Yavlinskii, Yu.N.

    1994-01-01

    The autoionization channels for electrons detachment in collisions of two negative hydrogen ions in the energy range 300 - 500 eV and > 500 eV are investigated. In small energy range at large inter-ion distances the asymptotic approximation is used; at high energies - perturbation theory and classical motion are used. 18 refs., 3 figs

  3. Retinal detachment in black South Africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    low incidence of retinal detachment in black patients is not known. ... a retinal break. Predisposing factors include peripheral retinal degenerations, myopia, aphakia and trauma. Delay in presentation increases the difficulty in achieving adequate surgical ... On examination, note was taken of the visual acuity in both eyes, the ...

  4. Detached Eddy Simulations of Hypersonic Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, S.; Barnhardt, M.; Candler, G.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of hypersonic transistion. The objective of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using CFD in general, DES in particular, for prediction of roughness-induced boundary layer transition to turbulence and the resulting increase in heat transfer.

  5. Shoreline response to detached breakwaters in prototype

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khuong, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    An accurate prediction of shoreline changes behind detached breakwaters is, in regard to the adjustment to the environmental impact, still a challenge for designers and coastal managers. This research is expected to fill the gaps in the estimation of shoreline changes by developing new and

  6. Electron detachment in ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vreugd, C. de.

    1980-01-01

    The electron detachment process that occurs in negative ion-atom collisions is investigated. Differential cross sections were measured for the collisions of F - , Cl - , Br - , I - on He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Na and K. Electron energy distributions were obtained for some of the systems. (Auth.)

  7. Spectroscopic investigations of divertor detachment in TCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Verhaegh

    2017-08-01

    The inferred magnitude of recombination is small compared to the target ion current at the time detachment (particle flux drop starts at the target. However, recombination may be having more localized effects (to a flux tube which we cannot discern at this time. Later, at the highest densities achieved, the total recombination does reach levels similar to the particle flux.

  8. Fluctuation characteristics in detached recombining plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Naoyuki; Takamura, Shuichi; Budaev, Viatcheslav

    2002-01-01

    Fluctuation in detached recombining plasmas has been investigated experimentally in the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. As increasing neutral gas pressure, floating potential fluctuation of the target plate installed at the end of the NADIS-II device becomes larger and bursty negative spikes are observed in the signal associated with a transition from attached to detached a plasmas. The fluctuation property has been analyzed by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), probability distribution function (PDF) and wavelet transform. The PDF of the floating potential fluctuation in the attached plasma condition obeys the Gaussian distribution function, on the other hand, the PDF in detached plasma shows a strong deviation from the Gaussian distribution function, which can be characterized by flatness and skewness. Comparison of the fluctuation properties between the floating potential and the optical emission from the detached plasma has been done based on the wavelet transform to show that a strong correlation between them, which could indicate bursty transport of energetic electrons from upstream to downstream region along the magnetic field. (author)

  9. Spin-flip scattering effect on the current-induced spin torque in ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhengang; Su Gang; Jin Biao; Zheng Qingrong

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the current-induced spin transfer torque of a ferromagnet-insulator-ferromagnet tunnel junction by taking the spin-flip scatterings into account. It is found that the spin-flip scattering can induce an additional spin torque, enhancing the maximum of the spin torque and giving rise to an angular shift compared to the case when the spin-flip scatterings are neglected. The effects of the molecular fields of the left and right ferromagnets on the spin torque are also studied. It is found that τ Rx /I e (τ Rx is the spin-transfer torque acting on the right ferromagnet and I e is the tunneling electrical current) does vary with the molecular fields. At two certain angles, τ Rx /I e is independent of the molecular field of the right ferromagnet, resulting in two crossing points in the curve of τ Rx /I e versus the relevant orientation for different molecular fields

  10. Electric double layer interactions in bacterial adhesion and detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortinga, Albert Thijs

    2001-01-01

    Samenvatting: The use of biomaterial implants can be seriously hindered by the occurence of bacterial infections. Bacteria may adhere to implants, subsequently grow on the surface of the implant and excrete several metabolic products, therewith constituting a commnity of bacteria that is called a

  11. Electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombs, F.

    1983-01-01

    The subject is discussed, with particular reference to the electricity industry in the United Kingdom, under the headings; importance and scope of the industry's work; future fuel supplies (estimated indigenous fossil fuels reserves); outlook for UK energy supplies; problems of future generating capacity and fuel mix (energy policy; construction programme; economics and pricing; contribution of nuclear power - thermal and fast reactors; problems of conversion of oil-burning to coal-burning plant). (U.K.)

  12. Mechanism of bubble detachment from vibrating walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongjun; Park, Jun Kwon, E-mail: junkeun@postech.ac.kr; Kang, Kwan Hyoung [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, In Seok [Department of Chemical Engineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), San 31, Hyoja-dong, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    We discovered a previously unobserved mechanism by which air bubbles detach from vibrating walls in glasses containing water. Chaotic oscillation and subsequent water jets appeared when a wall vibrated at greater than a critical level. Wave forms were developed at water-air interface of the bubble by the wall vibration, and water jets were formed when sufficiently grown wave-curvatures were collapsing. Droplets were pinched off from the tip of jets and fell to the surface of the glass. When the solid-air interface at the bubble-wall attachment point was completely covered with water, the bubble detached from the wall. The water jets were mainly generated by subharmonic waves and were generated most vigorously when the wall vibrated at the volume resonant frequency of the bubble. Bubbles of specific size can be removed by adjusting the frequency of the wall's vibration.

  13. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and conventional surgical treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the paper was to present the efficacy and indications for application of conventional surgical treatment of retinal detachment by using external implants, that is,application of encircling band and buckle. This study comprised patients from the University Eye Clinic in Skopje. A total of 33 patients were diagnosed and surgically treated in the period between May 2010 and August 2011. Conventional surgery was applied in smaller number of patients whose changes of the vitreous body were manifested by detachment of posterior hyaloid membrane, syneresis, with appearance of a small number of pigment cells in the vitreous body and synchysis, and the very retina was with fresh detachment without folds or epiretinal changes (that is, PVR A grade). There were a larger number of patients with more distinct proliferative changes of the vitreous body and of the retina, grades PVR B to C1-C2, and who also underwent the same surgical approach. Routine ophthalmologic examinations were performed, including: determination of visual acuity by Snellen's optotypes, determination of eye pressure with Schiotz's tonometer, examination of anterior segment on biomicroscopy, indirect biomicroscopy of posterior eye segment (vitreous body and retina) and examination on biomicroscopy with Goldmann prism, B scan echography of the eyes before and after surgical treatment. Conventional treatment was used by external application of buckle or application of buckle and encircling band. In case of one break, radial buckle was applied and in case of multiple breaks in one quadrant limbus parallel buckle was applied. Besides buckle, encircling band was applied in patients with total or subtotal retinal detachment with already present distinct changes in the vitreous body (PVR B or C1-C2) and degenerative changes in the vitreous body. Breaks were closed with cryopexy. The results obtained have shown that male gender was predominant and that the disease was manifested in younger male adults

  14. Identifying subsurface detachment defects by acoustic tracing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sklodowski, R.; Drdácký, Miloš; Sklodowski, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 56, June (2013), s. 56-64 ISSN 0963-8695 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : acoustic excitation * plaster detachment defects * frequency response * inspection systems * signal processing Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering Impact factor: 1.717, year: 2013 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0963869513000303

  15. The seasonal cycle of Titan's detached haze

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Robert A.; Seignovert, Benoît; Rannou, Pascal; Dumont, Philip; Turtle, Elizabeth P.; Perry, Jason; Roy, Mou; Ovanessian, Aida

    2018-04-01

    Titan's `detached' haze, seen in Voyager images in 1980 and 1981 and monitored by the Cassini Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS) during the period 2004-2017, provides a measure of seasonal activity in Titan's mesosphere with observations over almost half of Saturn's seasonal cycle. Here we report on retrieved haze extinction profiles that reveal a depleted layer (having a diminished aerosol content), visually manifested as a gap between the main haze and a thin, detached upper layer. Our measurements show the disappearance of the feature in 2012 and its reappearance in 2016, as well as details after the reappearance. These observations highlight the dynamical nature of the detached haze. The reappearance seems congruent with earlier descriptions by climate models but more complex than previously described. It occurs in two steps, first as haze reappearing at 450 ± 20 km and one year later at 510 ± 20 km. These observations provide additional tight and valuable constraints about the underlying mechanisms, especially for Titan's mesosphere, that control Titan's haze cycle.

  16. A new scaling for divertor detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldston, R. J.; Reinke, M. L.; Schwartz, J. A.

    2017-05-01

    The ITER design, and future reactor designs, depend on divertor ‘detachment,’ whether partial, pronounced or complete, to limit heat flux to plasma-facing components and to limit surface erosion due to sputtering. It would be valuable to have a measure of the difficulty of achieving detachment as a function of machine parameters, such as input power, magnetic field, major radius, etc. Frequently the parallel heat flux, estimated typically as proportional to P sep/R or P sep B/R, is used as a proxy for this difficulty. Here we argue that impurity cooling is dependent on the upstream density, which itself must be limited by a Greenwald-like scaling. Taking this into account self-consistently, we find the impurity fraction required for detachment scales dominantly as power divided by poloidal magnetic field. The absence of any explicit scaling with machine size is concerning, as P sep surely must increase greatly for an economic fusion system, while increases in the poloidal field strength are limited by coil technology and plasma physics. This result should be challenged by comparison with 2D divertor codes and with measurements on existing experiments. Nonetheless, it suggests that higher magnetic field, stronger shaping, double-null operation, ‘advanced’ divertor configurations, as well as alternate means to handle heat flux such as metallic liquid and/or vapor targets merit greater attention.

  17. The prognosis of retinal detachment due to lattice degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, W E; Morse, P H

    1978-09-01

    In a series of 553 consecutive retinal detachments, 29% (120) were due to lattice degeneration. Forty-five percent of these were due to atrophic holes in the lattice degeneration and 55% were due to tears caused by traction posterior to or at the end of a patch of lattice. In phakic patients, retinal detachments due to atrophic holes were most common in young myopes. Detachments due to traction tears were seen in older, less myopic patients. The incidence of massive periretinal proliferation was less (5%) in detachments due to lattice degeneration than in detachments not due to lattice degeneration (6.5%).

  18. Coastal Response, a system of detached breakwaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, Isabelo; Negro Valdecantos, Vicente; Santos López, Jose; Esteban, María Dolores

    2017-04-01

    The coastline's sedimentary response in the form of a tombolo or semi-tombolo (salient) as a result of the construction of detached breakwaters is an aspect that should be known in the design phase so that these marine structures may be properly designed. In achieving an ecological, social and economic value, such areas must also be properly managed. All design methods in existence since Dean (1978) are mainly based on hypotheses formulated from geometric studies on existing formations. No relationship at all is established with climate and littoral dynamics typical of the location (only Suh and Darlymple (1987) and the Japanese Ministry of Construction (1986) present relationships depending on wave variables). Neither has the influence on systems with more than two breakwaters been studied. These methods are not fully adapted to the cases existing on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. The lines of investigation as proposed by L. Bricio and V. Negro (2010) were continued with for this study. These researchers developed a method for dimensioning isolated, detached breakwaters and their semi-tombolo or tombolo associated formations using all the characteristics of the site (energy, geometric and structural), specific climate and geomorphology and littoral dynamics' characteristics. This methodology is currently acknowledged and accepted in works undertaken on the Spanish Mediterranean littoral. A linear regression was obtained in the investigation undertaken on the 18 detached breakwater systems along the whole of the 1670 km of the Spanish Mediterranean littoral using the proposals made by L. Bricio and V. Negro. The adjustment of R2 ≥ 0.90 was used for the sandy, tombolo formations behind all the detached breakwater systems between several non-dimensional monomials displaying the most representative characteristics of the site. L/H12 + (2ṡB)/G =12,15ṡ(X/Xc)+7,3231 X: Distance of breakwaters from coastline Xc: Distance from coastline where the closure depth

  19. Micromagnetic Simulation of Strain-Assisted Current-Induced Magnetization Switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. B. Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of substrate misfit strain on the current-induced magnetization switching in magnetic tunnel junctions by combining micromagnetic simulation with phase-field microelasticity theory. Our results indicate that the positive substrate misfit strain can decrease the critical current density of magnetization switching by pushing the magnetization from out-of-plane to in-plane directions, while the negative strain pushes the magnetization back to the out-of-plane directions. The magnetic domain evolution is obtained to demonstrate the strain-assisted current-induced magnetization switching.

  20. Study on imaging diagnosis of the ciliochoroidal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Dapeng; Feng Gansheng; Li Shuyin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the characteristics of imaging appearances and diagnostic value of ciliochoroidal detachment. Methods: Ultrasound, MRI and CT appearances of 19 eases of ciliochoroidal detachment were reviewed, which included 9 cases of serous ciliochoroidal detachment, 7 cases of choroid hematoma, and 3 cases of ciliary, body detachment. All cases were examined by both B ultrasound and MRI at the same time, 11 of them were examined by CT. Results: Ultrasound showed membrane bulge of the eyeball wall with different extent in 9 cases of serous ciliochoroidal detachment. Its postzone connected the equator or close to optic disc and its prozone could not been detected by ultrasound. There was echofree fluid darkspace under detached membrane. MRI showed membrane detachment at both nasal side and temporal side of ocular annelation in 9 cases of ciliochoroidal detachment. The detached membrane was approximately symmetry, its anterior margin did not exceed ciliary body adhesion of ocular annelation and its posterior margin stopped at posterior part of ocular annelation. There was long T 1 and long T 2 signal under detached membrane. CT showed slight thickening of ocular annelation and slightly increased density of eyeball in 5 eases of serous ciliochoroidal detachment. Ultrasound showed hemispheroid or curve bulge of eyeball wall, projected toward the vitreous cavity in 7 cases of choroid hematoma, and there was an amount of low echo light spot under the detached membrane. Both MRI (7 cases) and CT (5 cases) showed hemispheroid, fusiform or curve bulge on the nasal side, temporal side and posterior part of ocular annelation. They appeared as isodensity or slight high density on CT, iso- or high signal on T 1 WI and T 2 WI. Stratification was seen on T 2 WI in 1 case of choroid hematoma. Ciliary body detachment could not been detected by either MRI (3 cases) or CT (1 case) except ultrasound. Conclusion: Imaging examination may provide reliable diagnostic evidence

  1. Growth and detachment of single hydrogen bubbles in a magnetohydrodynamic shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baczyzmalski, Dominik; Karnbach, Franziska; Mutschke, Gerd; Yang, Xuegeng; Eckert, Kerstin; Uhlemann, Margitta; Cierpka, Christian

    2017-09-01

    This study investigates the effect of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shear flow on the growth and detachment of single sub-millimeter-sized hydrogen gas bubbles. These bubbles were electrolytically generated at a horizontal Pt microelectrode (100 μ m in diameter) in an acidic environment (1 M H2SO4 ). The inherent electric field was superimposed by a homogeneous electrode-parallel magnetic field of up to 700 mT to generate Lorentz forces in the electrolyte, which drive the MHD flow. The growth and motion of the hydrogen bubble was analyzed by microscopic high-speed imaging and measurements of the electric current, while particle tracking velocimetry (μ PTV ) and particle image velocimetry (μ PIV ) were applied to measure the surrounding electrolyte flow. In addition, numerical flow simulations were performed based on the experimental conditions. The results show a significant reduction of the bubble growth time and detachment diameter with increasing magnetic induction, which is known to improve the efficiency of water electrolysis. In order to gain further insight into the bubble detachment mechanism, an analysis of the forces acting on the bubble was performed. The strong MHD-induced drag force causes the bubble to slowly slide away from the center of the microelectrode before its detachment. This motion increases the active electrode area and enhances the bubble growth rate. The results further indicate that at large current densities the coalescence of tiny bubbles formed at the foot of the main bubble might play an important role for the bubble detachment. Moreover, the occurrence of Marangoni stresses at the gas-liquid interface is discussed.

  2. Study of transient current induced by heavy-ion microbeams in Si and GaAs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirao, Toshio; Nashiyama, Isamu; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Suda, Tamotu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    Heavy-ion microbeams were applied to the study of mechanism of single event upset (SEU). Transient current induced in p{sup +}n junction diodes by strike of heavy ion microbeam were measured by using a high-speed digitizing sampling system. (author)

  3. A review on stray current-induced steel corrosion in infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic corrosion can cause substantial damage at various levels and in almost all types of infrastructure. For metallic corrosion to occur, a certain external environment and the presence of corrodents are the prerequisites. Stray current-induced corrosion, however, is a rather underestimated

  4. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Flávio A; Kickinger, Mônica C; Li, Gisèle; Prado, Renata F; Regis, Luiz Gustavo T

    2012-02-01

    To describe a novel surgical technique for drainage of bullous serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments. A prospective, consecutive case series of 6 eyes with serous and/or hemorrhagic choroidal detachments secondary to intraocular surgery was documented to evaluate the feasibility of using the 25-gauge and 20-gauge transconjunctival trocar/cannula systems to drain choroidal detachments. Two eyes had expulsive hemorrhagic choroidal detachments and 4 eyes had serous choroidal detachments after glaucoma surgeries. A 25-gauge infusion line was placed in the anterior chamber. A 20-gauge (in eyes with hemorrhagic choroidal detachments) or a 25-gauge (in eyes with serous detachments) trocar/cannula system was inserted into the suprachoroidal space 7.0 mm from limbus. After drainage, the cannulas were removed and no sutures were placed. Pars plana vitrectomy was performed only in eyes with concomitant pathology that demanded the additional procedure. The primary outcome measure was presence of choroidal detachment at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 1 month postoperatively. Secondary outcome measures were visual acuity at 6 months and intraocular pressure at 1 week and 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively. Drainage of hemorrhagic choroidal detachments resulted in resolution of the detachments by 1 month postoperatively. In eyes with serous detachments, resolution was achieved by 1 week postdrainage. In both groups, intraocular pressure increased to at least 10 mmHg by postoperative Week 1. The visual acuity improved in all eyes. No complications related to the transconjunctival technique were noted. Transconjunctival drainage of serous and hemorrhagic choroidal detachments seems to be a feasible and simple surgical option with minimal scleral and conjunctival damage. Pars plana vitrectomy may not be necessary when draining choroidal detachments in this manner.

  5. Interface-Enhanced Spin-Orbit Torques and Current-Induced Magnetization Switching of Pd /Co /AlOx Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Abhijit; Garello, Kevin; Avci, Can Onur; Gabureac, Mihai; Gambardella, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic heterostructures that combine large spin-orbit torque efficiency, perpendicular magnetic anisotropy, and low resistivity are key to developing electrically controlled memory and logic devices. Here, we report on vector measurements of the current-induced spin-orbit torques and magnetization switching in perpendicularly magnetized Pd /Co /AlOx layers as a function of Pd thickness. We find sizable dampinglike (DL) and fieldlike (FL) torques, on the order of 1 mT per 107 A /cm2 , which have different thicknesses and magnetization angle dependencies. The analysis of the DL torque efficiency per unit current density and the electric field using drift-diffusion theory leads to an effective spin Hall angle and spin-diffusion length of Pd larger than 0.03 and 7 nm, respectively. The FL spin-orbit torque includes a significant interface contribution, is larger than estimated using drift-diffusion parameters, and, furthermore, is strongly enhanced upon rotation of the magnetization from the out-of-plane to the in-plane direction. Finally, taking advantage of the large spin-orbit torques in this system, we demonstrate bipolar magnetization switching of Pd /Co /AlOx layers with a similar current density to that used for Pt /Co layers with a comparable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy.

  6. Structural recovery of the detached macula after retinal detachment repair as assessed by optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Soo Geun; Kim, Yoon Jeon; Chae, Ju Byung; Yang, Sung Jae; Lee, Joo Yong; Kim, June-Gone; Yoon, Young Hee

    2013-06-01

    To investigate correlations between preoperative and postoperative foveal microstructures in patients with macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). We reviewed the records of 31 eyes from 31 patients with macula-off RRD who had undergone successful re-attachment surgery. We analyzed data obtained from complete ophthalmologic examinations and optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and 9 to 12 months after surgery. All postoperative OCT measurements were taken with spectral-domain OCT, but a subset of preoperative OCT measurements were taken with time-domain OCT. The mean duration of macular detachment was 15.5 ± 15.2 days, and mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution) was 1.03 ± 0.68. Preoperative visual acuity was correlated with retinal detachment height (p macula-off duration. The final BCVA was significantly correlated with integrity of the junction between the photoreceptor inner and outer segments (IS/OS) combined with the continuity of external limiting membrane (ELM) (p = 0.025). The presence of IRS and OLU on a detached macula were highly correlated with the final postoperative integrity of the IS/OS junction and the ELM (p = 0.017). Eyes preoperatively exhibiting IRS and OLU showed a higher incidence of disruption to the photoreceptor IS/OS junction and the ELM at final follow-up. Such a close correlation between preoperative and postoperative structural changes may explain why ultimate visual recovery in such eyes is poor.

  7. Selective detachment process in column flotation froth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Ozsever, A.V.; Parekh, B.K. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2006-05-15

    The selectivity in flotation columns involving the separation of particles of varying degrees of floatability is based on differential flotation rates in the collection zone, reflux action between the froth and collection zones, and differential detachment rates in the froth zone. Using well-known theoretical models describing the separation process and experimental data, froth zone and overall flotation recovery values were quantified for particles in an anthracite coal that have a wide range of floatability potential. For highly floatable particles, froth recovery had a very minimal impact on overall recovery while the recovery of weakly floatable material was decreased substantially by reductions in froth recovery values. In addition, under carrying-capacity limiting conditions, selectivity was enhanced by the preferential detachment of the weakly floatable material. Based on this concept, highly floatable material was added directly into the froth zone when treating the anthracite coal. The enriched froth phase reduced the product ash content of the anthracite product by five absolute percentage points while maintaining a constant recovery value.

  8. Meniscus Shapes in Detached Bridgman Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K

    2010-01-01

    In detached Bridgman crystal growth, most of the melt is in contact with the ampoule wall, but the crystal is separated from the wall by a small gap, typically 1-100 micrometers. A liquid free surface, or meniscus, bridges across this gap at the position of the melt-crystal interface. Meniscus shapes have been calculated for the case of detached Bridgman growth in cylindrical ampoules by solving the Young-Laplace equation. Key parameters affecting meniscus shapes are the growth angle, contact angle of the meniscus to the ampoule wall, the pressure differential across the meniscus, and the Bond number, a measure of the ratio of gravitational to capillary forces. In general, for specified values of growth and contact angles, solutions exist only over a finite range of pressure differentials. For intermediate values of the Bond number, there are multiple solutions to the Young-Laplace equations. There are also cases where, as a function of pressure differential, existence intervals alternate with intervals where no solutions exist. The implications of the meniscus shape calculations on meniscus stability are discussed.

  9. Risk of Retinal Detachment After Pediatric Cataract Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haargaard, Birgitte; Andersen, Elisabeth W; Oudin, Anna

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine the long-term risk of retinal detachment following pediatric cataract surgery and to identify risk factors for retinal detachment. METHODS: We included all children (aged 0 to 17 years) who during the time period of 1977 to 2005 underwent pediatric cataract surgery in Denmark...... was based on medical chart review. RESULTS: Among 1043 eyes of 656 children undergoing surgery for pediatric cataract, 25 eyes (23 children) developed retinal detachment at a median time of 9.1 years after surgery. The overall 20-year risk of retinal detachment was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3...... (16% [95% CI: 6%-24%]). CONCLUSIONS: The estimated overall risk of retinal detachment 20 years after pediatric cataract surgery was 7%, but only 3% for isolated cataract. Particularly high risks of retinal detachment after cataract surgery were associated with mental retardation and having other...

  10. Kinematic evidence for downdip movement on the Mormon Peak detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher D.; Anders, Mark H.; Christie-Blick, Nicholas

    2007-03-01

    The Mormon Peak detachment is considered to be one of the best examples of a rooted upper crustal detachment fault that propagated through the brittle crust at a low angle. The hanging wall of the detachment today consists of a number of isolated blocks that have been interpreted as remnants of a once-contiguous extensional allochthon. Here we present the results of a new study of directional indicators from the basal surfaces beneath these blocks. These measurements do not agree with the long-standing interpretation of a S75°W movement direction for the detachment hanging wall. Instead, the most recent movement on each section of the detachment took place approximately parallel to the present downdip direction. We conclude that the Mormon Peak detachment is best explained as the basal surfaces to a series of rootless gravity slides.

  11. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palama, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.

    2005-01-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'

  12. Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, A. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cesareo, R. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy)]. E-mail: cesareo@uniss.it; Buccolieri, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Donativi, M. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Palama, F. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Quarta, S. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); De Nunzio, G. [Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universita di Lecce, 73100 Lecce (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Lecce, via per Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Universita di Sassari, 07100 Sassari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria di Monserrato, 09042 Cagliari (Italy); Marabelli, M. [Istituto Centrale del Restauro, P.zza S. Francesco di Paola, 00184 Rome (Italy); Santamaria, U. [Laboratori dei Musei Vaticani, Citta del Vaticano, Rome (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the 'Raphael's stanze'.

  13. Tractional retinal detachment in Usher syndrome type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rani, Alka; Pal, Nikhil; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Sharma, Yog Raj; Chandra, Parijat; Vikram Singh, Deependra

    2005-08-01

    Retinal detachment is a rare complication in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. A case is reported of tractional retinal detachment in a patient with retinitis pigmentosa and sensorineural hearing loss, which was diagnosed as Usher syndrome type II. Because of the poor visual prognosis, the patient refused surgery in that eye. Tractional retinal detachment should be added to the differential diagnoses of visual loss in patients with retinitis pigmentosa.

  14. Transition in plasma fluctuation between attached and detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Katsuya; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin; Tanaka, Hirohiko

    2012-01-01

    The static and dynamic behaviors of detached plasmas have received considerable attention because the use of a detached divertor is thought to provide a promising method for reducing the heat flux to plasma-facing components. In this study, fluctuations were measured with an electrostatic probe as the plasma was changed from attached to detached states by increasing the neutral gas pressure. The transition from an attached plasma to a detached plasma was found to change the phase relation between the density and the potential. (author)

  15. Risk of retinal detachment in patients with lattice degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, K; Ideta, H; Yonemoto, J; Tanaka, S; Hirose, A; Oka, C

    1998-01-01

    To determine the risk of retinal detachment in patients with lattice degeneration of the retina, we statistically analyzed the incidence of retinal detachment in these patients. The data of hospital patients with retinal detachment associated with lattice degeneration in Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, in 1990 were collected. The prevalence of lattice degeneration in Kumamoto was reported to be 9.5% in 1980. Based on population data from the 1990 census, the cumulative incidence of retinal detachment associated with lattice degeneration was calculated in this study. Among 1,840,000 residents in Kumamoto, there were 110 patients with retinal detachment associated with lattice degeneration; 72 with detachment resulting from tractional tears (tears), and 38 with detachment from atrophic holes. The cumulative incidence of retinal detachment from atrophic holes was 1.5% at the age of 40 years; from tears it was 3.6% at the age of 80 years. The cumulative incidence of detachment from both atrophic holes and tears was 5.3% at the age of 80 years. The results of this study are useful for clarifying the natural course of lattice degeneration.

  16. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J T; Rungger, I; Sanvito, S; Schwingenschlögl, U

    2016-05-21

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.

  17. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Obodo, Tobechukwu Joshua

    2016-04-29

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with spatial variation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ieda, Jun'ichi; Sugishita, Hiroki; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2010-01-01

    We model current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with the variable width. Employing the collective coordinate method we trace the wall dynamics. The effect of the width modulation is implemented by spatial dependence of an effective magnetic field. The wall destination in the potential energy landscape due to the magnetic anisotropy and the spatial nonuniformity is obtained as a function of the current density. For a nanowire of a periodically modulated width, we identify three (pinned, nonlinear, and linear) current density regimes for current-induced wall motion. The threshold current densities depend on the pulse duration as well as the magnitude of wire modulation. In the nonlinear regime, application of ns order current pulses results in wall displacement which opposes or exceeds the prediction of the spin transfer mechanism. The finding explains stochastic nature of the domain wall displacement observed in recent experiments.

  19. Magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, T.; Kawabe, U.; Yamada, E.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic field dependence of the critical superconducting current induced by the proximity effect in heavily-boron-doped Si is studied experimentally. It is found that the critical current flowing through the p-type-Si-coupled junction decreases with increasing applied magnetic field. The critical current can be expressed as the product of three factors: the current induced by de Gennes's proximity effect, the exponential decrease due to pair breaking by the magnetic field, and the usual diffraction-pattern-like dependence on the magnetic field due to the Josephson effect. The second factor depends on the carrier concentration in the semiconductor. The local critical current shows a rapid decrease at the edge of the electrodes

  20. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: edumartinez@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, Óscar [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-14

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  1. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Eduardo; Alejos, Óscar

    2014-01-01

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  2. Current-induced changes of migration energy barriers in graphene and carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obodo, J. T.; Rungger, I.; Sanvito, S.; Schwingenschlögl, U.

    2016-05-01

    An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative.An electron current can move atoms in a nanoscale device with important consequences for the device operation and breakdown. We perform first principles calculations aimed at evaluating the possibility of changing the energy barriers for atom migration in carbon-based systems. In particular, we consider the migration of adatoms and defects in graphene and carbon nanotubes. Although the current-induced forces are large for both the systems, in graphene the force component along the migration path is small and therefore the barrier height is little affected by the current flow. In contrast, the same barrier is significantly reduced in carbon nanotubes as the current increases. Our work also provides a real-system numerical demonstration that current-induced forces within density functional theory are non-conservative. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR00534A

  3. Averaged currents induced by alpha particles in an InSb compound semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo; Hishiki, Shigeomi; Kogetsu, Yoshitaka; Nakamura, Tatsuya; Katagiri, Masaki

    2008-01-01

    Very fast pulses due to alpha particle incidence were observed by an undoped-type InSb Schottky detector. This InSb detector was operated without applying bias voltage and its depletion layer thickness was less than the range of alpha particles. The averaged current induced by alpha particles was analyzed as a function of operating temperature and was shown to be proportional to the Hall mobility of InSb. (author)

  4. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    OpenAIRE

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-01-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom's/SMM's spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonan...

  5. DETACHMENT OF BACTERIOPHAGE FROM ITS CARRIER PARTICLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetler, D M; Bronfenbrenner, J

    1931-05-20

    The active substance (phage) present in the lytic broth filtrate is distributed through the medium in the form of particles. These particles vary in size within broad limits. The average size of these particles as calculated on the basis of the rate of diffusion approximates 4.4 mmicro in radius. Fractionation by means of ultrafiltration permits partial separation of particles of different sizes. Under conditions of experiments here reported the particles varied in the radius size from 0.6 mmicro to 11.4 mmicro. The active agent apparently is not intimately identified with these particles. It is merely carried by them by adsorption, and under suitable experimental conditions it can be detached from the larger particles and redistributed on smaller particles of the medium.

  6. Physical activity after retinal detachment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F

    1984-08-15

    A prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial to assess the value of limited physical activity after scleral buckling surgery included 108 consecutive patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment randomly divided into two groups. The first group was encouraged to resume full physical activity immediately after hospital discharge. In the second group, bending, lifting, straining at stool, driving, sexual activity, lawnmowing, gardening, athletics, and returning to work were strictly forbidden for six weeks. A thorough evaluation of patient compliance was performed after six weeks. Six months after surgery the rates of reoperation and final reattachment percentages of the active and inactive groups showed no statistically significant difference (P greater than .05). Final visual acuity, measured one year after surgery, also identified no statistically significant difference between the groups (P greater than .05).

  7. Functional Detachment of Totalitarian Nazi Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszczyszyn, Marek

    2017-10-01

    The paper describes the systematization process of architectural styles in use during Nazi period in Germany between 1933-45. In the results of the research some regularity about strict concern between function & styling has been observed. Using comparison & case study as well as analytical methods there were pointed out characteristic features of more than 500 objects’ architectural appearance that helped to specify their styling & group them into architectural trends. Ultimately the paper proves that the found trends of architectural styling could be collected by functional detachment key. This observation explains easy to recognize even nowadays traceability - so characteristic to Nazi German architecture. Facing today pluralism in architecture, the findings could be a helpful key in the organization of spatial architectural identification process.

  8. Maritime Training Serbian Autonomous Vessel Protection Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šoškić Svetislav D.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The crisis in Somalia has caused appearance of piracy at sea in the Gulf of Aden and the Western Indian Ocean. Somali pirates have become a threat to economic security of the world because almost 30 percent of world oil and 20 percent of global trade passes through the Gulf of Aden. Solving the problem of piracy in this part of the world have included international organizations, institutions, military alliances and the states, acting in accordance with international law and UN Security Council resolutions. The European Union will demonstrate the application of a comprehensive approach to solving the problem of piracy at sea and the crisis in Somalia conducting naval operation — EU NAVFOR Atalanta and operation EUTM under the Common Security and Defense Policy. The paper discusses approaches to solving the problem of piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the crisis in Somalia. Also, the paper points to the complexity of the crisis in Somalia and dilemmas correctness principles that are applied to solve the problem piracy at sea. One of goals is protections of vessels of the World Food Programme (WFP delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Republic of Serbia joined in this mission and trained and sent one a autonomous team in this military operation for protection WFP. This paper consist the problem of modern piracy, particularly in the area of the Horn of Africa became a real threat for the safety of maritime ships and educational process of Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment. Serbian Military Academy adopted and developed educational a training program against piracy applying all the provisions and recommendations of the IMO conventions and IMO model courses for Serbian Autonomous vessel protection detachment.

  9. Missed retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Takkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the causes and associations of missed retinal breaks (MRBs and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: Case sheets of patients undergoing vitreo retinal surgery for RRD at a tertiary eye care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Out of the 378 records screened, 253 were included for analysis of MRBs and 191 patients were included for analysis of PVD, depending on the inclusion criteria. Features of RRD and retinal breaks noted on examination were compared to the status of MRBs and PVD detected during surgery for possible associations. RESULTS: Overall, 27% patients had MRBs. Retinal holes were commonly missed in patients with lattice degeneration while missed retinal tears were associated with presence of complete PVD. Patients operated for cataract surgery were significantly associated with MRBs (P=0.033 with the odds of missing a retinal break being 1.91 as compared to patients with natural lens. Advanced proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR and retinal bullae were the most common reasons for missing a retinal break during examination. PVD was present in 52% of the cases and was wrongly assessed in 16%. Retinal bullae, pseudophakia/aphakia, myopia, and horse shoe retinal tears were strongly associated with presence of PVD. Traumatic RRDs were rarely associated with PVD. CONCLUSION: Pseudophakic patients, and patients with retinal bullae or advanced PVR should be carefully screened for MRBs. Though Weiss ring is a good indicator of PVD, it may still be over diagnosed in some cases. PVD is associated with retinal bullae and pseudophakia, and inversely with traumatic RRD.

  10. Frictional and elastic energy in gecko adhesive detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravish, Nick; Wilkinson, Matt; Autumn, Kellar

    2008-03-06

    Geckos use millions of adhesive setae on their toes to climb vertical surfaces at speeds of over 1 m s(-1). Climbing presents a significant challenge for an adhesive since it requires both strong attachment and easy, rapid removal. Conventional pressure-sensitive adhesives are either strong and difficult to remove (e.g. duct tape) or weak and easy to remove (e.g. sticky notes). We discovered that the energy required to detach adhering tokay gecko setae (W(d)) is modulated by the angle (theta) of a linear path of detachment. Gecko setae resist detachment when dragged towards the animal during detachment (theta = 30 degrees ) requiring W(d) = 5.0+/-0.86(s.e.) J m(-2) to detach, largely due to frictional losses. This external frictional loss is analogous to viscous internal frictional losses during detachment of pressure-sensitive adhesives. We found that, remarkably, setae possess a built-in release mechanism. Setae acted as springs when loaded in tension during attachment and returned elastic energy when detached along the optimal path (theta=130 degrees ), resulting in W(d) = -0.8+/-0.12 J m(-2). The release of elastic energy from the setal shaft probably causes spontaneous release, suggesting that curved shafts may enable easy detachment in natural, and synthetic, gecko adhesives.

  11. DETACHMENT OF HUMAN FIBROBLASTS FROM FEP-TEFLON SURFACES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANKOOTEN, TG; SCHAKENRAAD, JM; VANDERMEI, HC; BUSSCHER, HJ

    1991-01-01

    In this study a comparison is made between the detachment behavior of human fibroblasts adhered to hydrophobic FEP-Teflon (water contact angle 109 degrees) and to hydrophilic glass (water contact angle smaller than 15 degrees) during exposure to a laminar, incrementally loaded flow. Detachment from

  12. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The aim was to determine the hospital incidence, pattern and clinical presentation of retinal detachment at the Guinness Eye Center, Onitsha, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Case files of all retinal detachment patients seen at the Guinness Eye Center Onitsha between June 1997 and May 2012 were reviewed.

  13. Risk of progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callizo, Josep; Pfeiffer, Sebastian; Lahme, Eva; van Oterendorp, Christian; Khattab, Mohammed; Bemme, Sebastian; Kulanga, Miroslav; Hoerauf, Hans; Feltgen, Nicolas

    2017-08-01

    To identify factors that may lead to a rapid progression in macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD), in particular, those that may lead to macular involvement. Observational, prospective, single-center study. Patients referred for surgery due to primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with the macula on between 2009 and 2013 were included. Relevant factors analyzed included age, time delay until surgery, lens status, myopia, the detachment's location and configuration as well as number, size and type of retinal breaks. Eyes underwent optical coherence tomography to detect macular detachment. A multivariate analysis was performed to investigate the effect of several factors in the progression of retinal detachment. A total of 116 eyes of 116 patients were included. Mean time delay between admission and surgery was 1.8 ± 1.4 days. Progression was observed in 19.8% of the eyes. Of those, 47.8% presented macular detachment. Ten of the 11 (90.9%) eyes presenting progression involving the macula also exhibited a bullous configuration, which was the only parameter that correlated significantly with detachment progression in patients with (p = 0.0036) and without (p = 0.0014) macular involvement. For the first time in a prospective trial, a bullous configuration was found to be a highly significant predictor for progression in macula-on detachments. Our data support prompt surgery in patients diagnosed with bullous macula-on RRD.

  14. Inhibition of microparticle release triggers endothelial cell apoptosis and detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abid Hussein, Mohammed N.; Böing, Anita N.; Sturk, Augueste; Hau, Chi M.; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2007-01-01

    Endothelial cell cultures contain caspase 3-containing microparticles (EMP), which are reported to form during or after cell detachment. We hypothesize that also adherent endothelial cells release EMP, thus protecting these cells from caspase 3 accumulation, detachment and apoptosis. Human umbilical

  15. Cell detachment method using shock wave induced cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Junge, L.; Junge, L.; Ohl, C.D.; Wolfrum, B.; Arora, M.; Ikink, R.

    2003-01-01

    The detachment of adherent HeLa cells from a substrate after the interaction with a shock wave is analyzed. Cavitation bubbles are formed in the trailing, negative pressure cycle following the shock front. We find that the regions of cell detachment are strongly correlated with spatial presence of

  16. In-plane current induced domain wall nucleation and its stochasticity in perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Hall cross structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, P.; Murapaka, C.; Lim, G. J.; Lew, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    Hall cross structures in magnetic nanowires are commonly used for electrical detection of magnetization reversal in which a domain wall (DW) is conventionally nucleated by a local Oersted field. In this letter, we demonstrate DW nucleation in Co/Ni perpendicular magnetic anisotropy nanowire at the magnetic Hall cross junction. The DWs are nucleated by applying an in-plane pulsed current through the nanowire without the need of a local Oersted field. The change in Hall resistance, detected using anomalous Hall effect, is governed by the magnetic volume switched at the Hall junction, which can be tuned by varying the magnitude of the applied current density and pulse width. The nucleated DWs are driven simultaneously under the spin transfer torque effect when the applied current density is above a threshold. The possibility of multiple DW generation and variation in magnetic volume switched makes nucleation process stochastic in nature. The in-plane current induced stochastic nature of DW generation may find applications in random number generation

  17. A history of detachable coils: 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Ferdinand K; Fiorella, David; Masaryk, Thomas J; Rasmussen, Peter A; Dion, Jacques E

    2014-03-01

    The development of detachable coils is one of the most pivotal developments in neurointervention, providing a tool that could be used to treat a wide variety of hemorrhagic stroke. From the original Guglielmi detachable coil, a number of different coil designs and delivery designs have evolved. This article reviews the history of commercially available detachable coils. A timeline of detachable coils was constructed and coil design philosophies were reviewed. A complete list of commercially available coils is presented in a timeline format. Detachable coil technology continues to evolve. Advances in construction and design have yielded products which may benefit patients in terms of safety, radiation dose reduction and cost of treatment. Continued evolution is expected, irrespective of competing disruptive technologies.

  18. Ocular hemodynamics in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. H. Zavgorodnya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim. In case of retinal detachment atrophic processes lead to irreversible loss of functions within 4–6 days, it happens on underlying low ocular blood flow. In order to evaluate the degree of violation of regional hemodynamics in patients with retinal detachment two groups of patients were examined: the main group (52 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and the control group (24 myopic patients with lattice form of peripheral chorioretinal dystrophy. Methods and results. Doppler and reography results had been compared, significant decrease of blood flow in patients with retinal detachment was found. No differences between affected and fellow eye in these patients, close negative correlation between the level of ocular blood flow and the degree of myopia in the control group. Conclusion. This demonstrates the feasibility of actions to improve regional blood flow in patients operated on for retinal detachment.

  19. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  20. Passive measurement of flux nucleation in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selig, K.P.; Chimenti, D.E.; Huebener, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    Flux-tube nucleation rates have been measured in the current-induced resistive state of type I superconducting In films between 1.5 and 2.0 K by a completely passive technique. Indication of periodic nucleation is observed only in narrow regions of sample voltage drop, whose position is a sensitive function of temperature. Frequency bandwidth measurements of the nucleation rate yield a spectral purity of one part in 10 4 within the narrow regions where an experimental signal can be detected. (orig.) [de

  1. Change in magnetic induction lines during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makiei, B; Golab, S; Sikora, A; Troinar, E; Zacharko, W [Polska Akademia Nauk, Wroclaw. Instytut Niskich Temperatur i Badan Strukturalnych

    1976-09-01

    Recent results of experimental investigations show that during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity in cylindrical samples a non-azimuthal component of the magnetic induction arises. This 'autoparamagnetic effect' is observable both in type I and type II superconductors. Assuming a helical form for the magnetic flux filaments the angle between the magnetic induction lines and the plane perpendicular to the Pb + In alloy sample axis is estimated in several cases. A conceptual explanation of the energy losses in the resistive state is.

  2. Change in magnetic induction lines during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makiej, B; Golab, S; Sikora, A; Trojnar, E; Zacharko, W

    1976-09-01

    Recent results of experimental investigations show that during the current-induced destruction of superconductivity in cylindrical samples a non-azimuthal component of the magnetic induction arises. This ''autoparamagnetic effect'' is observable both in type I and type II superconductors. Assuming a helical form for the magnetic flux filaments the angle between the magnetic induction lines and the plane perpendicular to the Pb + In alloy sample axis is estimated in several cases. A conceptual explanation of the energy losses in the resistive state is presented. 4 refs.

  3. SHARPIN Regulates Uropod Detachment in Migrating Lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeroen Pouwels

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available SHARPIN-deficient mice display a multiorgan chronic inflammatory phenotype suggestive of altered leukocyte migration. We therefore studied the role of SHARPIN in lymphocyte adhesion, polarization, and migration. We found that SHARPIN localizes to the trailing edges (uropods of both mouse and human chemokine-activated lymphocytes migrating on intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, which is one of the major endothelial ligands for migrating leukocytes. SHARPIN-deficient cells adhere better to ICAM-1 and show highly elongated tails when migrating. The increased tail lifetime in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes decreases the migration velocity. The adhesion, migration, and uropod defects in SHARPIN-deficient lymphocytes were rescued by reintroducing SHARPIN into the cells. Mechanistically, we show that SHARPIN interacts directly with lymphocyte-function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1, a leukocyte counterreceptor for ICAM-1, and inhibits the expression of intermediate and high-affinity forms of LFA-1. Thus, SHARPIN controls lymphocyte migration by endogenously maintaining LFA-1 inactive to allow adjustable detachment of the uropods in polarized cells.

  4. Ethnic variation in rhegmatogenous retinal detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, A; Banerjee, P; Davis, D; Charteris, D

    2015-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to investigate the clinical variation of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RD) in patients of different ethnicities. Methods Patients presenting with a primary RD from two ethnic groups were recruited from our tertiary referral hospital between August 2010 and December 2012. Patients who self-reported their ethnic origin either as European Caucasian (EC) or South Asian (SA) were included. Exclusion criteria included trauma, previous vitreoretinal procedures, age under 18 years, complicated cataract surgery and the presence of syndromes known to be associated with a high prevalence of RD. Detailed phenotypic data were collected. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were undertaken. Results 1269 Patients were recruited. 1173 (92.4%) were EC. Mean age of onset was 58.3 years (EC) and 54.5 years (SA) (P=0.006). 75.3% EC and 58.4% SA were phakic (Plattice retinal degeneration in the affected eye (P=0.003). Refractive myopia was greater in SA patients (mean: −6.1DS) than EC (−4.2DS) (P=0.032). Additionally, SA patients had a greater mean axial length (25.65 mm) than EC (25.06 mm) (P=0.014). No differences were demonstrated in laterality, family history, type of retinal break or macular status. Conclusions SA patients present with RD at an earlier age and have a more severe phenotype than ECs. Future management strategies for RD may need to reflect these differences. PMID:25853394

  5. BTeV detached vertex trigger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    BTeV is a collider experiment that has been approved to run in the Tevatron at Fermilab. The experiment will conduct precision studies of CP violation using a forward-geometry detector. The detector will be optimized for high-rate detection of beauty and charm particles produced in collisions between protons and anti-protons. BTeV will trigger on beauty and charm events by taking advantage of the main difference between these heavy quark events and more typical hadronic events - the presence of detached beauty and charm decay vertices. The first stage of the BTeV trigger will receive data from a pixel vertex detector at a rate of 100 gb s -1 , reconstruct tracks and vertices for every beam crossing, reject 99% of beam crossings that do not produce beauty or charm particles, and trigger on beauty events with high efficiency. An overview of the trigger design and its influence on the design of the pixel vertex detector is presented

  6. A computer investigation of chemically mediated detachment in bacterial biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Stephen M; Hamilton, Martin A; Sears, John T; Harkin, Gary; Reno, Jason

    2003-05-01

    A three-dimensional computer model was used to evaluate the effect of chemically mediated detachment on biofilm development in a negligible-shear environment. The model, BacLAB, combines conventional diffusion-reaction equations for chemicals with a cellular automata algorithm to simulate bacterial growth, movement and detachment. BacLAB simulates the life cycle of a bacterial biofilm from its initial colonization of a surface to the development of a mature biofilm with cell areal densities comparable to those in the laboratory. A base model founded on well established transport equations that are easily adaptable to investigate conjectures at the biological level has been created. In this study, the conjecture of a detachment mechanism involving a bacterially produced chemical detachment factor in which high local concentrations of this detachment factor cause the bacteria to detach from the biofilm was examined. The results show that the often observed 'mushroom'-shaped structure can occur if detachment events create voids so that the remaining attached cells look like mushrooms.

  7. Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Zheng-Chuan; Zheng, Qing-Rong; Zhu, Zheng-Gang; Su, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs

  8. Current-induced magnetic switching of a single molecule magnet on a spin valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiao [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Zheng-Chuan, E-mail: wangzc@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zheng, Qing-Rong [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Zhu, Zheng-Gang [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Electronics, Electric and Communication Engineering, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Su, Gang, E-mail: gsu@ucas.ac.cn [Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics and Computational Materials Physics Laboratory, School of Physics, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2015-04-17

    The current-induced magnetic switching of a single-molecule magnet (SMM) attached on the central region of a spin valve is explored, and the condition for the switching current is derived. Electrons flowing through the spin valve will interact with the SMM via the s–d exchange interaction, producing the spin accumulation that satisfies the spin diffusion equation. We further describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. Based on the linear stability analysis, we obtain the critical current from two coupled equations. The results of the critical current versus the external magnetic field indicate that one can manipulate the magnetic state of the SMM by an external magnetic field. - Highlights: • We theoretically study the current-induced magnetic switching of the SMM. • We describe the spin motion of the SMM by a Heisenberg-like equation. • We describe the spin accumulation by the spin diffusion equation. • We obtain the critical current by the linear stability analysis. • Our approach can be easily extended to other SMMs.

  9. Influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, Simone, E-mail: simone.moretti@usal.es; Raposo, Victor; Martinez, Eduardo [University of Salamanca, Plaza de los Caidos, 37008 Salamanca (Spain)

    2016-06-07

    The domain wall depinning from a notch in a Permalloy nanostrip on top of a SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate is studied theoretically under application of static magnetic fields and the injection of short current pulses. The influence of Joule heating on current-induced domain wall depinning is explored self-consistently by coupling the magnetization dynamics in the ferromagnetic strip to the heat transport throughout the system. Our results indicate that Joule heating plays a remarkable role in these processes, resulting in a reduction in the critical depinning field and/or in a temporary destruction of the ferromagnetic order for typically injected current pulses. In agreement with experimental observations, similar pinning-depinning phase diagrams can be deduced for both current polarities when the Joule heating is taken into account. These observations, which are incompatible with the sole contribution of spin transfer torques, provide a deeper understanding of the physics underlying these processes and establish the real scope of the spin transfer torque. They are also relevant for technological applications based on current-induced domain-wall motion along soft strips.

  10. An eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Do, Nam Ho; Baek, Yoon Su

    2016-01-01

    Frequency up-conversion is a very efficient method of energy harvesting in order to overcome low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. In order to perform frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact, an eddy current-induced magnetic drag force is used. In this paper, we present a novel configuration of eddy current-induced magnetic plucking for piezoelectric energy harvesting. Our method consists of two permanent magnets, a piezoelectric beam, and a copper disk piece. We design our harvesting method to achieve loading, sudden release, and free vibration using the actuation of the piezoelectric beam through the magnetic mutual coupling between the magnet and copper disk piece. We present the principle of magnetic drag force-generation, characterize the energy harvesting performance of our harvesting method, and demonstrate our harvesting method’s capability of frequency up-conversion and transference of mechanical energy without contact under low, non-periodic, or altered ambient vibration. To that end, we describe the calculation of magnetic drag force with various geometric dimensions and material properties, model of the piezoelectric cantilever beam, comparison between estimation response and measured experiment response, and the measured voltage and power responses. (paper)

  11. Current-induced damping of nanosized quantum moments in the presence of spin-orbit interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouzi, Farzad; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2017-05-01

    Motivated by the need to understand current-induced magnetization dynamics at the nanoscale, we have developed a formalism, within the framework of Keldysh Green function approach, to study the current-induced dynamics of a ferromagnetic (FM) nanoisland overlayer on a spin-orbit-coupling (SOC) Rashba plane. In contrast to the commonly employed classical micromagnetic LLG simulations the magnetic moments of the FM are treated quantum mechanically. We obtain the density matrix of the whole system consisting of conduction electrons entangled with the local magnetic moments and calculate the effective damping rate of the FM. We investigate two opposite limiting regimes of FM dynamics: (1) The precessional regime where the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) and precessional frequency are smaller than the exchange interactions and (2) the local spin-flip regime where the MAE and precessional frequency are comparable to the exchange interactions. In the former case, we show that due to the finite size of the FM domain, the "Gilbert damping" does not diverge in the ballistic electron transport regime, in sharp contrast to Kambersky's breathing Fermi surface theory for damping in metallic FMs. In the latter case, we show that above a critical bias the excited conduction electrons can switch the local spin moments resulting in demagnetization and reversal of the magnetization. Furthermore, our calculations show that the bias-induced antidamping efficiency in the local spin-flip regime is much higher than that in the rotational excitation regime.

  12. Vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone oil tamponade in the management of retinal detachment associated with choroidal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Di Liu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To report the results of combined vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone oil (SO tamponade in treating primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD associated with choroidal detachment (CD.METHODS: A retrospective, consecutive and case series study of 21 subjects with concurrent RRD associated with CD was conducted. All subjects underwent a standard three-port 20G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV with lensectomy and silicone oil tamponade. Mean follow-up time was 8 months (rang from 4 to 19 months. The primary and final anatomic success rate, visual acuity and final intraocular pressure(IOP were recorded and analyzed.RESULTS: Of 21 subjects, 8 were women and 13 were men. Age at presentation ranged from 22 to 75 years (mean 57.4 years. The presenting vision ranged from light perception to 0.15. The initial IOP ranged from 3mmHg to 12mmHg (mean 6.2mmHg. All eyes were phakic except one pseudophakic. No intraocular lens was implanted during the primary surgical intervention. Fifteen of 21 (71.4% eyes had retina reattached after one operation. Six eyes had recurrent inferior retinal detachment due to proliferation. Five of them were successfully reattached after one or more additional operations. Mean IOP at final follow-up was 15.2mmHg (range from 8mmHg to 20mmHg. One case declined for further operation. The final reattachment rate was 95.2%. Visual acuity improved in 19 (90.5% eyes, was unchanged in 1 (4.8% eye and decreased in 1 (4.8% eye.CONCLUSION: Combination of vitrectomy, lensectomy and silicone tamponade is an effective method in treating RRD associated with CD, reducing the incidence of postoperative hypotony.

  13. Ohmic discharges in Tore Supra - Marfes and detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallet, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Tore Supra plasma characteristics are given. The observed discharges are either leaning on the graphite inner first wall or limited by movable pump limiters located outboard and at the bottom of the vacuum chamber. The particular plasma conditions which lead to marfes and detached plasmas in ohmically heated He and D2 discharges limited by the inner wall are investigated. The results show that the ratio of radiated power to ohmic power increase linearly with M.g. As M.g rises, attached plasma, marfe and detached plasma are sequentially observed. Detached plasma with an effective radius as small as. 7 times the limiter radius was observed on Tore Supra

  14. Shape Evolution of Detached Bridgman Crystals Grown in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, M. P.; Mazuruk, K.

    2015-01-01

    A theory describing the shape evolution of detached Bridgman crystals in microgravity has been developed. A starting crystal of initial radius r0 will evolve to one of the following states: Stable detached gap; Attachment to the crucible wall; Meniscus collapse. Only crystals where alpha plus omega is great than 180 degrees will achieve stable detached growth in microgravity. Results of the crystal shape evolution theory are consistent with predictions of the dynamic stability of crystallization (Tatarchenko, Shaped Crystal Growth, Kluwer, 1993). Tests of transient crystal evolution are planned for ICESAGE, a series of Ge and GeSi crystal growth experiments planned to be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS).

  15. The potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in arctic Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarløv, Søren Peter; Vladyková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    The paper gives an account of the potential and need for energy saving in standard family detached and semi-detached wooden houses in Greenland. It is based on studies of house construction compared with Building Regulation requirements and the spread of buildings over time. In the climatic...... conditions of Greenland, there is considerable potential for energy saving in houses due to their construction, shape and condition. To estimate the total potential for energy saving and thus reducing CO2 emissions, we carried out a detailed investigation of three typical standard semi-detached family houses...

  16. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep

    2015-12-24

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting is needed to facilitate cell detachment. The method do not require inactivation of cell lifting solution and no washing of detaching cells is required to remove cell lifting solution. Detached cells can be stained with dye in the presence of cell lifting solution and are further analyzed using flow cytometer. The method has been tested using 6 different cell lines, 4 different assays, two different plate formats (96 and 384 well plates) and two different flow cytometry instruments. The method is simple to perform, less time consuming, with no cell loss and makes high throughput flow cytometry on adherent cells a reality.

  17. Characterisation of detached plasmas on the MAST tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, J.R., E-mail: james.harrison@ccfe.ac.uk [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Lisgo, S.W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, St.Paul-lez-Durance, Cedex (France); Gibson, K.J. [Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Dowling, J. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-01

    Divertor detachment is an attractive operating regime for the next generation of tokamak devices, as it offers a means of mitigating the steady-state heat flux to plasma facing components. In order to clarify the dominant physical mechanisms that govern detachment, high quality data from several diagnostics are required to constrain theoretical models. To that end, high spatial ({approx}3 mm) and temporal (5 kHz) resolution measurements have been made of the intensity of deuterium Balmer and carbon emission lines during the onset and evolution of detachment of the lower inner strike point in MAST L-mode discharges. Furthermore, spatially-resolved measurements of the shapes and intensities of high-n Balmer lines have been recorded to infer plasma conditions during the detached phase.

  18. Disappearance of a detached vapor mass in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Shigeaki; Miyasaka, Yoshiki; Izumi, Ryotaro.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on pool transition boiling of water under atmospheric pressure on a heated surface 10 mm in diameter were conducted for subcooling 15 - 50 K. The mass flux of condensation of a detached coalescent vapor bubble was experimentally estimated by a mathematical model based on the mass transfer mechanism of condensation. As a result, it is clarified that the mass flux of condensation of the detached bubble was influenced by the initial growing velocity of a vapor bubble immediately following the detached bubble. The disappearance velocity of the detached bubble defined as a ratio of the bubble diameter at the departure to the time required until the disappearance, is in the range 0.2 to 2.0 m/sec. The disappearance velocity is proportional to the initial growing velocity of the bubble, to the square of the heat flux of the heated surface and to the cube of the wall superheat, separately. (author)

  19. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joondeph, Stephanie A; Joondeph, Brian C

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  20. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Joondeph, Stephanie A.; Joondeph, Brian C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  1. Retinal Detachment due to CrossFit Training Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Joondeph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to describe a traumatic retinal detachment occurring as a result of CrossFit training using an elastic exercise band. The patient sustained an ocular injury from an elastic band during CrossFit training, resulting in a giant retinal dialysis and retinal detachment, which were successfully repaired. Trainers and athletes need to be aware of the potential for ocular injury from elastic exercise bands and take appropriate precautions.

  2. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.

    1984-01-01

    Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years

  3. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in patients with retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buzney, S.M.; Pruett, R.C.; Regan, C.D.; Walton, D.S.; Smith, T.R.

    1984-10-15

    Three children (two girls and one boy) with bilateral retinoblastoma each developed a presumed rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in one eye. All three eyes had previously received radiation and cryotherapy. In each case the retinal detachment responded promptly to conventional surgical methods via scleral buckling in the area of treated retinoblastoma and presumed retinal break. All three eyes have retained useful vision for follow-up periods of 3.5 to 12 years.

  4. HAMLET binding to α-actinin facilitates tumor cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trulsson, Maria; Yu, Hao; Gisselsson, Lennart; Chao, Yinxia; Urbano, Alexander; Aits, Sonja; Mossberg, Ann-Kristin; Svanborg, Catharina

    2011-03-08

    Cell adhesion is tightly regulated by specific molecular interactions and detachment from the extracellular matrix modifies proliferation and survival. HAMLET (Human Alpha-lactalbumin Made LEthal to Tumor cells) is a protein-lipid complex with tumoricidal activity that also triggers tumor cell detachment in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that molecular interactions defining detachment are perturbed in cancer cells. To identify such interactions, cell membrane extracts were used in Far-western blots and HAMLET was shown to bind α-actinins; major F-actin cross-linking proteins and focal adhesion constituents. Synthetic peptide mapping revealed that HAMLET binds to the N-terminal actin-binding domain as well as the integrin-binding domain of α-actinin-4. By co-immunoprecipitation of extracts from HAMLET-treated cancer cells, an interaction with α-actinin-1 and -4 was observed. Inhibition of α-actinin-1 and α-actinin-4 expression by siRNA transfection increased detachment, while α-actinin-4-GFP over-expression significantly delayed rounding up and detachment of tumor cells in response to HAMLET. In response to HAMLET, adherent tumor cells rounded up and detached, suggesting a loss of the actin cytoskeletal organization. These changes were accompanied by a reduction in β1 integrin staining and a decrease in FAK and ERK1/2 phosphorylation, consistent with a disruption of integrin-dependent cell adhesion signaling. Detachment per se did not increase cell death during the 22 hour experimental period, regardless of α-actinin-4 and α-actinin-1 expression levels but adherent cells with low α-actinin levels showed increased death in response to HAMLET. The results suggest that the interaction between HAMLET and α-actinins promotes tumor cell detachment. As α-actinins also associate with signaling molecules, cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors and ion channels, additional α-actinin-dependent mechanisms are discussed.

  5. An Unusual Case of Extensive Lattice Degeneration and Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, David J.; Sarma, Saurabh Kumar; Basaiawmoit, Jennifer V.

    2016-01-01

    Lattice degeneration of the retina is not infrequently encountered on a dilated retinal examination and many of them do not need any intervention. We report a case of atypical lattice degeneration variant with peripheral retinal detachment. An asymptomatic 35-year-old lady with minimal refractive error was found to have extensive lattice degeneration, peripheral retinal detachment and fibrotic changes peripherally with elevation of retinal vessels on dilated retinal examination. There were al...

  6. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsukasa Asari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanoimprint lithography (NIL is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL. We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  7. Current-induced spin transfer torque in ferromagnet-marginal Fermi liquid double tunnel junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Haifeng; Zheng Qingrong; Jin Biao; Su Gang

    2005-01-01

    Current-induced spin transfer torque through a marginal Fermi liquid (MFL) which is connected to two noncollinearly aligned ferromagnets via tunnel junctions is discussed in terms of the nonequilibrium Green function method. It is found that in the absence of the spin-flip scattering, the magnitude of the torque increases with the polarization and the coupling constant λ of the MFL, whose maximum increases with λ linearly, showing that the interactions between electrons tend to enhance the spin torque. When the spin-flip scattering is included, an additional spin torque is induced. It is found that the spin-flip scattering enhances the spin torque and gives rise to a nonlinear angular shift

  8. Effects of Transverse Magnetic Anisotropy on Current-Induced Spin Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misiorny, Maciej; Barnaś, Józef

    2013-07-01

    Spin-polarized transport through bistable magnetic adatoms or single-molecule magnets (SMMs), which exhibit both uniaxial and transverse magnetic anisotropy, is considered theoretically. The main focus is on the impact of transverse anisotropy on transport characteristics and the adatom’s or SMM’s spin. In particular, we analyze the role of quantum tunneling of magnetization (QTM) in the mechanism of the current-induced spin switching, and show that the QTM phenomenon becomes revealed as resonant peaks in the average values of the molecule’s spin and in the charge current. These features appear at some resonant fields and are observable when at least one of the electrodes is ferromagnetic.

  9. Novel magnetic wire fabrication process by way of nanoimprint lithography for current induced magnetization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asari, Tsukasa; Shibata, Ryosuke; Awano, Hiroyuki

    2017-05-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is an effective method to fabricate nanowire because it does not need expensive systems and this process is easier than conventional processes. In this letter, we report the Current Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS) in perpendicularly magnetized Tb-Co alloy nanowire fabricated by NIL. The CIMS in Tb-Co alloy wire was observed by using current pulse under in-plane external magnetic field (HL). We successfully observed the CIMS in Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL. Additionally, we found that the critical current density (Jc) for the CIMS in the Tb-Co wire fabricated by NIL is 4 times smaller than that fabricated by conventional lift-off process under HL = 200Oe. These results indicate that the NIL is effective method for the CIMS.

  10. Theory of current-induced spin polarization in an electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorini, Cosimo; Maleki Sheikhabadi, Amin; Shen, Ka; Tokatly, Ilya V.; Vignale, Giovanni; Raimondi, Roberto

    2017-05-01

    We derive the Bloch equations for the spin dynamics of a two-dimensional electron gas in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. For the latter we consider both the intrinsic mechanisms of structure inversion asymmetry (Rashba) and bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus), and the extrinsic ones arising from the scattering from impurities. The derivation is based on the SU(2) gauge-field formulation of the Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. Our main result is the identification of a spin-generation torque arising from Elliot-Yafet scattering, which opposes a similar term arising from Dyakonov-Perel relaxation. Such a torque, which to the best of our knowledge has gone unnoticed so far, is of basic nature, i.e., should be effective whenever Elliott-Yafet processes are present in a system with intrinsic spin-orbit coupling, irrespective of further specific details. The spin-generation torque contributes to the current-induced spin polarization (CISP), also known as inverse spin-galvanic or Edelstein effect. As a result, the behavior of the CISP turns out to be more complex than one would surmise from consideration of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus fields alone. In particular, the symmetry of the current-induced spin polarization does not necessarily coincide with that of the internal Rashba-Dresselhaus field, and an out-of-plane component of the CISP is generally predicted, as observed in recent experiments. We also discuss the extension to the three-dimensional electron gas, which may be relevant for the interpretation of experiments in thin films.

  11. Electron Drift Speed And Current-Induced Drive Torques On A Domain Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Luc

    2009-03-01

    It has become fashionable to describe [1] current-induced torques on a DW in terms of an electron drift speed u = - P*j*muB/e*M where muB is the Bohr magneton and M the saturation magnetization. While appropriate for adiabatic torques, this quantity u is misleading and not the best choice in the case of non-adiabatic torques. For example, it leads [2] to beta not equal to alpha, where beta represents the intensity of the non-adiabatic torque, and alpha is the damping parameter. By writing equations of motion for conduction- electron spins in a moving frame where the electron gas is at rest, we find [3] a direct relation between damping and non- adiabatic torques. The correct electron drift speed turns out to be the speed of the frame, and is v = P*j/(n*q) where n and q are the carrier density and charge. It is related to the ordinary Hall constant R0 by v P*R0*j. After substituting v for u in the expression of the non-adiabatic torque, we find that beta = alpha holds now. Because v is larger than u in Permalloy, it can explain better the large current-induced DW speeds found [4] experimentally. In materials where R0> 0 and the carriers are dominantly hole-like, v and u have opposite signs, leading to different predictions for the sense of DW motion. We discuss examples of such materials. 1. G. Tatara and H. Kohno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 086601 (2004). 2. H. Kohno et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 75, 113706 (2006). 3. L. Berger, Phys. Rev. B 75, 174401 (2007). 4. M. Hayashi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 037204 (2007).

  12. Current-induced massless mode of the interband phase difference in two-band superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hase, I.; Yanagisawa, T.; Kato, G.; Nishio, T.; Arisawa, S.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A current induces an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. • By controlling the boundary conditions, we can trap this phase difference. • A phase difference soliton is observed after switching off the current. - Abstract: There is a current-induced massless mode of an interband phase difference in two-band superconductors. For a thin wire, the externally applied current always invokes a finite interband phase difference when the end of the wire is terminated by a natural boundary condition, i.e., where the total current is specified but the other parameters are left as free and a finite interband phase difference is allowed. This condition can be realized by the normal state region formed by the shrinking of a cross section of the wire where the critical current density is lower than that of the other region of the wire. The interband interaction in the wire cannot completely prevent the emergence of the interband phase difference, though it reduces it somewhat. Instead, boundary conditions determine the presence of the interband phase difference. By reverting the normal state into the superconducting state at the shrunken region by decreasing the current, we may trap a rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians of the interband phase difference in the wire. After switching off the current, this rotation of integral multiples of 2π radians, which continuously spreads over the whole wire, is separated into several interband phase difference solitons (i-solitons), where one i-soliton locally generates a 2π interband phase difference

  13. Current-Induced Joule Heating and Electrical Field Effects in Low Temperature Measurements on TIPS Pentacene Thin Film Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nikiforov, G.O.; Venkateshvaran, D.; Mooser, S.; Meneau, A.; Strobel, T.; Kronemeijer, A.; Jiang, L.; Lee, M.J.; Sirringhaus, H.

    2016-01-01

    The channel temperature (Tch) of solution-processed 6,13-bis(triisopropylsilylethynyl)-pentacene (TIPS pentacene) thin film transistors (TFTs) is closely monitored in real time during current–voltage (I–V) measurements carried out in a He exchange gas cryostat at various base temperatures (Tb)

  14. Design of the Detachable Extension Shaft Assembly for KJRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Haeng; Yoo, Yeon-Sik; Cho, Yeong-Garp; Ryou, Myoung-Han; Ryu, Jeong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we designed the ESA and basket which can increase the connecting force between the ES adapter and the ES, and can be easily attachable and detachable with the basket. Because the upper part of the ESA can be placed near the reactor core for a long time and directly connected to the FFA, the deterioration of its mechanical properties is expected to be relatively quicker than the lower part of the ESA. The ESA is therefore composed of an Extension Shaft (ES) and an ES adapter, and the ES adapter can be detachable from the ES and replaceable by new one. In the previous design concept, the ES adapter had four latches which can be detached from the ES in the reactor core by external pulling force, and the detached CAR or SSR, FFA and ES adapter are individually disconnected in some baskets when it is needed to replace CAR/SSR/FFA or shuffle them. When the force is too small, the bundle of CAR/SSR/FFA and ES adapter can be unexpectedly detached from the ES. To solve the problem, we have studied another design concept which can increase the connecting force and can be easily detachable when it is needed. The forces needed to be connected and disconnected were calculated from FE analysis, and the force to be disconnected can be guessed without FE contact analysis. The prototypes of the designed components were fabricated, and they were suitable to be used

  15. [Prevention of retinal detachment and treatment of retinoschisis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messmer, E P

    1990-01-01

    The necessity for prophylactic treatment for degenerative disease in the peripheral retina cannot be evaluated merely on the basis of the ophthalmoscopic findings. Factors such as the patient's history, refraction, the status of the vitreous, and prospective future cataract extraction all have a major impact on the risk of developing retinal detachment. The latter condition can be classified in to three groups: (1) low risk (patients with no history of retinal detachment, intraocular surgery or posterior vitreous detachment, myopia less than three diopters): treatment of atrophic holes and lattice degeneration is not justified, treatment of flap tears according to the circumstances; (2) medium risk (patients with no history of retinal or posterior vitreous detachment; however, myopia of more than three diopters and/or aphakia): the treatment of lattice degeneration is not justified; treatment of breaks according to the circumstances; (3) high risk: (patients with symptoms of posterior vitreous detachment): the treatment of lattice degeneration and atrophic holes is not justified: treatment of tears is necessary; fellow eyes: the treatment of retinal breaks is necessary; treatment of lattice degeneration seems advisable in cases with bilateral symmetric findings or prior to cataract extraction. Treatment of senile retinoschisis is only justified in cases with large and centrally located holes in the outer wall or in the presence of symptomatic schisis detachment.

  16. Numerical analysis of the bubble detachment diameter in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamas, M I; Sáiz Jabardo, J M; Arce, A; Fariñas, P

    2012-01-01

    The present paper presents a tri-dimensional CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model to investigate the fluid flow around bubbles attached to heated walls. Transient solutions of the governing field equations in a domain containing the bubbles and the surrounding liquid have been obtained. The nucleation, growing and detachment processes have been analyzed. Concerning the software, the open source OpenFOAM has been used. Special attention has been given to the bubble detachment diameter. Two mechanisms have been considered as physically related to the detachment: surface tension and buoyancy. As expected, it has been verified that the bubble detachment diameter depends on the contact angle, operating pressure and properties of the fluid. Several fluids have been considered (water, R134a, ammonia and R123), as well as several operating pressures (between 0.1 and 10 bar) and contact angles (between 10 and 80°). It has been concluded that the detachment diameter depends strongly on the contact angle and fluid properties and slightly on the pressure. A correlation for the bubble detachment diameter has been developed based on the obtained numerical results. Data from this expression compare reasonably well with those from other correlations from the literature.

  17. Photodetachment of H ion in crossed gradient electric and magnetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-10-13

    Oct 13, 2016 ... ion in a gradient electric field, the Hamiltonian of the detached electron has three degrees of freedom, which makes the dynamical behaviour of the detached electron complex. Photodetachment cross-section for vari- ous external fields and the laser polarization are calculated and displayed. A comparison ...

  18. The fellow eye of patients with phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment from atrophic holes of lattice degeneration without posterior vitreous detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, C R; Gupta, A; Schwartz, S D; Kreiger, A E

    2004-11-01

    Primary phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) without posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) represents a unique clinical entity that behaves differently from RRD associated with PVD. While previous studies have reported the long term findings in the fellow eye of patients with RRD and PVD, the outcome of the fellow eye of patients with RRD without PVD is not known. Consecutive patients with RRD not associated with PVD were studied retrospectively. The authors evaluated the fellow eye for retinal detachment or other vision threatening pathology. 27 patients (mean age 32 years) were studied with follow up of between 9 and 326 months (mean 111 months). 24 (89%) were myopic. Bilateral retinal detachment occurred in eight patients (30%). On initial examination, 17 patients (63%) had retinal findings (including lattice degeneration, atrophic holes, and/or cystic retinal tufts) in the fellow eye that might predispose them to retinal detachment. 14 vision threatening events or diagnoses occurred (nine of which were rhegmatogenous in nature) in the fellow eye including eight retinal detachments, one traumatic PVD without retinal tears, one retinal tear after PVD, one diagnosis of pigmentary glaucoma needing trabeculectomy, two visually significant cataracts, and one diagnosis of chorioretinitis. 23 patients (85%) maintained visual acuity better than 20/50, with most retaining 20/20 vision in the fellow eye. Patients who experience RRD without PVD are at risk of developing vision threatening events in the contralateral eye and, as such, the fellow eye should be followed carefully.

  19. Cost-Utility of Evaluation for Posterior Vitreous Detachment and Prophylaxis of Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannuzzi, Nicolas A; Chang, Jonathan S; Brown, Gary C; Smiddy, William E

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the costs and cost-utility of examination for posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) and treatment of associated pathology, and of managing various other peripheral retinal disorders to prevent retinal detachment (RD). A decision analysis model of cost-utility. There were no participants. Published retrospective data on the natural course of PVD, retinal tears, and lattice degeneration were used to quantitate the visual benefits of examination and treatment. Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services data were used to calculate associated modeled costs in a hospital/facility-based and nonfacility/ambulatory surgical center (ASC)-based setting. Published standards of utility for a given level of visual acuity were used to derive costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Cost of evaluation and treatment, utility of defined health states, QALY, and cost per QALY. The modeled cost of evaluation of a patient with PVD and treatment of associated pathology in the facility/hospital (nonfacility/ASC)-based setting was $65 to $190 ($25-$71) depending on whether a single or 2-examination protocol was used. The cost per QALY saved was $255 to $638/QALY ($100-$239/QALY). Treatment of a symptomatic horseshoe tear resulted in a net cost savings of $1749 ($1314) and improved utility, whereas treatment of an asymptomatic horseshoe tear resulted in $2981/QALY ($1436/QALY). Treatment of asymptomatic lattice degeneration in an eye in which the fellow eye had a history of RD resulted in $4414/QALY ($2187/QALY). Evaluation and management of incident acute PVD (and symptomatic horseshoe tears) offer a low cost and a favorable cost-utility (low $/QALY) as a result of the minimization of the cost and morbidity associated with the development of RD, thus justifying current practice standards. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A chick model of retinal detachment: cone rich and novel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen M Cebulla

    Full Text Available Development of retinal detachment models in small animals can be difficult and expensive. Here we create and characterize a novel, cone-rich retinal detachment (RD model in the chick.Retinal detachments were created in chicks between postnatal days 7 and 21 by subretinal injections of either saline (SA or hyaluronic acid (HA. Injections were performed through a dilated pupil with observation via surgical microscope, using the fellow eye as a control. Immunohistochemical analyses were performed at days 1, 3, 7, 10 and 14 after retinal detachment to evaluate the cellular responses of photoreceptors, Müller glia, microglia and nonastrocytic inner retinal glia (NIRG. Cell proliferation was detected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU-incorporation and by the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA. Cell death was detected with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL. As in mammalian models of RD, there is shortening of photoreceptor outer segments and mis-trafficking of photoreceptor opsins in areas of RD. Photoreceptor cell death was maximal 1 day after RD, but continued until 14 days after RD. Müller glia up-regulated glial fibriliary acidic protein (GFAP, proliferated, showed interkinetic nuclear migration, and migrated to the subretinal space in areas of detachment. Microglia became reactive; they up-regulated CD45, acquired amoeboid morphology, and migrated toward outer retina in areas of RD. Reactive NIRG cells accumulated in detached areas.Subretinal injections of SA or HA in the chick eye successfully produced retinal detachments and cellular responses similar to those seen in standard mammalian models. Given the relatively large eye size, and considering the low cost, the chick model of RD offers advantages for high-throughput studies.

  1. Electrohydrodynamic simulation of electrically controlled droplet generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouedraogo, Yun; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas; Gersem, Herbert De; Steinhausen, Christoph; Lamanna, Grazia; Weigand, Bernhard

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a full electrohydrodynamic simulation approach which allows for the accurate modeling of droplet dynamics under the influence of transient electric fields. The model takes into account conductive, capacitive as well as convective electrical currents in the fluid. • Simulation results are shown for an electrically driven droplet generator using highly conductive acetone droplets and low conductivity pentane droplets, respectively. Excellent agreement with measurement is found. • We investigate the operation characteristic of the droplet generator by computing droplet sizes and detachment times with respect to the applied voltage. • The droplet charging effect is demonstrated for pentane droplets as well as for acetone droplets under long voltage pulses. We show that due to the very different relaxation times, the charging behavior of the two liquids is very different. • We demonstrate that due to this behavior, also the detachment mechanisms for acetone and pentane droplets are different. For low conductivity (pentane) droplets, droplet detachment is only possible after the electric fields are switched off. This is because the effective electric polarization force points upwards, thus, inhibiting the detachment of the droplet from the capillary tip. - Abstract: An electrohydrodynamic model for the simulation of droplet formation, detachment and motion in an electrically driven droplet generator is introduced. The numerical approach is based on the coupled solution of the multiphase flow problem with the charge continuity equation. For the latter, a modified convection-conduction model is applied, taking into account conductive, capacitive as well as convective electrical currents in the fluid. This allows for a proper description of charge relaxation phenomena in the moving fluid. In particular, the charge received by the droplet after detachment is an important parameter influencing the droplet dynamics in the test chamber

  2. Self-sustained detachment observed in LHD and comparison with detachment and Marfe in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Yamada, H.; Sakamoto, R.; Peterson, B. J.; Shoji, M.; Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.

    2005-01-01

    One of the crucial issues for a magnetically confined fusion reactor [1-3] is the reduction of the divertor heat load. Edge plasma cooling by increasing the density or introducing impurities such as neon as radiators is effective for reducing the divertor heat load by detaching the plasma from the divertor plates. In high-density tokamak plasmas, the so-called high-recycling regime is predicted by two-point model [4,5], where the divertor temperature (density) nonlinearly decreases (increases) with the main plasma density. Detachment takes place when the density is increased further. Then, the pressure in the flux tube is no longer conserved due to the increased radiation loss, charge exchange loss, and volume recombination. Eventually, the discharge is terminated by disruption often via rapid formation of a radiation condensation Marfe [5,6]. This scenario well explains the experimental results of tokamaks [5,7]. A similar kind of conventional detachment has been also intensively studied in a stellarator, W7-AS, after modification to the island divertor configuration [8,9]. Detachment in W7-AS is achieved by increasing the density beyond the density threshold for the high-density H-mode (HDH) [10]. As the density is increased further to the operational density limit, complete detachment takes place and, in some cases, the Marfe is formed on (or inside of) the last-closed-flux-surface (LCFS) [11-13]. These are reviewed in Section 4. Recently, a new state of self-sustained detachment has been found in LHD and named the Serpens mode (Self-regulated plasma edge neath the last-closed-flux-surface) [15,16]. In the Serpens mode, the hot plasma boundary is shrinking to equal 90 % of the LCFS radius. Large fluctuations appear in the divertor flux, H alpha and Cm signals, together with a rotating radiation belt named the serpent [17]. Detachment in LHD is observed in a significant decrease in the ion saturation current, Isat, measured on the divertor tiles [18,19]. In this

  3. Studies of Current Induced Magnetization reversal and generation of GHz radiation in magnetic nanopillars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhajdarwish, Mustafa Yousef

    This thesis describes studies of two phenomena: Current-Induced Magnetization Switching (CIMS), and Current-Induced Generation of GHz Radiation. The CIMS part contains results of measurements of current-perpendicular-to-plane (CPP) magnetoresistance (MR) and CIMS behavior on Ferromagnetic/Nonmetal/Ferromagnetic (F1/N/F2) nanopillars. Judicious combinations of F1 and F2 metals with different bulk scattering asymmetries, and with F1/N and N/F2 interfaces having different interfacial scattering asymmetries, are shown to be able to controllably, and independently, 'invert' both the CPP-MR and the CIMS. In 'normal' CPP-MR, R(AP) > R(P), where R(AP) and R(P) are the nanopillar resistances for the anti-parallel (AP) and parallel (P) orientations of the Fi and F2 magnetic moments. In 'inverse' CPP-MR, R(P) > R(AP). In 'normal' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from the P to the AP state. In 'inverse' CIMS, positive current switches the nanopillar from AP to P. All four possible combinations of CPP-MR and CIMS---(a) 'normal'-'normal', (b) 'normal'- 'inverse', 'inverse'-'normal', and (d) 'inverse'-'inverse' are shown and explained. These results rule out the self-Oersted field as the switching source, since the direction of that field is independent of the bulk or interfacial scattering asymmetries. Successful use of impurities to reverse the bulk scattering asymmetry shows the importance of scattering off of impurities within the bulk F1 and F2 metals---i.e. that the transport must be treated as 'diffusive' rather than 'ballistic'. The GHz studies consist of five parts: (1) designing a sample geometry that allows reliable measurements; (2) making nanopillar samples with this geometry; (3) constructing a system for measuring frequencies up to 12 GHz and measuring current-driven GHz radiation data with it; (4) showing 'scaling' behavior of GHz data with the critical fields and currents for nominally identical (but actually slightly different) samples, and

  4. Bilateral patching in retinal detachment: fluid mechanics and retinal "settling".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, William J

    2011-07-20

    When a patient suffers a retinal detachment and surgery is delayed, it is known clinically that bilaterally patching the patient may allow the retina to partially reattach or "settle." Although this procedure has been performed since the 1860s, there is still debate as to how such a maneuver facilitates the reattachment of the retina. Finite element calculations using commercially available analysis software are used to elucidate the influence of reduction in eye movement caused by bilateral patching on the flow of subretinal fluid in a physical model of retinal detachment. It was found that by coupling fluid mechanics with structural mechanics, a physically consistent explanation of increased retinal detachment with eye movements can be found in the case of traction on the retinal hole. Large eye movements increase vitreous traction and detachment forces on the edge of the retinal hole, creating a subretinal vacuum and facilitating increased subretinal fluid. Alternative models, in which intraocular fluid flow is redirected into the subretinal space, are not consistent with these simulations. The results of these simulations explain the physical principles behind bilateral patching and provide insight that can be used clinically. In particular, as is known clinically, bilateral patching may facilitate a decrease in the height of a retinal detachment. The results described here provide a description of a physical mechanism underlying this technique. The findings of this study may aid in deciding whether to bilaterally patch patients and in counseling patients on pre- and postoperative care.

  5. Lattice degeneration of the retina and retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semes, L P

    1992-01-01

    Lattice retinal degeneration is considered the most significant peripheral retinal disorder potentially predisposing to retinal breaks and retinal detachment. Lattice degeneration affects the vitreous and inner retinal layers with secondary changes as deep as the retinal pigment epithelium and perhaps the choriocapillaris. Variations in clinical appearance are the rule; geographically, lattice lesions favor the vertical meridians between the equator and the ora serrata. Lattice degeneration begins early in life and has been reported in sequential generations of the same family. Along with its customary bilateral occurrence, lattice shares other characteristics of a dystrophy. The association between the vitreous and retina in lattice lesions may be responsible for the majority of lattice-induced retinal detachments. The tumultuous event of posterior vitreous separation in the presence of abnormally strong vitreoretinal adherence is the trigger for a retinal tear that, in turn, may lead to retinal detachment. Although retinal holes in young patients with lattice degeneration may play a role in the evolution of retinal detachment, the clinical course of lattice degeneration seems to be one of dormancy rather than of progressive change. This discussion outlines the pathophysiology of lattice retinal degeneration and the relationship of pathophysiology to clinical presentation. The epidemiology of lattice degeneration is summarized, as are the possible precursors to retinal detachment. A clinical characterization of the natural history of lattice degeneration is offered, and interventions for complications are described. To conclude, management strategies from a primary-care standpoint are reviewed.

  6. [Preventive treatment of retinal detachment in aphakic eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnault, F; Bregeat, P

    1977-01-01

    We have examined 243 cases with retinal detachment occurring within 6 months following cataract surgery. In 92 of them retinal tear was due to lattice degeneration, in 66 to snail track degeneration and in 17 to equatorial degeneration. 290 other patients had preventive treatments. In this group, there were only 10 cases of retinal detachment. 9 out of 22 patients who had no preventive treatment suffered retinal detachments. There are two reasons for the occurrence of this retinal detachment in the 6 months following cataract surgery in eyes where retinal degenerations are found: (1) surgical trauma even with cryoextraction is responsible for traction of the vitreous base, (2) rapid disappearance of the hyaluronic acid in the aphakic vitreous is responsible for the degradation of the vitreous with formation of large zones of liquid vitreous. When adhesion between the vitreous and the retinal degeneration area remains, the traction is responsible for retinal tear or retinal detachment. The importance of the preventive treatment of retinal lesions prior to cataract surgery should be stressed.

  7. The fellow eye of patients with phakic lattice retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, J C; Arrindell, E L; Klugman, M R

    1989-01-01

    A retrospective study was performed to determine whether the prophylactic treatment of areas of lattice degeneration, holes, or breaks reduced the risk of subsequent new breaks or detachment in the fellow undetached phakic eyes of patients with a phakic lattice retinal detachment (RD). Three hundred eighty-eight consecutive patients who presented to the University of Iowa between 1959 and 1984 were followed for a mean of 7.9 +/- 5.8 years after the detachment in the first eye. Fellow eyes which received no prophylactic treatment had a 2.5 times greater risk of a new break or RD over 7 years than eyes receiving full prophylactic treatment (19.4 versus 7.5%; P = 0.0002). Fellow eyes receiving no treatment also had a greater risk of a new RD over 7 years than eyes receiving full treatment (5.1 versus 1.8%; P = 0.0125). These results do not allow us to make recommendations concerning which fellow eyes, if any, should be prophylactically treated. On the one hand, prophylactic treatment did significantly reduce the risk of new breaks and detachments. On the other hand, however, prophylactic treatment reduced the risk of new RD alone in the fellow eye only from 5.1 to 1.8% over 7 years. In addition, prophylactic treatment did not reduce the risk of detachment in the higher risk eyes with high myopia or extensive lattice.

  8. Topological dynamics and current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. C.; Jalil, M. B. A.

    2016-03-01

    We study the Thiele equation for current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice through two soluble models of the pinning potential. Comprised by a Magnus term, a dissipative term and a pinning force, Thiele’s equation resembles Newton’s law but in virtue of the topological character to the first, it differs significantly from Newtonian mechanics and because the Magnus force is dominant, unlike its mechanical counterpart—the Coriolis force—skyrmion trajectories do not necessarily have mechanical counterparts. This is important if we are to understand skyrmion dynamics and tap into its potential for data-storage technology. We identify a pinning threshold velocity for the one-dimensional pinning potential and for a two-dimensional attractive potential we find a pinning point and the skyrmion trajectories toward that point are spirals whose frequency (compare Kepler’s second law) and amplitude-decay depend only on the Gilbert constant and potential at the pinning point. Other scenarios, e.g. other choices of initial spin velocity, a repulsive potential, etc are also investigated.

  9. Topological dynamics and current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, J C; Jalil, M B A

    2016-01-01

    We study the Thiele equation for current-induced motion in a skyrmion lattice through two soluble models of the pinning potential. Comprised by a Magnus term, a dissipative term and a pinning force, Thiele’s equation resembles Newton’s law but in virtue of the topological character to the first, it differs significantly from Newtonian mechanics and because the Magnus force is dominant, unlike its mechanical counterpart—the Coriolis force—skyrmion trajectories do not necessarily have mechanical counterparts. This is important if we are to understand skyrmion dynamics and tap into its potential for data-storage technology. We identify a pinning threshold velocity for the one-dimensional pinning potential and for a two-dimensional attractive potential we find a pinning point and the skyrmion trajectories toward that point are spirals whose frequency (compare Kepler’s second law) and amplitude-decay depend only on the Gilbert constant and potential at the pinning point. Other scenarios, e.g. other choices of initial spin velocity, a repulsive potential, etc are also investigated. (paper)

  10. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli - 620 024 (India); Sabareesan, P. [Centre for Nonlinear Science and Engineering, School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, SASTRA University, Thanjavur - 613 401 (India)

    2015-07-15

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}. Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2} to 1.39 × 10{sup 12}Am{sup −2}.

  11. Rashba spin–orbit coupling effects on a current-induced domain wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jisu; Seo, Soo-Man; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lee, Hyun-Woo

    2012-01-01

    A current-induced domain wall motion in magnetic nanowires with a strong structural inversion asymmetry [I.M. Miron, T. Moore, H. Szambolics, L.D. Buda-Prejbeanu, S. Auffret, B. Rodmacq, S. Pizzini, J. Vogel, M. Bonfim, A. Schuhl, G. Gaudin, Nat. Mat. 10 (2011) 419] seems to have novel features such as the domain wall motion along the current direction or the delay of the onset of the Walker breakdown. In such a highly asymmetric system, the Rashba spin–orbit coupling (RSOC) may affect a domain wall motion. We studied theoretically the RSOC effects on a domain wall motion and found that the RSOC, indeed, can induce the domain wall motion along the current direction in certain situations. It also delays the Walker breakdown and for a strong RSOC, the Walker breakdown does not occur at all. The RSOC effects are sensitive to the magnetic anisotropy of nanowires and also to the ratio between the Gilbert damping parameter α and the non-adiabaticity parameter β. - Highlights: ► Effects of Rashba spin–orbit coupling on a domain wall motion is calculated. ► The effects depend highly on the anisotropy of a magnetic system. ► It modifies the wall velocity for the system with a perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. ► The modified velocity can be along the current direction in certain situations. ► Rashba spin–orbit coupling also hinders the onset of the Walker breakdown.

  12. Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2018-01-29

    Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.

  13. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu; Kim, Won-Seok; Bisig, André ; Klä ui, Mathias; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  14. Current-induced spin-orbit torques in ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien; Miron, I. M.; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, J.; Zelezný , J.; Thiaville, A.; Garello, K.; Gambardella, P.

    2018-01-01

    Spin-orbit coupling in inversion-asymmetric magnetic crystals and structures has emerged as a powerful tool to generate complex magnetic textures, interconvert charge and spin under applied current, and control magnetization dynamics. Current-induced spin-orbit torques mediate the transfer of angular momentum from the lattice to the spin system, leading to sustained magnetic oscillations or switching of ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic structures. The manipulation of magnetic order, domain walls and skyrmions by spin-orbit torques provides evidence of the microscopic interactions between charge and spin in a variety of materials and opens novel strategies to design spintronic devices with potentially high impact in data storage, nonvolatile logic, and magnonic applications. This paper reviews recent progress in the field of spin-orbitronics, focusing on theoretical models, material properties, and experimental results obtained on bulk noncentrosymmetric conductors and multilayer heterostructures, including metals, semiconductors, and topological insulator systems. Relevant aspects for improving the understanding and optimizing the efficiency of nonequilibrium spin-orbit phenomena in future nanoscale devices are also discussed.

  15. Role of spin diffusion in current-induced domain wall motion for disordered ferromagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2015-03-12

    Current-induced spin transfer torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin diffusion in disordered magnetic textures is studied theoretically. We demonstrate using tight-binding calculations that weak, spin-conserving impurity scattering dramatically enhances the nonadiabaticity. To further explore this mechanism, a phenomenological drift-diffusion model for incoherent spin transport is investigated. We show that incoherent spin diffusion indeed produces an additional spatially dependent torque of the form ∼∇2[m×(u⋅∇)m]+ξ∇2[(u⋅∇)m], where m is the local magnetization direction, u is the direction of injected current, and ξ is a parameter characterizing the spin dynamics (precession, dephasing, and spin-flip). This torque, which scales as the inverse square of the domain wall width, only weakly enhances the longitudinal velocity of a transverse domain wall but significantly enhances the transverse velocity of vortex walls. The spatial-dependent spin transfer torque uncovered in this study is expected to have significant impact on the current-driven motion of abrupt two-dimensional textures such as vortices, skyrmions, and merons.

  16. Current induced magnetization switching in Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar with orange peel coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravinthan, D.; Daniel, M.; Sabareesan, P.

    2015-01-01

    The impact of orange peel coupling on spin current induced magnetization switching in a Co/Cu/Ni-Fe nanopillar device is investigated by solving the switching dynamics of magnetization of the free layer governed by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS) equation. The value of the critical current required to initiate the magnetization switching is calculated analytically by solving the LLGS equation and verified the same through numerical analysis. Results of numerical simulation of the LLGS equation using Runge-Kutta fourth order procedure shows that the presence of orange peel coupling between the spacer and the ferromagnetic layers reduces the switching time of the nanopillar device from 67 ps to 48 ps for an applied current density of 4 × 10 12 Am −2 . Also, the presence of orange peel coupling reduces the critical current required to initiate switching, and in this case, from 1.65 × 10 12 Am −2 to 1.39 × 10 12 Am −2

  17. Metabolism during ECM Detachment: Achilles Heel of Cancer Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Joshua A; Hagel, Kimberly R; Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2017-07-01

    Integrin-mediated attachment to the extracellular matrix (ECM) is required to combat the induction of programmed cell death in a variety of distinct cell types. If cells fail to maintain proper ECM attachment, they become subject to elimination via an apoptotic cell death program known as anoikis. However, anoikis inhibition is not sufficient to promote the long-term survival of ECM-detached cells. Several recent studies have unveiled the profound (anoikis-independent) impact of cell metabolism on the viability of ECM-detached cells. Thus, we posit that, during metastatic dissemination (when cancer cells are exposed to periods of ECM detachment), cancer cells must alter their metabolism in a fashion that promotes survival and ultimately contributes to metastatic outgrowth. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tracing detached and attached care practices in nursing education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soffer, Ann Katrine B.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of skills labs in Danish nursing education can, in itself, be viewed as a complexity. The students are expected to eventually carry out their work in a situated hospital practice, but they learn their professional skills in a different space altogether, detached and removed from...... of care are not explicated in the curriculum or textbooks; however, they surfaced once this crooked approach to studying care in a simulated practice was applied. The article starts from the assertion that detached engagements are not recognized within the field of nursing education as an equal component...... analytical approach to care work, as involving both attached and detached engagement within Danish nursing education, is advocated....

  19. Simulation of experimentally achieved detached plasmas using the UEDGE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Allen, S.; Fenstermacher, M.

    1995-01-01

    The introduction of a divertor Thomson scattering system in DIII-D has enabled accurate determination of the plasma properties in the divertor region. We identify two plasma regimes; detached and attached. The electron temperature in the detached regime is about 2 eV, much lower than 5 to 10 eV determined earlier. We show that fluid models of the DIII-D scrape-off layer plasma are able to reproduce many of the features of these two plasma regimes, including the boundaries for transition between them. Detailed comparison between the results obtained from the fluid models and experiment suggest the models underestimate the spatial extent of the low temperature region associated the detached plasma mode. We suggest that atomic physics processes at the low electron temperatures reported here may account for this discrepancy

  20. An Unusual Case of Extensive Lattice Degeneration and Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, David J; Sarma, Saurabh Kumar; Basaiawmoit, Jennifer V

    2016-07-01

    Lattice degeneration of the retina is not infrequently encountered on a dilated retinal examination and many of them do not need any intervention. We report a case of atypical lattice degeneration variant with peripheral retinal detachment. An asymptomatic 35-year-old lady with minimal refractive error was found to have extensive lattice degeneration, peripheral retinal detachment and fibrotic changes peripherally with elevation of retinal vessels on dilated retinal examination. There were also areas of white without pressure, chorioretinal scarring and retinal breaks. All the changes were limited to beyond the equator but were found to span 360 degrees. She was treated with barrage laser all around to prevent extension of the retinal detachment posteriorly. She remained stable till her latest follow-up two years after the barrage laser. This case is reported for its rarity with a discussion of the probable differential diagnoses. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such findings in lattice degeneration.

  1. Peripheral retinal degenerations and the risk of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Hilel

    2003-07-01

    To review the degenerative diseases of the peripheral retina in relationship with the risk to develop a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and to present recommendations for use in eyes at increased risk of developing a retinal detachment. Focused literature review and author's clinical experience. Retinal degenerations are common lesions involving the peripheral retina, and most of them are clinically insignificant. Lattice degeneration, degenerative retinoschisis, cystic retinal tufts, and, rarely, zonular traction tufts, can result in a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Therefore, these lesions have been considered for prophylactic therapy; however, adequate studies have not been performed to date. Well-designed, prospective, randomized clinical studies are necessary to determine the benefit-risk ratio of prophylactic treatment. In the meantime, the evidence available suggests that most of the peripheral retinal degenerations should not be treated except in rare, high-risk situations.

  2. Micromagnetic analysis of current-induced domain wall motion in a bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komine, Takashi, E-mail: komine@mx.ibaraki.ac.jp; Aono, Tomosuke [Faculty of Engineering, Ibaraki University 4-12-1, Nakanarusawa, Hitachi, Ibaraki, 316-8511 (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    We demonstrate current-induced domain wall motion in bilayer nanowire with synthetic antiferromagnetic (SAF) coupling by modeling two body problems for motion equations of domain wall. The influence of interlayer exchange coupling and magnetostatic interactions on current-induced domain wall motion in SAF nanowires was also investigated. By assuming the rigid wall model for translational motion, the interlayer exchange coupling and the magnetostatic interaction between walls and domains in SAF nanowires enhances domain wall speed without any spin-orbit-torque. The enhancement of domain wall speed was discussed by energy distribution as a function of wall angle configuration in bilayer nanowires.

  3. Adenocarcinoma of the lung presenting as retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal detachment is a rare presentation of lung cancer. A young female presented with blurring of vision in her right eye for the last 10 days without any history of trauma. On indirect ophthalmoscopy, there was a presence of right sided retinal detachment which was treated with oral prednisolone (60 mg/day. After 1 month of continuous treatment, she came back with dry cough left sided chest pain and deterioration of her eye symptoms. Chest X-ray showed left lung mass. Computed tomography guided fine needle aspiration cytology and with immunohistochemistry confirmed adenocarcinoma of the lung. She was treated with 6 cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine.

  4. Bilateral Simultaneous Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment following Laser in situ Keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhan Yumusak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A 21-year-old woman developed simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK in both eyes. She underwent pars plana vitrectomy surgery combined with endolaser photocoagulation and silicone oil tamponade in the right eye. A week later, pneumatic retinopexy was done in the left eye. As the retinal tear did not seal, 360° scleral buckling surgery was performed and retina was attached. Bilateral simultaneous rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after LASIK for correction of myopia can be a serious complication. Patients should be informed about the possibility of this complication.

  5. Retinal detachment secondary to ocular perforation during retrobulbar Anaesthesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal Lingam

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics and the retinal breaks associated with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments secondary to accidental globe perforation during local infiltration anaesthesia in five highly myopic eyes are presented. Retinal detachment was total with variable proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The pattern of retinal breaks was rather typical and predictable. Management involved vitreous surgery with internal tamponade by silicone oil in four eyes and perfluoropropane gas in one eye. At the last follow-up, all eyes had attached retina. One eye did not recover useful vision due to possible concurrent optic nerve damage.

  6. Magnetic Detachment and Plume Control in Escaping Magnetized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmit, P.F.; Fisch, N.J.

    2008-01-01

    The model of two-fluid, axisymmetric, ambipolar magnetized plasma detachment from thruster guide fields is extended to include plasmas with non-zero injection angular velocity profiles. Certain plasma injection angular velocity profiles are shown to narrow the plasma plume, thereby increasing exhaust efficiency. As an example, we consider a magnetic guide field arising from a simple current ring and demonstrate plasma injection schemes that more than double the fraction of useful exhaust aperture area, more than halve the exhaust plume angle, and enhance magnetized plasma detachment

  7. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudini, N. [Laboratoire des plasmas de décharges, Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Cité du 20 Aout BP 17 Baba Hassen, 16081 Algiers (Algeria); Taccogna, F. [Istituto di Metodologie Inorganiche e dei Plasmi, CNR, via Amendola 122/D, 70126 Bari (Italy); Bendib, A. [Laboratoire d' Electronique Quantique, Faculté de Physique, USTHB, El Alia BP 32, Bab Ezzouar 16111, Algiers (Algeria); Aanesland, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas (CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud), École Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2014-06-15

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of α = 1, with a parametric study for α up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  8. Safety considerations to avoid current-induced skin burns in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knopp, M.V.; Metzner, R.; Kaick, G. van; Brix, G.; Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim

    1998-01-01

    The safety aspects of radiological methods continue to evolve. In this paper we report on two cases of skin burns in MRI caused by induced electrical current. A second- and a third-degree skin burn occurred during imaging in a 1.5 T system. The electromagnetic radiofrequency field inadvertently led to electrical currents caused by a conducting loop through the extremities and trunk. Skin burns induced by electrical current may occur in extremely rare cases even with standard MR imaging protocols operating within all current safety guidelines by inadvertently forming a closed conducting loop. By avoiding focal skin to skin contact of the extremities, this extremely rare adverse event can be avoided. (orig.) [de

  9. Correction for Eddy Current-Induced Echo-Shifting Effect in Partial-Fourier Diffusion Tensor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Trong-Kha; Song, Allen W; Chen, Nan-Kuei

    2015-01-01

    In most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies, images are acquired with either a partial-Fourier or a parallel partial-Fourier echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequence, in order to shorten the echo time and increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). However, eddy currents induced by the diffusion-sensitizing gradients can often lead to a shift of the echo in k-space, resulting in three distinct types of artifacts in partial-Fourier DTI. Here, we present an improved DTI acquisition and reconstruction scheme, capable of generating high-quality and high-SNR DTI data without eddy current-induced artifacts. This new scheme consists of three components, respectively, addressing the three distinct types of artifacts. First, a k-space energy-anchored DTI sequence is designed to recover eddy current-induced signal loss (i.e., Type 1 artifact). Second, a multischeme partial-Fourier reconstruction is used to eliminate artificial signal elevation (i.e., Type 2 artifact) associated with the conventional partial-Fourier reconstruction. Third, a signal intensity correction is applied to remove artificial signal modulations due to eddy current-induced erroneous T2(∗) -weighting (i.e., Type 3 artifact). These systematic improvements will greatly increase the consistency and accuracy of DTI measurements, expanding the utility of DTI in translational applications where quantitative robustness is much needed.

  10. Turbulent Simulations of Divertor Detachment Based On BOUT + + Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bin; Xu, Xueqiao; Xia, Tianyang; Ye, Minyou

    2015-11-01

    China Fusion Engineering Testing Reactor is under conceptual design, acting as a bridge between ITER and DEMO. The detached divertor operation offers great promise for a reduction of heat flux onto divertor target plates for acceptable erosion. Therefore, a density scan is performed via an increase of D2 gas puffing rates in the range of 0 . 0 ~ 5 . 0 ×1023s-1 by using the B2-Eirene/SOLPS 5.0 code package to study the heat flux control and impurity screening property. As the density increases, it shows a gradually change of the divertor operation status, from low-recycling regime to high-recycling regime and finally to detachment. Significant radiation loss inside the confined plasma in the divertor region during detachment leads to strong parallel density and temperature gradients. Based on the SOLPS simulations, BOUT + + simulations will be presented to investigate the stability and turbulent transport under divertor plasma detachment, particularly the strong parallel gradient driven instabilities and enhanced plasma turbulence to spread heat flux over larger surface areas. The correlation between outer mid-plane and divertor turbulence and the related transport will be analyzed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675075.

  11. Endovascular therapy of arteriovenous fistulae with electrolytically detachable coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, O.; Doerfler, A.; Forsting, M.; Hartmann, M.; Kummer, R. von; Tronnier, V.; Sartor, K. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University of Heidelberg Medical School (Germany)

    1999-12-01

    We report our experience in using Guglielmi electrolytically detachable coils (GDC) alone or in combination with other materials in the treatment of intracranial or cervical high-flow fistulae. We treated 14 patients with arteriovenous fistulae on brain-supplying vessels - three involving the external carotid or the vertebral artery, five the cavernous sinus and six the dural sinuses - by endovascular occlusion using electrolytically detachable platinum coils. The fistula was caused by trauma in six cases. In one case Ehlers-Danlos syndrome was the underlying disease, and in the remaining seven cases no aetiology could be found. Fistulae of the external carotid and vertebral arteries and caroticocavernous fistulae were reached via the transarterial route, while in all dural fistulae a combined transarterial-transvenous approach was chosen. All fistulae were treated using electrolytically detachable coils. While small fistulae could be occluded with electrolytically detachable coils alone, large fistulae were treated by using coils to build a stable basket for other types of coil or balloons. In 11 of the 14 patients, endovascular treatment resulted in complete occlusion of the fistula; in the remaining three occlusion was subtotal. Symptoms and signs were completely abolished by this treatment in 12 patients and reduced in 2. On clinical and neuroradiological follow-up (mean 16 months) no reappearance of symptoms was recorded. (orig.)

  12. Incidence and Pattern of Retinal Detachment in a Tertiary Eye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    retinal detachment symptoms, the predisposing/precipitating factors and the need ... Sebastian N. N. Nwosu, Guinness Eye Center, PMB 1534, Onitsha, Anambra ... the temporal retina and are all associated with total ... Table 2 shows the ocular risk factors. ..... Olurin O. Refractive errors in Nigerians: A hospital clinic study.

  13. Bilateral Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment during External Beam Radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takako Hidaka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a case of nontraumatic bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD during external beam radiotherapy for nonocular tumor, presented as an observational case study in conjunction with a review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old male was referred to our hospital due to bilateral RRD. He underwent a biopsy for a tumor of the left frontal lobe 4 months prior to presentation, and the tumor had been diagnosed as primary central nerve system B-cell type lymphoma. He received chemotherapy and external beam radiotherapy for 1 month. There were no traumatic episodes. Bilateral retinal detachment occurred during a series of radiotherapies. Simultaneous nontraumatic bilateral retinal detachment is rare. The effects of radiotherapy on ocular functionality, particularly in cases involving retinal adhesion and vitreous contraction, may include RRD. Thus, it is necessary to closely monitor the eyes of patients undergoing radiotherapy, particularly those undergoing surgery for retinal detachment and those with a history of photocoagulation for retinal tears, a relevant family history, or risk factors known to be associated with RRD.

  14. Silicone oil removal after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: comparing techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. S.; Dell'omo, R.; Mura, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To assess the outcome of silicone oil removal after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) surgery, and to compare results of a two-port (infusion-extraction) versus a three-port (full vitrectomy) approach. Methods Primary outcome measure was the rate of redetachment. Secondary outcome

  15. Measurement of the relative afferent pupillary defect in retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Burton, T C

    1980-07-01

    A swinging flashlight test and calibrated neutral density filters were used to quantitate the depth of relative afferent pupillary defects in ten patients with retinal detachment. Postoperatively, the pupillary responses returned to normal in seven of nine patients with anatomically successful surgery.

  16. On The Detachment of Massive Trans-Neptunian Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisig, Jacob; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Zderic, Alexander

    2018-06-01

    Our Solar System contains a large population of icy bodies stretching well beyond the orbit of Neptune. These objects, known collectively as the Scattered Disk, are remnants from the early formation of the Solar System that were scattered outward from their birth location by Neptune. But not all fit the bill.Sedna, one particularly massive Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO), does not conform to the scattering pattern. Its orbital eccentricity (e) is much lower than expected for a scattered object. This means its perihelion distance (proportional to 1-e) is much larger than the orbit of Neptune, or that it is “detached” from the main Solar System. Many more TNOs share similarities with Sedna. These observations suggest that there is a large population of detached TNOs that have a dynamical history different than that of the objects scattered by Neptune.The physical mechanism by which these massive minor planets become detached is currently unknown. However, we have discovered a phenomenon, driven by differential precession between TNOs of different masses and mutual secular gravitational torques, that naturally detach massive minor planets. This mechanism could have notable consequences for the outer Solar System and may shed some light on the origin of the detached population of minor planets near the Scattered Disk.

  17. Method of detaching adherent cells for flow cytometry

    KAUST Repository

    Kaur, Mandeep; Esau, Luke E.

    2015-01-01

    In one aspect, a method for detaching adherent cells can include adding a cell lifting solution to the media including a sample of adherent cells and incubating the sample of adherent cells with the cell lifting solution. No scraping or pipetting

  18. Epithelial cell detachment by Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm and planktonic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, L.; van Loveren, C.; Ling, J.; Wei, X.; Crielaard, W.; Deng, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is present as a biofilm at the sites of periodontal infections. The detachment of gingival epithelial cells induced by P. gingivalis biofilms was examined using planktonic cultures as a comparison. Exponentially grown planktonic cultures or 40-h biofilms were co-incubated

  19. Functional and environmental design of detached, low crest level breakwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricio Garberi, L.; Negro Valdecantos, V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; Lopez Gutierrez, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    The research work as presented in this article covers the design of detached breakwaters since they constitute a type of coastal defense work with which to combat many of the erosion problems found on beaches in a stable, sustainable fashion. The main aim of this work is to formulate a functional and environmental (non structural) method of design enabling the fundamental characteristics of a detached breakwater to be defined as a function of the effect it is wished to induce on the coast whilst meeting social demands and preserving or improving the quality of the littoral environment. The general applicability of the method is also sought by means of considering relations between variables od different natures (climatic, geomorphologic and geometric) influencing the changes experienced on the coast after the detached breakwater has been built. The study of the relations between the different variables is carried out on the data from a abase of nineteen actual, existing detached breakwaters on the Spanish Mediterranean coastline and follows a methodology based on the implementation of non-dimensional monomials and on a search for relations of dependency between them. Finally, a discussion on the results obtained lead to a proposal for a design method that uses some of the graphic relations found between the variables studied with which the aforesaid main objective is achieved. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Air versus gas tamponade in retinal detachment surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, H. Stevie; Oberstein, Sarit Y. Lesnik; Mura, Marco; Bijl, Heico M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the outcome of air tamponade with gas tamponade in primary vitrectomy for the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods We examined the records of 524 cases of 523 patients that underwent primary vitrectomy for RRD with air or sulphur hexafluoride 20% gas

  1. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: a familial aggregation study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Go, S.L.; Hoyng, C.B.; Klaver, C.C.W.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. DESIGN: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology of the

  2. Genetic risk of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment a familial aggregation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Go (Sioe Lie); C. Hoyng (Carel); C.C.W. Klaver (Caroline)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractObjective: To investigate the magnitude of the genetic risk of nonsyndromic rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) in a familial aggregation study. Design: Two hundred three consecutive patients with RRD and 461 controls without RRD were ascertained at the Department of Ophthalmology

  3. Self-sustained detachment in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazawa, J.; Masuzaki, S.; Sakamoto, R.; Arimoto, H.; Kondo, K.; Tamura, N.; Shoji, M.; Nishiura, M.; Murakami, S.; Funaba, H.; Peterson, B.J.; Sakakibara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Tanaka, K.; Narihara, K.; Yamada, I.; Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Osakabe, M.; Ashikawa, N.; Morisaki, T.; Nishimura, K.; Yamada, H.; Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Motojima, O.

    2006-01-01

    Self-sustained detachment has been obtained in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Strong hydrogen gas puffing of ∼200 Pa m 3 s -1 after a density feedback phase detaches the plasma from the divertor plates with high reproducibility. High electron density of over 1 x 10 20 m -3 is sustained without gas puffing until the heating beam stops and a high-density flat top for 2 s has been demonstrated. Throughout the self-sustained detachment phase, the minor radius of the hot plasma column shrinks to ∼90% of the last-closed-flux-surface, which corresponds to the ι-bar ι/2π = 1/q =1 rational surface. This new state has been named the 'Serpens mode', for self-regulated plasma edge 'neath the last-closed-flux-surface. Global energy confinement of the Serpens mode is compared with the international stellarator scaling 1995 (ISS95) and the recently established scaling for high-density LHD plasmas (HD scaling), where shrinking confinement volume and shallow penetration of the heating beams are taken into account. Although the energy confinement of the Serpens mode seems deteriorated compared with ISS95, as in the case of high-density attached plasmas, it is consistent with the HD scaling. This suggests that the energy confinement properties of detached plasmas in LHD are similar to those in high-density attached plasmas

  4. Effect of detachment time of pineapple ( Ananas comosus L .) crown ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A limiting factor to large scale production of pineapple is the scarcity of planting materials. The use of pineapple crown as a propagation material is common, but with no regard to length of time after detachment. A study was conducted in the late seasons of 2007 and 2008 at the Teaching and Research Farm Ekiti State ...

  5. Seismic Slip on an Oblique Detachment Fault at Low Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janecke, S. U.; Steely, A. N.; Evans, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Pseudotachylytes are one of the few accepted indicators of seismic slip along ancient faults. Low-angle normal faults have produced few large earthquakes in historic times and low-angle normal faults (detachment faults) are typically severely misoriented relative to a vertical maximum compressive stress. As a result many geoscientists question whether low-angle normal faults produce earthquakes at low angles. Relationships in southern California show that a major low-angle normal-oblique fault slipped at low angles and produced large earthquakes. The exhumed Late Cenozoic West Salton detachment fault preserves spectacular fault- related pseudotachylytes along its fault plane and injected into its hanging wall and footwall. Composite pseudotachylyte zones are up to 1.25 m thick and persists over lateral distances of at least 10's of meters. Pseudotachylyte is common in most thin sections of damaged fault rocks with more than 20% (by volume) of cataclasite. We recognized the presence of original melt using numerous criteria: abundant spherulites in thin sections, injection structures at both the thin-section and outcrop scale, black aphanitic textures, quenched vein margins, variations in microcrystallite textures and/or size with respect to the vein margin, and glassy textures in hand sample. Multiple earthquakes are inferred to produce the layered "stratigraphy" in some exposures of pseudotachylytes. We infer that the West Salton detachment fault formed and slipped at low angles because it nearly perfectly reactivates a Cretaceous ductile thrust system at the half km scale and dips between 10 and 45 degrees. The about 30 degree NNE dip of the detachment fault on the north side of Yaqui Ridge is likely steeper than its dip during detachment slip because there is local steepening on the flanks of the Yaqui Ridge antiform in a contractional stepover of a crosscutting Quaternary San Felipe dextral fault zone. These relationships indicate a low dip on the detachment

  6. Intelligent Scheduling of a Grid-Connected Heat Pump in a Danish Detached House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Foteinaki, Kyriaki; Heller, Alfred

    This study proposes a methodology for intelligent scheduling of a heat pump installed in a refurbished grid-connected detached house in Denmark. This scheduling is conducted through the coupling of a dynamic building simulation tool with an optimization tool. The optimization of the operation of ...... thermal comfort conditions. The proposed methodology bridges dynamic building modelling with optimization of real-time operation of HVAC systems offering a detailed model for building physics, especially regarding thermal mass and a stochastic price-based control....... of the system is based on a price-signal considering a three-day period for different weather cases. The results show that the optimal scheduling of the system is successful in terms of reducing the peak load during times when electricity prices are high, thus achieving cost savings as well as maintaining good......This study proposes a methodology for intelligent scheduling of a heat pump installed in a refurbished grid-connected detached house in Denmark. This scheduling is conducted through the coupling of a dynamic building simulation tool with an optimization tool. The optimization of the operation...

  7. Spin current induced by a charged tip in a quantum point contact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shchamkhalova, B.S., E-mail: s.bagun@gmail.com

    2017-03-15

    We show that the charged tip of the probe microscope, which is widely used in studying the electron transport in low-dimensional systems, induces a spin current. The effect is caused by the spin–orbit interaction arising due to an electric field produced by the charged tip. The tip acts as a spin-flip scatterer giving rise to the spin polarization of the net current and the occurrence of a spin density in the system.

  8. Screening for anthracnose disease resistance in strawberry using a detached leaf assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide a rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The reliability and validity of assessing disease severity is critical to disease management decisions. We inoculated detached strawberr...

  9. Nonresonant excess photon detachment of negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulley, M. S.; Zhao, Xin Miao; Bryant, H. C.; Strauss, Charlie E. M.; Funk, David J.; Stintz, A.; Rislove, D. C.; Kyrala, G. A.; Ingalls, W. B.; Miller, W. A.

    1999-01-01

    One-photon detachment and two-photon nonresonant excess photon detachment of electrons from the H - ion (outer-electron binding energy = 0.7542 eV) are observed with 1.165 eV laser pulses from a Nd:YAG laser (where YAG denotes yttrium aluminum garnet). A Penning ion source produces a pulsed 8 μA, 35 keV H - beam that intersects a laser beam cylindrically focused down to a 17 μm full width at half maximum waist in the ion beam direction, creating a high-intensity interaction region with peak intensities of up to 10 11 W/cm 2 . The interaction time is 7 ps. The detached electrons are detected by a time-of-flight apparatus enabling us to detect a very small two-photon signal in the presence of a very large signal from single photon detachments. By rotating the linear polarization angle, we study the angular distribution of the electrons for both one- and two-photon detachments. The spectra are modeled to determine the asymmetry parameters and one- and two-photon cross sections. We find β 2 to be 2.54+0.44/-0.60 and β 4 to be 2.29+0.07/-0.31, corresponding to a D state of 89+3/-12% of the S wave and D wave detachments for the two-photon results. The relative phase angle between the S and D amplitudes is measured to be less than 59 degree sign . The measured cross sections are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions. The one-photon photodetachment cross section is measured to be (3.6±1.7)x10 -17 cm 2 . The two-photon photodetachment generalized cross section is (1.3±0.5)x10 -48 cm 4 sec, consistent with theoretical calculations of the cross section. The three-photon generalized cross section is less than 4.4x10 -79 cm 6 sec 2 . (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  10. Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

    CERN Document Server

    Asner, A

    1985-01-01

    Compensation of the magnetization current induced sextupole error at LHC injection field by short lumped permanent sextupole magnets, incorporated into the end configuration of superconducting dipoles

  11. Open-boundary Ehrenfest molecular dynamics: towards a model of current induced heating in nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horsfield, Andrew P; Bowler, D R; Fisher, A J

    2004-01-01

    We present a time-dependent method based on the single-particle electron density matrix that allows the electronic and ionic degrees of freedom to be modelled within the Ehrenfest approximation in the presence of open boundaries. We describe a practical implementation using tight binding, and use it to investigate steady-state conduction through a single-atom device and to perform molecular dynamics. We find that in the Ehrenfest approximation an electric current allows both ionic heating and cooling to take place, depending on the bias. (letter to the editor)

  12. Transient current induced in thin film diamonds by swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shin-ichiro; Makino, Takahiro; Ohshima, Takeshi; Kamiya, Tomihiro; Kada, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Single crystal diamond is a suitable material for the next generation particle detectors because of the superior electrical properties and the high radiation tolerance. In order to investigate charge transport properties of diamond particle detectors, transient currents generated in diamonds by single swift heavy ions (26 MeV O 5+ and 45 MeV Si 7+ ) are investigated. We also measured two dimensional maps of transient currents by single ion hits. In the case of 50 μm-thick diamond, both the signal height and the collected charge are reduced by the subsequent ion hits and the charge collection time is extended. Our results are thought to be attributable to the polarization effect in diamond and it appears only when the transient current is dominated by hole current. In the case of 6 μm-thick diamond membrane, an “island” structure is found in the 2D map of transient currents. Signals in the islands shows different applied bias dependence from signals in other regions, indicating different crystal and/or metal contact quality. Simulation study of transient currents based on the Shockley-Ramo theorem clarifies that accumulation of space charges changes distribution of electric field in diamond and causes the polarization effect.

  13. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  14. Observation of multiphoton detachment of the H/sup -/ ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, C.Y.; Harris, P.G.; Mohagheghi, A.H.; Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545; Cohen Mechanical Design, Broomall, Pennsylvania 19008; The University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06268; Western Washington University, Bellingham, Washington 98225)

    1989-01-01

    We have observed nonresonant multiphoton electron detachment of H/sup -/ ions in moderately intense (a few tens of GW/cm 2 ) laser fields. A well-collimated beam of H/sup -/ ions with an energy of 581 MeV was intersected by focused 10.6-μm radiation from a pulsed CO 2 laser. The center-of-mass photon energy was tuned using the relativistic Doppler shift so that the minimum number of simultaneous photons required for electron detachment ranged from three to sixteen. Definite signals were observed for the minimum photon number ranging from three to eight. Our preliminary results show evidence for structure in the relative total cross section

  15. Modeling detachment physics in the NSTX snowflake divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.T., E-mail: emeier@wm.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rognlien, T.D.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The snowflake divertor is a proposed technique for coping with the tokamak power exhaust problem in next-step experiments and eventually reactors, where extreme power fluxes to material surfaces represent a leading technological and physics challenge. In lithium-conditioned National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) discharges, application of the snowflake divertor typically induced partial outer divertor detachment and severalfold heat flux reduction. UEDGE is used to analyze and compare conventional and snowflake divertor configurations in NSTX. Matching experimental upstream profiles and divertor measurements in the snowflake requires target recycling of 0.97 vs. 0.91 in the conventional case, implying partial saturation of the lithium-based pumping mechanism. Density scans are performed to analyze the mechanisms that facilitate detachment in the snowflake, revealing that increased divertor volume provides most of the parallel heat flux reduction. Also, neutral gas power loss is magnified by the increased wetted area in the snowflake, and plays a key role in generating volumetric recombination.

  16. Bubble growth and detachment between two close surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath, H.E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Nucleate boiling is an efficient heat transfer process both as a mean of achieving high heat flux at moderate surface temperature and as a mean of generating steam. The ability to predict nucleate boiling heat flux depends on many interconnected factors such as the number of active sites, the frequency of bubble emission at these sites, and the heat transfer associated with a single bubble. Therefore, the determination of the bubble shape, growth, detachment diameter, and detachment time plays an important role in understanding the boiling mechanisms and in predicting the heat transfer rates. Although much research have been carried-out for the study of free bubble dynamics, the analysis of such problem in a narrow gap-between two close and parallel surfaces (as the gaps between steam generator tubes and tube sheet) has not been attempted, so far as the author is aware. This paper represents an attempt to shed some light on this complex problem. (author)

  17. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  18. Intellectual property rights and detached human body parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Justine

    2014-01-01

    This paper responds to an invitation by the editors to consider whether the intellectual property (IP) regime suggests an appropriate model for protecting interests in detached human body parts. It begins by outlining the extent of existing IP protection for body parts in Europe, and the relevant strengths and weaknesses of the patent system in that regard. It then considers two further species of IP right of less obvious relevance. The first are the statutory rights of ownership conferred by domestic UK law in respect of employee inventions, and the second are the economic and moral rights recognised by European and international law in respect of authorial works. In the argument made, both of these species of IP right may suggest more appropriate models of sui generis protection for detached human body parts than patent rights because of their capacity better to accommodate the relevant public and private interests in respect of the same.

  19. Detachment dynamics of colloidal spheres with adhesive interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenholtz, J.

    2018-04-01

    Escape of colloidal-size particles from various kinds of solids, such as aggregates and surfaces, occurs in a wide variety of settings of both fundamental and applied scientific interest. In this paper an exact solution for the detachment of adhesive spheres from each other by means of diffusion is presented. The solution takes into account repeated detachment and reattachment events in the course of time on the way toward the permanently separated state. For strongly adhesive spheres this state is approached in an exponential manner essentially regardless of how the bound state is specified. The analytical solution is shown to capture semiquantitatively the escape from more realistic potential wells using a mapping procedure whereby equality of second virial coefficients is imposed.

  20. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia presenting with bilateral serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a malignant hematopoietic neoplasia, which is rare in adults. Although ocular fundus alterations may be commonly observed in the course of the disease, such alterations are rarely the presenting signs of the disease. Here we describe the case of a patient with painless and progressive loss of visual acuity (right eye, 2/10; left eye, 3/10 developing over two weeks, accompanied by fever and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fundus examination showed bilateral macular serous detachment, which was confirmed by optical coherence tomography. Fluorescein angiography revealed hyperfluorescent pinpoints in the posterior poles. The limits of the macular detachment were revealed in the late phase of the angiogram. The results of blood count analysis triggered a thorough, systematic patient examination. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia B (CD10+ was established, and intensive systemic chemotherapy was immediately initiated. One year after the diagnosis, the patient remains in complete remission without any ophthalmologic alterations.

  1. BILATERAL SEROUS MACULAR DETACHMENT IN A PATIENT WITH NEPHROTIC SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Ayse D; Yaylali, Sevil A; Yavuz, Sara; Simsek, İlke B

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report a case of a woman with nephrotic syndrome who presented with blurred vision because of bilateral serous macular detachment. Case report and literature review. A 55-year-old woman with a history of essential hypertension, diabetes, and nephrotic syndrome was presented with blurred vision in both eyes. Her fluorescein angiography revealed dye leakage in the early and subretinal pooling in the late phases, and optical coherence tomography scans confirmed the presence of subretinal fluid in the subfovel area. In nephrotic syndrome cases especially with accompaniment of high blood pressure, fluid accumulation in the retina layer may occur. Serous macular detachment must be kept in mind when treating these patients.

  2. Collisional-electron detachment of Cl- on diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, B.K.; Datz, S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent experimental results for collisional-electron detachment of Cl - by H 2 /D 2 , N 2 , O 2 , NO, and CO are discussed. The emphasis is on angular distributions and energy loss measurements for laboratory energies of a few hundred eV. Evidence for the possibility of bound excited states of N 2 Cl and COCl and the role of target negative-ion resonant states is presented

  3. Lowest auto-detachment state of the water anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houfek, K.; Cizek, M.

    2016-01-01

    Because of the abundance of water in living tissue the reactive low-energy electron collisions with the water molecule represent an important step in the radiation damage of cells. In this paper, the potential energy surface of the ground state of the water anion H_2O"- is carefully mapped using multireference configuration interaction (MRCI) calculations for a large range of molecular geometries. Particular attention is paid to a consistent description of both the O"-+H_2 and OH"-+H asymptotes and to a relative position of the anion energy to the ground state energy of the neutral molecule. The auto-detachment region, where the anion state crosses to the electronic continuum is identified. The local minimum in the direction of the O"- + H_2 channel previously reported by Werner et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 87, 2913 (1987)] is found to be slightly off the linear geometry and is separated by a saddle from the auto-detachment region. The auto-detachment region is directly accessible from the OH"-+H asymptote. For the molecular geometries in the auto-detachment region and in its vicinity we also performed fixed-nuclei electron-molecule scattering calculations using the R-matrix method. Tuning of consistency of a description of the correlation energy in both the multireference CI and R-matrix calculations is discussed. Two models of the correlation energy within the R-matrix method that are consistent with the quantum chemistry calculations are found. Both models yield scattering quantities in a close agreement. The results of this work will allow a consistent formulation of the nonlocal resonance model of the water anion in a future publication

  4. Retinal detachment and retinal holes in retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaky, K; Olk, R J; Mahl, C F; Bloom, S M

    1991-01-01

    Retinal detachment and retinal holes in two family members with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento are reported. We believe these are the first such cases reported in the literature. We describe the presenting symptoms and management, including cryotherapy, scleral buckling procedure, and sulfur hexafluoride injection (SF6), resulting in stable visual acuity in one case and retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity in the other case.

  5. Success Rates of Vitrectomy in Treatment of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Yasser Helmy; Ono, Kozue; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Uematsu, Masafumi; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual ac...

  6. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozeik, C.; Kotterer, O.; Deininger, H.K.

    1994-01-01

    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  7. Pneumothorax simulated by detachment of parietal pleura associated with pneumomediastinum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozeik, C. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Kotterer, O. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany); Deininger, H.K. [Radiologie 1, Staedtische Kliniken Darmstadt (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    We report a case of blunt chest trauma, where findings on repeated conventional chest radiographs were compatible with pneumothorax developing after 2 days of mechanical high-pressure ventilation. CT showed that the appearance was due to a detachment of the parietal pleura along the lateral, mediastinal and diaphragmatic boundaries of the lungs, imitating a pneumothorax. The case report illustrates the key role of CT in the differential diagnosis of epipleural interstitial air collection versus pneumothorax. (orig./MG)

  8. Fundus autofluorescence findings in a mouse model of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secondi, Roberta; Kong, Jian; Blonska, Anna M; Staurenghi, Giovanni; Sparrow, Janet R

    2012-08-07

    Fundus autofluorescence (fundus AF) changes were monitored in a mouse model of retinal detachment (RD). RD was induced by transscleral injection of hyaluronic acid (Healon) or sterile balanced salt solution (BSS) into the subretinal space of 4-5-day-old albino Abca4 null mutant and Abca4 wild-type mice. Images acquired by confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (Spectralis HRA) were correlated with spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), infrared reflectance (IR), fluorescence spectroscopy, and histologic analysis. Results. In the area of detached retina, multiple hyperreflective spots in IR images corresponded to punctate areas of intense autofluorescence visible in fundus AF mode. The puncta exhibited changes in fluorescence intensity with time. SD-OCT disclosed undulations of the neural retina and hyperreflectivity of the photoreceptor layer that likely corresponded to histologically visible photoreceptor cell rosettes. Fluorescence emission spectra generated using flat-mounted retina, and 488 and 561 nm excitation, were similar to that of RPE lipofuscin. With increased excitation wavelength, the emission maximum shifted towards longer wavelengths, a characteristic typical of fundus autofluorescence. In detached retinas, hyper-autofluorescent spots appeared to originate from photoreceptor outer segments that were arranged within retinal folds and rosettes. Consistent with this interpretation is the finding that the autofluorescence was spectroscopically similar to the bisretinoids that constitute RPE lipofuscin. Under the conditions of a RD, abnormal autofluorescence may arise from excessive production of bisretinoid by impaired photoreceptor cells.

  9. Primary 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy in pseudophakic retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horozoglu Fatih

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: There are few reports on 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV in cases of pseudophakic retinal detachment. We conducted this study to report the anatomic and functional outcomes of 25-gauge TSV in the treatment of primary pseudophakic retinal detachment (RD. Design: Prospective, interventional case series. Materials and Methods: Fifteen eyes of 15 patients with RD after cataract surgery with phacoemulsification were evaluated. Primary pseudophakic RDs with macular detachment and proliferative vitreoretinopathy Stage B or less were included in the study. Pars plana vitrectomy with the 25-gauge TSV system, perfluorocarbon liquid injection followed by air exchange, endolaser photocoagulation and sulfur hexafluoride gas (20% injection were applied to all eyes. Results: Mean follow-up time was 9.2 months (range, six to 12 months. Retinal reattachment with a single operation was achieved in 93% of eyes and with additional surgery, the retina was reattached in 100% of eyes. Preoperative visual acuity was less than 20/200 in all eyes (range, hand motions to 20/400. Postoperative visual acuity was 20/40 or better in eight eyes (53% and between 20/50 and 20/200 in seven eyes (47%. No severe hypotony was encountered and no sutures were required to close the scleral and conjunctival openings. Postoperative complications were macular pucker in one eye (7% and cystoid macular edema in another eye (7%. Conclusions: Primary 25-gauge TSV system appears to be an effective and safe procedure in the treatment of uncomplicated pseudophakic RD.

  10. Complex descemet′s membrane tears and detachment during phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Orucoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of complex Descemet′s membrane detachment (DMD and tears during phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Case Report: A 64-year-old woman underwent phacoemulsification surgery in her right eye and developed tears and partial loss of Descemet′s membrane (DM while the aspiration port was inserted through the main incision. Massive corneal edema obscured the view and the anterior chamber was barely visible the following day. Scheimpflug imaging was used to complement slit lamp examination in the postoperative period. Frequent topical corticosteroid drops were initiated. After 5 days of treatment, multiple tears and detachment of DM were visible and the anterior chamber was filled with air. After 5 weeks, the cornea regained much of its clarity despite large DM tears and focal loss of DM. Conclusion: Despite partial loss of DM, the corneal edema mostly disappeared after 5 weeks of air bubble injection. Scheimpflug imaging was beneficial in the diagnosis and monitoring of DM tears and detachments.

  11. Ab initio theory for current-induced molecular switching: Melamine on Cu(001)

    KAUST Repository

    Ohto, Tatsuhiko

    2013-05-28

    Melamine on Cu(001) is mechanically unstable under the current of a scanning tunneling microscope tip and can switch among configurations. However, these are not equally accessible, and the switching critical current depends on the bias polarity. In order to explain such rich phenomenology, we have developed a scheme to evaluate the evolution of the reaction paths and activation barriers as a function of bias, which is rooted in the nonequilibrium Green\\'s function method implemented within density functional theory. This, combined with the calculation of the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy signal, allows us to identify the vibrational modes promoting the observed molecular conformational changes. Finally, once our ab initio results are used within a resonance model, we are able to explain the details of the switching behavior, such as its dependence on the bias polarity, and the noninteger power relation between the reaction rate constants and both the bias voltage and the electric current. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  12. Ab initio theory for current-induced molecular switching: Melamine on Cu(001)

    KAUST Repository

    Ohto, Tatsuhiko; Rungger, Ivan; Yamashita, Koichi; Nakamura, Hisao; Sanvito, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Melamine on Cu(001) is mechanically unstable under the current of a scanning tunneling microscope tip and can switch among configurations. However, these are not equally accessible, and the switching critical current depends on the bias polarity. In order to explain such rich phenomenology, we have developed a scheme to evaluate the evolution of the reaction paths and activation barriers as a function of bias, which is rooted in the nonequilibrium Green's function method implemented within density functional theory. This, combined with the calculation of the inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy signal, allows us to identify the vibrational modes promoting the observed molecular conformational changes. Finally, once our ab initio results are used within a resonance model, we are able to explain the details of the switching behavior, such as its dependence on the bias polarity, and the noninteger power relation between the reaction rate constants and both the bias voltage and the electric current. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  13. Current-induced switching of magnetic molecules on topological insulator surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locane, Elina; Brouwer, Piet W.

    2017-03-01

    Electrical currents at the surface or edge of a topological insulator are intrinsically spin polarized. We show that such surface or edge currents can be used to switch the orientation of a molecular magnet weakly coupled to the surface or edge of a topological insulator. For the edge of a two-dimensional topological insulator as well as for the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator the application of a well-chosen surface or edge current can lead to a complete polarization of the molecule if the molecule's magnetic anisotropy axis is appropriately aligned with the current direction. For a generic orientation of the molecule a nonzero but incomplete polarization is obtained. We calculate the probability distribution of the magnetic states and the switching rates as a function of the applied current.

  14. Exudative Retinal Detachment Treatment in a Patient with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Sampo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, without associated hypertension, successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman with a medical history of TTP presented with unilateral exudative retinal detachment. Biological and radiological assessment eliminated other causes of exudative retinal detachment, including hypertension. Plasma exchange was performed, followed by a rapid improvement in visual acuity and total disappearance of serous detachment. Conclusion: Exudative unilateral retinal detachment is a rare complication of TTP and can be successfully treated by plasma exchange.

  15. Happy, healthy, and productive: the role of detachment from work during nonwork time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Charlotte; Yankelevich, Maya; Zarubin, Anna; Barger, Patricia

    2010-09-01

    Mentally distancing oneself from work during nonwork time can help restore resources lost because of work demands. In this study, we examined possible outcomes of such psychological detachment from work, specifically well-being and job performance. Although employees may need to mentally detach from work to restore their well-being, high levels of detachment may require a longer time to get back into "working mode," which may be negatively associated with job performance. Our results indicate that higher levels of self-reported detachment were associated with higher levels of significant other-reported life satisfaction as well as lower levels of emotional exhaustion. In addition, we found curvilinear relationships between psychological detachment and coworker reported job performance (task performance and proactive behavior). Thus, although high psychological detachment may enhance employee well-being, it seems that medium levels of detachment are most beneficial for job performance. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Strain-assisted current-induced magnetization reversal in magnetic tunnel junctions: A micromagnetic study with phase-field microelasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H. B.; Hu, J. M.; Yang, T. N.; Chen, L. Q.; Ma, X. Q.

    2014-01-01

    Effect of substrate misfit strain on current-induced in-plane magnetization reversal in CoFeB-MgO based magnetic tunnel junctions is investigated by combining micromagnetic simulations with phase-field microelasticity theory. It is found that the critical current density for in-plane magnetization reversal decreases dramatically with an increasing substrate strain, since the effective elastic field can drag the magnetization to one of the four in-plane diagonal directions. A potential strain-assisted multilevel bit spin transfer magnetization switching device using substrate misfit strain is also proposed.

  17. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains

    OpenAIRE

    Sabater, Carlos; Untiedt, Carlos; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a ‘Berry force’. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high volta...

  18. Detachable balloon embolization of an aneurysmal gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defreyne, Luc; De Schrijver, Ignace; Vanlangenhove, Peter; Kunnen, Marc [Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Ghent University Hospital (Belgium)

    2002-01-01

    Extrahepatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the gastroduodenal artery and the portal venous system are rare and almost always a late complication of gastric surgery. Secondary portal hypertension and mesenteric ischemia may provoke abdominal pain, upper and lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage, diarrhea, and weight loss. Until recently, surgical excision has been the therapy of choice with excellent results. The authors report a case of gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula with a rare large interpositioned aneurysm in a cardiopulmonary-compromised patient who was considered a non-surgical candidate. The gastroduodenal arterioportal fistula was occluded endovascularly by means of a detachable balloon. A survey of the literature of this rare type of arterioportal fistula is included. (orig.)

  19. Total retinal detachment occurring after minor head trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mircea, Pienaru; Ramona, Serban; Mircea, Filip; Andrei, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the case of a patient with a severe decrease of visual acuity that occurred after an apparently minor head injury. Following the investigations, the patient was diagnosed with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment that was triggered by a fall from the same level and which occurred on a background of lattice degeneration. In this case, a minor trauma caused a severe complication because the patient had a contributing factor for the complication. The patient was operated and the end result was satisfactory.

  20. Detached Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels; Davidson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The effect of resolving inflow turbulence in detached eddy simulations of airfoil flows is studied. Synthetic turbulence is used for inflow boundary condition. The generated turbulence fields are shown to decay according to experimental data as they are convected through the domain with the free...... stream velocity. The subsonic flow around a NACA 0015 airfoil is studied at Reynolds number 1.6 × 106 and at various angles of attack before and after stall. Simulations with turbulent inflow are compared to experiments and to simulations without turbulent inflow. The results show that the flow...

  1. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-02-15

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m{sup 2}. One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO{sub 2} emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO{sub 2} emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures. (author)

  2. District heating and energy efficiency in detached houses of differing size and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    House envelope measures and conversion of heating systems can reduce primary energy use and CO 2 emission in the existing Swedish building stock. We analysed how the size and construction of electrically heated detached houses affect the potential for such measures and the potential for cogenerated district heating. Our starting point was two typical houses built in the 1970s. We altered the floor plans to obtain 6 houses, with heated floor space ranging between 100 and 306 m 2 . One of the houses was also analysed for three energy standards with differing heat loss rates. CO 2 emission, primary energy use and heating cost were estimated after implementing house envelope measures, conversions to other heating systems and changes in the generation of district heat and electricity. The study accounted for primary energy, including energy chains from natural resources to useful heat in the houses. We showed that conversion to district heating based on biomass, together with house envelope measures, reduced the primary energy use by 88% and the CO 2 emission by 96%, while reducing the annual societal cost by 7%. The choice of end-use heating system was decisive for the primary energy use, with district heating being the most efficient. Neither house size nor energy standard did significantly change the ranking of the heating systems, either from a primary energy or an economic viewpoint, but did affect the extent of the annual cost reduction after implementing the measures

  3. The sponge pump: the role of current induced flow in the design of the sponge body plan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally P Leys

    Full Text Available Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be 0.75 with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges.

  4. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Carlos; Untiedt, Carlos; van Ruitenbeek, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a 'Berry force'. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high voltage appears to behave as expected for regular break down by thermal excitation due to Joule heating. However, there is a low-voltage breaking mode that has characteristics expected for the mechanism of current-induced forces. Although a full comparison would require more detailed information on the individual atomic configurations, the systems we consider are very similar to those considered in recent model calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory is very encouraging for the interpretation we propose.

  5. Evidence for non-conservative current-induced forces in the breaking of Au and Pt atomic chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Sabater

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This experimental work aims at probing current-induced forces at the atomic scale. Specifically it addresses predictions in recent work regarding the appearance of run-away modes as a result of a combined effect of the non-conservative wind force and a ‘Berry force’. The systems we consider here are atomic chains of Au and Pt atoms, for which we investigate the distribution of break down voltage values. We observe two distinct modes of breaking for Au atomic chains. The breaking at high voltage appears to behave as expected for regular break down by thermal excitation due to Joule heating. However, there is a low-voltage breaking mode that has characteristics expected for the mechanism of current-induced forces. Although a full comparison would require more detailed information on the individual atomic configurations, the systems we consider are very similar to those considered in recent model calculations and the comparison between experiment and theory is very encouraging for the interpretation we propose.

  6. Towards an entropy-based detached-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Rui; Yan, Chao; Li, XinLiang; Kong, WeiXuan

    2013-10-01

    A concept of entropy increment ratio ( s¯) is introduced for compressible turbulence simulation through a series of direct numerical simulations (DNS). s¯ represents the dissipation rate per unit mechanical energy with the benefit of independence of freestream Mach numbers. Based on this feature, we construct the shielding function f s to describe the boundary layer region and propose an entropy-based detached-eddy simulation method (SDES). This approach follows the spirit of delayed detached-eddy simulation (DDES) proposed by Spalart et al. in 2005, but it exhibits much better behavior after their performances are compared in the following flows, namely, pure attached flow with thick boundary layer (a supersonic flat-plate flow with high Reynolds number), fully separated flow (the supersonic base flow), and separated-reattached flow (the supersonic cavity-ramp flow). The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) resolved region is reliably preserved and the modeled stress depletion (MSD) phenomenon which is inherent in DES and DDES is partly alleviated. Moreover, this new hybrid strategy is simple and general, making it applicable to other models related to the boundary layer predictions.

  7. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  8. Macula-Sparing rhegmatogenous retinal detachment: Is emergent surgery necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasan Mahmoudi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The status of the macula is a significant factor in determining final visual outcomes in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD and should be considered in the timing of surgical repair. Several studies have shown that macula-involving RRDs attain similar visual and anatomic outcomes when surgery is performed within seven days as compared to emergent surgery (within 24 hours. In contrast, surgery prior to macular detachment in macula-sparing RRDs generally yields the best visual outcomes. In the case of macula-sparing RRDs, it is not clear how long the macula may remain attached, therefore, standard practice dictates emergent surgery. Timing of presentation, examination findings, case complexity, co-existing medical conditions, surgeon expertise, and timing and quality of access to operating facilities and staff, however, should all be considered in determining whether a macula-sparing RRD requires immediate intervention or if equivalent visual and possibly better overall outcomes can be achieved with scheduled surgery within an appropriate time frame.

  9. Anatomical success in patients after retinectomy for complex retinal detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, A.; Ishaq, M.; Islam, Q.U.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of primary and redo retinectomy in eyes with complex retinal detachment. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Ophthalmology Rawalpindi from Jan 2012 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Fifty eight eyes (patients) underwent relaxing retinectomies for complex retinal detachment with proliferative vitreoretinopathy or intrinsic retinal shortening. Operative technique included pars plana vitrectomy, proliferative vitreoretinopathy management, use of intraoperative perfluorocarbon liquid, retinectomy, endolaser and intraocular temponade. The main outcome was anatomic success, defined as complete retinal reattachment at four months follow up. Eighteen eyes out of the same primary group underwent second retinectomy because of anatomical failure. Results: Mean age of study population was 53.78 ± 15.11 years, 56.9% of patients were male(s). Anatomic success rate after 1st retinectomy was achieved in 68.96% (40 eyes out of 58). In eighteen eyes that underwent 2nd retinectomy, anatomic success rate was 72.22% (13 eyes out of 18). Overall success rate was 91.3% (53 eyes out of 58) in our study. Conclusions: Relaxing retinectomies for retinal shortening can improve the anatomical success rate in patients with complex RD. (author)

  10. Glaucoma associated with the management of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangouritsas G

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available George Mangouritsas, Spyridon Mourtzoukos, Dimitra M Portaliou, Vassilios I Georgopoulos, Anastasia Dimopoulou, Elias Feretis Eye Clinic, General Hospital "Hellenic Red Cross", Athens, Greece Abstract: Transient or permanent elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP is a common complication following vitreoretinal surgery. Usually secondary glaucoma, which develops after scleral buckling procedures, or pars plana vitrectomy for repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, is of multifactorial origin. It is essential, for appropriate management, to detect the cause of outflow obstruction. An exacerbation of preexisting open-angle glaucoma or a steroid-induced elevation of IOP should also be considered. Scleral buckling may be complicated by congestion and anterior rotation of the ciliary body resulting in secondary angle closure, which can usually resolve with medical therapy. The use of intravitreal gases may also induce secondary angle-closure with or without pupillary block. Aspiration of a quantity of the intraocular gas may be indicated. Secondary glaucoma can also develop after intravitreal injection of silicone oil due to pupillary block, inflammation, synechial angle closure, or migration of emulsified silicone oil in the anterior chamber and obstruction of the aqueous outflow pathway. In most eyes medical therapy is successful in controlling IOP; however, silicone oil removal with or without concurrent glaucoma surgery may also be required. Diode laser transscleral cyclophotocoagulation and glaucoma drainage devices constitute useful treatment modalities for long-term IOP control. Cooperation between vitreoretinal and glaucoma specialists is necessary to achieve successful management. Keywords: retinal detachment, intraocular pressure elevation, glaucoma, vitrectomy, intravitreal gas, silicone oil

  11. Detachment of particulate iron sulfide during shale-water interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmanuel, S.; Kreisserman, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing, a commonly used technique to extract oil and gas from shales, is controversial in part because of the threat it poses to water resources. The technique involves the injection into the subsurface of large amounts of fluid, which can become contaminated by fluid-rock interaction. The dissolution of pyrite is thought to be a primary pathway for the contamination of fracturing fluids with toxic elements, such as arsenic and lead. In this study, we use direct observations with atomic force microscopy to show that the dissolution of carbonate minerals in Eagle Ford shale leads to the physical detachment of embedded pyrite grains. To simulate the way fluid interacts with a fractured shale surface, we also reacted rock samples in a flow-through cell, and used environmental scanning electron microscopy to compare the surfaces before and after interaction with water. Crucially, our results show that the flux of particulate iron sulfide into the fluid may be orders of magnitude higher than the flux of pyrite from chemical dissolution. This result suggests that mechanical detachment of pyrite grains could be the dominant mode by which arsenic and other inorganic elements are mobilized in the subsurface. Thus, during hydraulic fracturing operations and in groundwater systems containing pyrite, the transport of many toxic species may be controlled by the transport of colloidal iron sulfide particles.

  12. Carbon distribution during plasma detachment triggered by edge magnetic island formation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, C.F.; Morita, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Oishi, T.; Goto, M.; Wang, E.H.; Huang, X.L.

    2013-01-01

    The detached plasma has been successfully achieved by applying the edge 1/1 magnetic island in Large Helical Device (LHD). Carbon, which is uniquely the dominant intrinsic impurity in general LHD discharges, is considered to be the main radiating species in the island-triggered detached plasma. The vertical profile of CIV measured from general discharges of LHD is characterized by a single edge intensity peak. In detached plasmas triggered by the edge magnetic island formation, however, the vertical profile of CIV shows a significant difference. Double edge peaks of CIV are found during the plasma detachment and the CIV radiation is also remarkably enhanced in the vicinity of X-point, whereas the vertical profile of CVI does not show any significant difference in both the attached and detached plasmas. In this proceeding the carbon distribution during the plasma detachment is presented and the results are discussed with edge magnetic field structure. (author)

  13. FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH VISUAL OUTCOME AFTER MACULA-OFF RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT SURGERY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dae Hyun; Choi, Kyung Seek; Sun, Hae Jung; Lee, Sung Jin

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate preoperative factors influencing the visual outcome and postoperative factors associated with the changes in visual acuity, after reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. A total of 180 eyes of 180 patients who underwent reattachment surgery to treat macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, and who were followed up for more than 12 months, were reviewed retrospectively. Preoperative and postoperative characteristics, including optical coherence tomography findings, were comprehensively analyzed using univariate and multivariate models to evaluate preoperative factors influencing best-corrected visual acuity 12 months after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and postoperative factors associated with changes in best-corrected visual acuity after surgery. Preoperatively, the extent of detachment (P = 0.037), macula-off duration (P macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery were the extent of detachment, macula-off duration, and external limiting membrane integrity. Postoperatively, predictive factors were the outer retinal microstructures, particularly the photoreceptor outer segment layer.

  14. Cellular volume regulation and substrate stiffness modulate the detachment dynamics of adherent cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuehua; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2018-03-01

    Quantitative characterizations of cell detachment are vital for understanding the fundamental mechanisms of cell adhesion. Experiments have found that cell detachment shows strong rate dependence, which is mostly attributed to the binding-unbinding kinetics of receptor-ligand bond. However, our recent study showed that the cellular volume regulation can significantly regulate the dynamics of adherent cell and cell detachment. How this cellular volume regulation contributes to the rate dependence of cell detachment remains elusive. Here, we systematically study the role of cellular volume regulation in the rate dependence of cell detachment by investigating the cell detachments of nonspecific adhesion and specific adhesion. We find that the cellular volume regulation and the bond kinetics dominate the rate dependence of cell detachment at different time scales. We further test the validity of the traditional Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) contact model and the detachment model developed by Wyart and Gennes et al (W-G model). When the cell volume is changeable, the JKR model is not appropriate for both the detachments of convex cells and concave cells. The W-G model is valid for the detachment of convex cells but is no longer applicable for the detachment of concave cells. Finally, we show that the rupture force of adherent cells is also highly sensitive to substrate stiffness, since an increase in substrate stiffness will lead to more associated bonds. These findings can provide insight into the critical role of cell volume in cell detachment and might have profound implications for other adhesion-related physiological processes.

  15. Visual recovery after surgical repair of chronic macular detachment associated with peripheral retinoschisis

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidehi S. Dedania; Devon H. Ghodasra; Mark W. Johnson

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: To report 2 cases of chronic macular detachment associated with peripheral retinoschisis in which surgical repair resulted in significant visual recovery. Observations: A 44-year-old man and 60-year-old woman were evaluated for chronic macular detachment, with a duration of 5 years and 6 months, respectively. In each case, optical coherence tomography was used to establish a diagnosis of full-thickness macular detachment resulting from peripheral retinoschisis and to confirm or ident...

  16. Enzymatic detachment of therapeutic mesenchymal stromal cells grown on glass carriers in a bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzig, Denise; Schmiermund, Alexandra; P Grace, Pablo; Elseberg, Christiane; Weber, Christian; Czermak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Cell therapies require the in vitro expansion of adherent cells such as mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in bioreactor systems or other culture environments, followed by cell harvest. As hMSCs are strictly adherent cells, cell harvest requires cell detachment. The use of hMSCs for cell therapy requires GMP production in accordance with the guidelines for advanced therapeutic medical products. Therefore, several GMP-conform available proteolytic enzymes were investigated for their ability to promote hMSC detachment. An allogeneic hMSC cell line (hMSC-TERT) that is used in clinical trials in the form of alginate cell capsules was chosen as a model. This study investigated the influence of several factors on the outcome of proteolytic hMSC-TERT detachment. Therefore, hMSC-TERT detachment was analyzed in different cultivation systems (static, dynamic) and in combination with further cell processing including encapsulation. Only two of the commercially available enzymes (AccutaseTM, TrypZeanTM) that fulfill all process requirements (commercial availability, cost, GMP conditions during manufacturing and non-animal origin) are found to be generally suitable for detaching hMSC-TERT. Combining cell detachment with encapsulation demonstrated a high impact of the experimental set up on cell damage. It was preferable to reduce the temperature during detachment and limit the detachment time to a maximum of 20 minutes. Cell detachment in static systems was not comparable with detachment in dynamic systems. Detachment yields in dynamic systems were lower and cell damage was higher for the same experimental conditions. Finally, only TrypZeanTM seemed to be suitable for the detachment of hMSC-TERT from dynamic reactor systems.

  17. Evaluation of the Strategy-Structure Fit of Space and Missile Systems Center Detachment 11

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gates, Tommy

    2001-01-01

    ... (SBlRSl, and the Global Positioning System (GPS). The Detachment performs operational software maintenance, satellite systems engineering, space testing and evaluation, and technology master planning...

  18. Phakic retinal detachment associated with atrophic hole of lattice degeneration of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami-Nagasako, F; Ohba, N

    1983-01-01

    Forty patients with phakic nontraumatic retinal detachment caused by atrophic retinal hole of lattice degeneration were reviewed. The condition was characterized by insidious, slowly developing shallow detachment, with frequent formation of demarcation lines. Often, the patients did not recognize their visual problems until the detachment had extended to the macular region. Young patients under 40 years of age were more common than older patients. Myopic refractive errors were frequently associated. The results of surgical repair were favorable. The risk of retinal detachment in lattice degeneration with atrophic holes was estimated to be about 1 in 90 patients, and prophylactic treatment for this common anomaly is not readily recommended.

  19. Adhesion mechanism of a gecko-inspired oblique structure with an adhesive tip for asymmetric detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekiguchi, Yu; Sato, Chiaki; Takahashi, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    An adhesion model of an oblique structure with an adhesive tip is proposed by considering a limiting stress for adhesion to describe the detachment mechanism of gecko foot hairs. When a force is applied to the root of the oblique structure, normal and shear stresses are generated at contact and the adhesive tip is detached from the surface when reaching the limiting stress. An adhesion criterion that considers both the normal and shear stresses is introduced, and the asymmetric detachment of the oblique structure is theoretically investigated. In addition, oblique beam array structures are manufactured, and an inclination effect of the structure on the asymmetric detachment is experimentally verified. (paper)

  20. Effect of AC electric fields on the stabilization of premixed bunsen flames

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Minkuk

    2011-01-01

    The stabilization characteristics of laminar premixed bunsen flames have been investigated experimentally for stoichiometric methane-air mixture by applying AC voltage to the nozzle with the single-electrode configuration. The detachment velocity either at blowoff or partial-detachment has been measured by varying the applied voltage and frequency of AC. The result showed that the detachment velocity increased with the applied AC electric fields, such that the flame could be nozzle-attached even over five times of the blowoff velocity without having electric fields. There existed four distinct regimes depending on applied AC voltage and frequency. In the low voltage regime, the threshold condition of AC electric fields was identified, below which the effect of electric fields on the detachment velocity is minimal. In the moderate voltage regime, the flame base oscillated with the frequency synchronized to AC frequency and the detachment velocity increased linearly with the applied AC voltage and nonlinearly with the frequency. In the high voltage regime, two different sub-regimes depending on AC frequency were observed. For relatively low frequency, the flame base oscillated with the applied AC frequency together with the half frequency and the variation of the detachment velocity was insensitive to the applied voltage. For relatively high frequency, the stabilization of the flame was significantly affected by the generation of streamers and the detachment velocity decreased with the applied voltage. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved.

  1. Post-operative hospitalization in retinal detachment correlation to recurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Maria Vingolo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate relationships between the incidence of re-detachment and postoperative days of hospitalization in patients with diagnosis of retinal detachment (RD who underwent surgery either through ab-externo approach (scleral buckling and encircling or ab-interno approach (vitrectomy and oil-gas tamponade. METHODS: This retrospective study included 268 patients (268 eyes with diagnosis of primary RD: 127 males (47% and 141 (53% females, mean age of 64.1 ± 17.3 years. 46 patients (17% underwent a surgical ab-externo approach (group A, while 222 patients (83% underwent an ab-interno surgical approach. Each RD was graded according to the "Retinal detachment grading system of Royal College of Ophthalmologists" and treated within 5 days after diagnosis. The redetachment (RT related to a surgical failure was considered within 30 days after first operation. RESULTS: In the group 1 without night hospitalization (day surgery global RT rate was 3.5% (4.17% for ab-interno technique and 0% for ab-externo techniques. In the group 2 with one day of hospitalization global RT rate was 1.33% (1.49% for ab-interno technique and 0% for ab-externo techniques. In the group 3 with 2 days of hospitalization global RT rate was 3.80% (4.62% for ab-interno techniques and 0% for ab-externo techniques. In the group 4 with 3 or more days of hospitalization global RT rate was 12.28% (14.29% for ab-interno techniques for 6.67% ab-externo techniques. The incidence of RT in group 1, day surgery, is comparable to the other groups and it is less compared to group 4 (3 or more days of hospitalization. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of retinal redetachment (RRD is not increased in day surgery mode. These data support outpatient management of RD patients to reduce medical cost and problems related to the hospitalization. Further studies are needed for patients' security.

  2. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)—the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, Juliane; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Valtink, Monika; Gramm, Stefan; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin; Werner, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na+/K+-ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty. PMID:27877823

  3. Thermo-responsive cell culture carriers based on poly(vinyl methyl ether)—the effect of biomolecular ligands to balance cell adhesion and stimulated detachment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teichmann, Juliane; Valtink, Monika; Funk, Richard H W; Engelmann, Katrin; Nitschke, Mirko; Pette, Dagmar; Gramm, Stefan; Werner, Carsten; Härtel, Frauke V; Noll, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Two established material systems for thermally stimulated detachment of adherent cells were combined in a cross-linked polymer blend to merge favorable properties. Through this approach poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNiPAAm) with its superior switching characteristic was paired with a poly(vinyl methyl ether)-based composition that allows adjusting physico-chemical and biomolecular properties in a wide range. Beyond pure PNiPAAm, the proposed thermo-responsive coating provides thickness, stiffness and swelling behavior, as well as an apposite density of reactive sites for biomolecular functionalization, as effective tuning parameters to meet specific requirements of a particular cell type regarding initial adhesion and ease of detachment. To illustrate the strength of this approach, the novel cell culture carrier was applied to generate transplantable sheets of human corneal endothelial cells (HCEC). Sheets were grown, detached, and transferred onto planar targets. Cell morphology, viability and functionality were analyzed by immunocytochemistry and determination of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) before and after sheet detachment and transfer. HCEC layers showed regular morphology with appropriate TEER. Cells were positive for function-associated marker proteins ZO-1, Na + /K + -ATPase, and paxillin, and extracellular matrix proteins fibronectin, laminin and collagen type IV before and after transfer. Sheet detachment and transfer did not impair cell viability. Subsequently, a potential application in ophthalmology was demonstrated by transplantation onto de-endothelialized porcine corneas in vitro. The novel thermo-responsive cell culture carrier facilitates the generation and transfer of functional HCEC sheets. This paves the way to generate tissue engineered human corneal endothelium as an alternative transplant source for endothelial keratoplasty. (paper)

  4. Current-induced spin polarization in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.M.; Pang, M.Q.; Liu, S.Y.; Lei, X.L.

    2010-01-01

    The current-induced spin polarization (CISP) is investigated in a combined Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gas, subjected to a homogeneous out-of-plane magnetization. It is found that, in addition to the usual collision-related in-plane parts of CISP, there are two impurity-density-free contributions, arising from intrinsic and disorder-mediated mechanisms. The intrinsic parts of spin polarization are related to the Berry curvature, analogous with the anomalous and spin Hall effects. For short-range collision, the disorder-mediated spin polarizations completely cancel the intrinsic ones and the total in-plane components of CISP equal those for systems without magnetization. However, for remote disorders, this cancellation does not occur and the total in-plane components of CISP strongly depend on the spin-orbit interaction coefficients and magnetization for both pure Rashba and combined Rashba-Dresselhaus models.

  5. Current-induced forces: a new mechanism to induce negative differential resistance and current-switching effect in molecular junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lei; Fu, Hua-Hua

    2015-12-01

    Current-induced forces can excite molecules, polymers and other low-dimensional materials, which in turn leads to an effective gate voltage through Holstein interaction. Here, by taking a short asymmetric DNA junction as an example, and using the Langevin approach, we find that when suppression of charge transport by the effective gate voltage surpasses the current increase from an elevated voltage bias, the current-voltage (I-V) curves display strong negative differential resistance (NDR) and perfect current-switching characteristics. The asymmetric DNA chain differs in mechanical stability under inverse voltages and the I-V curve is asymmetric about inverse biases, which can be used to understand recent transport experiments on DNA chains, and meanwhile provides a new strategy to realize NDR in molecular junctions and other low-dimensional quantum systems.

  6. Current-induced forces: a new mechanism to induce negative differential resistance and current-switching effect in molecular junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Lei; Fu, Hua-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Current-induced forces can excite molecules, polymers and other low-dimensional materials, which in turn leads to an effective gate voltage through Holstein interaction. Here, by taking a short asymmetric DNA junction as an example, and using the Langevin approach, we find that when suppression of charge transport by the effective gate voltage surpasses the current increase from an elevated voltage bias, the current-voltage (I–V) curves display strong negative differential resistance (NDR) and perfect current-switching characteristics. The asymmetric DNA chain differs in mechanical stability under inverse voltages and the I–V curve is asymmetric about inverse biases, which can be used to understand recent transport experiments on DNA chains, and meanwhile provides a new strategy to realize NDR in molecular junctions and other low-dimensional quantum systems. (paper)

  7. Current-induced domain wall motion: Separating spin torque and Oersted-field effects in Co/Pt nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinen, Jan; Boulle, Olivier; Rousseau, Kevin; Malinowski, Gregory; Klaeui, Mathias [Universitaet Konstanz, Fachbereich Physik, D-78457 Konstanz (Germany); Swagton, Henk J.; Koopmans, Bert [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, MB 5600 (Netherlands); Ulysse, Christian; Faini, Giancarlo [CNRS, Phynano team, Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, 91460 Marcoussis (France)

    2010-07-01

    We report on magnetotransport studies on perpendicularly magnetized nanowires with narrow domain wall (DW) structures. Using Co/Pt multilayer nanowires, we have previously shown that Joule heating is concealing most of the current induced domain wall effects, but using a constant sample temperature a large non-adiabacity factor {beta} has been deduced. Here, we carry out experiments for both applied field directions and current polarities, starting from different DW configurations within a Hall cross. We clearly show, using the different symmetries of spin torque and Oersted-field, that the much debated Oersted-field does not contribute to the DW depinning significantly. This allows us to extract the spin torque contribution and the non-adiabacity factor {beta}, which turns out to be in line with previous measurements.

  8. The Sponge Pump: The Role of Current Induced Flow in the Design of the Sponge Body Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Sally P.; Yahel, Gitai; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Tunnicliffe, Verena; Shavit, Uri; Reiswig, Henry M.

    2011-01-01

    Sponges are suspension feeders that use flagellated collar-cells (choanocytes) to actively filter a volume of water equivalent to many times their body volume each hour. Flow through sponges is thought to be enhanced by ambient current, which induces a pressure gradient across the sponge wall, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Studies of sponge filtration have estimated the energetic cost of pumping to be sponge Aphrocallistes vastus at a 150 m deep reef in situ and in a flow flume; we also modeled the glass sponge filtration system from measurements of the aquiferous system. Excurrent flow from the sponge osculum measured in situ and in the flume were positively correlated (r>0.75) with the ambient current velocity. During short bursts of high ambient current the sponges filtered two-thirds of the total volume of water they processed daily. Our model indicates that the head loss across the sponge collar filter is 10 times higher than previously estimated. The difference is due to the resistance created by a fine protein mesh that lines the collar, which demosponges also have, but was so far overlooked. Applying our model to the in situ measurements indicates that even modest pumping rates require an energetic expenditure of at least 28% of the total in situ respiration. We suggest that due to the high cost of pumping, current-induced flow is highly beneficial but may occur only in thin walled sponges living in high flow environments. Our results call for a new look at the mechanisms underlying current-induced flow and for reevaluation of the cost of biological pumping and its evolutionary role, especially in sponges. PMID:22180779

  9. Detached Eddy Simulation of Flap Side-Edge Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Shankar K.; Shariff, Karim R.

    2016-01-01

    Detached Eddy Simulation (DES) of flap side-edge flow was performed with a wing and half-span flap configuration used in previous experimental and numerical studies. The focus of the study is the unsteady flow features responsible for the production of far-field noise. The simulation was performed at a Reynolds number (based on the main wing chord) of 3.7 million. Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations were performed as a precursor to the DES. The results of these precursor simulations match previous experimental and RANS results closely. Although the present DES simulations have not reached statistical stationary yet, some unsteady features of the developing flap side-edge flowfield are presented. In the final paper it is expected that statistically stationary results will be presented including comparisons of surface pressure spectra with experimental data.

  10. Electron Detachment Dissociation (EDD) of Fluorescently Labeled Sialylated Oligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    We explored the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) tandem mass spectrometry to fluorescently labeled sialylated oligosaccharides. Standard sialylated oligosaccharides and a sialylated N-linked glycan released from human transferrin were investigated. EDD yielded extensive glycosidic cleavages and cross-ring cleavages in all cases studied, consistently providing complementary structural information compared to IRMPD. Neutral losses and satellite ions such as C – 2H ions were also observed following EDD. In addition, we examined the influence of different fluorescent labels. The acidic label 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) enhanced signal abundance in negative-ion mode. However, few cross-ring fragments were observed for 2-AA labeled oligosaccharides. The neutral label 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) resulted in more cross-ring cleavages compared to 2-AA labeled species, but not as extensive fragmentation as for native oligosaccharides, likely resulting from altered negative charge locations from introduction of the fluorescent tag. PMID:22120881

  11. Effect of transport on MAR in detached divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Kenji; Hatayama, A.; Ishii, Y.; Miyamoto, T.; Fukano, A.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of H 2 transport on the onset of MAR in the relatively lower plasma parameter regime of a detached state (n e =1x10 19 m -3 , T e =1 eV) is investigated theoretically. The vibrationally excited molecular densities and the degree of MAR are evaluated by using a 1-D Monte Carlo method (with transport effect), and by solving time-dependent 0-D rate equations without the transport term (without transport effect), respectively. It is found that the degree of MAR with transport is smaller than that without transport under the same H 2 flow rate. Especially, the degree of MAR is negligible near the gas inlet. This smaller degree of MAR with transport is due to the lack of highly excited vibrational molecules which contribute to MAR. The hydrogen molecular density available for MAR is determined by the external hydrogen molecular source and the outflow due to transport, i.e., a 'net' confinement time

  12. Radon concentration distribution mapping in a small detached house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, Monika; Moravcsik, Attila; Holy, Karol; Hutka, Miroslav; Hola, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Radon activity concentration was investigated in an older, single storey detached house. The rooms of the house are in contact with the bedrock. The house is fitted with plastic windows and populated mostly during the summer. Integral (Raduet) and continuous (AlphaGUARD) methods were used to measure the radon activity concentration. Average radon and thoron activity concentrations in the house were 150 Bq/m 3 and 40 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The impact of the house occupancy on radon activity concentration was significant only during the summer months when a decrease of radon activity concentration was recorded due to an increased ventilation rate. In the autumn and winter months, the impact of the house occupancy on radon activity concentration was relatively small - up to 20 %. The increases in radon activity concentration after the room had been thoroughly ventilated were analysed in order to estimate the ventilation rate and the rate of radon supply into the house. (orig.)

  13. Application of ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior vitreous detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Wei Wang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the utility of ultrasound in the diagnosis of posterior vitreous detachment(PVD. METHODS: From September 2011 to September 2012, 506 eyes of 305 cases(male 191, female 114of PVD patients in our hospital were checked and analyzed with ultrasound.RESULTS: Totally, 179 eyes were diagnosed as partial PVD, the proportion was 35.4%. And 327 eyes were diagnosed as complete PVD, the proportion was 64.6%. Among the 61 eyes(12.1%with a small amount of hemorrhage of vitreous humor,retinal breaks of 26 eyes(5.1%were founded. Given the photocoagulation nicely heal to the breaks and then recovered. CONCLUSION:Ultrasonography can accurately diagnose PVD. It has non-invasive,convenience, and other characteristics, and it is worthy of clinical popularization.

  14. Current Understanding of the Genetic Architecture of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Timothy; Chandra, Aman; Hewitt, Alex W

    2016-06-01

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a common and potentially blinding surgical retinal disease. While the precise molecular mechanisms leading to RRD are poorly understood, there is an increasing body of literature supporting the role of heritable factors in the pathogenesis of the condition. Much work has been undertaken investigating genes important in syndromic forms of RRD (e.g., Stickler, Wagner Syndrome, etc.) and research pertaining to genetic investigations of idiopathic or non-syndromic RRD has also recently been reported. To date, at least 12 genetic loci have been implicated in the development of syndromes of which RRD is a feature. A recent GWAS identified five loci implicated in the development of idiopathic RRD.This article provides an overview of the genetic mechanisms of both syndromic and idiopathic RRD. The genetics of predisposing conditions, such as myopia and lattice degeneration, are also discussed.

  15. Compatibility of detached divertor operation with robust edge pedestal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.W., E-mail: leonard@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The compatibility of detached radiative divertor operation with a robust H-mode pedestal is examined in DIII-D. A density scan produced low temperature plasmas at the divertor target, T{sub e} ⩽ 2 eV, with high radiation leading to a factor of ⩾4 drop in peak divertor heat flux. The cold radiative plasma was confined to the divertor and did not extend across the separatrix in X-point region. A robust H-mode pedestal was maintained with a small degradation in pedestal pressure at the highest densities. The response of the pedestal pressure to increasing density is reproduced by the EPED pedestal model. However, agreement of the EPED model with experiment at high density requires an assumption of reduced diamagnetic stabilization of edge Peeling–Ballooning modes.

  16. Surgical challenges and outcomes of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in albinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, M K; Chhablani, J; Shah, B S; Narayanan, R; Jalali, S

    2016-03-01

    To report the outcomes and surgical difficulties during rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair in patients with albinism. Retrospective analysis of 10 eyes of 9 patients with albinism that underwent RRD repair was performed. Collected data included demographic details, preoperative examination details, surgical procedure, surgical difficulties, anatomical, and visual outcomes. Outcome measures were retinal reattachment and visual acuity at the last follow-up. Mean preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was logMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution) 2.15 (range 0.9-3.0) with preoperative localization of causative break in six eyes. One eye had proliferative vitreoretinopathy grade C1 preoperatively. Four eyes underwent scleral buckling (SB) and six underwent 20G pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with silicone oil injection. Intraoperative complication as iatrogenic retinal break occurred in four eyes. For retinopexy during vitrectomy, endolaser delivery was possible in three out of six eyes, whereas three eyes had cryopexy. The mean follow-up was 12 months in SB group (range 1-12; median 12 months) and 5.33 months (range 1-12; median 3 months) in PPV group. Among vitrectomized eye, two eyes had recurrence at 3 months with oil in situ. Rest of the eyes had attached retina at last follow-up. Mean BCVA at last follow-up was logMAR -1.46 (range 0.7-2.0) with mean improvement of -0.57 logMAR. Identification of break, induction of posterior vitreous detachment, and endolaser delivery may be difficult during RRD repair in patients with albinism. The incidence of PVR appeared less in these eyes. Both SB and PPV were efficacious and appear to be good surgical techniques for use in this patient population.

  17. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Ssemanda, Elizabeth; Ervin, Ann-Margret

    2009-10-07

    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery. During surgery, a tamponade agent is needed to reduce the rate of recurrent retinal detachment. The objective of this review was to evaluate the benefits and adverse outcomes of surgery with various tamponade agents. We searched the Cochrane Controlled Register (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Latin America and Carribbean Health Sciences (LILACS) and the UK Clinical Trials Gateway (UKCTG). There were no language or date restrictions in the search for trials. The electronic databases were last searched on 9 July 2009. We included randomized clinical trials comparing patients treated with various tamponade agents. Two individuals screened the search results independently. One study with two trials was eligible for inclusion in the review. One study with two trials was included in the review. The first trial randomized 151 eyes to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF(6)) gas tamponades; the second trial randomized 271 eyes to receive either silicone oil or perfluropropane (C(3)F(8)) gas tamponades. In patients with RD associated with PVR, pars plana vitrectomy and infusion of either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas appear comparable for a broad variety of cases. Sulfur hexafluoride gas was associated with worse anatomic and visual outcomes than either silicone oil or perfluropropane gas. The use of either C(3)F(8) or silicone oil appears reasonable for most patients with RD associated with PVR. Because there do not appear to be any major differences in outcomes between the two agents, the choice of a tamponade agent should be individualized for each patient.

  18. Characteristics and pattern of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Muhammad Hannan; Farooq, Nesr; Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Jamil, Ahmed Zeeshan

    2012-08-01

    To determine the presenting characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in a consecutive series of Pakistani patients. Case series. Layton Rahmatullah Benevolent Trust (LRBT), Lahore, from June 2010 to October 2011. A total of 107 eyes underwent RRD surgery. Detailed diagrams were drawn pre-operatively for all. Other recorded details included, bio-data, age, gender, visual acuity, autorefractometery, predisposing risk factors, lens state and duration of symptoms. The data was analyzed with respect to age and gender distribution, frequency of various risk factors for RRD, duration of RRD and its various presenting characteristics. Mean age of the patients were 33.1 ± 1.5 years, 85% were males. Bilateral RRD was discovered in 2.8% patients. No identifiable risk factor for RRD was present in 28%, while in rest of the 72% eyes, the commonest risk factors were intraocular surgery, trauma and peripheral myopic degeneration in decreasing order of frequency. There were 70.1% phakic, 23.4% pseudophakic and 6.5% aphakic eyes. Majority (93.5%) presented with macula off detachment. There was an overall average time lapse of 97.24 ± 16.95 days between presenting and first occurrence of symptoms. In 31.8% of eyes no break could be found pre-operatively, while 38.3% had 1 and 29.9% eyes had ³ 2 breaks. Majority of the primary breaks were horse-shoe tears (42.1%). Total RRD was found in 35.5% eyes. Infero-temporal and supero-temporal were the most frequently involved quadrants (93.5% and 86.9% respectively). Intraocular surgery, trauma and lattice degeneration in myopia are established common risk factors for RRD. These patients deserve meticulous fundus examination with indentation indirect ophthalmoscopy by trained professionals.

  19. Grip and detachment of locusts on inverted sandpaper substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Longbao; Wang Zhouyi; Ji Aihong; Dai Zhendong

    2011-01-01

    Locusts (Locusta migratoria manilensis) are characterized by their strong flying and grasping ability. Research on the grasping mechanism and behaviour of locusts on sloping substrates plays an important role in elucidating the mechanics of hexapod locomotion. Data on the maximum angles of slope at which locusts can grasp stably (critical angles of detachment) were obtained from high-speed video recordings at 215 fps. The grasping forces were collected by using two sensors, in situations where all left legs were standing on one and the right legs on the other sensor plate. These data were used to illustrate the grasping ability of locusts on slopes with varying levels of roughness. The grasping morphologies of locusts' bodies and tarsi were observed, and the surface roughness as well as diameters of their claw tips was measured under a microscope to account for the grasping mechanism of these insects on the sloping substrate. The results showed that the claw tips and part of the pads were in contact with the inverted substrate when the mean particle diameter was in the range of 15.3-40.5 μm. The interaction between pads and substrates may improve the stability of contact, and claw tips may play a key role in keeping the attachment reliable. A model was developed to explain the significant effects of the relative size of claw tips and mean particle diameter on grasping ability as well as the observed increase in lateral force (2.09-4.05 times greater than the normal force during detachment) with increasing slope angle, which indicates that the lateral force may be extremely important in keeping the contact reliable. This research lays the groundwork for the probable design and development of biomimetic robotics.

  20. Detachment from Parents, Problem Behaviors, and the Moderating Role of Parental Support among Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Ugo; Zappulla, Carla

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of emotional detachment from parents, parental support, and problem behaviors and focused on the unique and common contribution that detachment and parental support made to internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems. A total of 461 young adolescents, 13 to 14 years old ("M" = 13.4;…

  1. Efficacy of ophthalmic solutions to detach adhering Pseudomonas aeruginosa from contact lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landa, AS; van der Mei, HC; van Rij, G; Busscher, HJ

    Purpose. To compare the efficacies of two all-in-one contact lens (CL) cleaning solutions and a detergent mixture on the detachment of a pathogenic bacterium adhering to two types of contact lenses in the absence and presence of a tear film. Methods. Bacterial-detachment studies were carried out in

  2. Protein changes in the retina following experimental retinal detachment in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Fisher, Steven K.

    2011-01-01

    Retinal detachment leads to the widespread cellular remodeling of the retina. The purpose of this study was to identify protein changes that accompany these cellular alterations by comparing the proteomic profiles of sham and experimentally detached rabbit retina. Elucidation of the proteins most...

  3. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    OpenAIRE

    Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Horikawa, Fernando Kendi

    2013-01-01

    In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  4. Fasudil, a Clinically Used ROCK Inhibitor, Stabilizes Rod Photoreceptor Synapses after Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes-Anderson, Ellen; Wang, Jianfeng; Halász, Éva; Sugino, Ilene; Pitler, Amy; Whitehead, Ian; Zarbin, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Retinal detachment disrupts the rod-bipolar synapse in the outer plexiform layer by retraction of rod axons. We showed that breakage is due to RhoA activation whereas inhibition of Rho kinase (ROCK), using Y27632, reduces synaptic damage. We test whether the ROCK inhibitor fasudil, used for other clinical applications, can prevent synaptic injury after detachment. Detachments were made in pigs by subretinal injection of balanced salt solution (BSS) or fasudil (1, 10 mM). In some animals, fasudil was injected intravitreally after BSS-induced detachment. After 2 to 4 hours, retinae were fixed for immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy. Axon retraction was quantified by imaging synaptic vesicle label in the outer nuclear layer. Apoptosis was analyzed using propidium iodide staining. For biochemical analysis by Western blotting, retinal explants, detached from retinal pigmented epithelium, were cultured for 2 hours. Subretinal injection of fasudil (10 mM) reduced retraction of rod spherules by 51.3% compared to control detachments ( n = 3 pigs, P = 0.002). Intravitreal injection of 10 mM fasudil, a more clinically feasible route of administration, also reduced retraction (28.7%, n = 5, P ROCK, was decreased with 30 μM fasudil ( n = 8-10 explants, P ROCK signaling with fasudil reduced photoreceptor degeneration and preserved the rod-bipolar synapse after retinal detachment. These results support the possibility, previously tested with Y27632, that ROCK inhibition may attenuate synaptic damage in iatrogenic detachments.

  5. Being mindful at work and at home : Buffering effects in the stressor–detachment model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haun, Verena C.; Nübold, Annika; Bauer, Anna G.

    In this daily diary study, we examined the moderating role of employee domain‐specific mindfulness within the stressor–detachment model (Sonnentag & Fritz, 2015, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 36, 72). According to the stressor–detachment model, emotional and quantitative demands should be

  6. Round atrophic holes in lattice degeneration--an important cause of phakic retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, W V; Lucier, A C

    1976-01-01

    Round atrophic holes in lattice degeneration are an important cause of phakic retinal detachment. Detachments due solely to round holes in lattice accounted for almost 2.8% of all retinal detachments treated at Wills Eye Hospital from January 1970 to August 1973. These detachments had the following important characteristics: 1. One of the patients were under the age of 30 years. 2. Over 75% of the patients had refractive errors more myopic than -3 D spherical equivalent. 3. Inferior detachments were slightly more common than superior detachments. When located inferiorly, there was a tendency for slow progression as indicated by the frequent presence of pigmented demarcation lines. 4. Surgical repair with standard scleral buckling techniques was successful in 98% of these detachments. Young, moderate to highly myopic patients with round holes in areas of lattice degeneration seem to have a greater risk of developing this type of detachment. Patients with the triad of youth, myopia, and round holes in lattice degeneration deserve close observation.

  7. Mechanisms of redox metabolism and cancer cell survival during extracellular matrix detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mark A; Schafer, Zachary T

    2018-01-16

    Non-transformed cells that become detached from the extracellular matrix (ECM) undergo dysregulation of redox homeostasis and cell death. In contrast, cancer cells often acquire the ability to mitigate programmed cell death pathways and recalibrate the redox balance to survive after ECM detachment, facilitating metastatic dissemination. Accordingly, recent studies of the mechanisms by which cancer cells overcome ECM detachment-induced metabolic alterations have focused on mechanisms in redox homeostasis. The insights into these mechanisms may inform the development of therapeutics that manipulate redox homeostasis to eliminate ECM-detached cancer cells. Here, we review how ECM-detached cancer cells balance redox metabolism for survival. Published under license by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Efficient pump module coupling >1kW from a compact detachable fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, M.; Chin, R. H.; Fulghum, S.; Jacob, J. H.; Chin, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    In the most developed fiber amplifiers, optical pump power is introduced into the 400μm-diameter, 0.46NA first cladding of the double-clad, Yb-doped, gain fiber, using a (6+1):1 multi-mode fiber combiner. For this configuration, the core diameter and numerical aperture of the pump delivery fibers have maximum values of 225μm and 0.22, respectively. This paper presents the first fiber-coupled laser-diode pump module emitting more than 1kW of claddingmode- stripped power from a detachable 225μm, 0.22NA delivery fiber at 976nm. The electrical-to-optical power conversion efficiency at 1kW is 50%. The FWHM spectral width at 1kW output is 4nm and has an excellent overlap with the narrow absorption spectrum of ytterbium in glass. Six of these pump modules attached to a (6+1):1 multimode combiner enable a 5-6kW, single-mode, Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

  9. Comparative analysis of heat pump and biomass boiler for small detached house heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkowski Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to answer the question - which of the two selected heat sources is more economically beneficial for small detached house: heat pump or biomass boiler fuelled with wood-pellets? The comparative analysis of these sources was carried out to discuss the issue. First, cost of both, equipment and operation of selected heat systems were analysed. Additionally, CO2 emission levels associated with these heat systems were determined. The comparative analysis of the costs of both considered heat systems showed that equipment cost of heat pump system is considerably bigger than the cost of biomass boiler system. The comparison of annual operation costs showed that heat pump operation cost is slightly lower than operation cost of biomass boiler. The analysis of above results shows that lower operation cost of heat pump in comparison with biomass boiler cost lets qualify heat pump as more economically justified only after 38 years of work. For both analysed devices, CO2 emission levels were determined. The considerations take into account the fact that heat pump consumes electricity. It is mostly generated through combustion of coal in Poland. The results show that in Poland biomass boiler can be described as not only more economically justified system but also as considerably more ecological.

  10. Comparative analysis of heat pump and biomass boiler for small detached house heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkowski, Tomasz; Lipiński, Seweryn; Olędzka, Aneta

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of the work is to answer the question - which of the two selected heat sources is more economically beneficial for small detached house: heat pump or biomass boiler fuelled with wood-pellets? The comparative analysis of these sources was carried out to discuss the issue. First, cost of both, equipment and operation of selected heat systems were analysed. Additionally, CO2 emission levels associated with these heat systems were determined. The comparative analysis of the costs of both considered heat systems showed that equipment cost of heat pump system is considerably bigger than the cost of biomass boiler system. The comparison of annual operation costs showed that heat pump operation cost is slightly lower than operation cost of biomass boiler. The analysis of above results shows that lower operation cost of heat pump in comparison with biomass boiler cost lets qualify heat pump as more economically justified only after 38 years of work. For both analysed devices, CO2 emission levels were determined. The considerations take into account the fact that heat pump consumes electricity. It is mostly generated through combustion of coal in Poland. The results show that in Poland biomass boiler can be described as not only more economically justified system but also as considerably more ecological.

  11. Detached Bridgman Growth of Germanium and Germanium-Silicon Alloy Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szofran, F. R.; Volz, M. P.; Schweizer, M.; Cobb, S. D.; Motakef, S.; Croell, A.; Dold, P.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Earth based experiments on the science of detached crystal growth are being conducted on germanium and germanium-silicon alloys (2 at% Si average composition) in preparation for a series of experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The purpose of the microgravity experiments includes differentiating among proposed mechanisms contributing to detachment, and confirming or refining our understanding of the detachment mechanism. Because large contact angle are critical to detachment, sessile drop measurements were used to determine the contact angles as a function of temperature and composition for a large number of substrates made of potential ampoule materials. Growth experiments have used pyrolytic boron nitride (pBN) and fused silica ampoules with the majority of the detached results occurring predictably in the pBN. The contact angles were 173 deg (Ge) and 165 deg (GeSi) for pBN. For fused silica, the contact angle decreases from 150 deg to an equilibrium value of 117 deg (Ge) or from 129 deg to an equilibrium value of 100 deg (GeSi) over the duration of the experiment. The nature and extent of detachment is determined by using profilometry in conjunction with optical and electron microscopy. The stability of detachment has been analyzed, and an empirical model for the conditions necessary to achieve sufficient stability to maintain detached growth for extended periods has been developed. Results in this presentation will show that we have established the effects on detachment of ampoule material, pressure difference above and below the melt, and silicon concentration; samples that are nearly completely detached can be grown repeatedly in pBN.

  12. The influence of refractive error and lattice degeneration on the incidence of retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, T C

    1989-01-01

    This study indicates the feasibility of stratifying the general population into various risk pools for retinal detachment depending on a person's age, refractive status, and the presence of lattice degeneration. At first impression the risks seem at variance with the fine clinical studies of Byer, who has shown a very low detachment rate in the population with lattice degeneration. In all likelihood the vast majority of his patients were emmetropic or mildly myopic, so that very few would be expected to develop detachments during their entire lifetimes, let along during intervals of only 10 to 20 years. This study shows the futility of following, or treating prophylactically, young emmetropic individuals with lattice degeneration. Assuming that prophylaxis is actually effective, one would have to treat 1000 emmetropic lattice patients in the 30 to 39 year age group to prevent a single detachment over a 10-year period. Lattice patients with low to moderate degrees of myopia tend to develop detachments between 40 and 60 years of age caused by premature posterior vitreous separation and tractional tears. Clearly prophylaxis for this group is not warranted, since only 5% to 10% of these individuals will experience detachments in their lifetimes. On the other hand this study has verified the previous suspicions that persons with myopia exceeding -5.0 D accompanied by lattice degeneration have an extraordinarily high risk of detachment during their lifetimes. Detachments in this group tend to cluster in the second, third, and fourth decades, are typically caused by atrophic holes, are slowly progressive, and are often simultaneously bilateral. Enhanced vigilance is certainly appropriate during this time and perhaps consideration should be given to prophylactically treating this group. This would be no small task, since within a population of 1 million persons there would be about 1150 aged 10 to 39 years with myopia exceeding -5.0 D and lattice degeneration. Only 4

  13. [Stickler's syndrome (dystrophia vitreoretinalis hereditaria). Results of surgery for retinal detachment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, I; Dolezalová, J; Oudová, P

    2001-05-01

    Stickler's syndrome (SS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary disease of the collagenous connective tissue where impaired development of the vitreous body gel and peripheral retina and detachment of the retina are associated with general manifestations. The objective of the retrospective study was to evaluate the long-term results of surgery of retinal detachment in SS. The group of patients comprised 7 patients, 6 men and 1 woman aged 4 to 45 years, average age 16.8 years. Autosomal dominant heredity was obvious in 6 members (85.7%) of two families. General manifestations of SS included abnormalities of the facial skeleton (6 patients), cleft palate (4 patients), impaired hearing (2 patients), marfanoid habitus (2 patients) and hyperextensibility of the joints (4 patients). In the eyes with SS was manifested by myopia from -1 to -9 D and a liquid vitreous body. Multiple foci of lattice degeneration supplemented the finding in 6 patients (85.7%). Detachment of the retina was a manifestation of SS in 12 of 14 eyes (85.7%). It was manifested in 5 of 7 patients concurrently or within 12 years in both eyes. The causes of retinal detachment were multiple equatorial and postequatorial tears due to lattice degeneration in 8 eyes (66.7%) or a giant tear in 4 eyes (33.3%). Advanced proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) was associated with retinal detachment in 8 eyes (66.7%) and in 6 eyes (50%) it was not possible to assess the beginning of retinal detachment. In 3 of 5 patients with bilateral retinal detachment the adverse course of retinal detachment on the first eye was followed 8 to 12 years previously in another department: two retinal detachments with giant tears were evaluated as inoperable and one inveterated detachment with advanced PVR was operated unsuccessfully. Retinal detachment was operated in 9 eyes of 7 patients, in two patients both eyes were operated simultaneously. The patients were followed up after surgery for 11 months to 15 years, on average for 65

  14. Carbonate pseudotachylite? from a Miocene extensional detachment, W. Cyclades, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, A. Hugh N.; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    Most pseudotachylites, both impact- and fault-related, occur in silicate-rich rocks, typically with 'granitoid' compositions. Examples of melting in carbonate rocks, excluding magmatic sources, are restricted to impact-events, except for a carbonate pseudotachylite in the Canalone Fault, S. Italy (Viganò et al. 2011). Another potential example of carbonate pseudotachylite, shown here, comes from the Miocene-aged W. Cycladic Detachment System, in Greece. Top-SSE ductile to brittle movement on this detachment, with a maximum displacement estimated at tens of kilometers, exhumed of HP-rocks. The carbonate pseudotachylite occurs within an 43 mm thick), consists of dark (hematitic) red, ultra-fine grained unlayered carbonate with up to 40x10 mm rather rounded clasts of earlier generations of cataclasite, many with a quartzite composition. These clasts are fractured and partially separated, with a fine red carbonate matrix. No layering of the matrix or clasts is apparent. The clasts become finer and more abundant towards the boundary with Layer B. Layers B and D (~57 & ~20 mm thick) dominantly comprises protocataclasite with greyish quartz fragments separated by a carbonate matrix along narrow fractures. Zone C and E (~23 m & >15 mm thick) comprise pale pink carbonate-dominated rocks with abundant material and may have darker (?reaction) rims. No layering is seen in the pale pink groundmass although this is present in some elongate clasts. All layer boundaries are irregular and no principle slip surfaces have been seen. Injection veins from 1 to 9 mm wide and up to at least 100 mm long derive from the central layer (C), cutting the overall layering at a high angle and branching in several places. These veins contain clasts comparable to those in Layer C. Both thick and thin injection-veins are rimmed by impersistent white calcite suggesting that injection was associated with precipitation of calcite. Whether Layer C (and perhaps E also) is a carbonate pseudotachylite is

  15. EARLY SIMULTANEOUS FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE AND OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY FEATURES AFTER PARS PLANA VITRECTOMY FOR PRIMARY RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellʼomo, Roberto; Mura, Marco; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Bijl, Heico; Tan, H. Stevie

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe fundus autofluorescence and optical coherence tomography (OCT) features of the macula after pars plana vitrectomy for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. Methods: Thirty-three eyes of 33 consecutive patients with repaired rhegmatogenous retinal detachment with or without the

  16. Evaluation of the macular architecture of patients operated on from macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment using optical coherence tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Lopez, Meisy; Obret Mendive, Isabel; Hernandez Silva, Juan Raul

    2010-01-01

    With the support of optical coherence tomography, to evaluate the macular condition of the patients operated on from rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, with detached macula, who underwent buckling surgery and pars plana vitrectomy

  17. Make the heat hotter. - marketing district heating to households in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sernhed, Kerstin; Pyrko, Jurek

    2008-09-15

    For district heating (DH) companies, to expand in low heat density areas such as detached houses, it is essential to obtain a high rate of connections to the district-heating network in order to enhance the cost effectiveness. Marketing district heating to house owners is, however, a fairly different matter from selling it to customers in industrial, commercial, and multi-family buildings. Suitable market strategies need to be developed and the need for information about potential customers' preferences and attitudes are of great importance since the house-owners often constitute a heterogeneous group where different households have different requirements. This paper investigates a case of one Swedish district heating company's marketing activities and expansion strategies in a single family house area where the customers were offered conversion of their direct resistive electric heating (DEH) into district heating (DH). 88 out of 111 houses were converted in 2002. Four years later, interviews were carried out with 23 of the households in the area, both with those who had accept-ed the district heating offer and those who had not. The study shows that apart from the economic aspects, thermal comfort, aesthetics and practicalities also affected the buying decision. Since the different economic aspects of the offer were complex, it was very difficult for the households to make a strictly rational economical decision. Statistical analysis confirmed that variables such as age, type of household and energy use level could, to some extent, be related to the decision to convert from electric heating to district heating. Timing, low prices and the total solutions presented to the households were crucial factors in the success of the marketing strategy.

  18. Spin-dependent transport and current-induced spin transfer torque in a disordered zigzag silicene nanoribbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Benliang; Zhou, Benhu; Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan; Zhou, Guanghui

    2016-01-01

    We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.

  19. Current-induced domain wall motion in Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} nanowires with low depinning fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinowski, Gregory; Loerincz, Andreas; Krzyk, Stephen; Moehrke, Philipp; Bedau, Daniel; Boulle, Olivier; Rhensius, Jan; Klaeui, Mathias [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Konstanz, Universitaetsstrasse 10, D-78457 (Germany); Heyderman, Laura J [Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Cho, Young Jin; Seo, Sunae, E-mail: gregory.malinowski@uni-konstanz.d [Samsung Electronics, San 14-1 Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-03

    In this paper, we report on domain wall (DW) motion induced by current pulses at variable temperature in 900 nm wide and 25 nm thick Ni{sub 80}Fe{sub 20} wires with low pinning fields. By using Ar ion milling to pattern our wires rather than the conventional lift-off technique, a depinning field as low as {approx}2-3 Oe at room temperature is obtained. Comparison with previous results acquired on similar wires with much higher pinning shows that the critical current density scales with the depinning field, leading to a critical current density of {approx}2.5 x 10{sup 11} A m{sup -2} at 250 K. Moreover, when a current pulse with a current density larger than the critical current density is injected, the DW is not necessarily depinned but it can undergo a modification of its spin structure which hinders current-induced DW motion. Hence, reliable propagation of the DW requires an accurate adjustment of the pulsed current density.

  20. Spin-dependent transport and current-induced spin transfer torque in a disordered zigzag silicene nanoribbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Benliang [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Benhu [Department of Physics, Shaoyang University, Shaoyang 422001 (China); Liu, Guang; Guo, Dan [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China); Zhou, Guanghui, E-mail: ghzhou@hunnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Key Laboratory for Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Manipulation (Ministry of Education), Synergetic Innovation Center for Quantum Effects and Applications of Hunan, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2016-11-01

    We study theoretically the spin-dependent transport and the current-induced spin transfer torque (STT) for a zigzag silicene nanoribbon (ZSiNR) with Anderson-type disorders between two ferromagnetic electrodes. By using the nonequilibrium Green's function method, it is predicted that the transport property and STT through the junction depend sensitively on the disorder, especially around the Dirac point. As a result, the conductance decreases and increases for two electrode in parallel and antiparallel configurations, respectively. Due to the disorder, the magnetoresistance (MR) decreases accordingly even within the energy regime for the perfect plateau without disorders. In addition, the conductance versus the relative angle of the magnetization shows a cosine-like behavior. The STT per unit of the bias voltage versus the angle of the magnetization exhibits a sine-like behavior, and versus the Fermi energy is antisymmetrical to the Dirac point and exhibits sharp peaks. Furthermore, the peaks of the STT are suppressed much as the disorder strength increases, especially around the Dirac point. The results obtained here may provide a valuable suggestion to experimentally design spin valve devices based on ZSiNR.

  1. Current-induced magnetization switching in atom-thick tungsten engineered perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with large tunnel magnetoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mengxing; Cai, Wenlong; Cao, Kaihua; Zhou, Jiaqi; Wrona, Jerzy; Peng, Shouzhong; Yang, Huaiwen; Wei, Jiaqi; Kang, Wang; Zhang, Youguang; Langer, Jürgen; Ocker, Berthold; Fert, Albert; Zhao, Weisheng

    2018-02-14

    Perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions based on MgO/CoFeB structures are of particular interest for magnetic random-access memories because of their excellent thermal stability, scaling potential, and power dissipation. However, the major challenge of current-induced switching in the nanopillars with both a large tunnel magnetoresistance ratio and a low junction resistance is still to be met. Here, we report spin transfer torque switching in nano-scale perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions with a magnetoresistance ratio up to 249% and a resistance area product as low as 7.0 Ω µm 2 , which consists of atom-thick W layers and double MgO/CoFeB interfaces. The efficient resonant tunnelling transmission induced by the atom-thick W layers could contribute to the larger magnetoresistance ratio than conventional structures with Ta layers, in addition to the robustness of W layers against high-temperature diffusion during annealing. The critical switching current density could be lower than 3.0 MA cm -2 for devices with a 45-nm radius.

  2. Treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yi; Liu Jianmin; Hong Bo; Zhao Wenyuan; Huang Qinghai; Zhang Xin; Zhang Long

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To summarize the experience on endovascular treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms with Guglielmi detachable coils (GDCs) in 262 cases. Methods: All aneurysms were embolized with GDCs. Catheterization at both ICA was used to monitor the patency of parent arteries for patients with well-developed A1 segment of both ACAs. Microcatheter-assisted or microwire-assisted technique was undertaken to keep patency of parent arteries if the aneurysmal neck was involved with A2 segment. Thirty-four cases with multiple aneurysms had been treated successfully only in one session. Results: Complete embolization was achieved in 160 cases, while subtotal in 56 (>90%) and partial in 46 (<90%). Occlusion of parent arteries developed in 10 cases because of over-occlusion, and cerebral infarction was found in 16 cases after the procedure. Three cases with procedure-related thrombosis were revascularized by urokinase profusion. Follow-up angiograms of 3-6 months showed recanalization in 8 cases requiring a second time session. One case of recurrent aneurysm after GDC treatment was cured by surgical clipping. Conclusions: The result of endovascular treatment of anterior communicating artery aneurysms is fruitful and seems to be an alternative method in improving the rate of occlusion and reducing the cerebral infarction

  3. Development of Detachable IORT Table for Colorectal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myung Se; Lee, Joon Ha

    1994-01-01

    In spite of remarkable improvement of surgical skills and anesthesia, local failure still occurred in 36-45% of locally advanced colorectal cancer after curative resection with or without pre-or post-operative irradiation. Intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) is the ideal modality which respectable lesions are removed surgically and the remaining cancer nests are sterilized by irradiation during a surgical procedure. Therefore, the excellent local control without the damage of the adjacent normal tissues can be achieved. In IORT, judicious set up of the treatment cone on the treatment surface of the patient is required for accurate and homogenous dose distribution within treatment field, especially on the slopping surface of sacrum and pelvic sidewall which are the common sites of the local recurrence in rectal cancer. For this purpose, adequate coordination of gantry rotation and table tilting are essential. Adjusting gantry rotation is not difficult but tilting of the table is impossible inconventional treatment couch. Department of Therapeutic Radiology in Yeungnam University Medical Center developed the IORT table for colorectal cancer which is easy to set up and detach on head-down is about 30 degree which is efficient and easy-to-use, not only for IORT but also for colorectal surgery. So far, authors performed IORT with newly developed treatment table in 2 patients with rectal cancer and we found that this newly developed table could contribute in improving the dose distribution of IORT and surgical procedure for colorectal cancer

  4. Vertical detachment energies of anionic thymidine: Microhydration effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunghwan; Schaefer, Henry F

    2010-10-14

    Density functional theory has been employed to investigate microhydration effects on the vertical detachment energy (VDE) of the thymidine anion by considering the various structures of its monohydrates. Structures were located using a random searching procedure. Among 14 distinct structures of the anionic thymidine monohydrate, the low-energy structures, in general, have the water molecule bound to the thymine base unit. The negative charge developed on the thymine moiety increases the strength of the intermolecular hydrogen bonding between the water and base units. The computed VDE values of the thymidine monohydrate anions are predicted to range from 0.67 to 1.60 eV and the lowest-energy structure has a VDE of 1.32 eV. The VDEs of the monohydrates of the thymidine anion, where the N(1)[Single Bond]H hydrogen of thymine has been replaced by a 2(')-deoxyribose ring, are greater by ∼0.30 eV, compared to those of the monohydrates of the thymine anion. The results of the present study are in excellent agreement with the accompanying experimental results of Bowen and co-workers [J. Chem. Phys. 133, 144304 (2010)].

  5. Documents and detachment in the figurational sociology of sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paddy Dolan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the methodological implications of using a figurational approach to the study of Gaelic games (the Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football and their organisation and governance from the late nineteenth century onwards. Following Norbert Elias, we argue that data generation guided by theories, and potentially modifying such theories, are essential components of research endeavours. The problem of generalisation or representativeness of historical documents can be addressed by treating documents as part of a fi guration of evidence, thereby constituting a mutually supporting network of data that serves as a scaffold or structure for theoretical and empirical findings. Based on the experience of using documents such as newspaper and referee reports of matches, and also organisational documents such as the minutes of meetings at various levels of governance, we contribute to the discussion concerning borders and boundary maintenance between history, sociology and historical sociology. While we elaborate on the Eliasian perspective on emotional detachment, and secondary involvement, when conducting research, we also note the dificulties in avoiding ‘preferred’ readings of national history given that Gaelic games have been intertwined with the narrative and project of national self-determination in Ireland. Researchers are compelled to recognise the theoretical significance of sports as a motor and symbol of emotional identifications, but must also create distance from their own national habitus in order to prioritise participation in intergenerational knowledge generation over further national myth-making.

  6. Success Rates of Vitrectomy in Treatment of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Helmy Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA. The primary outcome measures were anatomical (primary and final and functional success (visual acuity better than 6/60. Results. This study evaluated 422 eyes of 411 patients with a mean age of 57.7±11.2 years. The single-operation reattachment rate (primary anatomical success was 89.8%. The final anatomical success rate was 100% after 2–6 operations (mean = 3.14±1.03. Functional success rate after the primary reattachment operation was 96.7%, while it was 97.2% at the end of the follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the possible risk factors for the primary anatomical failure showed a significant relation with the 25 G instruments (P=0.002 and the presence of multiple tears (P=0.01. Conclusion. The primary anatomical success of PPV for primary uncomplicated RRD was 89.8% and the final anatomical success rate was 100%.

  7. Electron detachment dissociation of fluorescently labeled sialylated oligosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2011-12-01

    We explored the application of electron detachment dissociation (EDD) and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) tandem mass spectrometry to fluorescently labeled sialylated oligosaccharides. Standard sialylated oligosaccharides and a sialylated N-linked glycan released from human transferrin were investigated. EDD yielded extensive glycosidic cleavages and cross-ring cleavages in all cases studied, consistently providing complementary structural information compared with infrared multiphoton dissociation. Neutral losses and satellite ions such as C-2H ions were also observed following EDD. In addition, we examined the influence of different fluorescent labels. The acidic label 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) enhanced signal abundance in negative-ion mode. However, few cross-ring fragments were observed for 2-AA-labeled oligosaccharides. The neutral label 2-aminobenzamide (2-AB) resulted in more cross-ring cleavages compared with 2-AA-labeled species, but not as extensive fragmentation as for native oligosaccharides, likely resulting from altered negative charge locations from introduction of the fluorescent tag. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. A DEEPLY ECLIPSING DETACHED DOUBLE HELIUM WHITE DWARF BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, S. G.; Marsh, T. R.; Gaensicke, B. T.; Drake, A. J.; Koester, D.

    2011-01-01

    Using Liverpool Telescope+RISE photometry we identify the 2.78 hr period binary star CSS 41177 as a detached eclipsing double white dwarf binary with a 21,100 K primary star and a 10,500 K secondary star. This makes CSS 41177 only the second known eclipsing double white dwarf binary after NLTT 11748. The 2 minute long primary eclipse is 40% deep and the secondary eclipse 10% deep. From Gemini+GMOS spectroscopy, we measure the radial velocities of both components of the binary from the Hα absorption line cores. These measurements, combined with the light curve information, yield white dwarf masses of M 1 = 0.283 ± 0.064 M sun and M 2 = 0.274 ± 0.034 M sun , making them both helium core white dwarfs. As an eclipsing, double-lined spectroscopic binary, CSS 41177 is ideally suited to measuring precise, model-independent masses and radii. The two white dwarfs will merge in roughly 1.1 Gyr to form a single sdB star.

  9. A geomorphic process law for detachment-limited hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turowski, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphic process laws are used to assess the shape evolution of structures at the Earth's surface over geological time scales, and are routinely used in landscape evolution models. There are two currently available concepts on which process laws for hillslope evolution rely. In the transport-limited concept, the evolution of a hillslope is described by a linear or a non-linear diffusion equation. In contrast, in the threshold slope concept, the hillslope is assumed to collapse to a slope equal to the internal friction angle of the material when the load due to the relief exists the material strength. Many mountains feature bedrock slopes, especially in the high mountains, and material transport along the slope is limited by the erosion of the material from the bedrock. Here, I suggest a process law for detachment-limited or threshold-dominated hillslopes, in which the erosion rate is a function of the applied stress minus the surface stress due to structural loading. The process law leads to the prediction of an equilibrium form that compares well to the shape of many mountain domes.

  10. Success Rates of Vitrectomy in Treatment of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Yasser Helmy; Ono, Kozue; Kinoshita, Hirofumi; Uematsu, Masafumi; Tsuiki, Eiko; Fujikawa, Azusa; Kitaoka, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the anatomical success rates of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) after primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods. This retrospective study was conducted between December 2008 and October 2014 at Nagasaki University Hospital. The preoperative data recorded included the lens status, location of the retinal tear, whether a tear was visualized, presence of multiple tears, macula status, presence of peripheral lattice retinal degeneration, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). The primary outcome measures were anatomical (primary and final) and functional success (visual acuity better than 6/60). Results. This study evaluated 422 eyes of 411 patients with a mean age of 57.7 ± 11.2 years. The single-operation reattachment rate (primary anatomical success) was 89.8%. The final anatomical success rate was 100% after 2-6 operations (mean = 3.14 ± 1.03). Functional success rate after the primary reattachment operation was 96.7%, while it was 97.2% at the end of the follow-up. Multiple logistic regression analysis of the possible risk factors for the primary anatomical failure showed a significant relation with the 25 G instruments (P = 0.002) and the presence of multiple tears (P = 0.01). Conclusion. The primary anatomical success of PPV for primary uncomplicated RRD was 89.8% and the final anatomical success rate was 100%.

  11. A 12 MINUTE ORBITAL PERIOD DETACHED WHITE DWARF ECLIPSING BINARY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Warren R.; Kilic, Mukremin; Kenyon, Scott J.; Hermes, J. J.; Winget, D. E.; Prieto, Carlos Allende

    2011-01-01

    We have discovered a detached pair of white dwarfs (WDs) with a 12.75 minute orbital period and a 1315 km s -1 radial velocity amplitude. We measure the full orbital parameters of the system using its light curve, which shows ellipsoidal variations, Doppler boosting, and primary and secondary eclipses. The primary is a 0.25 M sun tidally distorted helium WD, only the second tidally distorted WD known. The unseen secondary is a 0.55 M sun carbon-oxygen WD. The two WDs will come into contact in 0.9 Myr due to loss of energy and angular momentum via gravitational wave radiation. Upon contact the systems may merge (yielding a rapidly spinning massive WD), form a stable interacting binary, or possibly explode as an underluminous Type Ia supernova. The system currently has a gravitational wave strain of 10 -22 , about 10,000 times larger than the Hulse-Taylor pulsar; this system would be detected by the proposed Laser Interferometer Space Antenna gravitational wave mission in the first week of operation. This system's rapid change in orbital period will provide a fundamental test of general relativity.

  12. Equilibrium states of nonsynchronous stars in detached binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubow, S.H.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of nonsynchronous spin on equilibrium states for the radiative envelopes of detached members of close binaries are analyzed. With the adoption of the assumption that the nonsynchronous speeds, u, are much less than the relative orbital speed, Ωd, of the component stars, the full set of stellar structure equations, generalized to include the gas dynamical and heat transport effects of spin, are analyzed to linear order in u/Ωd. For these equilibria: (2) from this velocity field isobars and hence stellar shapes can be calculated for equilibrium states of slightly nonsynchronously rotating stars. On the orbit plane these surfaces coincide with the Roche equipotentials. (3) All sightly nonsynchronous equilibria are baroclinic. Isodensities and isotherms are inclined to isobars by an angle on the order of 0 0 .3 x (u/Ωd for a star in quasi-rigid rotation that nearly fills its Roche lobe). (4) The surface flux distribution departs from the usual gravity darkening law by an amount that scales with u/Ωd. Comparisons of this work are made with the results of previous investigations, and possibilities for future investigations are discussed

  13. Absolute parameters of southern detached eclipsing binary: HD 53570

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sürgit, D.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, we conducted the first analysis of spectroscopic and photometric observations of the eclipsing binary star HD 53570. Spectroscopic observations of HD 53570 were made at the Sutherland Station of the South African Astronomical Observatory in 2013 and 2014. The radial velocities of the components were determined using the cross-correlation technique. The spectroscopic mass ratio obtained for the system was 1.13 ( ± 0.07). The All Sky Automated Survey V light curve of HD 53570 was analyzed using the Wilson-Devinney code combined with the Monte Carlo search method. The final model showed that HD 53570 has a detached configuration. The mass and radii of the primary and secondary components of HD 53570 were derived as 1.06 ( ± 0.07) M⊙, 1.20 ( ± 0.16) M⊙, and 1.42 ( ± 0.14) R⊙, 2.07 ( ± 0.16) R⊙, respectively. The distance of HD 53570 was computed as 248 ( ± 38) pc considering interstellar extinction. The evolutionary status of the component stars was also investigated using Geneva evolutionary models.

  14. Measuring the force of single protein molecule detachment from surfaces with AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapikouni, Theodora S; Missirlis, Yannis F

    2010-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to measure the non-specific detachment force of single fibrinogen molecules from glass surfaces. The identification of single unbinding events was based on the characteristics of the parabolic curves, recorded during the stretching of protein molecules. Fibrinogen molecules were covalently bound to Si(3)N(4) AFM tips, previously modified with 3-aminopropyl-dimethyl-ethoxysilane, through a homobifunctional poly(ethylene glycol) linker bearing two hydroxysulfosuccinimide esters. The most probable detachment force was found to be 210 pN, when the tip was retracting with a velocity of 1400 nm/s, while the distribution of the detachment distances indicated that the fibrinogen chain can be elongated beyond the length of the physical conformation before detachment. The dependence of the most probable detachment force on the loading rate was examined and the dynamics of fibrinogen binding to the surface were found amenable to the simple expression of the Bell-Evans theory. The theory's expansion, however, by incorporating the concept of the rupture of parallel residue-surface bonds could only describe the detachment of fibrinogen for a small number of such bonds. Finally, the mathematical expression of the Worm-Like Chain model was used to fit the stretching curves before rupture and two interpretations are suggested for the description of the AFM curves with multiple detachment events.

  15. Cup detachment during vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery and birth outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krispin, Eyal; Aviram, Amir; Salman, Lina; Chen, Rony; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat

    2017-11-01

    To determine the perinatal outcome associated with cup detachment during vacuum-assisted vaginal delivery (VAVD). A retrospective cohort study of all women attempting VAVD in a tertiary hospital (2012-2014). Singleton-term pregnancies were included. Antepartum fetal death and major fetal structural or chromosomal abnormalities were excluded. Primary outcome was neonatal birth trauma (subgaleal hematoma, subarachnoid hematoma, subdural hematoma, skull fracture, and/or erb's palsy). Secondary outcomes were maternal complications or other neonatal morbidities. Outcomes were compared between women after ≥1 cup detachment (study group) and the rest (control group). Logistic regression analysis was utilized to adjust results to potential confounders. Overall, 1779 women attempted VAVD during study period. Of them, in 146 (8.2%), the cup detached prior to delivery; 130/146 (89%) had a single detachment. After detachment, 4 (2.7%) delivered by cesarean section, 77 (52.7%) delivered after cup reapplication, and 65 (44.6%) delivered spontaneously. Women in the study group were more likely to undergo VAVD due to prolonged second stage, and were characterized by lower rates of metal cup use. Neonates in the detachment group had higher rates of subarachnoid hematoma and composite neonatal birth trauma (2.7 vs. 0.1% and 4.8 vs. 1.8%, respectively, p Cup detachment is associated with a higher rate of adverse neonatal outcome. Cup reapplication should be considered carefully.

  16. Effects of low-Z and high-Z impurities on divertor detachment and plasma confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Q. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The impurity-seeded detached divertor is essential for heat exhaust in ITER and other reactor-relevant devices. Dedicated experiments with injection of N2, Ne and Ar have been performed in DIII-D to assess the impact of the different impurities on divertor detachment and confinement. Seeding with N2, Ne and Ar all promote divertor detachment, greatly reducing heat flux near the strike point. The upstream plasma density at the onset of detachment decreases with increasing impurity-puffing flow rates. For all injected impurity species, the confinement and pedestal pressure are correlated with the impurity content and the ratio of separatrix loss power to the l-H transition threshold power. As the divertor plasma approaches detachment, the high-Z impurity seeding tends to degrade the core confinement owing to the increased core radiation. In particular, Ar injection with up to 50% of the injected power radiating in the core cools the pedestal and core plasmas, thus significantly degrading the confinement. As for Ne seeding, medium confinement with H98∼0.8 can be maintained during the detachment phase with the pedestal temperature being reduced by about 50%. In contrast, in the N2 seeded plasmas, radiation is predominately confined in the boundary plasma, which leads to less effect on the confinement and pedestal. In the case of strong N2 gas puffing, the confinement recovers during the detachment, from ∼20% reduction at the onset of the detachment to greater than unity comparable to that before the seeding. The core and pedestal temperatures feature a reduction of 30% from the initial attached phase and remain nearly constant during the detachment phase. The improvement in confinement appears to arise from the increase in pedestal and core density despite the temperature reduction.

  17. A Meta-Analysis on Antecedents and Outcomes of Detachment from Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Detachment from work has been proposed as an important non-work experience helping employees to recover from work demands. This meta-analysis (86 publications, k = 91 independent study samples, N = 38,124 employees) examined core antecedents and outcomes of detachment in employee samples. With regard to outcomes, results indicated average positive correlations between detachment and self-reported mental (i.e., less exhaustion, higher life satisfaction, more well-being, better sleep) and physical (i.e., lower physical discomfort) health, state well-being (i.e., less fatigue, higher positive affect, more intensive state of recovery), and task performance (small to medium sized effects). However, average relationships between detachment and physiological stress indicators and work motivation were not significant while associations with contextual performance and creativity were significant, but negative. Concerning work characteristics, as expected, job demands were negatively related and job resources were positively related to detachment (small sized effects). Further, analyses revealed that person characteristics such as negative affectivity/neuroticism (small sized effect) and heavy work investment (medium sized effect) were negatively related to detachment whereas detachment and demographic variables (i.e., age and gender) were not related. Moreover, we found a medium sized average negative relationship between engagement in work-related activities during non-work time and detachment. For most of the examined relationships heterogeneity of effect sizes was moderate to high. We identified study design, samples' gender distribution, and affective valence of work-related thoughts as moderators for some of these aforementioned relationships. The results of this meta-analysis point to detachment as a non-work (recovery) experience that is influenced by work-related and personal characteristics which in turn is relevant for a range of employee outcomes.

  18. A Meta-Analysis on Antecedents and Outcomes of Detachment from Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Lohmann-Haislah, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Detachment from work has been proposed as an important non-work experience helping employees to recover from work demands. This meta-analysis (86 publications, k = 91 independent study samples, N = 38,124 employees) examined core antecedents and outcomes of detachment in employee samples. With regard to outcomes, results indicated average positive correlations between detachment and self-reported mental (i.e., less exhaustion, higher life satisfaction, more well-being, better sleep) and physical (i.e., lower physical discomfort) health, state well-being (i.e., less fatigue, higher positive affect, more intensive state of recovery), and task performance (small to medium sized effects). However, average relationships between detachment and physiological stress indicators and work motivation were not significant while associations with contextual performance and creativity were significant, but negative. Concerning work characteristics, as expected, job demands were negatively related and job resources were positively related to detachment (small sized effects). Further, analyses revealed that person characteristics such as negative affectivity/neuroticism (small sized effect) and heavy work investment (medium sized effect) were negatively related to detachment whereas detachment and demographic variables (i.e., age and gender) were not related. Moreover, we found a medium sized average negative relationship between engagement in work-related activities during non-work time and detachment. For most of the examined relationships heterogeneity of effect sizes was moderate to high. We identified study design, samples' gender distribution, and affective valence of work-related thoughts as moderators for some of these aforementioned relationships. The results of this meta-analysis point to detachment as a non-work (recovery) experience that is influenced by work-related and personal characteristics which in turn is relevant for a range of employee outcomes. PMID:28133454

  19. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in an eye of retinoblastoma treated by radiation and cryocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Makoto; Tanaka, Yasuhiko; Kawai, Masataka; Nii, Seiji; Katsura, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Akihiro

    1999-01-01

    A 4-month-old female infant was diagnosed as bilateral retinoblastoma. The left eye was treated by enucleation and the right by radiation. The right eye received repeated thermochemotherapy, cryocoagulation and photocoagulation for recurrence. Total retinal detachment was detected after surgery for complicated cataract at the age of 2 years 9 months. Vitreous surgery led to the detection of posterior vitreous detachment and retinal breaks in the coagulated scar areas with vitreoretinal adhesion around the calcified tumor. During the following one year, the retina has been attached with no reoccurrence of the tumor. This case illustrates that rhegmatogenous retinal detachment is a possibility in retinoblastoma treated by radiation or retinal coagulations. (author)

  20. Heat flux management via advanced magnetic divertor configurations and divertor detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolemen, E., E-mail: ekolemen@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Unterberg, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The snowflake divertor (SFD) control and detachment control to manage the heat flux at the divertor are successfully demonstrated at DIII-D. Results of the development and implementation of these two heat flux reduction control methods are presented. The SFD control algorithm calculates the position of the two null-points in real-time and controls shaping coil currents to achieve and stabilize various snowflake configurations. Detachment control stabilizes the detachment front fixed at specified distance between the strike point and the X-point throughout the shot.

  1. Can the use of pulsed direct current induce oscillation in the applied pressure during spark plasma sintering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, David; Eriksson, Mirva; Nygren, Mats; Shen Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    The spark plasma sintering (SPS) process is known for its rapid densification of metals and ceramics. The mechanism behind this rapid densification has been discussed during the last few decades and is yet uncertain. During our SPS experiments we noticed oscillations in the applied pressure, related to a change in electric current. In this study, we investigated the effect of pulsed electrical current on the applied mechanical pressure and related changes in temperature. We eliminated the effect of sample shrinkage in the SPS setup and used a transparent quartz die allowing direct observation of the sample. We found that the use of pulsed direct electric current in our apparatus induces pressure oscillations with the amplitude depending on the current density. While sintering Ti samples we observed temperature oscillations resulting from pressure oscillations, which we attribute to magnetic forces generated within the SPS apparatus. The described current–pressure–temperature relations might increase understanding of the SPS process.

  2. Tamponade in surgery for retinal detachment associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephen G; Flynn, Harry W; Lee, Wen-Hsiang; Wang, Xue

    2014-02-14

    Retinal detachment (RD) with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) often requires surgery to restore normal anatomy and to stabilize or improve vision. PVR usually occurs in association with recurrent RD (that is, after initial retinal re-attachment surgery) but occasionally may be associated with primary RD. Either way, a tamponade agent (gas or silicone oil) is needed during surgery to reduce the rate of postoperative recurrent RD. The objective of this review was to assess the relative safety and effectiveness of various tamponade agents used with surgery for retinal detachment (RD) complicated by proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR). We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to June 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to June 2013), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to June 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 26 June 2013. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of participants undergoing surgery for RD associated with PVR that compared various tamponade agents. Two review authors screened the search results independently. We used the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. The review included 516 participants from three RCTs. One study was conducted in the USA and consisted of two trials: the first trial randomized 151 adults to receive either silicone oil or sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas tamponades; and the second trial randomized 271 adults to receive either

  3. Recombination dominated hydrogenic emission from the detached plasmas in W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.; Koenig, R.; Wenzel, U.; Thomsen, H.; McCormick, K.; Grigull, P.; Feng, Y.; Klinger, T.; John, A.

    2003-01-01

    Beyond a certain threshold average density in the High-Density H-Mode the island divertor plasma in the stellarator W7-AS undergoes partial detachment. The tomographic reconstruction of the radiated power density from the detached pulses show that the radiation profile in the triangular plane is also asymmetric. In the detached phase, the spectrometer viewing tangentially to the target tiles in the top divertor region manifests that the impurity radiation layer is close to the X-points. The spectral analysis also demonstrates the presence of a hydrogen radiation zone dominated by recombination emission close to the target tiles. This papers presents the emission from the deeply detached locations including the volume recombination in a stable discharge. (orig.)

  4. Role of Membrane Cholesterol Levels in Activation of Lyn upon Cell Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Morinaga

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol, a major component of the plasma membrane, determines the physicalproperties of biological membranes and plays a critical role in the assembly of membranemicrodomains. Enrichment or deprivation of membrane cholesterol affects the activities of manysignaling molecules at the plasma membrane. Cell detachment changes the structure of the plasmamembrane and influences the localizations of lipids, including cholesterol. Recent studies showedthat cell detachment changes the activities of a variety of signaling molecules. We previously reportedthat the localization and the function of the Src-family kinase Lyn are critically regulated by itsmembrane anchorage through lipid modifications. More recently, we found that the localization andthe activity of Lyn were changed upon cell detachment, although the manners of which vary betweencell types. In this review, we highlight the changes in the localization of Lyn and a role of cholesterolin the regulation of Lyn’s activation following cell detachment.

  5. Massive Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment in a Case of Hypertensive Chorioretinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Villalba-Pinto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Systemic high blood pressure is related to a variety of retinal manifestations. We present an atypical case of hypertensive chorioretinopathy with massive bilateral serous retinal detachment. Case Report: A 26-year-old male with a genitourinary malformation and secondary grade IV chronic kidney failure as well as high blood pressure complained of acute vision loss. Dilated fundus examination evidenced a bilateral serous retinal detachment with macular involvement. The patient was unresponsive to oral antihypertensive therapy and dialysis treatment. The serous retinal detachment progressively decreased after the restoration of dialysis and antihypertensive therapy. The final visual acuity was 0.50 in both eyes. Discussion: In cases of serous macular detachment, it is mandatory to rule out different systemic and ocular diseases. The presence of uncontrolled high blood pressure may produce aggressive bilateral retinal changes, thus hypertension must be under early and strict control in order to improve the visual outcomes.

  6. Massive Bilateral Serous Retinal Detachment in a Case of Hypertensive Chorioretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba-Pinto, Luis; Hernández-Ortega, M. Ángeles; de los Mozos, F. Javier Lavid; Pascual-Camps, Isabel; Dolz-Marco, Rosa; Arevalo, J. Fernando; Gallego-Pinazo, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Systemic high blood pressure is related to a variety of retinal manifestations. We present an atypical case of hypertensive chorioretinopathy with massive bilateral serous retinal detachment. Case Report A 26-year-old male with a genitourinary malformation and secondary grade IV chronic kidney failure as well as high blood pressure complained of acute vision loss. Dilated fundus examination evidenced a bilateral serous retinal detachment with macular involvement. The patient was unresponsive to oral antihypertensive therapy and dialysis treatment. The serous retinal detachment progressively decreased after the restoration of dialysis and antihypertensive therapy. The final visual acuity was 0.50 in both eyes. Discussion In cases of serous macular detachment, it is mandatory to rule out different systemic and ocular diseases. The presence of uncontrolled high blood pressure may produce aggressive bilateral retinal changes, thus hypertension must be under early and strict control in order to improve the visual outcomes. PMID:25120474

  7. Single- and double-electron detachment in collisions of two negative hydrogen ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, F.; Schulze, R.; Kruedener, S.; Meuser, S.; Salzborn, E.

    1995-01-01

    Employing the crossed-beams technique in conjunction with a beam-pulsing method, we have measured absolute cross sections σ tot for the process H - + H - → H O +... for CM energies between 2.5 and 100 keV. Combining the present results with our previously measured cross sections for double-electron detachment (σ OO ) and triple-electron detachment (σ 0+ ), we obtain cross sections σ 0- for the single electron detachment process from the relation σ 0- = σ tot -σ 00 -σ 0+ . The experimental data of single- and double-electron detachment are well described by theoretical results based on the non-stationary tunnelling approach. Both cross sections are calculated for CM energies between 0.15 and 300 keV. A new two-electron simultaneous transition mechanism is introduced. The importance of this process for the theoretical assessment of the experimental results is discussed. (Author)

  8. The electric sector and its insert in a global scenery; O setor eletrico e sua insercao num cenario globalizado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Ricardo Oliveira Lopes

    1999-11-01

    The document discusses the following issues of the Brazilian electric power sector: historical aspects; the creation of the ELETROBRAS and the sectorial debts process; financial and productive globalization; electric industry and the new environment and the new businesses. The author concludes the work detaching the new business appearance in the Brazilian electric power sector.

  9. Visualization of intermittent blobby plasma transport in attached and detached plasmas of the NAGDIS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Furuta, Katsuhiro; Takamura, Shuichi

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the intermittent convective plasma transport in a attached and/or detached plasma condition of the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. Images taken by a fast-imaging camera clearly show that in attached plasmas, blobs are peeled off the bulk plasma, and propagate outward with an azimuthal motion. In detached plasmas, plasma turbulence observed near the plasma recombining region drives strong intermittent radial plasma transport, which could broaden the radial density profile. (author)

  10. Assessment of X-point target divertor configuration for power handling and detachment front control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Umansky

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of long-legged tokamak divertor configurations is performed with the edge transport code UEDGE (Rognlien et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 196, 347, 1992. The model parameters are based on the ADX tokamak concept design (LaBombard et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 053020, 2015. Several long-legged divertor configurations are considered, in particular the X-point target configuration proposed for ADX, and compared with a standard divertor. For otherwise identical conditions, a scan of the input power from the core plasma is performed. It is found that as the power is reduced to a threshold value, the plasma in the outer leg transitions to a fully detached state which defines the upper limit on the power for detached divertor operation. Reducing the power further results in the detachment front shifting upstream but remaining stable. At low power the detachment front eventually moves to the primary X-point, which is usually associated with degradation of the core plasma, and this defines the lower limit on the power for the detached divertor operation. For the studied parameters, the operation window for a detached divertor in the standard divertor configuration is very small, or even non-existent; under the same conditions for long-legged divertors the detached operation window is quite large, in particular for the X-point target configuration, allowing a factor of 5–10 variation in the input power. These modeling results point to possibility of stable fully detached divertor operation for a tokamak with extended divertor legs.

  11. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging of subretinal bands associated with chronic retinal detachments

    OpenAIRE

    Kothari, Nikisha; Kuriyan, Ajay E; Flynn, Harry W

    2016-01-01

    Nikisha Kothari, Ajay E Kuriyan, Harry W Flynn JrDepartment of Ophthalmology, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: We report three patients with subretinal bands associated with retinal detachment in chronic retinal detachments who underwent successful retinal reattachment. Subretinal bands before and after surgery can be identified on clinical examination and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Removal of subr...

  12. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Elio Hitoshi; Kaba, Shajadi Carlos Pardo; Ruiz, Marcelo Martinson; Horikawa, Fernando Kendi

    2013-01-01

    In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy. PMID:23853472

  13. Dissecting the roles of ROCK isoforms in stress-induced cell detachment

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Jianjian; Surma, Michelle; Zhang, Lumin; Wei, Lei

    2013-01-01

    The homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are involved in stress fiber assembly and cell adhesion and are assumed to be functionally redundant. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ROCK1 ?/? and ROCK2?/? mice, we have recently reported that they play different roles in regulating doxorubicin-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment: ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell detachment, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing the actin...

  14. [Functional results of cryosurgical procedures in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region - our experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrapek, O; Sín, M; Jirková, B; Jarkovský, J; Rehák, J

    2013-10-01

    Aim of this study is to evaluate retrospectively functional results of cryosurgical treatment of uncomplicated, idiopathic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment including macula region in phakic patients operated on at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc, Czech Republic, E.U., during the period 2002 -2013, and to evaluate the significance of the macula detachment duration for the final visual acuity. In the study group were included 56 eyes of 56 patients operated in the years 2003 - 2012 at the Department of Ophthalmology, Faculty Hospital, Palacký University, Olomouc. All patients were phakic and in all of them, the retinal detachment including the macula region was diagnosed. The mean follow-up period of the patients was 8,75 months. The initial and final visual acuity testing were performed. Comparing the initial and final visual acuity we rated the level of the visual acuity change. The result was stated as improved, if the visual acuity improved by 1 or more lines on the ETDRS chart. The result was rated as stabilized, if the visual acuity remained the same or it changed by 1 line of the ETDRS chart only. The result was evaluated as worsened, if the visual acuity decreased by 1 or more lines of the ETDRS chart. In the followed-up group, the authors compared visual acuity levels in patients with the macula detachment duration 10 days and 11 days. For the statistical evaluation of achieved results, the Mann - Whitney U test was used. The visual acuity improved in 49 (87 %), did not changed in 5 (9 %) and worsened in 2 (4 %) patients. The patients with macula detachment duration 10 days achieved statistically significant better visual acuity than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days. Patients with macula detachment duration 10 days have better prognosis for functional result than patients with macula detachment duration 11 days.

  15. Inicial nasal mucosa detachment using piezoelectric device in the Le Fort I osteotomy: A technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elio Hitoshi Shinohara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In maxillary Le Fort I type osteotomy the detachment of the nasal mucosa should be done carefully. Piezoelectric surgery contributed much to increase the safety of osteotomies, despite the initial advantage of minimizing the risk of injury in nervous tissue, mainly in bilateral sagittal split osteotomy; we use the piezoelectric device for the initial detachment of the nasal mucosa in the maxillary osteotomy.

  16. Adoption, Cynical Detachment, and New Age Beliefs in Juno and Kung Fu Panda

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fu-jen

    2017-01-01

    In his article "Adoption, Cynical Detachment, and New Age Beliefs in Juno and Kung Fu Panda" Fu-Jen Chen situates his study within today's prevailing climate of global consumption to argue that the 2007 film Juno—featuring an unconventional portrayal of the adoption triad and a cynical detachment from public values—not only trivializes and depoliticizes the practice of adoption but also serves as an ideological supplement to today's global capitalism. Furthermore, Kung Fu Panda 1 & 2 (2008; 2...

  17. A case of traction retinal detachment in a patient with Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Akira; Gekka, Tamaki; Arai, Kota; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    This is the first report of vitreous surgery for traction retinal detachment in a patient with type III Gaucher disease with multiple vitreous opacities. A 16-year-old boy who was diagnosed with Gaucher disease at age two and was undergoing enzyme replacement therapy presented with numerous white opacities of varying sizes in the vitreous bodies of both eyes. Visual acuity was 20/40 in the right eye and 20/2000 in the left eye. The retina of the left eye was completely detached, and vitreous surgery was performed. Liquefaction of the vitreous body was advanced, and the central part of the vitreous cavity contained almost no vitreous humor. The macular region was successfully aspirated with a vitreous cutter to form a posterior vitreous detachment. From the optic disk to the nasal side, however, posterior vitreous detachment formation was prevented by strong adhesions between the retina and the vitreous body. The traction retinal detachment of the posterior fundus improved after vitreous body resection alone. Traction retinal detachment may occur as a result of severe vitreous liquefaction in cases of Gaucher disease with numerous vitreous opacities.

  18. Risk of serous retinal detachment in patients with end-stage renal disease on dialysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shin Chang

    Full Text Available The aim of this retrospective, nationwide, matched cohort study was to investigate the association of serous retinal detachment with having end-stage renal disease (ESRD while on dialysis. The cohort study included 94,024 patients with ESRD on dialysis registered between January 2000 to December 2009 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. An age- and sex-matched control group comprised 94,024 patients selected from the Taiwan Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2000. Information for each patient was collected from the index date until December 2011. Twenty-seven ESRD patients and 11 controls developed serous retinal detachment (P < 0.001 during follow-up, demonstrating a significantly increased risk of serous retinal detachment in patients with ESRD on dialysis compared with controls (incidence rate ratio = 3.39, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.68-6.83. After adjustment for potential confounders, patients were 3.86 times more likely to develop serous retinal detachment than the full cohort (adjusted HR = 3.86, 95% CI = 1.15-12.96. In conclusion, patients with ESRD on dialysis demonstrate an increased risk of serous retinal detachment. Interdisciplinary collaboration between nephrologists and ophthalmologists is important to deal with serous retinal detachment in patients with ESRD on dialysis and prevent impairments of visual acuity.

  19. Postoperative recovery of visual function after macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Put, Mathijs A J; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M; Japing, Wouter J; Hooymans, Johanna M M; Los, Leonoor I

    2014-01-01

    To determine which factors affect the recovery of visual function in macula off rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). In a prospective study of forty-five patients with a primary macula-off RRD of 24 hours to 6 weeks duration, the height of the macular detachment was determined by ultrasonography. At 12 months postoperatively, best corrected visual acuity (BCVA), contrast acuity, and color confusion indexes (CCI) were obtained. Macular detachment was present for 2-32 (median 7) days before repair. A shorter duration of macular detachment was correlated with a better CCI saturé (p = 0.0026) and lower LogMAR BCVA (better Snellen visual acuity) (p = 0.012). Also, a smaller height of macular detachment was correlated with a lower LogMAR BCVA (p = 0.0034). A younger age and lower pre-operative LogMAR BCVA at presentation were both correlated with better postoperative contrast acuity in the total group (age: p = 1.7×10(-4) and pre-operative LogMAR BCVA: p = 0.0034). Functional recovery after macula-off RRD is affected by the duration and the height of the macular detachment. Recovery of contrast acuity is also affected by age and BCVA at presentation. ARVO annual meeting 2013, May 7, Seattle, Washington, United States of America. trialregister.nl NTR839.

  20. [Clinical Characteristics of Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in Highly Myopic and Phakic Eyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orihara, Tadashi; Hirota, Kazunari; Yokota, Reiji; Kunita, Daisuke; Itoh, Yuji; Rii, Tosho; Koto, Takashi; Hiraoka, Tomoyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Hirakata, Akito

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate clinical characteristics of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in high myopic and phakic eyes. The subjects were 1174 eyes of phakic rhegmatogenous retinal detachment detected in 1199 eyes that underwent initial vitreoretinal surgery between April 2006 and March 2011. Eyes with macular hole retinal detachment or secondary retinal detachment were excluded. The 486 eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent ≤ -6.0 D or axial length ≥ 26.5 mm) and the 688 eyes with non-high myopia were compared. The mean age was significantly younger in the high myopia group (42.7 ± 14.2 years old, p lattice degeneration were more frequent (16.7%, 20.4%, respectively). The incidences of the retinal detachment in younger age and those caused by retinal holes were higher in the high myopia group. Higher incidence of retinal detachment and lattice degeneration in the fellow eyes of the high myopia group indicated that careful observation also in the fellow eyes was recommended.

  1. Effects of temporal muscle detachment and coronoidotomy on facial growth in young rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Engelberg Fernandes Gomes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the effects of unilateral detachment of the temporal muscle and coronoidotomy on facial growth in young rats. Thirty one-month-old Wistar rats were distributed into three groups: detachment, coronoidotomy and sham-operated. Under general anesthesia, unilateral detachment of the temporal muscle was performed for the detachment group, unilateral coronoidotomy was performed for the coronoidotomy group, and only surgical access was performed for the sham-operated group. The animals were sacrificed at three months of age. Their soft tissues were removed, and the mandible was disarticulated. Radiographic projections-axial views of the skulls and lateral views of hemimandibles-were taken. Cephalometric evaluations were performed, and the values obtained were submitted to statistical analyses. There was a significant homolateral difference in the length of the premaxilla, height of the mandibular ramus and body, and the length of the mandible in all three groups. However, comparisons among the groups revealed no significant differences between the detachment and coronoidotomy groups for most measurements. It was concluded that both experimental detachment of the temporal muscle and coronoidotomy during the growth period in rats induced asymmetry of the mandible and affected the premaxilla.

  2. Middle Miocene E-W tectonic horst structure of Crete through extensional detachment faults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papanikolaou, D; Vassilakis, E

    2008-01-01

    Two east-west trending extensional detachment faults have been recognized in Crete, one with top-to-the-north motion of the hanging wall toward the Cretan Sea and one with top-to-the-south motion of the hanging wall toward the Libyan Sea. The east-west trending zone between these two detachment faults, which forms their common footwall, comprises a tectonic horst formed during Middle Miocene slip on the detachment faults. The detachment faults disrupt the overall tectono-stratigraphic succession of Crete and are localized along pre-existing thrust faults and along particular portions of the stratigraphic sequence, including the transition between the Permo-Triassic Tyros Beds and the base of the Upper Triassic-Eocene carbonate platform of the Tripolis nappe. By recognizing several different tectono-stratigraphic formations within what is generally termed the 'phyllite-quartzite', it is possible to distinguish these extensional detachment faults from thrust faults and minor discontinuities in the sequence. The deformation history of units within Crete can be summarized as: (i) compressional deformation producing arc-parallel east-west trending south-directed thrust faults in Oligocene to Early Miocene time (ii) extensional deformation along arc-parallel, east-west trending detachment faults in Middle Miocene time, with hanging wall motion to the north and south; (iii) Late Miocene-Quaternary extensional deformation along high-angle normal and oblique normal faults that disrupt the older arc-parallel structures

  3. Macular detachment associated with an optic pit: optical coherence tomography patterns and surgical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaat, Alon; Moroz, Iris; Moisseiev, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    To describe the different optical coherence tomography (OCT) patterns in macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit and their long-term evolution following vitrectomy.
 The data of 5 patients (9-43 years of age) with unilateral macular detachment associated with an optic disc pit, who had at least 1 year of follow-up, were compiled. Pars plana vitrectomy combined with gas tamponade was performed as the primary procedure in all patients. The OCT scans, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and anatomic outcomes were documented.
 Two main OCT patterns were identified: a multilayer schisis pattern and a serous detachment pattern. Patients with multilayer schisis pattern were older and demonstrated worse mean preoperative (20/160) and postoperative (20/50) BCVA compared to serous detachment pattern patients (20/30 and 20/20, respectively). An average of 2.3 procedures per patient was needed in the multilayer schisis pattern compared to just one procedure in the serous detachment pattern. In 3 patients, additional pneumatic retinopexy was performed with full resolution of the subretinal fluid achieved.
 Two distinct OCT patterns were observed in eyes with macular detachments with an optic pit, with different clinical features and prognoses. Excellent final visual acuity was obtained in all eyes, including those that required several surgical procedures.

  4. The Frequency of Serous Macular Detachment in Diabetic Macular Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Yaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To investigate the epidemiology and frequency of serous macular detachment (SMD in patients diagnosed with diabetic macular edema (DME. Materials and Methods: Hundred and forty-three eyes of 104 patients with DME were examined retrospectively. According to the results of OCT, the patients were separated into two groups; patients diagnosed with SMD and DME (group 1 and patients diagnosed with DME (group 2. They were assessed based on demographic characteristics, average age, duration of diabetes mellitus (DM, hypertension (HT history, best-corrected visual acuity, and diabetic retinopathy stages. Results: The average age of the patients was 61±8.7 years. Forty-three patients (41.3% were female and 61 patients (58.7% were male. Fifty-four of 104 patients (51.9% had DME with SMD. 21 (38.8% patients had bilateral SMD. In group 1, 31 patients were male (57.4% and 23 patients were female (42.6%. In group 2, 30 (60% patients were male and 20 (40% patients were female. In group 1, average age was 60.2±9.6 and the average duration of DM was 12.2±7.0 years, whereas the average age was 61.9±7.6 and the average duration of DM was 14.06±6.8 years in group 2. Forty-two patients in group 1 (77.8% and 30 patients (60% in group 2 had history of HT. Before the treatment, the average best-corrected visual acuity was found to be 0.30±0.24 in group 1 and 0.32±0.25 in group 2. Conclusion: Today, it is thought that diabetic maculopathy is the leading cause of SMD and it is a determining factor of treatment applications. In our study, we aimed at investigating the frequency of SMD in DME and the risk factors for the development of SMD. Although there were some differences between the factors, only the history of HT was found statistically higher in patients with SMD (p=0.04. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2015; 45: 92-96

  5. Pseudophakic retinal detachment in young-aged patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Laube

    Full Text Available To investigate the incidence and risk factors for retinal detachment (RD after cataract surgery or refractive lens exchange (RLE in patients aged below 61 years.Retrospective medical chart review of 7,886 patients (13,925 eyes who underwent cataract surgery or RLE. Patients aged below 61 years were selected. Age, gender, axial length, follow-up times, and the occurrence of RD were recorded. Additional characteristics documented for RD cases were: history of RD, preexisting retinal findings, laser capsulotomy, status of macula at RD, date and details of RD.From a total of 421 patients (677 eyes aged below 61 years 24 cases of RD were identified, resulting in an overall cumulative incidence per eyes of 3.55%. The mean follow-up time was 45 ± 32.8 months. Ninety-two % of all RDs occurred within 3.6 years from surgery. Axial length had a significant effect on the risk of RD after cataract/ RLE surgery (HR = 1.42, P = 0.0001, 95% CI 1.19-1.69. The highest incidence of RD occurred in the subgroup of 25 to 28.9 mm axial length (10.2%. With an increase in age of ten years, the hazard of postoperative RD was not significantly increased by a factor of 1.50 (P = 0.286, 95% CI 0.71-3.15. The highest incidence of RD occurred in patients aged 50-54 years (5.39%. Compared to females, males had an almost twofold not significant risk of postoperative RD (HR = 1.96, P = 0.123, 95% CI 0.83-4.63. None of the RD cases had a history of RD.Axial length is a significant risk factor for pseudophakic RD. The need for cataract surgery or RLE should be carefully considered in patients with axial lengths between 25 and 29 mm, aged 50-54 years, in males, and in case of preexisting retinal findings.

  6. Detached Concern of Forensic Mental Health Nurses in Therapeutic Relationships With Patients: The Application of the Early Recognition Method Related to Detached Concern

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fluttert, F.A.J.; Meijel, B.K.G. van; Nijman, H.L.I.; Björkly, S.; Grypdonck, M.H.F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective - Improvement of the interaction between forensic mental health nurses and patients may lead to a reduction of inpatient violence. The concept under study is detached concern, which refers to nurses' skills to neutralize the emotional appeal of patients by a balanced attitude between

  7. Current-induced metal-insulator transition in VO x thin film prepared by rapid-thermal-annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Choong-Rae; Cho, SungIl; Vadim, Sidorkin; Jung, Ranju; Yoo, Inkyeong

    2006-01-01

    The phenomenon of metal-insulator transition (MIT) in polycrystalline VO x thin films and their preparations have been studied. The films were prepared by sputtering of vanadium thin films succeeded by Rapid Thermal Annealing (RTA) in oxygen ambient at 500 deg. C. Crystalline, compositional, and morphological characterizations reveal a continuous change of phase from vanadium metal to the highest oxide phase, V 2 O 5 , with the time of annealing. Electrical MIT switching has been observed in these films. Sweeping mode, electrode area, and temperature dependent MIT has been studied in Pt/VO x /Pt vertical structure. The important parameters for MIT in VO x have been found to be the current density and the electric field, which depend on carrier density in the films

  8. Microphysical Modeling of Titan's Detached Haze Layer in a 3D GCM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik J.; Toon, Owen B.; West, Robert A.; Friedson, A. James

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the formation and seasonal cycle of the detached haze layer in Titan’s upper atmosphere using a 3D GCM with coupled aerosol microphysics. The base of the detached haze layer is defined by a local minimum in the vertical extinction profile. The detached haze is seen at all latitudes including the south pole as seen in Cassini images from 2005-2012. The layer merges into the winter polar haze at high latitudes where the Hadley circulation carries the particles downward. The hemisphere in which the haze merges with the polar haze varies with season. We find that the base of the detached haze layer occurs where there is a near balance between vertical winds and particle fall velocities. Generally the vertical variation of particle concentration in the detached haze region is simply controlled by sedimentation, so the concentration and the extinction vary roughly in proportion to air density. This variation explains why the upper part of the main haze layer, and the bulk of the detached haze layer follow exponential profiles. However, the shape of the profile is modified in regions where the vertical wind velocity is comparable to the particle fall velocity. Our simulations closely match the period when the base of the detached layer in the tropics is observed to begin its seasonal drop in altitude, and the total range of the altitude drop. However, the simulations have the base of the detached layer about 100 km lower than observed, and the time for the base to descend is slower in the simulations than observed. These differences may point to the model having somewhat lower vertical winds than occur on Titan, or somewhat too large of particle sizes, or some combination of both. Our model is consistent with a dynamical origin for the detached haze rather than a chemical or microphysical one. This balance between the vertical wind and particle fall velocities occurs throughout the summer hemisphere and tropics. The particle concentration gradients that

  9. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that f...

  10. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modern society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO 4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable. (Author) 8 refs

  11. Detachments in Shale: Controlling Characteristics on Fold-Thrust Belt Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansberry, Rowan; King, Ros; Collins, Alan; Morley, Chris

    2013-04-01

    Fold-thrust belts occur across multiple tectonic settings where thin-skinned deformation is accommodated by one or more detachment zones, both basal and within the fold-thrust belt. These fold-thrust belts exhibit considerable variation in structural style and vergence depending on the characteristics (e.g. strength, thickness, and lithology) and number of detachment zones. Shale as a detachment lithology is intrinsically weaker than more competent silts and sands; however, it can be further weakened by high pore pressures, reducing resistance to sliding and; high temperatures, altering the rheology of the detachment. Despite the implications for petroleum exploration and natural hazard assessment the precise nature by which detachments in shale control and are involved in deformation in fold-thrust belts is poorly understood. Present-day active basal detachment zones are usually located in inaccessible submarine regions. Therefore, this project employs field observations and sample analysis of ancient, exhumed analogues to document the nature of shale detachments (e.g. thickness, lithology, dip and dip direction, deformational temperature and thrust propagation rates) at field sites in Thailand, Norway and New Zealand. X-ray diffraction analysis of illite crystallinity and oxygen stable isotopes analysis are used as a proxy for deformational temperature whilst electron-backscatter diffraction analysis is used to constrain microstructural deformational patterns. K-Ar dating of synkinematic clay fault gouges is being applied to date the final stages of activity on individual faults with a view to constraining thrust activation sequences. It is not possible to directly measure palaeo-data for some key detachment parameters, such as pore pressure and coefficients of friction. However, the use of critical taper wedge theory has been used to successfully infer internal and basal coefficients of friction and depth-normalized pore pressure within a wedge and at its base

  12. Magnetic Nozzles for Plasma Thrusters: Acceleration, Thrust, and Detachment Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    neutral double layer. A very detailed study of this surface discontinuity has been culminated [4]. It had been claimed that the presence of this DL could...field assures that electrons are strongly-magnetized whereas ions are partially-magnetized. The use of the method of characteristic surfaces (i.e...z = const disk. (d) Ambipolar electric field and equipotential lines for plasmas with a 0.2 fraction of 9-times hotter electrons at the nozzle

  13. On the use of purchased fuelwood in detached houses in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuomi, S.; Mattila, K.

    1996-01-01

    The study, conducted jointly by the Finnish Forest Research Institute (METLA) and the Work Efficiency Institute (TTS-Institute), looked into the volumes of fuelwood consumed by, the manner of fuel wood procurement employed, and the usage plans of people living in detached houses. The study was conducted during the heating season 1992/93. METLA collected the study material by the means of a nation-wide mail inquiry. The base population for the study was provided by all the 1.4 million detached houses in Finland. The sample comprised 12 273 detached houses. This publication of the Forestry Department of TTS-Institute is a separate report on the use of fuelwood and other issues related to purchased fuelwood. An estimated total of 5.6 million m 3 of fuelwood were consumed in by household living in detached houses throughout Finland during the heating season 1992/93. The consumption of fuelwood on farms was 2.5 million m 3 , in detached houses proper 2.3 million m 3 , in recreational homes 0.6 million m 3 , and other houses 0.2 million m 3 . 3.6 million m 3 of the fuelwood consumed was acquired from the users' own woodlots. The proportion of purchased wood was nearly a million m 3 and another million m 3 of fuelwood were acquired by some other way. Of the purchased fuelwood, 12 % was bought ready- chopped. More than one owner of detached houses considered the use of purchased wood a possibility. Ready-chopped firewood was the most popular form of fuelwood. The owners of nearly 220 000 detached houses planned to increase their fuelwood consumption during the next two years and 27 % of them intended to buy their fuelwood. 11 % of the respondents were of the opinion that there was not enough purchased fuelwood in suitable form available in their locality. (19 refs.)

  14. Unwanted detachment of the Solitaire device during mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, C; Dorado, L; Remollo, S; García-Bermejo, P; Gomis, M; Pérez de la Ossa, N; Millán, M; García-Sort, M R; Hidalgo, C; López-Cancio, E; Cubells, C; Dávalos, A

    2016-01-27

    The use of retrievable stents for endovascular clot retrieval has dramatically improved successful revascularization and clinical outcome in selected patients with acute stroke. To describe the rate and clinical consequences of unwanted spontaneous detachment of these devices during mechanical thrombectomy. We studied 262 consecutive patients treated with the retrievable stent, Solitaire, for acute ischemic stroke between November 2008 and April 2015. Clinical, procedural, and outcome variables were compared between patients with and without unexpected detachment of this device. Detachment was classified as proximal to the stent proximal marker (type A) or distal to the marker (type B). Poor functional outcome was defined as modified Rankin scale score >2 at 90 days. Unwanted detachment occurred in 6/262 (2.3%) cases, four of type A and two of type B. Stent recovery was possible in three patients, all of 'type A', but in none of 'type B'. The number of prior passes was higher in patients with undesired detachment (3 (2-5) vs 2 (1-3), p=0.007). Detachment was associated with higher rate of symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH) (33.3% vs 4.3%, p=0.001), poorer outcome (100% vs 54.8%, p=0.028), and higher mortality rate at 90 days (50% vs 17%, p=0.038). Unwanted detachment of a Solitaire is an uncommon complication during mechanical thrombectomy in patients with acute ischemic stroke and is associated with the clot retrieval attempts, SICH, poor outcome, and higher mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Correlation of visual recovery with macular height in macula-off retinal detachments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowatt, L; Tarin, S; Nair, R G; Menon, J; Price, N J

    2010-02-01

    To determine the relationship between the preoperative macular height of a macular detachment and visual outcome of the post retinal reattachment. Prospective case series of 26 patients who presented to the Wolverhampton Eye Infirmary with a primary rhegmatogenous macula-off retinal detachment. Macular detachment height was assessed by B-scan ultrasound (10 Mhz) in the seated and supine postures before surgery. Age, gender, duration of the detachment, type of surgery, preoperative (pre-op) and postoperative (post-op) visual acuities at 3 and 6 months and status of the fellow eye were noted. A total of 26 eyes of 26 patients (mean age: 61.4 years+/-15.56 SD) were recruited. The mean logMAR pre- and post-op visual acuities at 3 and 6 months were 1.5+/-1.1 SD (range: 0.2-3), 0.38+/-0.23 SD (range: 0-0.84), and at 6 months 0.29+/-0.22 SD (range: 0-1.0). The median period of the macular detachment was 4.5 days (95% CI: 2-8 days). There was no significant difference between the mean macular heights while seated 2.42 mm+/-1.2 or supine 2.39 mm+/-1.0 (t-test, P=0.9). Correlation showed that the pre-op macular height is a statistical predictor of post-op visual acuity in our group of patients with macula-off retinal detachments. The shallower the macular detachment the greater the likelihood of a good visual outcome.

  16. Prophylactic treatment of the fellow eye of patients with retinal detachment: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitabile, Teresio; Bonfiglio, Vincenza; Reibaldi, Michele; Torrisi, Benedetto; Reibaldi, Alfredo

    2004-03-01

    Controversy exists over the prophylactic treatment of predisposing lesions to prevent retinal detachment. Seven hundred sixty consecutive phakic fellow eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in the first eye were examined by the same vitreoretinal surgeon before detachment surgery and for a follow-up period ranging from 1 to 72 months, with a mean of 36 months. During this period, in 305 fellow eyes (40.1%) predisposing retinal lesions were present and prophylactic treatments (photocoagulation, cryotherapy or scleral buckle) were performed independently of vitreous status. The results were then compared with the incidence of bilateral RD without prophylaxis reported in Folk and Burton's study of 1982; the two study's data were well matched and showed no significant difference in regards to age, sex, incidence myopia > or =-2.5 and incidence of lattice degeneration. The objective was to investigate whether or not prophylactic treatment is able to avert retinal detachment in the fellow eye. The age of the patients with peripheral retinal lesions was correlated inversely with the presence of myopia. Nine eyes out of 305 eyes treated (2.9%) developed a retinal detachment, reducing the rate of bilateral retinal detachment to 1.2% (9 eyes out of 760). This incidence of bilaterality (1.2%) was lower than the incidence of retinal detachment in fellow eyes not prophylactically treated as reported in the literature, and there exists a highly statistically significant difference between this study's data of 1.2% after prophylaxis and a 13.4% rate of bilaterality as reported by Folk without prophylaxis (P=0.0000).

  17. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering, Physics and Mathematics, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2008-01-15

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO{sub 2}. Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part

  18. Perspectives on implementing energy efficiency in existing Swedish detached houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joelsson, Anna; Gustavsson, Leif

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we first analyse energy-efficiency measures in existing electrically heated houses in Sweden from a societal economic perspective. Measures to a house envelopes and to energy supply chains are evaluated through a system analysis approach and we include the external costs of climate change and the effect of different Swedish climatic zones. We find that in a typical house from the 1970s, conversion from electric heating is highly motivated since the mitigation cost of conversion is lower than the estimated external costs of emitted CO 2 . Both conversions and house envelope measures are more motivated in the northern part of the country, where there is a higher heat demand. A successful implementation of changes requires them to be attractive for consumers to adopt. We therefore secondly analyse the economic conditions for Swedish house owners to implement societal economic cost-efficient measures. We include the economic influence of an investment subsidy for heating system conversion, an income tax deduction for changing windows, customer electricity tax, real estate tax and of the cost of purchased energy from different energy suppliers. Apart from the economics, several other factors affect a house owner's decision to change heating systems. We therefore thirdly analyse house owners' perceptions of different heating supply alternatives based on the results of two comprehensive questionnaires. These different perspectives are combined in a discussion whether the studied policy instruments encourage house owners to implement changes in accordance with the energy-efficiency goals of decision makers. We find that the investment subsidy could be useful to break the lock-in effect of resistance heaters, which house owners seemed to experience. The electricity tax makes heating systems in line with national goals more competitive and efficiency measures to the house envelope more profitable. The reduction of the electricity tax in the northern part of

  19. Detailed electromagnetic numerical evaluation of eddy currents induced by toroidal and poloidal magnetic field variation and halo currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Marin, A.; Lucca, F.; Merola, M.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed evaluation of the EM loads in the ITER divertor during plasma disruptions is mandatory for the correct dimensioning of the divertor component. The EM loads during plasma disruptions are mainly produced by: (1) toroidal flux variation (TFV) during the thermal quench (TQ) and current quench (CQ); (2) halo currents (HC); and (3) poloidal flux variation (PFV) during TQ and CQ phase. The new ITER reference disruption and the last changes in the divertor design have been considered in the EM models created to calculate all the EM loads due to TFV, HC and PFV. All the analyses have been performed for the three different main design options of the divertor plasma facing units (PFU). The effects of PFV have been analyzed using an EM-zooming procedure that has allowed a good detail of the component model, while new numerical approaches have been developed for the evaluation of the effects due to TFV and HC maintaining the same detail for the divertor model. Separate models have been developed to evaluate the equivalent electrical resistivities of the various PFU options; this allows in the full 3D model a strong simplification of a geometry which would otherwise be very complex. The effect of an electrical surface bridging of the PFU castellation has also been taken into account

  20. Detailed electromagnetic numerical evaluation of eddy currents induced by toroidal and poloidal magnetic field variation and halo currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roccella, M. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S. Piazza Prinetti, 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy)], E-mail: massimo.roccella@ltcalcoli.it; Marin, A.; Lucca, F. [L.T. Calcoli S.a.S. Piazza Prinetti, 26/B, Merate (Lecco) (Italy); Merola, M. [ITER Team, Cadarache (France)

    2008-12-15

    A detailed evaluation of the EM loads in the ITER divertor during plasma disruptions is mandatory for the correct dimensioning of the divertor component. The EM loads during plasma disruptions are mainly produced by: (1) toroidal flux variation (TFV) during the thermal quench (TQ) and current quench (CQ); (2) halo currents (HC); and (3) poloidal flux variation (PFV) during TQ and CQ phase. The new ITER reference disruption and the last changes in the divertor design have been considered in the EM models created to calculate all the EM loads due to TFV, HC and PFV. All the analyses have been performed for the three different main design options of the divertor plasma facing units (PFU). The effects of PFV have been analyzed using an EM-zooming procedure that has allowed a good detail of the component model, while new numerical approaches have been developed for the evaluation of the effects due to TFV and HC maintaining the same detail for the divertor model. Separate models have been developed to evaluate the equivalent electrical resistivities of the various PFU options; this allows in the full 3D model a strong simplification of a geometry which would otherwise be very complex. The effect of an electrical surface bridging of the PFU castellation has also been taken into account.

  1. Influence of cell detachment on the respiration rate of tumor and endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Pierre; Copetti, Tamara; De Preter, Géraldine; Leveque, Philippe; Feron, Olivier; Jordan, Bénédicte F; Sonveaux, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Cell detachment is a procedure routinely performed in cell culture and a necessary step in many biochemical assays including the determination of oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in vitro. In vivo, cell detachment has been shown to exert profound metabolic influences notably in cancer but also in other pathologies, such as retinal detachment for example. In the present study, we developed and validated a new technique combining electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry and the use of cytodex 1 and collagen-coated cytodex 3 dextran microbeads, which allowed the unprecedented comparison of the OCR of adherent and detached cells with high sensitivity. Hence, we demonstrated that both B16F10 melanoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) experience strong OCR decrease upon trypsin or collagenase treatments. The reduction of cell oxygen consumption was more pronounced with a trypsin compared to a collagenase treatment. Cells remaining in suspension also encounter a marked intracellular ATP depletion and an increase in the lactate production/glucose uptake ratio. These findings highlight the important influence exerted by cell adhesion/detachment on cell respiration, which can be probed with the unprecedented experimental assay that was developed and validated in this study.

  2. Influence of Cell Detachment on the Respiration Rate of Tumor and Endothelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danhier, Pierre; Copetti, Tamara; De Preter, Géraldine; Leveque, Philippe; Feron, Olivier; Jordan, Bénédicte F.; Sonveaux, Pierre; Gallez, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Cell detachment is a procedure routinely performed in cell culture and a necessary step in many biochemical assays including the determination of oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in vitro. In vivo, cell detachment has been shown to exert profound metabolic influences notably in cancer but also in other pathologies, such as retinal detachment for example. In the present study, we developed and validated a new technique combining electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oximetry and the use of cytodex 1 and collagen-coated cytodex 3 dextran microbeads, which allowed the unprecedented comparison of the OCR of adherent and detached cells with high sensitivity. Hence, we demonstrated that both B16F10 melanoma cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) experience strong OCR decrease upon trypsin or collagenase treatments. The reduction of cell oxygen consumption was more pronounced with a trypsin compared to a collagenase treatment. Cells remaining in suspension also encounter a marked intracellular ATP depletion and an increase in the lactate production/glucose uptake ratio. These findings highlight the important influence exerted by cell adhesion/detachment on cell respiration, which can be probed with the unprecedented experimental assay that was developed and validated in this study. PMID:23382841

  3. Onyx embolization with the Apollo detachable tip microcatheter: A single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy R; Giacon, Luciano; Kole, Matthew J; Chen, Rong; Jindal, Gaurav; Gandhi, Dheeraj

    2018-06-01

    Purpose The Apollo Onyx Delivery Microcatheter (Ev3, Irvine, CA) is a detachable-tip microcatheter that was developed to reduce the risk of microcatheter entrapment during ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) embolizations. We report our experience with the microcatheter in a variety of neurointerventional procedures. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all Onyx embolizations performed in the head, neck, and spine using the Apollo Onyx Delivery Microcatheter from its introduction at our institution in July 2014 to August 2016. Information regarding patient diagnoses, procedural details, as well as clinical outcomes were obtained from the electronic medical record, procedure reports, and relevant angiographic imaging. Results A total of 58 arterial pedicle Onyx embolizations were performed in 37 patients. There were no cases of microcatheter entrapment, early/inadvertent tip detachment, or vessel injury upon removal of the device. There were two instances (3.5%) of leakage of Onyx from the microcatheter detachment site during embolization, which did not result in adverse sequelae. Clinical outcomes were excellent, with nearly all embolizations achieving the intended goal. In multivariate analysis, length of Onyx reflux along the microcatheter tip and utilization of a higher viscosity agent, Onyx 34, were significantly associated with tip detachment. Conclusion The use of the Apollo Microcatheter is both safe and effective during neurointerventional embolizations using Onyx. Leakage of liquid embolic agent from the detachment site is an infrequent technical complication that may be encountered with the device.

  4. The efficacy of fluid-gas exchange for the treatment of postvitrectomy retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ji Hye; Kim, Yu Cheol; Kim, Kwang Soo

    2009-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of fluid-gas exchange for the treatment of postvitrectomy retinal detachment. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 33 consecutive patients (35 eyes) who underwent fluid-gas exchange treatment for postvitrectomy retinal detachment using the two-needle pars plana approach technique. The retinal reattachment rate was 80.0% after complete intravitreal gas disappearance following the fluid-gas exchange; the overall success rate was 65.7%. Visual acuity was improved or stable in 80.0% of cases; a two-line or greater vision improvement or a best-corrected visual acuity of 0.4 or better occurred in 62.9% of cases. The success rates for superior retinal detachments and posterior pole retinal detachments were 76.5% and 85.7%, respectively. Fluid-gas exchange represents a simple and cost-effective alternative outpatient procedure for retinal reattachment without reoperation for the treatment of superior and posterior pole retinal detachments.

  5. Electron-detachment cross sections of halogen negative-ion projectiles for inertial confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant'Anna, M. M.; Zappa, F.; Santos, A. C. F.; de Barros, A. L. F.; Wolff, W.; Coelho, L. F. S.; de Castro Faria, N. V.

    2004-07-01

    Negative-ion beams have recently been suggested as sources of high-energy heavy atoms to be used as drivers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Owing to their electron affinities limited to a few eV, anions can be efficiently photo-detached in the vicinity of the fusion chamber, with the resulting high-velocity neutral projectiles following ballistic trajectories towards the hydrogen pellet target. Electron-detachment cross sections are needed as parameters to estimate the beam attenuation in the path from the ion source to the hydrogen pellet. Halogen anions are possible projectile choices. In this paper we present experimental data for total electron-detachment cross sections for F-, Cl-, Br- and I- ions incident on N2, in the 0.94-74 keV u-1 energy range. Our measurements can benchmark theory on anion electron detachment at intermediate to high velocities. Comparison between different projectiles shows very similar collision velocity dependencies. A simple geometrical scaling is presented, providing an estimate for electron-detachment cross sections at the MeV u-1 energy range. The presented scaling indicates that the vacuum requirements due to the use of halogen anions for ICF are less critical than previously suggested.

  6. The fellow eye in patients with unilateral retinal detachment: findings and prophylactic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, L

    1985-10-01

    During a 4-year period, 1978-1981, 312 patients were operated on for unilateral rhegmatogenous detachment of the retina. Of the fellow eyes, 11% showed moderate (VA 0.15-0.4) and 5% severe (VA less than or equal to 0.1) visual impairment. Of the fellow eyes 49% were myopic (- 1.0 D. or more), and aphakia was present in 14%. Details of the peripheral fundus were adequately recordable for 260 fellow eyes. Degenerations considered to predispose to retinal detachment were found in 98 eyes (38%): lattice degeneration in 54 (21%), granular tuft in 17 (7%), retinal tear(s) in 12 (5%), and retinoschisis in 15 (6%). Prophylactic treatment of predisposing degenerations was performed in 91 of the 98 eyes using cryo- or photocoagulation (argon laser). No intra- or permanent post-operative complications were noticed. One of the treated fellow eyes (1.1%) detached 10 months after prophylactic treatment due to new tears. In the untreated group, 6 of the 221 eyes detached (2.7%). The difference was not statistically significant, but the groups were not comparable because 93% of the eyes showing predisposing degenerations were treated. None of the eyes treated for retinal breaks or lattice degeneration has detached. In these cases prophylactic treatment of the fellow eye is recommended. In most eyes cryocoagulation seems to be preferable to photocoagulation.

  7. Early rhegmatogenous retinal detachment following laser in situ keratomileusis for high myopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, M E; Höfling-Lima, A L; Nascimento, E

    2000-01-01

    Four eyes had early rhegmatogenous retinal detachment within 3 months of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) for correction of high myopia using the microkeratome, Clear Corneal Molder. In two eyes, retinal detachment resulted from horseshoe tears, one occurring in an otherwise normal region of the retina and the other at the margin of an area of lattice degeneration detected during preoperative examination. The first eye was treated with retinopexy using a 287 encircling scleral exoplant, drainage of subretinal fluid, and laser photocoagulation by indirect ophthalmoscopy. The other eye was treated with pneumatic retinopexy and cryotherapy. In the other eyes, retinal detachment was the result of giant tears with no evidence of prior retinal degeneration. These eyes were treated with pars plana vitrectomy, fluid-gas exchange with 15% perfluoropropane (C3F8), endolaser photocoagulation, and a 42 encircling scleral exoplant. After treatment, the first two eyes achieved spectacle-corrected visual acuity of 20/40. In the last two eyes, final spectacle-corrected visual acuity was 20/400 in one eye and light perception in the other. Although no cause-effect relationship between LASIK and retinal detachment can be stated, these cases suggest that LASIK may be associated with retinal detachment, particularly in highly myopic eyes. Further studies are necessary to determine high-risk patient characteristics.

  8. Retinal detachment repair and cataract surgery in patients with atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnana Jothi, V; McGimpsey, S; Sharkey, J A; Chan, W C

    2017-09-01

    PurposeThe aim of this study is to report a case series of ocular complications including retinal detachment (RD) and cataract in atopic dermatitis (AD) and surgical management involving a majority of Caucasian patients.Patients and methodsThis study is an observational case series, originally designed as an audit. It involves detailed discussion of history, clinical features, and surgical management of patients presenting with retinal detachment and cataracts secondary to severe AD. Six consecutive patients with diagnosis of severe AD requiring posterior segment and cataract surgery were included in the study.ResultsEight eyes of six patients had retinal detachment. Most of them involved the temporal retina. The retinal breaks were located anteriorly close to the ora serrata in six eyes and Giant tear retinal (GRT) detachment was found in two eyes. Five eyes had proliferative vitreo-retinopathy (PVR) at presentation. All six patients had bilateral cataracts and cataract surgery was performed in eleven eyes. Bilateral simultaneous surgery was essential in two patients. Three eyes had secondary intra-ocular lens (IOL) implantation with pars plana vitrectomy for subluxed lens implant.ConclusionsAnterior retinal breaks and temporal RD are common in retinal detachment secondary to AD. PVR is often present, which makes surgical management difficult. Cataract formation is quite often and late subluxation of IOL may occur.

  9. Repair of Total Tractional Retinal Detachment in Norrie Disease: Report of Technique and Successful Surgical Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorich, Bozho; Thanos, Aristomenis; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Capone, Antonio

    2017-03-01

    Norrie disease is a rare, but devastating cause of pediatric retinal detachment, universally portending a poor visual prognosis. This paper describes successful surgical management of an infant with total retinal detachment associated with Norrie disease mutation. The infant was a full-term white male who presented with bilateral total funnel retinal detachments (RDs). He underwent genetic testing, which demonstrated single-point mutation 133 G>A transition in exon 2 of the NDP gene. The retinal detachment was managed with translimbal iridectomy, lensectomy, capsulectomy, and vitrectomy. Careful dissection of the retrolental membranes resulted in opening of the funnel. Single-stage surgery in this child's eye achieved re-attachment of the posterior pole with progressive reabsorption of subretinal fluid and cholesterol without the need for external drainage. Fluorescein angiography, performed at 2 months postoperatively, demonstrated perfusion of major vascular arcades, but with significant abnormalities and aneurysmal changes of higher-order vessels, suggestive of retinal and vascular dysplasia. The child has maintained brisk light perception vision. Early surgical intervention with careful dissection of tractional tissues can potentially result in good anatomic outcomes in some patients with Norrie disease-associated retinal detachment. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2017;48:260-262.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Work stressors and partner social undermining: Comparing negative affect and psychological detachment as mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Laurenz L; Cho, Eunae

    2018-05-14

    With the mounting evidence that employees' work experiences spill over into the family domain and cross over to family members, it is important to understand the underlying mechanism through which work experiences affect the family domain and what factors may alleviate the adverse impact of work stress. Expanding previous research that mainly focused on the affect-based mechanism (negative affect), the present research investigated a resource-based mechanism (psychological detachment from work) in the relationship linking two work stressors (high workload and workplace incivility) with social undermining toward the partner at home. We also explored the relative strength of the mediating effects of the two mechanisms. In addition, we tested whether relationship satisfaction moderates the proposed effect of detachment on partner undermining. We tested these research questions using two studies with differing designs: a five-wave longitudinal study (N = 470) and a multisource study (N = 131). The results suggest that stressful work experiences affect the family domain via lack of detachment as well as negative affect, that the two pathways have comparable strength, and that high relationship satisfaction mitigates the negative effect of lack of detachment on partner undermining. In sum, this research extends the spillover-crossover model by establishing that poor psychological detachment from work during leisure time is an additional mechanism that links work and family. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Hexuronic Acid Stereochemistry Determination in Chondroitin Sulfate Glycosaminoglycan Oligosaccharides by Electron Detachment Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Franklin E.; Ly, Mellisa; Laremore, Tatiana N.; Wolff, Jeremy J.; Perlow, Jacob; Linhardt, Robert J.; Amster, I. Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD) has previously provided stereo-specific product ions that allow for the assignment of the acidic C-5stereochemistry in heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), but application of the same methodology to an epimer pair in the chondroitin sulfate glycoform class does not provide the same result. A series of experiments have been conducted in which glycosaminoglycan precursor ions are independently activated by electron detachment dissociation (EDD), electron induced dissociation (EID), and negative electron transfer dissociation (NETD) to assign the stereochemistry in chondroitin sulfate (CS) epimers and investigate the mechanisms for product ion formation during EDD in CS glycoforms. This approach allows for the assignment of electronic excitation products formed by EID and detachment products to radical pathways in NETD, both of which occur simultaneously during EDD. The uronic acid stereochemistry in electron detachment spectra produces intensity differences when assigned glycosidic and cross-ring cleavages are compared. The variations in the intensities of the doubly deprotonated 0,2X3 and Y3 ions have been shown to be indicative of CS-A/DS composition during the CID of binary mixtures. These ions can provide insight into the uronic acid composition of binary mixtures in EDD, but the relative abundances, although reproducible, are low compared with those in a CID spectrum acquired on an ion trap. The application of principal component analysis (PCA) presents a multivariate approach to determining the uronic acid stereochemistry spectra of these GAGs by taking advantage of the reproducible peak distributions produced by electron detachment.

  12. Electron-detachment cross sections of halogen negative-ion projectiles for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sant'Anna, M M; Zappa, F; Santos, A C F; Barros, A L F de; Wolff, W; Coelho, L F S; Faria, N V de Castro

    2004-01-01

    Negative-ion beams have recently been suggested as sources of high-energy heavy atoms to be used as drivers for inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Owing to their electron affinities limited to a few eV, anions can be efficiently photo-detached in the vicinity of the fusion chamber, with the resulting high-velocity neutral projectiles following ballistic trajectories towards the hydrogen pellet target. Electron-detachment cross sections are needed as parameters to estimate the beam attenuation in the path from the ion source to the hydrogen pellet. Halogen anions are possible projectile choices. In this paper we present experimental data for total electron-detachment cross sections for F - , Cl - , Br - and I - ions incident on N 2 , in the 0.94-74 keV u -1 energy range. Our measurements can benchmark theory on anion electron detachment at intermediate to high velocities. Comparison between different projectiles shows very similar collision velocity dependencies. A simple geometrical scaling is presented, providing an estimate for electron-detachment cross sections at the MeV u -1 energy range. The presented scaling indicates that the vacuum requirements due to the use of halogen anions for ICF are less critical than previously suggested

  13. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental he...

  14. Occupational Lifting Tasks and Retinal Detachment in Non-Myopics and Myopics: Extended Analysis of a Case-control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mattioli, Stefano; Curti, Stefania; De Fazio, Rocco; Cooke, Robin Mt; Zanardi, Francesca; Bonfiglioli, Roberta; Farioli, Andrea; Violante, Francesco S.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lifting heavy weights involves the Valsalva manoeuvre, which leads to intraocular pressure spikes. We used data from a case-control study to further investigate the hypothesis that occupational lifting is a risk factor for retinal detachment. Methods: The study population included 48 cases (patients operated for retinal detachment) and 84 controls (outpatients attending an eye clinic). The odds ratios (OR) of idiopathic retinal detachment were estimated with a logistic regressi...

  15. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimazu, Akihito; Matsudaira, Ko; Jonge, Jan DE; Tosaka, Naoya; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Masaya

    2016-06-10

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental health, and work engagement as well as for job characteristics and demographic variables as potential confounders. The hypothesized model was tested with moderated structural equation modeling techniques among 2,234 respondents working in the tertiary industries with regular employment. Results showed that psychological detachment had curvilinear relations with mental health as well as with work engagement. Mental health improved when psychological detachment increased from a low to higher levels but did not benefit any further from extremely high levels of psychological detachment. Work engagement showed the highest level at an intermediate level of detachment (inverted U-shaped pattern). Although high psychological detachment may enhance employee mental health, moderate levels of psychological detachment are most beneficial for his or her work engagement.

  16. The radontechnical process of the sub-slab suction system in detached, semi-detached and terraced houses; Imupistejaerjestelmaen radontekninen toiminta eri tyyppisissae pien- ja rivitaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kettunen, A.V.; Rissanen, R.; Viljanen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Structural Engineering and Building Physics; Arvela, H. [Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The sub-slab suction system is a repair method for decreasing radon transfer from soil to indoor air in houses. The sub-slab suction system changes the flow field with the aim to reduce the radon content under the ground slab or/and changes the flow direction from indoor air to foundation soil. The study is divided into the theoretical and experimental part. The theoretical part concentrates on solving the factors affecting the sub-slab suction system taking into consideration features of old houses. The experimental part uses the results of the theoretical part when the level and the type of the suction point had been chosen. The effect of the sub-slab suction system was tested with pressure difference experiments and the radon content measurements in 26 different, typical Finnish detached, semi-detached and terrace houses.

  17. Return to work and risk of subsequent detachment from employment after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Laerke; Numé, Anna Karin; Charlot, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Background--Limited data are available on return to work and subsequent detachment from employment after admission for myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and Results--Using individual-level linkage of data from nationwide registries, we identified patients of working age (30-65 years) discharged...... after first-time MI in the period 1997 to 2012, who were employed before admission. To assess the cumulative incidence of return to work and detachment from employment, the Aalen Johansen estimator was used. Incidences were compared with population controls matched on age and sex. Logistic regression...... was applied to estimate odds ratios for associations between detachment from employment and age, sex, comorbidities, income, and education level. Of 39 296 patients of working age discharged after first-time MI, 22 394 (56.9%) were employed before admission. Within 1 year 91.1% (95% confidence interval [CI...

  18. The role of energy advisors on adoption of energy efficiency measures in detached houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahapatra, Krushna; Nair, Gireesh; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Mid Sweden Univ., Oestersund (Sweden)

    2009-07-01

    External actors can influence potential adopters to adopt energy efficiency measures. In Sweden energy advisers are one such actor group who provides energy advice and information to the end users. Currently, all municipalities offer energy advisers' service. The success of such service for improvement of energy efficiency of detached houses depends on homeowners' perception towards it. In this context we conducted a national survey of about 3000 owners of detached houses through stratified random sampling method in 2008 summer. We found that majority of owners' of detached houses consider energy advisers as an important source of information. Furthermore, many homeowners who contacted energy advisers for advice had implemented the suggestions. However, only a few homeowners had actually contacted energy advisers. Our findings suggest that it is beneficial to continue the energy adviser service, but more efforts are needed to increase homeowners' awareness of and satisfaction with such services.

  19. Management of retinal detachment in block related globe perforation with pneumatic retinopexy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karandeep Rishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Retinal detachment after ocular perforation related to local anesthesia is a common complication, which is usually associated with a poor prognosis despite complex vitreoretinal surgical procedures. We report a case of 62-year-old male with cataract surgery done 4 weeks back with nasal retinal detachment with a posterior break. Pneumatic retinopexy was performed and laser barrage of the breaks was done the next day when the retina got attached. A vision of 20/30 was achieved at the end of 2 months. To the best of our knowledge, this is a first case report in literature where pneumatic retinopexy was used to manage a retinal detachment caused by block-related perforation.

  20. Tunable wavefront coded imaging system based on detachable phase mask: Mathematical analysis, optimization and underlying applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Wei, Jingxuan

    2014-09-01

    The key to the concept of tunable wavefront coding lies in detachable phase masks. Ojeda-Castaneda et al. (Progress in Electronics Research Symposium Proceedings, Cambridge, USA, July 5-8, 2010) described a typical design in which two components with cosinusoidal phase variation operate together to make defocus sensitivity tunable. The present study proposes an improved design and makes three contributions: (1) A mathematical derivation based on the stationary phase method explains why the detachable phase mask of Ojeda-Castaneda et al. tunes the defocus sensitivity. (2) The mathematical derivations show that the effective bandwidth wavefront coded imaging system is also tunable by making each component of the detachable phase mask move asymmetrically. An improved Fisher information-based optimization procedure was also designed to ascertain the optimal mask parameters corresponding to specific bandwidth. (3) Possible applications of the tunable bandwidth are demonstrated by simulated imaging.

  1. Microperimetry and optical coherent tomography in patients operated on y the conventional retinal detachment surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Garcia, Roberto Alejandro; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Beatriz N; Eguia Martinez, Frank

    2008-01-01

    A descriptive study was made to determine the visual acuity, microperimetry and optical coherence tomography in patients operated on by the conventional rhegmatogenous retinal detachment at 'Ramon Pando Ferrer' Cuban Ophthalmologic Institute from October 2006 to March 2007. Twenty six patients, who had gone to the hospital with normal values in ophthalmoscopy and biomicroscopy and three-six months of disease development. Better corrected visual acuity, fixation, average sensitivity, morphology and macular thickness were obtained after surgery. Average visual acuity was 0,41 and fixation was stable in most of patients; average retinal sensitivity was 11 decibels. The most frequent finding was serum detachment. Average macular thickness was 246,3 micras. There was no statistical relation between preoperative time of disease development and the macular characteristics of detachment in these tests. (Author)

  2. Electron detachment of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain guanine complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Gu, Jiande; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2007-07-01

    The photoelectron spectra of the hydrogen-bonded amino acid side-chain-guanine complexes has been studied at the partial third order (P3) self-energy approximation of the electron propagator theory. The correlation between the vertical electron detachment energy and the charge distributions on the guanine moiety reveals that the vertical electron detachment energy (VDE) increases as the positive charge distribution on the guanine increases. The low VDE values determined for the negatively charged complexes of the guanine-side-chain-group of Asp/Glu suggest that the influence of the H-bonded anionic groups on the VDE of guanine could be more important than that of the anionic backbone structure. The even lower vertical electron detachment energy for guanine is thus can be expected in the H-bonded protein-DNA systems.

  3. Photorefractive keratectomy for visual rehabilitation of anisometropia induced by retinal detachment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Ozdek, S C; Gürelik, G; Adigüzel, U; Onol, M; Hasanreisoglu, B

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of unilateral photorefractive keratectomy to correct anisometropia induced by retinal detachment surgery. Photorefractive keratectomy was performed in 10 eyes of 10 patients with anisometropia induced by previous retinal detachment surgery. The Aesculap Meditec MEL 60 excimer laser was used. Preoperative mean spherical equivalent refraction was -5.20 D. Mean postoperative spherical equivalent refraction was -0.25 D after a mean follow-up of 12.9 months. Mean preoperative spherical equivalent refraction difference between two eyes of 4.87 D was decreased to a mean 0.60 D postoperatively (t-test, P < .0001). All patients were free of anisometropic symptoms after laser surgery. Unilateral photorefractive keratectomy seems to be an effective method to correct anisometropia induced by conventional retinal detachment surgery, especially for patients with spectacle and contact lens intolerance.

  4. Giant Retinal Tear With Retinal Detachment in Regressed Aggressive Posterior Retinopathy of Prematurity Treated by Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Parijat; Tewari, Ruchir; Salunkhe, Nitesh; Kumawat, Devesh; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-06-29

    Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment after successfully regressed retinopathy of prematurity is a rare occurrence. Late onset rhegmatogenous retinal detachment has been reported infrequently. The authors report a case of aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity that underwent uneventful regression after laser photocoagulation and later developed an inoperable closed funnel retinal detachment due to a giant retinal tear. This case represents the earliest development of such complications in regressed aggressive posterior retinopathy of prematurity treated by laser. Development of a giant retinal tear has also not been previously reported after laser treatment. This case highlights that successful regression of severe retinopathy of prematurity does not safeguard against future complications and requires frequent long-term follow-up. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e34-e36.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. A SECOND CASE OF BILATERAL RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENTS REPAIRED WITH SIMULTANEOUS BILATERAL PNEUMATIC RETINOPEXY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Uriel; De Jager, Cornelis; Zakour, Moayed; Gonder, J Thomas

    2017-01-01

    To present a case of a patient with simultaneous bilateral retinal detachments treated successfully with bilateral pneumatic retinopexy. Case report. This is a case of an otherwise healthy 49-year-old woman with no remarkable ocular history that presented with simultaneous phakic superior bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Treatment on the day of presentation included laser retinopexy of the inferior lattice degeneration in the left eye and bilateral intravitreal injection of 0.4 cc of 100% C3F8 gas preceded by topical anesthesia. After 48 hours, both retinas were completely reattached, and bilateral laser retinopexy was performed to the superior tears. After a review of the literature, the authors could find only two reported cases of simultaneous bilateral retinal detachments treated successfully with pneumatic retinopexy. This is not only a cost-effective procedure but also allows treatment when there is no immediate operating room availability or a when a quick referral for surgery is not possible.

  6. A path-independent integral for the characterization of solute concentration and flux at biofilm detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, B.; Kulkarni, S.S.; Reeves, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    A path-independent (conservation) integral is developed for the characterization of solute concentration and flux in a biofilm in the vicinity of a detachment or other flux limiting boundary condition. Steady state conditions of solute diffusion are considered and biofilm kinetics are described by an uptake term which can be expressed in terms of a potential (Michaelis-Menten kinetics). An asymptotic solution for solute concentration at the tip of the detachment is obtained and shown to be analogous to that of antiplane crack problems in linear elasticity. It is shown that the amplitude of the asymptotic solution can be calculated by evaluating a path-independent integral. The special case of a semi-infinite detachment in an infinite strip is considered and the amplitude of the asymptotic field is related to the boundary conditions and problem parameters in closed form for zeroth and first order kinetics and numerically for Michaelis-Menten kinetics. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2007.

  7. Proteomic analysis of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P.; Fisher, Steven K.

    2015-01-01

    of the vitreous following experimental retinal detachment using a comparative proteomic based approach. Materials and Methods. Retinal detachment was created in the right eyes of six New Zealand red pigmented rabbits. Sham surgery was undertaken in five other rabbits that were used as controls. After seven days......Purpose. The pathogenesis of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) remains incompletely understood, with no clinically effective treatment for potentially severe complications such as photoreceptor cell death and proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Here we investigate the protein profile...... the eyes were enucleated and the vitreous was removed. The vitreous samples were evaluated with two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and the differentially expressed proteins were identified with tandem mass spectrometry. Results. Ten protein spots were found to be at least twofold...

  8. Ancient Wall Tiles – The Importance of the Glaze/Ceramic Interface in Glaze Detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa COSTA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the most severe pathologies suffered by early industrially produced tiles in Portugal in late nineteenth century is glaze detachment in wall tiles placed in the lower part of the façade. It is known that salts crystallize provoking the glaze detachment, destroying the waterproofing and the beauty of the wall tile and this is one of the crucial factors towards this occurrence. The present work questions the importance of the thickness of glaze/ceramic body interface, in what concerns glaze detachment provoked by salt crystallization. SEM-EDS was used to perform all the observations that lead to the conclusion that the exuberance of the interface between glaze and ceramic body has no influence in the resistance of the glaze to salt crystallization though time, being the porous network more determinant. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.20.1.3815

  9. Emotional detachment in psychopathy: Involvement of dorsal default-mode connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Arjun; Gregory, Sarah; Dell'Acqua, Flavio; Periche Thomas, Eva; Simmons, Andy; Murphy, Declan G M; Hodgins, Sheilagh; Blackwood, Nigel J; Craig, Michael C

    2015-01-01

    Criminal psychopathy is defined by emotional detachment [Psychopathy Checklist - Revised (PCL-R) factor 1], and antisocial behaviour (PCL-R factor 2). Previous work has associated antisocial behaviour in psychopathy with abnormalities in a ventral temporo-amygdala-orbitofrontal network. However, little is known of the neural correlates of emotional detachment. Imaging studies have indicated that the 'default-mode network' (DMN), and in particular its dorsomedial (medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate) component, contributes to affective and social processing in healthy individuals. Furthermore, recent work suggests that this network may be implicated in psychopathy. However, no research has examined the relationship between psychopathy, emotional detachment, and the white matter underpinning the DMN. We therefore used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography in 13 offenders with psychopathy and 13 non-offenders to investigate the relationship between emotional detachment and the microstructure of white matter connections within the DMN. These included the dorsal cingulum (containing the medial prefrontal - posterior cingulate connections of the DMN), and the ventral cingulum (containing the posterior cingulate - medial temporal connections of the DMN). We found that fractional anisotropy (FA) was reduced in the left dorsal cingulum in the psychopathy group (p = .024). Moreover, within this group, emotional detachment was negatively correlated with FA in this tract portion bilaterally (left: r = -.61, p = .026; right: r = -.62, p = .023). These results suggest the importance of the dorsal DMN in the emotional detachment observed in individuals with psychopathy. We propose a 'dual-network' model of white matter abnormalities in the disorder, which incorporates these with previous findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effectiveness of EDTA and Modified Salt Solution to Detach and Kill Cells from Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Josiane; Hoogenkamp, Michel; Felippe, Wilson T; Crielaard, Wim; van der Waal, Suzette V

    2016-02-01

    Disruption of the matrix of endodontic biofilms will aid in their removal from a root canal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of EDTA and a modified salt solution (MSS) to detach bacteria from biofilms. Forty-eight-hour-old Enterococcus faecalis biofilms were grown on glass coverslips and then treated for 1 hour by immersion in 17% EDTA or MSS. Phosphate-buffered saline served as a negative control. Then, residual biofilm cells on the substrate and the detached cells in the supernatant were collected. Viability was verified by the colony-forming unit (CFU) counting method. Propidium monoazide (PMA) treatment in conjunction with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was also performed to detect the presence of E. faecalis 16S ribonucleic RNA genes. Data were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey or Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. The Pearson R test evaluated the correlation between results from CFU and PMA (α = 5%). qPCR showed that EDTA detached 99% of biofilm cells, and MSS detached 94% of biofilm cells (both P < .001). In contrast to EDTA, MSS was highly antimicrobial. The treatment promoted an ample log 7 reduction of the attached cells (P < .001), and almost no live cells were detected in the supernatant (P < .001). Positive correlations between CFU and qPCR with PMA were observed (r = 0.959 and r = 0.729). EDTA detached cells in biofilms with a minor antimicrobial effect. Besides a great antimicrobial effect, MSS also detached biofilm cells. These dispersals of biofilms give insights into new endodontic biofilm removal strategies. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. FTIR measurements of OH in deformed quartz and feldspars of the South Tibetan Detachment, Greater Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezek, L.; Law, R. D.; Jessup, M. J.; Searle, M. P.; Kronenberg, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    OH absorption bands due to water in deformed quartz and feldspar grains of mylonites from the low-angle Lhotse Detachment (of the South Tibetan Detachment System, Rongbuk Valley north of Mount Everest) have been measured by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. Previous microstructural studies have shown that these rocks deformed by dislocation creep at high temperature conditions in the middle crust (lower - middle amphibolite facies), and oxygen isotope studies suggest significant influx of meteoric water. OH absorption bands at 3400 cm-1 of quartz mylonites from the footwall of the Lhotse Detachment Fault are large, with the character of the molecular water band due to fluid inclusions in milky quartz. Mean water contents depend on structural position relative to the core of the Lhotse Detachment, from 1000 ppm (OH/106 Si) at 420 m below the fault to 11,350 (+/-1095) ppm near its center. The gradient in OH content shown by quartz grains implies influx of meteoric water along the Lhotse Detachment from the Tibetan Plateau ground surface to middle crustal depths, and significant fluid penetration into the extruding Himalayan slab by intergranular, permeable fluid flow processes. Feldspars of individual samples have comparable water contents to those of quartz and some are wetter. Large water contents of quartz and feldspar may have contributed to continued deformation and strain localization on the South Tibetan Detachment System. Dislocation creep in quartz is facilitated by water in laboratory experiments, and the water contents of the Lhotse fault rocks are similar to (and even larger than) water contents of quartz experimentally deformed during water weakening. Water contents of feldspars are comparable to those of plagioclase aggregates deformed experimentally by dislocation and diffusion creep under wet conditions.

  12. Septal Leaflet versus Chordal Detachment in Closure of Hard-To-Expose Ventricular Septal Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmoghadam, Kamal K; Boron, Agnieszka; Ruzmetov, Mark; Narasimhulu, Sukumar Suguna; Kube, Alicia; O'Brien, Michael C; DeCampli, William M

    2018-04-04

    Different techniques have been used for exposure of ventricular septal defect (VSD) margins when there is crowding of the VSD anatomy by tricuspid valve (TV) subvalvar apparatus. The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes, for the two techniques of TV leaflet detachment and the rarely described TV chordal detachment for hard-to-expose VSDs. Patients undergoing transatrial VSD repair were identified from our institutional database. Follow-up echocardiography and patient data were obtained from medical records. Between 1/2005-8/2016, 130 isolated conoventricular VSDs were repaired. Among these, 26patients had leaflet detachment, while 15 underwent chordal detachment, and 89 had regular VSD repair (reference group). There was no significant difference between the groups in age, weight, postoperative length-of-stay, genetic/syndromic abnormalities, time-to-extubation, and left and right ventricular systolic function. The cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp time were significantly higher in leaflet detachment group, when compared with reference group (118+28vs102+32, p=0.02; and 73+20vs61+23, p=0.01, respectively). Echocardiographic follow-up were available for 87patients at a mean of 2.6years (1month-11years). Tricuspid regurgitation was rated as none or trivial in 66(76%), mild in 20(23%) and moderate in one reference group patient. There was no difference in presence of residual VSD, or degree of tricuspid regurgitation amongst the three groups. There was no reoperation for tricuspid regurgitation. Tricuspid valve leaflet and chordal detachment techniques provide equally viable and safe alternative to closure of hard-to-expose VSDs while maintaining appropriate TV function. Their use in our series did not lead to increased TV dysfunction at early-to-midterm echocardiographic assessment. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Dissecting the roles of ROCK isoforms in stress-induced cell detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjian; Surma, Michelle; Zhang, Lumin; Wei, Lei

    2013-05-15

    The homologous Rho kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are involved in stress fiber assembly and cell adhesion and are assumed to be functionally redundant. Using mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from ROCK1(-/-) and ROCK2(-/-) mice, we have recently reported that they play different roles in regulating doxorubicin-induced stress fiber disassembly and cell detachment: ROCK1 is involved in destabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell detachment, whereas ROCK2 is required for stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton and cell adhesion. Here, we present additional insights into the roles of ROCK1 and ROCK2 in regulating stress-induced impairment of cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesion. In response to doxorubicin, ROCK1(-/-) MEFs showed significant preservation of both focal adhesions and adherens junctions, while ROCK2(-/-) MEFs exhibited impaired focal adhesions but preserved adherens junctions compared with the wild-type MEFs. Additionally, inhibition of focal adhesion or adherens junction formations by chemical inhibitors abolished the anti-detachment effects of ROCK1 deletion. Finally, ROCK1(-/-) MEFs, but not ROCK2(-/-) MEFs, also exhibited preserved central stress fibers and reduced cell detachment in response to serum starvation. These results add new insights into a novel mechanism underlying the anti-detachment effects of ROCK1 deletion mediated by reduced peripheral actomyosin contraction and increased actin stabilization to promote cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion. Our studies further support the differential roles of ROCK isoforms in regulating stress-induced loss of central stress fibers and focal adhesions as well as cell detachment.

  14. Transcriptomic analysis of human retinal detachment reveals both inflammatory response and photoreceptor death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Noëlle Delyfer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Retinal detachment often leads to a severe and permanent loss of vision and its therapeutic management remains to this day exclusively surgical. We have used surgical specimens to perform a differential analysis of the transcriptome of human retinal tissues following detachment in order to identify new potential pharmacological targets that could be used in combination with surgery to further improve final outcome. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Statistical analysis reveals major involvement of the immune response in the disease. Interestingly, using a novel approach relying on coordinated expression, the interindividual variation was monitored to unravel a second crucial aspect of the pathological process: the death of photoreceptor cells. Within the genes identified, the expression of the major histocompatibility complex I gene HLA-C enables diagnosis of the disease, while PKD2L1 and SLCO4A1 -which are both down-regulated- act synergistically to provide an estimate of the duration of the retinal detachment process. Our analysis thus reveals the two complementary cellular and molecular aspects linked to retinal detachment: an immune response and the degeneration of photoreceptor cells. We also reveal that the human specimens have a higher clinical value as compared to artificial models that point to IL6 and oxidative stress, not implicated in the surgical specimens studied here. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This systematic analysis confirmed the occurrence of both neurodegeneration and inflammation during retinal detachment, and further identifies precisely the modification of expression of the different genes implicated in these two phenomena. Our data henceforth give a new insight into the disease process and provide a rationale for therapeutic strategies aimed at limiting inflammation and photoreceptor damage associated with retinal detachment and, in turn, improving visual prognosis after retinal surgery.

  15. Influence of yellow rust infection on /sup 32/P transport in detached barley leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of /sup 32/P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general.

  16. Study of Plasma Detachment in a Simplified 2D Geometry using UEDGE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M; Mahdavi, A M; Porter, G D; Rognlien, T D

    2001-01-01

    The location of the ionization front in a generic, detached plasma has been studied in a two-dimensional slab geometry by varying the core plasma density and input heating power. The ratio of the recombination to ionization current and the momentum losses in the computational domain have been used to quantify the degree of detachment. Contours of constant ratio of these parameter in the core plasma density--heating power parameter space show that at high input power higher momentum losses can be achieved even at low density. High fraction of recombination, however, require high core densities to sufficiently separate the plasma from the target plate

  17. The effect of attachment and detachment on totally asymmetric exclusion processes with junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Zhongpan; Yuan Yaoming; Jiang Rui; Wu Qingsong; Nishinari, Katsuhiro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate totally asymmetric exclusion processes on lattices with junctions, considering random particle attachment and detachment in the bulk. Particles randomly attach to the bulk with the rate ω A and detach from the bulk with the rate ω D . Setting K = ω A /ω D , we study three cases: K>1, K = 1 and K 1, additional phases are observed in the case of K≤1. Moreover, it is shown that at a fixed K, the phase diagram structure changes with the increase of ω D . A mean-field analysis has been carried out and the analytic results are in good agreement with the simulation results

  18. Retinal pigment epithelial atrophy following indocyanine green dye-assisted surgery for serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Nazimul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To report subretinal migration of indocyanine green dye (ICG and subsequent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE atrophy during macular surgery for serous macular detachment. A 65-year-old woman presented with residual epiretinal membrane and serous detachment of the macula following vitreoretinal surgery for epiretinal membrane. She underwent resurgery with ICG-assisted internal limiting membrane peeling and intraocular tamponade. Intraoperatively a large area of subretinal ICG was seen with subsequent RPE mottling and atrophy of the macula in the area involved during follow-up. This case demonstrates that subretinal migration of ICG is possible and can be toxic to RPE.

  19. Surgical management of retinal diseases: proliferative diabetic retinopathy and traction retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Iñigo, Yousef J; Acabá, Luis A; Berrocal, Maria H

    2014-01-01

    Current indications for pars plana vitrectomy in patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) include vitreous hemorrhage, tractional retinal detachment (TRD), combined tractional and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (CTRRD), diabetic macular edema associated with posterior hyaloidal traction, and anterior segment neovascularization with media opacities. This chapter will review the indications, surgical objectives, adjunctive pharmacotherapy, microincision surgical techniques, and outcomes of diabetic vitrectomy for PDR, TRD, and CTRRD. With the availability of new microincision vitrectomy technology, wide-angle microscope viewing systems, and pharmacologic agents, vitrectomy can improve visual acuity and achieve long-term anatomic stability in eyes with severe complications from PDR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

  20. Variations in detachment levels, ramp angles and wedge geometries along the Alberta thrust front

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spratt, D. A.; Lawton, D. C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    1996-06-01

    In addition to the three stratigraphic horizons previously described by other investigators, six extensive Upper Cretaceous detachment horizons have been identified by detailed mapping, interpretation of high-resolution seismic data and regional correlation. Of the 984 ramp angles measured, the majority were found to fall between 10 degrees and 30 degrees. Ramp angles tended to decrease from north to south. This tendency was attributed to the thick sequence (2500 m) of competent rock involved in the deformation at Grande Cache, and the presence of multiple detachments and many thinner thrust sheets (100-500 m) in southern Alberta. 38 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Influence of yellow rust infextion on 32P transport in detached barley leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, J.

    1982-01-01

    Several barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) differing in their resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West.) were tested for relationships between changes of 32 P transport in detached leaves and resistance to yellow rust disease. Investigation carried out with detached second leaves from plants infected at their first leaf revealed a matter transport in these leaves changed by the infection. Transport was also influenced by inoculation with yellow rust uredospores. In that case rust infection influenced the basipetal transport less strongly in resistent plants than in susceptible ones. Connected with the findings the influence of fungal substances on transport processes is discussed in general. (author)

  2. Free and proteic aminoacids from acetate 14C metabolism in detached leaves of coffee plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasil, O.G.; Crocomo, O.J.

    1981-01-01

    The acetate 14 C was studied as the forerunner of proteic and free aminoacids in detached leaves of coffee (coffea arabica L.cv. Mundo Novo). The detached leaves were incubated with acetate -1- 14 C and -2- 14 C during several times (15, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 minutes), out of luminosity. The ethanol 80% soluble fraction gave origin to free aminoacid after ion - exchange chromatography. The insoluble fraction through acid hydrolisis furnished proteic aminoacids. The data showed that the acetate molecules contributed for the aminoacids molecules structure, methylic carbon being more incorporated than the carboxylic carbon. (Author) [pt

  3. Reconstitutable control assembly having removable control rods with detachable split upper end plugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gjertsen, R.K.; Knott, R.P.; Sparrow, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes, in a reconstitutable control assembly for use with a nuclear fuel assembly, the control assembly including a spider structure and at least one control rod, an attachment joint for detachable fastening the control rod to the spider structure. The attachment joint comprising: a hollow connecting finger on the spider structure; and an elongated detachable split upper end plug on the control rod having a pair of separate upper and lower plug portions, the upper plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly- arranged upper, middle and lower sections. The lower plug portion having integrally-connected tandemly-arranged upper, middle and lower segments

  4. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcicki, F. R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable.

    Con el crecimiento de varias áreas en la sociedad moderna, la necesidad de generar y conducir la energía eléctrica a las grandes ciudades ha aumentado enormemente. La energía, normalmente, se transporta por cables sostenidos por torres de energía con base de acero galvanizado. Cuando las bases son subterráneas, pueden ocasionar altas tasas de corrosión. Estas, normalmente, se detectan por la medida convencional del potencial empleando un electrodo de referencia de Cu/CuSO4. Se cree que la corrosión es el resultado de corrientes perdidas que fluyen a través de la

  5. Current-induced nonuniform enhancement of sheet resistance in A r+ -irradiated SrTi O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Debangsu; Frenkel, Yiftach; Davidovitch, Sagi; Persky, Eylon; Haham, Noam; Gabay, Marc; Kalisky, Beena; Klein, Lior

    2017-06-01

    The sheet resistance Rs of A r+ irradiated SrTi O3 in patterns with a length scale of several microns increases significantly below ˜40 K in connection with driving currents exceeding a certain threshold. The initial lower Rs is recovered upon warming with accelerated recovery around 70 and 160 K. Scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy shows local irreversible changes in the spatial distribution of the current with a length scale of several microns. We attribute the observed nonuniform enhancement of Rs to the attraction of the charged single-oxygen and dioxygen vacancies by the crystallographic domain boundaries in SrTi O3 . The boundaries, which are nearly ferroelectric below 40 K, are polarized by the local electrical field associated with the driven current and the clustered vacancies which suppress conductivity in their vicinity and yield a noticeable enhancement in the device resistance when the current path width is on the order of the boundary extension. The temperatures of accelerated conductivity recovery are associated with the energy barriers for the diffusion of the two types of vacancies.

  6. Incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of unexplained visual loss after intraocular silicone oil for macula-on retinal detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerlinck, Laura M.; Schellekens, Peter A.; Liem, Albert T.; Steijns, Daan; van Leeuwen, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of unexplained visual loss after macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Methods: Retrospective cohort of patients with primary macula-on rhegmatogenous retinal detachment treated by vitrectomy with gas or

  7. Air bubble-induced detachment of polystyrene particles with different sizes from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Suarez, C; van der Mei, HC; Busscher, HJ

    2001-01-01

    Particle size was found to be an important factor in air bubble-induced detachment of colloidal particles from collector surfaces in a parallel plate flow chamber and generally polystyrene particles with a diameter of 806 nm detached less than particles with a diameter of 1400 nm. Particle

  8. Experimental investigations of single-electron detachment processes from H- ions colliding with MeV/u, highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawara, H.; Tonuma, T.; Kumagai, H.; Imai, T.; Uskov, D.B.; Presnyakov, L.P.

    1999-01-01

    Single electron detachment processes from negative hydrogen ions under collisions with MeV/u highly charged ions have been investigated using the so-called crossed-beams technique. The preliminary results of the single-electron detachment cross sections obtained is found to be in crude agreement with some empirical and theoretical estimations. (orig.)

  9. A numerical study of plasma detachment conditions in JET divertor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonini, R; Corrigan, G; Radford, G; Spence, J; Taroni, A; Weber, S [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    Simulation results obtained with the EDGE2D/U code confirm that for a given particle inventory in the SOL (including the divertor), the main parameter determining whether or not particle, momentum and energy detachment occurs, is the residual power P - P{sub lost}, where P is the total power entering the SOL and P{sub lost} is the power lost by transport to walls and by volume losses in the SOL outside the region where detachment takes place. For particle contents leading to reasonable values of the separatrix mid-plane density, detachment is found if the residual power is low enough. Typically the residual power must be inferior to 3 MW for good detachment, with the exact value depending on the geometry of the divertor, the transport assumptions and the neutral recirculation scheme. The results show that divertor plasma conditions relevant for the study of power exhaust and impurity control problems are possible in JET. 9 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Effect of irradiation and growth regulators on degradation processes in detached soybean leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annamalainathan, K.; Pathmanabhan, G.; Manian, K.; Veerannah, L.

    1996-01-01

    Changes in soluble protein profile and chlorophyll (Ch1) content in detached soybean leaves incubated in darkness or light were delayed by application of benzyladenine or indole-3-acetic acid and enhanced by abscisic acid. The degradation in light differed significantly from the degradation in darkness. Chl and proteins were lost at a higher rate in darkness than in light. (author)

  11. Emotional Autonomy versus Detachment: Revisiting the Vicissitudes of Adolescence and Young Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Richard M.; Lynch, John H.

    1989-01-01

    Emotional autonomy was examined in three studies of adolescents and young adults. Subjects of the studies were 148 seventh graders, 213 high school students, and 104 undergraduates, respectively. Discussion concerns the conceptualization of attachment versus detachment, dependence, and autonomy in theories of adolescence. (RJC)

  12. Boundaryless work, psychological detachment and sleep: Does working 'anytime - anywhere' equal employees are 'always on'?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellner, C.; Kecklund, L.G.; Kompier, M.A.J.; Sariaslan, A.; Aronsson, G.; Leede, J. de

    2016-01-01

    Employees have gained increased flexibility in organizing their work in time and space, that is boundaryless work. Managing the boundaries between work and personal life would seem to be crucial if one is to psychologically detach from work during leisure in order to unwind and get sufficient sleep.

  13. Changes in Retinal Function and Cellular Remodeling Following Experimental Retinal Detachment in a Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilda Barliya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To explore functional electroretinographic (ERG changes and associated cellular remodeling following experimental retinal detachment in a rabbit model. Methods. Retinal detachment was created in ten rabbits by injecting 0.1 ml balanced salt solution under the retina. Fundus imaging was performed 0, 3, 7, 14, and 21 days postoperatively. ERGs were recorded pre- and 7 and 21 days postoperatively. Eyes were harvested on day 21 and evaluated immunohistochemically (IHC for remodeling of second- and third-order neurons. Results. Retinal reattachment occurred within two weeks following surgery. No attenuation was observed in the photopic or scotopic a- and b-waves. A secondary wavefront on the descending slope of the scotopic b-wave was the only ERG result that was attenuated in detached retinas. IHC demonstrated anatomical changes in both ON and OFF bipolar cells. Bassoon staining was observed in the remodeled dendrites. Amacrine and horizontal cells did not alter, but Muller cells were clearly reactive with marked extension. Conclusion. Retinal detachment and reattachment were associated with functional and anatomical changes. Exploring the significance of the secondary scotopic wavefront and its association with the remodeling of 2nd- and 3rd-order neurons will shade more light on functional changes and recovery of the retina.

  14. Papers presented to the Conference on Heat and Detachment in Crustal Extension on Continents and Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Several topics relative to heat and detachment in crustal extension on continents and planets are discussed. Rifting on Venus, heat flow and continental breakup, magnetism, the mountains and tectonic processes of Io, and the ductile extension of planetary lithospheres are among the topics covered.

  15. The surface distribution of chemical anomalies of Ap components in detached close binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, M.

    1980-01-01

    By estimating the orbital inclinations of non-eclipsing detached close binaries with Ap spectra, a marked statistical preference is obtained on the frequency distribution of the inclination which suggests that the abundance anomalies of Ap components tend to concentrate towards the stellar polar region. (Auth.)

  16. Characterization of a Stabilized Form of Microplasmin for the Induction of Posterior Vitreous Detachment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gad Elkareem, Ashraf M.; Willekens, Ben; Vanhove, Marc; Noppen, Bernard; Stassen, Jean Marie; de Smet, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the stability and safety of a diluted acidified form of microplasmin and its ability to induce a posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) following intravitreal injection in postmortem porcine eyes. Methods: Microplasmin diluted in normal saline (NS) and balanced salt solution

  17. Coming back to work in the morning: Psychological detachment and reattachment as predictors of work engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnentag, Sabine; Kühnel, Jana

    2016-10-01

    Research has shown that recovery processes in general and psychological detachment in particular are important for work engagement. We argue that work engagement additionally benefits from reattachment to work in the morning (i.e., mentally reconnecting to work before actually starting to work) and that the gains derived from psychological detachment and reattachment are stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. We tested our hypotheses in a daily diary study with a sample of 167 employees who completed 2 surveys per day over the period of 2 workweeks. Hierarchical linear modeling showed that work engagement was higher in the morning than in the afternoon. Evening psychological detachment and morning reattachment positively predicted work engagement throughout the day. The association between reattachment and work engagement was stronger in the morning than in the afternoon. This study demonstrates that not only psychological detachment from work during leisure time, but also reattachment to work when coming back to work are crucial for daily engagement at work. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Bilateral Asymmetric Rhegmatogenous Retinal Detachment in a Patient with Stickler Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caner Öztürk

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Here we present the long-term anatomical and visual outcomes of bilateral asymmetric rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair in a patient with Stickler syndrome. A 17-year-old girl presented with decreased visual acuity in both eyes for more than one year. Her best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA was 0.1 in the right eye and 0.05 in the left eye. Slit-lamp anterior segment examination revealed subcapsular cataract in both eyes. Fundus examination showed bilateral rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, chronic retinal detachment accompanied by multiple retinal holes, tears and membranous fibrillary vitreous in the peripheral retina. Grade C2 proliferative vitreoretinopathy was observed in the left eye. Scleral buckling surgery was performed initially for both eyes. After the primary surgical procedure, retinal reattachment was achieved in the right eye and the left eye underwent phacoemulsification, intraocular lens implantation, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV, and silicone oil injection. After these surgical procedures retinal reattachment was achieved in the left eye. Silicone oil removal was performed six months after PPV surgery. After surgical treatment, BCVA was 0.6 in the right eye at the end of the 3.5-year follow-up period. After silicone oil removal, BCVA reached 0.2 in the left eye after 36 months of follow-up and retinal reattachment was achieved in both eyes. Scleral buckling surgery and PPV are effective and confidential methods for the treatment of chronic retinal detachment cases in Stickler syndrome.

  19. Retinal detachment associated with thalassemia major and Marfan′s syndrome-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatterjee Pranab

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The thalassaemias, unlike a few other disorders of the haemopoietic system, are very rarely accompanied by ophthalmological changed. Marfan′s Syndrome, on the other hand, exhibits a number of ocular manifestations 2. This article describes a case of uniocular retinal detachment associated with both these conditions

  20. Negative ion detachment cross sections: Progress report, March 1, 1986-February 28, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champion, R.L.; Doverspike, L.D.

    1986-11-01

    Brief descriptions are given for research performed in (1) the electron detachment of alkali negative ions, (2) collisions of negative ions with alkali atoms, (3) charge exchange involving doubly charged ions, and (4) positive ion production in negative ion-atom collisions

  1. Timing and conditions of clay fault gouge formation on the Naxos detachment (Cyclades, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancktelow, N.; Zwingmann, H.; Mulch, A.

    2016-10-01

    Clay fault gouge from the Naxos detachment (locally up to 1.0-1.5 m thick) is reported and dated for the first time. K-Ar ages on eight clay size fractions from the detachment and a minor fault in the immediate footwall have a narrow range, from 10.3 to 9.0 Ma, with an average of 9.7 ± 0.5 Ma (±1σ). These results are in excellent accord with regional and local age constraints, independently demonstrating the reliability of the method. Hydrogen δD values fall in the range -89 to -95‰, indicating interaction with infiltrating meteoric water during gouge formation, which is consistent with deposition of freshwater sediments in the hanging wall at the same time. Clay mineralogy in the detachment gouge is predominantly mixed layer illite-smectite with subordinate 1 M illite and kaolinite but without higher-temperature 2 M1 illite/mica. Clay fault gouge predominantly formed over a limited time and temperature range, potentially acting as a weak lubricant promoting movement on the Naxos detachment, with correspondingly rapid exhumation and cooling of the underlying footwall.

  2. Total retinal detachments due to retinoblastoma: Outcomes following intra-arterial chemotherapy/ophthalmic artery chemosurgery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A Rowlands

    Full Text Available To report on the rate and timing of retinal reattachment and outcomes for retinoblastoma children who have total retinal detachments at presentation to our center and were treated with intra-arterial chemotherapy (ophthalmic artery chemosurgery, OAC.Single-center retrospective review of retinoblastoma patients who presented with total retinal detachments and were subsequently treated with OAC at MSKCC between May 2006 and July 2016. Endpoints were retinal detachment resolution, visual function, ERG amplitude, ocular survival, and patient survival from metastases.87 eyes of 84 retinoblastoma patients were included. Using a survival multistate model, by 36 months of follow-up, there was a 54% cumulative probability of complete retinal reattachment and a 76% probability of partial reattachment. 24% of eyes that completely reattached received only OAC without any prior or adjuvant treatments. Eyes that completely reattached were significantly more likely to have been diagnosed at a younger age (p<0.0001 and to have greater initial ERG values (p = 0.006. At final follow-up, 14% of eyes had gained at least 25 μV of ERG activity, and 8.0% had achieved hand motion vision or better, including one to 20/60. 13% of eyes were enucleated. No patient died from metastatic disease, and only one developed metastases.OAC can successfully treat previously considered "non-salvageable" retinoblastoma eyes with total retinal detachments, promote retinal reattachment in the majority of eyes, and preserve ocular and patient survival.

  3. Evolution of Outer Retinal Folds Occurring after Vitrectomy for Retinal Detachment Repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dell'Omo, Roberto; Tan, H. Stevie; Schlingemann, Reinier O.; Bijl, Heico M.; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y.; Barca, Francesco; Mura, Marco

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE. To assess the evolution of outer retinal folds (ORFs) occurring after repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) using spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (sd-OCT) and fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and to discuss their pathogenesis. METHODS. Twenty patients were operated on

  4. Long-term effects of short-term retinal bleb detachments in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivert, Lena; Kjeldbye, Hild; Gouras, Peter

    2002-03-01

    To examine the effects of saline-induced bleb detachments in rabbit retina. Retinal bleb detachments were produced by the injection of 50 microl of balanced salt solution (BSS) into the subretinal space of one eye of each of six rabbits using a glass pipette with a flat tip, 50 microm in diameter. The retina was examined by biomicroscopy, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO), auto-fluorescence and simultaneous fluorescein and indocyanine green (ICG) angiography. Histological examination was carried out at 1, 2, 3 and 4 months after surgery. All rabbits showed leakage of fluorescein for at least a day after detachment, but within 1 month the leakage ceased. ICG staining developed gradually at the level of the RPE or Bruch's membrane near sites of previous staining. Lipofuscin fluorescence also developed gradually around areas of staining. Histology revealed the source of the excessive lipofuscin to be in the RPE layer, especially in cells migrating away from Bruch's membrane. Short-term bleb detachments cause a transient breakdown in the blood-retinal barrier, long-term ICG staining at or deep to the RPE layer, hyperlipofuscinosis and migration of the RPE. The abnormal lipofuscin accumulation is apparent on fluorescence ophthalmoscopy and can be confused with markers such as green fluorescent protein.

  5. Evolving trends in primary retinal detachment repair: microincisional vitrectomy and the role of OCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patrick D; Hariprasad, Seenu M

    2014-01-01

    Retinal detachment repair continues to evolve toward less invasive techniques that can safely, efficiently, and consistently provide optimal outcomes. In fact, 53% of U.S. respondents to the American Society of Retinal Specialists 2013 Preferences and Trends Survey said they would perform a vitrectomy without scleral buckle to treat a retinal detachment with a superior tear, while 25% would perform pneumatic retinopexy, and 21% would use a scleral buckle with or without vitrectomy.11 Compared to in 2005, many more surgeons prefer vitrectomy-only repair, whereas fewer prefer scleral buckle. Interestingly, preferences toward pneumatic retinopexy have slightly declined, which may reflect increased confidence in vitrectomy surgery to repair a detached retina safely and efficiently as an alternative. Even complex detachments can be treated in a minimally invasive fashion with the improvements in instrumentation, trocars, and oil infusion. While trends will likely continue toward minimal invasiveness, some form of scleral buckle, vitrectomy, and pneumatic retinopexy will all persist as treatment options. OCT advancements may allow for individualized discussions of visual prognosis and surgical decision making without the need for any invasive testing.

  6. Structure Determination of Anionic Metal Clusters via Infrared Resonance Enhanced Multiple Photon Electron Detachment Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haertelt, M.; Lapoutre, V. J. F.; Bakker, J. M.; Redlich, B.; Harding, D. J.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.

    2011-01-01

    We report vibrational spectra of anionic metal clusters, measured via electron detachment following resonant absorption of multiple infrared photons. To facilitate the sequential absorption of the required large number of photons, the cluster beam interacts with the infrared radiation inside the

  7. Slab detachment in laterally varying subduction zones: 3-D numerical modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duretz, T.; Gerya, T.V.; Spakman, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074103164

    Understanding the three-dimensional (3-D) dynamics of subduction-collision systems is a longstanding challenge in geodynamics. We investigate the impact of slab detachment in collision systems that are subjected to along-trench variations. High-resolution thermomechanical numerical models,

  8. Analysis of throw distances of detached objects from horizontal-axis wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chivaee, Hamid Sarlak; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2016-01-01

    are simulated for modern wind turbines ranging in size from 2 to 20 MW using upscaling laws. Extensive parametric analyses are performed against initial release angle, tip speed ratio, detachment geometry, and blade pitch setting. It is found that, while at tip speeds of about 70 m/s (normal operating...... assessment studies. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  9. Adaptive timing of detachment in a tick parasitizing hole-nesting birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, J; Heylen, D J A; Matthysen, E

    2012-02-01

    In non-permanent parasites with low intrinsic mobility such as ticks, dispersal is highly dependent on host movements as well as the timing of separation from the hosts. Optimal detachment behaviour is all the more crucial in nidicolous ticks as the risk of detaching in non-suitable habitat is high. In this study, we experimentally investigated the detachment behaviour of Ixodes arboricola, a nidicolous tick that primarily infests birds roosting in tree-holes. We infested great tits with I. arboricola larvae or nymphs, and submitted the birds to 2 experimental treatments, a control treatment in which birds had normal access to nest boxes and an experimental treatment, in which the birds were prevented access to their nest boxes for varying lengths of time. In the control group, most ticks detached within 5 days, whereas in the experimental group, ticks remained on the bird for as long as the bird was prevented access (up to 14 days). This prolonged attachment caused a decrease in survival and engorgement weight in nymphs, but not in larvae. The capacity of I. arboricola larvae to extend the duration of attachment in non-suitable environments with no apparent costs, may be an adaptation to unpredictable use of cavities by roosting hosts during winter, and at the same time may facilitate dispersal of the larval instars.

  10. "Detached Concern" of Medical Students in a Cadaver Dissection Course: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Wei-Ting; Lin, Ya-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The cadaver dissection course remains a time-honored tradition in medical education, partly because of its importance in cultivating professional attitudes in students. This study aims to investigate students' attitudes--specifically characterized as "detached concern"--in a cadaver dissection course. An interpretative phenomenological…

  11. Krypton yellow laser for the treatment of macular hole in high myopia without retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Ji-Ping; Cheng, Jin-Wei; Ma, Xiao-Ye; Li, Yu-Zhen; Li, You; Wei, Rui-Li

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate the prophylactic effect of krypton yellow laser for the treatment of macular holes in high myopic eyes in order to reduce the risk of retinal detachment. Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients with high myopia and macular holes were randomly assigned to two groups. Fifteen patients (group A, 15 eyes) were subject to laser photocoagulation around the hole margin along with an oral placebo (vitamin B1), while 12 patients (group B, 12 eyes) were only given the oral placebo (vitamin B1). The incident rate of retinal detachment due to macular hole and the mean best-corrected visual acuity of the two groups before and after treatment were measured. The data were statistically tested by X2 test and Student's t test. The incident rates of retina1 detachment in group A and group B were 20%(3/15) and 58.3%(7/12), respectively (X2=4.201, P0.05). The mean BCVA of group B on the initial examination was 24/200, while the mean BCVA at the final follow-up was 30/200 (P>0.05). No significant difference in initial visual acuity (P>0.05) or final visual acuity (P>0.05) was found between the two groups. Krypton yellow laser photocoagulation could reduce the incidence of retinal detachment due to a macular hole in high myopia with acceptable functional results in this study.

  12. Serous Retinal Detachment in Dome-shaped Macula with 7 Years Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeely, Adel G; Alrashaed, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Dome-shaped macula (DSM) was first described by Gaucher et al . as a convex protrusion of macula within a staphyloma in highly myopic eyes that cause visual impairment associated with serous foveal detachment (SFD). We describe a patient with persistent SFD in DSM documented by serial spectral domain optical coherence tomography for 7 years with stable vision.

  13. Prediction of bubble detachment diameter in flow boiling based on force analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Deqi; Pan Liangming; Ren Song

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► All the forces acting on the growing bubbles are taken into account in the model. ► The bubble contact diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. ► Bubble growth force and surface tension are more significant in narrow channel. ► A good agreement between the predicted and the measured results is achieved. - Abstract: Bubble detachment diameter is one of the key parameters in the study of bubble dynamics and boiling heat transfer, and it is hard to be measured in a boiling system. In order to predict the bubble detachment diameter, a theoretical model is proposed based on forces analysis in this paper. All the forces acting on a bubble are taken into account to establish a model for different flow boiling configurations, including narrow and conventional channels, upward, downward and horizontal flows. A correlation of bubble contact circle diameter is adopted in this study, and it is found that the bubble contact circle diameter has significant effect on bubble detachment. A new correlation taking the bubble contact circle diameter into account for the evaluation of bubble growth force is proposed in this study, and it is found that the bubble growth force and surface tension force are more significant in narrow channel when comparing with that in conventional channel. A visual experiment was carried out in order to verify present model; and the experimental data from published literature are used also. A good agreement between predicted and measured results is achieved.

  14. Long-Term Follow-up After Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations with Detachable Silicone Balloons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Erik; Kjeldsen, Anette D

    2008-01-01

    ) with pulmonary angiography. Fifty-four percent of the balloons were deflated at latest radiographic chest film follow-up, but at pulmonary angiographic follow-up all embolized malformations were without flow irrespective of whether or not the balloons were visible. Detachable silicone balloons are not available...

  15. Frequency of lattice degeneration and retinal breaks in the fellow eye in retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorentzen, S E

    1988-04-01

    The fellow eye of 100 consecutively admitted cases of retinal detachment was studied with three-mirror examination for the presence of lattice degeneration and retinal breaks. Lattice degeneration was found in 18% and retinal breaks in 20% of fellow eyes.

  16. [Two cases of retinal detachment following laser in Situ keratomileusis repaired by scleral buckling surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onguchi, Tatsuya; Eshita, Tadahiko; Mita, Shinji; Ishida, Susumu; Shinoda, Kei; Kitamura, Shizuaki; Kawashima, Shinichi; Inoue, Makoto; Oguchi, Yoshihisa; Toda, Ikuko; Kato, Naoko

    2002-02-01

    As laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) becomes the treatment of choice in the field of refractive surgery, postoperative rhegmatogenous retinal detachment has also begun to occur. However, since it has not been reported yet here in Japan, we report two cases of retinal detachment following LASIK with suggestions based on our experience. A 34-year-old male(Case 1) and a 26-year-old male(Case 2) suffered from retinal detachment one month and eight months after LASIK, respectively. Contributing retinal breaks were a horseshoe tear in Case 1 and atrophic holes in the lattice degeneration in Case 2. Each patient underwent partial scleral buckling with no intraoperative complication, resulting in successful retinal reattachment. Postoperatively, myopic changes developed and persisted one month in Case 1 and several months in Case 2. Great attention should be paid to the possibility of postoperative myopia after a repair of retinal detachment following LASIK. Thus, we stress the necessity of close cooperation between LASIK surgeons and vitreoretinal surgeons to settle the matter.

  17. Applicability of Different Hydraulic Parameters to Describe Soil Detachment in Eroding Rills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Stefan; Seeger, Manuel; Zell, Andreas; Wagner, Christian; Wagner, Jean-Frank; Ries, Johannes B.

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the comparison of experimental results with assumptions used in numerical models. The aim of the field experiments is to test the linear relationship between different hydraulic parameters and soil detachment. For example correlations between shear stress, unit length shear force, stream power, unit stream power and effective stream power and the detachment rate does not reveal a single parameter which consistently displays the best correlation. More importantly, the best fit does not only vary from one experiment to another, but even between distinct measurement points. Different processes in rill erosion are responsible for the changing correlations. However, not all these procedures are considered in soil erosion models. Hence, hydraulic parameters alone are not sufficient to predict detachment rates. They predict the fluvial incising in the rill's bottom, but the main sediment sources are not considered sufficiently in its equations. The results of this study show that there is still a lack of understanding of the physical processes underlying soil erosion. Exerted forces, soil stability and its expression, the abstraction of the detachment and transport processes in shallow flowing water remain still subject of unclear description and dependence. PMID:23717669

  18. Return to work and risk of subsequent detachment from employment after myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smedegaard, Laerke; Numé, Anna Karin; Charlot, Mette

    2017-01-01

    with population controls. Predictors of detachment were heart failure (odds ratio 1.20 [95% CI, 1.08-1.34]), diabetes mellitus (odds ratio 1.13 [95% CI, 1.01-1.25]), and depression (odds ratio 1.77 [95% CI, 1.55-2.01]). High education level and high income favored continued employment. Conclusions...

  19. Attachment, Growth, and Detachment of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Chemically Defined Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Salzig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The manufacture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs for clinical applications requires an appropriate growth surface and an optimized, preferably chemically defined medium (CDM for expansion. We investigated a new protein/peptide-free CDM that supports the adhesion, growth, and detachment of an immortalized hMSC line (hMSC-TERT as well as primary cells derived from bone marrow (bm-hMSCs and adipose tissue (ad-hMSCs. We observed the rapid attachment and spreading of hMSC-TERT cells and ad-hMSCs in CDM concomitant with the expression of integrin and actin fibers. Cell spreading was promoted by coating the growth surface with collagen type IV and fibronectin. The growth of hMSC-TERT cells was similar in CDM and serum-containing medium whereas the lag phase of bm-hMSCs was prolonged in CDM. FGF-2 or surface coating with collagen type IV promoted the growth of bm-hMSCs, but laminin had no effect. All three cell types retained their trilineage differentiation capability in CDM and were detached by several enzymes (but not collagenase in the case of hMSC-TERT cells. The medium and coating did not affect detachment efficiency but influenced cell survival after detachment. CDM combined with cell-specific surface coatings and/or FGF-2 supplements is therefore as effective as serum-containing medium for the manufacture of different hMSC types.

  20. Emotional Separation and Detachment as Two Distinct Dimensions of Parent-Adolescent Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoglia, Sonia; Lo Coco, Alida; Liga, Francesca; Lo Cricchio, Maria Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The study examined adolescents' emotional separation and detachment from parents, analyzing their relations with connectedness and agency, with some aspects of self-other boundary regulation and with problem behavior. The participants were 331 Italian adolescents, aged from 16 to 19 years (mean age = 17.40, SD = 1.14). Separation and detachment…

  1. Zonal Detached-Eddy Simulation of Turbulent Unsteady Flow over Iced Airfoils

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Yue

    2015-07-23

    This paper presentsamultiscale finite-element formulation for the second modeofzonal detached-eddy simulation. The multiscale formulation corrects the lack of stability of the standard Galerkin formulation by incorporating the effect of unresolved scales to the grid (resolved) scales. The stabilization terms arise naturally and are free of userdefined stability parameters. Validation of the method is accomplished via the turbulent flow over tandem cylinders. The boundary-layer separation, free shear-layer rollup, vortex shedding from the upstream cylinder, and interaction with the downstream cylinder are well reproduced. Good agreement with experimental measurements gives credence to the accuracy of zonal detached-eddy simulation in modeling turbulent separated flows. A comprehensive study is then conducted on the performance degradation of ice-contaminated airfoils. NACA 23012 airfoil with a spanwise ice ridge and Gates Learjet Corporation-305 airfoil with a leading-edge horn-shape glaze ice are selected for investigation. Appropriate spanwise domain size and sufficient grid density are determined to enhance the reliability of the simulations. A comparison of lift coefficient and flowfield variables demonstrates the added advantage that the zonal detached-eddy simulation model brings to the Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model. Spectral analysis and instantaneous visualization of turbulent structures are also highlighted via zonal detached-eddy simulation. Copyright © 2015 by the CFD Lab of McGill University. Published by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Inc.

  2. Colliding beam studies of electron detachement from H- by multiply-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melchert, F.; Benner, M.; Kruedener, S.; Schulze, R.; Meuser, S.; Pfaff, S.; Petri, S.; Huber, K.; Salzborn, E.; Presnyakov, L.P.; Uskov, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    Employing the crossed-beams technique, we have investigated electron-detachment processes from H - in collisions with multiply-charged noble gas ions A q+ . Absolute cross sections for single- and double-electron removal have been measured at center-of-mass energies from 50 keV to 200 keV and charge states q up to 8

  3. INTERNAL LIMITING MEMBRANE PEELING-DEPENDENT RETINAL STRUCTURAL CHANGES AFTER VITRECTOMY IN RHEGMATOGENOUS RETINAL DETACHMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisatomi, Toshio; Tachibana, Takashi; Notomi, Shoji; Koyanagi, Yoshito; Murakami, Yusuke; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Shigeo; Enaida, Hiroshi; Murata, Toshinori; Sakamoto, Taiji; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2018-03-01

    To examine retinal changes after vitrectomy with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling, we used 3-dimensional optical coherence tomography (3D-OCT) in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment cases. The 68 eyes from 67 patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment were studied, including 35 detached macula cases (51%) and 33 attached macula cases. Internal limiting membrane peeling was performed with fine forceps after brilliant blue G staining. The 3D-OCT images were obtained with volume-rendering technologies from cross-sectional OCT images. The 3D-OCT detected 45 eyes (66%) with ILM peeling-dependent retinal changes, including dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance, dimple sign, temporal macular thinning, ILM peeling area thinning, or forceps-related retinal thinning. The ILM peeled area was detectable in only 9 eyes with 3D-OCT, whereas it was undetectable in other 59 eyes. The dissociated optic nerve fiber layer appearance was detected in 8 of the total cases (12%), and dimple signs were observed in 14 cases (21%). Forceps-related thinning was also noted in eight cases (24%) of attached macula cases and in four cases (11%) of detached macula cases. No postoperative macular pucker was noted in the observational period. The 3D-OCT clearly revealed spatial and time-dependent retinal changes after ILM peeling. The changes occurred in 2 months and remained thereafter.

  4. Light and current induced degradation in p-type multi-crystalline cells and development of an inspection method and a stabilization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broek, K.M.; Bennett, I.J.; Jansen, M.J.; Borg, Van der N.J.C.M.; Eerenstein, W. [ECN Solar Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-09-15

    Stable solar cells are needed for durability testing of different combinations of module materials. In such a test, significant power losses in full-size modules with multi-crystalline cells after thermal cycling have been observed. This has been related to degradation of the solar cells used and it appeared that this was caused by current induced degradation. This phenomenon is not limited to boron doped Cz-Si, but can also occur in p-type multi-crystalline silicon. Work was done to develop an incoming inspection method for new batches of cells. Also, stabilisation procedures for modules containing cells that are sensitive to degradation have been determined.

  5. Characterization of the island divertor plasma of W7-AS stellarator in the deeply detached state with volume recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.; Koenig, R.; Feng, Y.; Giannone, L.; Grigull, P.; Klinger, T.; McCormick, K.; Thomsen, H.; Wenzel, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the high-density H-mode of the Stellarator Wendelstein 7-AS, the plasma detaches from the island divertor targets when the line-averaged density exceeds a critical value. This quasi-stationary detachment is found to be partial and shows edge-localized, poloidally asymmetric radiation. The spectroscopic characteristics of the deeply detached plasma are reported, including evidence for volume recombination. The detached plasma radiates up to 90% of the absorbed power with larger contributions from the locations close to magnetic X-points outside the divertor region. The spectral analysis of the Balmer series indicate very high densities and low temperatures at the detached regions. The results of the spectral analysis underline the importance of three-dimensional modelling. An initial comparison is made with the latest results from EMC3-EIRENE modelling. (author)

  6. Adolescent-Peer Relationships, Separation and Detachment from Parents, and Internalizing and Externalizing Behaviors: Linkages and Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Justin; Yuen, Cynthia X.; Putnick, Diane L.; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2018-01-01

    Most research exploring the interplay between context and adolescent separation and detachment has focused on the family; in contrast, this investigation directs its attention outside of the family to peers. Utilizing a latent variable approach for modeling interactions and incorporating reports of behavioral adjustment from 14-year-old adolescents (N = 190) and their mothers, we examine how separation and detachment relate to adolescent peer relationships, and whether peer relationships moderate how separation and detachment relate to adolescent internalizing and externalizing behaviors. Positive peer relationships were both associated with lower detachment and sharply attenuated relations between detachment and higher adolescent internalizing and externalizing. Separation from parents was unrelated to peer relationships, and regardless of whether peer relationships were positive, separation was not related to adolescent internalizing and externalizing. We integrate these findings with those from family-focused investigations and discuss their substantive and clinical implications. PMID:29527086

  7. Clinically undetected retinal breaks causing retinal detachment: A review of options for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepak; Ching, Jared; Tornambe, Paul E

    2017-08-12

    The successful detection of retinal breaks is a critical step in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery in order to prevent persistent/recurrent retinal detachments. Not all retinal breaks causing retinal detachments are obvious. Retinal breaks may be obscured by opacities that are either anterior segment related, lens related, or posterior segment related. Rules to identify breaks based on subretinal fluid configuration are more difficult to apply in pseudophakic, aphakic, and scleral buckle encircled eyes-and in eyes with repeat detachments and those with proliferative vitreoretinopathy. Exudative detachments exhibit characteristic features and must be ruled out. A thorough clinical examination preoperatively is important even if a vitrectomy is planned. We review the incidence and causes of undetected breaks, along with preoperative/clinical issues that may hinder break detection. We review the literature with respect to investigative approaches and techniques that are available to the vitreoretinal surgeon when primary breaks remain clinically undetected during the preoperative examination. We broadly divide the surgical approaches into ones where the surgeon utilizes techniques to pursue actively a search for breaks versus adopting a purely speculative approach. Advantages and disadvantages of various techniques are appraised. Intuitively one might argue that an encircling scleral buckle combined with vitrectomy would give higher single operation success than pars plana vitrectomy alone because "undetected" retinal breaks would be addressed by a 360° plombage. We could not confirm this concept. Newer techniques, such as pars plana vitrectomy augmented with dye extrusion or endoscopic-assisted pars plana vitrectomy, show encouraging results. Technological advances such as intraoperative optical coherence tomography will also help to broaden the vitreoretinal surgeon's armamentarium. At this time, there is no gold standard in terms of the recommended

  8. Large-spot subthreshold transpupillary thermotherapy for chronic serous macular detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Lo Giudice

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Giuseppe Lo Giudice1, Valentina de Belvis2, Marco Tavolato1, Alessandro Galan11San Paolo Ophthalmic Center, San Antonio Hospital, Padova, Italy; 2Paediatric Low Vision Center, Paediatric Rare Eye Disease Center, Department of Paediatrics, University of Padova, ItalyPurpose: To report the effect of subthreshold transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT in treating serous detachment of the neurosensory retina secondary to chronic central serous chorioretinopathy (CCSC.Methods: Seven eyes from five patients with CCSC, persistent serous detachment of the neurosensory retina and a clinical course of between 12 and 60 months were treated. All eyes received large-spot TTT guided by indocyanine green angiography (ICGA. Subthreshold TTT was performed using an 810 nm diode laser with a spot size of 3.0 mm (power was set at 350 mW. Treatment was applied for 60 seconds to the areas of choroidal hyperfluorescence on ICGA.Results: The mean number of TTT sessions was 1.4 ± 0.5. All eyes were followed up for at least 6 months (mean 9.6 ± 3.2 standard deviation; range 6–12 months. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution best-corrected visual acuity was significantly better compared with baseline. All TTT-treated eyes had stable or improved vision (P < 0.001. Mean optical coherence tomography (OCT central foveal thickness was significantly lower in all patients (P < 0.001 compared with pretreatment OCT, with a reduction in subretinal fluid and resolution of serous detachment associated with anatomical fovea restoration. No patient had any treatment-related side effects.Conclusion: Modified subthreshold TTT appears to have a beneficial effect in treating patients with CCSC and persistent neurosensory detachment. The encouraging results and lack of visually significant complications suggest that further investigation is warranted.Keywords: central serous chorioretinopathy, indocyanine green angiography, neurosensory detachment, transpupillary

  9. Densiron® 68 as an intraocular tamponade for complex inferior retinal detachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain RN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Rumana N Hussain, Somnath BanerjeeLeicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UKIntroduction: Densiron® 68 is a high-density liquid used to tamponade inferior retinal detachments. We present a case series of 12 patients treated with Densiron as an intraocular tamponade agent.Methods: A retrospective analysis of 12 eyes in 12 patients was carried out. The primary endpoint was anatomic reattachment of the retina following removal of Densiron oil.Results: All patients had inferior detachments; 33% had associated proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR. Densiron was utilized as a primary agent in five patients (42%; the remaining patients had prior unsuccessful surgery for retinal reattachment, including pars plana vitrectomy, cryotherapy, laser, encirclement, gas (C3F8 or C2F6, or silicone oil. Eleven patients (91% had successful reattachment of the retina at 3 months following removal of Densiron; one patient had extensive PVR, total retinal detachment, preretinal macula fibrosis, and chronic hypotony, and surgical intervention was unsuccessful. Six patients (50% had raised intraocular pressure (IOP, resolving in the majority of cases following Densiron removal; two patients had long-term raised IOP requiring topical or surgical therapy. Of the six phakic patients, 50% developed significant cataract in the operated eye. Of those with successful retinal reattachment, visual outcome was variable, with 36% patients gaining two to four lines on Snellen, 27% remaining objectively the same, and 36% losing one to two lines.Conclusion: The anatomic success rate is high (91% in patients requiring Densiron tamponade for inferior retinal detachments with or without evidence of PVR either as a primary or secondary intervention. A common complication is raised IOP; however, this most often resolves following removal of the oil.Keywords: intraocular tamponade, silicone oil, retinal detachment, retinal reattachments

  10. Computational thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhowmik, Arghya; Qin, R.S.

    2015-01-01

    . The method has been validated against the analytical solution of current distribution and experimental observation of microstructure evolution. It provides a basis for the design, prediction and implementation of the electric current metallurgy. The applicability of the theory is discussed in the derivations.......A priori derivation for the extra free energy caused by the passing electric current in metal is presented. The analytical expression and its discrete format in support of the numerical calculation of thermodynamics in electric current metallurgy have been developed. This enables the calculation...... of electric current distribution, current induced temperature distribution and free energy sequence of various phase transitions in multiphase materials. The work is particularly suitable for the study of magnetic materials that contain various magnetic phases. The latter has not been considered in literature...

  11. Detached concern of forensic mental health nurses in therapeutic relationships with patients the application of the early recognition method related to detached concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluttert, Frans; van Meijel, Berno; Nijman, Henk; Bjørkly, Stål; Grypdonck, Mieke

    2010-08-01

    Improvement of the interaction between forensic mental health nurses and patients may lead to a reduction of inpatient violence. The concept under study is detached concern, which refers to nurses' skills to neutralize the emotional appeal of patients by a balanced attitude between objectivity and emotional involvement. The Patient Contact Questionnaire (PCQ) aims at measuring the degree of concern of nurses for their patients. The PCQ was applied in a pretest-posttest design, evaluating the effects of the Early Recognition Method (ERM). This method aims at the prevention of inpatient violence in forensic psychiatry. Subjects were 116 forensic mental heath nurses working on 16 wards of a large Dutch forensic hospital. First, the baseline scores were compared to scores reported in an earlier study conducted in general psychiatry. Second, pretest-posttest comparisons were carried out for all nurses, and for subgroups of nurses with regard to gender, educational level, years of working experience, and patient population. Third, pretest-posttest comparisons were made on the PCQ item level. The baseline scores of male nurses indicated significantly higher levels of concern than those of female nurses. In addition, more experienced nurses scored significantly higher with regard to concern than less experienced nurses. When comparing the scores before and after applying ERM, no significant differences were found. However, the sores of female nurses showed a tendency toward more concern after implementation of ERM. Detached concern may be a meaningful concept in forensic mental health nursing in measuring nurses' concern for their patients. Levels of detached concern did not change significantly after application of ERM. However, the application of the PCQ could contribute to a better understanding of the interaction between nurses and their patients. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Current induced domain wall motion and tilting in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the presence of the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Jijun; Li, Dong; Cui, Baoshan; Guo, Xiaobin; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yupei; Mao, Jian; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li

    2018-04-01

    Current induced domain wall motion (CIDWM) was studied in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy and the Dyzaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (DMI) by the spin-orbit torque (SOT). We measured the strength of DMI and SOT efficiency in Pt/Co/Ta with the variation of the thickness of Ta using a current induced hysteresis loop shift method. The results indicate that the DMI stabilizes a chiral Néel-type domain wall (DW), and the DW motion can be driven by the enhanced large SOT generated from Pt and Ta with opposite signs of spin Hall angle in Pt/Co/Ta stacks. The CIDWM velocity, which is 104 times larger than the field driven DW velocity, obeys a creep law, and reaches around tens of meters per second with current density of ~106 A cm‑2. We also found that the Joule heating accompanied with current also accelerates the DW motion. Meanwhile, a domain wall tilting was observed, which increases with current density increasing. These results can be explained by the spin Hall effect generated from both heavy metals Pt and Ta, inherent DMI, and the current accompanying Joule heating effect. Our results could provide some new designing prospects to move multiple DWs by SOT for achieving racetrack memories.

  13. Bathymetric Signatures of Oceanic Detachment Faulting and Potential Ultramafic Lithologies at Outcrop or in the Shallow Subseafloor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, J. R.; Smith, D. K.; Escartin, J.; Schouten, H.

    2008-12-01

    For ten years, domal bathymetric features capped by corrugated and striated surfaces have been recognized as exposures of oceanic detachment faults, and hence potentially as exposures of plutonic rocks from lower crust or upper mantle. Associated with these domes are other bathymetric features that indicate the presence of detachment faulting. Taken together these bathymetric signatures allow the mapping of large areas of detachment faulting at slow and intermediate spreading ridges, both at the axis and away from it. These features are: 1. Smooth elevated domes corrugated parallel to the spreading direction, typically 10-30 km wide parallel to the axis; 2. Linear ridges with outward-facing slopes steeper than 20°, running parallel to the spreading axis, typically 10-30 km long; 3. Deep basins with steep sides and relatively flat floors, typically 10-20 km long parallel to the spreading axis and 5-10 km wide. This characteristic bathymetric association arises from the rolling over of long-lived detachment faults as they spread away from the axis. The faults dip steeply close to their origin at a few kilometers depth near the spreading axis, and rotate to shallow dips as they continue to evolve, with associated footwall flexure and rotation of rider blocks carried on the fault surface. The outward slopes of the linear ridges can be shown to be rotated volcanic seafloor transported from the median valley floor. The basins may be formed by the footwall flexure, and may be exposures of the detachment surface. Critical in this analysis is that the corrugated domes are not the only sites of detachment faulting, but are the places where higher parts of much more extensive detachment faults happen to be exposed. The fault plane rises and falls along axis, and in some places is covered by rider blocks, while in others it is exposed at the sea floor. We use this association to search for evidence for detachment faulting in existing surveys, identifying for example an area

  14. Posterior vitreous detachment - prevalence of and risk factors for retinal tears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bond-Taylor M

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Martin Bond-Taylor,1 Gunnar Jakobsson,1,2 Madeleine Zetterberg1,2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, 2Department of Clinical Neuroscience/Ophthalmology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden Purpose: The present study aimed to describe clinical characteristics of patients with posterior vitreous detachment (PVD, to determine the prevalence of retinal tears in PVD patients, and to find predictors for retinal tears in this patient group. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records on patients diagnosed with PVD, retinal tears, or vitreous hemorrhage at the Department of Ophthalmology at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, a tertiary eye center. Results: Between February and July 2009, 365 patients consulted the Department of Ophthalmology for PVD-related symptoms. The incidence of retinal tears was 14.5% (n=53 and that of vitreous and/or retinal hemorrhage was 22.7% (n=83. For analysis of possible predictors for complications to PVD, patients diagnosed with retinal tears or vitreous hemorrhage between May and July 2009 were also included in the study, resulting in a total of 426 patients. Predictors of a retinal tear were symptoms of visual impairment (P=0.024, the presence of vitreous or retinal hemorrhage at examination (P<0.001, and a duration of symptoms for <24 hours (P=0.004. Symptoms of flashes did not constitute an extra risk of retinal tears (P=0.135. Subsequent retinal pathology (follow-up time 4.5 years, including vitreous detachment/hemorrhage or retinal tears/detachment, occurred more often in patients presenting with a retinal tear. For patients with a retinal tear, the relative risk of having a retinal detachment in the same eye during the follow-up time was 17.7 when compared to patients without a retinal tear (risk ratio 17.7, 95% confidence interval 2.2–145. Conclusion: Patients seeking care on the first day have a

  15. Analysis of detached recombining plasmas by collisonal-radiative model with energetic electron component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, N.; Motoyama, M.; Takamura, S.

    2001-01-01

    Investigation of plasma detachment is still one of the most important subjects in the edge plasma of magnetically confined fusion devices. It was found that volumetric plasma recombination plays an essential role on reduction of particle flux in detached plasmas. The volumetric plasma recombination process has been confirmed in several diverted tokamaks and linear simulators by observing line emission from highly excited states due to three-body recombination process and continuum emission due to radiative recombination process. Electron temperature and density in the detached plasma were also evaluated from analysis of the light emission. To determine the electron temperature, the line emission spectrum is analyzed to calculate the population densities of excited levels. The population distribution among the highly excited states follows the Saha-Boltzmann distribution very closely. This implies that those states are in local thermal equilibrium (LTE) condition with free electrons in plasma so that the electron temperature can be obtained by using method of Boltzmann plot. Another method to determine the electron temperature is to compare the observed continuum spectrum with the theoretically calculated one. In our experiments using the linear diverter simulator, however, there is a clear difference for two evaluated values. One of the possible reasons is thought to be that there is a small amount of energetic electrons existing in detached recombining region. In order to evaluate the electron temperature more preciously, we need to investigate the influence of the energetic electrons on the evaluation of bulk electron temperature in a detached plasma. Collisonal-radiative (GR) model has been utilized for analyzing the light emission intensities from plasma. However, Maxwellian electron distribution function is usually assumed in the CR model. In this paper, we report a quantitative analysis of the line emission spectrum in the detached recombining plasmas by

  16. Scleral buckling for retinal detachment in Ibadan, Sub-Saharan Africa: anatomical and visual outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluleye TS

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available TS Oluleye, OA Ibrahim, BA OlusanyaRetina and Vitreous Unit, Department of Ophthalmology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, NigeriaBackground: Scleral buckle surgery is not a commonly performed surgical procedure in Sub-Saharan Africa due to a paucity of trained vitreo retinal surgeons. The aim of the study was to review sclera buckle procedures with a view to evaluating the anatomical and visual outcomes.Methods: Case records of patients that had scleral buckle surgery at the Retina Unit of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria, between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. Information retrieved included patients' demographics, duration of symptoms, and presenting vision. Other information included site of retinal break, extent of retinal detachment, involvement of the fellow eye, and macular involvement. Postoperative retina reattachment and postoperative visual acuity were also recorded. Proportions and percentages were used to analyze data.Results: Forty five eyes of 42 patients were studied with a male to female ratio of 1.6:1. The mean age was 47.7 years (±17.6 years. The median duration before presentation was 3 months (range: 5 days – 156 months. Subtotal retinal detachment was found in 35 eyes (77.8% while total retinal detachment occurred in ten eyes (22.2%. Thirty four eyes (75.6% had "macular off" detachments. At 6 weeks, there was an improvement in visual acuity in 23 eyes (51.1%, while visual acuity remained the same in nine eyes (20% and was worse in 13 eyes (28.9%. Anatomical attachment was seen in 43 eyes (95.6% on the operation table, in 40 eyes (90.9% at first day postoperatively and in 32 eyes (86.5% at 6 weeks after surgery.Conclusion: Outcome of sclera buckle surgery for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment may be improved in developing countries of Sub Sahara Africa if adequate awareness is created to educate the populace on early presentation.Keywords: retinal detachment, scleral buckle surgery, anatomical and visual

  17. Electricity Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong, Ha Soung

    2006-12-01

    The text book composed of five parts, which are summary of this book, arrangement of electricity theory including electricity nad magnetism, a direct current, and alternating current. It has two dictionary electricity terms for a synonym. The last is an appendix. It is for preparing for test of officer, electricity engineer and fire fighting engineer.

  18. Ocular coherence tomographic examination of postoperative foveal architecture after scleral buckling vs vitrectomy for macular off retinal detachment.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gibran, S K

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: This pilot study uses Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging to compare the difference in foveal architecture after successful retinal detachment (RD) surgery by scleral buckling or pars plana vitrectomy (PPV). METHODS: Prospective recruitment of patients with macular off RDs. Detachment surgery was undertaken by scleral buckling, external drainage, and air injection (group 1) or by PPV (group 2). Postoperatively patients had clinical examinations and OCT at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. If abnormalities persisted, a further OCT was obtained at 18 months. RESULTS: Retinal reattachment, including clinical macular reattachment, was achieved in all cases within 24 h postoperatively. In group 1 (n=22), postoperative OCT showed persistent foveal detachment in 63% of cases (n=14) at 1 and 3 months. At 6 and 12 months, 36% (n=8) and 9% (n=2) had a persistent foveal detachment, respectively, and at 18 months, foveal detachment eventually. In group 2 (n=21), postoperative OCT showed an attached fovea in all cases; however, foveal thickening suggesting intraretinal oedema was present in all cases. The oedematous appearance of retina on OCT settled in 1-3 months. No foveal abnormality was seen at 6 and 12 months postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of patients with successful retinal reattachment surgery by scleral buckling had foveal detachments postoperatively. No cases who had PPV had foveal detachments; however, transient retinal oedema was evident in all cases. The aetiology of these changes is unknown and warrants further investigation, as there is the potential of a long-term effect on vision.

  19. Effects of RGD immobilization on light-induced cell sheet detachment from TiO{sub 2} nanodots films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kui; Wang, Tiantian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yu, Mengliu [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Wan, Hongping [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Lin, Jun [The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China); Weng, Wenjian, E-mail: wengwj@zju.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Cyrus Tang Center for Sensor Materials and Applications, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 1295 Dingxi Road, Shanghai 200050 (China); Wang, Huiming, E-mail: hmwang1960@hotmail.com [The Affiliated Stomatologic Hospital, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310003 (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Medical College, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310003 (China)

    2016-06-01

    Light-induced cell detachment is reported to be a safe and effective cell sheet harvest method. In the present study, the effects of arginine–glycine–aspartic acid (RGD) immobilization on cell growth, cell sheet construction and cell harvest through light illumination are investigated. RGD was first immobilized on TiO{sub 2} nanodots films through simple physical adsorption, and then mouse pre-osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells were seeded on the films. It was found that RGD immobilization promoted cell adhesion and proliferation. It was also observed that cells cultured on RGD immobilized films showed relatively high level of pan-cadherin. Cells harvested with ultraviolet illumination (365 nm) showed good viability on both RGD immobilized and unmodified TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. Single cell detachment assay showed that cells detached more quickly on RGD immobilized TiO{sub 2} nanodot films. That could be ascribed to the RGD release after UV365 illumination. The current study demonstrated that RGD immobilization could effectively improve both the cellular responses and light-induced cell harvest. - Highlights: • RGD immobilization on TiO{sub 2} nanodots film favors light-induced cell sheet detachment. • Physically adsorbed RGD detaches from the film through ultraviolet illumination. • RGD detachment promotes cells and cell sheets detachment.

  20. Importance of anisotropy in detachment rates for force production and cargo transport by a team of motor proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2016-05-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by collective forces generated by a team consisting of multiple molecular motor proteins. One aspect that has received less attention is the detachment rate of molecular motors under mechanical force/load. While detachment rate of kinesin motors measured under backward force increases rapidly for forces beyond stall-force; this scenario is just reversed for non-yeast dynein motors where detachment rate from microtubule decreases, exhibiting a catch-bond type behavior. It has been shown recently that yeast dynein responds anisotropically to applied load, i.e. detachment rates are different under forward and backward pulling. Here, we use computational modeling to show that these anisotropic detachment rates might help yeast dynein motors to improve their collective force generation in the absence of catch-bond behavior. We further show that the travel distance of cargos would be longer if detachment rates are anisotropic. Our results suggest that anisotropic detachment rates could be an alternative strategy for motors to improve the transport properties and force production by the team. © 2016 The Protein Society.

  1. Energy and electricity use in buildings. Pre-study; Energi- och Elanvaendning i byggnader. Foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalenbaeck, Jan-Olof; Goeransson, Anders; Jagemar, Lennart [Chalmers EnergiCentrum CEC, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-05-15

    The built environment accounts for 40 % of energy use and 50 % of electricity use in Sweden. Sweden uses more than twice as much electrical energy as the mean value for EU-15 and the principal reason for this is good access to relatively inexpensive electricity. This pre-study summarises the current use of electricity, the prerequisites and potential for reducing the use of electricity and current RDandD projects focusing on the use of energy. It also gives a brief description of a couple of visions for the future. The proposed research projects focus on describing the use of electricity (energy, output, voltage etc) and analysing the way different control mechanisms influence the opportunity to realise sustainable developments. The heated areas in houses and buildings are distributed as follows: 45 % in detached or semi-detached houses, 30 % in blocks of flats (including some business premises) and 25 % in business premises. About 80 % of these areas were erected before 1980. A large percentage of the energy that is supplied to these houses and buildings, around 65 %, is used for various heating purposes, first and foremost in older detached or semi-detached houses and blocks of flats. The heating for detached or semi-detached houses is supplied in many different ways, while district heating is primarily responsible for the heating that is supplied to blocks of flats and business premises. A large percentage of the electricity usage is accounted for by heating, primarily in new detached or semi-detached houses, and electricity for operations in business premises - around 35% and 28% respectively. In addition to heating, electricity is used first and foremost for lighting and different types of electrical equipment, but most of the existing statistics relating to the distribution of electricity usage between different applications are based on old surveys and studies and need to be updated. It is estimated that the techno-economic potential for saving energy in

  2. Determination of the capabilities of a detachment for neutralizing chemical attack effects in the brigade defense zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan R. Inđić

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents one possible way of deploying detachments for neutralizing the effects of chemical attacks in a brigade defense zone. The detachment composition is provisional and depends on the assessment of whether the enemy in the incoming combat will use weapons of mass destruction. A detachment consists of several organizational units: medical care forces, chemical reconnaissance forces, forces for the establishment of combat efficiency and chemical decontamination forces. The capabilities of the mentioned forces depend on their size, equipment, training level, extent of effects and combat conditions. The paper indicates a potential to overcome the gap in the provisions after disbanding the Army Corps.

  3. Imaging findings of spontaneous detachment of the deltoid muscle as a complication of massive rotator cuff tear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchi, Stefano; Martinoli, Carlo; Abdelwahab, Ibrahim Fikry

    2006-01-01

    A tear at the origin of the deltoid muscle is uncommon and usually occurs as a complication of shoulder surgery. We report a case of spontaneous deltoid detachment as a complication of massive rotator cuff tear in a 70-year-old woman evaluated by standard radiographs, ultrasound, arthrography and MR-arthrography. We present the multimodality imaging findings with review of the literature. We found that ultrasound is an accurate modality in detecting and assessing spontaneous detachment of the deltoid muscle. As ultrasound is a noninvasive, low-cost, and universally available imaging modality we suggest using ultrasound as the first modality for evaluation of spontaneous detachment of the deltoid muscle. (orig.)

  4. Rescue endoscopic bleeding control for nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage using clipping and detachable snaring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J H; Kim, B K; Seol, D C; Byun, S J; Park, K H; Sung, I K; Park, H S; Shim, C S

    2013-06-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding recurs after appropriate endoscopic therapy in 10 % - 15 % of cases. The mortality rate can be as high as 25 % when bleeding recurs, but there is no consensus about the best modality for endoscopic re-treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate clipping and detachable snaring (CDS) for rescue endoscopic control of nonvariceal UGI hemorrhage. We report a case series of seven patients from a Korean tertiary center who underwent endoscopic hemostasis using the combined method of detachable snares with hemoclips. The success rate of endoscopic hemostasis with CDS was 86 %: six of the seven patients who had experienced primary endoscopic treatment failure or recurrent bleeding after endoscopic hemostasis were treated successfully. In conclusion, rescue endoscopic bleeding control by means of CDS is an option for controlling nonvariceal UGI bleeding when no other method of endoscopic treatment for recurrent bleeding and primary hemostatic failure is possible. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Serous Retinal Detachments Complicating Interferon-α and Ribavirin Treatment in Patients with Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Modorati

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report the cases of two patients with chronic hepatitis C infection showing serous retinal detachments similar to Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada (VKH disease. Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of two patients who were diagnosed with VKH-like disease during combined interferon-α (IFNα and ribavirin treatment. Results: Interruption of IFNα and ribavirin treatment in association with oral corticosteroids resulted in a favorable visual outcome in the case of diffuse retinal detachment (case 1. On the contrary, visual acuity did not improve when late cicatricial stage disease was already present (case 2. Conclusion: There is increasing evidence of a link between hepatitis C virus infection treated with pegylated IFNα-2b and the development of VKH-like disease. Knowing the potential side effects of IFNα and ribavirin administration is fundamentally important, as is the need to closely follow up those patients that need to undergo this treatment.

  6. One dimensional simulation on stability of detached plasma in a tokamak divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Shinji; Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    1999-06-01

    The stability of radiation front in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) of a tokamak is studied with a one dimensional fluid code; the time-dependent transport equations are solved in the direction parallel to a magnetic field line. The simulation results show that stable detached solutions exist, where the plasma temperature near the divertor target is ∼2 eV. It is found that whenever such stable detached states are attained, the strong radiation front is contact with or at a small distance from the divertor target. When the energy externally injected into the SOL is decreased below a critical value, the radiation front starts to move towards the X-point, cooling the SOL plasma. In such cases, no stationary solutions such that the radiation front rests in the divertor channel are observed in our parameter space. This qualitatively corresponds to the results of tokamak divertor experiments which show the movement of radiation front. (author)

  7. Reoperation for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment as quality indicator for disease management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajari, Javad N; Christensen, Ulrik; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To establish a quality indicator that could be used in optimizing treatment for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). METHODS: The Danish National Patient Registry was used to identify surgery conducted in Denmark for RRD in the period 01 January 2001-31 December 2009. Cases were...... identified by diagnosis and surgical codes. RESULTS: A total of 6522 cases were operated for a primary RRD in the study period, and 22% (1434 patients) were reoperated for a redetachment. A Cox regression analysis showed that the risk of redetachment was equal to or less than detachment on the fellow eye 1...... year after primary surgery with techniques not using silicone oil. The same was true 1.5 years after surgery for techniques using silicone oil. Based on this, we established a quality indicator defining failure as the need for operation for redetachment within 1 year from initial surgery when using...

  8. Complex genetics of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and related pediatric retinal detachments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) is a hereditary vitreoretinal disorder that can cause various types of retinal detachments. The abnormalities in eyes with FEVR are caused by poor vascularization in the peripheral retina. The genetics of FEVR is highly heterogeneous, and mutations in the genes for Wnt signaling and a transcription factor have been reported to be responsible for FEVR. These factors have been shown to be the regulators of the pathophysiological pathways of retinal vascular development. Studies conducted to identify the causative genes of FEVR have uncovered a diverse and complex relationship between FEVR and other diseases; for example, Norrie disease, a Mendelian-inherited disease; retinopathy of prematurity, a multifactorial genetic disease; and Coats disease, a nongenetic disease, associated with pediatric retinal detachments. PMID:29018668

  9. Non-invasive NMR stratigraphy of a multi-layered artefact: an ancient detached mural painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Tullio, Valeria; Capitani, Donatella; Presciutti, Federica; Gentile, Gennaro; Brunetti, Brunetto Giovanni; Proietti, Noemi

    2013-10-01

    NMR stratigraphy was used to investigate in situ, non-destructively and non-invasively, the stratigraphy of hydrogen-rich layers of an ancient Nubian detached mural painting. Because of the detachment procedure, a complex multi-layered artefact was obtained, where, besides layers of the original mural painting, also the materials used during the procedure all became constitutive parts of the artefact. NMR measurements in situ enabled monitoring of the state of conservation of the artefact and planning of minimum representative sampling to validate results obtained in situ by solid-state NMR analysis of the samples. This analysis enabled chemical characterization of all organic materials. Use of reference compounds and prepared specimens assisted data interpretation.

  10. Quality assessment of cataract surgery in Denmark - risk of retinal detachment and postoperative endophthalmitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren Solborg

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis was to examine whether the Danish National Patient Registry (NPR) could be used to monitor and assess the quality of cataract surgery in Denmark by studying the risks of two serious postoperative complications following cataract surgery - retinal detachment (RD......) and postoperative endophthalmitis (PE). The thesis consists of four retrospective studies. In the first study (paper I), we used data from the NPR in the calendar period 2000-2010 to investigate the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) using the fellow non-operated eyes of the patients as reference....... The study showed that over a 10-year study period, the risk of PRD was increased by a factor of 4.2 irrespective of sex and age. The risk of PRD was highest in the first part of the postoperative period and then gradually decreased but remained statistically significantly higher than the risk of RD in non...

  11. OEDGE modeling of DIII-D density scan discharges leading to detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J. D.; Stangeby, P. C.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N.; Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    The OEDGE code is used to model the outer divertor plasma for discharges from a density scan experiment on DIII-D with the objective of assessing EIRENE and ADAS hydrogenic emission atomic physics data for Dα, Dβ and Dγ for values of Te and ne characteristic of the range of divertor plasma conditions from attached to weakly detached. Confidence in these values is essential to spectroscopic interpretation of any experiment or modeling effort. Good agreement between experiment and calculated emissions is found for both EIRENE and ADAS calculated emission profiles, confirming their reliability for plasma conditions down to ∼1 eV. For the cold dense plasma conditions characteristic of detachment, it is found that the calculated emissions are especially sensitive to Te.

  12. OEDGE modeling of DIII-D density scan discharges leading to detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J. D. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Stangeby, P. C. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bray, B. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Brooks, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leonard, A. W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Unterberg, Ezekial A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, J. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Here, we study the OEDGE code that is used to model the outer divertor plasma for discharges from a density scan experiment on DIII-D with the objective of assessing EIRENE and ADAS hydrogenic emission atomic physics data for Dα, Dβ and Dγ for values of Te and ne characteristic of the range of divertor plasma conditions from attached to weakly detached. Confidence in these values is essential to spectroscopic interpretation of any experiment or modeling effort. Good agreement between experiment and calculated emissions is found for both EIRENE and ADAS calculated emission profiles, confirming their reliability for plasma conditions down to ~1 eV. Lastly, for the cold dense plasma conditions characteristic of detachment, it is found that the calculated emissions are especially sensitive to Te.

  13. OEDGE modeling of DIII-D density scan discharges leading to detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.D., E-mail: david@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Brooks, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Unterberg, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The OEDGE code is used to model the outer divertor plasma for discharges from a density scan experiment on DIII-D with the objective of assessing EIRENE and ADAS hydrogenic emission atomic physics data for D{sub α}, D{sub β} and D{sub γ} for values of T{sub e} and n{sub e} characteristic of the range of divertor plasma conditions from attached to weakly detached. Confidence in these values is essential to spectroscopic interpretation of any experiment or modeling effort. Good agreement between experiment and calculated emissions is found for both EIRENE and ADAS calculated emission profiles, confirming their reliability for plasma conditions down to ∼1 eV. For the cold dense plasma conditions characteristic of detachment, it is found that the calculated emissions are especially sensitive to T{sub e}.

  14. Detached-eddy simulation of flow around the NREL phase VI blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jeppe; Sørensen, Niels N.; Michelsen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    the blade axis. Computed blade characteristics are compared with experimental data from the NREL/NASA Ames Phase VI unsteady experiment. The detached-eddy simulation model is a method for predicting turbulence in computational fluid dynamics computations, which combines a Reynolds-averaged Navier......-eddy simulation show considerably more three-dimensional flow structures compared to conventional two-equation Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes turbulence models, but no particular improvements are seen in the global blade characteristics. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.......The detached-eddy simulation model implemented in the computational fluid dynamics code EllipSys3D is used to calculate the flow around the non-rotating NREL Phase VI wind turbine blade. Results are presented for flow around a parked blade at fixed angle of attack and a blade pitching along...

  15. Interventions for asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration for preventing retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Charles P

    2014-09-05

    Asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration are visible lesions that are risk factors for later retinal detachment. Retinal detachments occur when fluid in the vitreous cavity passes through tears or holes in the retina and separates the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Creation of an adhesion surrounding retinal breaks and lattice degeneration, with laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy, has been recommended as an effective means of preventing retinal detachment. This therapy is of value in the management of retinal tears associated with the symptoms of flashes and floaters and persistent vitreous traction upon the retina in the region of the retinal break, because such symptomatic retinal tears are associated with a high rate of progression to retinal detachment. Retinal tears and holes unassociated with acute symptoms and lattice degeneration are significantly less likely to be the sites of retinal breaks that are responsible for later retinal detachment. Nevertheless, treatment of these lesions frequently is recommended, in spite of the fact that the effectiveness of this therapy is unproven. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of techniques used to treat asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration for the prevention of retinal detachment. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to February 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2014), PubMed (January 1948 to February 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials

  16. Detachment strength of human osteoblasts cultured on hydroxyapatite with various surface roughness. Contribution of integrin subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokkinos, Petros A; Koutsoukos, Petros G; Deligianni, Despina D

    2012-06-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) has been widely used as a bone substitute in dental, maxillofacial and orthopaedic surgery and as osteoconductive bone substitute or precoating of pedicle screws and cages in spine surgery. The aim of the present study was to investigate the osteoblastic adhesion strength on HA substrata with different surface topography and biochemistry (pre-adsorption of fibronectin) after blocking of specific integrin subunits with monoclonal antibodies. Stoichiometric HA was prepared by precipitation followed by ageing and characterized by SEM, EDX, powder XRD, Raman spectroscopy, TGA, and specific surface area analysis. Human bone marrow derived osteoblasts were cultured on HA disc-shaped substrata which were sintered and polished resulting in two surface roughness grades. For attachment evaluation, cells were incubated with monoclonal antibodies and seeded for 2 h on the substrata. Cell detachment strength was determined using a rotating disc device. Cell detachment strength was surface roughness, fibronectin preadsorption and intergin subunit sensitive.

  17. Creating technological boundaries to protect bedtime: examining work-home boundary management, psychological detachment and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larissa K; Jenkins, Jade S

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the mechanism by which information and communication technology (ICT) use at home for work purposes may affect sleep. In this investigation, data from 315 employees were used to examine the indirect effect of ICT use at home on sleep outcomes through psychological detachment, and how boundary creation may moderate this effect. Results revealed the indirect effect of increased work-home boundary crossing on sleep (quantity, quality and consistency) through psychological detachment occurred only among individuals with low boundaries around ICT use and not among those with high boundaries. These results suggest that creating boundaries around work-relevant ICT use while at home is beneficial to sleep as a recovery process through being able to psychologically disengage from work. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Correlates of interpersonal dependency and detachment in an adolescent inpatient sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggerty, Greg; Siefert, Caleb J; Bornstein, Robert F; Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Blais, Mark A; Zodan, Jennifer; Rao, Nyapati

    2015-01-01

    Interpersonal dependency has been linked to psychological distress, depression, help seeking, treatment compliance, and sensitivity to interpersonal cues in adult samples. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on dependency in child and adolescent samples. The current study examined the construct validity of a measure of interpersonal dependency. The authors investigated how interpersonal dependency and detachment relate to behavioral problems, subjective well-being, interpersonal problems, and global symptom severity in adolescent inpatients. Destructive overdependence (DO) and dysfunctional detachment (DD) were positively related to interpersonal distress, behavioral problems, and symptom severity and negatively related to psychological health and well-being. Healthy dependency (HD) was associated with fewer behavioral problems and less symptom severity and positively related to subjective well-being. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  19. The cooling history and the depth of detachment faulting at the Atlantis Massif oceanic core complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolmeesters, Nicole; Cheadle, Michael J.; John, Barbara E.; Reiners, Peter W.; Gee, Jeffrey; Grimes, Craig B.

    2012-10-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) are domal exposures of oceanic crust and mantle interpreted to be denuded to the seafloor by large slip oceanic detachment faults. We combine previously reported U-Pb zircon crystallization ages with (U-Th)/He zircon thermochronometry and multicomponent magnetic remanence data to determine the cooling history of the footwall to the Atlantis Massif OCC (30°N, MAR) and help establish cooling rates, as well as depths of detachment faulting and gabbro emplacement. We present nine new (U-Th)/He zircon ages for samples from IODP Hole U1309D ranging from 40 to 1415 m below seafloor. These data paired with U-Pb zircon ages and magnetic remanence data constrain cooling rates of gabbroic rocks from the upper 800 m of the central dome at Atlantis Massif as 2895 (+1276/-1162) °C Myr-1 (from ˜780°C to ˜250°C); the lower 600 m of the borehole cooled more slowly at mean rates of ˜500 (+125/-102) °C Myr-1(from ˜780°C to present-day temperatures). Rocks from the uppermost part of the hole also reveal a brief period of slow cooling at rates of ˜300°C Myr-1, possibly due to hydrothermal circulation to ˜4 km depth through the detachment fault zone. Assuming a fault slip rate of 20 mm/yr (from U-Pb zircon ages of surface samples) and a rolling hinge model for the sub-surface fault geometry, we predict that the 780°C isotherm lies at ˜7 km below the axial valley floor, likely corresponding both to the depth at which the semi-brittle detachment fault roots and the probable upper limit of significant gabbro emplacement.

  20. Cyclodialysis cleft with late hypotony maculopathy after inadvertent cannula detachment during cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahawita, Shyalle; Cugati, Sudha; Casson, Robert

    2015-05-01

    We present the case of a 69-year-old woman who presented with hypotony several years after an inadvertent cannula detachment presumably formed a cyclodialysis cleft during phacoemulsification cataract extraction and posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in her right eye. To our knowledge, this is the first report of late hypotony maculopathy as a result of inadvertent cannula release. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.