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Sample records for electric company european

  1. The level of diversity in European electricity companies based on selected economic indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Ulatowska

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article was to show variations in the electricity sector in the context of macro and micro-economic conditions with the use of discriminatory analysis. Using the STATISTICA programe to carry out the analysis of discrimination macroeconomic data has been used on the economies of the countries in which the parent companies of the energy companiesare established and the financial and economic results of individual concerns. Power companies: power plants, distribution companies and vendors of energy in Poland have been included as a single entity. An attempt to determine the factors of macro and micro-economic and financial data, which significantly affected the distinctionbetween the concerns was investigated. The results of the discriminatory analysis allowed for the submission of the following conclusions: selected on the basis of the following micro-economic factors distinguished the companies that had the largest share of variables: revenue per employee and long-term assets to long-term capital, and clearly distinguished EdF and electricity companies in Poland. This means that the dominant European companies show a similarity in implementation adopted by the owners of the economic-financial conditions for development. According to factors and the economic contribution to the largest macroeconomic identifying similar groups had the same variables: consumption of electricity in TWh and public debt in% of GDP, which correctly classified all concerns at 100%. It follows from this that the greatest contributions in distinguishing concerns have external factors and more specifically, the national macro-economic indicators in the countries in which the handquestors of the parent companies are found.

  2. Communications architecture for an electric company, European utility communications architecture, EURUCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uuspaeae, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1998-08-01

    The scope of this research is integration and interoperability of various information systems and data communications for electric utilities. Utility Communication Architecture refers to an overall view of the communications needs and communication systems in an electric utility. The objective is to define and specify suitable and compatible communications procedures within the Utility and also to outside parties

  3. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  4. Principles of European Company Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2010-01-01

    The article focuses on how much we have in common in Europe within company law and its development, and on the principles which are the determining factors for the activities of European companies. The article shows that what we have in common greatly outweighs what divides us......, and this is presented in the article as the provisional capstone of 400 years of joint European development of company law....

  5. The European company, perspectives after Brexit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Ioan Dumitru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The history of the companies has proven to all of us that this area may have a dynamic similar to the most energetic ones in life. The human societies have changed and developed and together with them the companies were forced to adapt themselves in order to exist and to function over the times. The creation of the European Union brought probably the biggest changes is these fields and the European countries, now member states, have adapted their judicial system in order to have a more uniform and harmonized system. The degree of this status quo, with the rich and eventful historical, cultural and political background is highly debatable and very subjective. With the desire to build a common market, to increase trade and welfare, one of the most significant challenge was the creation of an European company (known also as Societas Europea or SE. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the evolution of the European company and to present a perspective of it after the new evolutions in EU, mainly BREXIT. Using a comparative method on the main issues that were solved or not by the creation of the European company, the article tries to show the clash of business cultures, especially British and German ones, which affected the evolution of the entire European corporate legislation. The conclusions are guided mainly by the future possible evolution of the provisions regarding the European company after one of the strongest business cultures, namely the British one, will withdraw from the continuous fight that kept the development business forms more in the hands of the member states and less in the ones of an harmonized European structure.

  6. Performance evaluation of Central European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Fiala

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a modelling approach for performance comparison of Central European companies on three levels: country, industry, and company. The approach is based on Data Envelopment Analysis and Analytic Hierarchy Process. The proposed model consists of two basic sections. The first section estimates the importance of selected industries in the countries, whereas the second section evaluates the performance of companies within industries. The results of both sections are synthesized and finally the country performance is estimated. The evaluation is based on the data set resulting from a survey of companies from selected industries.

  7. Response to the European Commission's consultation on the future of European company law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Böckli, P.; Davies, P.; Ferran, E.; Ferrarini, G.; Garrido, J.; Hopt, K.; Pietrancosta, A.; Pistor, K.; Skog, R.; Soltysinski, S.; Winter, J.; Wymeersch, E.

    2012-01-01

    This paper contains the views of the European Company Law Experts (ECLE) on the future of European company law. The paper accompanies the responses of the European Company Law Experts to the European Commission’s Consultation on the future of European Company Law of spring 2012. In the first part of

  8. European pharmacovigilance: increasingly outsourced to drug companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    New regulations reorganising pharmacovigilance at the European level were adopted in late 2010, then revised in 2012 in the wake of the Mediator (benfluorex) disaster. The European Commission's original proposals, released in 2008, would have represented a major step backwards in the protection afforded to European citizens, in particular by facilitating earlier marketing authorisations. Thanks to the mobilisation of civil society, the Members of the European Parliament have improved these proposals, supported by EU health ministers. The role of the new European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) has been strengthened. Patients in every Member State have the right to report adverse drug effects directly to health authorities. EU drug regulatory agencies are required to provide greater transparency, and public access to information about adverse effects has been improved. However, one major regression persists: the central role given to pharmaceutical companies in the collection and interpretation of reports of adverse drug effects, despite their conflicts of interest. Drug companies are asked to record the adverse effect reports of which they are aware in a vast European centralised database, Eudravigilance, without going through drug regulatory agencies. Pharmaceutical companies remain responsible for producing "a scientific evaluation of the risk-benefit balance" of their drug, as part of the periodic benefit-risk assessment reports they are required to submit to drug regulatory agencies. These reports are analysed for the entire EU by two Member States (one rapporteur and one co-rapporteur), so that harmonised decisions can be taken. But these decisions are based on data preanalysed by the drug companies. In addition, the independence of the European Medicines Agency is undermined by its financial reliance on the fees paid by pharmaceutical companies in exchange for these assessments. In 2012, following France's Mediator disaster, several modest

  9. Hawaiian Electric Company Demand Response Roadmap Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, Roger [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kiliccote, Sila [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-01-12

    The objective of this project was to develop a “roadmap” to guide the Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) demand response (DR) planning and implementation in support of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) 70% clean energy goal by 2030.

  10. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья...

  11. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  12. The European Private Company, its shareholders and its creditors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, Sandra van den

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the Proposal for a Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Private Company (Societas Privata Europaea, SPE) as put forward by the European Commission in 2008 as well as with the amendments proposed by the European Parliament in 2009. The SPE will be a new legal form

  13. Electric utility companies and geothermal power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements of the electric utility industry as the primary potential market for geothermal energy are analyzed, based on a series of structured interviews with utility companies and financial institution executives. The interviews were designed to determine what information and technologies would be required before utilities would make investment decisions in favor of geothermal energy, the time frame in which the information and technologies would have to be available, and the influence of the governmental politics. The paper describes the geothermal resources, electric utility industry, its structure, the forces influencing utility companies, and their relationship to geothermal energy. A strategy for federal stimulation of utility investment in geothermal energy is suggested. Possibilities are discussed for stimulating utility investment through financial incentives, amelioration of institutional barriers, and technological improvements.

  14. 76 FR 24465 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company Notice of Application Tendered for Filing....: 2310-193. c. Date Filed: April 12, 2011. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of... Contact: Steve Peirano, Relicensing Project Manager, Pacific Gas and Electric Company, P.O. Box 770000...

  15. 78 FR 38195 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    ...; AD 2013-10-52] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines...) Applicability General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B turbofan engines with a transfer gearbox... are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and...

  16. The European Private Company, its shareholders and its creditors

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra van den Braak

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the Proposal for a Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Private Company (Societas Privata Europaea, SPE) as put forward by the European Commission in 2008 as well as with the amendments proposed by the European Parliament in 2009. The SPE will be a new legal form for small and medium-sized companies, allowing them to set up the same European legal entity across the Member States. In this paper the focus is on the question whether we need the SPE and whether t...

  17. A Market for Company Incorporations in the European Union?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkmose, Hanne Søndergaard

    2005-01-01

    The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)......The article discuss the European market for company incorporation in light of the recent decisions of the European Court of Justice; Centros (1999 E.C.R. at I-1487), Überseering (2002 E.C.R. at I-9919) and Inspire Art (2003 E.C.R. at I-10155)...

  18. Why do European companies have Innovation Hubs in Silicon Valley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Andreas; Brem, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Innovation hubs are gaining high attention in recent years, especially from European companies. Silicon Valley has been deemed as one of the most attractive and successful environments for establishing innovation hubs. This article highlights examples of companies from Europe that made the step t...... to California—namely, Volkswagen, Swisscom, BMW, Axel Springer, Munich Re, and Innogy SE (RWE Group). Based on these companies’ experiences, recommendations are given on how companies might approach a setup in Silicon Valley for long-term success....

  19. 77 FR 65419 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... and Power Company AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Partial Director's Decision; issuance... Power Station, Units 1 and 2 (North Anna 1 and 2), by the Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or... August 23, 2011, Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee) should be required to obtain a...

  20. 77 FR 26321 - Virginia Electric and Power Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... Power Company AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Director's Decision; issuance. SUMMARY: The... Electric and Power Company (VEPCO or the licensee). The petition requested that the NRC: (1) Take escalated... be formally communicated to Virginia Electric and Power Company (VEPCO) in a written correspondence...

  1. The Performance of Publicly Traded European Venture Capital Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Manigart; Peter Joos; Donaat De Vos

    1994-01-01

    The stock market return and the risk of 33 quoted European venture capital companies during the period 1977-1991 are studied. The return is negative on average with eight of the 33 companies having a return that is higher than the market return. However, the systematic risk (measured by the beta of the stock) is lower than the market risk. When taking the risk into account, no company has a return that is significantly higher than zero, but four companies have a return that is significantly l...

  2. 78 FR 44899 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and -115B turbofan engines. This proposed AD was prompted by multiple... This AD applies to General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and -115B turbofan engines with variable... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric...

  3. 78 FR 19628 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Electric Company (GE) GE90-76B, -85B, -90B, -94B, - 110B1, and -115B turbofan engines. This proposed AD was... AD applies to General Electric Company (GE): (1) GE90-76B, -85B, -90B, and -94B turbofan engines with... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric...

  4. Why Do European Venture Capital Companies Syndicate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Manigart (Sophie); J. Bruining (Hans); A. Lockett (Andy); M. Meuleman (Miguel)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFinancial theory, resource-based theory and access to deal flow are used to explain syndication practices among European venture capital (VC) firms. The desire to share risk and increase portfolio diversification is a more important motive for syndication than the desire to access

  5. NEW CHALLENGES FACED BY EUROPEAN COMPANIES AND THEIR STAKEHOLDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOBE Claudia-Maria

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is currently affected by the financial crisis that spread internationally. The member states face difficulties such as price volatility, uncertainties, liquidity issues, cases of bankruptcy, increased unemployment rate, and decreasing GDP. The present paper analyses the challenges faced under these new circumstances by the European companies and their stakeholders. By taking into consideration the threats and weaknesses faced by firms and other interested parties, we emphasize the importance that transparency and communication among companies and their stakeholder have in overcoming financial difficulties.

  6. 75 FR 18201 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Filing April 2, 2010. Take notice that on March 26, 2010, Wisconsin Electric Power Company filed counterpart signature pages to the...

  7. 78 FR 76045 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B turbofan engines with high pressure compressor (HPC...-30-AD; Amendment 39-17694; AD 2013-24-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  8. 78 FR 47534 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B turbofan engines with affected transfer gearbox...-17-AD; Amendment 39-17536; AD 2013-15-20] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  9. 78 FR 50320 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ...) Applicability This AD applies to all General Electric Company (GE) model GEnx- 2B67B turbofan engines with...-08-AD; Amendment 39-17553; AD 2013-16-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  10. 77 FR 58471 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-21

    ...-30-AD; Amendment 39-17203; AD 2012-19-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company...

  11. 78 FR 72552 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ...-18-AD; Amendment 39-17669; AD 2013-23-14] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain General Electric Company model GEnx...

  12. 77 FR 3088 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ...-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal... directive (AD) for General Electric Company (GE) CF34-10E series turbofan engines. This AD was prompted by a... affected engines if wear is found on either the CVD support ring or the fan drive shaft. We are issuing...

  13. 78 FR 56594 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-13

    ... General Electric Company (GE): (1) GE90-76B, -85B, -90B, and -94B turbofan engines with stage 1 high...-11-AD; Amendment 39-17571; AD 2013-17-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  14. 77 FR 76977 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental... proposed airworthiness directive (AD) for certain General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2 series turbofan engines. That NPRM proposed to supersede an AD that required replacement of fuel tubes connected to the...

  15. 78 FR 19983 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ...-37-AD; Amendment 39-17403; AD 2013-06-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for General Electric Company (GE) CF34-8C and CF34...

  16. 78 FR 21578 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Electric Company (GE) model GEnx- 2B67 and GEnx-2B67B turbofan engines with booster anti-ice (BAI) air duct... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  17. 77 FR 48110 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... certain General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2 series turbofan engines. The existing AD requires... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  18. 78 FR 72567 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and -115B turbofan engines with variable bypass valve (VBV...-20-AD; Amendment 39-17673; AD 2013-23-18] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  19. 78 FR 47235 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Electric Company (GE) model GEnx-2B67 and GEnx-2B67B turbofan engines. This proposed AD was prompted by the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  20. A decade of experience with the European company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan; Stollt, Michael; Vitols, Sigurt

    2013-01-01

    This publication of the SEEurope Network provides a comprehensive overview of the legislation on the European company (SE – Societas Europaea) and its history and development. It assesses the overall significance and impact of the SE on the business sector and on worker involvement in Europe and

  1. 17 CFR 250.7 - Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Companies deemed not to be electric or gas utility companies. 250.7 Section 250.7 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935...

  2. 78 FR 72877 - Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Arkansas Electric Corporation v. Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company; Notice... Procedure of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206, Arkansas Electric Corporation (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Oklahoma Gas and Electric Company (Respondents...

  3. Dynamic Approach of Capital Structure of European Shipping Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros H. Arvanitis

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The issue of capital structure of companies is one of the most debated problems of financialmanagement. According to economic theory, capital structure determines the stock market valueof firms and therefore their viability, while one of the most negative result of the crash of 2008 andthe persisting crisis (excess supply in markets of labor and money is their ongoing steep declineof lending by credit institutions and other sources. In this paper, considering the importanceof the issue and motivated by the conflicting results of previous empirical studies, we attemptthe analysis of capital structure of the European Maritime Enterprises (oceanic shipping.We focus on shipping companies, because of the large volume of funding that demands theirmain operation, due to the intensity of the assets held. The objectives of this research are firstlythe identification of factors that affect the capital structure of European oceanic shipping andsecondly to search for the existence of an ideal - target capital structure ratio. The determinantsof capital structure are examined through static (fixed effect method and FGLS and dynamic(GMM Methods econometric models, using data from the financial statements of 32 listedEuropean shipping companies for the period 2005-2010. The results suggest the prevalence ofpecking order theory in our case, while a positive relationship arises between tangible assets andtax benefits (arising from sources other than borrowing against leverage. Moreover, we observea negative relationship between size or profitability and debt. Our findings contribute to a deeperunderstanding of the decisions taken by European shipping on their capital structure.

  4. European companies and the coltan trade: an update

    OpenAIRE

    Cuvelier, Jeroen; Raeymaekers, Timothy

    2002-01-01

    This is the second part of a research study into coltan trade and the role of European companies. Part one focuses at the changes on the cotan market since January 2002 (price evolution, exports through Rwanda and Uganda, the corporate response to international criticism from amongst others H.C Starck, Eagle Wings Reserouces; and Rwanda's alies). Part two assesses the role of the transport sector (the Dutch Martinair, DAS Air Cargo, Handelsveem, Steinweg, Hollands Veem)

  5. Innovation policy of European chemical companies with special focus on large companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo Das

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available According to Arora et alii (1998, the chemical industry is one of the largest and most R&D-intensive manufacturing sectors in all the advanced economies, and its innovative patterns and productivity growth processes can have profound impacts on economic growth as a whole. The European chemical industry supplies virtually all sectors of the economy and accounts for 17.8% of the total sales of chemicals in the world. This paper gives an overview of the European chemical industry and the changing scenario of the world chemical industry by focusing on the top fifteen chemical companies in Europe. It describes the current problems this industry is facing in Europe especially after the economic crisis and shows that the region and the top companies are investing in R&D to bring about innovation and overcome the current challenges. It shows that R&D spending in absolute terms has hardly changed over the years and that the industry is still globally the largest investor in R&D activities. In terms of R&D, BASF has made the greatest investment followed by Bayer and Syngenta, while R&D intensity is highest for Syngenta and Bayer. BASF and Bayer have made most patent applications and have also had the highest number of patents granted. The quality of research in most chemical companies is very high and most of the large European companies make their first patent application in Europe rather than elsewhere. All the large chemical companies use Merger & Acquisition (M&A to gain access to innovation. Industry-academia collaboration is one way to generate innovation in the chemical industry in Europe. Chemical clusters and the geographical distribution of chemical companies play a significant role in generating innovation.

  6. The European Private Company, its shareholders and its creditors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra van den Braak

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Proposal for a Council Regulation on the Statute for a European Private Company (Societas Privata Europaea, SPE as put forward by the European Commission in 2008 as well as with the amendments proposed by the European Parliament in 2009. The SPE will be a new legal form for small and medium-sized companies, allowing them to set up the same European legal entity across the Member States. In this paper the focus is on the question whether we need the SPE and whether the SPE Proposal provides for adequate protection for shareholders and creditors. It will be concluded that due to the uncertainty about the role of the applicable national law, the form and shape of the SPE remains too vague for a positive answer to the question whether we need the SPE. With regard to the protection of shareholders and creditors the conclusion will be that because of the lack of a general buy-out remedy in the proposed Regulation, the protection of shareholders does not deserve the designation ‘adequate’.

  7. Independent regulatory authorities in European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Ole Jess; Larsen, Anders; Sørensen, Eva Moll

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of the electricity market has taken place in most European countries within the last decade. It is considered a precondition of successful liberalisation to establish so-called independent regulatory authorities. In this article, we compare the status and practice of them in 16...

  8. 77 FR 74125 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all General Electric...

  9. 76 FR 67594 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turboshaft Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...-29-AD; Amendment 39-16840; AD 2011-21-17] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turboshaft Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all General Electric...

  10. Explaining the inefficiency of electrical distribution companies. Peruvian firms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, OSINERGMIN (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    This paper investigates the extent to which the structural reform of the Peruvian electricity market, implemented in the 1990s, has improved the efficiency of the distribution companies; and it evaluates the influence on efficiency of firm specific explanatory variables. To do this, we rely on data from 14 distribution companies between 1996 and 2006. The results indicate that the incentives generated by the reform process led to the firms becoming more efficient. Moreover, the time trend and private management of the distribution companies are variables that positively affect the levels of efficiency, whereas the lower network densities are then the greater the inefficiency. (author)

  11. 78 FR 24671 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-26

    ... Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2 A1/A2/A3/A5/A8/A5F/B1/B2/B4/B5F/B6/B1F/B2F/B4F/B6F/B7F/D1F turbofan engines...-AD; Amendment 39-17438; AD 2013-08-20] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY...

  12. Research on service strategy of electricity selling company under the reform of electricity market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhuhan; Meng, Shiyu; Dou, Jinyue; Zeng, Ming; Sun, Chenjun

    2017-10-01

    The opening of the sale side of electricity market is an important goal of the new round of power system reform in China, and it is necessary to speed up the establishment and development of the electricity selling companies to achieve this goal. First of all, this paper defines the key problems, which are needed to be solved in the establishment of the sale side market, such as demand side response, optimization of users' power consumption mode, profit mode of electricity selling companies and fair competition in the market. On this basis, this paper analyzes the business of electricity selling company, from the aspects of the transition of business ideas, improving the energy efficiency level, providing integrated energy solutions and innovating business management mode; and then, the service strategies of electricity selling companies are put forward.

  13. Team Building. Baldor Electric Company. [Facilitator Guide and Participant Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint Louis Community Coll., MO. Workplace Literacy Services Center.

    This document contains the facilitator and participant guides for a course in team building that was developed by a community college for a St. Louis (Missouri) electric company. The facilitator's guide contains the transparency masters, outlines, learning activities, questionnaires, and other handouts required for two course sessions. The first…

  14. 76 FR 61687 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  15. The development of multimedia communication system for electric power company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Hee Gon; Kim, Seong Bok [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    It is a final report of the research project that is a development of PC-LAN based multimedia desktop conference system, which is research on the essential technologies and application and development of multimedia communication services for electric power company. This report is consisted of -Survey and study of the multimedia related technologies, -Multimedia communication protocols and network configurations, and -Design, developments of pilot model, evaluation, and applications of multimedia conference system. (author). 112 refs., 250 figs.

  16. The European Model Company Act: How to choose an efficient regulatory approach?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what the aims of companies legislation should be, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organization of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project "European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method" which is carried out in collaboration with the European Model Company Act Group. The project aims...

  17. 75 FR 18828 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public Service Corporation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, Wisconsin Public....206 (2009), Wisconsin Electric Power Company, Wisconsin Gas LLC, and Wisconsin Public Service...

  18. Network topology and correlation features affiliated with European airline companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ding-Ding; Qian, Jiang-Hai; Liu, Jin-Gao

    2009-01-01

    The physics information of four specific airline flight networks in European Continent, namely the Austrian airline, the British airline, the France-Holland airline and the Lufthhansa airline, was quantitatively analyzed by the concepts of a complex network. It displays some features of small-world networks, namely a large clustering coefficient and small average shortest-path length for these specific airline networks. The degree distributions for the small degree branch reveal power law behavior with an exponent value of 2-3 for the Austrian and the British flight networks, and that of 1-2 for the France-Holland and the Lufthhansa airline flight networks. So the studied four airlines are sorted into two classes according to the topology structure. Similarly, the flight weight distributions show two kinds of different decay behavior with the flight weight: one for the Austrian and the British airlines and another for the France-Holland airline and the Lufthhansa airlines. In addition, the degree-degree correlation analysis shows that the network has disassortative behavior for all the value of degree k, and this phenomenon is different from the international airline network and US airline network. Analysis of the clustering coefficient ( C(k)) versus k, indicates that the flight networks of the Austrian Airline and the British Airline reveal a hierarchical organization for all airports, however, the France-Holland Airline and the Lufthhansa Airline show a hierarchical organization mostly for larger airports. The correlation of node strength ( S(k)) and degree is also analyzed, and a power-law fit S(k)∼k1.1 can roughly fit all data of these four airline companies. Furthermore, we mention seasonal changes and holidays may cause the flight network to form a different topology. An example of the Austrian Airline during Christmas was studied and analyzed.

  19. European Electricity Market and EU Members'Energy Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Veselý, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to find out what factors have the biggest influence on the price of electricity for household consumers in the European Union in the context of creating the internal electricity market in the EU. By means of the cluster analysis six EU Member States have been selected according to the following criteria: electricity consumption, electricity production, and the price of electricity. As a result of that Belgium, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Malta and Sw...

  20. Are EMS environmentally effective? The link between environmental management systems and environmental performance in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertin, J.; Berkhout, F.G.H.; Wagner, M.; Tyteca, D.

    2008-01-01

    Based on the analysis of a large dataset on the environmental performance of European companies in five industrial sectors, this paper examines the question of whether the presence of an environmental management system (EMS) has a positive impact on the eco-efficiency of companies. It begins with a

  1. Are American and European companies returning back from China?

    OpenAIRE

    Filipe, J.

    2012-01-01

    China has been the destination country for many international companies investments. Economy keeps very competitive and many investments are coming yet to China, where production costs are low. Chinese economic power and its capability to penetrate in international markets made China a very consistent and influent economic country. However, many companies are coming back from China because they consider that the reduced costs (principally wages) are not anymore as attractive as before. An ana...

  2. Mergers and acquisitions in the European electricity sector. Cases and patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codognet, M.K.; Glachant, J.M.; Leveque, F.; Plagnet, M.A

    2002-08-01

    This report surveys 96 mergers and acquisitions of electric power companies in the European Union from January 1998 to August 2002. Cases are described in part 1 and patterns in part 2. The companies in concern are: E.ON (Germany), Powergen (UK), RWE (Germany), National Power (UK), Innogy (UK), Electricite de France (EdF), Edison (Italy), EnBW (Germany), Electricidade de Portugal (EdP), Suez (France), Endesa (Spain), Enel (Italy), Vattenfall (Sweden), Bewag (Germany), Hafslund ASA (Norway), FORTUM (Finland), STATKRAFT (Norway), British Energy (UK), Scottish and Southern Energy (UK), National Grid Transco (UK), Centrica (UK), Sydvest Energi (Denmark), Essent (Netherlands) and Nuon (Netherlands). (J.S.)

  3. 77 FR 73634 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Ready for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-11

    ...-095] Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Ready for..., Wisconsin Electric Power Company, 800 Industrial Park Drive, Iron Mountain, MI 49801, (906) 779-4099. i... License. b. Project No.: 11831-095. c. Date Filed: October 24, 2012. d. Applicant: Wisconsin Electric...

  4. 77 FR 40608 - Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Wisconsin Electric Power Company; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 381.302 and 385.207, Wisconsin Electric Power Company (Wisconsin Electric) submitted a petition requesting the Commission to issue a declaratory order approving: (1...

  5. 76 FR 64287 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-10E Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... General Electric Company (GE) CF34-10E series turbofan engines. This proposed AD was ] prompted by a... This AD applies to General Electric Company (GE) CF34-10E series turbofan engines, serial number (S/N... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric...

  6. E-commerce between a European and a Chinese company

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.J.; Wei, Y.; Zhong, Y.X.; Shi, J.; Lin, X.

    2001-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Chinese economy in general, and the Internet in China in particular, the scope for international business cooperation is increasing. This paper presents an e-commerce case study between a listed Chinese Internet service provider (ISP) company and a small Dutch IT

  7. Profiting from competition: Financial tools for electric generation companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Charles William, Jr.

    Regulations governing the operation of electric power systems in North America and many other areas of the world are undergoing major changes designed to promote competition. This process of change is often referred to as deregulation. Participants in deregulated electricity systems may find that their profits will greatly benefit from the implementation of successful bidding strategies. While the goal of the regulators may be to create rules which balance reliable power system operation with maximization of the total benefit to society, the goal of generation companies is to maximize their profit, i.e., return to their shareholders. The majority of the research described here is conducted from the point of view of generation companies (GENCOs) wishing to maximize their expected utility function, which is generally comprised of expected profit and risk. Strategies that help a GENCO to maximize its objective function must consider the impact of (and aid in making) operating decisions that may occur within a few seconds to multiple years. The work described here assumes an environment in which energy service companies (ESCOs) buy and GENCOs sell power via double auctions in regional commodity exchanges. Power is transported on wires owned by transmission companies (TRANSCOs) and distribution companies (DISTCOs). The proposed market framework allows participants to trade electrical energy contracts via the spot, futures, options, planning, and swap markets. An important method of studying these proposed markets and the behavior of participating agents is the field of experimental/computational economics. For much of the research reported here, the market simulator developed by Kumar and Sheble and similar simulators has been adapted to allow computerized agents to trade energy. Creating computerized agents that can react as rationally or irrationally as a human trader is a difficult problem for which we have turned to the field of artificial intelligence. Some of our

  8. Examination of Electric Utility CEO Compensation 2000-2011 and its significance to Company Earnings, Company Revenue, Company Stock and the Dow Jones Utility Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labovitch, Andrew

    This dissertation examined electric utility CEO compensation during the years 2000 through 2011 for United States owned and operated companies. To determine the extent to which agency theory may apply to electric utility CEO compensation, this examination segmented the industry by four types of company financial metrics: revenue, earnings, stock price and the Dow Jones Utility Average; by five categories of CEO compensation: base salary, bonus, stock grants, all other compensation and total compensation; and by four categories of company size as measured by revenue: large, medium, small and the industry as a whole. Electric utility CEO compensation data was analyzed with the financial metrics to determine correlations. No type of compensation was highly correlated to any of the financial metrics for any size industry segment indicating that there was little agency. CEO compensation in large electric utility companies was higher than compensation in medium and smaller companies even though the CEOs at larger companies earned less per dollar of revenue and per dollar of earnings than their counterparts in smaller companies.

  9. 76 FR 69713 - Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-09

    ... term. The electric energy that BP Energy proposes to export to Mexico would be surplus energy purchased... Application To Export Electric Energy; BP Energy Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy... its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to section 202(e...

  10. 78 FR 11633 - Application To Export Electric Energy; ConocoPhillips Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... electric energy that CoP proposes to export to Mexico will be surplus to the needs of the selling entities... Application To Export Electric Energy; ConocoPhillips Company AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and... to renew its authority to transmit electric energy from the United States to Mexico pursuant to...

  11. 77 FR 28869 - Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC, PSEG Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC...(e), Exelon Corporation, Public Service Electric and Gas Company, PSEG Power LLC, and PSEG Energy... parties in EL12-63. Joint Complainants state that they are unable to confirm service on Unnamed...

  12. 75 FR 78979 - Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ... Application to Export Electric Energy; Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: Twin Rivers Paper Company Inc... line, operated at 69-kV, connect the integrated pulp and paper operations owned by Twin Rivers and its...

  13. 76 FR 12728 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... new single-unit powerhouse with a turbine and generator constructed downstream of the right abutment... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application..., 2011, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) filed an application for a successive preliminary permit...

  14. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment...-4, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna... changes are being made in the types of effluents that may be released offsite. There is no significant...

  15. Efficiency of Electricity Utilisation in Households in the Context of European Energy Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kott

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Efficient use of electricity in every sector of a national economy is becoming increasingly significant. Energy efficiency concerns climate and energy policy, but it is also a significant factor influencing manufacturing costs for enterprises (and thus their profits, as well as socio-economic development. Irrational energy consumption leads to excessive consumption of primary energy sources, problems attributable to environment pollution, and limited competitiveness of national companies in global markets. For an individual consumer, energy efficiency is one of the key methods of reducing the share of electricity costs in the household budget. In recent years, the European Commission has made a lot of effort aimed at reducing electricity consumption in households, by promoting energy-saving lighting, subsidising renewable microgeneration systems, enforcing labelling appliances for their energy consumption and liberalisation of the electricity market, among other things. This paper presents the results of a comparative study on electricity consumption in Polish households in reference to selected European Union member states, in the context of European energy policy.

  16. Evaluation of Public Service Electric & Gas Company`s standard offer program, Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldman, C.A.; Kito, M.S.; Moezzi, M.M.

    1995-07-01

    In May 1993, Public Service Electric and Gas (PSE&G), the largest investor-owned utility in New Jersey, initiated the Standard Offer program, an innovative approach to acquiring demand-side management (DSM) resources. In this program, PSE&G offers longterm contracts with standard terms and conditions to project sponsors, either customers or third-party energy service companies (ESCOs), on a first-come, first-serve basis to fill a resource block. The design includes posted, time-differentiated prices which are paid for energy savings that will be verified over the contract term (5, 10, or 15 years) based on a statewide measurement and verification (M&V) protocol. The design of the Standard Offer differs significantly from DSM bidding programs in several respects. The eligibility requirements and posted prices allow ESCOs and other energy service providers to market and develop projects among customers with few constraints on acceptable end use efficiency technologies. In contrast, in DSM bidding, ESCOs typically submit bids without final commitments from customers and the utility selects a limited number of winning bidders who often agree to deliver a pre-specified mix of savings from various end uses in targeted markets. The major objectives of the LBNL evaluation were to assess market response and customer satisfaction; analyze program costs and cost-effectiveness; review and evaluate the utility`s administration and delivery of the program; examine the role of PSE&G`s energy services subsidiary (PSCRC) in the program and the effect of its involvement on the development of the energy services industry in New Jersey; and discuss the potential applicability of the Standard Offer concept given current trends in the electricity industry (i.e., increasing competition and the prospect of industry restructuring).

  17. 78 FR 8193 - In the Matter of Virginia Electric and Power Company, and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; ESP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Virginia Electric and Power Company, and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; ESP for North Anna ESP Site; Order Approving Direct Transfer of Early Site Permit and Approving Conforming... Dominion Electric Cooperative (ODEC), hold Early Site Permit 003 (ESP-003) for North Anna Site issued on...

  18. Setting Up a Limited Liability Company with Sole Shareholder in the European Union Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petrina GAVRILA

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of legal rules as closely as possible to the legal systems of the European Union Member States in respect of the companies, several directives have been adopted, of which twelve present the essence of the operational mechanisms harmonization . The consecration of single-member company in positive law is determined by multiple motivations, and the relevance of its objectives is complex, for the reason of the diverse role it plays in the economic and social life, from which the existence of different single-member business derives:limited liability company, joint stock company, simplified joint stock company, dedicated assets, subjected to a personal legal system, difficult to compare, each of them to be therefore studied in the legal, economic, social and tax context of each country.

  19. Description of European policies and issues related to electricity pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Cech, Marel; Janda, Karel

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on the description of institutional, technical, economic, legal and other relevant issues of electricity pricing in the European Union connected with the increasing use of renewable energy sources in electricity production and consumption. It provides background information related to the types of energy sources along with the summary of their advantages and disadvantages regarding both the environmental impact and financial costs. Furthermore, it involves fundamental gl...

  20. Intercultural aspects and success factors of European companies entering the Indian market

    OpenAIRE

    Pilný, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on the Intercultural aspects and success factors of European companies entering the Indian market. Its main objective is to evaluate Intercultural aspects and success factors. Partial aims are to evaluate attractive-ness of chosen emerging segments in Indian market. Analyse external business environment in India. Recommend market entry strategy, business communica-tion and Intercultural management.

  1. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  2. Accession to the European Union: Advantage or Disadvantage for Czech Companies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Litva

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper has been studied effects of accession to the EU on Czech companies which were selected and grouped according to 5 parameters: region, legal form, operation area, business sector and size of the company defined by number of employees. Questionnaire containing 14 questions have replied in total 146 respondents. It is possible to conclude that accession to the EU brought more advantages to big global joint- stock companies than to small regional companies which were mostly negative and claimed worsening of business results due to European integration. Most of the 146 respondents asked via questionnaire containing 14 questions did not agree with acceptance of Euro, while those who agreed had been estimated 2020 as ideal year to access Eurozone. Companies in quaternary sector were mostly positive on the opposite to the companies in tertiary sector which were negative. Companies in Prague and Central Bohemia were much more positive towards EU benefits than in rest of the Czech Republic regions.

  3. The electricity sector susceptibility of European countries to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Daniel R.; Olonscheck, Mady; Walther, Carsten; Kropp, Jürgen P.

    2014-05-01

    Due to the close relationship between electricity consumption, production and temperature, the electricity systems of countries are particularly susceptible to climate change. Based on a number of quantitative influencing factors, we provide a relative index for 21 European countries. This allows relevant stakeholders to identify the main influencing factors that determine the electricity system susceptibility of their country. The index was determined using 14 influencing factors that include those that increase or decrease susceptibility. This includes information on monthly mean temperature, electricity consumption, import, export and production by energy source for the period 2000-2011. Moreover, we consider the results of nine global climate models regarding future temperature changes as well as data on air conditioner prevalence by country. A quantitative relative ranked index describing the susceptibility of each country's electricity system is provided. In both Luxembourg and Greece, which top the list, the inability to meet electricity demand with inland production as well as a heavy reliance on combustible fuel electricity production explain part of the high relative susceptibility. Summer electricity consumption (another influencing factor) is expected to increase in Greece where current relatively warm temperatures, in the context of the countries included in this study, are expected to increase in the future. Comparatively, Norway was the least susceptible country based on our index. Norway is expected to benefit from rising projected temperatures, which will decrease winter electricity consumption and limit susceptibility. Furthermore, Norway's current electricity production exceeds consumption demand and is largely based on hydro, which also decreases susceptibility. The findings of this study enable policy makers, scientists and energy managers to examine the most important influencing factors that increase susceptibility and focus their adaptation

  4. 76 FR 6638 - Virginia Electric and Power Company D/B/A/ Dominion Virginia Power and Old Dominion Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-07

    ... North Anna Power Station (NAPS) site located in Louisa County, Virginia. The NAPS property is located on... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company D/B/A/ Dominion Virginia Power and Old Dominion Electric Cooperative, North Anna Power Station Combined License Application; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Supplemental...

  5. Intellectual Capital and Profitability: A Firm Value Approach in the European Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Manuela Martins

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Intangibles are, at a knowledge-based economy, the most important resources, driving companies towards systematic and sometimes unexpected returns. This paper follows a positivist approach and aims to investigate the association between the degree of intangibility, value of firms and their profitability. Based on the 500 largest European companies, rated by Financial Times, the most relevant insights emerge from the association between firms’ knowledge intensity level and its degree of profitability. These insights consolidate the evidences that immaterial resources act as drivers of future benefits and are embodied on firms’ profitability ratios.

  6. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – March 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  7. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – June 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  8. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – December 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in December 2016, and the report became available in January 2017

  9. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – July 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in July 2016, and the report became available in August 2016.

  10. 77 FR 16077 - License Amendment Request From Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION License Amendment Request From Westinghouse Electric Company, LLC, Hematite Decommissioning Project AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: License amendment request; opportunity to provide...

  11. NPDES Permit for Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000094, the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station is authorized to discharge from from a facility to receiving waters named Anacostia River.

  12. 77 FR 25162 - Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Public Service Company (Respondent or SPS) alleges that the formula rate of Replacement Power Sales... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on April 20, 2012, pursuant to sections 201, 206...

  13. Design of investment management optimization system for power grid companies under new electricity reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunhui; Su, Zhixiong; Wang, Xin; Liu, Yang; Qi, Yongwei

    2017-03-01

    The new normalization of the economic situation and the implementation of a new round of electric power system reform put forward higher requirements to the daily operation of power grid companies. As an important day-to-day operation of power grid companies, investment management is directly related to the promotion of the company's operating efficiency and management level. In this context, the establishment of power grid company investment management optimization system will help to improve the level of investment management and control the company, which is of great significance for power gird companies to adapt to market environment changing as soon as possible and meet the policy environment requirements. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to construct the investment management optimization system of power grid companies, which includes investment management system, investment process control system, investment structure optimization system, and investment project evaluation system and investment management information platform support system.

  14. INVESTIGATING FINANCIAL INNOVATION AND EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS. THE CASE OF CATASTROPHE BONDS AND LISTED REINSURANCE COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CONSTANTIN LAURA-GABRIELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the financial innovation – stock market interconnections, the present research studies the association between the insurance-linked market activity of European (reinsurance companies and their evolution on the capital markets. With the aim of emphasizing the connections from the perspective of the stock performance and their risk, the empirical analysis is based on vector autoregression (VAR and Granger causality analyses. The proposed examination is further developed by considering both impulse response functions and variance decomposition insights. The proxies of the catastrophe bond market, as financial innovation, there are employed both the size and the number of catastrophe bonds transactions, while the stock returns and their standard deviation stand for representatives of the evolution of the reinsurance companies on the capital markets in terms of financial performance and risk. The main results confirm other studies, suggesting that the effects of issuing cat bonds on the ceding companies is reflected rather in terms of stocks’ risk diminishing

  15. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin DUGULEANĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The electric power system plays a vital role in the development of every country, ensuring the “fuel” which feeds its economic motor. The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs. The continuity of power distribution process, the good communication between the suppliers and consumers, the promptitude of interventions, the environment protection - all these are aspects characterizing the performance level of power distribution systems. The paper analyzes the evolution of quality indicators of power distribution systems both for countries’ level and for population on European market of electricity.

  16. Wind power and a liberalised North European electricity exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, L.H.; Morthorst, P.E.; Skytte, K. [and others

    1999-03-01

    Conditions for wind power on a liberalised North European electrical power market are addressed in the paper. Results are presented from a recently completed study carried out by Risoe National Laboratory in collaboration with the Danish electric utilities Eltra, Elsam and Elkraft. A main result from the study is, that the market will be able to provide the necessary power regulation, that will be required year 2005 as consequence of the expected wind power capacity extension, according to the Danish energy plan, Energy21. The averege sales price on the market for the wind-generated electricity is less than the average spot market price, due to provision of power regulation to balance the unpredictability of the wind power. This reduction in the market value of wind power has been calculated to 10-20 DKK/MWh of 1.3-2.7 EUR/MWh. (au)

  17. Energy Systems Integration: NREL + SolarCity and the Hawaiian Electric Companies (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-02-01

    This fact sheet describes the collaboration between NREL, SolarCity, and the Hawaiian Electric Companies at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) to address the safety, reliability, and stability challenges of interconnecting high penetrations of distributed photovoltaics with the electric power system.

  18. 78 FR 37212 - Portland General Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... General Electric (licensee) proposes to construct, operate and maintain small turbine facilities at four... turbine and induction generator utilizing North Fork fishway attraction flows. The total capacity of the... Energy Regulatory Commission Portland General Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing...

  19. 75 FR 77570 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ...) for General Electric (GE) CF6-45/-50 series and CF6-80A series turbofan engines with certain part... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of...

  20. Measuring efficiency and productivity change (PTF) in the Peruvian electricity distribution companies after reforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Reyes, Raul [Organismo Supervisor de la Inversion en Energia y Mineria, Osinergmin (Peru); Tovar, Beatriz [Infrastructure and Transport Research Group (EIT), Department of Applied Economics, University of Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    This paper analyzes the evolution of productivity of the electricity distribution companies in Peru, to assess whether reforms have improved the efficiency in this sector. The paper also identifies potential sources of productivity changes, based on market restructuring the electricity sector and changes in property. To do this, we rely on a set of data for 14 distribution companies, for the period 1996-2006. Our analysis suggests that improvements in the efficiency and productivity of electricity distribution in Peru have occurred, and that there is a relationship between the restructuring of distribution sector and the enhancement of productivity. (author)

  1. LIBERALISATION OF THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR IN THE EUROPEAN UNION: PRESENT STATE AND SOME OPEN QUESTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, A.

    2007-07-01

    The liberalisation of the electricity sector started approximately 10 to 15 years ago, depending on the country. Nonetheless, there is still no general agreement on the liberalisation model this sector should follow, mainly because of the discussion of whether the liberalisation is an end in itself, or a means for -basically- lower energy prices. The complexity of the sector and the resilience of the incumbents' market power have currently placed the liberalisation process at a crossroad. In the EU, entrenched national interests are another obstacle to deal with. In this article, we first give an overview of the different liberalisation processes in the electricity sector and then summarize the pending challenges from an EU perspective. Next, we argue that the EU should focus on conditions aiming at implementing an effective liberalisation process, rather than on a formal liberalisation approach. We show how asymmetries between non-sector regulations in the European states and among companies create an uneven playing field, contrary to the European vision of an internal competitive energy market. We end the article studying the compatibility of the current European regulatory framework with the upcoming challenges in the energy sector. (auth)

  2. Measures against emergency disasters taken by electric power companies, as seen in Kyushu Electric Power Company; Kyushu denryoku ni miru denryoku kaisha no hijo saigai taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakemoto, K. [Kyushu Electric Power Co. Inc., Fukuoka (Japan)

    1994-09-01

    This paper introduces measures against emergency disasters taken by Kyushu Electric Power Company. The paper summarizes the following items: the structure of the emergency disaster handling organizations in the company, steps taken prior to an occurrence of an anticipated disaster (identification of climate information, assurance of personnel to perform the measures and personnel required for restoration, assurance of restoration materials and equipment availability, and their arrangements in advance), and operations (restoration, public communications, and supports) taken by a preparatory organization when a disaster is anticipated and an emergency organization (for a case when a disaster may be expected to occur within several hours, or when it has occurred). The paper then summarizes the emergency disaster information system including the information collecting subsystem for hydro-electric power generation, power transformation, power transmission, communication, and civil engineering facilities, the information collecting (power failure information processing) subsystem for power distribution facilities, the power feeding and climate information collecting subsystem, the wind observation subsystem, and the kinds of information to be collected. The paper mentions additionally the number of houses having suffered power failure and facility damages in the company`s controlling areas during heavy rains and typhoons in 1993. 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Salmonella enterica serovar Agona European outbreak associated with a food company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolay, N; Thornton, L; Cotter, S; Garvey, P; Bannon, O; McKeown, P; Cormican, M; Fisher, I; Little, C; Boxall, N; De Pinna, E; Peters, T M; Cowden, J; Salmon, R; Mason, B; Irvine, N; Rooney, P; O'Flanagan, D

    2011-08-01

    We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2-149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.

  4. Optimal Scale in Different Environments – The Case of Norwegian Electricity Distribution Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiaomei; Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    We study returns to scale in Norwegian electricity distribution companies. The scale issue of this sector has become an important political question, and it was for instance discussed by the Reiten commission (OED, 2014) in a study about the future structure and organization of the Norwegian electricity network industry. We use panel data from the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) for the period from 2004 to 2010. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method and the Stochas...

  5. Optimal Scale in Different Environments – The Case of Norwegian Electricity Distribution Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Xiaomei; Bjørndal, Endre; Bjørndal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    We study returns to scale in Norwegian electricity distribution companies. The scale issue of this sector has become an important political question, and it was for instance discussed by the Reiten commission (OED, 2014) in a study about the future structure and organization of the Norwegian electricity network industry. We use panel data from the Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate (NVE) for the period from 2004 to 2010. The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) method ...

  6. European Union Funds as a Source of Financing the Companies Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Kornet

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurs are main beneficiaries of the funds from European Union. The process of financial support from EU for entrepreneurs conducting business activities in Poland is an important issue, which should be taken up by entrepreneurs, government and other offices and institutions, which participate in the process of absorption of the financial support. Introduction of the possibilities of financing and realization of the investment originating from various EU programs in new the 2007–2013 programming perspective, understanding of the stages of preparation of the project and application form, knowled - ge about financing principles of the investments from granted support are essential. Co-financing of project realized from EU financial resources is connected with a lot of advantages. First of all, the donations present an additional source of financial sup - port for enterprises which allow to accomplish the investment bear considerably with lo - wer costs than by using other sources (for example credit. Secondly, the donation allows accomplishing the investment faster, to create new additional job positions and utilize modern technology, which company couldn’t afford to by using its own funds. Moreover, the resources from various European Funds have a favorable effect (impact on enterprise develop ment and on improvement its competitiveness in the market. The company and all technologies, which could be implemented, can become more innovative. If the firm has an access to such sources of financing, it would have an opportunity for considera - bly faster development in comparison with other forms of financing its activity. Thirdly, the range of support for enterprises is very wide. Company can request for funding of project from various areas, from purchasing fixed as sets and buying land or from purcha - sing intangible as sets to take advantage of an advisory service.

  7. 78 FR 6313 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Comments...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing.... (415) 973-4466, Email: [email protected] ; or Annette Faraglia, Esq., Law Department, Pacific Gas and... application has been filed with the Commission and is available for public inspection: a. Types of Application...

  8. 78 FR 46332 - Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service Company; Notice of Complaint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Golden Spread Electric Cooperative, Inc. v. Southwestern Public Service.... (Golden Spread or Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Southwestern Public Service Company (SPS... Energy Open Access Tariff applicable to pricing of transmission service over the facilities of SPS...

  9. 75 FR 10838 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Diablo Canyon Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Pacific Gas... DPR-82, which authorize operation of the Diablo Canyon Power Plant, Units Nos. 1 and 2 (DCPP). The... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms for...

  10. 77 FR 36302 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Confirmatory Order Modifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... classes of Yankee Atomic Electric Company stock. V In accordance with 10 CFR 2.202, any person adversely... Meta System Help Desk will not be able to offer assistance in using unlisted software. If a participant... assistance by contacting the NRC Meta System Help Desk through the ``Contact Us'' link located on the NRC Web...

  11. Training Needs Assessment of Technical Skills in Managers of Tehran Electricity Distribution Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohi, Amir Hasan; Ghandali, Fatemeh; Dehghan, Hasan; Ghandali, Najme

    2016-01-01

    Current dissertation has been conducted in order to investigate and detect training needs of the mangers (top and middle) in Tehran Electricity Distribution Company. Research method is applied kind based on its purpose. Due to data collection method, this query is descriptive-survey type. Statistical population in this study is all of managers in…

  12. 78 FR 14786 - Union Electric Company (dba Ameren Missouri); Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... and contact information at the end of your comments. For assistance, please contact FERC Online... Energy Regulatory Commission Union Electric Company (dba Ameren Missouri); Notice of Availability of....gov using the ``eLibrary'' link. Enter the docket number, excluding the last three digits, in the...

  13. 76 FR 77994 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... and contact information at the end of your comments. Please contact Mary Greene by telephone at (202... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Availability of Environmental...'' link. Enter the docket number excluding the last three digits in the docket number field to access the...

  14. 78 FR 45984 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... on the site of any nuclear power reactor. In its Statement of Considerations (SOC) for the Final Rule... the site of a nuclear power reactor licensed for operation by the Commission, the emergency plan...

  15. 77 FR 10950 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ...-27-AD; Amendment 39-16961; AD 2012-04-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... engines. That AD currently requires installing software version 8.2.Q1 to the engine electronic control...

  16. 77 FR 12444 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ...-09-AD; Amendment 39-16954; AD 2012-03-12] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all GE CF6-80C2 model turbofan engines...

  17. 76 FR 68634 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ...-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6 Turbofan Engines AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for the engines identified above. That AD currently requires initial and repetitive visual inspections of the forward engine mount assembly side links for cracks, stripping and reapplying...

  18. 76 FR 19334 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... does not plan any changes to the operation or maintenance of the transmission line. m. A copy of the...: Subsequent License--Transmission Line Only. b. Project No.: P-2479-011. c. Date filed: February 22, 2011. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of Project: French Meadows Transmission Line Project. f...

  19. 76 FR 37105 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing, Soliciting Motions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... changes to the operation or maintenance of the transmission line. m. A copy of the application is...: Subsequent License--Transmission Line Only. b. Project No.: P-2784-004. c. Date filed: April 18, 2011. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company. e. Name of Project: Rollins Transmission Line Project. f...

  20. 77 FR 11171 - License Renewal Application for Callaway Plant, Unit 1, Union Electric Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    ... Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Intent to prepare environmental impact statement and conduct scoping process. SUMMARY: Union Electric Company, a subsidiary of Ameren Corporation and doing business as Ameren Missouri... environmental impact statement (EIS) related to the review of the license renewal application and to provide the...

  1. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, preliminary public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary Public Design Report (PDR) provides design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. This project is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program under the provisions of Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Tampa Electric Company, novated on March 5,1992. The project is highlighted by the inclusion of a new hot gas cleanup system. DOE`s project management is based at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in West Virginia. This report is preliminary, and the information contained herein is subject to revision. Definitive information will be available in the final PDR, which will be published at the completion of detailed engineering.

  2. 76 FR 11522 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public Service... application is available for public inspection at the Commission's Public Document Room (PDR), located at One...

  3. 76 FR 14436 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public Service... application is available for public inspection at the Commission's Public Document Room (PDR), located at One...

  4. 76 FR 12998 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-09

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public Service... application is available for public inspection at the Commission's Public Document Room (PDR), located at One...

  5. 76 FR 16456 - South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... COMMISSION South Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) and the South Carolina Public Service Authority... Carolina Electric and Gas Company (SCE&G) acting as itself and agent for the South Carolina Public Service... application is available for public inspection at the Commission's Public Document Room (PDR), located at One...

  6. 76 FR 76153 - Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a National Grid; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Allco Renewable Energy Limited v. Massachusetts Electric Company d/b/a... Renewable Energy Limited filed a formal complaint against Massachusetts Electric Company (National Grid...

  7. 77 FR 12274 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing With the Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ... steel building housing a 3.4-megawatt (MW) turbine/generator unit and a vertical Kaplan-type four-blade... Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Notice of Application Tendered for Filing...-020. c. Date Filed: February 8, 2012. d. Applicant: Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E). e. Name...

  8. 76 FR 292 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-04

    ... directive (AD) that applies to General Electric Company (GE) CF6-45 and CF6-50 series turbofan engines. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  9. 75 FR 12661 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ...) for General Electric Company (GE) CF6-45 and CF6-50 series turbofan engines with certain low-pressure...-05-AD; Amendment 39-16240; AD 2010-06-15] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  10. 75 FR 32649 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-09

    ... Electric Company (GE) CF6-45 and CF6-50 series turbofan engines with certain low-pressure turbine (LPT...; AD 2010-12-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF6-45 and CF6-50 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule; request...

  11. 75 FR 9449 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). The licenses provide, among other things, that the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339; NRC-2010-0026 Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 1.0 Background The Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee...

  12. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...-7, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, ``Criteria for and... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

  13. Compliance of scored tablet halves produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies with the new European Pharmacopoeia requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Abdel Naser; Ghosh, Abeer Abu

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the weight uniformity of commonly divided tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies and to evaluate the importance of both patient- and formulation-related variables on the splitting results. Eighty-four volunteers were enrolled in this study; their age, gender and occupation were documented in order, and the effect of these variables on the tablet splitting results was evaluated. Each volunteer was asked to divide six scored tablets of each product tested and was given clear instructions on how to conduct the splitting process. The split units were individually weighed and the RSD for each product was calculated as instructed in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur. 5.5). Only one scored tablet product passed the Ph. Eur. test of mass uniformity, while the remaining 13 products failed; this indicates that the splitting of these tablet products is not a reliable means for the provision of accurate doses to patients. Age, gender and occupation of volunteers were not found to be predictive of any variability noted in the splitting results. The only factors that were suspected to be linked to passing the splitting test, as per the European Pharmacopoeia, were the shape, friability and hardness of the tablets. As a result of this study, we believe that the practice of dividing tablets, which should provide therapeutic and economic benefits for the patient, may potentially cause significant problems, especially in drugs with low therapeutic indices. Tablets produced by Palestinian Pharmaceutical Companies should comply with the new Ph. Eur. splitting regulations to reduce this potential for complications.

  14. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. Final public design report; Technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This final Public Design Report (PDR) provides completed design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the operating parameters and benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. Pending development of technically and commercially viable sorbent for the Hot Gas Cleanup System, the HGCU also is demonstrated. The report is organized under the following sections: design basis description; plant descriptions; plant systems; project costs and schedule; heat and material balances; general arrangement drawings; equipment list; and miscellaneous drawings.

  15. Does Sustainability Pay Off for European Listed Real Estate Companies? The Dynamics between Risk and Provision of Responsible Information

    OpenAIRE

    Cajias, Marcelo; Bienert, Sven

    2011-01-01

    We follow the guidelines of the Global Reporting Initiative and the European Public Real Estate Association to investigate the quality of real estate-related sustainability information provided by European listed real estate companies in 13 countries. We find that human resources and stock price volatility play a significant role in the company’s strength with respect to corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. Business complexity and financial transparency enhance the provision of s...

  16. Energy service companies in European countries: Current status and a strategy to foster their development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoldi, Paolo [European Commission, DG JRC, TP 450, I-21020 Ispra (Vatican City State, Holy See,) (Italy)]. E-mail: paolo.bertoldi@cec.eu.int; Rezessy, Silvia [Department of Environmental Sciences and Policy, Central European University, Nador u. 9, H-1051 Budapest (Hungary)]. E-mail: ephlas01@phd.ceu.hu; Vine, Edward [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Building 90-4000, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)]. E-mail: elvine@lbl.gov

    2006-09-15

    Although the European Commission and the Member States of the European Union (EU) have promoted a number of policy initiatives to foster the Energy Services Company (ESCO) industry, a recent survey of ESCO businesses in Europe has indicated that major differences exist in the development of the ESCO business among the various countries. In some countries a large number of ESCOs have been successfully operating for a number of years, while in other countries only a few ESCOs have recently started to operate. This difference could be explained by several factors, such as different levels of support offered to ESCOs by national and regional energy authorities, local market structures and rules, and variation in the definitions, roles and activities of ESCOs. This paper reviews and analyses the development and the current status of ESCO industries in the EU and the New Accession Countries. Based on the review and the analysis, a long-term strategy to foster the development of ESCOs in Europe is formulated. The strategic actions recommended build on successful experience in Europe and are proposed with an eye to existing and planned legislative measures, such as the proposed Energy Service Directive and the deployment of the Kyoto flexible mechanisms.

  17. Impact of economic crisis on earnings management in European listed companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konrad Grabiński

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the impact of global economic crisis 2007–2009 on earnings man-agement in European listed companies. In the first section concepts of economic and financial crisis are explained from the perspective of economic theory. Then the concept of earnings management is present-ed. Hypothesis development constitutes the third part of the paper. The main hypothesis postulates that macroeconomic conditions of crisis restrain earnings management. The next section explains the meth-odology of empirical study. Using adapted Dechow model, earnings management is measured in more than 36 thousand firm-level observations from 27 European countries. Then using panel regression with fixed effects the magnitude of earnings management is investigated from the perspective of crisis and non-crisis period. The last section presents results of the study, which provide evidence that during the crisis period earnings management is curbed. Additionally, the analysis shows that macroeconomic con-ditions associated with economic crisis like GDP drop rates and increase of unemployment affect differ-ently the magnitude of earnings management.

  18. Managing the transition from regulated electric utility to energy marketing company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapels, E.N.

    1977-01-01

    Companies that hope to succeed in converging energy service business must plan to trade bundled and unbundled energy commodities in paper as well as physical markets. The winners will be those who realize the immensity and crucial importance of the former. Many traditional electric utilities are spending most of their time defensively on stranded asset issues, and only token amounts of time proactively on how to become a Btu company. The vacuum they are creating is being filled by those companies - Enron, UtiliCorp United, Duke Power, and a few others who have made preparing for the future their core mission rather than a sideshow. Important as the stranded asset issue is - and it is especially critical in nuclear-heavy regions like New England - the author believes that senior executives of all electric utilities must immediately relegate this {open_quotes}work of the past{close_quotes} to second place. It is urgent that they now begin to do what Enron decided to do almost ten years ago: acknowledge that an enormous paradigm shift has taken place in the energy industry and devote all available brainpower to preparing for that change. Electric utilities are on the threshold of an era in which electricity prices will be determined, not only by supply and demand as traditionally understood, but by the supply and demand for electricity in paper markets. In traditional market nomenclature, prices are determined by supply and demand. In paper markets, while the analytical metaphor is identical, the language and dynamics are different: Prices will emerge from the interplay of those who are {open_quotes}short{close_quotes} (i.e., willing to sell in the power futures markets at given prices). Electric utilities must master the dynamics of both markets. No less than their corporate survival is at stake.

  19. Digital combined instrument transformer for automated electric power supply control systems of mining companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolsky, D. V.; Gonenko, T. V.; Khatsevskiy, V. F.

    2017-10-01

    The present paper discusses ways to solve the problem of enhancing operating efficiency of automated electric power supply control systems of mining companies. According to the authors, one of the ways to solve this problem is intellectualization of the electric power supply control system equipment. To enhance efficiency of electric power supply control and electricity metering, it is proposed to use specially designed digital combined instrument current and voltage transformers. This equipment conforms to IEC 61850 international standard and is adapted for integration into the digital substation structure. Tests were performed to check conformity of an experimental prototype of the digital combined instrument current and voltage transformer with IEC 61850 standard. The test results have shown that the considered equipment meets the requirements of the standard.

  20. North–south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming

    OpenAIRE

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    We statistically analyze 2006–2012 high-frequency temperature and electricity load data from 35 European countries to compute climate change impacts on electricity demand until 2100. Extrapolating countries’ load responses to temperature beyond currently experienced climate, we find a future polarization of both peak load and electricity consumption in Europe. Specifically, while total European consumption remains constant under future warming, we project significant increases in the south, d...

  1. Review of existing electricity quality label systems in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    White, Sara; Vrolijk, Christiaan

    2003-01-01

    Green electricity quality labels have been utilised in the European Union since 1990. Of the seventeen European countries analysed here1, at the time of writing nine had no countryspecific quality label, although all electricity tariffs within Europe were able to apply for accreditation under the EUGENE labelling scheme. Germany had several quality labels, each with slightly different criteria. All of the eighteen labels identified in the report applied to electricity from renewable sources. ...

  2. The Specifics of Tax Arbitrage in The Reorganization of The European Companies Through Acquisitions, Mergers, Spin-Offs and Disinvestments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Simona Rădulescu (Dîrvă

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on fiscal issues, in this paper we analyzed the trend of European companies to streamline their activity through legal reorganization (i.e. takeovers, mergers, spin-offs, divestments starting from tax benefits which may result from such operations.

  3. Assessment of the European Union's illicit trade agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossens, Luk; Gilmore, Anna B; Stoklosa, Michal; Ross, Hana

    2016-05-01

    To address the illicit cigarette trade, the European Union (EU) has signed agreements with the four major Transnational Tobacco Companies (TTCs) that involve establishing extensive systems of cooperation. All agreements foresee two types of payments: annual payments (totalling US$ 1.9 billion over 20 years) and supplementary seizure payments, equivalent to 100% of the evaded taxes in the event of seizures of their products. While limited by the fundamental lack of transparency in this area, our analysis suggests that these agreements have served largely to secure the TTCs' interests and are threatening progress in tobacco control. The seizure payments are paltry and a wholly inadequate deterrent to TTC involvement in illicit trade. Despite the agreements, growing evidence indicates the TTCs remain involved in the illicit trade or are at best failing to secure their supply chains as required by the agreements. The intention of the seizure-based payments to deter the tobacco industry from further involvement in the illicit cigarette trade has failed because the agreements contain too many loopholes that provide TTCs with both the incentive and opportunity to classify seized cigarettes as counterfeit. In addition, the shifting nature of cigarette smuggling from larger to smaller consignments often results in seizures that are too small to qualify for the payments. Consequently, the seizure payments represent a tiny fraction of the revenue lost from cigarette smuggling, between 2004 and 2012, 0.08% of the estimated losses due to illicit cigarette trade in the EU. Our evidence suggests the EU should end these agreements. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Accounting conservatism in Europe : Insights in the degree of balance sheet conservatism and earnings conservatism in financial statements of European companies during the period 1991-2005

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Brouwer (Remco)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis study investigates how the degree of accounting conservatism in the financial statements of European companies evolves over time during period 1996-2005. This study concludes that the financial statement information of European companies shows a certain degree of balance sheet

  5. The policies of social welfare produced effects in performance of the company? Comparative analysis of European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M. Monllau Jaques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to study and analyze the public well being policies and its repercussions in the efficacy and efficiency of the companies that give services to dependant people (CNAE 87 and 88 Codes. Design/methodology/approach: For the making of the present study several companies which gives services in countries with different patterns when applying public well being policies have been compared. These countries have been Spain, Germany, UK and Netherlands. The data has been obtained through AMADEUS. The period of the study has been 2008-2012. The variables used are the operating margin (OMR rate and the rotation assets rate (RAT. Findings and Originality/value: From the results obtained we have not been able to establish a significant statistic relationship between Companies behaviour and public well being policies. Originality/value: Up to date few extracts have been done, in Spain, about the financial behaviour of the companies which give services to the elderly. The business development entails an economic growth which balances with the cost inherent in the elderly population.

  6. 78 FR 49551 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... Company, ] Oglethorpe Power Corporation, Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia, and the City of Dalton... authorized by law; B. The exemption presents no undue risk to public health and safety; C. The exemption is...

  7. Green marketing in the Massachusetts electric company retail competition pilot program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothstein, S.M.; Fang, J.M.

    1997-10-01

    With electric industry restructuring initiatives being introduced on the state and federal levels, retail access pilot programs serve an important function for examining competitive market issues, as well as marketing strategies and customer reactions to different power supply options. The experience gained through these pilots provides important insights into future power market operations, including the market for green power. The Massachusetts Electric Company`s (MECo`s) Choice: New England pilot for residential and small-business customers was a voluntary program developed primarily to test the billing and metering logistics that distribution companies will need in the competitive market. The pilot also offered a preview of program implementation and marketing under customer choice. It was the first retail competition pilot to explicitly include green power options in program design. The MECo pilot`s energy suppliers were selected through the issuance of a request for proposals (RFP). Respondents were asked to submit bids in one or more of three energy supply categories-price, green, and other options. These options were developed by the pilot administrator through internal meetings, discussions with state officials and other stakeholders, and a review of information from other similar pilots. For the green option, the pilot administrator did not establish a green standard. Instead, suppliers were allowed to submit offers that promoted environmental stewardship. Customer response to the different green options are reported. The pilot results clearly demonstrate that, in a competitive situation, there is interest in a variety of energy supply options, including green options. 2 tabs.

  8. Plan 2000. The electricity companies plan for electricity conservation in the millennium; Plan 2000. Elselskabernes plan for elbesparelser i det nye aartusinde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-12-01

    Plan 2000 presents an account of the activities in the years 1997 and 1998 and a budget for the year 2000 and forwards. The report includes all 82 electricity companies in Denmark. Furthermore a number of particular analyses of relevance to electricity conservation are presented. All electricity companies work to promote electricity conservation. All consumption sizes and sections are covered. The activities in the individual companies are supported by a number of common campaigns. In Plan 2000 those activities are presented and the economics is analysed. The activities in the first year of the plan are expected to result in conservation corresponding 4% of the present electricity consumption. 80% of the conservation comes from activities, which are measurable. Technical counselling of trade customers is one of the essential activities. Others are e.g. telephone counselling, theme arrangements and teaching of pupils. (EHS)

  9. Prospects for European Company Law after the Judgment of the European Court of Justice in Centros Ltd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2000-01-01

    This contribution analysis the implication of the judgment in Centros Ltd, whereby a company can be incorporated in one state and used for activities in other Member States of the EU. The consequence is that businesses can chose to incorporate in the state of their own choice and Member State may...... as a result start to compete to attract incorporations of companies (the Delaware Syndrome). This may call for further harmonization of company laws in the EU.......This contribution analysis the implication of the judgment in Centros Ltd, whereby a company can be incorporated in one state and used for activities in other Member States of the EU. The consequence is that businesses can chose to incorporate in the state of their own choice and Member State may...

  10. Company Tax Integration in the European Union During Economic Crisis – Why and How?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Sting (Anna)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Company tax integration in the EU is yet to be realised. This article first outlines the main benefits of company tax integration for the Economic and Monetary Union, and also discusses the main legal obstacles the EU Treaties pose for harmonisation of company tax.

  11. Study on Economic Regulation of Collaborative Strategies among Container Shipping Companies Following Repeal of European Union Regulation 4056/86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawindaran Nair

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union removed the block exemption granted under Regulation 4056/86, to liner shipping companies to provide scheduled services on a collaborative basis effective October 2008. This has also been followed by the proposed P3 alliance with participation of Maersk, MSC and CMA CGM. This paper explores, the arguments adopted by the US Federal Maritime Commission, the European Commission and the Ministry of Commerce of China, in rejecting the case proposed by the P3 alliance. The findings of this paper will inform on understanding strategies adopted by major Competition Regulatory authorities in their interpretation of horizontal collaboration in the industry.

  12. 76 FR 64291 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ...-09-AD RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) Turbofan Engines AGENCY...-80C2B7F, CF6-80C2B8F, CF6- 80C2D1F, CF6-80C2K1F, and CF6-80C2L1F turbofan engines, including engines marked on the engine data plate as CF6-80C2B7F1. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of a supplier...

  13. Pan-European Management of Electricity Portfolios: Risks and Opportunities of Contract Bundling

    OpenAIRE

    Gampert, Markus; Madlener, Reinhard

    2010-01-01

    Today’s European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded “structured products” or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services inside of their home markets, but in the globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen. In this paper, we analyze the problems to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of elect...

  14. Electrical Pressurization Concept for the Orion MPCV European Service Module Propulsion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiss, Jan-Hendrik; Weber, Jorg; Ierardo, Nicola; Quinn, Frank D.; Paisley, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the design of the pressurization system of the European Service Module (ESM) of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Being part of the propulsion subsystem, an electrical pressurization concept is implemented to condition propellants according to the engine needs via a bang-bang regulation system. Separate pressurization for the oxidizer and the fuel tank permits mixture ratio adjustments and prevents vapor mixing of the two hypergolic propellants during nominal operation. In case of loss of pressurization capability of a single side, the system can be converted into a common pressurization system. The regulation concept is based on evaluation of a set of tank pressure sensors and according activation of regulation valves, based on a single-failure tolerant weighting of three pressure signals. While regulation is performed on ESM level, commanding of regulation parameters as well as failure detection, isolation and recovery is performed from within the Crew Module, developed by Lockheed Martin Space System Company. The overall design and development maturity presented is post Preliminary Design Review (PDR) and reflects the current status of the MPCV ESM pressurization system.

  15. Investment Cost Model in Business Process Intelligence in Banking And Electricity Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arta Moro Sundjaja

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher demand from the top management in measuring business process performance causes the incremental implementation of BPM and BI in the enterprise. The problem faced by top managements is how to integrate their data from all system used to support the business and process the data become information that able to support the decision-making processes. Our literature review elaborates several implementations of BPI on companies in Australia and Germany, challenges faced by organizations in developing BPI solution in their organizations and some cost model to calculate the investment of BPI solutions. This paper shows the success in BPI application of banks and assurance companies in German and electricity work in Australia aims to give a vision about the importance of BPI application. Many challenges in BPI application of companies in German and Australia, BPI solution, and data warehouse design development have been discussed to add insight in future BPI development. And the last is an explanation about how to analyze cost associated with BPI solution investment.

  16. European Short-term Electricity Market Designs under High Penetration of Wind Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chaves Avila, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    The EU has ambitious policies for decarbonization of the electricity sector. Due to recent technological developments, wind power already represents a significant share of the generation mix in some European countries. As a result, short-term electricity markets and balancing arrangements must be

  17. Th european market of the electric power; Le marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This document presents the CRE (commission of the Electric power Control) progress report concerning the first july 2000 to the 30 june 2001. Three main subjects are discussed, illustrated by economic data and graphs: the electric power european market, the french market control and the CRE. A special interest is given to the deregulation of the market and its consequences. (A.L.B.)

  18. Impact of Variable Renewable Energy on European Cross-Border Electricity Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; De Vries, L.J.; Fulli, G.

    2012-01-01

    The estimated growth of Europe’s electricity demand and the policy goals of mitigating climate change result in an expected increase in variable renewable energy. A high penetration of wind and solar energy will bring several new challenges to the European electricity transmission network. The

  19. [Tampa Electric Company IGCC project]. 1996 DOE annual technical report, January--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project uses a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,000 tons per day of coal to syngas. The gasification plant is coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 BTUs/cf (HHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product. Approximately 10% of the raw, hot syngas at 900 F is designed to pass through an intermittently moving bed of metal-oxide sorbent which removes sulfur-bearing compounds from the syngas. PPS-1 will be the first unit in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology on a commercial unit. The emphasis during 1996 centered around start-up activities.

  20. Pan-European management of electricity portfolios: Risks and opportunities of contract bundling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampert, Markus [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Madlener, Reinhard, E-mail: RMadlener@eonerc.rwth-aachen.d [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior, Faculty of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    Due to the liberalization of energy markets in the European Union, today's European utilities not only focus on electricity supply, but also offer exchange-traded 'structured products' or portfolio management for unbundling financial and physical risk positions. Many utilities are only able to provide these services in their domestic markets. In a globalized economy, the need for a centrally organized pan-European portfolio management has arisen, as it allows a simplified commodity sourcing in combination with an optimized risk management. In this paper, we examine the challenges to be overcome for establishing a European-wide bundling of electricity contracts. For this purpose, a case study based on the business perspective of RWE Supply and Trading in Central and Eastern Europe is carried out. In a first step, we analyze general requirements for a pan-European bundling of electricity contracts. Then, RWE's situation in Europe is examined, based on which we finally propose a concept to meet customer demands in Central and Eastern Europe. - Research highlights: {yields} Analysis of electricity market liberalization in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Identification of requirements and problems for pan-European bundling of contracts. {yields} Case study based on RWE Supply and Trading perspective in Central and Eastern Europe. {yields} Model development for pan-European unbundling of financial/physical risk positions.

  1. The Limits of Europeanization: Regulatory Reforms in the Spanish and Portuguese Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an EU-level regulatory regimes for telecommunications and electricity was a highly successful political initiative of the European Commission. In promoting market liberalization for telecommunications (a key sector in the creation of the ‘information economy’ and electricity (one of the sectors most resistant to change the European Commission asserted the political importance of European project. Indeed, the two new regimes are commonly cited as successful cases of ‘Europeanization‘. However, this paper argues that the causal link between European initiatives and national policy change is weak. Building on an emerging tradition of cross-sector research of these two sectors, and considering two most-similar European countries, the paper examines commonalities and variations in the regulatory reforms of telecommunications and electricity in Spain and Portugal in the last two decades. It applies a series of comparisons, including a stepwise comparative analysis of two countries (one a reluctant liberalizer, the other an enthusiastic one, of two sectors (a pace-setter and a foot-dragger and of two time periods (before and after the regulatory reforms. We suggest that processes of Europeanization can impinge on the strategic capacities of European member states only to a limited degree. Spain and Portugal were able to shape their sectors according to the preferences of their national policy communities and in a context of a global shift in the way countries both within Europe and outside it defined their interests.

  2. The Limits of Europeanization: Regulatory Reforms in the Spanish and Portuguese Telecommunications and Electricity Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imma Puig

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The creation of an EU-level regulatory regimes for telecommunications and electricity was a highly successful political initiative of the European Commission. In promoting market liberalization for telecommunications (a key sector in the creation of the information economy and electricity (one of the sectors most resistant to change the European Commission asserted the political importance of European project. Indeed, the two new regimes are commonly cited as successful cases of Europeanization. However, this paper argues that the causal link between European initiatives and national policy change is weak. Building on an emerging tradition of cross-sector research of these two sectors, and considering two most-similar European countries, the paper examines commonalities and variations in the regulatory reforms of telecommunications and electricity in Spain and Portugal in the last two decades. It applies a series of comparisons, including a stepwise comparative analysis of two countries (one a reluctant liberalizer, the other an enthusiastic one, of two sectors (a pace-setter and a foot-dragger and of two time periods (before and after the regulatory reforms. We suggest that processes of Europeanization can impinge on the strategic capacities of European member states only to a limited degree. Spain and Portugal were able to shape their sectors according to the preferences of their national policy communities and in a context of a global shift in the way countries both within Europe and outside it defined their interests.

  3. Solar repowering system for Texas Electric Service Company Permian Basin Steam Electric Station Unit No. 5. Final report, executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-15

    The conceptual design and economic assessment of a sodium-cooled, solar central receiver repowering system for Texas Electric Service Company's Permian Basin Steam Electric Plant Unit No. 5 are described. As expected, the economic assessment of the specific concept for that site indicates that the cost of energy is greater than that resulting from the burning of natural gas alone in the existing plant (principally as a result of the current cost of heliostats and the scheduled retirement date of Unit No. 5), Favorable economics for similar types of plants can be projected for the future. The annual fuel savings are equivalent to 218,500 barrels of crude oil, with a total dollar value of $21.5 M and $93.6 M for a 7-year life and a 25-year life, respectively. However, it has also been found, from separate studies, that favorable interpretations of the Fuel Use Act and an improved regulatory climate will be necessary for this economic viability to be reached. In particular, a subsidized program to reduce the cost of heliostats to less than $100/m/sup 2/ will be needed. All sodium components, except the receiver, are available on the basis of similar-sized or larger components that have been designed, fabricated, tested and operated in power plants for hundred of thousands of hours. Liquid sodium has been demonstrated for use as a stable, safe, and easily contained heat transfer fluid up to temperature exceeding those required for modern steam plants. (WHK)

  4. Energy efficiency and performance indicators of European electricity market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Constantin Duguleana; Liliana Duguleana

    2015-01-01

    .... The efficient functioning of this motor is essential for economy. The efficiency and the performances of electric power systems are reflected on the living level of population, through the money spent and the satisfaction level of their needs...

  5. Corporate social responsibility in coal industry (practices of russian and european companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. В. Пономаренко

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is built on interaction between companies and the society which is especially important for major companies that exploit natural resources and play the role of city-forming socially significant entities. Various interpretations of the notion of social responsibility define the varying levels of influence companies have on the society, different levels of contribution of companies in the said process and the degree and level of implementation of CSR. The relations between social responsibility and economic results and the effects of implementing CSR policies are often not obvious.This study offers an assessment of present-day state of corporate social responsibility policies in coal companies of Russia and Poland and formulates proposals on implementing social responsibility projects with consideration of state-of-the-art CSR concepts.The results of the study are as follows: the achieved level of social responsibility in coal companies of Russia and Poland has been assessed; it is proven that most companies in the coal industry are at the level of fragmentary application of CSR concepts; an analysis has been carried out of tools available in the area of social responsibility of coal companies.

  6. POSSIBILITIES OF APPLYING THE DEA METHOD IN THE ASSESSMENT OF EFFICIENCY OF COMPANIES IN THE ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY: REVIEW OF WIND ENERGY COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Maradin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental tasks of modern power system is finding ways to produce stable and continuous electricity from scarce energy resources. One of the possible solutions is introduction, implementation and improvement of alternative forms of energy such as renewable energy sources, particularly wind energy as an increasingly important energy source which is expected to further increase its share in total electricity production. Numerous methods can be used in assessing the efficiency of wind energy companies, and in the focus of this research is the Data Envelopment Analysis method (DEA, a widely accepted methodology given its interdisciplinary approach and flexibility. This method represents a step forward in the field of renewable energy management, because it provides the possibility to compare the selected companies with the best in the industry (the most efficient and the possibility of determining sources of inefficiency and, consequently, the possibilities of their elimination.

  7. The influence of the European Union on the Range of Employees’ Management participation in the Companies from Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Śmietański

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acknowledging the accession, and as a result, joining the European Union in May 2004 required Poland to make a number of changes, including a number that related to labor rights. These changes were partially based on resolving legal barriers in Polish law in order to bring them into compliance with the European Union's law. These efforts are reflected in the laws related to the so-called employee participation. Generally speaking, this is the right of workers to co-manage and be consulted in the activities of the enterprise for which they work. The most important provisions in this regard (those which Poland had to implement in the past few years are, among others, the directives on the development of the European Works Councils and on the right of workers to establish councils of workers within their company. When the European Parliament and the Council of the European Union established the directives which referred to employee participation, it was the result of the promotion of social dialogue between representatives of management and representatives of workers (which is a particular goal of the EU community and its member states. Unfortunately, in Poland these rights are not honored for the majority of employees.

  8. Sequential time-step generation companies decisions in oligopolistic electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Alcaraz, Guillermo [Programa de Graduados e Investigacion en Ingenieria Electrica, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica y Electronica del Instituto Tecnologico de Morelia, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-05-15

    This paper studies the production decisions of generation companies (GENCOs) which are fully engaged in oligopolistic electricity markets. The model presented is based upon the static equilibrium model solved sequentially in time. By decomposing the problem in time, each time-step is solved independently using a Cournot-like market model. The time dimension is divided into discrete, 1-h time-steps. The model also incorporates the effects of technical and temporal constraints such as time on/off and ramp up/down. Since GENCOs tend toward repetitive decision-making, they can more easily learn from the market. The concept of forward expectations and the lessons derived from the market are introduced, and several numerical examples are provided. (author)

  9. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Yearsley, J.R.; Ludwig, F.; Kabat, P.

    2012-01-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. 1) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several

  10. Merchant electricity transmission expansion: A European case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristiansen, T. [RBS Sempra Commodities, 155 Bishopsgate, London EC2M3TZ (United Kingdom); Rosellon, J. [Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas (CIDE), Division de Economia, Carretera Mexico-Toluca 3655, Lomas de Santa Fe, 01210 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Mohrenstrasse 58, 10117, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-10-15

    We apply a merchant transmission model to the trilateral market coupling (TLC) arrangement among the Netherlands, Belgium and France as an example, and note that it could further be applied to other market splitting or coupling of Europe's different national power markets. In this merchant framework the system operator allocates financial transmission rights (FTRs) to investors in transmission expansion based upon their preferences, and revenue adequacy. The independent system operator (ISO) preserves some proxy FTRs to manage potential negative externalities that may result from expansion projects. This scheme could help European market coupling arrangements attract additional investment. (author)

  11. Congestion management in the European electricity market; Engpassmanagement im Europaeischen Strommarkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dieckmann, Birgit

    2008-11-24

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on an assessment of methods of congestion management employed in Europe with respect to their effectiveness and identify possible reasons for the misallocation of cross-border transmission capacity. For this, generation structures of European countries and the resulting prices and load flows are analysed. Different power plants and bottlenecks in the transmission network currently cause structural price differences due to a low degree of integration of European electricity markets. By means of congestion management, the formation of a uniform electricity market will be created.

  12. Vulnerability of US and European electricity supply to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Yearsley, John R.; Ludwig, Fulco; Vögele, Stefan; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.; Kabat, Pavel

    2012-09-01

    In the United States and Europe, at present 91% and 78% (ref. ) of the total electricity is produced by thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil-fuelled) power plants, which directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern United States were forced to reduce production owing to cooling-water scarcity. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the United States is vulnerable to climate change owing to the combined impacts of lower summer river flows and higher river water temperatures. Using a physically based hydrological and water temperature modelling framework in combination with an electricity production model, we show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the United States depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme (>90%) reductions in thermoelectric power production will on average increase by a factor of three. Considering the increase in future electricity demand, there is a strong need for improved climate adaptation strategies in the thermoelectric power sector to assure futureenergy security.

  13. Project of law relative to the electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the definitive text of this project of law adopted by the French house of commons. The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  14. Transmission Needs In A Fully Renewable Pan-European Electricity System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, Rolando A.; Bruun Andresen, Gorm; Becker, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Based on high-resolution weather and electrical load data, the transmission needs for a fully renewable pan-European electricity system are determined. The ideal cross-border transmission capacities turn out to be a factor 10 larger than those of today. A reduction of cross-border transmission ca...... capacities lead to a non-linear increase of balancing needs. A good compromise turns out to be a capacity layout, which is a factor 5 larger than today’s one. On average each country will only be able to import / export 40% of its residual demand / renewable excess generation.......Based on high-resolution weather and electrical load data, the transmission needs for a fully renewable pan-European electricity system are determined. The ideal cross-border transmission capacities turn out to be a factor 10 larger than those of today. A reduction of cross-border transmission...

  15. Assignment of personnel to work in Switzerland by companies from the European Union / EFTA(1)

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

    Before performing any services at CERN, companies not established in Switzerland are required under the Swiss legislation in force to make a declaration to the Swiss Federal Office for Migration or to obtain work permits from the Geneva authorities for the employees they intend to assign to work on the Swiss part of the CERN Site. At the request of the Swiss authorities, CERN cannot register employees to whom this legislation applies except in the following circumstances: Case No. 1: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-25/EFTA; Case No. 2: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of EU-2 companies (Bulgaria and Romania); Case No. 3: Work lasting more than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-27/EFTA. In case No. 1, an attestation d’annonce (declaration certificate) must be obtained. The declaration must be made via the Internet, using the official declaration form, at least 8 days before the start of the services. It is required only if the company pe...

  16. A strategic Analysis of the European Companies in the ICT Sales Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaello Balocco

    2012-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a detailed picture of the ICT sales channel and its players in the European market. A classification framework is proposed and eleven different business models are identified. The paper is based on a case study methodology that included 53 semi‐standardized\tinterviews\twith\tCEOs\t(Chief Executive Officers and marketing and communications managers at leading European ICT suppliers coupled with the literature review.

  17. Socio-economic impact of European singel market on Lithuanian companies: Methodology manual

    OpenAIRE

    Hernesniemi, Hannu; Lindroos, Pekka

    2000-01-01

    This report has been written within the framework of the Phare SEIL (Support for European Integration in Lithuania) project supporting the Government of Lithuania in preparations for the accession to the European Union. The manual summarises the method used and developed when drafting separate impact studies for the most important industries of Lithuania. The industries examined are the wood, foodstuffs, textile and clothing and road transport industries. Reports were drafted by Lithuanian ex...

  18. 76 FR 66333 - Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-26

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, H.B. Robinson Steam Electric Plant, Unit No. 2; Environmental... permit are needed. No effects on the aquatic or terrestrial habitat in the vicinity or the plant, or to..., ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' and 10 CFR...

  19. 75 FR 43099 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... (AD) for GE CT7-9C and -9C3 turboprop engines with certain serial number (S/ N) gas generator turbine...

  20. 76 FR 70382 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CF6-80C2B Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... directive (AD) that applies to all GE CF6-80C2B series turbofan engines. The existing AD currently requires...

  1. 75 FR 21161 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CJ610 Series Turbojet Engines and CF700...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-23

    ...-02-AD; Amendment 39-16273; AD 2010-09-08] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CJ610 Series Turbojet Engines and CF700 Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation...) for GE CJ610 series turbojet engines and CF700 turbofan engines with AFT Technologies combustion...

  2. 75 FR 70096 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ...-04-AD; Amendment 39-16509; AD 2010-23-20] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) CT7-9C and -9C3 Turboprop Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... result in an uncontained engine failure and damage to the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective December...

  3. 77 FR 24541 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, North Anna Power Station Units 1 and 2, Independent Spent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... significantly impact the quality of the human environment. The NRC staff concludes that there are no changes... of the environment. The Environmental Assessment and the Finding of No Significant Impact are... Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background Virginia Electric and Power Company (Dominion, the...

  4. 77 FR 24539 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... significantly impact the quality of the human environment. The NRC staff concludes that there are no changes... of the environment. The Environmental Assessment and the Finding of No Significant Impact are... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

  5. Institutional Governance Framework for Determining Carbon-related Accounting Practices: An Exploratory Study of Electricity Generating Companies in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrazi, B.; Mat Husin, N.

    2016-03-01

    Electricity industry is the major contributor of the global carbon emissions which has been scientifically identified as the main cause of climate change. With the various initiatives being implemented at the international, national, and industry levels, companies in the electricity industry are currently facing immense pressure from various stakeholders to demonstrate their policies, initiatives, targets, and performance on climate change. Against this background, accounting system is argued to be able to be play important roles in combating climate change. Using institutional governance as the underlying framework, we have identified several governance mechanisms as the determining factors for companies to have a systematic accounting system related to carbon emissions. The factors include environmental management system certification, environmental organization, publication of stand-alone sustainability reports, the use of GRI guidelines, environmental strategic planning, governance quality, and participation in CDP surveys and emissions trading scheme. We explored this issue in the context of major electricity generating companies in Malaysia and found that except for certified environmental management system, the other governance mechanisms are still lacking. The findings suggest that companies in Malaysia, in particular, from the electricity industry are not well prepared in facing risks related to climate change.

  6. Results of the Study on the Role and Penetration of Sesame Street and the Electric Company in Ghetto Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    The findings of a 1973 study covering the performance of Sesame Street and The Electric Company in ghetto communities are reported briefly. The steps taken to repeat the methodology of earlier Sesame Street studies are described. Data are given on: penetration of Sesame Street among preschool children in Bedford Stuyvesant, East Harlem, Chicago,…

  7. Constructing a European healthcare market: the private healthcare company Capio and the strategic aspect of the drive for transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomgren, Maria; Sundén, Eva

    2008-11-01

    This article analyses the private healthcare company Capio and its participation in the drive for transparency in the European healthcare field. An important point of departure for the paper is that technologies for transparency, such as accounting and auditing, are not neutral devices for increased openness, but carry with them programmatic dimensions that affect our norms and rules of how healthcare is to be organized and controlled. The drive for transparency engages different actors with various motives. To investigate this we carried out semi-structured interviews with 11 persons, mainly management members of Capio. We show that transparency in healthcare has been put forward by a private actor for strategic reasons. We argue that Capio's involvement in the drive for transparency should be seen as a 'second-order strategy' with the aim to create advantageous opportunities in a future European healthcare market. We show that Capio, through its propagation of various transparency technologies, has put forward programmatic ideals of industrialisation, marketisation and Europeanisation in healthcare. The main conclusion is that although Capio has engaged in the drive for transparency for business reasons, the company has also furthered certain political ideals in the field. This study contributes to the literature which problematizes the division between private and public, and between business and politics in healthcare, and is of interest to a broad health policy audience.

  8. Assignment of personnel to work in Switzerland by companies from the European Union / EFTA(1)

    CERN Multimedia

    DG Unit

    2011-01-01

      *** Obsolete information ***     Before performing any services at CERN, companies not established in Switzerland are required under the Swiss legislation in force to make a declaration to the Swiss Federal Office for Migration or to obtain work permits from the Geneva authorities for the employees they intend to assign to work on the Swiss part of the CERN Site. At the request of the Swiss authorities, CERN cannot register employees to whom this legislation applies except in the following circumstances: Case No. 1: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-25/EFTA; Case No. 2: Work lasting less than 90 days in the case of EU-2 companies (Bulgaria and Romania); Case No. 3: Work lasting more than 90 days in the case of companies from the EU-27/EFTA. In case No. 1, an attestation d’annonce (declaration certificate) must be obtained. The declaration must be made via the Internet, using the official declaration form, at le...

  9. Sustainability inter-linkages in reporting vindeicated: a study of European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lozano, R.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been a rapid growth in company sustainability reporting, as well as an improvement in quality of reports. A number of guidelines have been instrumental in this process; however, they still do not consider the importance of the inter-linkages and synergies among the different

  10. Relative Pricing of Publicly Traded U.S. Electric Utility Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewczyn, Nicholas Stephen

    In the financial turmoil of 2008, U.S. firms reported debt-ratios that differed from the debt-ratios calculated from balance sheets. The problem is that investors bought common stock expecting initial investment return and lost money when companies delisted. The purpose of this quantitative study was to determine sample securities pricing with the application of synthetic assets and debt accrued. Addressed in the research questions was whether those securities were (a) underpriced compared with return-on-assets (ROA), (b) overpriced compared with ROA, (c) a debt-ratio higher than 60% and also overpriced, (d) underpriced with a synthetic asset added, or (e) related by relative pricing to variant pricing and market capitalization. The study's base theory was Pan's efficient market hypothesis (EMH) of security price prediction of market prices versus model prices. The data from the financial statements of 16 publicly traded U.S. electric utility companies were analyzed via correlations and multiple regression analyses to determine securities pricing and suitability. The findings from the analyses of the sample's variables of market price, book value, market-to-book, and study constructed variables from those variable data were statistically significant. The alternate hypotheses were accepted for all 5 research questions since the analytical operationalization of the hypothetical constructs led to significant relationships. Results suggest that the use of more pricing determinants in securities evaluation may lead to investors losing less money and earning the expected returns for a more efficient capital market, leading to a stronger economy and macroeconomic stability.

  11. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van M.T.H.; Vögele, S.; Rübbelke, D.

    2013-01-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power

  12. 76 FR 30573 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B turbofan engines with high-pressure compressor (HPC) stages... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) GE90- 110B1 and GE90-115B Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT...

  13. Beyond the Hype - e-Business Strategy in Leading European Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieper, R.; Kouwenhoven, V.; Hamminga, S.

    In this examination of the current state of business technology, two successful e-businessmen combine interviews of 20 captains of European industry regarding their visions of the future of e-business with their own insights, providing inside information on Internet hype as well as ideas for future

  14. The Risk of Residential Peak Electricity Demand: A Comparison of Five European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Torriti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a Europe-wide electricity market combined with the increased intermittency of supply from renewable sources calls for an investigation into the risk of aggregate peak demand. This paper makes use of a risk model to assess differences in time-use data from residential end-users in five different European electricity markets. Drawing on the Multinational Time-Use Survey database, it assesses risk in relation to the probability of electrical appliance use within households for five European countries. Findings highlight in which countries and for which activities the risk of aggregate peak demand is higher and link smart home solutions (automated load control, dynamic pricing and smart appliances to different levels of peak demand risk.

  15. Swiss hydropower production. Optimisation potentials in European electricity trading; Die Schweizer Wasserkrafterzeugung. Optimierungspotenziale im europaeischen Stromhandel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pieper, Thomas; Laue, Dirk Simon [RWE Supply and Trading GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Swiss hydropower plays a central role in the formation of electricity prices in Western Europe as well as in cross-border electricity transmission. Although subject to constraints relating to hydrology as well as energy economy, its inherent flexibility makes it possible to make use of the most profitable electricity price differences relative to neighbouring European electricity markets (referred to as location spreads), especially between France and Italy. In times of favourable framework conditions it is also possible to use location spread potentials in relation to Germany. Studies in electricity statistics permit analysis of cross-border transmission schedules and spot price differences as well as identification of behavioural patterns in history and thus of optimisation potentials of Swiss hydropower production.

  16. [Cardiovascular risk factors among shift workers in company of electricity production in the centre of Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatti, S; Debbabi, F; Ben Abdelaziz, A; Harbaoui, R; Ghannem, H; Mrizak, N

    2010-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate relationship between shift work and the cardiovascular risk factors. A cross-sectional study was included 330 subjects worked in a company of electricity production in the Centre of Tunisia. The collection of data was based on a questionnaire, a clinical exam and biomarkers. A total of 290 workers was participated in our study (128 shift workers and 162 daytime workers). A raised prevalence but not statistically significant of some factors of cardiovascular risks was found in the shift workers: obesity (25.8 % versus 17.9 %), smoking (44.5 % versus 39.5 %), impaired fasting glucose (11.7 % versus 9.9 %), hypertriglyceridemia (28.1 % versus 25.9 %) and hypercholesterolemia (14.8 % versus 12.4 %). Whereas the prevalence of the alcohol consumption (25.8 % versus 16.0 %) was significantly higher in the shift workers (p=0.04). The high prevalence of the cardiovascular risk factors, observed in our shift workers, justify the adoption of measures to protect this category of workers. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Simulation of Hawaiian Electric Companies Feeder Operations with Advanced Inverters and Analysis of Annual Photovoltaic Energy Curtailment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giraldez Miner, Julieta I [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagarajan, Adarsh [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gotseff, Peter [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Krishnan, Venkat K [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hoke, Anderson F [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ueda, Reid [Hawaiian Electric Company; Shindo, Jon [Hawaiian Electric Company; Asano, Marc [Hawaiian Electric Company; Ifuku, Earle [Hawaiian Electric Company

    2017-07-26

    The Hawaiian Electric Companies achieved a consolidated Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) of approximately 26% at the end of 2016. This significant RPS performance was achieved using various renewable energy sources - biomass, geothermal, solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, hydro, wind, and biofuels - and customer-sited, grid-connected technologies (primarily private rooftop solar PV systems). The Hawaiian Electric Companies are preparing grid-modernization plans for the island grids. The plans outline specific near-term actions to accelerate the achievement of Hawai'i's 100% RPS by 2045. A key element of the Companies' grid-modernization strategy is to utilize new technologies - including storage and PV systems with grid-supportive inverters - that will help to more than triple the amount of private rooftop solar PV systems. The Hawaiian Electric Companies collaborated with the Smart Inverter Technical Working Group Hawai'i (SITWG) to partner with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to research the implementation of advanced inverter grid support functions (GSF). Together with the technical guidance from the Companies's planning engineers and stakeholder input from the SITWG members, NREL proposed a scope of work that explored different modes of voltage-regulation GSF to better understand the trade-offs of the grid benefits and curtailment impacts from the activation of selected advanced inverter grid support functions. The simulation results presented in this report examine the effectiveness in regulating voltage as well as the impact to the utility and the customers of various inverter-based grid support functions on two Hawaiian Electric distribution substations.

  18. The internationalization of the European electricity industry. The case of Vattenfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoegselius, Per [History of Science and Technology, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Teknikringen 76, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-09-15

    This article explains how the Swedish state-owned electricity company Vattenfall managed to become the most successful foreign player on the German electricity market. It does so by providing an in-depth historical analysis of Vattenfall's transformation from a national into an international actor, a process that proved long and difficult. The article starts out by identifying the transformation pressures that Vattenfall faced in the late 1980s. It then continues with a detailed analysis of Vattenfall's response to these pressures, culminating in a seemingly sudden wave of major acquisitions in Germany in the period 1999-2002. (author)

  19. An introduction to the European Aerospace Industry. Case company: Forza Global Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Purhonen, Tapio

    2014-01-01

    Forza Global Solutions is a small, growing business that operates in a niche market and constantly looks for new opportunities. This has lead to a commission for a market analysis on European aerospace industry to find out if the commissioner should consider entering the given market and the topics that require a more detailed attention. The objective was to find characteristics and situation of the aerospace manufacturing industry in Europe. The commissioner is based in Mexico and has it...

  20. The Demand of Part-time in European Companies: A Multilevel Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Anxo, Dominique; Hussain, Shakir; Shukur, Ghazi

    2011-01-01

    Part-time work is one of the most well-known « atypical » working time arrangements in Europe, shaping working time regimes across countries and mapping work-life balance patterns. Comparative studies on part-time work across European countries have pointed to large differences in the development, extent and quality of part-time employment. To explain such differences, the focus has been mainly on labor supply consideration and on public policies and/or institutional arrangements pertaining t...

  1. Company Tax Coordination cum Tax Rate Competition in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Eggert, Wolfgang; Haufler, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent theoretical literature that analyses the European Union's policy to eliminate preferential corporate tax regimes and the proposal to introduce a consolidated EU tax base with formula apportionment for the taxation of multinational firms. Since neither proposal includes a harmonisation of corporate tax rates, a core issue is how tax competition between member states will be affected by these partial coordination measures. The conclusions from our review are suppor...

  2. Water constraints on European power supply under climate change: impacts on electricity prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Vögele, Stefan; Rübbelke, Dirk

    2013-09-01

    Recent warm, dry summers showed the vulnerability of the European power sector to low water availability and high river temperatures. Climate change is likely to impact electricity supply, in terms of both water availability for hydropower generation and cooling water usage for thermoelectric power production. Here, we show the impacts of climate change and changes in water availability and water temperature on European electricity production and prices. Using simulations of daily river flows and water temperatures under future climate (2031-2060) in power production models, we show declines in both thermoelectric and hydropower generating potential for most parts of Europe, except for the most northern countries. Based on changes in power production potentials, we assess the cost-optimal use of power plants for each European country by taking electricity import and export constraints into account. Higher wholesale prices are projected on a mean annual basis for most European countries (except for Sweden and Norway), with strongest increases for Slovenia (12-15%), Bulgaria (21-23%) and Romania (31-32% for 2031-2060), where limitations in water availability mainly affect power plants with low production costs. Considering the long design life of power plant infrastructures, short-term adaptation strategies are highly recommended to prevent undesired distributional and allocative effects.

  3. Time-varying convergence in European electricity spot markets and their association with carbon and fuel prices

    OpenAIRE

    MENEZES, L. de M.; Houllier, M.; Tamvakis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Long-run dynamics of electricity prices are expected to reflect fuel price developments, since fuels generally account for a large share in the cost of generation. As an integrated European market for electricity develops, wholesale electricity prices should be converging as a result of market coupling and increased interconnectivity. Electricity mixes are also changing, spurred by a drive to significantly in-crease the share of renewables. Consequently, the electricity wholesale price dynami...

  4. Forecasting day ahead electricity spot prices: The impact of the EXAA to other European electricity markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ziel, Florian; Steinert, Rick; Husmann, Sven

    2015-01-01

    In our paper we analyze the relationship between the day-ahead electricity price of the Energy Exchange Austria (EXAA) and other day-ahead electricity prices in Europe. We focus on markets, which settle their prices after the EXAA, which enables traders to include the EXAA price into their calculations. For each market we employ econometric models to incorporate the EXAA price and compare them with their counterparts without the price of the Austrian exchange. By employing a forecasting study...

  5. Institutional context effects on managerial practices in a European multinational company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Liberman

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the effect of institutional contexts on managerial practices within a multinational company. Questionnaires measuring actual and ideal managerial practices were completed in four different subsidiaries of the same MNC. Results show that the practices of subsidiaries operating in countries with a higher degree of institutional labor-market regulation were less formalized and directive than in those subsidiaries located in countries with a lower degree of labor-market regulation. It was also found that the degrees of acceptance of these practices differed significantly across institutional contexts: in less restrictive institutional contexts formal and directive practices were more desirable than in more restrictive institutional contexts. It is argued that there is an inverse relationship between the flexibility of subsidiaries’ institutional contexts and the flexibility of their practices (formality and directiveness. Implications and limitations of this study are discussed.

  6. Project of law modified by the Senate relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents the modifications added by the Senate to the text of law adopted at first reading by the House of Commons. (J.S.)

  7. Introduction: Company Tax Integration in the European Union – A Necessary Step to Neutralise ‘Excessive’ Behaviour within the EU?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C.G.A.C. de Graaf (Arnaud); K. Heine (Klaus)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This special issue of the Erasmus Law Review is the result of an interdisciplinary workshop on ‘Company Tax Integration in the European Union – a Necessary Step to Neutralise “Excessive” Behaviour within the EU?’, held at the Erasmus School of Law in June

  8. Performance assessment of food safety management systems in animal-based food companies in view of their context characteristics: A European study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luning, P.A.; Kirezieva, K.; Hagelaar, G.; Rovira, J.; Uyttendaele, M.; Jacxsens, L.

    2015-01-01

    Recurrently the question arises if efforts in food safety management system (FSMS) have resulted in effective systems in animal-based food production systems. The aim of this study was to gain an insight in the performance of FSMS in European animal-based food production companies in view of their

  9. Optimising waste from electric and electronic equipment collection systems: a comparison of approaches in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friege, Henning; Oberdörfer, Michael; Günther, Marko

    2015-03-01

    The first European waste from electric and electronic equipment directive obliged the Member States to collect 4 kg of used devices per inhabitant and year. The target of the amended directive focuses on the ratio between the amount of waste from electric and electronic equipment collected and the mass of electric and electronic devices put on the market in the three foregoing years. The minimum collection target is 45% starting in 2016, being increased to 65% in 2019 or alternatively 85% of waste from electric and electronic equipment generated. Being aware of the new target, the question arises how Member States with 'best practice' organise their collection systems and how they enforce the parties in this playing field. Therefore the waste from electric and electronic equipment schemes of Sweden, Denmark, Switzerland, Germany and the Flemish region of Belgium were investigated focusing on the categories IT and telecommunications equipment, consumer equipment like audio systems and discharge lamps containing hazardous substances, e.g. mercury. The systems for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in these countries vary considerably. Recycling yards turned out to be the backbone of waste from electric and electronic equipment collection in most countries studied. For discharge lamps, take-back by retailers seems to be more important. Sampling points like special containers in shopping centres, lidded waste bins and complementary return of used devices in all retail shops for electric equipment may serve as supplements. High transparency of collection and recycling efforts can encourage ambition among the concerned parties. Though the results from the study cannot be transferred in a simplistic manner, they serve as an indication for best practice methods for waste from electric and electronic equipment collection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. North–south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side—through the mitigation of greenhouse gases—and from the demand side—through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world’s third-largest electricity market—the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose–response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006–2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose–response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country’s currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today’s European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation—in line with the Paris agreement—to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼−6 to ∼−2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity. PMID:28847939

  11. North-south polarization of European electricity consumption under future warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenz, Leonie; Levermann, Anders; Auffhammer, Maximilian

    2017-09-19

    There is growing empirical evidence that anthropogenic climate change will substantially affect the electric sector. Impacts will stem both from the supply side-through the mitigation of greenhouse gases-and from the demand side-through adaptive responses to a changing environment. Here we provide evidence of a polarization of both peak load and overall electricity consumption under future warming for the world's third-largest electricity market-the 35 countries of Europe. We statistically estimate country-level dose-response functions between daily peak/total electricity load and ambient temperature for the period 2006-2012. After removing the impact of nontemperature confounders and normalizing the residual load data for each country, we estimate a common dose-response function, which we use to compute national electricity loads for temperatures that lie outside each country's currently observed temperature range. To this end, we impose end-of-century climate on today's European economies following three different greenhouse-gas concentration trajectories, ranging from ambitious climate-change mitigation-in line with the Paris agreement-to unabated climate change. We find significant increases in average daily peak load and overall electricity consumption in southern and western Europe (∼3 to ∼7% for Portugal and Spain) and significant decreases in northern Europe (∼-6 to ∼-2% for Sweden and Norway). While the projected effect on European total consumption is nearly zero, the significant polarization and seasonal shifts in peak demand and consumption have important ramifications for the location of costly peak-generating capacity, transmission infrastructure, and the design of energy-efficiency policy and storage capacity.

  12. Pricing of Delivery Orders Issued Under Basic Ordering Agreement DAAJO9-85-G-A025, General Electric Company-Aircraft Engine Business Group

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1991-01-01

    Our objectives were to determine whether Basic Ordering Agreement DAAJO9-85-G-AO25, Delivery Orders 0106 and 0124, awarded to the General Electric Company, were overpriced and the reasons for overpricing...

  13. A Project Strategic Index proposal for portfolio selection in electrical company based on the Analytic Network Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Perera, Aida [Universidad Metropolitana de Caracas, Departamento de Gestion Tecnologica, Caracas 1071, Edo Miranda (Venezuela); Garcia-Melon, Monica; Poveda-Bautista, Rocio; Pastor-Ferrando, Juan-Pascual [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Departamento de Proyectos de Ingenieria, Camino de vera s/n 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper a new approach to prioritize project portfolio in an efficient and reliable way is presented. It is based on strategic objectives of the company and multicriteria decision methods. The paper introduces a rigorous method with acceptable complexity which seeks to assist managers of a big Electrical Company of Venezuela to distribute the annual budget among the possible improvement actions to be conducted on the electrical network of Caracas. A total of 15 network improvement actions grouped into three clusters according to the strategic objectives of the company have been analyzed using the Project Strategic Index (PSI) proposed. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process (ANP) method with the information obtained from the experts during the decision-making process. The ANP method allows the aggregation of the experts' judgments on each of the indicators used into one Project Strategic Index. In addition, ANP is based on utility ratio functions which are the most appropriate for the analysis of uncertain data, like experts' estimations. Finally, unlike the other multicriteria techniques, ANP allows the decision problem to be modelled using the relationships among dependent criteria. The participating experts coincided in the appreciation that the method proposed in this paper is useful and an improvement from traditional budget distribution techniques. They find the results obtained coherent, the process seems sufficiently rigorous and precise, and the use of resources is significantly less than in other methods. (author)

  14. Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Generally Purchased SoleSource Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices, but Improvements Could Be Made (Redacted)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-24

    Defense Logistics Agency Aviation Generally Purchased Sole‑Source Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices, but...Purchased Sole‑Source Spare Parts From the General Electric Company at Fair and Reasonable Prices, but Improvements Could Be Made Visit us at...www.dodig.mil Objective Our audit objective was to determine whether the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) Aviation was purchasing sole-source spare parts at

  15. Towards a unified European electricity market: The contribution of data-mining to support realistic simulation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinto, Tiago; Santos, Gabriel; Pereira, Ivo F.

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide electricity markets have been evolving into regional and even continental scales. The aim at an efficient use of renewable based generation in places where it exceeds the local needs is one of the main reasons. A reference case of this evolution is the European Electricity Market, where...

  16. Energy in Europe: the case of electricity or 'how to be european?'; L'entreprise energetique europeenne. Le cas des entreprises electriques, ou 'comment peut-on etre europeen?'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoeur, B.; Verger, E. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    2007-08-15

    After a long period of benign neglect, concern has been re-aroused for questions related to energy. European Union has succeeded in opening its gas and electricity markets to free competition. This deregulation process began between 10 and 20 years ago. It was at a time of low electricity prices because Europe was facing a power overproduction due to the important investment made in this sector. Low price policy has made companies to re-organize themselves and the sector in order to stay profitable. Now we are entering a new period in which energy prices keep increasing following the strong energy demand. Europe needs to augment its production of electricity, and firms are now drafting strategies on a continental scale. A major piece of the energy puzzle is still missing: the yet to be designed European energy policy.

  17. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tue Vissing; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    , we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather......-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years.(R2.9) These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system.(R2.10) The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door...

  18. Liberalisation of the European Electricity Industry: Internal Market or National Champions?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domanico, F.

    2007-07-01

    This article offers an analysis of the present competitive and regulatory framework of the European electricity sector. Considering the complexity of this industry, the focus in this work is mainly on the problem of market concentration of incumbents in the sector as a result of the liberalisation process. The new trend toward the creation of ''national champions'' as well as recent mergers between gas suppliers and electricity producers raised serious concerns about abuses of market power and risks of future collusion. Taking account of investment in interconnection as well as other international and regional experiences, the internal market issue is investigated as the solution to the''risks'' from liberalisation. (auth)

  19. Principal Mismatch Patterns Across a Simplified Highly Renewable European Electricity Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Raunbak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to its spatio-temporal variability, the mismatch between the weather and demand patterns challenges the design of highly renewable energy systems. A principal component analysis is applied to a simplified networked European electricity system with a high share of wind and solar power generation. It reveals a small number of important mismatch patterns, which explain most of the system’s required backup and transmission infrastructure. Whereas the first principal component is already able to reproduce most of the temporal mismatch variability for a solar dominated system, a few more principal components are needed for a wind dominated system. Due to its monopole structure the first principal component causes most of the system’s backup infrastructure. The next few principal components have a dipole structure and dominate the transmission infrastructure of the renewable electricity network.

  20. Future Electricity Demand of the Emerging European Countries and the CIS Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Fatih Bayramoglu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, one of the leading factors used in the evaluation of a country’s economic development is energy consumption. Because of economic growth, demand for energy is also increasing. In this study, the emerging European countries’ (the Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Turkey and the CIS countries’ (Kazakhstan, Russia, Ukraine, Uzbekistan  electricity consumption has been forecasted for five years period (2015-2019. In the study, GM(1,1 Rolling Model, which is developed in the framework of Grey System Theory is used as a mathematical model for real-time forecasting. The results of the study show that there will not be a significant change in electricity demand in this two area during the 2015-2109 period.

  1. Introduction: Company Tax Integration in the European Union – A Necessary Step to Neutralise ‘Excessive’ Behaviour within the EU?

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, Arnaud; Heine, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This special issue of the Erasmus Law Review is the result of an interdisciplinary workshop on ‘Company Tax Integration in the European Union – a Necessary Step to Neutralise “Excessive” Behaviour within the EU?’, held at the Erasmus School of Law in June 2013 and organized by the Foundation European Fiscal Studies in co-operation with Erasmus Law Review. A topic currently attracting considerable public attention, not least because of the Base Erosion and Profit S...

  2. Evaluation of the European Commission's proposal to set aside emission allowances. Effects on the EU carbon price and Dutch ETS companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdonk, M.; Vollebergh, H.

    2012-11-15

    A set-aside of CO2 allowances would reduce the current oversupply in the European Emissions Trading System (ETS). This would result in temporary higher CO2 prices. However, a literature study has shown that the impact of the European Commission's proposal on CO2 prices is likely to be limited, because the total amount of allowances up to 2020 would remain unchanged. However, the proposal sends out a signal to investors that the functioning of the ETS is a priority for politicians, and increases the likelihood of further reforms. Any negative impact of back loading on ETS companies in the Netherlands is likely to be limited.

  3. USING THE GENERAL ELECTRIC / MCKINSEY MATRIX IN THE PROCESS OF SELECTING THE CENTRAL AND EAST EUROPEAN MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae Răzvan Decuseară

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to limited resources a company cannot serve all potential markets in the world in a manner that all the clients to be satisfied and the business goals achieved, which is why the company should select the most appropriate markets. It can focus on a single product market serving many geographic areas, but may also decide to serve different product markets in a group of selected geographic areas. Due to the large number and diversity of markets that can choose, analyze of the market attractiveness and the selection the most interesting is a complex process. General Electric Matrix/McKinsey has two dimensions, market attractiveness and the competitive strength of the firm, and aims to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the company in a variety of areas, allowing the company to identify the most attractive markets and to guide managers in allocating resources to these markets, improve the weaker competitive position of the company in emerging markets, or to draw firm unattractive markets. We can say that it is a very efficient tool for the company being used by international market specialists, on one hand to select foreign markets for the company, and on the other hand, to determine the strategy that the firm will be using to internationalize on those markets. At the end of this paper we present a part of a larger study in which we showed how General Electric Matrix/McKinsey it is used specifically in select foreign markets.

  4. Electricity sector liberalization in the European Union: The political economy of regulatory reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante Durana, Maria Dolores

    This dissertation looks into the reasons that pushed European countries to liberalize their electricity industries. The analysis of the political process leading to that decision in the areas pioneers of regulatory reform in this sector (United Kingdom, Sweden and the European Commission) shows that the liberalization of the European power sectors does not conform to the traditional theoretical explanations for regulatory reform that put interests and industry-specific considerations at the forefront of the explanation. The central argument of this dissertation is that, contrary to what most of the literature assumes and the theories predict, the primary impetus for the reforms in European electricity sectors did not come from industrial or economic worries, but rather from a neo-liberal turn to the ideas shared by European intellectual and political elites. The reform followed a political spill-over process by which the liberalization policy was emulated and introduced as a direct result of the international and sectoral diffusion of the new "efficiency regime" and the belief in the economic superiority of free markets over any form of government intervention. As an idea-driven policy, liberalization was not always coherent with the stated goals and, with means and ends that were not always consistent with each other, the reforms were often hampered and their results ambiguous. Liberalization transformed energy policy priorities in member states by adding the promotion and development of market-based mechanisms to the previous two of ensuring that security of supply, was adequate and of achieving ambitious environmental targets. By adding economic efficiency (and its political corollary, low prices) to its policy goals, governments effectively rendered the realization of the other two goals all the more difficult. As a result, liberalization did not entail the expected government disengagement from the affairs of the industry. On the contrary, it became

  5. Decarbonizing the European electricity sector. Modeling and policy analysis for electricity and CO{sub 2} infrastructure networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oei, Pao-Yu Charly Robin

    2016-03-03

    This dissertation uses three models to analyze different decarbonization strategies for combating global climate change: The cost minimizing mixed-integer model CCTS-Mod examines the economics of Carbon Capture, Transport, and Storage (CCTS) for the electricity and industry sector; the welfare maximizing quadratically constrained model ELMOD focuses on different trajectories for renewable energy sources (RES) and transmission grid expansions; and the equilibrium model ELCO combines the insights of the individual sectors to a combined CCTS and electricity investment and dispatch model. Modeling results show that an investment in CCTS is beneficial for the iron and steel sector once the CO{sub 2} certificate price exceeds 50 Euros/t CO{sub 2}. The threshold is 75 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the cement industry and 100 Euros/t CO{sub 2} for the electricity sector. Additional revenues from using CO{sub 2} for enhanced oil recovery (CO{sub 2}-EOR) lead to an earlier adoption of CCTS in the North Sea region. The lack of economies of scale results in increasing CO{sub 2} storage costs of more than 30%, while transport costs even double. Research from the last years, however, indicates that CCTS is unlikely to play an important role in decarbonizing the electricity sector. The identified reasons for this are incumbents' resistance to structural change, wrong technology choices, over-optimistic cost estimates, a premature focus on energy projects instead of industry, and the underestimation of transport and storage issues. Keeping global temperature rise below 2 C therefore implies the phase-out of fossilfueled power plants and, in particular, of CO{sub 2}-intensive coal power plants. The low CO{sub 2} price established by the European Emissions Trading Scheme is insufficient to induce a fuel switch in the medium term. Therefore, supplementary national measures are necessary to reduce coal-based power generation; i.a. feed-in tariffs for RES, minimum CO{sub 2} prices, or

  6. Balancing reserves within a decarbonized European electricity system in 2050. From market developments to model insights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, Casimir [German Institute for Economic Research (DIW Berlin), Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Energy, Transportation, Environment; Univ. of Technology, Berlin (Germany). Workgroup for Infrastructure Policy (WIP)

    2017-03-30

    This paper expands the discussion about future balancing reserve provision to the long-term perspective of 2050. Most pathways for a transformation towards a decarbonized electricity sector rely on very high shares of fluctuating renewables. This can be a challenge for the provision of balancing reserves, although their influence on the balancing cost is unclear. Apart from the transformation of the generation portfolio, various technical and regulatory developments within the balancing framework might further influence balancing costs: i) dynamic dimensioning of balancing reserves, ii) provision by fluctuating renewables or new (battery) storage technologies, and iii) exchange of balancing reserves between balancing zones. The first part of this paper discusses and transforms these developments into quantitative scenario definitions. The second part applies these scenarios to dynELMOD (dynamic Electricity Model), an investment model of the European electricity system that is extended to include balancing reserve provision. In contrast to other models applied in most papers on balancing reserves, this model is capable of evaluating the interdependencies between developments in balancing reserve provision and high shares of fluctuating renewables jointly. The results show that balancing reserve cost can be kept at current levels for a renewable electricity system until 2050, when using a dynamic reserve sizing horizon. Apart from the sizing horizon, storage capacity withholding duration and additional balancing demand from RES are the main driver of balancing costs. Renewables participation in balancing provision is mainly important for negative reserves, while storages play an important role for the provision of positive reserves. However, only on very few occasions, additional storage investments are required for balancing reserve provision, as most of the time sufficient storage capacities are available in the electricity system.

  7. MOSES – A modelling tool for the analysis of scenarios of the European electricity supply system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agert C.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that a transition of the current power supply system in Europe to a system almost entirely based on fluctuating Renewable Energy Sources (RES by mid-century is possible. However, most of these scenarios require a significant amount of back-up power capacities to ensure the security of electricity supply. This would imply high additional investments and operating costs. Hence, alternative options should be investigated first. Here we present a first outlook of our simulation model MOSES which will be able to analyse different target states of the European electricity system in 2050. In this model long-term meteorological data series are used to optimise the capacity mix of RES in Europe. One of the main elements of our tool is a simplified electricity network. In addition, alternative options for reduction of additional back-up power like the expansion of the transmission grid, the use of demand-side management and/or the installation of over-capacities will be implemented. The results will be used to provide scientifically proven recommendations to policy makers for a reliable energy supply system in Europe based on Renewable Energy Sources.

  8. Comparison of domestic olivine and European magnesite for electrically charged thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laster, W.R.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H.; Schoenhals, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Electrically charged thermal energy storage (TES) heaters employing high heat capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these devices, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored energy from the core by forced air circulation. The recent increase in use of off-peak TES units in the U.S. has led to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but underutilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two commercially available room-size TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons are made and conclusions are drawn.

  9. [Investigation on occupational stress of workers in clean workshops of electric company].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-qiang; Mao, Li-feng; Feng, Jian-liang; Xu, Bai-qing; Luo, Chen; Ni, Chun-hui

    2013-07-01

    The aim is to learn the situation of work stress, burnout and depression in clean workshops of electronic company by investigation, and provide the clues for the further interventions as well as the basic data for the future evaluation. The survey was carried out in a electronic company in Xishan,Wuxi city. The subjects including all the 395 employees in clean workshops and 205 in ordinary workshops were asked to fill in an anonymous cross-sectional questionnaire, in which the distributions of age, gender, job duration, working time and working strength were similar between two kinds of workshops. The response rate was 98.9%. There were no significant differences between clean and ordinary workshops in age, gender, smoking, drinking and working hours, except for employed years. It was not found that any differences between two kinds of workshop for the rates of burnout, depression and stress. However, the rates of burnout, depression and stress were 19.7%(77/391), 24.8%(97/391) and 88.5%(346/391) in clean workshops and 19.3%(39/202), 23.8%(48/202) and 84.6%(171/202) in ordinary workshops. There were no significant differences between two workshops for the scores of burnout and depression, but the stress score in clean workshops was higher than that of ordinary workshop (P = 0.015). Further stratified analysis found that stress score of male in clean workshop was higher than that of female (P = 0.002), while it was inverse in ordinary workshops (P = 0.034). In addition, the stress score of male in clean workshops was significantly higher than that of male in ordinary one (P = 0.003). The stress score of workers with age ≥22 year old was higher than that of age company. The stress in clean workshops was more serious than that of ordinary ones, especially for the males.

  10. Construction of Industrial Ecosystem of an Electric Company under Ecological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuan; Wu, Han

    2018-01-01

    Be confronted with more and more fierce competition environment, only by constantly integrating, constructing and restructuring internal and external resources as well as capabilities can enterprises adapt themselves to the rapidly changing environment and maintain the advantages of sustained competition. Business competition has changed from product competition of single enterprise to competition of bussiness ecosystem. Therefore, how to build a business system is the key to win competition. This paper draws lessons from business ecosystem and industrial ecosystem concept and takes the subordinate industry company of a large enterprise as the research object. On the the basis of combing its characteristics and organizational structure, an industrial ecosystem is tired to constructed.

  11. 78 FR 45194 - General Electric Company; Analysis of Proposed Agreement Containing Consent Order To Aid Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... engine manufacturer Snecma S.A. Avio is headquartered in Torino, Italy, and is an important designer and..., structural parts, gearboxes, and electrical systems for aircraft engines. Avio is currently the sole designer...--must be tested extensively and certified for flight by aviation authorities before it can be put into...

  12. Challenges in Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Management: A Profitability Assessment in Three European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idiano D’Adamo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE is known as an important source of secondary raw materials. Since decades, its treatment allowed to recover great amounts of basic resources. However, the management of electronic components embedded in WEEE still presents many challenges. The purpose of the paper is to cope with some of these challenges through the definition of an economic model able to identify the presence of profitability within the recovery process of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs. To this aim, a set of common economic indexes is used within the paper. Furthermore, a sensitivity analysis on a set of critical variables is conducted to evaluate their impact on the results. Finally, the combination of predicted WEEE volumes (collected during the 2015–2030 period in three European countries (Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom and related economic indexes quantify the potential advantage coming from the recovery of this kind of waste in the next future.

  13. RE-Europe, a large-scale dataset for modeling a highly renewable European electricity system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Tue V.; Pinson, Pierre

    2017-11-01

    Future highly renewable energy systems will couple to complex weather and climate dynamics. This coupling is generally not captured in detail by the open models developed in the power and energy system communities, where such open models exist. To enable modeling such a future energy system, we describe a dedicated large-scale dataset for a renewable electric power system. The dataset combines a transmission network model, as well as information for generation and demand. Generation includes conventional generators with their technical and economic characteristics, as well as weather-driven forecasts and corresponding realizations for renewable energy generation for a period of 3 years. These may be scaled according to the envisioned degrees of renewable penetration in a future European energy system. The spatial coverage, completeness and resolution of this dataset, open the door to the evaluation, scaling analysis and replicability check of a wealth of proposals in, e.g., market design, network actor coordination and forecasting of renewable power generation.

  14. Progress of electricity from biomass, wind and photovoltaics in the European Union

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger-Waldau, A.; Ossenbrink, H. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Ispra (Italy). Renewable Energies Unit

    2004-04-01

    The world market for renewable energies is continuously growing. In particular, the wind energy and photovoltaic markets show yearly growth rates between 20 and over 30% in the last few years. Despite the fact that there are still discrepancies between the European Union and the USA how to deal with climate change, renewable energies will play an important role for the implementation of the Kyoto Protocol and the worldwide introduction of tradable green certificates. Apart from the electricity sector, renewable energy sources for the generation of heat and the use of environmental friendly bio-fuels for the transport sector will become more and more important in the future. This article tries to give an overview about the progress of renewable energies in Europe. (author)

  15. RELIABILITY СONTROL OF ELECTRIC NETWORK SYSTEM AT JOINT-STOCK COMPANY «LENENERGO» UNDER CONDITIONS OF POWER ENGINEERING MODERNIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Vasiliev

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade a general trend is observed among power engineering companies towards the deregulation of production activity. This social and political movement causes revaluation of reliability control of electric network system policy at Joint-Stock Company «Lenenergo», elaboration and development of methods and means for solution of integrated problems involving the whole process from putting into operation till equipment writing off.

  16. Planning and administration of human resources in Brazilian Electric Power Companies; Planejamento e administracao de recursos humanos nas empresas brasileiras do setor de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias, Devanir Vieira

    1985-12-01

    Administration and planning of human resources in Brazilian Companies of Electric Power Sector analyzes the evolution of the concept of business planning. This work explore the specific literature of this theme, giving emphasis in predict methods and human resources development and planning models. Is also presented a case study, realized in 1979, which comprehended 84 % of Brazilian Energy Companies. This study aims to evaluate the results of an implementation of this planning and development models 64 refs., 12 figs., 22 tabs.

  17. Distributed generation in European electricity markets. Current challenges and future opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropenus, S. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Lab. for Sustainable Energy. Systems Analysis Div., Roskilde (Denmark))

    2010-07-01

    This Ph.D. thesis studies the role of distributed generation in European electricity markets. It focuses primarily on the interactions of economics and policy with the aim of contributing to the understanding of how distributed generation is embedded in the present regulatory and market framework, which barriers exist, and which role it may possibly play in the future. To capture the interdisciplinarity of the topic, a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods is applied. Subsequent to the identification of barriers, this thesis turns to the microeconomic perspective on the interplay of vertical structure, regulation and distributed generation. This is done through the application of quantitative methods in the form of partial equilibrium models focusing on the effects induced by the vertical structure of the network operator, either a combined operator or a distribution system operator, in a market with small distributed producers. In areas where the promotion of renewable energy sources and combined heat and power has induced a substantial increase in distributed generation, new challenges in system integration arise. In particular, high levels of generation from intermittent energy sources, such as wind, add to the complexity of network operation and control, which can hardly be tackled with the present 'fit and forget' approach. The conclusion is that distributed generation has great potential to enhance competitiveness, sustainability and security of supply in European electricity markets. A prerequisite is the removal of market and regulatory barriers, taking the interdependencies of vertical structure, support mechanisms and network access into account. In the future, higher penetration levels of distributed generation necessitate changes in the power system and the adoption of new technologies, where hydrogen production by grid connected electrolysis constitutes one example. (LN)

  18. Herbaceous crops for energy in Italy: Present status of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenone, G. [ENEL CRAM, Milan (Italy)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents a synthesis of the main results of the research program promoted by ENEL (Italian Electric Company) on herbaceous energy crops. The objective of the program is to evaluate the potentials of different species and cultivars for biomass fuel production in Italy. For the most promising species, all the links of the chain from cultivation to delivery at the plant gate at the lowest possible cost have to be organized. So far the following species gave annual productivities above 20 dry tons/ha: fiber sorghum (Sorghum sp.); miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis); and giant reed (Arundo donax). The highest biomass yields, well above 40 dry tons/ha in several trials, were given by giant reed.

  19. ANALYSIS OF THE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION POTENTIAL IN THE CASE OF RETROFIT OF STEAM TURBINES IN A DISTRICT HEATING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milun Babić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, in Serbia there are several sites with installed combined heat and power facilities. The most of these plants, for various reasons, do not produce electricity. One such plant is "Energetika" (Kragujevac, Serbia, which is primarily a district heating company. Steam generator in the plant has been installed in the 1970's and has worked in one short period of time. Installed steam turbines are 8 MW and 20 MW rated power. "Energetika" in accordance with the general trend of increasing energy efficiency of production process initiated revitalization of the plant. This revitalization started with a study which approach and the results are briefly given in the paper. All results show that retrofit of facility should be acceptable for the management. Developed scenarios indicate that in the case of the limited resources optimal retrofit should start with smaller turbine (8 MW rated power then after providing the funds should continue with the retrofit of 20 MW turbine.

  20. The Electricity Usage Pattern for Cooker Manufacturing in Three European Countries. A Benchmarking Study of Electrolux Factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nord-Aagren, Elisabet

    2002-12-01

    The European electricity market became deregulated by January 1999 and it is now free to trade electricity across borders. The price of electricity varies to a great extent among the countries within the European Union. Swedish electricity will increasingly be an export product on the European electricity market, due to the lower price compared with other countries in Europe. Energy statistics and studies indicate a clear relation between electricity price and electricity use. For the industrial sector in countries with low electricity prices, electricity is a major energy source. Electricity is the dominant energy source, not only for industrial processes but also for support processes, e.g. process heating and heating of the premises. The situation is quite different for industry in countries with high electricity prices. Electricity is sparingly used and only for electricity-specific processes. This thesis presents a benchmarking study of the electricity usage pattern for Electrolux cooker manufacturing in three European cities, i.e. Fredericia in Denmark, Spennymoor in England and Motala in Sweden. The basic idea is to investigate the relation between electricity price and use for cooker manufacturing and explain the differences. The results show that a high electricity price corresponds to a low electricity use and vice versa. Motala has the highest electricity use and the lowest electricity price. Spennymoor's electricity use is half of Motala's and the electricity price is about double Motala's. Spennymoor and Fredericia have about the same electricity price. They differ mainly in which energy source is used for process heating. The total energy use per cooker at Motala is rather close to that of Fredericia. They use less energy than Spennymoor, which has a high gas use. The total energy cost for Fredericia is 45.9 SEK/unit, Motala is 23.7 SEK/unit and Spennymoor is 40.9 SEK/unit. In this study the unit process method was used. The method is a

  1. Oligopoly market models applied to electric utilities: How will generating companies behave in a deregulated industry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Lance Brian

    An oligopoly market is analyzed which compares the oligopoly uniform market price to a fully competitive market price. The oligopoly consists of three electric utilities that behave as Cournot and Stackelberg leader---followers. A market simulation of the ERCOT market is also presented which includes the impact on market price when there are new market entrants into the oligopoly. The two case studies analyze the market with and without transmission constraints and identify how various transmission limitations can support strategic behavior by the utilities and ultimately impact the market price.

  2. Effect of global warming on willingness to pay for uninterrupted electricity supply in European nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jed; Moeltner, Klaus; Reichl, Johannes; Schmidthaler, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Predicted changes in temperature and other weather events may damage the electricity grid and cause power outages. Understanding the costs of power outages and how these costs change over time with global warming can inform outage-mitigation-investment decisions. Here we show that across 19 EU nations the value of uninterrupted electricity supply is strongly related to local temperatures, and will increase as the climate warms. Bayesian hierarchical modelling of data from a choice experiment and respondent-specific temperature measures reveals estimates of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid an hour of power outage between €0.32 and €1.86 per household. WTP varies on the basis of season and is heterogeneous between European nations. Winter outages currently cause larger per household welfare losses than summer outages per hour of outage. However, this dynamic will begin to shift under plausible future climates, with summer outages becoming substantially more costly and winter outages becoming slightly less costly on a per-household, per-hour basis.

  3. The Compliance of the Integrated Reports Issued by European Financial Companies with the International Integrated Reporting Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ioana Sofian; Mădălina Dumitru

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the integrated reports issued by companies from the financial sector in Europe are following the guidance of the International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF...

  4. Earnings management and European Regulation 1606/2002: Evidence from non-financial Portuguese companies listed in Euronext

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agostinho Pereira; Maria do Céu Gaspar Alves

    2017-01-01

    .... In order to do this, the paper analyze the evidence of earnings management, measured through discretionary accruals, after the adoption of IAS/IFRS by non-financial listed companies on Euronext...

  5. Law no. 2004-803 from August 9, 2004 relative to electricity and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Loi no. 2004-803 du 9 aout 2004 relative au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this law is to allow the administrations to avoid to use their eligibility right with the opening of the electricity and gas markets to competition. It changes the juridical status of the two public utilities Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. (J.S.)

  6. Troubleshooting the General Electric Company Neutron Devices Department's deionized water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, T.J.

    1983-11-15

    In May 1982, the General Electric Neutron Devices Department's deionized (DI) water system was found to be highly contaminated with fresh water roundworms which caused severe filter plugging problems. Subsequently, a DI water improvement program was developed by GEND's Process Technology, Contamination Control, and Facilities Engineering groups. This program included removal of dead ends in the distribution system, a consultant's review, significant modification of the DI water system, modification of system operation, design of a quality plan, and changes in the types of water analysis. During implementation of the improvement program, a severe bacteria contamination problem occurred due to a contractor accident. Correction of this problem required sterilization of portions of the DI water system and significant modification of the water filtration system. The system modifications and sterilization procedures have significantly reduced bacteria and total solids contamination while resistivity is generally increasing.

  7. 76 FR 82103 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) GE90-110B1 and GE90-115B Turbofan Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...-10-AD; Amendment 39-16901; AD 2011-26-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company (GE) GE90- 110B1 and GE90-115B Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... failure of the seal of the HPC stages 2-5 spool, uncontained engine failure, and damage to the airplane...

  8. The Compliance of the Integrated Reports Issued by European Financial Companies with the International Integrated Reporting Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Sofian

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated reporting (IR is an emerging practice increasingly capturing the attention of companies. The purpose of this paper is to analyze how the integrated reports issued by companies from the financial sector in Europe are following the guidance of the International Integrated Reporting Framework (IIRF. To achieve this objective, we analyzed the way in which the integrated reports of eight companies are following the guidance provided by the IIRF. As a result, we noticed that the annual report of Generali scored the highest compliance level with the guidance of the IIRF, but each one of the companies stood out with respect to at least one of the guiding principles or fundamental concepts mentioned in the IIRF. Although the companies included in the sample are in different stages of IR adoption, our results contribute to understanding the practice of IR. The conclusions support the use of a tool to measure the compliance of an integrated report to the existing requirements in the context of an industry linked to many other domains.

  9. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. Annual report, January--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Tampa Electric Polk Power Unit No. 1, a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasifier will convert approximately 2300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) into a medium-BTU fuel gas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/scf (LHV). Syngas produced in the gasifier flows through a high-temperature heat recovery unit which cools the gases prior to entering two parallel clean-up areas. A portion (up to 50%) of the hot syngas is cooled to 1000{degrees}F and passed through a moving bed of zinc titanate sorbent which removed sulfur containing components of the fuel gas. The project will be the first in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology at a commercial scale. The remaining portion of the syngas is cooled to 400{degrees}F for conventional acid gas removal. This portion of the plant is capable of processing between 50% and 100% of the dirty syngas. The cleaned low-BTU syngas is then routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the gas turbine combustor. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases by a heat recovery steam generator to produce high pressure steam. This steam, along with the steam generated in the gasification process, drives a steam turbine to generate an additional 132MW of power. Internal process power consumption is approximately 62MW, and includes power for coal grinding, air separation, and feed pumps. Net output from the IGCC demonstration plant will be 260MW.

  10. European energy markets integration and its effects on prices and efficiency of electricity producing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Armada Ramírez, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    [eng] In this work we investigate the effect of energy (electricity) market integration in Europe and its effects on electricity prices and efficiency improvements in electricity producing firms. We first describe at detail the electricity sector, the role of electricity markets, the main characteristics of electricity as a commodity as well as the main features of this particular and strategic sector, we speak about the evolution of consumption of electricity in developed countries and parti...

  11. Possibilities and consequences of deregulation of the European electricity market for connection of heat sparse areas to district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, S. [Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden); Moshfegh, B. [Department of Technology and Built Environment, Division of Energy and Mechanical Engineering, University of Gaevle, SE-801 76 Gaevle (Sweden); Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    The objective of the study is to analyse the conditions for connection of residential buildings in heat sparse areas to district heating systems in order to increase electricity production in municipal combined heat and power plants. The European electricity market has been assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of heat sparse areas, increased electricity and heat production as well as electricity prices, fuel prices and emissions rights is investigated. The results of the study show that there is potential to expand the district heating market to areas with lower heat concentrations in the cities of Gaevle, Sandviken and Borlaenge in Sweden, with both economic and environmental benefits. The expansion provides a substantial heat demand of approximately 181 GWh/year, which results in an electricity power production of approximately 43 GWh/year. Since the detached and stand-alone houses in the studied heat sparse areas have been heated either by oil boiler or by direct electricity, connection to district heating also provides a substantial reduction in emissions of CO{sub 2}. The largest reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions are found to be 211 ktonnes/year assuming coal-fired condensing power as marginal electricity production. Connection of heat sparse areas to district heating decrease the system costs and provide a profitability by approximately 22 million EURO/year for the studied municipalities if the price of electricity is at a European level, i.e. 110 EURO/MWh. Sensitivity analysis shows, among other things, that a strong relation exists between the price of electricity and the profitability of connecting heat sparse areas to district heating systems. (author)

  12. Growth potential of energy sector reforms: new evidence on EU and Southeast European countries by exploring impact on electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nela Vlahinić Lenz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to investigate the impact of energy sector reforms on electricity generation and thus economic growth in EU and Southeast European countries. The paper aims at clarifying whether the impact of energy sector reforms on generation efficiency differs among countries according to their level of development and regional characteristics. Our hypothesis is that the EU reform model is not appropriate for all Member States and Southeast European countries since it does not improve efficiency in electricity generation in all countries and therefore, it can hamper economic growth. For testing the defined hypothesis the panel regression model with fixed effects has been used. The research results show that unlike in the EU-15 (old Member States, energy sector reforms in the EU-12 (new Member States, and selected Southeast European countries (Energy Community contracting parties have no significant impact on electricity transmission and distribution losses. These evidences imply that the uniform EU reform model does not improve efficiency of electricity generation in less developed countries. On the contrary it can even hamper economic growth and therefore it cannot be appropriate for all Member States. The reason lies in the fact that successful reform model requires adequate level of institutional resources that are missing in most transition and post-transition countries.

  13. Developing an approach for tackling letterbox companies : Background paper for the European platform on tackling undeclared work seminar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This background paper defines letterbox companies and establishes their links with associated forms of undeclared employment, labour law violations and tax evasion. The paper reviews the legislation which has facilitated the use of letterbox firms and provides examples of how letterbox firms operate

  14. Assessing the needs of new technology based firms (NTBFs): An investigation among spin-off companies from six European Universities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kirwan, P.M.; van der Sijde, Peter; Groen, Arend J.

    2006-01-01

    New technology based firms (NTBFs) play a major role in the development and commercialisation of new technologies and the development of national economies. Using an entrepreneurship-in-networks approach, this paper examines the early stages of the development of these companies, i.e. from

  15. The relationship between intellectual capital quality and corporate performance: An empirical study of Russian and European companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakina Elena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to develop cost-effectiveness tools for the analysis of company’s intellectual resources, in terms of resource-based and value-based approaches. Our study focuses on the evaluation of intellectual capital methods to discover the drivers of company growth. We suppose that the potential effectiveness of intellectual capital resources varies according to different institutional factors. Several statistical methods will be used for the empirical issues in this research, including common cross-sectional and panel data analysis, and the instrumental variables method. The database collected for this purpose will consist of financial and economic indicators underlying the intellectual capital evaluation, such as strategic performance indicators (EVA© and FGV©. The dataset includes companies from different countries and industries according to the Knowledge Economy Index of the World Bank. The industries presented in the dataset are selected according to the predominance of several intellectual capital elements. The database includes financial services, wholesale and retail trade, machinery and equipment manufacture, the chemical industry, and transport and communications. As a result of the empirical research, we expect to answer the following questions: • Is there a close relationship between intellectual capital quality and company performance? • What are the external and internal factors affecting this relationship? (country, industry, company size, market dynamics, etc.

  16. Potential Use of Communications and Project Management Systems in Remote Construction Projects: The Case of Saudi Electric Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhzad Sidawi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Remote projects have their unique problems that are caused mainly by the remoteness of the project itself thus the loose control over management. This is due to a number of reasons such as lack of human resources and infrastructure. Research studies that were undertaken worldwide - regarding this issue- has highlighted few unique management problems. The aim of this paper is to investigate how far the IT tools would help in managing remote construction projects in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA. Due to the lack of previous research regarding remote projects within the Gulf region and the KSA, a pilot study was conducted in 2009 to define and test the wording of questions that are part of the main survey. The main survey was undertaken on Saudi Electric Company (SEC. The study found that IT systems and tools have the potential but this potential is hindered by a number of technical, managerial, staff factors. Therefore, successful application of IT systems would require changes to the present management settings at various levels. This would ensure that the SEC is capable of achieving the full benefit from using these advanced systems.

  17. Role Of E-Government In Delivery Of Public Services In Tanzania Electric Supply Company In Ruvuma Region Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Jackson Petro Gunda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT E-government facilitates delivery of public services of relevant government information in electronic form to citizens in a timely manner and better service delivery to citizens. E-government is a kind of governmental administration which is based on Information Communication and Technology Services. Electronic government describes the use of technologies to facilitate the operation of government and disperse of government information and services. The scope of the work was limited to Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited TANESCO in Ruvuma region. The population of thirty 31 were selected from a total population of 169 public servants use both purposive and stratified random sampling techniques applied. The major findings of study revealed that about 67.7 of response from respondents agree that ICT infrastructures specifically modern computer connected to internet reliable internet speed well organized organization website power availability in public operation contribute to efficient in delivery of services it also noted by respondents to faster decision making speeding up transaction processing and reduce cost. The study greatly recommends that capacity building to public servants on ICT install and strengthening ICT infrastructures to government organizational are inevitable to realise relevant role of e-government in delivery of public services.

  18. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general – perhaps global – processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  19. On the 'Net Impact' of Europeanization. The EU's telecoms and electricity regimes between the global and the national

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Levi-Faur

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Does Europeanization matter, and, if so, to what extent and in what respects? While research on the European Union is thriving, only limited efforts have been directed towards a discussion of this crucial question. This paper examines the outcome of the EU policy process from various comparative perspectives in an effort to distinguish the 'net effects' of EU membership and EU-level policy outcomes from more general perhaps global processes of change. The effects of EU membership are discussed in relation to the process of liberalization and the major question raised is whether Europeanization matters for the advance of liberalization. In responding to this question, the paper advances the following major argument: While the Europeanization of the telecoms and electricity industries has led to some liberalization, it is at best a mediating variable, not an independent one. The major features of liberalization would have been diffused to practically all member states even in the absence of the European Commission and other agents of supranationalism. This is not to suggest that Europeanization does not matter, but that it matters in less obvious and perhaps less critical ways than is frequently assumed. These arguments are supported by comparative empirical analysis of the spatial and temporal diffusion of liberalization across nations and sectors, and by a comparison of the diffusion of liberalization today with the diffusion of nationalization in the past.

  20. How to make a European integrated market in small and isolated electricity systems? The case of the Canary Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Yannick [Universite de Paris-Sud 11, Groupe Reseaux Jean-Monnet-ADIS, 27 Avenue Lombart Bureau C 309, 92260 Fontenay aux Roses Cedex (France); Ramos Real, Francisco Javier [Departamento de Analisis Economico e Instituto de Desarrollo Regional, Camino de La Hornera s/n, Campus de Guajara, Universidad de La Laguna, 38071 La Laguna. SC de Tenerife (Spain)

    2008-11-15

    This paper presents a geographic dimension not often studied in the dynamics of creating an internal market for electricity within the European Union, namely the case of small European electricity systems like those found on the Greek islands of Cyprus and Crete. Our question, then, is how to achieve a suitable internal market for electricity in small and isolated systems. To address this issue, we identify the main problems to be overcome by introducing a methodology in which the Canary Islands experience is taken as a case study for understanding the challenges in creating an 'EU-like market for electricity'. Our results show that the design of the vertical industrial structure and the figure of the grid operator and its attributes are key features for the proper operation of any electrical system. We also stress the minor roles of other possible options to achieve this EU-compatible market by highlighting first, in the wholesale market, the call-for-tender solution to introduce more generation and the risk of using safety requirements as barriers to entry in these small markets, and second, in the supply activities, the potential problems of an improperly regulated tariff scheme. (author)

  1. Second European symposium `Solar and electric-powered vehicles`. Proceedings; Zweites Europaeisches Symposium Solar- und Elektromobile. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    This book contains 30 scripts of the talks, which were given at the Second European symposium ``Solar and electric-powered vehicles``. For each of the 30 scripts a separate abstract has been written. The main emphasis of the symposium was on: Marginal conditions and an overview of the market; Aspects of the energy storage; Safety aspects; Comfort of solar and electric-powered vehicles. (HW) [Deutsch] Das vorliegende Buch enthaelt die 30 Manuskripte der Vortraege, die anlaesslich des zweiten europaeischen Symposiums `Solar- und Elektromobile` gehalten wurden. Fuer die 30 Manuskripte wurde eine gesonderte inhaltliche Erschliessung erarbeitet. Schwerpunkte der Tagung: - Rahmenbedingungen und Marktuebersicht; - Aspekte der Energiespeichers; - Sicherheitsfragen; - Komfort von Solar- und Elektromobilen. (HW)

  2. El Paso Electric Company Diablo Substation to the US-Mexico border 115kV transmission line project. Final Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This Environmental Assessment documents the analysis of alternative corridors for development and operation of a proposed 115 kilovolt transmission line using private lands and transporting power to the US-Mexico international border. The project will require (1) an amendment to El Paso Electric Company`s existing export authorization to transfer power across this border, and (2) a Presidential Permit for construction of the transmission line. The project would be located in Dona Ana county in southern New Mexico, approximately five miles west of El Paso, Texas. The alternative corridors, specific locations within those corridors, and structure types are identified and analyzed in the environmental studies.

  3. DEMOCRITOS Demonstrators for Realization of Nuclear Electric Propulsion of the European Roadmaps MEGAHIT & DiPoP

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Frank; Bauer, Waldemar; Masson, Frederic; RUAULT, Jean-Marc; Worms, Jean-Claude; Detsis, Emmanouil; Lassoudiere, Francois; Granjon, Richard; Gaia, Enrico; Tosi, Martia Cristina; Semenkin, Alexander; Tinsley, Tim; Hodson, Zara; Koppel, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The European Commission Horizon 2020 funded DEMOCRITOS project (2015-2017) will be primary focused to prepare preliminary design of the ground, core and space demonstrators and their test benches for the mega-watt class nuclear electric space propulsion INPPS flagship (International Nuclear Power and Propulsion System). In addition programmatic, organizational and funding aspects for international cooperation related to INPPS realization are sketched. The new project includes partners from Eu...

  4. VALUE RELEVANCE OF GROUP FINANCIAL STATEMENTS BASED ON ENTITY VERSUS PARENT COMPANY THEORY: EVIDENCE FROM THE LARGEST THREE EUROPEAN CAPITAL MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Müller Victor-Octavian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial statementsn#8217; main objective is to give information on the financial position, performance and changes in financial position of the reporting entity, which is useful to investors and other users in making economic decisions. In order to be useful, financial information needs to be relevant to the decision-making process of users in general, and investors in particular. Regarding consolidated financial statements, the accounting theory knows four perspectives (theories on which the preparation of those statements is based, namely, the proprietary theory, the parent company theory, the parent company extension theory and the entity theory (Baxter and Spinney, 1975. Of practical importance are especially the parent company extension perspective and the entity perspective. The IASB and FASB decided (within an ED regarding the Improvement of the Conceptual Framework that consolidated financial statements should be presented from the perspective of the group entity, and not from the perspective of the parent-company. However, this support for the entity theory is to our knowledge not backed by empirical findings in the academic literature. Therefore, in our paper we set to contribute with empirical arguments to finding an actual answer to the question about the superior market value relevance of one of the two concurrent perspectives (theories. We set to carry out an empirical association study on the problem of market value relevance of consolidated financial statements based on the entity theory respectively on the parent company (extension theory, searching for an answer to the above question. In this sense, we pursued an analysis of market value relevance of consolidated accounting information (based on the two perspectives of listed entities between 2003-2008 on the largest three European Stock Exchanges (London, Paris and Frankfurt. The obtained results showed that a n#8222;restrainedn#8221; entity perspective, which would combine

  5. The Future of the European Electricity Grid Is Bright: Cost Minimizing Optimization Shows Solar with Storage as Dominant Technologies to Meet European Emissions Targets to 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zack Norwood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The European roadmap for the power sector dictates an 80–95% cut of existing levels of carbon dioxide emissions is needed by the year 2050 to meet climate goals. This article describes results from a linear cost optimization investment model, ELIN, coupled with a solar technology model, Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power (DCS-CHP, using published investment costs for a comprehensive suite of renewable and conventional electricity generation technologies, to compare possible scenarios for the future electricity grid. The results of these model runs and sensitivity analyses indicate that: (1 solar photovoltaics (PV with battery storage will likely play a very large role in meeting European targets; (2 concentrating solar power (CSP with thermal energy storage is at a slight economic disadvantage with respect to PV to compete economically; (3 the economic potential of wind power is only comparable with solar PV if high wind penetration levels are allowed in the best wind sites in Europe; and (4 carbon capture and nuclear technologies are unlikely to compete economically with renewable technologies in creating a low-carbon future grid.

  6. Working conditions and psychosocial risk factors of employees in French electricity and gas company customer support departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Anne; Dessery, Michel; Boursier, Marie-Françoise; Grizon, Marie Catherine; Jayet, Christian; Reymond, Catherine; Thiebot, Michelle; Zeme-Ramirez, Monique; Calvez, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the real impact of working conditions on the health of call center employees. The aim of this article is to describe the working conditions of French electricity and gas company customer service teams, especially those spending more than 75% of their working time handling calls in order to determine their subjective experience of their work and identify situations at risk of psychosocial constraints. A cross-sectional study using a self-completion questionnaire was conducted on a representative sample of 2,000 employees working in customer service centers. The questions focused on the variety of tasks performed, the organization of working time, the physical environment of the workstation, violent situations and psychosocial factors (Job Content Questionnaire). Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to identify factors associated with the wish to leave the sector and with a high level of psychosocial constraints. Women made up 66% of the sample. Despite a high educational level, the average socio-professional level of the employees was relatively low. Although the vast majority of employees had chosen this career (74%), just over half would like to leave. The main factors associated with iso-strain were inadequate breaks (odds ratio (OR) = 2.0), low perceived quality of work (OR = 2.4), high proportion of working time spent handling calls (≥75% of working time: OR = 5.9, between 50 and violence either internally (often or very often: OR = 3.1) or from customers (often or very often: OR = 1.8) and an unsatisfactory workplace (OR = 2.0). Employees who spend more than 75% of their working time on the phone cumulate every factor linked with a high level of constraints, but all employees of the EDF and Gaz de France customer service centers are concerned. These workers share many characteristics with other call centers: predominantly female workforce; high educational level; wish to leave this sector despite the initial choice; high

  7. European power struggles. Can the EU's decarbonisation agenda break the state-company axis in the power sector?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sattich, T; Ydersbond, IM; Scholten, D.J.

    2015-01-01

    Europe’s power system is still marked by a distinct national component, and despite some regions with strongly integrated power systems, electricity supply today still has a largely national basis. Policies to decarbonise the power sector may fundamentally alter this situation, because power

  8. The independence principle for the subject of administration of stock trading companies. Comparative study of European legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoş-Mihail Daghie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the main contemporary reforms of the trading companies in Romania has been realized through Lawno. 441/2006, through which, besides the introduction of corporatist government principles, other legislations and otherconceptions of absolute novelty have been transplanted. Among these new principles there is also the independentadministrator, which founds its regulation in art. 1382 from Law no. 31/1990 according to which „through the constitutivepaper or through the decision of the general assembly of the stock holders, can foresee that one or more members of theadministration committee to be independent”. The appointment of some independent administrators represents putting inapplication of the principles of the Organization for Cooperation and Economical Development concerning newcorporatist governing concepts by implementing of some fundamental rights of the stock holders, rights that the stockholders detain apart from their participation to the social capital. In Romania, in comparison with countries like England,France, Spain, Germany, where the corporative governing has reached another implementation level, the new principlesbrought in the life of the stock trading company, concerning its management, is at the beginning of the road; the next stepis to confirm or, on the contrary, contest their necessity.

  9. The European Private Company: Do We Need Another 28th Private Legal Form in the EU? On Regulatory Competition of Corporate Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Eckardt

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs are of vital importance for employment, innovation and growth in the EU member states. However, so far only a rather small number participates in international business activities. The European private company is intended to support SMEs’ internationalization. In this paper we analyse whether such an additional supranational legal form is necessary. In a first step we show that from the normative point of view of interjurisdictional competition arguments from welfare economics, public choice and evolutionary economics are mainly in favour of it. In a next step we ask from a positive point of view whether it is nevertheless necessary at all. We discuss to what extent horizontal competition on legal forms is already working within the EU. We find that there is some competition taking place, however, so far it does not address specifically the needs of SMEs when doing business internationally

  10. Report of the Economy, Sustainable Development and Land Planning Commission aiming at authorizing electricity final user and small companies to go back to the electricity regulated price; Rapport fait au nom de la commission de l'economie, du developpement durable et de l'amenagement du territoire (1) sur la proposition de loi de MM. Ladislas PONIATOWSKI, et tendant a autoriser les consommateurs finals domestiques d'electricite et les petites entreprises a retourner au tarif reglemente d'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    This report first presents the French regulated price system by recalling the legal bases for electricity and natural gas pricing, and by describing the progressive process of the electricity and natural gas market opening in France. It outlines that a reversibility principle has been introduced along with regulated pricing in most of the European Union countries. It also comments the complexity created on this issue by successive laws in France, the consequences of the soon coming law on the new organization of the electricity market. Then, the report comments the proposition which aims at authorizing electricity household users and small companies to go back to the regulated electricity price, thereby perpetuating the reversibility principle, while maintaining a criterion of installed electricity power, including natural gas prices and new consumption sites. A table proposes a comparison between existing texts, the present law project and this Commission proposition.

  11. An ex ante welfare analysis of the unbundling of the distribution and supply companies in the Dutch electricity sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Nooij, M.; Baarsma, B.

    2008-01-01

    The Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs intends (i) to unbundle the distribution companies from the commercial companies which are currently in the same holding (supply and generation) and (ii) to allow the Transmission System Operator to manage all the 110 kV grids (currently it manages the 220 kV

  12. Social and Environmental Disclosure: An Analysis of Social Balance of Electricity Sector Companies in the South and Northeast Regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tchiara Aparecida Maçambanni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the social responsibility indicators of the Instituto Brasileiro de Análises Sociais e Econômicas (IBASE model, this paper identifies the social and environmental disclosure level of electricity distribution companies in Brazilian market. The method chosen was the descriptive research to obtain results in a qualitative approach for the problem. The technical procedure used was documentary research. Data was collected over the social balance sheet released by several companies’ websites between 2009 and 2010. In the Northeast region, the companies Companhia de Eletricidade do Estado da Bahia (COELBA, Companhia Energética de Pernambuco (CELPE and Companhia Energética do Rio Grande do Norte (COSERN had the highest levels of social disclosure. COELBA, for example, obtained the maximum score according to the score methodology proposed by the paper. Coming from the South area, the best ranked was Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL, from Paraná state, which disclosed 99% of the information analyzed in this study. Average level of disclosure of companies by region remained practically stable between the years 2009 and 2010. In general, companies located in the Northeast region evidenced a higher percentage of social and environmental information compared to companies of South region.

  13. Electricity and energy policy: french specificities and challenges in the european framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-11-15

    In the today context of the electric power european market deregulation and the increase of the energy prices, the energy policy must change. The increase of the energy prices makes wonder the question of the competitiveness of the french economy: what type of supplies and which technological orientations will allow to reduce the constraints. After a presentation of the today electric power french market and the recently modifications bond to the deregulation, this note aims to describe the evolutions, since the first petroleum crisis, of the place given to the electric power in the energy policy, as the technological choices explaining the today structure he electricity production, characterized by the major part of the nuclear. Then the energy policy in matter of the electric power is discussed in the european context, to present the choices impacts facing the european objectives of energy security, environment and market liberalization. (A.L.B.)

  14. Report made on behalf of the mixed parity commission in charge of the text proposal about the remaining dispositions to be discussed of the project of law relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the electric and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission mixte paritaire chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gaziere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, J.C.; Poniatowski, L

    2004-07-01

    This project of law aims to adapt the electricity and gas sector to the new economical context of opening of the energy markets to competition. It gives to energy companies the internal organization base necessary to warrant a high level of service and a transparent and non-discriminatory access of third parties to transport and distribution networks. These evolutions will allow Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) companies to compete on equal terms with their European competitors. It confirms first the prime role of public utility of both companies and then transposes the dispositions of the European directives relative to the organization of EdF and GdF integrated companies. It foresees the creation of two daughter companies for the management of energy transport activities. The project of law foresees also the change of the status of EdF and GdF companies and the reform of the retirement pensions of the personnel. This report presents, first, in a comparative table the articles adopted by the French house of commons and the changes adopted by the Senate. Then, a common text is proposed by the mixed parity commission for the articles that remained under discussion. (J.S.)

  15. Role of National Support Policy in the large-scale integration of DER into the European electricity market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    ten Donkelaar, Michael; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    This report concerns a study of the DER support schemes in the different EU Member States, their effectiveness and if necessary how these might be moulded to become more cost-effective in the future to integrate much larger shares of DER in the European electricity supply system. The report is part...... of a set of reports on DER integration issues and together they present a full and complete report on key issues of policy support, required changes in regulation and other issues that hamper more DER integration in supply....

  16. Green certificate trading in the Netherlands in the prospect of the European electricity market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.; Arentsen, Maarten J.

    2002-01-01

    The support system for green electricity in the Netherlands has been one of the most complex and complicated systems across Europe. A voluntary trade of green certificates—or green labels—was one of the schemes used in the policy models of the 1990s. The liberalization of the electricity market has

  17. Electricity from biomass in the European Union - with or without biomass import

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytte, K.; Meibom, P.; Henriksen, T.C.

    2006-01-01

    . The ADMIRE REBUS model combines cost data for electricity producing renewable energy technologies with data on the renewable energy resources available in EU and assesses the effect of the various national support policies for green electricity in the EU countries. The major finding of the study...

  18. ARGE DFC - A European approach to MCFC commercialization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, P.; Huppmann, G. [MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Muenchen (Germany); Heiming, A. [Ruhgras AG, Dorsten (Germany)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The largest European program for the commercialization of the molten carbonate fuel cell technology is carried out by the European Direct Fuel Cell Consortium (ARGE DFC). The consortium consists of the following companies: (1) MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH (Germany), within the DaimlerBenz Group responsible for off-road propulsion and decentralized energy systems. (2) Haldor Topsoe A/S (Denmark), a plant engineering company and specialist for catalytic processes (3) Elkraft A.m.b.A. (Denmark), one of the countries two utility companies (4) Ruhrgas AG (Germany), the largest German gas company (5) RWE AG (Germany), the largest German electrical utility company MTU acts as a consortium leader. The company shares a license and technology exchange agreement with Energy Research Corporation of Danbury, Connecticut.

  19. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and the environment. Press file for 1996; EDF et l'environnment 1996. Dossier de presse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourdier, Jean-Pierre [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-03-27

    In 1996 the actions of EDF in the domain of environment have recorded FF 4 billions (FF 3.5 billion in 1995), representing about 2% of the EDF's turnover. The EDF keeps on its efforts for reducing the impact of its activities upon environment. Several applications of an environment protective electricity generation are promoted by the company. The company brings services and technical solutions to its clients which meet their energy needs and conserving at the same time the life conditions. Furthermore, EDF participates in the activity of numerous national and international organisms, intervening in the environmental questions, in decision making, participating in studies and actions and following continually the direction of a durable economic and social development. The report is structured in three chapters: 1. an industrial responsibility; 2. services and techniques for environment; 3. action towards a durable development.

  20. TAXATION OF ENERGY PRODUCTS AND ELECTRICITY TO THE EUROPEAN UNION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUNESCU ALBERTO NICOLAE

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available U.E established to increase socio-economic stability and security of supply, the Energy Community has set a good example of regional cooperation in which the EU and the South-Eastern European countries can diversify their energy sources. It has created a functioning institutional framework and more legal certainty for investors. Next steps are to enhance market reforms and to boost investments in the energy sector. The final objective is that the regional market should be fully integrated in the European's internal energy market

  1. The Evolution of Electricity Prices in The EU since the Single European Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T Robinson

    2008-01-01

    .... This paper considers the impact of EU Directives on the evolution of electricity prices. Three empirical tests for convergence are applied to prices for ten EU countries; a simple test for β-convergence...

  2. The management of waste from electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    TARTIU Valentina Elena

    2009-01-01

    Worldwide, WEEE constitutes one of the fastest growing waste fractions generated, accounting for 8% of all municipal waste. This trend increases the environmental burdens consequently action on WEEE is an urgent need in nowadays. The paper outline the current status of the management of the WEEE across the European Union.

  3. 75 FR 4427 - Pacific Gas & Electric Company; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... Company (PG&E) has submitted an application for renewal of facility Operating License Nos. DPR-80 and DPR... docketing of the applications and opportunity for hearing regarding renewal of the facility operating.... Persons who do not have access to ADAMS or who encounter problems in accessing the documents located in...

  4. Auditor´s report of report of companies of the brazilian electrical sector: one study of the normative adherence of the reports emited between 1999 and 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Haendchen Dutra

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to verify the adherence to the normative demands found in the auditors’ reports concerned with the companies of the Brazilian electrical sector. To reach the proposed goal, an exploratory-descriptive study of report samples published between 1999 and 2006 was undertaken, covering the financial statements issued from 1998 to 2005, selected from Closing Balance, of Gazeta Mercantil. The research has an descriptive character and used the content analysis technique for the data analysis and interpretation. The approach adopted was both qualitative and quantitative. 136 auditors’ reports were scrutinized through the comparison between paragraphs contained in those reports and the aforementioned auditing standards issued by the regulating organ, the Accounting Federal Board. 936 frequencies were acknowledged, being divided into adherent and non-adherent, and the 14,9% of non-adherent ones were minutely discussed. Key words: Auditors’ Report, Auditing Standards and Electrical Sector.

  5. Multi-agent simulation of competitive electricity markets: Autonomous systems cooperation for European market modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, Gabriel; Pinto, Tiago; Morais, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    , respecting to the reality of different countries. This integration is done through the development of an upper ontology which integrates the essential concepts necessary to interpret all the available information. The continuous development of Multi-Agent System for Competitive Electricity Markets platform......The electricity market restructuring, and its worldwide evolution into regional and even continental scales, along with the increasing necessity for an adequate integration of renewable energy sources, is resulting in a rising complexity in power systems operation. Several power system simulators...... have been developed in recent years with the purpose of helping operators, regulators, and involved players to understand and deal with this complex and constantly changing environment. The main contribution of this paper is given by the integration of several electricity market and power system models...

  6. Enabling demand response by extending the European electricity markets with a real-time market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyeng, P.; Kok, K.; Pineda, S.; Grande, O.; Sprooten, J.; Hebb, B.; Nieuwenhout, F.

    2013-01-01

    The EcoGrid concept proposes to extend the current wholesale electricity market to allow participation of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and domestic end-consumers in system balancing. Taking advantage of the smart grid technology, the EcoGrid market publishes the real-time prices that entail

  7. Impact of electricity prices on foreign direct investment: Evidence from the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartekova, E.; Ziesemer, T.H.W.

    2015-01-01

    In the course of recent years growing concerns over increasing energy prices have emerged in the context of maintaining Europe’s international competitiveness. In particular, rising electricity price differentials adversely affect firms’ total production costs and ultimately impact their investment

  8. 78 FR 45989 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Power Corporation, Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia, and the City of Dalton, Georgia (the... finds that: A. The exemption is authorized by law; B. the exemption presents no undue risk to public...

  9. 78 FR 45987 - Vogtle Electric Generating Station, Units 3 and 4; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... Power Corporation, Municipal Electric Authority of Georgia, and the City of Dalton, Georgia (the... Commission finds that: A. The exemption is authorized by law; B. the exemption presents no undue risk to...

  10. The ANEEL and the criteria for the resource application in energy efficiency of the electric energy distribution companies; A ANEEL e os criterios para aplicacao de recursos em programas de eficiencia energetica das distribuidoras de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Jamil [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Sistemas Eletrico e Energia. Grupo de Estudos Energeticos (GEE)]. E-mail: jamil@unifei.edu.br

    2006-07-01

    Each year the ANEEL establishes the criteria for the of the Energy Efficiency Programs of the electric power distribution companies. This subject has an importance nevertheless to be highlighted only when conjunctural circumstances occur such as the 2001/2002 electric energy crisis. Such characteristics increase the ANEEL responsibility, because the regulation must observe the structural character which performs the energy efficiency actions. Recently, the ANEEL altered the criteria for the resource application by the electric power distribution companies. This article describes the importance of the energy efficiency and make comments on these frequent regulatory changes. (author)

  11. Controlling in power supply companies that use structured electricity procurement; Controlling in EVU bei einer strukturierten Beschaffung von Strom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutz, Andreas [prevero AG, Muenchen (Germany); Bernklau, Nadine [TU Muenchen (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Wirtschaftsethik

    2011-01-15

    The liberalisation of the electricity market continues to offer innovative avenues for trading, especially in procurement. This leads to higher levels of complexity and responsibility in the tasks of a power supplier's purchasing department. What is needed ultimately is a well-developed procurement controlling system. A recent study shows how such a system should be designed in the case of electricity.

  12. The Impact of Strong Climate Change on Inter-state Balancing in a Fully-renewable Simplified European Electricity System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohland, Jan; Witthaut, Dirk

    2017-04-01

    Electricity systems with a high penetration of renewables are strongly affected by weather patterns. Due to the variability of the climate system, a substantial fraction of energy supply needs to be provided by dispatchable power plants even if the consumption is on average balanced by renewables (e.g. Rodriguez et al. [2014]). In an interconnected system like the European electricity grid, benefits can arise from balancing generation mismatches spatially as long as overproduction in one region coincides with lack of generation in another region. These benefits might change as the climate changes and we thus investigate alterations of correlations between wind timeseries and Backup energy requirements. Our analysis is based on a five member model-ensemble from the EUROCORDEX initiative and we focus on onshore wind energy. We use the highest temporal (3h) and spatial (0.11°) resolution available to capture the intermittent and spatially diverse nature of renewable generation. In view of inter-model spread and other uncertainties, we use the strong climate change scenario rcp8.5 in order to obtain a high signal-to-noise ratio. We argue that rcp8.5 is best suited to reveal interesting interactions between climate change and renewable electricity system despite the fact that is in contradiction to the UNFCCC temperature goals (e.g. Schleussner et al. [2016]). We report spatially inhomogeneous alterations of correlations. In particular, we find increasing correlations between central and northern European states and decreasing correlations at the south-western and south-eastern margins of Europe. This hints to a lowering of balancing potentials within central and northern Europe due to climate change. A possible explanation might be associated to polar amplification and increasing frequencies of blocking events (Coumou [2015]). Moreover, we compute wind energy generation using a single-turbine model and a semi-random deployment procedure as developed in Monforti et al

  13. Third European Company Survey: Workplace innovation in European companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oeij, P.; Žiauberyté-Jakštiené, R.; Dhondt, S.; Corral, A.; Totterdill, P.; Preenen, P.

    2015-01-01

    Workplace innovation (WPI) is a developed and implemented practice or combination of practices which enables employees to participate in organisational change and renewal and hence improve the quality of working life and organisational performance. This report looks at reasons for enabling WPI,

  14. Law project modified by the Senate after urgency declaration relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Projet de loi modifie par le Senat apres declaration d'urgence relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document is the modifications made by the French Senate after the first reading of the law project adopted by the House of Commons and relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The document lists the modifications made by the Senate article by article. (J.S.)

  15. European renewable energy policy at crossroads-Focus on electricity support mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Doerte [Kuhbier Law Firm, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, B-1170 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: fouquet@kuhbier.com; Johansson, Thomas B. [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The European Union has adopted targets for the expanded use of renewable energies (REs) as one mean to achieve improved energy security, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improved competitiveness of the European economies. Realising that rapid expansion of RE will not happen in the energy market place, as it now exists, various support mechanisms are under consideration, most prominently these may be grouped into two major categories, tradable green certificates (TGC) and feed-in tariffs (FiT). Experiences from a number of countries in Europe suggest that FiT deliver larger and faster penetration of RE than TGC, at lower cost. The two major systems are compared in overall terms. In a TGC system, a target for RE penetration is set by public authorities seeking to minimise cost for achieving this target. The certificate price is set by the market. In a FiT system, public authorities set an effective price but are not limiting the quantity installed. This has led to impressive growth rates, particularly in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. It is found that investor risks are much lower in a FiT system, and that innovation incentives are larger. Against this background, the European Commission proposal for an EU-wide TGC system is discussed. It is found that such a system is likely to be less effective and less efficient than maintaining national FiT systems, and that it also risks time-consuming legal processes during which investor uncertainties would risk a marked slow-down in investments. Given the underlying objective of addressing security, climate change and competitiveness, it therefore appears that, at least for the time being, continued reliance on national systems, especially FiT would be preferred.

  16. European renewable energy policy at crossroads. Focus on electricity support mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Doerte [Kuhbier Law Firm, Avenue de la Fauconnerie 73, B-1170 Brussels (Belgium); Johansson, Thomas B. [International Institute for Industrial Environmental Economics, Lund University, P.O. Box 196, 221 00 Lund (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    The European Union has adopted targets for the expanded use of renewable energies (REs) as one mean to achieve improved energy security, reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and improved competitiveness of the European economies. Realising that rapid expansion of RE will not happen in the energy market place, as it now exists, various support mechanisms are under consideration, most prominently these may be grouped into two major categories, tradable green certificates (TGC) and feed-in tariffs (FiT). Experiences from a number of countries in Europe suggest that FiT deliver larger and faster penetration of RE than TGC, at lower cost. The two major systems are compared in overall terms. In a TGC system, a target for RE penetration is set by public authorities seeking to minimise cost for achieving this target. The certificate price is set by the market. In a FiT system, public authorities set an effective price but are not limiting the quantity installed. This has led to impressive growth rates, particularly in Denmark, Germany, and Spain. It is found that investor risks are much lower in a FiT system, and that innovation incentives are larger. Against this background, the European Commission proposal for an EU-wide TGC system is discussed. It is found that such a system is likely to be less effective and less efficient than maintaining national FiT systems, and that it also risks time-consuming legal processes during which investor uncertainties would risk a marked slow-down in investments. Given the underlying objective of addressing security, climate change and competitiveness, it therefore appears that, at least for the time being, continued reliance on national systems, especially FiT would be preferred. (author)

  17. Vulnerability of European and U.S. Electricity Supply to Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vliet, M. T.; Yearsley, J. R.; Ludwig, F.; Vögele, S.; Lettenmaier, D. P.; Kabat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Thermoelectric (nuclear and fossil fueled) power plants currently produce 78% of all electricity in the Europe and 91% in the United States. These power plants directly depend on the availability and temperature of water resources for cooling. During recent warm, dry summers several thermoelectric power plants in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were forced to reduce production due to cooling water scarcity and environmental restrictions on thermal discharges. Due to climate change, periods with low flows in combination with high water temperatures could increase causing significant reductions in cooling water availability during summer. Here we show that thermoelectric power in Europe and the U.S. is vulnerable to climate change due to the combined impacts of lower summer flows and higher water temperatures. We used a physically-based hydrological and water temperature modeling framework (VIC - RBM) in combination with an electricity production model. Our modeling framework was forced with different climate change scenarios to quantify how climate change will affect daily river flow, water temperature, and subsequently electricity production potential over the next 20-50 years. A total number of 96 existing nuclear and fossil fueled power plants (with different cooling systems) in Europe and the southeastern U.S. were included in our analyses. The results show a summer average decrease in capacity of power plants of 6.3-19% in Europe and 4.4-16% in the U.S. depending on cooling system type and climate scenario for 2031-2060. In addition, probabilities of extreme reductions in thermoelectric power production are projected to increase substantially. Considering the projected decreases in cooling water availability during summer in combination with the long design life of power plant infrastructure, adaptation options should be included in today's planning and strategies to meet the growing electricity demand in the 21st century.

  18. COMPARING EUROPEAN MEMBER STATE ELECTRIC VEHICLE UPTAKE INCENTIVES AND CHARGING INFRASTRUCTURE PROVISION

    OpenAIRE

    HARRISON GILLIAN; THIEL CHRISTIAN

    2015-01-01

    A complex system dynamics model of the EU light duty vehicle sector has been employed to assess policy options for electric (e) - mobility. The focus in this research is on passenger cars, and investigating the implications for individual member states, who are currently tasked with designing national uptake incentives and policy frameworks for alternative fuels and their infrastructure. The model encompasses the market agents of User, Automobile Manufacturer, Infrastructure Provider and Auth...

  19. Exploring the meteorological potential for planning a high performance European electricity super-grid: optimal power capacity distribution among countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Alamillos, Francisco J.; Brayshaw, David J.; Methven, John; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S.; Ruiz-Arias, José A.; Pozo-Vázquez, David

    2017-11-01

    The concept of a European super-grid for electricity presents clear advantages for a reliable and affordable renewable power production (photovoltaics and wind). Based on the mean-variance portfolio optimization analysis, we explore optimal scenarios for the allocation of new renewable capacity at national level in order to provide to energy decision-makers guidance about which regions should be mostly targeted to either maximize total production or reduce its day-to-day variability. The results show that the existing distribution of renewable generation capacity across Europe is far from optimal: i.e. a ‘better’ spatial distribution of resources could have been achieved with either a ~31% increase in mean power supply (for the same level of day-to-day variability) or a ~37.5% reduction in day-to-day variability (for the same level of mean productivity). Careful planning of additional increments in renewable capacity at the European level could, however, act to significantly ameliorate this deficiency. The choice of where to deploy resources depends, however, on the objective being pursued—if the goal is to maximize average output, then new capacity is best allocated in the countries with highest resources, whereas investment in additional capacity in a north/south dipole pattern across Europe would act to most reduce daily variations and thus decrease the day-to-day volatility of renewable power supply.

  20. Results of photovoltaic power generation system operation in Tokyo Electric Power Company; Tokyo Denryoku ni okeru taiyoko hatsuden setsubi no unten jisseki ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, H.; Itokawa, K. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A report was made on the measurement of data and the results of the analysis at 14 sites of photovoltaic power generation facilities operated under system interconnection by Tokyo Electric Power Company. This type of system is provided in 40 sites as of the end of fiscal 1995, generating 479kw. The items measured were the generated electric energy at all 14 sites, and the quantity of solar radiation, outside air temperature, panel temperature, etc., at limited sites; and the capacity of each equipment, azimuth and inclination of the panel were also recorded simultaneously. Hourly values were used for the analysis. Five minute values were utilized, however, in the examination of the cause of lowered output and in the situation recognition of the influence of the shade or the change of weather. The utilization factor of the facilities was in the average 10.8% in fiscal 1994 and 10.7% in fiscal 1995. The factor decreased slightly unless the panel azimuth faced due south. The utilization factor at the panel inclination of 35 degrees and 45 degrees showed both 10.4% through the year making no difference. The system seemed to show no overwhelming possibilities in coping with electric power demand. The reason was that deviation existed for 2 hours or so in the peak and that reliability was low as basic power facilities. However, it was determined that the system be continuously examined in future. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The impact of German CO{sub 2}-reduction targets on the European electricity market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindenberger, Dietmar [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Energiewirtschaftliches Inst.

    2016-07-01

    The topic ''CO{sub 2}-reduction within the electric power system'' should actually be preceded by a more general remark on the efficiency of energy policy from a macroeconomic perspective. An efficient and effective energy policy necessitates that the primary targets of such an energy policy, namely safeguarding a sustainable energy supply as well as considering environmental and climate objectives, are attained at the lowest possible costs. This corresponds to the general economic principle according to which given goals are to be achieved with relatively little effort and/or investments. That is beyond doubt because it means nothing else than to avoid any unnecessary waste of resources in order to reach such objectives.

  2. Climate change and the vulnerability of electricity generation to water stress in the European Union

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Paul; van Vliet, Michelle T. H.; Nanninga, Tijmen; Walsh, Brid; Rodrigues, João F. D.

    2017-08-01

    Thermoelectric generation requires large amounts of water for cooling. Recent warm periods have led to curtailments in generation, highlighting concerns about security of supply. Here we assess EU-wide climate impacts for 1,326 individual thermoelectric plants and 818 water basins in 2020 and 2030. We show that, despite policy goals and a decrease in electricity-related water withdrawal, the number of regions experiencing some reduction in power availability due to water stress rises from 47 basins to 54 basins between 2014 and 2030, with further plants planned for construction in stressed basins. We examine the reasons for these pressures by including water demand for other uses. The majority of vulnerable basins lie in the Mediterranean region, with further basins in France, Germany and Poland. We investigate four adaptations, finding that increased future seawater cooling eases some pressures. This highlights the need for an integrated, basin-level approach in energy and water policy.

  3. SEOP cross subsidization between electricity generation companies as a complementary concept to the tax on electricity?; SEOP-Quersubventionierung zwischen Stromproduzenten als Komplementaerkonzept zur Elektrizitaetssteuer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumm, R.

    2000-07-01

    The electricity tax charged in Germany contributes to reducing carbon dioxide emissions in an indirect way, i.e. via the price policy, which is intended to reduce energy consumption. As the taxation approach does not differentiate between renewable or depletable primary energy sources, the tax does not create incentives for an ecologically favourable restructuring of the generation industry. The document in hand therefore explains a complementary approach which introduces the ecological dimension. It is recommended to add a fiscal approach called SEOP, Sectoral tax on Emissions with Output-determined Partial redistribution. Adopting this policy instrument would mean to implement a cross subsidization of low-emission or no-emission electricity generation technologies by the CO2-intensive generation technologies, as a demand-side or technology-based measure supporting the intentions of the tax. Introduction of the SEOP fiscal system is expected to achieve a significant abatement of carbon dioxide emissions due to electricity generation. (orig./CB) [German] Die in der Bundesrepublik erhobene Elektrizitaetssteuer leistet einen Klimaschutzbeitrag nur insoweit, als sie ueber die Induzierung von Preissteigerungen die Stromnachfrage mindert. Da die steuerliche Belastung fuer alle Primaerenergietraeger gleich hoch ist, setzt sie aber keinerlei Anreize fuer eine oekologische Umstrukturierung der Stromerzeugung. Vor diesem Hintergrund wird vorgeschlagen, die Elektrizitaetssteuer durch ein sogenanntes SEOP-Fiskalsystem zu ergaenzen, welches eine Quersubventionierung emissionsarmer und emissionsfreier Elektrizitaetsproduktion durch CO{sub 2}-intensive Stromherstellungsverfahren impliziert. Durch eine solche produktions- bzw. angebotsseitige 'Flankierung' der Elektrizitaetssteuer waere eine spuerbare Minderung der stromerzeugungsbedingten CO{sub 2}-Emissionen realisierbar. (orig.)

  4. 'A thorn in the side of European geodesy': measuring Paris-Greenwich longitude by electric telegraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The difference in longitude between the observatories of Paris and Greenwich was long of fundamental importance to geodesy, navigation and timekeeping. Measured many times and by many different means since the seventeenth century, the preferred method of the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries made use of the electric telegraph. I describe here for the first time the four Paris-Greenwich telegraphic longitude determinations made between 1854 and 1902. Despite contemporary faith in the new technique, the first was soon found to be inaccurate; the second was a failure, ending in Anglo-French dispute over whose result was to be trusted; the third failed in exactly the same way; and when eventually the fourth was presented as a success, the evidence for that success was far from clear-cut. I use this as a case study in precision measurement, showing how mutual grounding between different measurement techniques, in the search for agreement between them, was an important force for change and improvement. I also show that better precision had more to do with the gradually improving methods of astronomical, time determination than with the singular innovation of the telegraph, thus emphasizing the importance of what have been described as 'observatory techniques' to nineteenth-century practices of precision measurement.

  5. Volatility transmission and volatility impulse response functions in European electricity forward markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Pen, Yannick [Institut d' Economie et de Management de Nantes - IAE, Universite de Nantes, Chemin de la Censive du Tertre, BP 52231, 44322 Nantes cedex 3 (France); Sevi, Benoit [Universite d' Angers (GRANEM), Faculte de Droit, Economie et Gestion, Universite d' Angers, 13 allee Francois Mitterrand, BP 13633, 49036 Angers cedex 01 (France)

    2010-07-15

    Using daily data from March 2001 to June 2005, we estimate a VAR-BEKK model and find evidence of return and volatility spillovers between the German, the Dutch and the British forward electricity markets. We apply Hafner and Herwartz [2006, Journal of International Money and Finance 25, 719-740] Volatility Impulse Response Function (VIRF) to quantify the impact of shock on expected conditional volatility. We observe that a shock has a high positive impact only if its size is large compared to the current level of volatility. The impact of shocks are usually not persistent, which may be a consequence of the non-storability of power. Finally, we estimate the density of the VIRF at different forecast horizons. These fitted distributions are asymmetric and show that large increases in expected conditional volatilities are possible even if their probability is low. These results have interesting implications for market participants whose risk management policy depends on option prices which themselves depend on the characteristics of volatility. (author)

  6. Draft environmental impact statement for construction and operation of the proposed Bangor Hydro-Electric Company`s second 345-kV transmission tie line to New Brunswick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    This Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) was prepared by the US Department of Energy (US DOE). The proposed action is the issuance of Presidential Permit PP-89 by DOE to Bangor Hydro-Electric Company to construct and operate a new international transmission line interconnection to New Brunswick, Canada that would consist of an 83.8 mile (US portion), 345-kilovolt (kV) alternating current transmission line from the US-Canadian border at Baileyville, Maine to an existing substation at Orrington, Maine. The principal environmental impacts of the construction and operation of the transmission line would be incremental in nature and would include the conversion of forested uplands (mostly commercial timberlands) and wetlands to right-of-way (small trees, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation). The proposed line would also result in localized minor to moderate visual impacts and would contribute a minor incremental increase in the exposure of some individuals to electromagnetic fields. This DEIS documents the purpose and need for the proposed action, describes the proposed action and alternatives considered and provides a comparison of the proposed and alternatives routes, and provides detailed information on analyses of the environmental consequences of the proposed action and alternatives, as well as mitigative measures to minimize impacts.

  7. Operational and Environmental Efficiencies of Japanese Electric Power Companies from 2003 to 2015: Influence of Market Reform and Fukushima Nuclear Power Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika Goto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study measures operational and environmental efficiencies of nine incumbent electric power companies (EPCos in Japan and examines an influence of market reform and Fukushima nuclear power plant accident on efficiencies using a data set from 2003 to 2015. This study applies output-oriented radial data envelopment analysis (DEA model to the measurement of efficiencies. Three inputs and three desirable outputs are used for the measurement of operational efficiency, and one undesirable output besides inputs and desirable outputs is used to measure environmental efficiency. EPCos produce not only desirable output, for example, electricity, but also undesirable output, for example, CO2, for their operations. For the measurement of environmental efficiency, this study uses a unique DEA model that assumes occurrence of ecotechnology innovation. The results reveal that environmental efficiency of EPCos is mostly invariant over the period of this study, while operational efficiency decreases in the same period. In addition, the results present that Japanese EPCos make efforts to reduce CO2 emissions by promoting ecotechnology innovation. The Kruskal–Wallis rank sum test indicates differences in operational and environmental efficiencies among EPCos. Such performance differences might become larger as market liberalization advances, which could lead to further structural changes of the industry.

  8. Risk-Based Bi-Level Model for Simultaneous Profit Maximization of a Smart Distribution Company and Electric Vehicle Parking Lot Owner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Muhammad Bagher Sadati

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of renewable energy resources (RERs, demand response (DR programs and electric vehicles (EVs is evaluated on the optimal operation of a smart distribution company (SDISCO in the form of a new bi-level model. According to the existence of private electric vehicle parking lots (PLs in the network, the aim of both levels is to maximize the profits of SDISCO and the PL owners. Furthermore, due to the uncertainty of RERs and EVs, the conditional value-at-risk (CVaR method is applied in order to limit the risk of expected profit. The model is transformed into a linear single-level model by the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker (KKT conditions and tested on the IEEE 33-bus distribution system over a 24-h period. The results show that by using a proper charging/discharging schedule, as well as a time of use program, SDISCO gains more profit. Furthermore, by increasing the risk aversion parameter, this profit is reduced.

  9. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2003-01-01

    The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme adressed by this paper is the opportunities for European Works Councils (EWCs) of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  10. European works councils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Herman Lyhne

    2004-01-01

    The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies.......The theme addressed by this artcle is the opportunities for European Works Councils of gaining influence on corporate decisions in multinational companies....

  11. Transmission grid extensions during the build-up of a fully renewable pan-European electricity supply

    CERN Document Server

    Becker, Sarah; Andresen, Gorm B; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Spatio-temporal generation patterns for wind and solar photovoltaic power in Europe are used to investigate the future rise in transmission needs with an increasing penetration of these variable renewable energy sources (VRES) on the pan-European electricity system. VRES growth predictions according to the official National Renewable Energy Action Plans of the EU countries are used and extrapolated logistically up to a fully VRES-supplied power system. We find that keeping today's international net transfer capacities (NTCs) fixed over the next forty years reduces the final need for backup energy by 13% when compared to the situation with no NTCs. An overall doubling of today's NTCs will lead to a 26% reduction, and an overall quadrupling to a 33% reduction. The remaining need for backup energy is due to correlations in the generation patterns, and cannot be further reduced by transmission. The main investments in transmission lines are due during the ramp-up of VRES from 15% (as planned for 2020) to 80%. Add...

  12. Valuation of Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lisník

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with valuating telecommunications companies. Six groups operating mainly in the European countries are compared. The comparison is based on financial and techno-economic indicators.These indicators are used to value the company by the DCF method. However, many companies have only a very short history. To value these, classical methods like DCF or real options are not suitable. In this case, methods based on market confrontation seem to be efficient. A further exploration of these methods is also the topic of my graduate studies 

  13. Parametric study of prospective early commercial MHD power plants (PSPEC). General Electric Company, task 1: Parametric analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, C. H.; Alyea, F. N.; Bender, D. J.; Davis, L. K.; Dellinger, T. C.; Hnat, J. G.; Komito, E. H.; Peterson, C. A.; Rogers, D. A.; Roman, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    The performance and cost of moderate technology coal-fired open cycle MHD/steam power plant designs which can be expected to require a shorter development time and have a lower development cost than previously considered mature OCMHD/steam plants were determined. Three base cases were considered: an indirectly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) subsystem delivering air at 2700 F, fired by a state of the art atmospheric pressure gasifier, and the HTAH subsystem was deleted and oxygen enrichment was used to obtain requisite MHD combustion temperature. Coal pile to bus bar efficiencies in ease case 1 ranged from 41.4% to 42.9%, and cost of electricity (COE) was highest of the three base cases. For base case 2 the efficiency range was 42.0% to 45.6%, and COE was lowest. For base case 3 the efficiency range was 42.9% to 44.4%, and COE was intermediate. The best parametric cases in bases cases 2 and 3 are recommended for conceptual design. Eventual choice between these approaches is dependent on further evaluation of the tradeoffs among HTAH development risk, O2 plant integration, and further refinements of comparative costs.

  14. 76 FR 52215 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company CF34-10E2A1; CF34-10E5; CF34-10E5A1; CF34-10E6...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... issuing this AD to prevent high-cycle fatigue cracking of the fan rotor spinner support attachment lugs... Electric Company CF34-10E turbofan engine experiencing high fan frame vibrations led to removal of the fan.... The cause of the vibration was determined to be a non-synchronous vibration induced by a spinner...

  15. More efficient policy of energy and regional electricity supply by the directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 10 december 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity; Effizientere Energiepolitik und regionale Elektrizitaetsversorgung durch die EU-Elektrizitaetsrichtlinie 1996. Politikfeldanalyse der europaeischen, deutschen und bayerischen Energiepolitik und Elektrizitaetswirtschaft im Zusammenhang mit der Entstehung und Umsetzung der EU-Richtlinie 96 sowie der Veraenderung der Effizienz in der traditionellen Elektrizitaetsversorgung unter supranationalem EU-Einfluss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtner, Franz

    2006-07-01

    The German energy policy and its main addressees, the regional electricity companies (EVU), are going through a critical phase at the beginning of the 21st century. The increasing complexity and inconsistency of energy issues have, in Germany and in other countries, led to decisions which again have produced extensive, but not yet foreseeable developments, as, for example, the liberalisation of the electricity and gas market within the European Union. The first objective of this paper is an empirical analysis of the regional electricity supply industry in Germany and particularly in Bavaria in so far as it is relevant for energy politics, as well as an introduction to the German energy policy up to approximately the time when the Directive 96/92/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 19 December 1996 concerning common rules for the internal market in electricity, was passed. Moreover, findings for the definition of energy efficiency in electricity supply and of the policy analysis are outlined. The second objective of this paper is the analysis and evaluation of the European Union energy policy, in particular of the Directive 96/92/EC, its formation and how it has been put into action by the German and Bavarian electricity supply industry. Energy efficiency of the electricity supply serves as a yardstick, the research method employed is the policy analysis. The main part of this paper, by comparing objectives to effects and by evaluating interviews with energy experts, examines the questions if, in what ways and to what extent the Directive 96/92/EC has led to an increase of energy efficiency in the narrow as well as in the boarder sense, within the EU, Germany and Bavaria. Additionally, three hypotheses are tested: firstly the significance of energy efficiency (in the narrow sense), secondly the alignment of European energy supply, and thirdly the importance of supranational control through EU politics. The results are presented in tabular form, and the

  16. Drivers for Household Electricity Prices in the EU: A System-GMM Panel Data Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Pereira da Silva; Pedro Cerqueira

    2014-01-01

    Electricity as well as gas or refined petroleum products exemplify a significant part of the consumer basket of European households and companies. As energy products are important inputs of nearly all final goods and services, any change of energy prices has a direct impact of the general price level. In this context, the main purpose of this study is to assess the main drivers of household electricity prices in the European Union (EU), throughout a period of deep sector transformation. Relyi...

  17. Calculation of Residual Electricity Mixes when Accounting for the EECS (European Electricity Certificate System — the Need for a Harmonised System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Jørgen Hanssen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available According to the Electricity Directive, suppliers of electricity must disclose their electricity portfolio with regards to energy source and environmental impact. This paper gives some examples of disclosure systems and residual electricity mixes in Norway, Sweden and Finland, compared to an approach based on a common regional disclosure. Disclosures based on the E-TRACK standard are presented, as well as the variation in CO2 emissions from different residual mixes. The results from this study clearly show that there is a need for a harmonised, transparent and reliable system for the accounting of electricity disclosure in Europe.

  18. Development situation of UPS, Sanken Electric Company. Trend of network-compatible technology; Kodo johoka shakai wo sasaeru UPS (Sanken Denki). Network taiogata no gijutsu doko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T. [Sanken Electric Co. Ltd., Saitama (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    Sanken Electric Company has developed an uninterruptible power system (UPS) and produced it on a commercial scale. In recent years, Sanken has also satisfied the needs for compactness, lightweight, and high performance by using the latest power conversion element and digital control technology. This paper introduces the Sanken`s technology trend of a network-compatible UPS system that is new needs. The following conditions are required for the network-compatible UPS system. A commercial input power noise can be absorbed and the constant-voltage and constant-frequency power can be supplied continuously. A computer can be automatically stopped in safety when the power fails, and life parts can be safely and securely replaced during LAN operation. A battery can be checked for abnormality and can operate according to the system start/stop schedule. A battery can be switched without warning when the power fails. Moreover, a simple network management protocol (SNMP) is provided as the communication function. The UPS system that satisfies these conditions has been produced on a commercial scale. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  19. Allocation of petroleum feedstock: Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, Sollers Point SNG Plant, Sollers Point, Baltimore County, Maryland. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liverman, James L.

    1978-04-01

    An allocation of naphtha feedstock up to 2,186,000 barrels per year to Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG and E) to operate its synthetic natural gas (SNG) facility is being considered. The allocation would enable BG and E to produce 10,800,000 mcf of SNG during a 180 day period. Operation of the plant at design capacity is expected to result in annual pollution emissions as follows: 626.4 tons of sulfur oxides, 168.5 tons of nitrogen oxides and 21.6 tons of particulate matter. Incremental emissions due to plant operations relative to existing emissions in Baltimore County are less than 1%. All Federal and State air quality standards should be met. Treated effluent is to be discharged into the Patapasco River where the environmental impacts are not expected to be significant. The SNG facility has been designed to be in compliance with all applicable Federal, State and local effluent standards. Water consumption requirements of 335,000 gallons per day are not expected to significantly tax the area's water resources. Sound generated by the SNG facility will be inaudible or imperceptible. All other operational impacts on land use, population, visual quality, roadways, community facilities and services and ecological systems were judged to be minimal. Environmental impacts resulting from various alternatives ranging from full allocation through denial of an allocation are discussed.

  20. Collective control device for Tachibana Bay Thermal Power Plant of Electric Power Development Company; Dengen Kaihatsu (kabu) Tachibanawan karyoku hatsudensho muke tokatsu kanri sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-10

    The collective control device is intended for efficiency improvement and safety assurance in daily maintenance and periodical checking works by collectively controlling maintenance and operation data in a power plant on a network. Fuji Electric has a schedule of starting operation in January 2001 the plant patrolling device, disaster preventing and monitoring device, comprehensive information management equipment, and collective LAN facilities to integrate the above items of equipment for Tachibana Bay Thermal Power Plant of Power Source Development Company. The plant patrolling device has 78 ITV cameras installed in the power plant ground, and displays image signals incorporated from the main devices and each site on CRTs installed in the operation center and offices via an image control device to achieve higher density in monitoring work. The collective control device has such functions to change over images sequentially according to previously registered changeover patterns, and display images in interlock with event occurrence such as burner ignition, in addition the function to select images arbitrarily. (NEDO)

  1. MANAGING INDUSTRIAL PHARMACEUTICAL RESEARCH-AND-DEVELOPMENT - A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL AND INNOVATIVE EFFECTIVENESS IN EUROPEAN AND ANGLO-AMERICAN COMPANIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OMTA, SWF; BOUTER, LM; VANENGELEN, JML

    1994-01-01

    Drug regulation and pricing have put strong pressure on the cost-benefit ratio of the innovative pharmaceutical industry. Therefore a study has been conducted in fourteen large and medium sized companies to determine some important organisational and managerial factors influencing success in

  2. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of finances, economy and plan about the law project (no. 1613) relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Avis presente au nom de la Commission des finances, de l'economie generale et du plan sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carayon, B.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the advice of the commission of finances and economy about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions and comments made by the commission about the law project while the second part concerns the detailed analysis of the articles 16 and 22 about the pension funds of EdF and GdF agents and the change of the status of both utilities. The amendments adopted by the commission for these articles conclude the report. (J.S.)

  3. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project (no. 1613), relative to the electric and gas public utilities and to the power and gas companies; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1613), relatif au service public de l'electricite et du gaz et aux entreprises electriques et gazieres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenoir, J.C.

    2004-06-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the law project relative to the change of status of the power and gas public utilities in the framework of the deregulation of European energy markets. This law changes the juridical status of the two state monopolies Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) into two anonymous companies and creates two additional companies for the management of the power and gas networks. It ensures also the transposition of the European directives from June 26, 2003 (2003/54/CE and 2003/55/CE). It contains some proper dispositions and modifies various existing French laws, in particular the law no. 46-628 from April 8, 1946 about the electricity and gas nationalization and the law no. 2000-108 from February 10, 2000 relative to the modernization and development of the electric public utility. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with some proposals of modifications. A comparative table puts in parallel the existing texts, the law project and the proposals made by the commission. (J.S.)

  4. Smart Companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galagan, Patricia A.

    1997-01-01

    Capturing and leveraging knowledge is an important new management trend that is as yet undefined. Some companies are accounting for their intellectual capital and applying it to the company balance sheets. (JOW)

  5. Assessment of the waste electrical and electronic equipment management systems profile and sustainability in developed and developing European Union countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanescu, Dumitrita; Cailean Gavrilescu, Daniela; Teodosiu, Carmen; Fiore, Silvia

    2018-03-01

    The assessment of waste management systems for electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) from developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) and developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria), is discussed covering the period 2007-2014. The WEEE management systems profiles are depicted by indicators correlated to WEEE life cycle stages: collection, transportation and treatment. The sustainability of national WEEE management systems in terms of greenhouse gas emissions is presented, together with the greenhouse gas efficiency indicator that underlines the efficiency of WEEE treatment options. In the countries comparisons, the key elements are: robust versus fragile economies, the overall waste management performance and the existence/development of suitable management practices on WEEE. Over the life cycle perspective, developed economies (Germany, Sweden and Italy) manage one order of magnitude higher quantities of WEEE compared to developing countries (Romania and Bulgaria). Although prevention and reduction measures are encouraged, all WEEE quantities were larger in 2013, than in 2007. In 2007-2014, developed economies exceed the annual European collection target of 4 kg WEEE/capita, while collection is still difficult in developing countries. If collection rates are estimated in relationship with products placed on market, than similar values are registered in Sweden and Bulgaria, followed by Germany and Italy and lastly Romania. WEEE transportation shows different patterns among countries, with Italy as the greatest exporter (in 2014), while Sweden treats the WEEE nationally. WEEE reuse is a common practice in Germany, Sweden (from 2009) and Bulgaria (from 2011). By 2014, recycling was the most preferred WEEE treatment option, with the same kind of rates performance, over 80%, irrespective of the country, with efforts in each of the countries in developing special collection points, recycling facilities and support instruments. The national total and the

  6. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation: Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: Rafael.Cossent@iit.upcomillas.es; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics.

  7. Towards a future with large penetration of distributed generation. Is the current regulation of electricity distribution ready? Regulatory recommendations under a European perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cossent, Rafael; Gomez, Tomas; Frias, Pablo [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/ Quintana 21, 28008 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    The European Energy Policy promotes renewable energy sources and energy efficiency as means to mitigate environmental impact, increase security of supply and ensure economic competitiveness. As a result, the penetration levels of distributed generation (DG) in electricity networks are bound to increase. Distribution networks and distribution system operators (DSOs) will be especially affected by growing levels of DG. This paper reviews the current regulation of distribution in the European Union Member States, focusing on those aspects that might hinder the future integration of DG. Several regulatory issues that may hinder a successful integration of DG have been identified. Recommendations to improve the current situation are proposed. Regarding economic signals sent to DG, connection charges and cost-reflective use-of-system charges together with incentives to provide ancillary services are the key aspects. Concerning DSOs regulation, unbundling from generation and supply according to the European Electricity Directive, incentives for optimal planning and network operation considering DG, including energy losses and quality of service, and innovation schemes to migrate to active networks are the most relevant topics. (author)

  8. The strategic ''pull'' and operational ''push'' of total quality management in UK regional electricity service companies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAdam, R.; McLean, J.; Henderson, J.

    2003-04-30

    The aim of this paper is to evaluate whether the UK regional electricity companies (RECs) has used total quality management (TQM) as a ''push'' or as a ''pull'' change methodology. ''Push'' is the operational improvement role of TQM; ''pull'' is the strategic or direction giving, improvement role of TQM. Following the onset of privatisation in 1990 there has been evidence of the RECs adopting TQM in both ''push'' and ''pull'' methodologies with varying degrees of success. An evaluation of the change processes involved will enable improved change models to be developed leading to increased business effectiveness in this 30 billion pounds sterling industry. Other possible benefits include the possible generalisations to other utilities such as water, roads, gas and telecoms. The research methodology includes a comparative case study analysis of five RECs, which have used TQM as their overarching approach to change. One of the cases is analysed to a more in-depth level based on the multiple case findings. The findings indicate that the ''push-pull'' analysis enables the full range of TQM activities to be evaluated in the RECs studied. Overall, there is a need to have a balanced portfolio of operational or ''push''-based TQM activity that is driven by strategic or ''pull'' based TQM planning and activity. (author)

  9. EUROPEAN HARMONIZATION OF CONSOLIDATED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS REGULATIONS?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cirstea Andreea; Baltariu Carmen-Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    ... No. 1606/2002 adopted by the European Parliament and European Council on the 19th of July 2002, which regulates the application of IAS/IFRS regarding the financial reporting of listed European companies...

  10. Electricity and energy policy: French specificities and stakes in the European framework; Electricite et politique energetique: specificites francaises et enjeux dans le cadre europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The present day context of liberalization of European power markets and increase of energy prices raises the question of the competitiveness of the French economy: what type of supply and what technological trend would allow to relax this constrain? It is therefore the overall main trends of the French energy policy that should be reexamined in the broader framework of Europe. This is the aim of this document. It presents, first, the present day organization of the French power market and the recent changes that have followed its opening to competition. Then, it describes the evolutions since the first petroleum shock and the share given to electricity in the French energy mix, the technological choices that have led to the present day domination of nuclear energy in the power generation means. Finally, this policy and its perspectives is compared to the main European trends in the domain of energy security, environment protection and market liberalization. It appears, in particular, that the choices made by France in the domain of electricity (demand mastery efforts, large share given to electricity, preponderance of nuclear power, development of renewable energy sources, in particular hydroelectric power) have limited its energy bill and enhanced its energy independence. Also, all energy sources considered, they have led to a low level of CO{sub 2} emissions with respect to other developed countries. (J.S.)

  11. European symposium 'Solar- and electric-powered vehicles'. Europaeisches Symposium Solar- und Elektromobile; Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-01

    Considerable impulses in the field of battery- and light-weight construction technology as well as the legislation of important foreign markets brought about the idea of an OTTI-technology meeting regarding the subject of solar- and electric-powered vehicles. The 26 articles cover the following subjects: How to use electric-powered vehicles, market overview, practical experience in different user areas, technical problems and their solutions as well as security issues of light-weight and electric-powered vehicles. All articles are available as separate records in this database. (BWI)

  12. Co-combustion of refuse derived fuel and coal in a cyclone furnace at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, C. P. Crane Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    A co-combustion demonstration burn of coal and fluff refuse-derived fuel (RDF) was conducted by Teledyne National and Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. This utility has two B and W cyclone furnaces capable of generating 400 MW. The facility is under a prohibition order to convert from No. 6 oil to coal; as a result, it was desirable to demonstrate that RDF, which has a low sulfur content, can be burned in combination with coals containing up to 2% sulfur, thus reducing overall sulfur emissions without deleterious effects. Each furnace consists of four cyclones capable of generating 1,360,000 pounds per hour steam. The tertiary air inlet of one of the cyclones was modified with an adapter to permit fluff RDF to be pneumatically blown into the cyclone. At the same time, coal was fed into the cyclone furnace through the normal coal feeding duct, where it entered the burning chamber tangentially and mixed with the RDF during the burning process. Secondary shredded fluff RDF was prepared by the Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility. The RDF was discharged into a receiving station consisting of a belt conveyor discharging into a lump breaker, which in turn, fed the RDF into a pneumatic line through an air-lock feeder. A total of 2316 tons were burned at an average rate of 5.6 tons per hour. The average heat replacement by RDF for the cyclone was 25%, based on Btu input for a period of forty days. The range of RDF burned was from 3 to 10 tons per hour, or 7 to 63% heat replacement. The average analysis of the RDF (39 samples) for moisture, ash, heat (HHV) and sulfur content were 18.9%, 13.4%, 6296 Btu/lb and 0.26% respectively. RDF used in the test was secondary shredded through 1-1/2 inch grates producing the particle size distribution of from 2 inches to .187 inches. Findings to date after inspection of the boiler and superheater indicate satisfactory results with no deleterious effects from the RDF.

  13. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  14. Company analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jenster, Per V.; Hussey, David

    This volume looks at the company appraisal as a whole, examining the continuing need to appraise companies as part of the continuing strategy process. Building from a sound basis of theory, the text aims to be practical and to give guidance to senior managers and others involved in the strategy...

  15. The strategy of players on the European gas market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lecarpentier, A

    2006-07-01

    One result of opening up the European gas market to competition has been to increase the number and diversity of the players involved, whether producers, suppliers or electric utilities. However, while the gas on offer is still controlled by a handful of market players given the increasing importance of state-owned companies from exporting countries outside Europe, the downstream gas sector continues to show a strong concentration of incumbent operators seeking a dominant position in the supply of gas. (author)

  16. Generation of electricity from industrial waste heat in the context of European emissions trading. A missed opportunity; Stromgewinnung aus industrieller Abwaerme im europaeischen Zertifikatehandel. Eine vertane Chance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, Dirk [Landgericht Muenster (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The European Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) poses a major financial burden for many branches of industry in Europe. While its role as a model for the world and its great significance in the struggle against global warming are undisputed, at least in the short term it is in the immediate interest of the industry to keep this burden as small as possible. The decision of the European Commission on the free allocation of emission permits (referred to as the benchmarking decision) in the scheme's third phase starting in 2013 offers a number of options to this end. Not all of these are explicitly named in the official ETS legislation, some having only been later accepted by the Commission's Directorate General for Climate Action (DG CLIMA), upon pressure from the industry, as a permissible interpretation of the existing rules. One especially complicated and unhappy example of European management policy under the ETS regime is the promotion of electricity generation from industrial waste heat from the production of ferrosilicon.

  17. The impact of national interests and European coordination on securing investment in trans-national electricity networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Blijswijk, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Achieving the transition to a renewable energy supply in Europe requires further integration of national electricity systems. To support the large-scale integration of variable renewable energy sources, different regions in Europe will increasingly come to rely on each other to meet demand during

  18. Network Codes – European Energy Law in the Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union is preparing a series of regulations governing in detail various aspects of grid operation and free-market trade in electricity and gas, the so-called network codes. The paper reviews this process of European energy legislation development. Also discussed are the European Union bodies and major stakeholders in this process, as well as the national law making and enforcing agencies. In the past, law in Poland was created by Polish citizens. After joining the European Union the law in effect is largely created elsewhere by someone else, even if with significant participation of Polish representatives. The law on energy is not only important for producers, distributors and trading companies, but it strongly effects industrial competitiveness and hence the quality of life of the population.

  19. Designing anthropological reflection within an energy company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løgstrup, Louise Buch; Gunn, Wendy; Said Mosleh, Wafa

    2013-01-01

    The move towards a more liberalized energy market and the emergent smart grid technology has forced a Scandinavian energy company to begin rethinking the relation between themselves and private energy end users. Originally a unidirectional relationship, the present and future have potential...... for a more bidirectional relationship between the company and their customers. During this process the company has realized that they lack knowledge about private energy end users. The company has run a demonstration project simulating the face of the electricity smart grid in private households and has used...... reflection is generated in the company through a flexible tangible scenario model of the bidirectional connection between the energy company and the users....

  20. UK electricity `94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    A detailed factual account is presented of the achievements of the UK electricity industry in 1994. The review is divided into sections headed: the UK energy market and electricity`s share; the electricity market; electricity prices; the electric power supply system; quality of service; protection of the environment; manpower and safety trends; business diverisification and the electricity industry in the European Union. Statistical tables are presented on power stations in the UK and key electricity and energy statistics.

  1. The new control system of the main load distributor of the combined Austrian electricity company. Das neue Leitsystem des Hauptlastverteilers der Oesterreichischen Verbundgesellschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moik, J. (Hauptabteilung Informatik und Planungsmethoden, Oesterreichische Verbundgesellschaft, Vienna (Austria)); May, F. (Hauptabteilung Informatik und Planungsmethoden, Oesterreichische Verbundgesellschaft, Vienna (Austria)); Pollhammer, G. (Siemens AG, Vienna (Austria))

    1993-06-28

    The planning, production and setting to work of a complex system, as represented by an energy management system for a national load distributor, requires the use of modern project methods and close collaboration of energy supply firms, consultants and suppliers of this control system. In the case of the new control system of the combined Austrian company, prompt and within budget execution was achieved by the early involvement of all the departments concerned, by clear project organisation and distribution of competence between the two partners to the contract and by thorough use of quality assurance measures. The functioning of the new control system of the combined Austrian company is matched to the foreseeable requirements of operational management. Future new requirements can be integrated at any time into the load distribution system by the distributed flexible system design by Sinaut Spectrum. (orig.)

  2. Introduction of the information system research and development department at Kansai Electric Power Company. Company uses the latest information processing technology to respond to customers' needs to structure an information system; Kanden joho system no kenkyu kaihatsu bumon no shokai. Saishin no joho shori gijutsu ni yori, okyakusama no joho system ka no needs ni okotaeshimasu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashida, Y. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-12-10

    This paper introduces the research and development on the information processing technology at the Kansai Electric Power Company. In the research of a system development technology utilizing the object orientation, works are being made on the Java language drawing attention as an intranet development environment and the common object request broker architecture (CORBA). In the research of a technology to operate and control a large-scale network, basing on the current status of the KIND net of the Kansai Electric Power Company, discussions are being given on expanding and improving the functions of system tools made by Hitachi, Ltd. with an intention of achieving unified operation and control of the networks including not only the CSS system, but the host system. In the investigations and researches on different kinds of tools intended for data warehouse structuring, products are investigated and methods are discussed, such as the data extracting and editing tools to structure databases, and the on-line analysis processing (OLAP) tool to retrieve and analyze a great quantity of data. Researches are being made on application of the visual private office (VPO) service on the Internet, and on applicability evaluation for the individual certification technology. Investigations are being made on applicability of the enterprise resource planning (ERP) package. (NEDO)

  3. 75 FR 15704 - Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Old Dominion Electric Cooperative; North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation, Complainants v. Virginia Electric and Power Company, Respondent; Notice of Complaint March 23...), Old Dominion Electric Cooperative and North Carolina Electric Membership Corporation (Complainants...

  4. Costs and benefits of demand-side management options for the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company. Volume 1. Technical report. Volume 2. Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, C.; Rose, M.; Sinha, J.; Kreitler, G.; Dee, M.

    1988-08-01

    Electric utilities are rapidly increasing their investment in demand-side management (DSM) programs to more effectively utilize their generating plant and improve customer service. The study examines the long-term benefits and costs of DSM strategies including effects on reliability and cost of power. Seven residential DSM programs and a commercial cool storage program were selected for detailed evaluation using Baltimore Gas and Electric (BGandE) as a case study. First, utility experience with similar DSM programs was critically reviewed to develop estimates of the participation rates, program costs, and load impacts. Next, a detailed, integrated utility planning model was used to develop alternative resource plans that included these DSM resources. Revenue requirements, capacity requirements, average electricity rates and a reliability index were computed for each resource plan and used for comparing alternative resource plans. Sensitivity analyses were also completed to analyze the robustness of the alternative plans to uncertainty.

  5. Least-cost planning from the point of view of a German electricity supply company. Das Konzept des Least-Cost Planning aus der Sicht eines deutschen Elektrizitaetsunternehmens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utermark, D. (Hamburgische Electricitaets-Werke AG, Hamburg (Germany, F.R.). Unternehmensplanung)

    1990-06-05

    Least-cost planning is a planning method which aims at using best measures and resources of the eletricity supply companies (EVU) to cover energy and power demand. Measures of the EVU necessary due to demand are as well included in the planning process as possible reactions to supply. Least-cost planning has been developed in the United States after the increase by leaps and bounds of the oil prices in the seventies. No self-contained theory underlies the planning method but least-cost planning is realized by US American EVUs by means of programs. (orig.).

  6. Formulation of a projection model of electric power demand applied to isolated systems in natural development: the case of the brazilian electric company of Rondonia territory; Formulacao de um modelo de projecao de demanda de energia eletrica aplicado a sistemas isolados em desenvolvimento natural: o caso da CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dourado, Rosana Aparecida

    2004-07-01

    The Electricity inserts it self more than other services in the economy and in the Brasilian society resulting an increase of market of electrical energy more than that of economy e consequently in the national energy bases. Given the importance of the definition of the demand of electrical energy inside the development process of a region, the objective of this dissertation is to propose a model of forecasting energy demand applied to a small scale utility. With basing on the foundation that the electrical energy demand varies accordingly with the region, social levels and economical conditions and also the activities developed, the method utilized was a definition of a set of representative variables in this context, using the relation between the population an the number of residential consumers; consumption per residential consumer and the consumption structure of the residential segment over the total demand. The results with the application of the model utilizing this philosophy of the technique of modeling scenes, permitted the definition of electrical energy demand for the market of the Brazilian electric company CERON S.A. like a case study. (author)

  7. Energy and environment policy in the Czech Republic. Vol. 3: Liberalisation of the energy market for electricity and gas in the European Union. A survey and possible implications for the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauch, H.G.

    2002-01-01

    This study is organised in four parts. The first part deals with the political context of the EU: its widening and deepening and the evolution of its energy policy. The second part focuses on the liberalisation of the European market for electricity with a review of the structure of the electricity markets in Germany, France, Italy and Great Britain and of the three electricity networks, an assessment of EU liberalisation policy and its implementation in these four countries. The third part deals with the liberalisation of the European market for natural gas by offering an overview of EU liberalisation policy before the gas directive enters into force in August 2000. Finally part four discusses possible implications of energy liberalisation for the Czech Republic. The study concludes with a review of efforts by the Commission to resolve the conflict between liberalisation of energy markets and the climate policy driven sustainability goals. (orig.)

  8. The OMEGA Project: Open Market Energy Generation Allocation in deregulated electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contreras, J. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, (Spain). Project Management Group, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales; Conejo, A.J. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, (Spain). Power Engineering Group, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales

    2002-08-01

    The OMEGA project is part of the 5th Framework Programme for R and D that the European Union has started in the year 2000. It is a highly complex and interdisciplinary project, with five countries and several companies involved. The project aims at developing a decision support system for electricity producers to support energy management and energy trading groups within these companies in the commercial activities on open and competitive electricity markets using an e-commerce framework. This paper presents the OMEGA project, describes the objectives pursued, evaluates the project workplan, shows the complex project management structure, highlights the management problems, and presents relevant conclusions. (author)

  9. A definition model of electric power tariff based on marginal cost: case study at CERON - the electric company of Rondonia, Brazil; Um modelo de definicao de tarifa de energia eletrica baseada no custo marginal: estudo de caso na CERON - Centrais Eletricas de Rondonia, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domiciano, Jose Antonio

    2002-07-01

    The present competition circumstances (ambient) require enterprises (companies or undertaking) like CERON to have understanding of all conditions to propose tariffs which give correct signal the consumers. Objective. Thus, search for valuations of model to define the tariff of electric energy based on marginal cost though a study in case of CERON. Method. Develop an investigation of a model of definition of tariffs of electric energy based on marginal costs to start the study in case of CERON and followed by analysis of its tariff structure. Results. With application of the signal (sign or indication) of tariffs, can measure the degree of separation of tariffs and to propose new modalities of alternate tariffs which offer conditions to reflect the real form of costs imposed by clients who form subgroups of tariffs of CERON. With final results, it offers parameters to trace (seek) important strategy for the company. Conclusion: The model gives condition's to identify and quantify of subsidies inside the tariff structure. It is a base which permits to create alternatives to resolve tariff distortions. It permits to have a better understanding which category (class) of consumers who are free will try to seek companies with tariffs which reflect really its costs. (author)

  10. A hybrid approach based on ANP, ELECTRE and SIMANP metaheuristic method for outsourcing manufacturing procedures according to supply chain risks - Case study: A medical equipment manufacturer company in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiwa Farughi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays enterprises should consider seeking to reduce the supply chain risks as a crucial part of their activities in order to improve their competitiveness in the international context. Choosing the suitable strategy in connection with assigning some parts of the production process to outside the organization is a complex multi-criteria decision making problem and it gets more complicated when supply chain risk factors as the factors to select the strategy as well as dependence and the close ties between these criteria also be considered. In this paper, after the identification of risks in the supply chain of a medical equipment manufacturer company, dependence and ties between criteria in line with choosing the best strategy among existing alternatives has been examined in the form of a combined ANP-ELECTRE method. This combined model is of high performance to give a solution to the problem considered in this paper. But given the complex and time consuming nature of the AHP and ELECTRE, in this study a meta-heuristic algorithm is developed called SIMANP that despite the simplicity of computing and high-speed, is good in the terms of precision and efficiency. The results of comparing SIMANP algorithm and the proposed ANP - ELECTRE method are presented at the end.

  11. Human Resource Function Competencies in European Companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); J. Paauwe (Jaap)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents an overview of recent empirical research on human resource competencies in Europe. The data were collected in 2002 in the global Human Resource Competence Study, an initiative of the University of Michigan. The results suggest that personal credibility and HR delivery

  12. SAFER - Company Snapshot - SAFER - Company Snapshot

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The Company Snapshot is a concise electronic record of company identification, size, commodity information, and safety record, including the safety rating (if any),...

  13. Analysis of rationality and efficiency of electricity utilization in posture poultry companies by computation platform based in fuzzy system; Analise da racionalidade e eficiencia da utilizacao de energia eletrica em empresas de avicultura de postura via plataforma computacional baseada em sistema fuzzy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremasco, Camila Pires [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioestatistica; Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Gabriel Filho, Luis Roberto Almeida [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Tupa, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas; Viais Neto, Daniel dos Santos; Bordin, Deyver [Faculdade de Tecnologia (FATEC), Presidente Prudente, SP (Brazil); Silva, Helenice de Oliveira Florentino [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Bioestatistica], E-mails: gabrielfilho@tupa.unesp.br., dvneto@fatecpp.edu.br, bordin@yahoo.com.br, helenice@ibb.unesp.br

    2012-11-01

    A great application of intelligent systems is in control of the electric power consumption of enterprises. For the assessment of the way that the company uses the electricity there are two indices which are called load factor and power factor. To facilitate the assessment of the performance of electric power consumption by the companies it is interesting that there is a single index indicating globally as energy is being used by the same. The goal of this work was to develop a software to assist laying poultry companies in the region of Bastos in more rational and efficient use of electric energy. For this, a system has been developed called Fuzzy Energy integrated environment developed with Delphi 2010. For the determination of fuzzy factor (situation of the company), we used a fuzzy system prepared in advance. The data collected over a period of 3 years helped the system programming. The software was able to present the situation of the company studied in a manner accessible to the user, and their results were tested accuracy 100 according to fuzzy system. With the inference method of Mandani, unable to create a general simulation of all relevant points of enterprise data. (author)

  14. Evidence of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) relevant substances in polymeric food-contact articles sold on the European market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puype, Franky; Samsonek, Jiří; Knoop, Jan; Egelkraut-Holtus, Marion; Ortlieb, Markus

    2015-01-01

    In order to confirm the possibility that recycled fractions from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) stream were illegally entering the European market in black polymeric food-contact articles (FCAs), bromine quantification, brominated flame retardant (BFR) identification combined with WEEE-relevant elemental analysis and polymer impurity analysis were performed. From the 10 selected FCAs, seven samples contained a bromine level ranging from 57 to 5975 mg kg(-)(1), which is lower than expected to achieve flame retardancy. The BFRs that were present were tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), decabromodiphenylether (decaBDE), decabromodiphenylethane (DBDPE) and 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE). Typical elements used in electronic equipment and present in WEEE were detected either at trace level or at elevated concentrations. In all cases when bromine was detected at higher concentrations, concurrently antimony was also detected, which confirms the synergetic use of antimony in combination with BFRs. This study describes also the measurement of rare earth elements where combinations of cerium, dysprosium, lanthanum, neodymium, praseodymium and yttrium were detected in four of the seven BFR-positive samples. Additionally, polymer purity was investigated where in all cases foreign polymer fractions were detected. Despite the fact that this study was carried out on a very small amount of samples, there is a significant likelihood that WEEE has been used for the production of FCAs.

  15. Preliminary report on the Pacific Gas and Electric Company's notice of intention to seek certification for Geysers Unit 16 (78-NOI-6)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary findings of fact and conclusion adopted by the Commission Committee are presented. Also, a description of the proposed project, a summary of the proceedings to date, and local, state, and federal government agency comments on the proposal are included. Preliminary findings and conclusions are presented on: (a) conformity to the forecast of statewide and service area electric power demands; (b) the degree to which the proposed site and facility conform with applicable local, regional, state, and federal standards, ordinances and laws; (c) the safety and reliability of the facility; and (d) the relative merit of the proposed transmission line corridors. (MHR)

  16. UAV Inspection of Electrical Transmission Infrastructure with Path Conformance Autonomy and Lidar-Based Geofences NASA Report on UTM Reference Mission Flights at Southern Company Flights November 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew J.; Schubert, Matthew; Rymer, Nicholas; Balachandran, Swee; Consiglio, Maria; Munoz, Cesar; Smith, Joshua; Lewis, Dexter; Schneider, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Flights at low altitudes in close proximity to electrical transmission infrastructure present serious navigational challenges: GPS and radio communication quality is variable and yet tight position control is needed to measure defects while avoiding collisions with ground structures. To advance unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) navigation technology while accomplishing a task with economic and societal benefit, a high voltage electrical infrastructure inspection reference mission was designed. An integrated air-ground platform was developed for this mission and tested in two days of experimental flights to determine whether navigational augmentation was needed to successfully conduct a controlled inspection experiment. The airborne component of the platform was a multirotor UAV built from commercial off-the-shelf hardware and software, and the ground component was a commercial laptop running open source software. A compact ultraviolet sensor mounted on the UAV can locate 'hot spots' (potential failure points in the electric grid), so long as the UAV flight path adequately samples the airspace near the power grid structures. To improve navigation, the platform was supplemented with two navigation technologies: lidar-to-polyhedron preflight processing for obstacle demarcation and inspection distance planning, and trajectory management software to enforce inspection standoff distance. Both navigation technologies were essential to obtaining useful results from the hot spot sensor in this obstacle-rich, low-altitude airspace. Because the electrical grid extends into crowded airspaces, the UAV position was tracked with NASA unmanned aerial system traffic management (UTM) technology. The following results were obtained: (1) Inspection of high-voltage electrical transmission infrastructure to locate 'hot spots' of ultraviolet emission requires navigation methods that are not broadly available and are not needed at higher altitude flights above ground structures. (2) The

  17. The French Electricity Company (EDF) and GEC ALSTHOM have signed the agreement for Chinese Laibin B electric power plant; Electricite de France (EDF) et GEC ALSTHOM signent l'accord de la centrale electrique de Laibin B en Chine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-03

    EDF and GEC ALSTHOM together with the government of Chinese Province Guangxi have organized in Pekin on 3 september 1997 a ceremony for signing a BOOT (Build, Own, Operate, Transfer) contract for the Coal Power Plant (2 x 360 MW) at Laibin B. This is the first Chinese BOOT contract in the power domain entirely financed by foreign capital. The two western companies which were retained for this project, following an international call for offers, invest USD 150 million of its own founds in this USD 600 million project. They will hold 60% and 40% of the capital of the company created for this project, respectively. The construction power plant is planned to be completed at the end of 1999 - beginning of 2000. After 15 years of industrial operation the power plant will be transferred to the autonomous government of the Province Guangxi. The communique contains the following 8 files: 1. The Laibin B power plant; 2. Build, Own, Operate, Transfer; 3. The autonomous Guangxi Province; 4. An outline of EDF in China; 5. Profile/activities of GEC ALSTHOM in China; 6. The 'Credit Agricole Indosuez' in China; 7. BZW Barclays PLC; 8. HSBC Investment Banking in China.

  18. Auction of electricity trading capacity at State frontiers. An offence against the European legal free movement of goods and the duty prohibition?; Versteigerung von Stromdurchleitungskapazitaeten an Staatsgrenzen. Ein Verstoss gegen die europarechtliche Warenverkehrsfreiheit und das Zollverbot?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toedtmann, Ulrich [Anwaltskanzlei Eimer Heuschmid Mehle, Bonn (Germany); Kaluza, Anna-Lena [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    At the borders of most Member States the capacity for the power transfer across the border clearly is undersized. With its guidelines on electricity regulation in the year 2003, the European Commission has established an auction procedure for a bottleneck management at border interconnectors. Cross-border current flows are more expensive. A cross-border trade of electricity thus is prevented. Instead of today's illegal auction procedure, it is obvious to proceed by competition or other cost-neutral distribution processes. Then, each applicant would have the same chance to receive the contract for a limited capacity without the expensive cross-border traffic.

  19. VARIABLES DETERMINADAS PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE FRAUDE EN EMPRESAS DE SERVICIO ELÉCTRICO // VARIABLES DETERMINED FOR THE DETECTION OF FRAUD IN COMPANIES OF ELECTRICAL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lima Pérez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Losses suffered by power utilities represent a problem affecting its financial and economic sustainability. In Venezuela, they reached 30; 68% in 2010. Among them, non-technical losses can be detected and controlled, contributing to the financial recovery of the company, and thus using such surplus of money to improve the quality of service. The aim of this paper is to identify variables used by supply inspection planners in power utilities to allow detection of users that may be using the service under illegal or fraudulent conditions. The methodology used for knowledge acquisition is based upon the principle of the Delphi Method, that is, independent experts in the area answer questionnaires and interviews, variables are identified, and then answers are shared among all of them to select those that receive higher scores on a pre-defined scale. Selection of variables provided by experts is supported by statistical tools. A set of consumption, location and knowledge variables that characterizes fraudulent behavior is then established. They in turn allow construction of a future intelligent system to automate detection of such customers, thus contributing to the reduction of non-technical losses and financial recovery of the company.// RESUMEN: Las pérdidas de energía registradas en empresas de servicio eléctrico representan un problema que afecta su sustentabilidad económica y financiera. En Venezuela, para el año 2010, estas alcanzan el 30; 68%. De estas, las pérdidas no técnicas pueden ser detectadas y controladas contribuyendo a la recuperación financiera de la empresa, lo cual puede reinvertirse para mejorar la calidad del servicio. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las variables utilizadas por planificadores de inspecciones de suministros de empresas de servicio eléctrico que permita detectar posibles usuarios con condiciones fraudulentas. La metodología utilizada para la adquisición del conocimiento se basa en

  20. VARIABLES DETERMINADAS PARA LA DETECCIÓN DE FRAUDE EN EMPRESAS DE SERVICIO ELÉCTRICO // VARIABLES DETERMINED FOR THE DETECTION OF FRAUD IN COMPANIES OF ELECTRICAL SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Lima Pérez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Losses suffered by power utilities represent a problem affecting its financial and economic sustainability. In Venezuela, they reached 30; 68% in 2010. Among them, non-technical losses can be detected and controlled, contributing to the financial recovery of the company, and thus using such surplus of money to improve the quality of service. The aim of this paper is to identify variables used by supply inspection planners in power utilities to allow detection of users that may be using the service under illegal or fraudulent conditions. The methodology used for knowledge acquisition is based upon the principle of the Delphi Method, that is, independent experts in the area answer questionnaires and interviews, variables are identified, and then answers are shared among all of them to select those that receive higher scores on a pre-defined scale. Selection of variables provided by experts is supported by statistical tools. A set of consumption, location and knowledge variables that characterizes fraudulent behavior is then established. They in turn allow construction of a future intelligent system to automate detection of such customers, thus contributing to the reduction of non-technical losses and financial recovery of the company.// RESUMEN Las pérdidas de energía registradas en empresas de servicio eléctrico representan un problema que afecta su sustentabilidad económica y financiera. En Venezuela, para el año 2010, estas alcanzan el 30; 68%. De estas, las pérdidas no técnicas pueden ser detectadas y controladas contribuyendo a la recuperación financiera de la empresa, lo cual puede reinvertirse para mejorar la calidad del servicio. El objetivo de este trabajo es identificar las variables utilizadas por planificadores de inspecciones de suministros de empresas de servicio eléctrico que permita detectar posibles usuarios con condiciones fraudulentas. La metodología utilizada para la adquisición del conocimiento se basa en el T

  1. Reorganization in US and European Bankruptcy law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, M.T.

    2006-01-01

    European countries have amended their bankruptcy statutes in the past decades to increase the likelihood of a company's continuation in bankruptcy. Liquidation procedures are ill suited to realize the full value of the company as a going concern. An infusion of new finance raises company valuation

  2. Online Company-stakeholder Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rikke Augustinus; Morsing, Mette

    technologies and we question to what extent social media serve the enhancement of improved understandings across corporate and civil society on CSR issues. This paper suggests that managers face a risk of the “double-edge of stakeholder communication” when incorporating social media into their CSR strategies......Based on a systematic data collection we study one of the first pioneering company-stakeholder communication campaigns in social media: the case of energy company Vattenfall A/S’s pan-European campaign ‘The Climate Manifesto’. Our findings challenge the general assumption, that stakeholder...... lacked between the company and stakeholders. Vattenfall was accused of green-washing, resulting in a communications crisis. Negative stakeholder reactions consisted of prejudiced and non-negotiable argumentation indicating that social media imposes new managerial challenges since communication processes...

  3. Optimization of portfolio of contracts for companies of electric power generation; Otimizacao de portfolio de contratos para empresas de geracao de energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunn, Laura Keiko; Silva, Elisa Bastos; Correia, Paulo de Barros [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], emails: lauragunn@fem.unicamp.br, elisabs@fem.unicamp.br, pcorreia@fem.unicamp.br

    2010-07-01

    Portfolio optimization is a technique widely used to select investments in economic and financial zones. In the Brazilian Electric Market the portfolio models must consider not only different types of contracts used in the free market, but also different types of markets: the free market, the captive market and the spot market. Normally, the question is knowing which proportion of energy should be sold in each market, in order to maximize the return and minimize the risk. This article deals with a problem from the point of view of a power generator, where their objective is to maximize its profit, to serve their obligations regarding the delivery of energy and minimizing the risk associated with the occurrence of Spot Price - minimum (Spot Price). It is considered that the generator has flexible contracts and inflexible contracts to sell the energy. Inflexible contracts have delivery obligations of fixed energy and flexible contracts allow, the holder of the flexibility, to deliver or to receive an amount of variable energy. In this case, the holder of flexibility may be the purchaser or the generator. (author)

  4. The new tariff model based on marginal costs developing concept for Brazilian electric sector. A case study for Power and Light Company of Sao Paulo State (Brazil); O novo modelo tarifario baseado no conceito de custos marginais em desenvolvimento para o setor eletrico brasileiro. Um estudo de caso para a Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, S.P.S.

    1991-12-31

    A new methodology for power generation cost accounts in Brazilian electric sector is described, with the application of marginal costs theory and its deviation in developing economies. A case report from a Brazilian Power and Light Company is studied, focalizing the seasoning, the planning, the tariff model and the power generation, transmission and distribution. (M.V.M.). 19 refs, 28 figs, 1 tab.

  5. CSR in TSL companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna DYCZKOWSKA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available TSL companies are characterized by high dynamics of an increase of incomes, and hence increased shipping. Owing to a rational policy in the area of the consolidation of production and distribution, they may boast of a better use of the means of transport. The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators. The research methods used in the study include an analysis of secondary data, observations and comparative analyses. Road transport in the shipping structure comes first and it constitutes 84% of freights. In the year 2009, in Poland greenhouse gas emissions from road transport amounted to 42.5 million tons (4.84% of the EU member states and CO emissions were 41.9 million tons (analogically, 4.83% of environment pollutions in the European Union. This causes an emission of fumes into the atmosphere. The policy of sustainable development pursued by logistic operators under corporate social responsibility is a response to the abovementioned data. They take decisions concerning social and environmental aspects. The activities of TSL companies under CSR need to provide an answer to customer expectations and needs, and they have to cause an increase of competitiveness on the market. The selected four largest logistic operators conduct the following eco-friendly activities on the highest level: fume emission reports and the control of these emissions, transport of hazardous goods (ADR, voluntary services in the scope of environmental protection and cooperation with eco-friendly organizations. There are those activities which call for improvement: a limitation of the emission of fumes, waste management and sewage treatment policy.

  6. How much room is left for European gas incumbents?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwark, Bastian

    2007-07-01

    In the context of the liberalization of the European natural gas market former monopolists face a challenge to react to market opening by realigning their strategies. Three major groups of companies can be identified that are capable to influence the European gas market significantly each with a distinctive competitive advantage. They consist of the historical gas incumbents, the power incumbents moving into gas as well as the integrated oil and gas producers moving downwards the supply chain by enlarging their supply division. The aim of the paper is to identify the strategic opportunities of the aforementioned three groups and to asses their success. The analysis is done by means of 22 selected companies that are highly active in the EU gas market. An assessment of their market data and comparisons between the three groups will be done. The firms will be matched according to the potential strategic groups and an outlook given in terms of the development of competition in the European gas market. The results sustain the assumption that the playing field for European gas incumbents is going to decrease as both electricity incumbents and integrated oil and gas producers have significant competitive advantages in their potential moves. (auth)

  7. A Virtual Company for Educational Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of a proposed project with the goal to develop an educational system to be used for education of industrial engineer students at European universities. The system is based on Internet and multimedia applications and constists of following elements: A virtual company...... producing beer brewing automates, a Modelbank with an operational industrial engineer knowwledge base, 'a company history book' and several hybrid simulation games....

  8. Exposure to electromagnetic fields and the risk of disease in the central nervous system in employees at Danish electric companies; Udsaettelse for elektromagnetiske felter og risiko for sygdomme i det centrale nervesystem blandt ansatte ved danske elselskaber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, Christoffer

    2002-07-01

    Introduction: Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields has been associated with neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, senile dementia, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Material and method: I studied the incidence of disease in the central nervous system in 30,631 persons employed at Danish electric companies between 1900 and 1993. I linked the cohort to the nationwide, population-based Danish National Register of Patients and compared the number of cases of these diseases found between 1978 and 1993 with the corresponding rates in the general population. In addition, I fit the data on utility workers to a multiplicative Poisson regression model in relation to estimated levels of exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. Results: Overall, there was an increase in the risk of senile dementia and motor neuron diseases combined. The incidence of Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and other diseases of the central nervous system were essentially unrelated to exposure to electromagnetic fields. A decreased risk of epilepsy compared with the general population probably reflects a healthy worker effects; I observed an increased risk of epilepsy based on internal comparisons. Discussion: The increased risk of senile dementia and motor-neuron diseases may be associated with above average levels of exposure to electromagnetic fields. (au)

  9. Africa: a Future Energy Supplier for Europe? Africa as a Member of Trans-European Transfer Networks and a Partner to EU on the Field of Electricity Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Waisová, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    The EU member states rank among the most developed countries in the world which also makes them signifi cant electricity consumers. Electricity consumption in the EU member states has been increasing steadily over several decades and this tendency should be expected to continue in the future Majority of the EU member states are not self -suffi cient as to electricity production and have to cover greater or smaller part of their consumption by import from third countries. The present text deal...

  10. The Canadian Niagara Power Company story

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, N.R. [Waterloo Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    2005-07-01

    This book chronicles the history and contributions of the Canadian Niagara Power Company and its employees toward the establishment of electricity generation and distribution in Niagara Falls and Fort Erie, Ontario, dating back to its founding in 1892. Through historical photographs, maps and drawings, the book demonstrates the impact of electricity on the Niagara region. It emphasizes the many skills and jobs required to run the company that generated electricity and maintained a complete system to deliver power, metering, and billing services through the depression, wars, and postwar booms, even during lightning, snow and ice storms. The company began producing power in 1905 with what had been the world's largest-capacity turbines and generators that supplied power to both sides of the Niagara River. Initially, most of the electricity was exported to New York State. The company eventually expanded its Canadian customer service area from Niagara Falls, Ontario, to Fort Erie, Bridgeburg, Amigari, Ridgeway, Stevensville, Crystal Beach and Point Abino. Throughout its history, the Canadian Niagara Power Company provided power at a lower cost than its neighbouring competitors. The William Birch Rankine Generating Station became an important tourist attraction, showcasing the latest electrical appliances of the time in an effort to promote the use of electricity in homes and offices. Today, the station remains a tribute to the fact that natural beauty can coincide with industry. The book also chronicles the difficult business challenges caused by restructuring in the electric power industry in the 1990s, repairing aging equipment and applying the latest in automation and remote sensing technology. Today, the company as FortisOntario is expanding to other communities around Ontario. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Habitat Appraisal by Vermont Electric Power Company

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Declines in habitat availability have been associated with population declines in bird species breeding in early successional forest and shrubland habitats....

  12. The transparency of wholesale electricity trading on the stock exchange, investigated for the example of the European Energy Exchange; Die Transparenz im boerslichen Stromgrosshandel am Beispiel der European Energy Exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrede, Viola v.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to make a well-founded contribution to the debate on the transparency of wholesale electricity trading on the stock exchange in Germany, while providing decision makers with a scientific basis for their actions. It was the author's intent that among whatever insights were gained on the need for transparency rules for wholesale electricity trading on the German stock exchange the study should be restricted to those that would foreseeably also apply to electricity exchanges yet to come in Germany. The EEX was used as a case example for the one reason that it was the only one in existence in Germany at the time of writing. In line with this, the study also includes suggestions for the German spot market, despite its relocation to Paris following a merger with the French trading platform operator Powernext. The study sets out with a description of the stock exchange and electricity exchange trading in general n order to familiarise the reader with the subject. This is followed by a chapter on the concept of transparency, including a discussion of the function of transparency and its role in economic theories. The study goes on to describe other commodities exchanges and elaborates a comparison with Scandinavian electricity exchanges. The last chapter identifies and discusses needs for change.

  13. Good practice guide to internal flexibility policies in companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudswaard, A.; Oeij, P.; Brugman, T.

    2009-01-01

    This report sets out to contribute to the present debate on the need for European companies and their workers to become more flexible and adaptable in the face of ongoing economic change and business restructuring. The guide should therefore provide useful and practical tips for company-level actors

  14. WAYS OF INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN THE COMMERCIAL COMPANIES UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE ROMANIAN LOCAL COUNCIL IN THE POST-ACCESSION PERIOD TO THE EUROPEAN MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Pendiuc

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available More and more companies under the authority of the Local Council are interested in implementing a quality management system following the quality assurance models proposed by the ISO9000 type international standards. Almost 200 organizations have in place a quality management system certified based on these standards. These organizatios requested certification in order to enjoy a number of advantages, especially as regards their position on the market towards competition, by establishing new contractual relationships, foreseeing customers' demands, creating products and services to better fulfill these demands, at better prices. According to some surveys, many commercial companies under the authority of the Loal Council managed to obtain these advantages to gether with other ones such as: a better working structure, motivation of the workers, improvement of the product quality, an increase in the efficiency, productivity and market quota. As more and more similar products manufactured using the same technologies emerge on the market, quality becomes the main selection factor of the commercial companies under the authority of the Local Council on the market, thus the main mean of competitiveness. Thus, lately, in our county we witness an increasingly intense concern in this field, the change of quality-related aspects, this being the main motivation for drafting this article.

  15. NEW EUROPEAN PIPELINE PROJECT EASTRING

    OpenAIRE

    Karch, Lukáš; Varga, Augustín

    2018-01-01

    This paper focuses on the idea of a new European gas pipeline project called Eastring promoted by company Eustream. Eustream is the Slovak gas transmission system operator and has been one of the key players in European gas transmission from Russia to Europe in the last decades. Previous Russian-Ukrainian crisis resulted in reviewing gas flow directions from Russia to Europe in order to enhance the security of gas supplies to Europe. Russia plans to stop gas transmission to Europe via Ukraine...

  16. European opportunities for fuel cell commercialisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, C. E.; Steel, M. C. F.

    1992-01-01

    The European electricity market is changing. This paper will look at the background to power generation in Europe and highlight the recent factors which have entered the market to promote change. The 1990s seem to offer great possibilities for fuel cell commercialisation. Awareness of environmental problems has never been greater and there is growing belief that fuel cell technology can contribute to solving some of these problems. Issues which have caused the power industry in Europe to re-think its methods of generation include: concern over increasing carbon dioxide emissions and their contribution to the greenhouse effect; increasing SO x and NO x emissions and the damage cause by acid rain; the possibility of adverse effects on health caused by high voltage transmission lines; environmental restrictions to the expansion of hydroelectric schemes; public disenchantment with nuclear power following the Chernobyl accident; avoidance of dependence on imported oil following the Gulf crisis and a desire for fuel flexibility. All these factors are hastening the search for clean, efficient, modular power generators which can be easily sited close to the electricity consumer and operated using a variety of fuels. It is not only the power industry which is changing. A tightening of the legislation concerning emissions from cars is encouraging European auto companies to develop electric vehicles, some of which may be powered by fuel cells. Political changes, such as the opening up of Eastern Europe will also expand the market for low-emission, efficient power plants as attempts are made to develop and clean up that region. Many Europeans organisations are re-awakening their interest, or strengthening their activities, in the area of fuel cells because of the increasing opportunities offered by the European market. While some companies have chosen to buy, test and demonstrate Japanese or American fuel cell stacks with the aim of gaining operational experience and

  17. Corporate Political Strategies related to Decisions of European Competition Commission on Regulatory Issues in the European Telecommunications Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranenburg, H.L. van; Ross, T.

    2014-01-01

    The European regulatory institution has the tasks to protect fair competition and equal opportunities for all companies in the European telecommunications industry and to protect the welfare of the consumers. This regulator is responsible for the adherence of telecommunications companies to

  18. European Industrial Doctorates: Marie Curie Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    European Commission, 2012

    2012-01-01

    European industrial doctorates are joint doctoral training projects funded by the European Union (EU) and open to all research fields. The project brings together an academic participant (university, research institution, etc.) and a company. They have to be established in two different EU Member States or associated countries. Associated partners…

  19. NETWORKS FOR THE agglplgowmc COMPANY OF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJTD ( 2011) 8(2):119-127 Faculty of Engineering'& Technology. University of llorin. llorin, Nigeria. . COMPONENTS IMPORTANCE ANALYSIS OF PLC. NETWORKS FOR THE agglplgowmc COMPANY OF. A. ABDULKARIMP, Y.A. ADEDIRAN', B. J. ()LUFEAGBA3. ' Department of Electrical'and Electronics Engineering, ...

  20. New European context for gas producers/operators; Nouveau contexte gazier europeen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deyirmendjian, J.

    2008-07-01

    The development of the European Union towards more integration would enter a new phase if the draft Third Directive regarding the natural gas industry and the deregulation of gas markets would be validated as it stands. The stakes for gas producing/operating companies are very high: they must position themselves either as networks and installations companies or as production and trading companies - meaning regulation and recurring revenues or the opportunities and risks of production and trade. Changes such these, added to the globalisation of gas flows linked to the development of liquefied natural gas (LNG), require more investments than in the past. These additional investments and this technological progress nevertheless give hope that this transformation will not noticeably weaken the security of gas supplies within the European Union (EU) despite the greater volatility of the markets, which are increasingly dominated by the strategies of financial operators. The author reviews the history of the development of the gas distribution networks in Europe and discusses details of the new draft directive aiming at more competition on a market that has been dominated so far by vertical structures. Similarities and differences to the deregulation of the European electricity market are discussed. The divergent attitudes of the EU Member States and the negotiation strategy of the European Commission are discussed. Merges of gas and electricity utilities are on the agenda. The author then reviews the current situation of natural gas consumption and supplies and the transportation and distribution facilities. Political factors influencing the security of supply are discussed. Underground gas storage facilities are crucial in this context. Several projects for new main gas pipelines are discussed. Diversification of supply sources is considered as of strategic relevance. The article is richly illustrated and includes several maps and diagrams.

  1. Book Review: Diversity in European Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Machková

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The case book “Diversity in European Marketing” is the result of the scientific cooperation of the CEMS Marketing Faculty Group. Prestigious Central European Universities - Corvinius University of Budapest and University of Economic, Prague - are members of CEMS - the Global Alliance in Management Education of 26 leading business schools and 70 multinational companies. Four authors from these two Universities share in this book their experience of Central European Marketing specifics.

  2. Gender and Self-Employment: The Role of Mini-Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to evaluate to what degree participation in mini-companies impact young women and men with regard to the perceived desirability and perceived feasibility of self-employment. The Company Programme (CP) is the largest mini-company scheme in European secondary school. Design/methodology/approach: The data derived…

  3. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  4. How a traditional company seeded new analytics capabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gust, G. (Gunther); D. Neumann (Dirk); Flath, C.M. (Christoph M.); T. Brandt (Tobias); Ströhle, P. (Philipp)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDeveloping state-of-the art data analytics capabilities is a challenge for traditional companies with long-established processes and legacy systems. We describe how one such company (a Swiss electricity utility) conducted a seed project-a bottom-up initiative to develop an analytics

  5. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wäger, Patrick A., E-mail: patrick.waeger@empa.ch; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6–10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. - Highlights: • LCA of plastics production from plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues • Multiple stakeholder perspectives addressed via different research questions • Plastics production from WEEE treatment residues clearly superior to alternatives • Robust results as demonstrated by extensive sensitivity analyses.

  6. Life cycle assessment of post-consumer plastics production from waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) treatment residues in a Central European plastics recycling plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wäger, Patrick A; Hischier, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Plastics play an increasingly important role in reaching the recovery and recycling rates defined in the European WEEE Directive. In a recent study we have determined the life cycle environmental impacts of post-consumer plastics production from mixed, plastics-rich WEEE treatment residues in the Central European plant of a market-leading plastics recycler, both from the perspective of the customers delivering the residues and the customers buying the obtained post-consumer recycled plastics. The results of our life cycle assessments, which were extensively tested with sensitivity analyses, show that from both perspectives plastics recycling is clearly superior to the alternatives considered in this study (i.e. municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) and virgin plastics production). For the three ReCiPe endpoint damage categories, incineration in an MSWI plant results in an impact exceeding that of the examined plastics recycling facility each by about a factor of 4, and the production of virgin plastics has an impact exceeding that of the post-consumer recycled (PCR) plastics production each by a factor of 6-10. On a midpoint indicator level the picture is more differentiated, showing that the environmental impacts of the recycling options are lower by 50% and more for almost all impact factors. While this provides the necessary evidence for the environmental benefits of plastics recycling compared to existing alternatives, it can, however, not be taken as conclusive evidence. To be conclusive, future research will have to address the fate of hazardous substances in the outputs of such recycling systems in more detail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. European communion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manners, Ian James

    2013-01-01

    Political theory of European union, through an engagement between political concepts and theoretical understandings, provides a means of identifying the EU as a political object. It is argued that understanding the projects, processes and products of European union, based on ‘sharing’ or ‘communion......’, provides a better means of perceiving the EU as a political object rather than terms such as ‘integration’ or ‘co-operation’. The concept of ‘European communion’ is defined as the ‘subjective sharing of relationships’, understood as the extent to which individuals or groups believe themselves to be sharing...... relations (or not), and the consequences of these beliefs for European political projects, processes and products. By exploring European communion through an engagement with contemporary political theory, using very brief illustrations from the Treaty of Lisbon, the article also suggests that European...

  8. 76 FR 29744 - Monongahela Power Company, West Penn Power Company, The Potomac Edison Company, PJM...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-23

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Monongahela Power Company, West Penn Power Company, The Potomac Edison Company, PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 13, 2011, Monongahela Power Company, West Penn Power Company, The Potomac Edison Company (collectively, the Designated...

  9. 75 FR 5075 - Coalinga Cogeneration Company, Kern River Cogeneration Company, Mid-Set Cogeneration Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ...-612-000; ER10-611-000] Coalinga Cogeneration Company, Kern River Cogeneration Company, Mid-Set Cogeneration Company, Salinas River Cogeneration Company, Sargent Canyon Cogeneration Company, Sycamore Cogeneration Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket...

  10. FDI Companies and the Indian Company Law: Regulations vs. Disclosures

    OpenAIRE

    ISID, Foreign Investments Study Team

    2014-01-01

    In India companies with substantial foreign direct investment can register as private companies irrespective of the size of their operation whether in India or abroad. Under the Indian company law private companies can prevent public access to certain critical information on their operations. While many FDI companies got delisted (gone 'private')over the past few years ,indications are that most FDI companies are registered as private companies. The Discussion Note argues for withdrawal of...

  11. European Automotive Congress

    CERN Document Server

    Clenci, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    The volume includes selected and reviewed papers from the European Automotive Congress held in Bucharest, Romania, in November 2015. Authors are experts from research, industry and universities coming from 14 countries worldwide. The papers are covering the latest developments in fuel economy and environment, automotive safety and comfort, automotive reliability and maintenance, new materials and technologies, traffic and road transport systems, advanced engineering methods and tools, as well as advanced powertrains and hybrid and electric drives.

  12. European Corporate Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Dorresteijn, Adriaan; Teichmann, Christoph

    This fully updated new edition provides the best-known practical overview of the law regarding companies, business activities, and capital markets in Europe, at both the European Union (EU) and Member State levels. It incorporates analysis of recent developments including the impact of global......; - a company’s freedom to incorporate in a jurisdiction not its own; - competition among the legal forms of different Member States; and - safeguarding of employee involvement in cross-border transactions. With respect to national law, the laws of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain...... initiatives in such aspects of the corporate environment as regulation of financial institutions and non-financial reporting obligations with a view to sustainability and other social responsibility concerns. The authors, all leading experts in European corporate law, describe current and emerging trends...

  13. Virtual Company and Modelbank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1996-01-01

    Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank......Ansøgning til Socrates programmet vedr. Tematisk netværk inden for området Virtual Company and Modelbank...

  14. Conclusion: The balanced company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheuer, John Damm; Jensen, Inger

    2013-01-01

    This concluding chapter brings together the various research findings of the book "The balanced company - organizing for the 21st Century" and develops a general overview of their implications for our understanding of the balancing processes unfolding in companies and organizations....

  15. The mortality of companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daepp, Madeleine I G; Hamilton, Marcus J; West, Geoffrey B; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2015-05-06

    The firm is a fundamental economic unit of contemporary human societies. Studies on the general quantitative and statistical character of firms have produced mixed results regarding their lifespans and mortality. We examine a comprehensive database of more than 25 000 publicly traded North American companies, from 1950 to 2009, to derive the statistics of firm lifespans. Based on detailed survival analysis, we show that the mortality of publicly traded companies manifests an approximately constant hazard rate over long periods of observation. This regularity indicates that mortality rates are independent of a company's age. We show that the typical half-life of a publicly traded company is about a decade, regardless of business sector. Our results shed new light on the dynamics of births and deaths of publicly traded companies and identify some of the necessary ingredients of a general theory of firms.

  16. Institutional Ownership and Corporate Social Performance: Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Fauzi; Lois Mahoney; Azhar Abdul Rahman

    2007-01-01

    Prior research on the relationships of institutional ownership and corporate social responsibility has focused on North American (U.S. and Canada) and European companies.  With the passage of Indonesian Law No. 40 in 2007, Indonesian companies are now obligated to conduct CSP. As these companies objected to the passage of this law, awareness of how CSP may benefit Indonesian companies in terms of its positive impact on institutional investors needs to be investigated. Thus, this paper examine...

  17. European Institutions?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meacham, Darian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this article is to sketch a phenomenological theory of political institutions and to apply it to some objections and questions raised by Pierre Manent about the project of the European Union and more specifically the question of “European Construction”, i.e. what is the aim of the

  18. Selective Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoch Jovanovic, Tamara; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2014-01-01

    political contexts at the European level. We further show how the “translation” of international norms to a domestic context has worked to reinforce the original institutional setup, dating back to the mid-1950s. The translation of European-level minority policy developed in the 1990s and 2000s works most...

  19. EUROPEAN ACCOUNTING REGULATION - HISTORY AND PERSPECTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Farcas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The first directive regarding the financial reporting at the level of European Union is published in 1978 (The Fourth Directive and whereas its content does not refer to the group companies, this directive was supplemented by another directive (The Seventh Directive published in 1983. The two directives regulate in parallel the issues concerning the preparing of the annual financial statements of individual companies, respectively of the group companies. Since 2008 have begun to take shape the point of views regarding the need of the development and publication of some regulations to simplify and to reduce the administrative burdens of the companies, including on the issue of financial reporting. The steps in the direction of simplification of the regulation in accounting area have resulted in June 2013 in The 34th Directive regarding the annual financial statements, the consolidated financial statements and the related reports of certain types of companies. As a member of the European Union, Romania must take into account the implementation of the European legislation in all areas, including in the field of accounting. In this respect, The Fourth Directive regarding the annual accounts of certain types of companies and The Seventh Directive regarding the consolidated accounts have been transposed into Romanian legislation since 2006 through OMFP 1752/2005 when the Romanian accounting regulations have become in accordance to the European directives and not only harmonized with these, and OMFP 3055/2009 brings additional information concerning the rules relating to the consolidation of accounts.

  20. Electrically Assisted Cycling around the World

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelle, Jan; Lataire, Philippe; Maggetto, Gaston; Van den Bossche, Peter; Timmermans, Jean-Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper will report about Brussels’s contribution to the European E-Tour (Electric Two wheelers On Urban Roads) project. This project aimed to prove the viability of electric two-wheelers in different (urban) areas, by providing European cities with a clean, efficient and reliable alternative for the car. Based on a technical identification of different electric bicycles that are available on the European market and an extended questionnaire filled in by their users, we tried to get an ...

  1. The state of the North-European electricity market. Attempt to a problem-oriented analysis; Laeget paa den Nordeuropeiska elmarknaden. Ett foersoek till en problemorienterad analys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrmarck, U.

    2001-11-01

    This analysis covers the period 2000-2005, plus a few longer prognoses. Most analyses that preceded the deregulation of the electricity market in Europe, held the opinion that the market, due to the important over capacity, would be characterized by a severe price competition and lead to a market restructuration with only a few large producers surviving. The need for new investments was considered to be limited. Even a growing demand for electricity would not disturb the price reductions. The development followed this scheme to a certain extent. The restructuring is taking place. The utilities EdF (France), ENI (Italy), E.On, RWE (both Germany) and Vattenfall (Sweden) are obtaining dominant positions on their largely extended markets. But the prices have been stabilized on a level above the marginal production costs, and the power surplus has been halved compared to 1998. Northern Europe is approaching a state with increasing prices and threatening power shortages. The producers have adapted to the new situation by exploiting the differences in production- and demand-structure in the different countries and the associated price differences. Producers in Germany have instead of competing with the price chosen to close down a number of plants with large investment needs and high operating costs. The energy policy of all countries in the region gives highest priority to investment in renewable energy sources, which can not replace all the capacity lost by closing fossil and nuclear power plants. The ambition of the power producers to regain control of the market and the political inclination to prioritize CO{sub 2}-free power production has, in combination, led to a strengthening of the existing producers and denying market access for new larger actors. New base load production capacity will be needed in the long run, and investment decisions are needed in the near future, if risks for power shortages are to be avoided. Increasing prices will stimulate commercial

  2. COMPETITIVENESS AND INNOVATION OF THE ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Nagy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In front of the Romanian economy which has been integrated only for a few years, lies the challenge of competitiveness which in many cases is associated with innovation. To turn from a close center oriented economy to market economy required an enormous effort from the population and from the companies as well, but the real challenge is still to come. The requirements of competitiveness and innovation of the United European Market are compulsory, from the point of view of the Romanian entrepreneurs is vital for their survival and development. The studies made so far are not very promising. There are many things to be done, many problems are still not solved in the European Union. The European Union is behind its traditional competitors USA and Japan. This is why one of the major concerns of the EU is competitiveness and innovation.

  3. Gestión estratégica de la comunicación digital en la empresa ecuatoriana. Perspectiva comparada con la realidad Europea / Strategic management of digital communication in the Ecuadorian company. Comparative perspective with the European reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Puertas Hidalgo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available En la era de la convergencia digital, la consecución en las organizaciones de un modelo de relación y gestión de intereses con los públicos simétrico y bidireccional requieren de la construcción de una imagen y una reputación, resultado de una planificación estratégica de la comunicación. Sin embargo, esta perspectiva sistémica -en la que la comunicación se vuelve eje transversal a todos procesos organizacional- y que le asigna al profesional de la comunicación una función directiva –Dircom-, no es una constante en la realidad en las empresas ecuatorianas. Este artículo es resultado de la investigación que lleva adelante el Observatorio de la Comunicación Estratégica del Ecuador de la Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja-Ecuador, el constituido en 2014 para estudiar el perfil profesional de los comunicadores en el ámbito de la comunicación interna, corporativa, digital y la comercial así como la Responsabilidad Social Corporativa. Para este primer año, se ha enfocado en la identificación de la situación actual de la Comunicación Estratégica: profesionales formados para desempeñar esta función, organización, función de la comunicación estratégica en las empresas, estrategias y acciones ejecutadas, y tendencias. Los resultados recogidos en este trabajo se han contrastado con algunos de los resultados del trabajo realizado en el European Communication Monitor 2014. Descubriendo que tanto en Europa como en Ecuador, la tendencia del uso de tecnologías para las diversas tareas y actividades en el área de comunicación se incrementa. Es necesario entonces encontrar un escenario común de diálogo y aportaciones hacia un mismo objetivo: conseguir una experiencia equilibrada de relación simétrica con las personas.

  4. Analisys of subcultures existence in a european multinational company stablished in Brazil Análise da existência de subculturas em uma multinacional européia sediada no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cardoso

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Corporate culture is one of the main sources of organizational identity. In large corporations, the existence of a "backbone" seems to be evident; however, the manifestation of subcultures is a natural phenomenon due to the complexity of operations and diversity of people who are part of the organizational system. This article tries to identify the existence of subcultures in a European multinational organization installed in Brazil. The selected method, case study research, was based on the problematic of identifying and comparing the main cultural elements in Sales and Service departments of this organization. This paper aimed to compare main values, artifacts, leadership, decision making process and communication in both departments, using empirical investigation compounded by deep structured interviews and non-participant observations. The main contributions raise up that each department show its own way of acting, based on its own meanings and urgency sense. The theoretical basis for this study was Schein's concept of organizational culture (SCHEIN, 1992; 2007 and the three cultural perspectives defined by Martin (1999.A cultura é uma das principais fontes da identidade organizacional. Em grandes corporações, a existência de uma "espinha dorsal" parece ser evidente, entretanto, a manifestação de subculturas é um fenômeno natural devido à complexidade das operações e diversidade de sujeitos que fazem parte do sistema organizacional. Este artigo procura identificar a existência de subculturas em uma organização multinacional de origem européia sediada no Brasil. O método escolhido, estudo de caso qualitativo, foi amparado na problemática de identificar e comparar os principais elementos culturais dos departamentos de vendas e serviços desta organização. Este trabalho se propôs comparar os principais valores, artefatos, liderança, processo de tomada de decisão e comunicação destes dois departamentos, a partir da

  5. KNOWLEDGE IN LEARNING COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Cristina VASILE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes are the only constant value in the current unpredictable economy. Under these circumstances leaders and employees must manage the external and internal environment and bring profitability for their companies. This paper gives an introductory approach to different perspective over learning companies in international literature. Different theoretical aspects, models and theories are taken into account for having a higher visibility to the complex concept of learning companies from leadership side to multiculturalism as the firm profitability should be the final goal of each economic system. The article concludes that not the process of learning is important but the adaptability to every different environment must be seen as vital.

  6. Companies as capital companies and personal companies determination of the term company

    OpenAIRE

    Belovski, Vojo

    2016-01-01

    In this modest work the author, as a professor of commercial law and using the opinions of eminent scholars in this field, will try to answer the question: is the existence of capital companies possible, on one hand, and of personal companies, on the other hand, in their pure form? The laws on business associations of capital should start from the idea that they are not laws for retailers, but laws for companies in which the material for traders, including the material for entr...

  7. Organigraphs: drawing how companies really work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzberg, H; Van der Heyden, L

    1999-01-01

    Walk into any organization and you will get a snapshot of the company in action--people and products moving every which way. But ask for a picture of the company and you will be given the org chart, with its orderly little boxes showing just the names and titles of managers. Now there's a more revealing way to depict the people and operations within an organization--an approach called the organigraph. The organigraph is not a chart. It's a map that offers an overview of the company's functions and the ways that people organize themselves at work. Perhaps most important, an organigraph can help managers see untapped competitive opportunities. Drawing on the organigraphs they created for about a dozen companies, authors Mintzberg and Van der Heyden illustrate just how valuable a tool the organigraph is. For instance, one they created for Electrocomponents, a British distributor of electrical and mechanical items, led managers to a better understanding of the company's real expertise--business-to-business relationships. As a result of that insight, the company wisely decided to expand in Asia and to increase its Internet business. As one manager says, "It allowed the company to see all sorts of new possibilities." With traditional hierarchies vanishing and newfangled--and often quite complex--organizational forms taking their place, people are struggling to understand how their companies work. What parts connect to one another? How should processes and people come together? Whose ideas have to flow where? With their flexibility and realism, organigraphs give managers a new way to answer those questions.

  8. Synergies between an observed port and a logistic company

    OpenAIRE

    Dragan Dejan; Rosi Bojan; Avžner Toni

    2017-01-01

    The paper addresses an analysis of potential synergies in collaboration between an observed Port in the Mediterranean Sea and Central-European logistic railway-services based company. Both companies have established a strategic partnership. The main motive was cooperation in rail transport, with a particular emphasis on potential synergies that would a rail traffic have brought to a port’s business. For the purpose of synergies valuation under uncertain conditions, a Monte Carlo simulation-ba...

  9. EU emissions trading: Distinctive behavior of small companies

    OpenAIRE

    Naegele, Helene; ZAKLAN, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    The EU Emissions Trading System (EU ETS) is the cornerstone of the European Union's climate policy and covers just under half of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions. More than ten years since the EU ETS was first introduced, there continues to be substantial research interest regarding its functioning and the behavior of participating companies. DIW Berlin conducted three econometric studies based on microdata at company and/or installation level. The findings suggest that, overall, there are o...

  10. Indirect investment in real estate: Listed companies and funds

    OpenAIRE

    Suarez, Jose L.; Vassalo, Amparo

    2005-01-01

    In Europe today, there are two main vehicles for indirect investment in real estate; real estate investment funds, on the one hand, and, on the other, listed real estate companies. With these instruments, not only does the investor take a position in the real estate market, he/she also acquires different risk/return structures which may vary according to the instrument being used. In some European countries, real estate companies have modified their financial structure and tax position by ado...

  11. European Whiteness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette

    2008-01-01

    Born out of the United States’ (U.S.) history of slavery and segregation and intertwined with gender studies and feminism, the field of critical whiteness studies does not fit easily into a European setting and the particular historical context that entails. In order for a field of European...... critical whiteness studies to emerge, its relation to the U.S. theoretical framework, as well as the particularities of the European context need to be taken into account.. The article makes a call for a multi-layered approach to take over from the identity politics so often employed in the fields of U...

  12. 78 FR 11638 - Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice of Petition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Michigan Consolidated Gas Company, DTE Gas Company, DTE Gas Company; Notice... Docket Nos. PR13-29-000, and PR13-30-000 (not consolidated), Michigan Consolidated Gas Company (MichCon) and DTE Gas Company (DTE Gas) filed to institute a name change to both itself from MichCon to DTE Gas...

  13. Bull Moose Tube Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Bull Moose Tube Company, a business located at 1819 Clarkson Road, Chesterfield, MO, 63017, for alleged violations at the facility located at 406 East Industrial Drive,

  14. CSR in TSL companies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Joanna DYCZKOWSKA

    2015-01-01

    .... The purpose of this article is to present the activities in the area of the eco-friendly CSR aspect in the activities of TSL companies taking into consideration particularly logistic operators...

  15. Company profile: Athersys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bokkelen, Gil

    2011-01-01

    Athersys (Nasdaq: ATHX) is a biopharmaceutical company engaged in the discovery and development of novel therapies designed to treat significant unmet medical needs. The company is heavily focused on the regenerative medicine area, with multiple clinical and preclinical stage programs. The most advanced programs at the company are focused on the development of MultiStem®, a clinical stage allogeneic stem cell therapy that has demonstrated potential for treating a range of conditions and is believed to have widespread application in the field of regenerative medicine. The company has internal programs applying MultiStem across multiple therapeutic areas including cardiovascular, neurological, immune dysfunction and other disease areas, and partnered programs with Pfizer (applying MultiStem to treat inflammatory bowel disease) and Angiotech Pharmaceuticals (acute myocardial infarction). Athersys has a broad network of collaborative relationships with leading research and clinical institutions and is committed to developing a pipeline of novel 'best-in-class' medicines.

  16. Schildberg Construction Company, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of a proposed Administrative Penalty Assessment against the Schildberg Construction Company, Inc. for alleged violations at its locations at 1605 218th Avenue, Osceola, IA 50213 and 34466 Elkhorn Trail, Graham, MO 64455.

  17. 75 FR 52045 - Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-24

    ... COMMISSION Arizona Public Service Company, Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, Unit 3; Environmental... Operating License No. NPF-74, issued to Arizona Public Service Company (APS, the licensee), for operation of... the public health and safety. The NRC-approved Westinghouse Electric Company LLC (Westinghouse...

  18. Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, George H.; Verreault, Dan; Holly B Tompson

    2009-01-01

    Owners of the Hawaii Macadamia Nut Company (HMNC) are facing an expansion opportunity. A land owner has property available that would enable the HMNC to expand its acreage and revenue by about 20%. To fully consider this opportunity the owners must decide 1) whether the expansion is strategically and financially viable, 2) how to raise capital to finance the expansion, and 3) whether they have the skills to manage the company's growth during expansion. This is a case study describing a real c...

  19. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) prepares the Electric Power Monthly (EPM) for a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the electric utility industry, and the general public. This publication provides monthly statistics for net generation, fossil fuel consumption and stocks, quantity and quality of fossil fuels, cost of fossil fuels, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fossil fuels are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. The EIA publishes statistics in the EPM on net generation by energy source, consumption, stocks, quantity, quality, and cost of fossil fuels; and capability of new generating units by company and plant. The purpose of this publication is to provide energy decisionmakers with accurate and timely information that may be used in forming various perspectives on electric issues that lie ahead.

  20. European Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Bjørn

    Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"......Theoretical chapters on "Security", "Organisations" and "Regions," Historical Chapters on "Europe and Its Distinguishing Features" and on "The United Nations," "NATO," "The CSCE/OSCE and the Council of Europe" and "The European Union"...

  1. Institutional Ownership and Corporate Social Performance: Empirical Evidence from Indonesian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Fauzi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on the relationships of institutional ownership and corporate social responsibility has focused on North American (U.S. and Canada and European companies.  With the passage of Indonesian Law No. 40 in 2007, Indonesian companies are now obligated to conduct CSP. As these companies objected to the passage of this law, awareness of how CSP may benefit Indonesian companies in terms of its positive impact on institutional investors needs to be investigated. Thus, this paper examines the relationships of IO and CSP for Indonesian companies. Unfortunately, contrary to the results for North American and European companies, we found no relationships between institutional ownership and corporate social responsibility for Indonesian companies. This finding suggests that most institutional investors do not include CSP as part of their investment decisions.

  2. OWNERSHIP STRUCTURE AND COMPANY PERFORMANCE – RESEARCH AND LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Varcholova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to summarize the results of published researches conducted in the area of influence of ownership forms on companies and financial performance and to highlight the specifics of these relations in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  3. Complex Logistics Strategy for Industrial Companies in Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horňáková, Natália; Hudák, Ján; Vidová, Helena

    2014-12-01

    Presented paper is a part of the dissertation thesis titled as "A proposal to develop Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies. The result of the thesis will be a methodology for developing a Complex Logistics Strategy for industrial companies in Slovakia. The main aim of the paper is to present some trends and strategies in Logistics and clarify the need of resolving the issue of Logistics Strategy based on the theoretical knowledge, case studies and analysis of current state of Logistics Strategies in industrial companies in Slovakia and other European countries.

  4. "Unraveling Intercultural communication in an Hungarian cookie Company"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baca, Susan

    2009-01-01

    the early 1990s, provides an unusually good opportunity for studying the role of culture in organizational change in that deep structural changes were occurring at both the macro, or national/regional level, and at the micro, or company/organizational level. The case thus raises questions regarding......This paper presents a case study of a Hungarian company going through the double transition of having been recently acquired by a foreign corporation and, at the same time, reorienting its business approach from east to west. This juncture in time for Central and Eastern European companies, namely...

  5. The Exchange Rate Exposure of Danish Non-Financial Companies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabo, Tom

    1999-01-01

    A shortcut to measuring exchange rate exposure at the company level can be to exploit the information content in the stock prices. A regression analysis is conducted for the main Danish non-financial companies. The use of one all-comprising exchange rate indicator fails to address the complexity......,1) regression analysis is shown to further improve the detection of exposures. The success in identifying exposures for Danish non-financial companies is in contrast to earlier US studies and is relevant in a European context....

  6. The superefficient company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, M

    2001-09-01

    Most companies do a great job promoting efficiency within their own walls, streamlining internal processes wherever possible. But they have less success coordinating cross-company business interactions. When data pass between companies, inconsistencies, errors, and misunderstandings routinely arise, leading to wasted work--for instance, the same sales, order entry, and customer data may be entered repeatedly into different systems. Typically, scores of employees at each company manage these cumbersome interactions. The costs of such inefficiencies are very real and very large. In this article, Michael Hammer outlines the activities and goals used in streamlining cross-company processes. He breaks down the approach into four stages: scoping--identifying the business process for redesign and selecting a partner; organizing--establishing a joint committee to oversee the redesign and convening a design team to implement it; redesigning--taking apart and reassembling the process, with performance goals in mind; and implementing--rolling out the new process and communicating it across the collaborating companies. The author describes how several companies have streamlined their supply-chain and product development processes. Plastics compounder Geon integrated its forecasting and fulfillment processes with those of its main supplier after watching inventories, working capital, and shipping times creep up. General Mills coordinated the delivery of its yogurt with Land O'Lakes; butter and yogurt travel cost effectively in the same trucks to the same stores. Hammer says this new kind of collaboration promises to change the traditional vocabulary of corporate relationships. What if you and I sell different products to the same customer? We're not competitors, but what are we? In the past, we didn't care. Now, we should, the author says.

  7. Electric distribution systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sallam, A A

    2010-01-01

    "Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery of electricity to end users. The only book that deals with the key topics of interest to distribution system engineers, Electric Distribution Systems presents a comprehensive treatment of the subject with an emphasis on both the practical and academic points of view. Reviewing traditional and cutting-edge topics, the text is useful to practicing engineers working with utility companies and industry, undergraduate graduate and students, and faculty members who wish to increase their skills in distribution system automation and monitoring."--

  8. Avaliação de transportadoras de materiais perigosos utilizando o método electre tri The eletre tri method applied to the evaluation of companies transporting hazardous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helder Gomes Costa

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma metodologia para a classificação e escolha de prestadores de serviço para transporte de materiais perigosos, fundamentado na metodologia de Auxílio Multicritério à Decisão - AMD. A metodologia aqui proposta apresenta características que permitem considerar a subjetividade inerente ao processo de avaliação de desempenho dos Prestadores de Serviço, diferenciando-se, assim, de outros métodos de seleção de fornecedores de serviços de transportes. As particularidades da metodologia proposta, principalmente em relação à sua aplicabilidade, foram verificadas num caso em uma empresa distribuidora de combustíveis, com rede de postos em todo o Brasil.This article proposes a method for the classification and selection of hazardous materials transporters based on Multicriteria Decision Making (MCDM concepts. This approach involves characteristics that allow the subjectivity inherent to the process of evaluating the performance of Service Companies to be considered, thus differentiating it from other transport services supplier selection methods. The particularities of the proposed methodology, particularly insofar as its applicability is concerned, were assessed by means of a case study involving a fuel distribution company which owns gas stations throughout the country.

  9. European visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, (on the right) visited the CMS assembly hall accompanied by Jim Virdee, Deputy Spokesman of CMS (on the left), and Robert Aymar, Director-General of CERN. The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, visited CERN on Tuesday 31 January. He was welcomed by the Director-General, Robert Aymar, who described the missions and current activities of CERN to him, in particular the realisation of the LHC with its three components: accelerator, detectors, storage and processing of data. The European Commissioner then visited the CMS assembly hall, then the hall for testing the LHC magnets and the ATLAS cavern. During this first visit since his appointment at the end of 2004, Janez Potočnik appeared very interested by the operation of CERN, an example of successful scientific co-operation on a European scale. The many projects (30 on average) that CERN and the European Commission carry out jointly for the benefit of res...

  10. Quality of Power Supply in European View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Hradilek

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with comparisons of situation in quality of power supply regulation in some of European countries, which are interested in CEER (Council of European Energy Regulators. Especially we focused our analysis on reliability indices, relationship between supplier and consumer and electric power supply aftereffects. There are discussed differences in each countries and comparison with situation in Czech Republic.

  11. Captive insurance companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The landscape of the business world is changing; and now, more than ever, business owners are recognizing that life is filled with risks: known risk, calculated risk, and unexpected risk. Every day, businesses thrive or fail based on understanding the risk of owning and operating their business, and business owners are recognizing that there are alternative risk financing mechanisms other than simply taking out a basket of standard coverage as recommended by your friendly neighborhood agent. A captive insurance company is an insurance company established to provide a broad range of risk management capabilities to affiliated companies. The captive is owned by the business owner and can provide insurance to the business for potential future losses, whether or not the losses are already covered by a commercial carrier or are "self-insured." The premiums paid by your business are tax deductible. Meanwhile, the premiums that your captive collects are tax-free up to $1.2 million annually.

  12. Companies as "Cyborgs"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    This paper investigates the legal and commercial consequences of companies being considered as both an entity and a person in law – hence the notion of ‘cyborg’ in its title. It concentrates upon legal personhood and relates this particular feature to the issue of corporate citizenship. In turn...... corporate citizenship provides a link to considering the political role of companies, since in claiming citizenship they are implicitly at least claiming a particular set of political rights consequent upon that status, and announcing a particular politically constrained context associated...... with their operational characteristics. But what would be involved in granting companies full citizenship rights in the image of natural person citizenship? The paper explores this issue in connection to the differences between corporate social responsibility and an earlier idea of the socially responsible corporation...

  13. Company cases Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølle, Martin; Pedersen, Jørgen Lindgaard

    2005-01-01

    to technology but also from more focus on human beings and business.It has been important that CSC has respected Nordic values in worklife and that the CSC philosophy has been important and not so different from DC. The other case is from pharmaceutical industry in which Norwegian Nycomed buys DAK......The Danish part of the publication describes two Danish cases with foreign companies taking over Danish companies. The first case is from software industry where Datacentralen (DC) was taken over by American company Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) in 1986. DC delivered IT - solutions...... for government sector in Denmark. DC employed 1,000 persons and had a market share on 75 % in the market of large government institutions when it was taken over. Danish government wanted to sell DC in order to get more intensity in competion in IT - markets in general and especially in the market for public...

  14. RESTRUCTURING COMPANIES UNDER CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hezi Aviram SHAYB

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nobody is planning to fail, but many companies are failing because of lack of planning. Real business experience showed during the years that crisis can be prevented, avoided or limited. If detected in time, the risks associated with the crisis can be mitigated and the effects can be diminished, with the condition that the actions required are done fast, in a sharp and accurate manner. When it comes, a crisis brings an intense level of pressure and under these conditions there is no time or room for mistakes. Delays, losing focus and lack of planning will bring a company one step away from failure. The right way to deal with crisis, if required measures are not done in time, is to minimize the losses and reposition in the best way possible. Analysing the success stories of some of the biggest and strongest companies in the world, led to an important conclusion: the majority of these companies were in the situation to face huge crises which threatened their ability to survive in certain moments, on their way to success. With the right planning and by setting a proper organisational structure, the negative aspects of the crisis can be turned into benefits and opportunities for the company. The most critical challenge for management is to assess the level of exposure to risk of the company and identify the key points to focus on in order to overcome the crisis and create value. In order to set up a strong plan in dealing with crisis, a business organisation needs reliable, efficient and effective tools and this is what this article is all about.

  15. Outsourcing: Analysis of Slovenian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Klemen Kavcic

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing can mean an all-important strategic decision for a company and also for the company which accepts orders from an outsourcing partner. The research results in Slovenia have confirmed that outsourcing has become standard practice in the majority of Slovenian enterprises. Companies most often decide to outsource less important activities at the company level. In the majority of Slovenian companies analysed the management focuses merely on short-term benefits of outsourcing without co...

  16. IMPACT OF IFRS ADOPTION ON ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Florina POPA

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Accounting globalization follows the transformation of the accounting system into an economic and financial model, able to inform more correctly and rapidly the users of the accounting information, amongst which the investors and the creditors are clearly delimited. Within this context, the need of a harmonized and well oriented accounting system has become imperative. The adoption of a set of international accounting standards in Europe is intended to provide uniform and high quality financial information on the financial markets which would consolidate the global market efficiency, reducing the cost of capital accessing for European companies. There are numerous opinions according to which the IFRS adoption could be an element of abolishing the discrepancies between the accounting systems, offering at the same time a high level of transparency of the financial information. Our objective is to analyze the opportunity of implementing the IAS/IFRS referential by the Romanian companies, as well as their instant reaction within this context.

  17. Electricity economics. Production functions with electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Zhaoguang [State Grid Energy Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zheng [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The first book studies on the economics of electricity consumption. Compares the sector production functions with electricity and the commercial production functions with electricity. Introduces the global E-GDP function, the European E-GDP function and 12 national E-GDP functions. Presents the gene characters of EAI production functions and E-GDP functions for USA to see why USA's economy is entering an up-industrialization period. Discusses China's economic growth by production functions with electricity. Electricity Economics: Production Functions with Electricity studies the production output from analyzing patterns of electricity consumption. Since electricity data can be used to measure scenarios of economic performance due to its accuracy and reliability, it could therefore also be used to help scholars explore new research frontiers that directly and indirectly benefits human society. Our research initially explores a similar pattern to substitute the Cobb-Douglas function with the production function with electricity to track and forecast economic activities. The book systematically introduces the theoretical frameworks and mathematical models of economics from the perspective of electricity consumption. The E-GDP functions are presented for case studies of more than 20 developed and developing countries. These functions also demonstrate substantial similarities between human DNA and production functions with electricity in terms of four major characteristics, namely replication, mutation, uniqueness, and evolution. Furthermore, the book includes extensive data and case studies on the U.S., China, Japan, etc. It is intended for scientists, engineers, financial professionals, policy makers, consultants, and anyone else with a desire to study electricity economics as well as related applications.

  18. Electric power monthly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Sandra R.; Johnson, Melvin; McClevey, Kenneth; Calopedis, Stephen; Bolden, Deborah

    1992-05-01

    The Electric Power Monthly is prepared by the Survey Management Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration (EIA), Department of Energy. This publication provides monthly statistics at the national, Census division, and State levels for net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, cost of fuel, electricity sales, revenue, and average revenue per kilowatthour of electricity sold. Data on net generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and cost of fuel are also displayed for the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) regions. Additionally, statistics by company and plant are published in the EPM on capability of new plants, new generation, fuel consumption, fuel stocks, quantity and quality of fuel, and cost of fuel.

  19. Metodología matemática para la predicción de eventos de falla, en empresas dedicadas a la generación de energía eléctrica; Mathematical Methodology for the Prediction of Failures for Companies Dedicated to the Electric Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabiel A Carrillo Ramos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Se muestra de forma sencilla y general, cómo es posible llevar a cabo la modelación matemática delcomportamiento de los activos físicos de las empresas, dedicadas al negocio de la producción de energíaeléctrica. Cuando las empresas han alcanzado un cierto grado de madurez, están en condiciones de aplicar laingeniería necesaria para cuidar adecuadamente sus activos, y obtener de ellos su mejor rendimiento, en cuantoa vida útil, mejorando así la tasa de rendimiento de la inversión (ROI por sus siglas en inglés . Los ahorros enrecursos, que se obtienen con la aplicación de esta herramienta, permiten a las empresas mantener sanas susfinanzas y una tendencia, en cuanto a crecimiento, enmarcadas por la eficiencia. This paper shows in a simple and general way, like it is posible to take I finish the mathematical modelation of thebehavior for assets in a companies dedicated to the electric power generation. When the companies havereached a certain degree of maturity, they are in possibility to applying the necessary engineering to take care theassets appropiately, in this moment are presented the possibility to obtain the best yield, for the useful life. Withthis, they are in the best rate of the investment, for english initials ROI. The savings in resources that areobtained with the application of this tools, allow to the companies to maintain healthy finances and tendency in agrowth, framed by the efficiency. 

  20. Kyriakos Kyriakou: Big companies overanalyze and thus lose perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Poucha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In his exclusive interview for Central European Business Review, the Regional Managing Director ofNielsen CEE, Kyriakos Kyriakou, talks about lack of trust in the manufacturer – retailer relationship,about consumer data and how companies should work with it, about selling on discounts and promotionalspirals, about marketing – sales cooperation and about other interesting topics.

  1. Investment Strategy and Efficiency of Investment Activity of European Insurers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhabynets Olga Yo.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies investment strategy and efficiency of investment activity of European insurance companies. In particular, it analyses the share of investments of insurance companies of Europe in GDP, investment portfolio of European insurers and its structure, contribution of insurance companies – leaders of investment activity – into the European investment portfolio. It studies influence of the financial crisis upon investment strategy of European insurers and analyses efficiency of investment activity of European insurers in risk insurance and life insurance. The article proves that investment business models of insurance companies are capable of resisting crisis phenomena more efficiently than other financial institutions. It marks out that measures of insurance companies that are directed at increase of profitability of investments require from them both significant expenditures on creation of the system of investment risk management and open access to different categories of financial assets and markets, which influences the general risk level, taken upon by an insurance company. The author draws a conclusion that, taking into account recent developments, European insurers should focus on equity and investment risk management, finding new possibilities for their (investments growth and also adaptation of new systems and operations for solution of these important tasks.

  2. European Cinema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  3. Reading and company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuzmičová, Anežka; Dias, Patrícia; Vogrinčič Čepič, Ana

    2017-01-01

    . Across all six samples included in the study, participants spontaneously attested to varied, and partly surprising, forms of sensitivity to company and social space in their daily efforts to align body with mind for reading. The article reports these emergent trends and discusses their potential...

  4. Company Administration Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    commander and lot Sergeant. 4-1 Nh h that the company clerk in highly inexperienced. he is continually peitiotming Lasks~ f.:1Lhde first Lime . Because of this...quality of the typing is eyewash. Because of this pre- supposition in many organizations, a document is retyped if it con- tains any type of a blotch

  5. Hydrogen-via-electricity concept. Critique report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escher, W. J. D.

    1981-01-01

    The hydrogen-via-electricity (HvE) concept is the prospective use of hydrogen fuel produced electrolytically from the electric utility grid as a means of responding to conventional fuels shortages. The two sets of comments and critiques of this concept solicited from the Government/Government contractor group and from the electric utility companies are presented.

  6. Short Communication: Electrical energy saving through lamps ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modern Buildings of all types relies heavily on the use of electrical energy. This energy has to be properly utilized in order to avoid many problems both to the electric utilities supply companies and also to the consumer. This paper presents energy saving through replacement process of conventional electric lamps known ...

  7. Hydrogen-via-Electricity concept. Critique report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escher, W.J.D.; Ecklund, E.E.

    1981-01-01

    The Hydrogen-via-Electricity (HvE) concept is the prospective use of hydrogen fuel, produced electrolytically from the electric utility grid, as a means of responding to conventional fuels shortages. This report makes available the two sets of comments and critiques of this concept solicited from the Government/Government contractor group and from the electric utility companies.

  8. Company profile: Sistemic Ltd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Jim

    2013-09-01

    Founded in 2009 and headquartered in Glasgow, Scotland, UK, Sistemic Ltd has developed from a thought in the minds of four scientists into a company working globally to play its part in delivering the exciting opportunities for improvements in human health presented by cell therapies and regenerative medicine products (jointly referred to as the CT industry). Sistemic is now working in all corners of the world with some of the industry's leading companies to ensure that the products that they are developing, which will undoubtedly change the way we treat some of the major diseases and conditions currently placing a large burden on healthcare systems, including diabetes, dementia and cardiovascular disease, are as safe and efficacious as possible. Sistemic is also working to ensure that these products can be produced at a cost that will not lead to potentially transformational treatments being an additional financial burden on our already overburdened healthcare systems. Sistemic is using its revolutionary and IP-protected SistemQC™ (UK) technology to enhance understanding of characterization, process optimization and potency of CT products. The company is using the diagnostic power of miRNAs, a set of approximately 2000 ncRNAs that regulate a large percentage of the total gene expression of a cell. miRNAs are often present in a cell- and tissue-specific way that, at least in some cases, accounts for the phenotypic differences between cell types. These differences in miRNA expression can be interpreted by the miRNA profile and it is interpreting the instructive power of these profiles that underpin Sistemic's knowledge bases, giving CT companies a more comprehensive understanding of their cell populations with respect to their identity and functional capabilities. This knowledge is being used by companies to characterize, process, optimize and assess the efficacy of cell products.

  9. The living company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Geus, A

    1997-01-01

    What can explain the longevity gap between a company that survives for centuries--the Swedish company Stora, for example, which is more than 700 years old--and the average corporation, which does not last 20 years? A team at Royal Dutch/Shell Group explored that question. Arie de Geus, a retired Shell executive, writes about the team's findings and describes what he calls living companies-organizations that have beaten the high mortality rate of the average corporation. Many companies die young, de Geus argues, because their policies and practices are based too heavily on the thinking and language of economics. Their managers focus on producing goods and services and forget that the organization is a community of human beings that is in business--any business--to stay alive. In contrast, managers of living companies consider themselves to be stewards of a long-standing enterprise. Their priorities reflect their commitment to the organization's long-term survival in an unpredictable world. Like careful gardeners, they encourage growth and renewal without endangering the plant they are tending. They value profits the same way most people value oxygen: as necessary for life but not the purpose of it. They scuttle assets when necessary to make a dramatic change in the business portfolio. And they constantly search for new ideas. These managers also focus on developing people. They create opportunities for employees to learn from one another. Such organizations are suited for survival in a world in which success depends on the ability to learn, to adapt, and to evolve.

  10. European Trading Companies and Economic Development in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... other agencies of colonialism such as the planting of Christian missions, churches, schools, hospitals, courts of equity and transportation aided colonial rule and the entrenchment of western civilization in the region. The sources and methodology adopted for this paper are based on archival, secondary, and oral sources.

  11. Electricity and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This invited presentation first deals with the potentials and environmantal advantages of reducing electricity demand. The policies for implementing these savings are dicussed and proposal for future strategies are suggested. The mephasis is on the conflicts between a free European trade with ele...

  12. Corporate Negative Equity: The Evidence from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Mokhova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the Global Financial Crisis the frequency of reported losses of companies has increased significantly in countries of the European Union. Moreover, the financial leverage of companies have increased and even exceeded 100% in several countries. The reason of this development is negative equity that companies find themselves to report. At first sight negative equities are caused by accumulated losses from prior periods. However, there are some other reasons that can result in increasing negative equities in companies. They remain adequate as long as a company is able to pay its bills. Nevertheless, a company with negative equity is exposed to risks. This paper investigates whether the corporate negative equity is a sign of the future failure of a company. We examine non-financial manufactured companies from selected countries of the European Union within the period 2005–2012 from database Amadeus (Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Poland and Germany. By the means of comparison between negative and positive equities we applied descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation analysis. We find that in all surveyed countries the size positively influences the equity of companies. Other factors as profitability and growth opportunities do not influence the corporate equity. In addition the binary logistic regression analysis has been conducted based on the evidence from Czech companies. Our results indicate that negative equities are not a sign of bankruptcy or insolvency of a company. But the low profitability or low business activities (that are predictors of bankruptcy might lead to negative equities in the balance sheet.

  13. European integration and law: four contributions on the interplay between European integration and European and national law to celebrate the 25th anniversary of Maastricht University's Faculty of Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curtin, D.; Smits, J.M.; Klip, A.; McCahery, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    This book offers four stimulating views on European integration and law. Four experts in the fields of European law, private law, criminal law and company law discuss to what extent European integration has affected their respective fields of interest. In addition to this, they offer their views on

  14. Economic and market feasibility analysis, by the point of view of gas and electrical companies, for replacement of the electric powered showers by the natural gas powered showers in ABC Paulista area; Analise da viabilidade economica e do mercado, do ponto de vista das concessionarias de gas e de energia eletrica, pela substituicao de chuveiros eletricos por gas natural, na area do ABC paulista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callari, Roberto [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rosim, Sidney Olivieri [Rosim e Papaleo Consultoria e Participacoes Ltda. (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of an exchange of energy for heating residential water should be seen, by the point of view of the concessionaires, as a single market and exclusionary, in which the development of new customers by the concessionaire of electric energy directly involves the development of these non-customers for the distributor of natural gas. The study shows that, under the terms of concession of electricity, the loss of any part of the markets, current and expansion would be attractive only if the natural gas concessionaire could pass part of their earnings with customers users of electric showers that change their profile to the gas heaters, for electrical distribution. Under the terms of the concession to natural gas, the condition of massive investments replacement of electric showers and absorption of growth and expansion entrant with customers, increase the turnover to allow the search of a mechanism for transferring part of that revenue to absorb also customers of electricity. Thus, both the concessionaire of electricity preserve their revenue and, in turn, the concessionaire of natural gas would have an effective gain of revenue for the absorption of the customers of electric showers. (author.

  15. Regionalization strategies of European Union electric utilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lindeque, J.; van den Buuse, D.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the debate about globalization and regionalization, this paper adds a perspective that has so far remained underexposed, that of (formerly state-owned) firms in (previously) regulated industries, in order to better understand the (changing) role of the home country/region in

  16. Distributed Generation in European Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropenus, Stephanie

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steadystate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibr...

  17. Danish and European plans for wind energy deployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Hjuler; Knudsen, Søren; Morthorst, Poul Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this chapter we outline European policies directed towards the ambitious target of large-scale use of wind energy in the European electricity supply system, and the scenarios that foresee up to 34% of Europe’s electricity coming from wind by 2030. First, however, we address Danish energy policy...

  18. Film and television production in the Netherlands - a comparison between three medium-sized companies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanders, Willemien; Puijk, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the different ways in which production companies established in similar ways can develop over time. It takes three Dutch private film- and television companies as cases. The research forms part of the Dutch component of a European partnership project, Success in the Film and

  19. Kaizen-Driven Approach While Managing Industrial Projects. A Scandinavian Company Succeeds in Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popescu Daniel

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eastern European companies have experienced various and radical transformations, as resultof the economic crises and turbulences, which exposed structural weaknesses. In the meantime, long-term challenges - such as globalization, shift of power centers from the nationallevel to international structures or scarcity of resources - intensify. Given this context, it ismandatory for companies to develop strategies aiming at being competitive.

  20. Film and television production in the Netherlands - a comparison between three medium-sized companies.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Willemien; Puijk, Roel

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the different ways in which production companies established in similar ways can develop over time. It takes three Dutch private film- and television companies as cases. The research forms part of the Dutch component of a European partnership project, Success in the Film and Television Industries (SiFTI), which aims to explore and explain what characterises the organizational culture of successful film and television companies, understanding ‘successful’ to encompass crit...

  1. Corporate responsibility reporting of the largest forest industry companies in North America

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory study aims to analyze the CR reporting by eleven largest forest products companies in North America. Both annual reports and sustainability reports produced in year 2006 by eleven largest forest products companies in North America were chosen for this very study. To ensure the comparability of the results, the study adopts the similar variables in operationalizations by Routto (2008), who studied the CR reporting of European forest products companies. The methodology applied ...

  2. European risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.H.A.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Cavenne, F.; Ulisse, A.; Bridegeman, G.

    2008-01-01

    Most risk assessment methodologies aim at the risk at the level of an individual organization or company. The European Union commissioned a study to define the elements for a uniform and scalable risk assessment methodology which takes into account critical infrastructure dependencies across

  3. The Leimert Phone Company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Baumann

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Leimert Phone Company is a design collaborative that seeks to reimagine the phonebooth. We are repurposing old payphones for civic engagement and storytelling on local streets. The project was born in Leimert Park, a neighborhood in South Los Angeles famous for its African American culture. Across the country, public phonebooths are dying. Is this a hidden opportunity to reclaim physical space and shift the narrative of the neighborhood? We go beyond booths as wifi hotspots. This project reveals an ambitious strategy for a “payphone redesign,” mixing installation art with mobile technology and activism. Members of the Leimert Phone Company include a diverse mix of artists and technologists from Leimert (anchored by KAOS Network and the nearby University of Southern California (USC.

  4. Marketing company profile: Consumer-led company features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Ivana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting point in defining modern company profile is its absolute orientation to customers. So called Customer-led companies are those which all their activities put toward customers instead of product which is offered. These companies try to make all their sectors to be oriented toward customers.

  5. Hacia un indicador de consumo de energía eléctrica más efectivo en hoteles del grupo Cubanacán de la provincia de Camagüey; Toward an indicator of more effective electric power consumption in hotels of the Cubanacan company in Camagüey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davel Borges Vasconcellos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available La consideración de indicadores de consumo reales es un elemento indispensable para la correcta evaluación de la eficiencia energética de una empresa. No todos los indicadores actuales que utilizan las instalaciones hoteleras son adecuados para los fines propuestos. El trabajo expone los efectos que tienen en el consumo de energía eléctrica, factores como la temperatura ambiente de la época del año y el tipo de segmento turístico (internacional o nacional, a través de un estudio de caso en el Hotel Caracol. La veracidad de los resultados ha sido comprobada en los cuatro hoteles del Grupo Cubanacán de la provincia de Camagüey. Los estudios de correlación entre el consumo de energía eléctrica y el nivel de actividad (habitaciones días ocupadas teniendo en cuenta el efecto de estos factores, permiten llegar a plantear un indicador de consumo de energía eléctrica más efectivo para evaluar la eficiencia energética en las instalaciones hoteleras. Finalmente comentamos el efecto de estos factores en otros indicadores de consumo.  The consideration of real consumption indicators is an indispensable element for the correct evaluation of the energy efficiency of a company. Not all the current indicators that use the hotel facilities are appropriate for this purpose.The paper presents factors, such as the ambient temperature and the type of tourist segment (international or national, that influence in electric power consumption, through a case study in the Caracol Hotel. The truthfulness of the results has been checked in the four hotels of the Cubanacan Company of Camagüey. The correlation studies between the electric power consumption and the activity level (rooms occupied days keeping in mind the effect of these factors, they allow to end up outlining an indicator of more effective electric power consumption to evaluate the energy efficiency in the hotel facilities. Finally we comment the effect of these factors in other

  6. Building Company Loyalty System

    OpenAIRE

    Haniková, Alžběta

    2010-01-01

    The thesis discusses the importance of loyal customers, and loyalty system as a tool for building loyalty. It defines loyalty and customer satisfaction, it deals with the issue of customer retention. It describes the history and types of loyalty programs, important factors for deciding on their implementation and problems associated with them. The practical part is concerned with the clothing market, Orsay company and its Orsay Club loyalty systeme. The work also includes a survey of the loya...

  7. Impact of technical and technological changes on energy efficiency of production company - case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwedzka, K.; Gruszka, J.; Szafer, P.

    2016-08-01

    Improving energy efficiency is one of the strategic objectives of the European Union for rational energy economy. To make efforts to improve energy efficiency have been obliged both small and large end-users. This article aims to show the possibilities of improving energy efficiency by introducing technical and technological process changes of pine lumber drying. The object of the research is process of drying lumber implemented in a production company, which is a key supplier of large furniture manufacturer. Pine lumber drying chamber consume about 45% of total electricity in sawmill. According to various sources, drying of 1m3 of lumber uses about 3060kWh and is dependent of inter alia: the drying process itself, the factors affecting the processing time and the desired output moisture content of the timber. The article proposals for changes in the process of drying lumber pine have been positively validated in the company, and as a result their energy consumption per 1 m3 of product declined by 18%.

  8. Challenges and Opportunities of Grid Modernization and Electric Transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Robert L. [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States); Francis, Julieta [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States); Bogacz, Richard J. [Allegheny Science and Technology, Bridgeport, WV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Grid investments that support electric vehicle deployments as a part of planned modernization efforts can enable a more efficient and cost-effective transition to electric transportation and allow investor-owned electric companies and public power companies to realize new revenue resources in times of flat or declining loads. This paper discusses the challenges and opportunities associated with an increase in plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption and how working together both sectors stand to benefit from closer integration.

  9. ARE ROMANIAN COMPANIES PREPARED TO REPORT ON THEIR SOCIAL RESPONSABILITY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria TĂTĂRUȘANU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, social responsibility of companies is a very important issue, both for Romanian researchers and for those from abroad, but also for companies, non-governmental and governmental institutions. It is not anymore only an idea launched by researchers, economists or philosophers, but it is also present in the official debates concerning regulations in the field and their updating at the European and even global level. The present work aims to analyse the social responsibility of the most important companies from Romania and their interest in reporting on the basis of different existent index in the area. The paper is an empirical study based on public information regarding social responsibility of the most valuables companies from Romania. Results are important for researchers, practitioners, institutions interested in contributing to the know-how and practices improvement in the mentioned area.

  10. Company Vision and Organizational Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Toman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of a company is largely dependent on the company itself; it depends above all on its corporate governance, management, and implementation, as well as on decision-making processes and coordination. Many authors believe that organizational learning and knowledge are the most relevant aspects of company effectiveness. If a company wants to be effective it needs to create and realize its vision; to do this, it needs creativity, imagination, and knowledge, which can be obtained or enhanced through learning. This paper defines vision, learning, creativity and management and, above all, their relationships. The author argues that company vision influences the learning and knowledge of employees in the company through the vision’s content, through the vision-creating process, and through the vision enforcement process. Conversely, the influence of learning on company vision is explained. The paper is aimed at the use in the practice of companies and helps them to increase their effectiveness.

  11. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  12. Strategy Assessment of Company ECOPOSTES

    OpenAIRE

    Cortazar Sanabria, Javier Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on developing a research on the different types of strategies a company can implement depending on their situation and the various analyses that must be completed before making the strategy decision. External and internal environment methods are described together with the various forms of corporate restructure methods a company can use if needed. The whole process is followed step by step to provide a strategy assessment to company Ecopostes, a Colombian company focused o...

  13. Risk Management in Insurance Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Xufeng

    2006-01-01

    Insurance is the uncertain business in uncertain society. Today, insures face more complex and difficult risks. Efficient risk management mechanisms are essential for the insurers. The paper is set out initially to explore UK insurance companies risk management and risk disclosure by examining companies annual report after all the listed insurance companies are required to disclose risk information in their annual report, which seeks to reflect the recent development in UK insurance companies...

  14. IMPLEMENTATION OF QUALITATIVE RULES IN COMPANY`S INFORMATION MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna WOLNOWSKA

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the article there were presented chosen issues of quality management. Important role of information and work processes in companies were emphasized . Based on eight rules of quality management, TQM standards and ideas of discipline pioneers like Deming, Juran, Crosby and Shewart, author has constructed way of using chosen rules and assumptions to company`s information circulation. Analogy, suggested by author, has not only emphasized importance of information as a company`s resource, but also has pointed to possibility of improving ways of managing this information.

  15. Electrical Conductivity in Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Copper is the most widely used electrical conductor. Like most metals, though, it has several drawbacks: it is heavy, expensive, and can break. Fibers that conduct electricity could be the solutions to these problems, and they are of great interest to NASA. Conductive fibers provide lightweight alternatives to heavy copper wiring in a variety of settings, including aerospace, where weight is always a chief concern. This is an area where NASA is always seeking improved materials. The fibers are also more cost-effective than metals. Expenditure is another area where NASA is always looking to make improvements. In the case of electronics that are confined to small spaces and subject to severe stress, copper is prone to breaking and losing connection over time. Flexible conductive fibers eliminate that problem. They are more supple and stronger than brittle copper and, thus, find good use in these and similar situations. While clearly a much-needed material, electrically conductive fibers are not readily available. The cost of new technology development, with all the pitfalls of troubleshooting production and the years of testing, and without the guarantee of an immediate market, is often too much of a financial hazard for companies to risk. NASA, however, saw the need for electrical fibers in its many projects and sought out a high-tech textile company that was already experimenting in this field, Syscom Technology, Inc., of Columbus, Ohio. Syscom was founded in 1993 to provide computer software engineering services and basic materials research in the areas of high-performance polymer fibers and films. In 1999, Syscom decided to focus its business and technical efforts on development of high-strength, high-performance, and electrically conductive polymer fibers. The company developed AmberStrand, an electrically conductive, low-weight, strong-yet-flexible hybrid metal-polymer YARN.

  16. Multilingualism in Companies: An Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Tamah; Strubell, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This thematic collection of four papers explores a number of perspectives on companies in which multiple languages are used. The "organisational" perspective concerns the question of how the presence of or demand for multiple languages in the company is managed--how companies are guided by national and other policies in regard to the use…

  17. 12 CFR 583.15 - Parent company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parent company. 583.15 Section 583.15 Banks and... SAVINGS AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.15 Parent company. The term parent company means any company which directly or indirectly controls any other company or companies. ...

  18. Users of electric heating rewarded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapakoski, M. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    When the building industry plunged into the deep recession of the early 1990s this did not paralyse research and development work on electric heating. In fact, IVO and power companies launched the `Electrically Heated Homes in the New Millennium` project in 1992. Its purpose was to verify the efficiency, energy economy and residential comfort of model systems using state-of-the-art electric heating technology. The research project launched six years ago is now nearing completion. Its findings indicate that electricity brings ever more unparalleled benefits when it is used for heating. These benefits involve residential comfort, ease of use and economy

  19. Regulation, Governance and Adaptation: Governance transformations in the Dutch and French liberalizing electricity industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M.I. Niesten (Eva)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractFor more than a decade, the European governments have focused their energy policies on creating one European competitive electricity market. Several regulations are introduced into the European electricity industries for this purpose: the energy firms have to unbundle the electricity

  20. 78 FR 50409 - Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Kansas Municipal Energy Agency v. Sunflower Electric Power Corporation, Mid-Kansas Electric Company, LLC, Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Complaint Take notice that on August... Municipal Energy Agency (Complainant) filed a formal complaint against Sunflower Electric Power Corporation...

  1. Pork in good company?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verbeke, Wim; Perez-Cueto, Federico J.; de Barcellos, Marcia D.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the association between pork as the main meal component and the choice for side dishes and beverages depending on foodscape and individual characteristics, including overweight and obesity among fresh pork consumers (n=2,156) in five European countries (B...... for pork as meal center, thus constituting a relevant venue for the positioning and marketing of pork, as well as for future public health information about meals with pork as main meal component....

  2. The Port Elizabeth Electric Tramway case

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kirstam

    employed as a tram driver for the Port Elizabeth Electric Tramway Company Limited. – a company that .... force from outlying suburban areas like Walmer, to travel quickly and cheaply to work. However ... New State Areas Ltd v CIR, 1946 AD 610, 14 SATC 155 and CIR v Lever Bros & Unilever Ltd, 1946 AD 441, 14 SATC 1.

  3. Does the Company Programme Have the Same Impact on Young Women and Men? A Study of Entrepreneurship Education in Norwegian Upper Secondary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Vegard

    2017-01-01

    This paper asks whether a European entrepreneurship programme called the "Company Programme" (CP) has an impact on young women and men with regard to career preferences, and perceptions of business skills and the likelihood of having a company. CP is taught to 270,000 students in 39 European countries, and approximately 15% of Norwegian…

  4. A common vision of energy risk? Energy securitisation and company perceptions of risk in the EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Stoddard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union, energy security is provided by EU institutions, member states and commercial energy companies. However, despite the important role companies play in the provision of European energy security, it is not immediately evident to what extent the interests of the internationally operating energy firms are in line with the energy security preferences held by EU institutions. Analysing this relationship from the perspective of perceptions of energy security and energy business risk, this paper examines the extent to which there is a convergence between the energy securitisation of the European Commission and the observation of business risk as perceived by major European and international energy firms. It finds that while there are some significant areas where Commission securitisation contradicts energy company interests (e.g. climate change and energy prices there is also a high degree of convergence, in particular regarding perceptions of upstream political risk.

  5. 77 FR 41041 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-12

    ...-17111; AD 2012-13-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes AGENCY...-200C, 747-200F, 747-300, 747-400, 747-400D, 747-400F, 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes. This AD was... window 1. This AD requires repetitive inspections for damage of the electrical connections at terminal...

  6. A Literature Review of Foreign Ownership and Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Oana MIHAI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to review the results of research papers conducted in the area of foreign ownership impact on company’s performance and to highlight the specifics of this linkage in the environment of transition economies. Several authors have documented greater efficiency of private companies compared to state-owned. According to different studies, an alternative option for transition economies is foreign ownership. Recent studies show that the effect of ownership forms on companies and financial performance is more significant in Eastern European countries compared to developed countries. However, study results are often contradictory, therefore they require additional research.

  7. GROUPS OF COMPANIES IN INSOLVENCY PROCEEDINGS - ROMANIAN AND INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela FIERBINŢEANU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Insolvency proceedings in case of groups of companies is no longer a surprise but a reality that concerned in the last period of time the romanian and also the european lawmakers.Although at an intuitive level the understanding of this construction must not raise many questions it is proven that not always what you see is what you get, especially when insolvency proceedings are opened in case of groups of companies.The aim of this article is to offer a global image on the effort made on national and international level to codify and harmonize the insolvency law provisions in the field.

  8. Company Law as a Restriction to Free Movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2014-01-01

    Focusing on recent judgments from the Court of Justice of the European Union, this article investigates how the notion of ‘restriction’ – which is the first step in examining whether there is an infringement of the free movement rights – is used in cases involving company law measures....... There is evidence that non-discriminatory obstacles to free movement found in company law can be restrictions. However, recent cases show that the Court may be willing to apply a more restrictive approach where only non-discriminatory measures that have a qualified deterrent effect may constitute restrictions....

  9. Multivariate long memory processes: applications to the EDF producer problematic in the context of the european electricity market liberalization; Modelisation longue memoire multivariee: applications aux problematiques du producteur d'EDF dans le cadre de la liberalisation du marche europeen de l'electricite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diongue, A.K

    2005-10-15

    Certain crucial financial time series, such as the interconnected european electricity market spot prices, exhibit long memory, in the sense of slowly decaying correlations combined with heteroskedasticity and periodic or none cycles. In modeling such behavior, we consider on one hand, the k factor GIGARCH process and additionally propose two methods to address the related parameter estimation problem. In each method, we explore the asymptotic theory for estimation. Moreover, the asymptotic properties are validated and compared via Monte Carlo simulations. On the other hand, we introduce a new multivariate long memory generalized model (k-factor MVGARMA) in order to model interconnected european electricity market spot prices. We suggest a practical framework to address the parameter estimation problem. We investigate the analytical expressions of the least squares predictors for the two proposed models and their confidence intervals. To finish, we apply the two proposed models to the french and german electricity market spot prices and a comparison is made between their forecasting abilities. (author)

  10. Internationalization strategy and foreign distribution channels: analysis of the brazilian cosmetics company Natura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Novaes Zilbe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the internationalization process of the Brazilian company Natura Cosméticos S.A., whose competitive differential is the development of products based on the biodiversity of Brazilian flora. We specifically focus on the company's different choices of distribution channels in foreign markets. The study is exploratory, relying on content analysis of secondary data. The results indicate that the company's internationalization process has followed the model of the Uppsala school (learning and that the company has maintained the same distribution strategy (direct sales in markets with similar cultures (Latin America, but for the European market (Paris it preferred to establish a physical store because of the cultural differences of that market. The change of the distribution channel model in the European market led the company to develop new organizational competencies.

  11. Emissions trading and innovation in the German electricity industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cames, Martin

    2010-07-01

    One major objective of the introduction of emissions trading in the European Union was to promote innovation towards mitigating climate change. Focusing on the German electricity industry, the extent to which this objective has been achieved up to now and how the design of the trading scheme could be improved towards achieving the intended objective shall be analyzed in this thesis. These questions are tackled in the thesis from a theoretical and an empirical perspective. The theoretical analysis was largely based on neoclassical environmental economics by using an algebraic model which allowed for comparison of the relevant companies' profits under various configurations of the analyzed design options. The empirical analysis was grounded on two surveys of the electricity industry - one before the start of emissions trading, the other after two and a half years of experience - which enabled identification of the concrete changes in the companies' perceptions and attitudes towards innovation due to the introduction of emissions trading. The analysis reveals some indications that the instrument has basically functioned as originally intended although it has certainly not yet developed its full potential in terms of promoting innovation towards a more climate friendly electricity system. From an environmental innovation perspective the following improvements are essential: (1) Closure provisions should be abolished as soon as possible because they basically extend the lifetime of old installations and thus rather delay innovation. (2) Fuel-specific allocation to new entrants should also be abandoned since it eliminates - at least partly - the incentives to shift investments towards technologies which use more carbon friendly fuels such as natural gas or biomass. (3) Introducing full auctioning for the electricity industry would remedy both of the above-mentioned weaknesses and at the same time eliminate the windfall profit generated by free allocation of

  12. Environmental performance assessment of a company of aluminum surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Catieri Ramalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental performance of a medium-sized company that provides services for surface treatment of aluminum. The treatment is known as anodizing. The research method was qualitative numerical modeling. The environmental performance of the company was organized into five constructs: atmosphere, wastewater, energy and natural resources, solid waste, and legislation and management. Nineteen indicators were chosen to explain the five constructs. Ten employees of the company prioritized the constructs and evaluated the situation of the indicators by means of a scale of assessment. By means of a mathematical model, the general performance of the environmental operation was calculated at 74.5% of the maximum possible. The indicators that most contributed to the performance not to reach 100% were consumption of electricity and water consumption. The construct of worse performance was natural and energy resources. These are the priorities for future environmental improvement actions that the company may promote.

  13. Design of Technical Support System for Retail Company Based on Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao Ping

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the retail side of the market in China, the sale of electricity companies as a new source of power retail, they participate in the electricity market business. National and local governments subsequently introduced the corresponding policies and rules, the technical support system becomes one of the necessary conditions for the access of the retail company. Retail electricity companies have started the system construction, but has not yet formed a standardized, complete architecture. This paper analyzes the business and data interaction requirements of retail electricity companies, and then designs the functional architecture based on basic application, advanced application and value-added application, and the technical architecture based on “cloud”. On this basis, the paper discusses the selection of private cloud, public cloud and mixed cloud model, and the rationalization suggestion of system construction. Which can provide reference for the construction of the technical support system of the domestic retail enterprises.

  14. The Balanced Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Controlling the sustainability of production processes and ethical employment of the work force in suppliers' production facilities far away from the home country has resulted in new challenges for managers. They now have to consider how important it is for customers, investors and employees to see...... that a company is respected in wider society and behaves according to ethical standards. Strategists and Leaders need to make balanced choices about long-term goals and the allocation of resources. They need to analyse, understand and adjust strategies to market, political, value and technology related changes...... through control or trust. Human resource specialists need to make balanced decisions about how to design tasks and jobs in order to make them attractive as well as motivating. Marketers need to make balanced decisions about how to market products in the light of what is now important in consumers...

  15. Zapata Coffee Roasting Company

    OpenAIRE

    Zapata Pardo, Paula Juliana

    2015-01-01

    Zapata Coffee Roasting Company es un pequeño negocio de tostión y comercialización de café gourmet, ubicado en la ciudad de Bothell, Washington, al norte del área de Seattle, al noroeste de Estados Unidos. Fue fundada por María V. Zapata, quien proviene de cuatro generaciones de amor y pasión por el café, ya que su familia ha cosechado y tostado café por casi un siglo en el suroccidente de los Andes Colombianos. La compañía compite con otros pequeños tostadores y con grandes empresas con m...

  16. Women Managers: Enormous Deficit in Large Companies and Employer's Associations

    OpenAIRE

    Holst, Elke

    2005-01-01

    Across Europe, there are much fewer women than men employed in executive positions. On European average, only 10% of the members of the highest decision-making bodies in the top 50 publicly quoted companies are women. However, the situation varies substantially from country to country. The European countries with the highest shares of women managers are Slovenia and Latvia, at 22% each, while the country with the worst record is Italy, at 2%. Germany, with a 10% share of women managers, is in...

  17. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus ofreal value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuationmodel for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost iscorrectly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0.Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark.The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search anaverage NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  18. Identification of Company Command Competencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    45 Virtual role plays ( VRPs ) could be used to measure many of the company command competencies identified in this project. In a VRP , the user...could play the role of a Company Commander who must deal with myriad crises, challenges, and potential opportunities. In a web- enabled VRP , the user...to be concerned about. Future research should create VRPs or other engaging assessments to determine proficiency levels on the identified company

  19. European project ISAWARE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Jochen; Smietanski, Guillaume; Kubbat, Wolfgang

    2001-08-01

    As air traffic is increasing, the probability of encountering 'surveillance' alerts during flight is also increasing. In order to ensure safety, new on board systems need to be developed to provide the crew with a better 'situation awareness' (SA) about its external environment and potential hazards. In addition, the means to manage the data generated by these new systems needs to be build up. Despite the tremendous amount of information, crew workload must not increase. This is where the ISAWARE project comes in with the Integrated Situation Awareness System (ISAS) concept. ISAWARE (Increasing Safety through collision Avoidance WARning intEgration) is a project partly funded by the European Community, executed by a well balanced composition of several European aerospace companies (airframers, a helicopter manufacturer, avionics suppliers, airlines), one research laboratory and one university. The overall objective of the ISAWARE project is to conduct research into the potential improvements to flight safety that can be achieved by providing the pilot with complete predictive situation awareness during all phases of the flight. The Integrated Situational Awareness System (ISAS) merges data from different safety systems concerning terrain, traffic, weather and other. The system ensures the alerts consistency, prioritises alerts and anticipates threats along a predicted trajectory earlier than current systems can provide. The second main axis of the research is the development of synthetic vision displays (PFD, ND and HUD) to enhance the Human-Machine Interface (HMI). The key focus of the project is the development of a ground-based demonstrator rig which is interfaced to a dynamic flight simulator. This rig is used for the evaluation of the ISAWARE concept by a representative range of active airline crews.

  20. FORECASTING ELECTRICITY PRICES IN DEREGULATED WHOLESALE SPOT ELECTRICITY MARKET - A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Godekere Panchakshara Murthy,

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new framework of competitive electricity markets, all power market participants need accurate price forecasting tools. Electricity price forecasts characterize significant information that can help captive power producer, independent power producer, power generation companies, power distribution companies or open access consumers in careful planning of their bidding strategies for maximizing their profits, benefits and utilities from long term, medium term and short term perspective. Short term spot electricity price forecasting techniques are either inspired from electrical engineering literature (i.e. load forecasting or from economics literature (i.e. game theory models and the time-series econometric models. In this study we investigate the emergence of spot electricity markets with particular emphasis on Indian electricity market which has never been done before and review selected finance and econometrics inspired literature and models for forecasting electricity spot prices in deregulated wholesale spot electricity markets.