WorldWideScience

Sample records for electric charge rotating

  1. Tokamak rotation and charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref

  2. Drift motion of a charged particle in the crossed axial magnetic and radial electric fields, and the electric field of a rotating potential wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliseev, Yu.N.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1983-01-01

    In the drift motion approximation solution of the problem is obtained on the motion of a nonrelativistic charged particle in the crossed axial magnetic and radial electric fields, and the electric field of a rotating potential wave under cherenkov and modified cyclotron resonances. The static radial electric field potential is supposed to be close to the parabolic one. The drift motion equations and their integrals are preseOted. The experimentally obtained effect of plasma ionic component division in the crossed fields under the excitation of ion cyclotron oscillations is explained with the help of the theory developed in the paper

  3. Electrically charged dilatonic black rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunduri, Hari K.; Lucietti, James

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter we present (electrically) charged dilatonic black ring solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory in five dimensions and we consider their physical properties. These solutions are static and as in the neutral case possess a conical singularity. We show how one may remove the conical singularity by application of a Harrison transformation, which physically corresponds to supporting the charged ring with an electric field. Finally, we discuss the slowly rotating case for arbitrary dilaton coupling

  4. Exact solutions for rotating charged dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    Earlier work by the author on rotating charged dust is summarized. An incomplete class of exact solutions for differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory for the equal mass and charge case that was found earlier is completed. A new global exact solution for cylindrically symmetric differentially rotating charged dust in Newton-Maxwell theory is presented. Lastly, a new exact solution for cylindrically symmetric rigidly rotating charged dust in general relativity is given. (author)

  5. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  6. Electric vehicle battery charging controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention provides an electric vehicle charging controller. The charging controller comprises a first interface connectable to an electric vehicle charge source for receiving a charging current, a second interface connectable to an electric vehicle for providing the charging current...... to a battery management system in the electric vehicle to charge a battery therein, a first communication unit for receiving a charging message via a communication network, and a control unit for controlling a charging current provided from the charge source to the electric vehicle, the controlling at least...... in part being performed in response to a first information associated with a charging message received by the first communication unit...

  7. Axial gap rotating electrical machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    None

    2016-02-23

    Direct drive rotating electrical machines with axial air gaps are disclosed. In these machines, a rotor ring and stator ring define an axial air gap between them. Sets of gap-maintaining rolling supports bear between the rotor ring and the stator ring at their peripheries to maintain the axial air gap. Also disclosed are wind turbines using these generators, and structures and methods for mounting direct drive rotating electrical generators to the hubs of wind turbines. In particular, the rotor ring of the generator may be carried directly by the hub of a wind turbine to rotate relative to a shaft without being mounted directly to the shaft.

  8. Charged rotating black holes on a 3-brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, A.N.; Guemruekcueoglu, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    We study exact stationary and axisymmetric solutions describing charged rotating black holes localized on a 3-brane in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld. The charges of the black holes are considered to be of two types, the first being an induced tidal charge that appears as an imprint of nonlocal gravitational effects from the bulk space and the second is a usual electric charge arising due to a Maxwell field trapped on the brane. We assume a special ansatz for the metric on the brane taking it to be of the Kerr-Schild form and show that the Kerr-Newman solution of ordinary general relativity in which the electric charge is superseded by a tidal charge satisfies a closed system of the effective gravitational field equations on the brane. It turns out that the negative tidal charge may provide a mechanism for spinning up the black hole so that its rotation parameter exceeds its mass. This is not allowed in the framework of general relativity. We also find a new solution that represents a rotating black hole on the brane carrying both charges. We show that for a rapid enough rotation the combined influence of the rotational dynamics and the local bulk effects of the 'squared' energy-momentum tensor on the brane distort the horizon structure of the black hole in such a way that it can be thought of as composed of nonuniformly rotating null circles with growing radii from the equatorial plane to the poles. We finally study the geodesic motion of test particles in the equatorial plane of a rotating black hole with tidal charge. We show that the effects of negative tidal charge tend to increase the horizon radius, as well as the radii of the limiting photon orbit, the innermost bound and the innermost stable circular orbits for both direct and retrograde motions of the particles

  9. MOSFET Electric-Charge Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Paul A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Charged-particle probe compact and consumes little power. Proposed modification enables metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) to act as detector of static electric charges or energetic charged particles. Thickened gate insulation acts as control structure. During measurements metal gate allowed to "float" to potential of charge accumulated in insulation. Stack of modified MOSFET'S constitutes detector of energetic charged particles. Each gate "floats" to potential induced by charged-particle beam penetrating its layer.

  10. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  11. The magnetic field generated by a rotating charged polygon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Songlin; Chen, Xiangyu; Teng, Baohua; Fu, Hao; Li, Yefeng; Wu, Minghe; Wu, Shaoyi; Balfour, E A

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic field along the symmetry axis of a regular polygon carrying a uniform electric charge on its edges is calculated systematically when the polygon is rotated about this axis of symmetry. A group of circular current-carrying coils arranged concentrically about the axis of the polygon has been designed to simulate the magnetic field characteristics of the rotating charged polygon. The magnetic field of the simulated coils is measured using the PASCO magnetic field sensor. The results show that the theoretical calculation agrees well with the experimental results. (paper)

  12. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  13. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Łukasz Rosłaniec; Rafał Bielas; Magdalena Błędzińska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper...

  14. Interior structure of rotating black holes. III. Charged black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, Andrew J. S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper extends to the case of charged rotating black holes the conformally stationary, axisymmetric, conformally separable solutions presented for uncharged rotating black holes in a companion paper. In the present paper, the collisionless fluid accreted by the black hole may be charged. The charge of the black hole is determined self-consistently by the charge accretion rate. As in the uncharged case, hyper-relativistic counterstreaming between ingoing and outgoing streams drives inflation at (just above) the inner horizon, followed by collapse. If both ingoing and outgoing streams are charged, then conformal separability holds during early inflation, but fails as inflation develops. If conformal separability is imposed throughout inflation and collapse, then only one of the ingoing and outgoing streams can be charged: the other must be neutral. Conformal separability prescribes a hierarchy of boundary conditions on the ingoing and outgoing streams incident on the inner horizon. The dominant radial boundary conditions require that the incident ingoing and outgoing number densities be uniform with latitude, but the charge per particle must vary with latitude such that the incident charge densities vary in proportion to the radial electric field. The subdominant angular boundary conditions require specific forms of the incident number- and charge-weighted angular motions. If the streams fall freely from outside the horizon, then the prescribed angular conditions can be achieved by the charged stream, but not by the neutral stream. Thus, as in the case of an uncharged black hole, the neutral stream must be considered to be delivered ad hoc to just above the inner horizon.

  15. Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid. This pa......It is expected that a lot of the new light vehicles in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential to complement renewable energy resources and mitigate its intermittency. However, EV charging may have negative impact on the power grid...... method where distribution system operator (DSO) optimizes the cost of EV charging while taking substation transformer capacity into account....

  16. Spin currents of charged Dirac particles in rotating coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayi, Ö. F.; Yunt, E.

    2018-03-01

    The semiclassical Boltzmann transport equation of charged, massive fermions in a rotating frame of reference, in the presence of external electromagnetic fields is solved in the relaxation time approach to establish the distribution function up to linear order in the electric field in rotating coordinates, centrifugal force and the derivatives. The spin and spin current densities are calculated by means of this distribution function at zero temperature up to the first order. It is shown that the nonequilibrium part of the distribution function yields the spin Hall effect for fermions constrained to move in a plane perpendicular to the angular velocity and magnetic field. Moreover it yields an analogue of Ohm's law for spin currents whose resistivity depends on the external magnetic field and the angular velocity of the rotating frame. Spin current densities in three-dimensional systems are also established.

  17. Electropumping of water with rotating electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Schmidt; De Luca, Sergio; Todd, Billy

    2013-01-01

    exploiting the coupling of spin angular momentum to linear streaming momentum. A spatially uniform rotating electric field is applied to water molecules, which couples to their permanent electric dipole moments. The resulting molecular rotational momentum is converted into linear streaming momentum...

  18. Adiabatic motion of charged dust grains in rotating magnetospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Northrop, T.G.; Hill, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Dust grains in the ring systems and rapidly rotating magnetospheres of the outer planets such as Jupiter and Saturn may be sufficiently charged that the magnetic and electric forces on them are comparable with the gravitational force. The adiabatic theory of charged particle motion has previously been applied to electrons and atomic size particles. But it is also applicable to these charged dust grains in the micrometer and smaller size range. We derive here the guiding center equation of motion, drift velocity, and parallel equation of motion for these grains in a rotating magnetosphere. The effects of periodic grain charge-discharge have not been treated previously and have been included in this analysis. Grain charge is affected by the surrounding plasma properties and by the grain plasma velocity (among other factors), both of which may vary over the gyrocircle. The resulting charge-discharge process at the gyrofrequency destroys the invariance of the magnetic moment and causes a grain to move radially. The magnetic moment may increase or decrease, depending on the gyrophase of the charge variation. If it decreases, the motion is always toward synchronous radius for an equatorial grain. But the orbit becomes circular before the grain reaches synchronous radius, a conclusion that follows from an exact constant of the motion. This circularization can be viewed as a consequence of the gradual reduction in the magnetic moment. This circularization also suggests that dust grains leaving Io could not reach the region of the Jovian ring, but several effects could change that conclusion. Excellent qualitative and quantitative agreement is obtained between adiabatic theory and detailed numerical orbit integrations

  19. A rotating charged black hole solution in f (R) gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In the context of f (R) theories of gravity, we address the problem of finding a rotating charged black hole solution in the case of constant curvature. A new metric is obtained by solving the field equations and we show that its behaviour is typical of a rotating charged source. In addition, we analyse the ...

  20. Compound induction electric rotating machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decesare, D

    1987-07-28

    The present invention generally relates to dynamo-electric machines cabable of operating in a generator mode or in a motor mode and more specifically, to increased efficiency compound interaction AC and/or DC dynamo-electric machines. This patent describes such a machine having a distributed armature winding in a cylindrical rotor wound to form axial and substantially radial winding portions and including permanent and/or electromagnets to couple magnetic flux into the peripheral or circumferential surface of the rotor, and to provide interaction between a magnetic field formed beyond the rotor axial surfaces and the rotor to thereby enhance the total induction of flux into the rotor for improved, more efficient operation. 28 figs.,

  1. Rotating electrical machines: Poynting flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaghy-Spargo, C

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a complementary approach to the traditional Lorentz and Faraday approaches that are typically adopted in the classroom when teaching the fundamentals of electrical machines—motors and generators. The approach adopted is based upon the Poynting vector, which illustrates the ‘flow’ of electromagnetic energy. It is shown through simple vector analysis that the energy-flux density flow approach can provide insight into the operation of electrical machines and it is also shown that the results are in agreement with conventional Maxwell stress-based theory. The advantage of this approach is its complementary completion of the physical picture regarding the electromechanical energy conversion process—it is also a means of maintaining student interest in this subject and as an unconventional application of the Poynting vector during normal study of electromagnetism. (paper)

  2. Smart Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chynoweth, Joshua; Chung, Ching-Yen; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit

    2014-02-19

    WINSmartEV™ is a smart electric vehicle charging system that has been built and is currently in operation. It is a software and network based EV charging system designed and built around the ideas of intelligent charge scheduling, multiplexing (connecting multiple vehicles to each circuit) and flexibility. This paper gives an overview of this smart charging system with an eye toward its unique features and capabilities.

  3. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuffner, Francis K [Richland, WA; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Richland, WA; Hammerstrom, Donald J [West Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  4. Electric Vehicle and Wireless Charging Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-03-23

    Wireless charging tests of electric vehicles (EV) have been conducted at the EVTC Wireless Laboratory located at the Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL. These tests were performed to document testing protocols, evaluate standards and evaluate ope...

  5. Electric vehicle system for charging and supplying electrical power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Gui Jia

    2010-06-08

    A power system that provides power between an energy storage device, an external charging-source/load, an onboard electrical power generator, and a vehicle drive shaft. The power system has at least one energy storage device electrically connected across a dc bus, at least one filter capacitor leg having at least one filter capacitor electrically connected across the dc bus, at least one power inverter/converter electrically connected across the dc bus, and at least one multiphase motor/generator having stator windings electrically connected at one end to form a neutral point and electrically connected on the other end to one of the power inverter/converters. A charging-sourcing selection socket is electrically connected to the neutral points and the external charging-source/load. At least one electronics controller is electrically connected to the charging-sourcing selection socket and at least one power inverter/converter. The switch legs in each of the inverter/converters selected by the charging-source/load socket collectively function as a single switch leg. The motor/generators function as an inductor.

  6. Rotating electric machine with fluid supported parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Joseph L.; Kirtley, Jr., James L.

    1981-01-01

    A rotating electric machine in which the armature winding thereof and other parts are supported by a liquid to withstand the mechanical stresses applied during transient overloads and the like. In particular, a narrow gap is provided between the armature winding and the stator which supports it and this gap is filled with an externally pressurized viscous liquid. The liquid is externally pressurized sufficiently to balance the static loads on the armature winding. Transient mechanical loads which deform the armature winding alter the gap dimensions and thereby additionally pressurize the viscous liquid to oppose the armature winding deformation and more nearly uniformly to distribute the resulting mechanical stresses.

  7. Mobile electric vehicles online charging and discharging

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Miao; Shen, Xuemin (Sherman)

    2016-01-01

    This book examines recent research on designing online charging and discharging strategies for mobile electric vehicles (EVs) in smart grid. First, the architecture and applications are provided. Then, the authors review the existing works on charging and discharging strategy design for EVs. Critical challenges and research problems are identified. Promising solutions are proposed to accommodate the issues of high EV mobility, vehicle range anxiety, and power systems overload. The authors investigate innovating charging and discharging potentials for mobile EVS based on real-time information collections (via VANETS and/or cellular networks) and offer the power system adjustable load management methods.  Several innovative charging/discharging strategy designs to address the challenging issues in smart grid, i.e., overload avoidance and range anxiety for individual EVs, are presented. This book presents an alternative and promising way to release the pressure of the power grid caused by peak-time EV charging ...

  8. Charged Hadron Properties in Background Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detmold, William; Tiburzi, Brian C.; Walker-Loud, Andre

    2010-01-01

    We report on a lattice calculation demonstrating a novel new method to extract the electric polarizability of charged pseudo-scalar mesons by analyzing two point correlation functions computed in classical background electric fields. A staple component of any electrodynamics or quantum mechanics course is the electric polarizability. Neutral material immersed in a weak external field polarizes, internally setting up an electric dipole moment, aligned so as to minimize the energy. At the atomic level, the electron clouds are distorted creating these microscopic dipole moments. The same process occurs at the hadronic level but the polarization effects are now constrained by the strong force. Polarizabilities of these bound QCD states can be viewed as a distortion of the charged pion cloud of a given hadron. One can use lattice QCD to non-perturbatively compute the quark and gluon interactions in the presence of background electric (or magnetic) fields. For sufficiently weak background fields, the low energy properties of the hadrons can be rigorously computed using effective field theory. With this treatment, a picture of hadrons emerges from chiral dynamics: that of a hadronic core surrounded by a pseudoscalar meson cloud. As some pseudoscalar mesons are charged, polarizabilities of hadrons encode the stiffness of the charged meson cloud (as well as that of the core). The form of pseudoscalar meson polarizabilities is consequently strongly constrained by chiral dynamics. However, beyond the leading order, the results depend upon essentially unknown low-energy constants, which must currently be estimated in a model-dependent fashion. In the case of the charged pion, the experimental measurement of the polarizability has proven difficult, both in the original measurement as well as the most recent published result. Currently, there is a 2-3 sigma discrepancy between the two-loop cPT prediction and the measured charged pion polarizability. New results with higher

  9. Rotation Detection Using the Precession of Molecular Electric Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yi; Deng, Xiao-Bing; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-11-01

    We present a method to detect the rotation by using the precession of molecular electric dipole moment in a static electric field. The molecular electric dipole moments are polarized under the static electric field and a nonzero electric polarization vector emerges in the molecular gas. A resonant radio-frequency pulse electric field is applied to realize a 90° flip of the electric polarization vector of a particular rotational state. After the pulse electric field, the electric polarization vector precesses under the static electric field. The rotation induces a shift in the precession frequency which is measured to deduce the angular velocity of the rotation. The fundamental sensitivity limit of this method is estimated. This work is only a proposal and does not involve experimental results.

  10. Prediction on the charging demand for electric vehicles in Chengdu

    Science.gov (United States)

    yun, Cai; wanquan, Zhang; wei, You; pan, Mao

    2018-03-01

    The development of the electric vehicle charging station facilities speed directly affect the development of electric vehicle speed. And the charging demand of electric vehicles is one of the main factors influencing the electric vehicle charging facilities. The paper collected and collated car ownership in recent years, the use of elastic coefficient to predict Chengdu electric vehicle ownership, further modeling to give electric vehicle charging demand.

  11. Thermodynamics and Hawking radiation of five-dimensional rotating charged Goedel black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Shuangqing; Peng Junjin

    2011-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics of Goedel-type rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional minimal supergravity. These black holes exhibit some peculiar features such as the presence of closed timelike curves and the absence of a globally spatial-like Cauchy surface. We explicitly compute their energies, angular momenta, and electric charges that are consistent with the first law of thermodynamics. Besides, we extend the covariant anomaly cancellation method, as well as the approach of the effective action, to derive their Hawking fluxes. Both the methods of the anomaly cancellation and the effective action give the same Hawking fluxes as those from the Planck distribution for blackbody radiation in the background of the charged rotating Goedel black holes. Our results further support that Hawking radiation is a quantum phenomenon arising at the event horizon.

  12. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigit, A. R. H.; Shrimpton, John S.

    2009-06-01

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/ d ~ 200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested.

  13. Estimation of the diameter-charge distribution in polydisperse electrically charged sprays of electrically insulating liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigit, A.R.H. [University of Sarawak, Faculty of Engineering, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia); Shrimpton, John S. [University of Southampton, Energy Technology Research Group, School of Engineering Sciences, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2009-06-15

    The majority of scientific and industrial electrical spray applications make use of sprays that contain a range of drop diameters. Indirect evidence suggests the mean drop diameter and the mean drop charge level are usually correlated. In addition, within each drop diameter class there is every reason to suspect a distribution of charge levels exist for a particular drop diameter class. This paper presents an experimental method that uses the joint PDF of drop velocity and diameter, obtained from phase Doppler anemometry measurements, and directly obtained spatially resolved distributions of the mass and charge flux to obtain a drop diameter and charge frequency distribution. The method is demonstrated using several data-sets obtained from experimental measurements of steady poly-disperse sprays of an electrically insulating liquid produced with the charge injection technique. The space charge repulsion in the spray plume produces a hollow cone spray structure. In addition an approximate self-similarity is observed, with the maximum radial mass and charge flow occurring at r/d{proportional_to}200. The charge flux profile is slightly offset from the mass flux profile, and this gives direct evidence that the spray specific charge increases from approximately 20% of the bulk mean spray specific charge on the spray axis to approximately 200% of the bulk mean specific charge in the periphery of the spray. The results from the drop charge estimation model suggest a complex picture of the correlation between drop charge and drop diameter, with spray specific charge, injection velocity and orifice diameter all contributing to the shape of the drop diameter-charge distribution. Mean drop charge as a function of the Rayleigh limit is approximately 0.2, and is invariant with drop diameter and also across the spray cases tested. (orig.)

  14. Modeling and Analyzing Electric Vehicle Charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Thomsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    , such as wind turbines. To both enable a smart grid and the use of renewable energy, it is essential to know when and where an EV is plugged into the power grid and what battery capacity is available. In this paper, we present a generic spatio-temporal data-warehouse model for storing detailed information...... on all aspects of charging EVs, including integration with the electricity prices from a spot market. The proposed data warehouse is fully implemented and currently contains 2.5 years of charging data from 176 EVs. We describe the date warehouse model and the implementation including complex operations...

  15. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Juul

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting a model of four alternative charging strategies. We think of them as increasing in sophistication from dumb via delayed to deterministic and stochastic model-based charging. We show that 29% of the total savings from ‘dumb’ are due to delayed charging and that substantial additional gains come charging optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming. We show that all vehicle owners will benefit from acting more intelligently on the energy market. Furthermore, the high value of the stochastic solution shows that, in case the regulating price differs from the expected, the solution to the deterministic problem becomes infeasible.

  16. Optimal Charge control of Electric Vehicles in Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie; Wu, Guang

    2011-01-01

    Environment constraints, petroleum scarcity, high price on fuel resources and recent advancements in battery technology have led to emergence of Electric Vehicles (EVs). As increasing numbers of EVs enter the electricity market, these extra loads may cause peak load and need to be properly...... controlled. In this paper, an algorithm is presented for every individual vehicles to minimize the charging cost while satisfying the vehicle owner’s requirements. The algorithm is based on a given future electricity prices and uses dynamic programming. Optimization aims to find the economically optimal...... solution for each vehicle....

  17. Faraday rotation near charged black holes and other electrovacuum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerlach, U.H.

    1975-01-01

    In space permeated by a steady background electromagnetic field a gravitational wave and an electromagnetic wave not only undergo beat frequency oscillations, but the linear polarizations of these waves undergo Faraday rotations as well. The beating and the Faraday rotations are inextricably related. The classification of these phenomena requires three parameters, the three Euler parameters of SU(2). They specify in a more general sense the ''polarization'' of an electrograviton mode. The evolution of the beat frequency oscillations and the Faraday rotations along a propagating wave front is described as a moving point in SU(2). Consequently, a charged black hole serves not only as a catalyst for converting suitably directed electromagnetic radiation into gravitational radiation, but also as an agent that randomized the linear polarizations of radiation emerging from it. An assessment of these phenomena in relation to the origin of Weber's signals is given

  18. Strategies for Charging Electric Vehicles in the Electricity Market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Pantuso, Giovanni; Iversen, Jan Emil Banning

    2015-01-01

    . We show that all vehicle owners will benefit from acting more intelligently on the energy market. Furthermore, the high value of the stochastic solution shows that, in case the regulating price differs from the expected, the solution to the deterministic problem becomes infeasible.......This paper analyses different charging strategies for a fleet of electric vehicles. Along with increasing the realism of the strategies, the opportunity for acting on the regulating market is also included. We test the value of a vehicle owner that can choose when and how to charge; by presenting...... optimally in response to predicted spot prices, and – in some settings – additional gains from using the up and down regulating prices. Particularly, strategies are chosen from uncontrolled charging through deterministic optimization, to modelling the charging and bidding problem with stochastic programming...

  19. Limit on the electric charge of antihydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capra, A., E-mail: acapra@triumf.ca; Amole, C. [York University, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Ashkezari, M. D. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Baquero-Ruiz, M. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Bertsche, W. [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Butler, E. [Imperial College, Centre for Cold Matter (United Kingdom); Cesar, C. L. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); Fajans, J. [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Physics (United States); Friesen, T. [University of Calgary, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Fujiwara, M. C.; Gill, D. R. [TRIUMF (Canada); Gutierrez, A. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hangst, J. S. [CERN, Physics Department (Switzerland); Hardy, W. N. [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy (Canada); Hayden, M. E. [Simon Fraser University, Department of Physics (Canada); Isaac, C. A. [Swansea University, Department of Physics, College of Science (United Kingdom); Jonsell, S. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics (Sweden); Kurchaninov, L. [TRIUMF (Canada); and others

    2017-11-15

    The ALPHA collaboration has successfully demonstrated the production and the confinement of cold antihydrogen, H̅. An analysis of trapping data allowed a stringent limit to be placed on the electric charge of the simplest antiatom. Charge neutrality of matter is known to a very high precision, hence a neutrality limit of H̅ provides a test of CPT invariance. The experimental technique is based on the measurement of the deflection of putatively charged H̅ in an electric field. The tendency for trapped H̅ atoms to be displaced by electrostatic fields is measured and compared to the results of a detailed simulation of H̅ dynamics in the trap. An extensive survey of the systematic errors was performed, and this work focuses on those due to the silicon vertex detector, which is the device used to determine the H̅ annihilation position. The limit obtained on the charge of the H̅ atom is Q = (−1.3 ± 1.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup −8}, representing the first precision measurement with H̅ [1].

  20. Rotating magnetizations in electrical machines: Measurements and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Thul

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the magnetization process in electrical steel sheets for rotational magnetizations as they occur in the magnetic circuit of electrical machines. A four-pole rotational single sheet tester is used to generate the rotating magnetic flux inside the sample. A field-oriented control scheme is implemented to improve the control performance. The magnetization process of different non-oriented materials is analyzed and compared.

  1. Rotating magnetizations in electrical machines: Measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thul, Andreas; Steentjes, Simon; Schauerte, Benedikt; Klimczyk, Piotr; Denke, Patrick; Hameyer, Kay

    2018-05-01

    This paper studies the magnetization process in electrical steel sheets for rotational magnetizations as they occur in the magnetic circuit of electrical machines. A four-pole rotational single sheet tester is used to generate the rotating magnetic flux inside the sample. A field-oriented control scheme is implemented to improve the control performance. The magnetization process of different non-oriented materials is analyzed and compared.

  2. Transport of electric charge in insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez C, E.

    1979-01-01

    In this work a review is made of important concepts in the study of the transport of electric charge in insulators. These concepts are: electrical contacts, transport regimes as viewed in the I-V characteristics, and photoinjection processes by internal photemission of holes or electrons from metals or semiconductors into insulators or by a virtual electrode using strongly absorbed light. Experimental results of photoinjection of holes and electrons into sulfur single crystals are analyzed using these concepts. The observation of the Mott-Gurney transition is reported for the first time. This is the transition between the region of space charge limited currents (SCLC) and the region of saturation of the current as a function of the applied voltage. A modified Mott-Gurney theoretical model is presented that is able to explain the whole I-V characteristic for uv and the internal photoemission of hopes and uv photoinjection of electrons. For the case of internal photoemission of electrons the conventional space charge limited current theory for an exponential distribution of traps is able to explain the experimental data. It is found that the crystals are of high purity since the total density of traps, as calculated from their exponential distribution, is Nsub(t) equals 1.8 X 10 14 cm -3 . (author)

  3. Radio Frequency Trap for Containment of Plasmas in Antimatter Propulsion Systems Using Rotating Wall Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor); Martin, James Joseph (Inventor); Lewis, Raymond A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A containment apparatus for containing a cloud of charged particles comprises a cylindrical vacuum chamber having a longitudinal axis. Within the vacuum chamber is a containment region. A magnetic field is aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vacuum chamber. The magnetic field is time invariant and uniform in strength over the containment region. An electric field is also aligned with the longitudinal axis of the vacuum chamber and the magnetic field. The electric field is time invariant, and forms a potential well over the containment region. One or more means are disposed around the cloud of particles for inducing a rotating electric field internal to the vacuum chamber. The rotating electric field imparts energy to the charged particles within the containment region and compress the cloud of particles. The means disposed around the outer surface of the vacuum chamber for inducing a rotating electric field are four or more segments forming a segmented ring, the segments conforming to the outer surface of the vacuum chamber. Each of the segments is energized by a separate alternating voltage. The sum of the voltages imposed on each segment establishes the rotating field. When four segments form a ring, the rotating field is obtained by a signal generator applying a sinusoidal signal phase delayed by 90,180 and 270 degrees in sequence to the four segments.

  4. Manipulating colloids with charges and electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leunissen, M. E.

    2007-02-01

    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigations on a variety of colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles are at least a hundred times larger than atoms or molecules, but suspended in a liquid they display the same phase behavior, including fluid and crystalline phases. Due to their relatively large size, colloids are much easier to investigate and manipulate, though. This makes them excellent condensed matter model systems. With this in mind, we studied micrometer-sized perspex (‘PMMA’) spheres, labeled with a fluorescent dye for high-resolution confocal microscopy imaging, and suspended in a low-polar mixture of the organic solvents cyclohexyl bromide and cis-decalin. This system offered us the flexibility to change the interactions between the particles from ‘hard-sphere-like’ to long-ranged repulsive (between like-charged particles), long-ranged attractive (between oppositely charged particles) and dipolar (in an electric field). We investigated the phase behavior of our suspensions as a function of the particle concentration, the ionic strength of the solvent and the particles’ charges. In this way, we obtained new insight in the freezing and melting behavior of like-charged and oppositely charged colloids. Interestingly, we found that the latter can readily form large crystals, thus defying the common belief that plus-minus interactions inevitably lead to aggregation. Moreover, we demonstrated that these systems can serve as a reliable model system for classical ionic matter (‘salts’), and that opposite-charge interactions can greatly facilitate the self-assembly of new structures with special properties for applications. On a slightly different note, we also studied electrostatic effects in mixtures of the cyclohexyl bromide solvent and water, both with and without colloidal particles present. This provided new insight in the stabilization mechanisms of oil-water emulsions and gave us control over the self-assembly of various

  5. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  6. The use of rotating electric arc for spherical particle production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bica, I.

    2000-01-01

    This work presents and experimental device designed to obtain spherical particles by mans of a rotating electric arc. A rotation frequency of the electric arc of 750 s''-1, a voltage of 50 V(dc) and a current of 100 A was used. The mass flow rate was 3 g.min''-1. Under these conditions particles of 15 to 20 μm in diameter were obtained. (Author) 8 refs

  7. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment

  8. Charged particle in higher dimensional weakly charged rotating black hole spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We study charged particle motion in weakly charged higher dimensional black holes. To describe the electromagnetic field we use a test field approximation and the higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metric as a background geometry. It is shown that for a special configuration of the electromagnetic field, the equations of motion of charged particles are completely integrable. The vector potential of such a field is proportional to one of the Killing vectors (called a primary Killing vector) from the 'Killing tower' of symmetry generating objects which exists in the background geometry. A free constant in the definition of the adopted electromagnetic potential is proportional to the electric charge of the higher dimensional black hole. The full set of independent conserved quantities in involution is found. We demonstrate that Hamilton-Jacobi equations are separable, as is the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation and its symmetry operators.

  9. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-06-06

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where `m`is the free mass and `q` the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs.

  10. Electric fields in accelerating conductors: measurement of the EMF in rotationally accelerating coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moorhead, G.F.; Opat, G.I.

    1996-01-01

    The acceleration of an electric conductor is predicted to produce an electric filed proportional to m/q where 'm'is the free mass and 'q' the charge of the carriers of the electric current. In certain configurations this leads to a measurable electromagnetic field (EMF). In this paper is reported a measurement of the EMF induced by rotationally accelerating coils of aluminium and copper wire. The measured EMFs are found to agree with the theoretical predictions to within the error estimates. 23 refs., 1 tab., 4 figs

  11. Charging electric vehicles from solar energy : Power converter, charging algorithm and system design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.

    2018-01-01

    Electric vehicles are only sustainable if the electricity used to charge them comes from renewable sources and not from fossil fuel based power plants. The goal of this PhD thesis is to develop a highly efficient, V2G-enabled smart charging system for electric vehicles at

  12. Plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) smart charging module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Jason; Dobrzynski, Daniel S.

    2017-09-12

    A smart charging system for charging a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) includes an electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) configured to supply electrical power to the PEV through a smart charging module coupled to the EVSE. The smart charging module comprises an electronic circuitry which includes a processor. The electronic circuitry includes electronic components structured to receive electrical power from the EVSE, and supply the electrical power to the PEV. The electronic circuitry is configured to measure a charging parameter of the PEV. The electronic circuitry is further structured to emulate a pulse width modulated signal generated by the EVSE. The smart charging module can also include a first coupler structured to be removably couple to the EVSE and a second coupler structured to be removably coupled to the PEV.

  13. The electric charge of neutrinos and plasmon decay

    CERN Document Server

    Altherr, Tanguy

    1994-01-01

    By using both thermal field theory and a somewhat more intuitive method, we define the electric charge as well as the charge radius of neutrinos propagating inside a plasma. We show that electron neutrinos acquire a charge radius of order $\\sim 6.5 \\times 10^{-16}$ cm, regardless of the properties of the medium. Then, we compute the rate of plasmon decay which such an electric charge or a charge radius implies. Taking into account the relativistic effects of the degenerate electron gas, we compare our results to various approximations as well as to recent calculations and determine the regimes where the electric charge or the charge radius does mediate the decay of plasmons. Finally, we discuss the stellar limits on any anomalous charge radius of neutrinos.

  14. Charged Fermions Tunneling from a Rotating Charged Black Hole in 5-Dimensional Gauged Supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huiling; Lin Rong; Wang Chuanyin

    2010-01-01

    Recent research shows that Hawking radiation from black hole horizon can be treated as a quantum tunneling process, and fermions tunneling method can successfully recover Hawking temperature. In this tunneling framework, choosing a set of appropriate matrices γ μ is an important technique for fermions tunneling method. In this paper, motivated by Kerner and Man's fermions tunneling method of 4 dimension black holes, we further improve the analysis to investigate Hawking tunneling radiation from a rotating charged black hole in 5-dimensional gauged supergravity by constructing a set of appropriate matrices γ μ for general covariant Dirac equation. Finally, the expected Hawking temperature of the black hole is correctly recovered, which takes the same form as that obtained by other methods. This method is universal, and can also be directly extend to the other different-type 5-dimensional charged black holes.

  15. Thermodynamics of Charged Rotating Dilaton Black Branes Coupled to Logarithmic Nonlinear Electrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sheykhi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a new class of charged rotating black brane solutions in the presence of logarithmic nonlinear electrodynamics with complete set of the rotation parameters in arbitrary dimensions. The topology of the horizon of these rotating black branes is flat, while due to the presence of the dilaton field the asymptotic behavior of them is neither flat nor (anti-de Sitter [(AdS]. We investigate the physical properties of the solutions. The mass and angular momentum of the spacetime are obtained by using the counterterm method inspired by AdS/CFT correspondence. We derive temperature, electric potential, and entropy associated with the horizon and check the validity of the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon. We study thermal stability of the solutions in both canonical and grand-canonical ensemble and disclose the effects of the rotation parameter, nonlinearity of electrodynamics, and dilaton field on the thermal stability conditions. We find the solutions are thermally stable for α1 the solutions may encounter an unstable phase, where α is dilaton-electromagnetic coupling constant.

  16. Economic Analysis of Different Electric Vehicle Charging Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Li; Haiming, Zhou; Xiufan, Ma; Hao, Wang

    2017-05-01

    Influence of electric vehicles (EV) to grid cannot be ignored. Research on the economy analysis of different charging scenarios is helpful to guide the user to charge or discharge orderly. EV charging models are built such as disordered charging, valley charging, intelligent charging, and V2G (Vehicle to Grid), by which changes of charging load in different scenarios can be seen to analyze the influence to initial load curve, and comparison can be done about user’s average cost. Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the electric vehicle charging behavior, cost in different charging scenarios are compared, social cost is introduced in V2G scene, and the relationship between user’s average cost and social cost is analyzed. By test, it is proved that user’s cost is the lowest in V2G scenario, and the larger the scale of vehicles is, the more the social cost can save.

  17. Numerical Comparison of Optimal Charging Schemes for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Hu, Junjie; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    of four different charging schemes, namely night charging, night charging with V2G, 24 hour charging and 24 hour charging with V2G, on the basis of real driving data and electricity price of Denmark in 2003. For all schemes, optimal charging plans with 5 minute resolution are derived through the solving...... of a mixed integer programming problem which aims to minimize the charging cost and meanwhile takes into account the users' driving needs and the practical limitations of the EV battery. In the post processing stage, the rainflow counting algorithm is implemented to assess the lifetime usage of a lithium...

  18. Geometric objects related to the potential of electric charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozrzymas, J.

    1995-01-01

    We derive explicit formulas for curvature and torsion of a line of the field of n electric charges. These formulas show that in general the torsion of a field line is not zero if n≥3. We also propose a geometric interpretation of the derived formulas. In the second part of the paper we present an outline of a new description of equipotential surfaces of two and three electric charges. In this description the golden section appears in a natural way when two electric charges are equal. This approach also relates an equipotential surface of three charges to the classic surface containing twenty seven straight lines. (author)

  19. Some aspects of an induced electric dipole moment in rotating and non-rotating frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Abinael B; Bakke, Knut

    2017-06-01

    Quantum effects on a neutral particle (atom or molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment are investigated when it is subject to the Kratzer potential and a scalar potential proportional to the radial distance. In addition, this neutral is placed in a region with electric and magnetic fields. This system is analysed in both non-rotating and rotating reference frames. Then, it is shown that bound state solutions to the Schrödinger equation can be achieved and, in the search for polynomial solutions to the radial wave function, a restriction on the values of the cyclotron frequency is analysed in both reference frames.

  20. Emissions Associated with Electric Vehicle Charging: Impact of Electricity Generation Mix, Charging Infrastructure Availability, and Vehicle Type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Shapiro, Evan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-04-11

    With the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions associated with the transportation sector, policy-makers are supporting a multitude of measures to increase electric vehicle adoption. The actual level of emission reduction associated with the electrification of the transport sector is dependent on the contexts that determine when and where drivers charge electric vehicles. This analysis contributes to our understanding of the degree to which a particular electricity grid profile, vehicle type, and charging patterns impact CO2 emissions from light-duty, plug-in electric vehicles. We present an analysis of emissions resulting from both battery electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles for four charging scenarios and five electricity grid profiles. A scenario that allows drivers to charge electric vehicles at the workplace yields the lowest level of emissions for the majority of electricity grid profiles. However, vehicle emissions are shown to be highly dependent on the percentage of fossil fuels in the grid mix, with different vehicle types and charging scenarios resulting in fewer emissions when the carbon intensity of the grid is above a defined level. Restricting charging to off-peak hours results in higher total emissions for all vehicle types, as compared to other charging scenarios.

  1. Apparatus and method for generating a magnetic field by rotation of a charge holding object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald, II, Rex E.; Vukovic, Lela [Westchester, IL; Rathke, Jerome W [Homer Glenn, IL

    2009-10-13

    A device and a method for the production of a magnetic field using a Charge Holding Object that is mechanically rotated. In a preferred embodiment, a Charge Holding Object surrounding a sample rotates and subjects the sample to one or more magnetic fields. The one or more magnetic fields are used by NMR Electronics connected to an NMR Conductor positioned within the Charge Holding Object to perform NMR analysis of the sample.

  2. Optimal control of an electric vehicle’s charging schedule under electricity markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lan, Tian; Hu, Junjie; Kang, Qi

    2013-01-01

    As increasing numbers of electric vehicles (EVs) enter into the society, the charging behavior of EVs has got lots of attention due to its economical difference within the electricity market. The charging cost for EVs generally differ from each other in choosing the charging time interval (hourly...

  3. Electric Charge as a Form of Imaginary Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianxi Zhang

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Electric charge is considered as a form of imaginary energy. With this consideration, the energy of an electrically charged particle is a complex number. The real part is proportional to the mass, while the imaginary part is proportional to the electric charge. The energy of an antiparticle is given by conjugating the energy of its corresponding particle. Newton's law of gravity and Coulomb's law of electric force are classically unified into a single expression of the interaction between the complex energies of two electrically charged particles. Interaction between real energies (or masses is the gravitational force. Interaction between imaginary energies (or electric charges is the electromagnetic force. Since radiation is also a form of real energy, there are another two types of interactions between real energies: the mass-radiation interaction and the radiation-radiation interaction. Calculating the work done by the mass-radiation interaction on a photon, we can derive the Einsteinian gravitational redshift. Calculating the work done by the radiation-radiation interaction on a photon, we can obtain a radiation redshift. This study suggests the electric charge as a form of imaginary energy, so that classically unifies the gravitational and electric forces and derives the Einsteinian gravitational redshift.

  4. Development of quick charging system for electric vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anegawa, Takafumi

    2010-09-15

    Despite low environmental impact and high energy efficiency, electric vehicles (EV) have not been widely accepted. The lack of charging infrastructure is one reason. Since lithium-ion battery has high energy density and low internal resistance that allows quick charging, the convenience of EV may be greatly improved if charging infrastructure is prepared adequately. TEPCO aims for EV spread to reduce CO2 emissions and to increase demand for electric power, and has developed quick charging system for fleet-use EV to improve the convenience of EV. And based on research results, we will propose desirable characteristics of quick charger for public use.

  5. Radial electric field and rotation of the ensemble of plasma particles in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokina, E. A.; Ilgisonis, V. I.

    2012-01-01

    The velocity of macroscopic rotation of an ensemble of charged particles in a tokamak in the presence of an electric field has been calculated in a collisionless approximation. It is shown that the velocity of toroidal rotation does not reduce to a local velocity of electric drift and has opposite directions on the inner and outer sides of the torus. This result is supplemented by an analysis of the trajectories of motion of individual particles in the ensemble, which shows that the passing and trapped particles of the ensemble acquire in the electric field, on the average, different toroidal velocities. For the trapped particles, this velocity is equal to that of electric drift in the poloidal magnetic field, while the velocity of passing particles is significantly different. It is shown that, although the electric-field-induced shift of the boundaries between trapped and passing particles in the phase space depends on the particle mass and charge and is, in the general case, asymmetric, this does not lead to current generation.

  6. A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie

    2000-12-04

    A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied--about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  7. A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie

    2000-12-04

    A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied| about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  8. Uniqueness of exterior axisymmetric solution for a rotating charged body in the relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karabut, P.V.; Chugreev, Yu.V.

    1989-01-01

    The relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG), which is constructed on the basis of Minkowski spacetime, the geometrization principle, and the notion of the gravitational field var-phi mn as a physical field in the spirit of Faraday and Maxwell, explains all known gravitational experiments and gives a new prediction for the evolution of the universe, collapse, etc. The RTG determines the structure of the gravitational field as a field possessing spins 2 and 0 and all conservation laws for energy, momentum, and angular momentum. An exact solution of the complete simultaneous system of equations of the relativistic theory of gravitation and Maxwell's equations is found in the axisymmetric case for an electrically charged rotating body. The uniqueness of this solution is proved

  9. Compression of positron clouds using rotating wall electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werf, Dirk Peter van der; Isaac, Christopher Aled; Baker, Christopher John; Mortensen, Timothy; Charlton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    An asymmetric dipolar rotating electric field can be used to compress a trapped cloud of positrons when applied with a frequency close that of their axial bounce, and in the presence of a low pressure molecular gas to provide cooling. Measurements of the compression rate and associated parameters are presented and compared with results of a theory we have developed. The latter treats positron behaviour in a perfect Penning trap potential, in the presence of the rotating field, with the cooling modelled in the Stokes viscous drag approximation. Good agreement between the theory and experiment has been found, which has allowed us to identify the phenomenon as a new form of sideband cooling.

  10. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging using Dynamic Price Signal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Pedersen, Anders Bro; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    , however, be resolved by using intelligent EV charging strategies, commonly referred to as ”Smart Charging”. The basic approach involves modifying the default vehicle charging scheme of ”immediate charging”, to a more optimal one that is derived from insight into the current state of the grid. This work......With yearly increases in Electric Vehicle (EV) sales, the future for electric mobility continues to brighten, and with more vehicles hitting the roads every day, the energy requirements on the grid will increase, potentially causing low-voltage distribution grid congestion. This problem can...... proposed in this paper, involves a real-time control strategy for charging the EV using a dynamic price tariff, with the objective of minimizing the charging cost. Two different charging scenario are investigated, and the results are verified by experiments on a real Electric Vehicle. Finally, the costs...

  11. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  12. Nanofibre production in spiders without electric charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joel, Anna-Christin; Baumgartner, Werner

    2017-06-15

    Technical nanofibre production is linked to high voltage, because nanofibres are typically produced by electrospinning. In contrast, spiders have evolved a way to produce nanofibres without high voltage. These spiders are called cribellate spiders and produce nanofibres within their capture thread production. It is suggested that their nanofibres become frictionally charged when brushed over a continuous area on the calamistrum, a comb-like structure at the metatarsus of the fourth leg. Although there are indications that electrostatic charges are involved in the formation of the thread structure, final proof is missing. We proposed three requirements to validate this hypothesis: (1) the removal of any charge during or after thread production has an influence on the structure of the thread; (2) the characteristic structure of the thread can be regenerated by charging; and (3) the thread is attracted to or repelled from differently charged objects. None of these three requirements were proven true. Furthermore, mathematical calculations reveal that even at low charges, the calculated structural assembly of the thread does not match the observed reality. Electrostatic forces are therefore not involved in the production of cribellate capture threads. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. The charging security study of electric vehicle charging spot based on automatic testing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yulan; Yang, Zhangli; Zhu, Bin; Ran, Shengyi

    2018-03-01

    With the increasing of charging spots, the testing of charging security and interoperability becomes more and more urgent and important. In this paper, an interface simulator for ac charging test is designed, the automatic testing platform for electric vehicle charging spots is set up and used to test and analyze the abnormal state during the charging process. On the platform, the charging security and interoperability of ac charging spots and IC-CPD can be checked efficiently, the test report can be generated automatically with No artificial reading error. From the test results, the main reason why the charging spot is not qualified is that the power supply cannot be cut off in the prescribed time when the charging anomaly occurs.

  14. Future standard and fast charging infrastructure planning: An analysis of electric vehicle charging behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrissey, Patrick; Weldon, Peter; O’Mahony, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    There has been a concentrated effort by European countries to increase the share of electric vehicles (EVs) and an important factor in the rollout of the associated infrastructure is an understanding of the charging behaviours of existing EV users in terms of location of charging, the quantity of energy they require, charge duration, and their preferred mode of charging. Data were available on the usage of charging infrastructure for the entire island of Ireland since the rollout of infrastructure began. This study provides an extensive analysis of this charge event data for public charging infrastructure, including data from fast charging infrastructure, and additionally a limited quantity of household data. For the household data available, it was found that EV users prefer to carry out the majority of their charging at home in the evening during the period of highest demand on the electrical grid indicating that incentivisation may be required to shift charging away from this peak grid demand period. Car park locations were the most popular location for public charging amongst EV users, and fast chargers recorded the highest usage frequencies, indicating that public fast charging infrastructure is most likely to become commercially viable in the short- to medium-term. - Highlights: • Electric vehicle users prefer to charge at home in the evening at peak demand times. • Incentivisation will be necessary to encourage home charging at other times. • Fast charging most likely to become commercially viable in short to medium term. • Priority should be given to strategic network location of fast chargers. • Of public charge point locations, car park locations were favoured by EV users.

  15. Optimal Charging Schedule Planning and Economic Analysis for Electric Bus Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ceng Leou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The battery capacity of electric buses (EB used for public transportation is greater than that of electric cars, and the charging power is also several times greater than that used in electric cars; this can result in high energy consumption and negatively impact power distribution networks. This paper proposes a framework to determine the optimal contracted power capacity and charging schedule of an EB charging station in such a way that energy costs can be reduced. A mathematical model of controlled charging, which includes the capacity and energy charges of the station, was developed to minimize costs. The constraints of the model include the charging characteristics of an EB and the operational guidelines of the bus company. A practical EB charging station was used to verify the proposed model. The financial viability of this EB charging station is also studied in this paper. The economic analysis model for this charging station considers investment and operational costs, and the operational revenue. Sensitivity analyses with respect to some key parameters are also performed in this paper. Based on actual operational routes and EB charging schemes, test results indicate that the EB charging station investment is feasible, and the planning model proposed can be used to determine optimal station power capacity and minimize energy costs.

  16. Prediction of necessary public charging infrastructure of electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Montfort, K.; Van Der Poel, G.; Visser, J.; Van Den Hoed, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this study we developed models in order to predict the need for public charging points. These models give municipalities an insight into various environmental and consumer related factors that determine the need for public charging points for electric vehicles in the neighbourhood. These factors

  17. Optimal charging schedule of an electric vehicle fleet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; You, Shi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to optimize the charging schedule of an Electric Vehicle (EV) fleet both taking into account spot price and individual EV driving requirement with the goal of minimizing charging costs. A flexible and suitable mathematic model is introduced to characterize...

  18. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  19. Charging Schedule for Electric Vehicles in Danish Residential Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2015-01-01

    energy sources like wind in power systems. The EV batteries could be used to charge during periods of excess electricity production from wind power and reduce the charging rate or discharge on deficit of power in the grid, supporting system stability and reliability. By providing such grid services......The prospects of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in providing clean transportation and supporting renewable electricity is widely discussed in sustainable energy forums worldwide. The battery storage of EVs could be used to address the variability and unpredictability of electricity produced from renewable......, the vehicle owner, vehicle fleet operator and other parties involved in the process could economically benefit from the process. This paper investigates an optimal EV charging plan in Danish residential distribution grids in view of supporting high volumes of wind power in electricity grids. The results...

  20. Electric Vehicle Charging Stations as a Climate Change Mitigation Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cave, Bridget; DeYoung, Russell J.

    2014-01-01

    In order to facilitate the use of electric vehicles at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), charging stations should be made available to LaRC employees. The implementation of charging stations would decrease the need for gasoline thus decreasing CO2 emissions improving local air quality and providing a cost savings for LaRC employees. A charging station pilot program is described that would install stations as the need increased and also presents a business model that pays for the electricity used and installation at no cost to the government.

  1. Reference architecture for interoperability testing of Electric Vehicle charging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehfuss, F.; Nohrer, M.; Werkmany, E.; Lopezz, J.A.; Zabalaz, E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a reference architecture for interoperability testing of electric vehicles as well as their support equipment with the smart grid and the e-Mobility environment. Pan-European Electric Vehicle (EV)-charging is currently problematic as there are compliance and interoperability

  2. Distribution of Electrical Charge in a System of Finite Conductors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležel, Ivo; Kloucek, P.; Šolín, Pavel; Ulrych, B.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 1 (2003), s. 1-13 ISSN 0001-7043 Grant - others:GA €R(CZ) GP102/01/D114; NSF(US) DMS -0107539 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM 212300016 Keywords : electrical charge * numerical modelling * integral equations Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  3. Electric motorcycle charging station powered by solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriwattanapong, Akarawat; Chantharasenawong, Chawin

    2018-01-01

    This research proposes a design and verification of an off-grid photovoltaic system (PVS) for electric motorcycle charging station to be located in King’s Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, Bangkok, Thailand. The system is designed to work independently (off-grid) and it must be able to fully charge the batteries of a typical passenger electric motorcycle every evening. A 1,000W Toyotron electric motorcycle is chosen for this study. It carries five units of 12.8V 20Ah batteries in series; hence its maximum energy requirement per day is 1,200Wh. An assessment of solar irradiation data and the Generation Factor in Bangkok, Thailand suggests that the charging system consists of one 500W PV panel, an MPPT charge controller, 48V 150Ah battery, a 1,000W DC to AC inverter and other safety devices such as fuses and breakers. An experiment is conducted to verify the viability of the off-grid PVS charging station by collecting the total daily energy generation data in the raining season and winter. The data suggests that the designed off-grid solar power charging station for electric motorcycle is able to supply sufficient energy for daily charging requirements.

  4. Optimal charging of electric drive vehicles in a market environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristoffersen, Trine Krogh; Capion, Karsten Emil; Meibom, Peter

    2011-01-01

    With a potential to facilitate the integration of renewable energy into the electricity system, electric drive vehicles may offer a considerable flexibility by allowing for charging and discharging when desired. This paper takes the perspective of an aggregator that manages the electricity market...... participation of a vehicle fleet and presents a framework for optimizing charging and discharging of the electric drive vehicles, given the driving patterns of the fleet and the variations in market prices of electricity. When the aggregator is a price-taker the optimization can be stated in terms of linear...... programming whereas a quadratic programming formulation is required when he/she has market power. A Danish case study illustrates the construction of representative driving patterns through clustering of survey data from Western Denmark and the prediction of electricity price variations through regression...

  5. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Wang, Hewu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  6. Modelling of an advanced charging system for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan Jaafar, Abdul; Rahman, Ataur; Mohiuddin, A. K. M.; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2017-03-01

    Climate Change is recognized as one of the greatest environmental problem facing the World today and it has long been appreciated by governments that reducing the impact of the internal combustion (IC) engine powered motor vehicle has an important part to play in addressing this threat. In Malaysia, IC engine powered motor vehicle accounts almost 90% of the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The need to reduce the emission is paramount, as Malaysia has pledged to reduce 40% of CO2 intensity by 2020 from 2005 level by 25% of improvement in average fuel consumption. The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) is one of the initiatives. However in terms of percentage, the electric vehicles have not been commonly used by people nowadays and one of the reasons is lack in charging infrastructure especially when cars are on the road. The aim of this study is to simulate and model an advanced charging system for the charging infrastructure of EVs/HEVs all over the nation with slow charging mode with charging current 25 A, medium charging mode with charging current 50 A and fast charging mode with charging current 100 A. The slow charging mode is proposed for residence, medium charging mode for office parking lots, and fast charging mode is called fast charging track for charging station on road. With three modes charger topology, consumers could choose a suitable mode for their car based on their need. The simulation and experiment of advanced charging system has been conducted on a scale down battery pack of nominal voltage of 3.75 V and capacity of 1020 mAh. Result shows that the battery could be charging less than 1 hour with fast charging mode. However, due to limitation of Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB) power grid, the maximum 50 A current is considered to be the optimized passive mode for the EV’s battery charging system. The developed advanced charger prototype performance has been compared with the simulation result and conventional charger performance, the

  7. Integration between electric vehicle charging and micro-cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angrisani, Giovanni; Canelli, Michele; Roselli, Carlo; Sasso, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The interaction between an MCHP system and EV charging is investigated. • A parametric analysis with respect to daily driving distance of the EV is performed. • Dynamic simulations are carried out considering two different climates. • Two EV charging strategies are analyzed to maximize the self-consumed electricity. • The impact of EVs on electric grid and economic feasibility of MCHP can be improved. - Abstract: In the near future the diffusion of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) could play an important role in the reduction of emissions and oil dependency associated with the transport sector. However this technology could have a big impact on the electric network because EVs require a considerable amount of electricity. In order to meet the growing load due to the diffusion of EVs, the construction of new infrastructures will be required. The introduction of micro-cogeneration systems could represent a key factor in the reduction of the negative effects on the electric network related to EVs charging. The EVs are often driven during the day and recharged during the night; so the overnight charge of the EVs allows to reduce the amount of electricity exported to the grid. In this way the economic benefits associated with the introduction of micro-cogenerator system (Micro Combined Heat and Power, MCHP), that depend on the economic value of the “produced” electricity, can be improved. At the same time the impact of EVs charge on the electric network can be reduced when electricity is provided by MCHP. In this paper the interaction between an MCHP system, the EV charging and a typical semidetached house is investigated by means of dynamic simulations. The analysis is carried out in two different locations (Torino and Napoli) in order to evaluate the effects of climatic conditions on the system performance. A parametric analysis with respect to the daily driving distance of the EV is carried out in order to highlight the effect of this

  8. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  9. Demand side management of electric car charging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finn, P.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Connolly, David

    2012-01-01

    the purchase of alternative energy vehicles in an effort to achieve 10% EV (electric vehicle) penetration in the country's road fleet by 2020. The replacement of ICE (internal combustion engine) vehicles with EV equivalents poses challenges for grid operators while simultaneously offering opportunities...

  10. Residual life estimation of electrical insulation system for rotating equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vashishtha, Y.D.; Gupta, A.K.; Bhattacharyya, A.K.; Verma, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Residual life assessment gains significance towards the end of designed life for granting plant life extensions and resource planning for costly equipment replacement. A critical review of all the diagnostic techniques presently used to assess either health of insulation system or to infer qualitatively the remaining life for rotating machines is presented. However more emphasis is required on developing quantitative methods. This paper also formulates the experimental plan for progressively censored ageing tests, measurement of partial discharge parameters, micro-structural study for delamination and electrical tree growth and measurement of electrical breakdown strength. Partial discharge (PD) patterns, electrical tree growth and time to failure data shall be taken as training set for the neural network learning which can be useful to predict residual life with only one candidate parameter i.e. PD patterns. (author). 9 refs

  11. Design of Fast Response Smart Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Chynoweth, Joshua; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-11-25

    The response time of the smart electrical vehicle (EV) charging infrastructure is the key index of the system performance. The traffic between the smart EV charging station and the control center dominates the response time of the smart charging stations. To accelerate the response of the smart EV charging station, there is a need for a technology that collects the information locally and relays it to the control center periodically. To reduce the traffic between the smart EV charger and the control center, a Power Information Collector (PIC), capable of collecting all the meters power information in the charging station, is proposed and implemented in this paper. The response time is further reduced by pushing the power information to the control center. Thus, a fast response smart EV charging infrastructure is achieved to handle the shortage of energy in the local grid.

  12. Measurement of power loss during electric vehicle charging and discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolaki-Iosifidou, Elpiniki; Codani, Paul; Kempton, Willett

    2017-01-01

    When charging or discharging electric vehicles, power losses occur in the vehicle and the building systems supplying the vehicle. A new use case for electric vehicles, grid services, has recently begun commercial operation. Vehicles capable of such application, called Grid-Integrated Vehicles, may have use cases with charging and discharging summing up to much more energy transfer than the charging only use case, so measuring and reducing electrical losses is even more important. In this study, the authors experimentally measure and analyze the power losses of a Grid-Integrated Vehicle system, via detailed measurement of the building circuits, power feed components, and of sample electric vehicle components. Under the conditions studied, measured total one-way losses vary from 12% to 36%, so understanding loss factors is important to efficient design and use. Predominant losses occur in the power electronics used for AC-DC conversion. The electronics efficiency is lowest at low power transfer and low state-of-charge, and is lower during discharging than charging. Based on these findings, two engineering design approaches are proposed. First, optimal sizing of charging stations is analyzed. Second, a dispatch algorithm for grid services operating at highest efficiency is developed, showing 7.0% to 9.7% less losses than the simple equal dispatch algorithm. - Highlights: • Grid-to-battery-to-grid comprehensive power loss measurement and analysis. • No previous experimental measurements of Grid-Integrated Vehicle system power loss. • Electric vehicle loss analyzed as a factor of state of charge and charging rate. • Power loss in the building components less than 3%. • Largest losses found in Power Electronics (typical round-trip loss 20%).

  13. Electric vehicle charging to support renewable energy integration in a capacity constrained electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearre, Nathaniel S.; Swan, Lukas G.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Examination of EV charging in a wind rich area with transmission constraints. • Multiple survey instruments to determine transportation needs, when charging occurs. • Simple charging, time-of-day scheduled, and ideal smart charging investigated. • Export power peaks reduced by 2% with TOD, 10% with smart charging 10% of fleet. • Smart charging EVs enables enough added wind capacity to power the fleet. - Abstract: Digby, Nova Scotia, is a largely rural area with a wealth of renewable energy resources, principally wind and tidal. Digby’s electrical load is serviced by an aging 69 kV transmission line that often operates at the export capacity limit because of a local wind energy converter (WEC) field. This study examines the potential of smart charging of electric vehicles (EVs) to achieve two objectives: (1) add load so as to increase export capacity; (2) charge EVs using renewable energy. Multiple survey instruments were used to determine transportation energy needs and travel timing. These were used to create EV charging load timeseries based on “convenience”, “time-of-day”, and idealized “smart” charging. These charging scenarios were evaluated in combination with high resolution data of generation at the wind field, electrical flow through the transmission system, and electricity load. With a 10% adoption rate of EVs, time-of-day charging increased local renewable energy usage by 20% and enables marginal WEC upgrading. Smart charging increases charging by local renewable energy by 73%. More significantly, it adds 3 MW of load when power exports face constraints, allowing enough additional renewable electricity generation capacity to fully power those vehicles.

  14. Aligning PEV Charging Times with Electricity Supply and Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are a growing source of electricity consumption that could either exacerbate supply shortages or smooth electricity demand curves. Extensive research has explored how vehicle-grid integration (VGI) can be optimized by controlling PEV charging timing or providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, such as storing energy in vehicle batteries and returning it to the grid at peak times. While much of this research has modeled charging, implementation in the real world requires a cost-effective solution that accounts for consumer behavior. To function across different contexts, several types of charging administrators and methods of control are necessary to minimize costs in the VGI context.

  15. Electrically charged one-and-a-half monopole solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Physics, USM Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Recently, we have discussed the coexistence of a finite energy one-half monopole and a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole of opposite magnetic charges. In this paper, we would like to introduce electric charge into this new monopoles configuration, thus creating a one-and-a-half dyon. This new dyon possesses finite energy, magnetic dipole moment, and angular momentum and is able to precess in the presence of an external magnetic field. Similar to the other dyon solutions, when the Higgs self-coupling constant, λ, is nonvanishing, this new dyon solution possesses critical electric charge, total energy, magnetic dipolemoment, and dipole separation as the electric charge parameter, η, approaches 1. The electric charge and total energy increase with η to maximum critical values as η → 1 for all nonvanishing λ. However, the magnetic dipole moment decreases with η when λ ≥ 0.1 and the dipole separation decreases with η when λ ≥ 1 to minimum critical values as η → 1. (orig.)

  16. Electrically charged one-and-a-half monopole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have discussed the coexistence of a finite energy one-half monopole and a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole of opposite magnetic charges. In this paper, we would like to introduce electric charge into this new monopoles configuration, thus creating a one-and-a-half dyon. This new dyon possesses finite energy, magnetic dipole moment, and angular momentum and is able to precess in the presence of an external magnetic field. Similar to the other dyon solutions, when the Higgs self-coupling constant, λ, is nonvanishing, this new dyon solution possesses critical electric charge, total energy, magnetic dipolemoment, and dipole separation as the electric charge parameter, η, approaches 1. The electric charge and total energy increase with η to maximum critical values as η → 1 for all nonvanishing λ. However, the magnetic dipole moment decreases with η when λ ≥ 0.1 and the dipole separation decreases with η when λ ≥ 1 to minimum critical values as η → 1. (orig.)

  17. Modeling, hybridization, and optimal charging of electrical energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvini, Yasha

    The rising rate of global energy demand alongside the dwindling fossil fuel resources has motivated research for alternative and sustainable solutions. Within this area of research, electrical energy storage systems are pivotal in applications including electrified vehicles, renewable power generation, and electronic devices. The approach of this dissertation is to elucidate the bottlenecks of integrating supercapacitors and batteries in energy systems and propose solutions by the means of modeling, control, and experimental techniques. In the first step, the supercapacitor cell is modeled in order to gain fundamental understanding of its electrical and thermal dynamics. The dependence of electrical parameters on state of charge (SOC), current direction and magnitude (20-200 A), and temperatures ranging from -40°C to 60°C was embedded in this computationally efficient model. The coupled electro-thermal model was parameterized using specifically designed temporal experiments and then validated by the application of real world duty cycles. Driving range is one of the major challenges of electric vehicles compared to combustion vehicles. In order to shed light on the benefits of hybridizing a lead-acid driven electric vehicle via supercapacitors, a model was parameterized for the lead-acid battery and combined with the model already developed for the supercapacitor, to build the hybrid battery-supercapacitor model. A hardware in the loop (HIL) setup consisting of a custom built DC/DC converter, micro-controller (muC) to implement the power management strategy, 12V lead-acid battery, and a 16.2V supercapacitor module was built to perform the validation experiments. Charging electrical energy storage systems in an efficient and quick manner, motivated to solve an optimal control problem with the objective of maximizing the charging efficiency for supercapacitors, lead-acid, and lithium ion batteries. Pontryagins minimum principle was used to solve the problems

  18. Comparison of Standard and Fast Charging Methods for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a comparison of standard and fast charging methods used in the field of electric vehicles and also comparison of their efficiency in terms of electrical energy consumption. The comparison was performed on three-phase buck converter, which was designed for EV’s fast charging station. The results were obtained by both mathematical and simulation methods. The laboratory model of entire physical application, which will be further used for simulation results verification, is being built in these days.

  19. 3D electric field calculation with surface charge method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, S.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an outline and some examples of three dimensional electric field calculations with a computer code developed at NIRS. In the code, a surface charge method is adopted because of it's simplicity in the mesh establishing procedure. The charge density in a triangular mesh is assumed to distribute with a linear function of the position. The electric field distribution is calculated for a pair of drift tubes with the focusing fingers on the opposing surfaces. The field distribution in an acceleration gap is analyzed with a Fourier-Bessel series expansion method. The calculated results excellently reproduces the measured data with a magnetic model. (author)

  20. Transport modelling including radial electric field and plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Fuji, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    1994-01-01

    Using a simple turbulent transport model with a constant diffusion coefficient and a fixed temperature profile, the density profile in a steady state and the transient behaviour during the co and counter neutral beam injection are studied. More consistent analysis has been initiated with a turbulent transport model based on the current diffusive high-n ballooning mode. The enhancement of the radial electric field due to ion orbit losses and the reduction of the transport due to the poloidal rotation shear are demonstrated. The preliminary calculation indicates a sensitive temperature dependence of the density profile. (author)

  1. Stator for a rotating electrical machine having multiple control windings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Manoj R.; Lewandowski, Chad R.

    2001-07-17

    A rotating electric machine is provided which includes multiple independent control windings for compensating for rotor imbalances and for levitating/centering the rotor. The multiple independent control windings are placed at different axial locations along the rotor to oppose forces created by imbalances at different axial locations along the rotor. The multiple control windings can also be used to levitate/center the rotor with a relatively small magnetic field per unit area since the rotor and/or the main power winding provides the bias field.

  2. Influence of plug-in hybrid electric vehicle charging strategies on charging and battery degradation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunz, Benedikt; Yan, Zexiong; Gerschler, Jochen Bernhard; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2012-01-01

    The profitability of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) is significantly influenced by battery aging and electricity costs. Therefore a simulation model for PHEVs in the distribution grid is presented which allows to compare the influence of different charging strategies on these costs. The simulation is based on real-world driving behavior and European Energy Exchange (EEX) intraday prices for obtaining representative results. The analysis of comprehensive lithium-ion battery aging tests performed within this study shows that especially high battery states of charge (SOCs) decrease battery lifetime, whereas the cycling of batteries at medium SOCs only has a minor contribution to aging. Charging strategies that take into account the previously mentioned effects are introduced, and the SOC distributions and cycle loads of the vehicle battery are investigated. It can be shown that appropriate charging strategies significantly increase battery lifetime and reduce charging costs at the same time. Possible savings due to lifetime extension of the vehicle battery are approximately two times higher than revenues due to energy trading. The findings of this work indicate that car manufacturers and energy/mobility providers have to make efforts for developing intelligent charging strategies to reduce mobility costs and thus foster the introduction of electric mobility. - Highlights: ► Modeling of PHEVs based on real-world driving behavior and electricity prices. ► Consideration of battery degradation for the calculation of mobility costs. ► Smart charging decreases battery degradation and electricity costs simultaneously. ► Reduction of battery degradation costs is around two times higher than reduction of electricity costs.

  3. Mergers in the GB Electricity Market: effects on Retail Charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salies, Evens

    2006-05-01

    The opening up of the UK residential electricity sector in 1999 prompted several studies of the impact this had on both the level and structuring of retail charges, and on incumbent players' market power. Drawing on observations of regional tariffs for the month of January 2004, this paper supports previous conclusions based on simulated retail charges, looking at the response of real tariffs to distribution and transmission costs, customer density, and the length of low voltage underground circuit. We also investigate whether vertically integrated suppliers have a particular effect on charges ceteris paribus the effect of cost drivers and supplier-related factors. (author)

  4. Methodology for assessing electric vehicle charging infrastructure business models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madina, Carlos; Zamora, Inmaculada; Zabala, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of economic implications of innovative business models in networked environments, as electro-mobility is, requires a global approach to ensure that all the involved actors obtain a benefit. Although electric vehicles (EVs) provide benefits for the society as a whole, there are a number of hurdles for their widespread adoption, mainly the high investment cost for the EV and for the infrastructure. Therefore, a sound business model must be built up for charging service operators, which allows them to recover their costs while, at the same time, offer EV users a charging price which makes electro-mobility comparable to internal combustion engine vehicles. For that purpose, three scenarios are defined, which present different EV charging alternatives, in terms of charging power and charging station ownership and accessibility. A case study is presented for each scenario and the required charging station usage to have a profitable business model is calculated. We demonstrate that private home charging is likely to be the preferred option for EV users who can charge at home, as it offers a lower total cost of ownership under certain conditions, even today. On the contrary, finding a profitable business case for fast charging requires more intensive infrastructure usage. - Highlights: • Ecosystem is a network of actors who collaborate to create a positive business case. • Electro-mobility (electricity-powered road vehicles and ICT) is a complex ecosystem. • Methodological analysis to ensure that all actors benefit from electro-mobility. • Economic analysis of charging infrastructure deployment linked to its usage. • Comparison of EV ownership cost vs. ICE for vehicle users.

  5. Electric vehicle charge planning using Economic Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Poulsen, Niels K.; Madsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Economic Model Predictive Control (MPC) is very well suited for controlling smart energy systems since electricity price and demand forecasts are easily integrated in the controller. Electric vehicles (EVs) are expected to play a large role in the future Smart Grid. They are expected to provide...... grid services, both for peak reduction and for ancillary services, by absorbing short term variations in the electricity production. In this paper the Economic MPC minimizes the cost of electricity consumption for a single EV. Simulations show savings of 50–60% of the electricity costs compared...... to uncontrolled charging from load shifting based on driving pattern predictions. The future energy system in Denmark will most likely be based on renewable energy sources e.g. wind and solar power. These green energy sources introduce stochastic fluctuations in the electricity production. Therefore, energy...

  6. Efficient forced vibration reanalysis method for rotating electric machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Akira; Suzuki, Hiromitsu; Kuroishi, Masakatsu; Nakai, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Rotating electric machines are subject to forced vibration by magnetic force excitation with wide-band frequency spectrum that are dependent on the operating conditions. Therefore, when designing the electric machines, it is inevitable to compute the vibration response of the machines at various operating conditions efficiently and accurately. This paper presents an efficient frequency-domain vibration analysis method for the electric machines. The method enables the efficient re-analysis of the vibration response of electric machines at various operating conditions without the necessity to re-compute the harmonic response by finite element analyses. Theoretical background of the proposed method is provided, which is based on the modal reduction of the magnetic force excitation by a set of amplitude-modulated standing-waves. The method is applied to the forced response vibration of the interior permanent magnet motor at a fixed operating condition. The results computed by the proposed method agree very well with those computed by the conventional harmonic response analysis by the FEA. The proposed method is then applied to the spin-up test condition to demonstrate its applicability to various operating conditions. It is observed that the proposed method can successfully be applied to the spin-up test conditions, and the measured dominant frequency peaks in the frequency response can be well captured by the proposed approach.

  7. The use of rotating electric are for spherical particle production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bica, Ion

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental device designed to obtain spherical partióles by means of a rotating electric are. A rotation frequency of the electric are of 750 s-1, a voltage of 50 V (dc and a current of 100 A was used. The mass flow rate was 3 g.min-1. Under these conditions particles of 15 to 20 μm in diameter were obtained.

    Este trabajo presenta la instalación experimental destinada a la obtención de partículas esféricas utilizando un arco eléctrico rotatorio. Para ello se utilizó una frecuencia de rotación del arco eléctrico de 750 s-1 a un voltaje del arco de 50 V (cc y una corriente de 100 A. La velocidad de flujo de materia fue de 3 g.min-1 obteniéndose partículas de diámetros comprendidos entre 15 y 20 μm.

  8. Effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on the zeta potential of spherical electric double layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zecheng; Xing, Xiangjun; Xu, Zhenli

    2012-07-21

    We investigate the effects of image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, and surface roughness on spherical electric double layer structures in electrolyte solutions with divalent counterions in the setting of the primitive model. By using Monte Carlo simulations and the image charge method, the zeta potential profile and the integrated charge distribution function are computed for varying surface charge strengths and salt concentrations. Systematic comparisons were carried out between three distinct models for interfacial charges: (1) SURF1 with uniform surface charges, (2) SURF2 with discrete point charges on the interface, and (3) SURF3 with discrete interfacial charges and finite excluded volume. By comparing the integrated charge distribution function and the zeta potential profile, we argue that the potential at the distance of one ion diameter from the macroion surface is a suitable location to define the zeta potential. In SURF2 model, we find that image charge effects strongly enhance charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges, and strongly suppress charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. For SURF3, the image charge effect becomes much smaller. Finally, with image charges in action, we find that excluded volumes (in SURF3) suppress charge inversion for monovalent interfacial charges and enhance charge inversion for multivalent interfacial charges. Overall, our results demonstrate that all these aspects, i.e., image charges, interfacial charge discreteness, their excluding volumes, have significant impacts on zeta potentials of electric double layers.

  9. An Electric Vehicle Charging Management and its Impact on Losses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinha, Rakesh; Moldes, Eloy Rodríguez; Zaidi, Arsalan Hussain

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the statistics of passenger car usage in Denmark has been studied in order to obtain the possible future use of electric vehicles (EVs). On the basis of this analysis, a sequential charging management of EV has been developed and simulated in DIgSILENT power factory. Different cases...

  10. Operational demands as determining factor for electric bus charging infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, R.; Van Den Hoed, R.

    2016-01-01

    Many cities in Europe have ambitious goals when it comes to making their public transport buses emission free. This article outlines the reasoning behind the choices made in the city of Amsterdam with regards to charging infrastructure for electric buses. Emphasising the importance of operational

  11. Impact of GB transmission charging on renewable electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Government is committed to meeting its objective of producing 10% of UK electricity supplies from renewable sources by 2010, subject to the cost to the consumer being acceptable. It is generally believed that northern Scotland - and the Highlands and Islands in particular - will be a significant source of renewable energy in future, mostly in the form of wind power; wave and tidal energy may also be important. The National Grid Company (NGC) is responsible for formulating a cost-reflective and. non-discriminatory electricity transmission charging methodology for Great Britain (GB). This determines Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs, which are paid by transmission-connected generators and suppliers for the use of the high voltage transmission network. Following the publication of National Grid Company's 'GB Transmission Charging: Initial Thoughts' document on 16 December 2003, there was particular concern that the level of future Transmission Network Use of System (TNUoS) tariffs in northern Scotland might impede the achievement of the Government's 2010 target for renewable electricity supplies. That document and subsequent revisions indicate that generation TNUoS charges in northern Scotland were likely to be significantly higher than anywhere else in GB. The study attempts to quantify the effect of the proposed GB-wide TNUoS charging methodology on the future growth of renewable electricity so as to ascertain the impact on the likelihood of meeting the Government's 2010 target. (UK)

  12. Charge your electric vehicle when driving?; Rijdend je EV opladen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, M.

    2012-07-05

    In late June 2012 a team of Japanese Toyota and ToyohashiUniversity of Technology (TUT) successfully developed and demonstrated a new induction charging method for electric vehicles (EV) [Dutch] Eind junidemonstreerde een Japans team van Toyota en ToyohashiUniversity of Technology (TUT) met succes een nieuwe inductie oplaadmethode voor elektrisch vervoer (EV)

  13. Electric charge quantization and the muon anomalous magnetic moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pires, C.A.S. de; Rodrigues da Silva, P.S.

    2002-01-01

    We investigate some proposals to solve the electric charge quantization puzzle that simultaneously explain the recent measured deviation on the muon anomalous magnetic moment. For this we assess extensions of the electro-weak standard model spanning modifications on the scalar sector only. It is interesting to verify that one can have modest extensions which easily account for the solution for both problems

  14. Renewable Energy for Electric Vehicles : Price Based Charging Coordination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richstein, J.C.; Schuller, A.; Dinther, C.; Ketter, W.; Weinhardt, C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the charging coordination of battery electric vehicles (BEV) with respect to the availability of intermittent renewable energy generation considering individual real world driving profiles in a deterministic simulation based analysis, mapping a part of the German power

  15. Electric dipole moments of charged leptons with sterile fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    We address the impact of sterile fermions on charged lepton electric dipole moments. Any experimental signal of these observables calls for scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model providing new sources of CP violation. In this work, we consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions which mix with active neutrinos and we derive the corresponding analytical expressions for the electric dipole moments of charged leptons at two-loop order. Our study reveals that, in order to have a non-vanishing contribution in this framework, the minimal extension necessitates the addition of at least 2 sterile fermion states to the Standard Model field content. Our conclusion is that sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments, some of them lying within present and future experimental sensitivity if the masses of the non-degenerate sterile states are both above the electroweak scale. The Majorana nature of neutrinos is also important in order to allow for significative contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments. In our analysis we impose all available experimental and observational constraints on sterile neutrinos and we further discuss the prospect of probing this scenario at low and high energy experiments.

  16. Electric dipole moments of charged leptons with sterile fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abada, Asmaa; Toma, Takashi [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, CNRS, University Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-02-26

    We address the impact of sterile fermions on charged lepton electric dipole moments. Any experimental signal of these observables calls for scenarios of physics beyond the Standard Model providing new sources of CP violation. In this work, we consider a minimal extension of the Standard Model via the addition of sterile fermions which mix with active neutrinos and we derive the corresponding analytical expressions for the electric dipole moments of charged leptons at two-loop order. Our study reveals that, in order to have a non-vanishing contribution in this framework, the minimal extension necessitates the addition of at least 2 sterile fermion states to the Standard Model field content. Our conclusion is that sterile neutrinos can give significant contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments, some of them lying within present and future experimental sensitivity if the masses of the non-degenerate sterile states are both above the electroweak scale. The Majorana nature of neutrinos is also important in order to allow for significative contributions to the charged lepton electric dipole moments. In our analysis we impose all available experimental and observational constraints on sterile neutrinos and we further discuss the prospect of probing this scenario at low and high energy experiments.

  17. Study of a New Quick-Charging Strategy for Electric Vehicles in Highway Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixing Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To solve the problem, because of which conventional quick-charging strategies (CQCS cannot meet the requirements of quick-charging for multiple types of electric vehicles (EV on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive, this paper proposed a new quick-charging strategy (NQCS for EVs: on the premise of not affecting those EVs being charged, the remaining power of the quick-charging pile with multiple power output interfaces is used to provide a synchronous charging service for EVs waiting in the queue. To verify the effectiveness of this strategy, a power distribution model of charging pile and a queuing model of charging station (CS were constructed. In addition, based on an actual highway service area where vehicle inflow is excessive during the simulation period (0:00–24:00, charging situations of CQCS and NQCS were respectively simulated in a charging station (CS, with different number of chargers, by basic queuing algorithm and an improved queuing algorithm. The simulation results showed that when the relative EV inflow is excessive, compared to CQCS, NQCS not only can reduce user waiting time, charging time, and stay time, but also can improve the utilisation rate of charging infrastructure and service capacity of CS and reduce the queue length of CS. At the same time, NQCS can reduce the impact on the power grid. In addition, in NQCS, the on-demand power distribution method is more efficient than the average power distribution method. Therefore, NQCS is more suitable for quick-charging for multiple types of EVs on highways where vehicle inflow is excessive.

  18. Angular momentum of an electric charge and magnetically charged black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garfinkle, D. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Dept. of Physics); Rey, S.J. (California Univ., Santa Barbara (USA). Dept. of Physics Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (USA). Inst. for Fundamental Theory)

    1991-03-21

    We find the angular momentum L of a point particle with electric charge e held at a fixed position in the presence of a black hole with magnetic charge g. (For a point charge in the presence of an ordinary magnetic monopole, it is known that L=eg.) The angular momentum does depend on the separation distance between the particle and the black hole; however, L->eg for a large separation. Implications for the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the quantum hairs and other physical situations are discussed. (orig.).

  19. Angular momentum of an electric charge and magnetically charged black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garfinkle, D.; Rey, Soo-Jong

    1990-01-01

    We find the angular momentum L of a point particle with electric charge e held at a fixed position in the presence of a black hole with magnetic charge g. (For a point charge in the presence of an of ordinary magnetic monopole, it is known that L = eg). The angular momentum does depend on the separation distance between the particle and the black hole; however, L → eg for a large separation. Implications for the cosmic censorship hypothesis, the quantum hairs and other physical situations are discussed

  20. A Regional Time-of-Use Electricity Price Based Optimal Charging Strategy for Electrical Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the popularization of electric vehicles (EVs, the out-of-order charging behaviors of large numbers of EVs will bring new challenges to the safe and economic operation of power systems. This paper studies an optimal charging strategy for EVs. For that a typical urban zone is divided into four regions, a regional time-of-use (RTOU electricity price model is proposed to guide EVs when and where to charge considering spatial and temporal characteristics. In light of the elastic coefficient, the user response to the RTOU electricity price is analyzed, and also a bilayer optimization charging strategy including regional-layer and node-layer models is suggested to schedule the EVs. On the one hand, the regional layer model is designed to coordinate the EVs located in different time and space. On the other hand, the node layer model is built to schedule the EVs to charge in certain nodes. According to the simulations of an IEEE 33-bus distribution network, the performance of the proposed optimal charging strategy is verified. The results demonstrate that the proposed bilayer optimization strategy can effectively decrease the charging cost of users, mitigate the peak-valley load difference and the network loss. Besides, the RTOU electricity price shows better performance than the time-of-use (TOU electricity price.

  1. Optimal Charging of Electric Vehicles with Trading on the Intraday Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilham Naharudinsyah

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Trading on the energy market is a possible way to reduce the electricity costs of charging electric vehicles at public charging stations. In many European countries, it is possible to trade electricity until shortly before the period of delivery on so called intraday electricity markets. In the present work, the potential for reducing the electricity costs by trading on the intraday market is investigated using the example of the German market. Based on simulations, the authors reveal that by optimizing the charging schedule together with the trading on the intraday electricity market, the costs can be reduced by around 8% compared to purchasing all the required energy from the energy supplier. By allowing the charging station operator to resell the energy to the intraday electricity market, an additional cost reduction of around 1% can be achieved. Besides the potential cost savings, the impacts of the trading unit and of the lead time of the intraday electricity market on the costs are investigated. The authors reveal that the achievable electricity costs can be strongly affected by the lead time, while the trading unit has only a minor effect on the costs.

  2. Static In-wheel Wireless Charging Systems for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirag Panchal

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wireless charging is a popular upcoming technology with uses ranging from mobile phone charging through to electric vehicle EV charging. Large air gaps found in current EV wireless charging systems WCS pose a hurdle of its success. Air gaps in WCS cause issues in regards to efficiency power transfer and electromagnetic compatibility EMC leakage issues. A static In-Wheel WCS IW-WCS is presented which significantly reduces the issues associated with large air gaps. A small scale laboratory prototype utilizing a standard 10mm steel reinforced tyre has been created and compared to a typical 30mm air gap. The IW-WCS has been investigated by experimental and finite element method FEM based electro-magnetic field simulation methods to validate performance.

  3. Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L

    1972-05-15

    A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 mum pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 mum particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 muC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction

  4. Electrically charged matter in rigid rotation around magnetized black hole

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kovář, J.; Slaný, P.; Cremaschini, C.; Stuchlík, Z.; Karas, Vladimír; Trova, Audrey

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 4 (2014), 044029/1-044029/14 ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-37086G Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GP14-07753P Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : black holes * accretion disks Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  5. Radiation from Accelerating Electric Charges: The Third Derivative of Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterworth, Edward

    2010-03-01

    While some textbooks appear to suggest that acceleration of an electric charge is both a necessary and sufficient cause for the generation of electromagnetic radiation, the question has in fact had an intricate and involved history. In particular, the acceleration of a charge in hyperbolic motion, the behavior of a charge supported against a gravitational force (and its implications for the Equivalence Principle), and a charge accelerated by a workless constraint have been the subject of repeated investigation. The present paper examines specifically the manner in which the third derivative of position enters into the equations of motion, and the implications this has for the emission of radiation. Plass opens his review article with the statement that ``A fundamental property of all charged particles is that electromagnetic energy is radiated whenever they are accelerated'' (Plass 1961; emphasis mine). His treatment of the equations of motion, however, emphasizes the importance of the occurrence of the third derivative of position therein, present in linear motion only when the rate of acceleration is increasing or decreasing. There appears to be general agreement that the presence of a nonzero third derivative indicates that this charge is radiating; but does its absence preclude radiation? This question leads back to the issues of charges accelerated by a uniform gravitational field. We will examine the equations of motion as presented in Fulton & Rohrlich (1960), Plass (1961), Barut (1964), Teitelboim (1970) and Mo & Papas (1971) in the light of more recent literature in an attempt to clarify this question.

  6. The economics of fast charging infrastructure for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, Andreas; Traber, Thure

    2012-01-01

    By 2011 little is known about the economic rationale of public fast chargers for electric vehicles (EV). This paper aims at providing an insight into the business case of this technology in a case study for Germany. The estimated Return on Investment (ROI) of a public fast charging station constitutes the main contribution. Potential users and organization structures are investigated as well as different tariff types. According to the estimations, the current market outlook seems too uncertain for triggering a large-scale roll-out of fast charging infrastructure. Approximations suggest that investment is hardly profitable at low EV adoption rates, unless investment cost can be severely lowered. Besides competition with alternative charging solutions, the general EV adoption rate is detected as being a main risk factor for investment in public charging infrastructure. Highlights: ► Private investment into public fast charging infrastructure appears to be driven by other than pure project prospects at current EV penetration rates. ► High cost markups are needed to refinance investment, unless grid tariffs are exempted or constant high demand is assured. ► Investment into public fast charging remains risky and incentives can be contained by the spreading of alternative home-charging devices and alternative propulsion technologies.

  7. Tribo-electric charging of dielectric solids of identical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angus, John C.; Greber, Isaac

    2018-05-01

    Despite its long history and importance in many areas of science and technology, there is no agreement on the mechanisms responsible for tribo-electric charging, including especially the tribo-charging of chemically identical dielectric solids. Modeling of the excitation, diffusional transport, and de-excitation of electrons from hot spots shows that a difference in local surface roughness of otherwise identical solid dielectric objects leads to different transient excited electron concentrations during tribo-processes. The model predicts that excited electron concentrations are lower and concentration gradients higher in solids with rougher rather than smoother surfaces. Consequently, during contact, the flux of charge carriers (electrons or holes) from hot spots will be greater into the rougher solid than into the smoother solid. These predictions are in agreement with current and historical observations of tribo-electric charge transfer between solids of the same composition. This effect can take place in parallel with other processes and may also play a role in the charging of solids of different composition.

  8. Effect of rotating electric field on 3D complex (dusty) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörner, L.; Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Kroll, M.; Schablinski, J.; Block, D.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of rotating electric field on 3D particle clusters suspended in rf plasma was studied experimentally. Spheroidal clusters were suspended inside a glass box mounted on the lower horizontal rf electrode, with gravity partially balanced by thermophoretic force. Clusters rotated in the horizontal plane, in response to rotating electric field that was created inside the box using conducting coating on its inner surfaces ("rotating wall" technique). Cluster rotation was always in the direction of applied field and had a shear in the vertical direction. The angular speed of rotation was 104-107 times lower than applied frequency. The experiment is compared to a recent theory.

  9. Applications of lightweight composite materials in pulsed rotating electrical generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walls, W.A.; Maifold, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Present rotating electrical pulse power generators are limited in energy storage capability, specific energy, and peak power density by the use of iron-magnetic circuits. This paper discusses lightweight and compact iron-core homopolar generators (HPGs) which have attained specific energies of 6 kJ/kg and have the potential to achieve 8 kJ/kg in the near future. Prototype iron based pulsed alternators are the favored choice for high power to mass ratio applications and have estimated peak ratings of 180 kW/kg. In terms of total energy storage capability, these machines are limited to several hundred MJ due to the availability of large steel forgings for rotors and basic design considerations including rotor dynamics, allowable rotor tip speeds, and present high speed current collection technology

  10. On the absence of scalar hair for charged rotating black holes in non ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    black holes with exterior non-abelian gauge field or Skyrmion field [8–10] have put ... solutions for charged rotating space-time with a minimally coupled scalar field from the ...... 125, 2163 (1962). [26] G Magnano and L M Sokolowski, Phys.

  11. Lessons Learned about Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure from The EV Project and ChargePoint America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smart, John Galloway [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn Douglas [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes key findings in two national plug-in electric vehicle charging infrastructure demonstrations: The EV Project and ChargePoint America. It will be published to the INL/AVTA website for the general public.

  12. Electrical manipulation of oligonucleotides grafted to charged surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rant, Ulrich; Arinaga, Kenji; Fujita, Shozo; Yokoyama, Naoki; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Tornow, Marc

    2006-09-21

    The electrical manipulation of short DNA molecules on surfaces offers novel functionalities with fascinating possibilities in the field of bio-interfaces. Here we present systematic investigations of the electrical interactions which govern the structure of oligonucleotides on charged gold surfaces. Successively, we address influences of the applied field strength, the role of DC electrode potentials, in particular for polycrystalline surfaces, as well as screening effects of the surrounding electrolyte solution. Data obtained for single and double stranded DNA exhibit differences which can be attributed to the dissimilar flexibility of the different molecular conformations. A comparison of the experimental results with a basic model shows how the alignment of the molecules adjusts according to a balance between electrically induced ordering and stochastic thermal motions. The presented conclusions are expected to be of general relevance for the behaviour of polyelectrolytes exposed to localized electric fields at interfaces.

  13. Correlation Of The Imbalance Of Electric Charges To Universal Gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaShana M. Lewis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Many theories support that both static electricity and gravity contain properties that allow items to orbit or float around them. Quantum physics the science of the very small attributes this to positive and negative charges. General relativity physics the science of the very large attributes this to gravity. This paper attempts to discuss any similar properties and dialogue about proofs that suggest that these two concepts may be similarly related. It will examine the relationship between static electricity and gravity by utilizing common examples formulaic expressions and everyday equations.

  14. Charged rotating black holes in four-dimensional gauged and ungauged supergravities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chong, Z.-W.; Cvetic, M.; Lue, H.; Pope, C.N.

    2005-01-01

    We study four-dimensional non-extremal charged rotating black holes in ungauged and gauged supergravity. In the ungauged case, we obtain rotating black holes with four independent charges, as solutions of N=2 supergravity coupled to three Abelian vector multiplets. This is done by reducing the theory along the time direction to three dimensions, where it has an O(4,4) global symmetry. Applied to the reduction of the uncharged Kerr metric, O(1,1) 4 is a subject of O(4,4) transformations generate new solutions that correspond, after lifting back to four dimensions, to the introduction of four independent electromagnetic charges. In the case where these charges are set pairwise equal, we then generalise the four-dimensional rotating black holes to solutions of gauged N=4 supergravity, with mass, angular momentum and two independent electromagnetic charges. The dilaton and axion fields are non-constant. We also find generalisations of the gauged and ungauged solutions to include the NUT parameter, and for the ungauged solutions, the acceleration parameter too. The solutions in gauged supergravity provide new gravitational backgrounds for a further study of the AdS 4 /CFT 3 correspondence at non-zero temperature

  15. Methodology for assessing electric vehicle charging infrastructure business models

    OpenAIRE

    Madina, Carlos; Zamora, Inmaculada; Zabala, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of economic implications of innovative business models in networked environments, as electro-mobility is, requires a global approach to ensure that all the involved actors obtain a benefit. Although electric vehicles (EVs) provide benefits for the society as a whole, there are a number of hurdles for their widespread adoption, mainly the high investment cost for the EV and for the infrastructure. Therefore, a sound business model must be built up for charging service operators, w...

  16. Distribution Locational Marginal Pricing for Optimal Electric Vehicle Charging Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Ruoyang; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method designed to alleviate congestion induced by electric vehicle (EV) loads in future power systems. In the proposed approach, the distribution system operator (DSO) determines distribution locational marginal...... shown that the socially optimal charging schedule can be implemented through a decentralized mechanism where loads respond autonomously to the posted DLMPs by maximizing their individual net surplus...

  17. A preon model with hidden electric and magnetic type charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pati, J.C.; Strathdee, J.

    1980-11-01

    The U(1) x U(1) binding forces in an earlier preonic composite model of quarks and leptons are interpreted as arising from hidden electric and magnetic type charges. The preons may possess intrinsic spin zero; the half-integer spins of the composites being contributed by the force field. The quark-lepton gauge symmetry is interpreted as an effective low-energy symmetry arising at the composite level. Some remarks are made regarding the possible composite nature of the graviton. (author)

  18. Analysis of Electric Vehicle Charging Impact on the Electric Power Grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Zeming [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Tian, Hao [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Beshir, Mohammed J. [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering; Vohra, Surendra [Los Angeles Department of Water and Power; Mazloomzadeh, Ali [Smart Utility Systems

    2016-09-24

    In order to evaluate the impact of electric vehicles (EVs) on the distribution grid and assess their potential benefits to the future smart grid, it is crucial to study the EV charging patterns and the usage charging station. Though EVs are not yet widely adopted nationwide, a valuable methodology to conduct such studies is the statistical analysis of real-world charging data. This paper presents actual EV charging behavior of 64 EVs (5 brands, 8 models) from EV users and charging stations at Los Angeles Department of Water and Power for more than one year. Twenty-four-hour EV charging load curves have been generated and studied for various load periods: daily, monthly, seasonally and yearly. Finally, the effect and impact of EV load on the California distribution network are evaluated at different EV penetration rates.

  19. Fast Charging and Smart Charging Tests for Electric Vehicles Batteries Using Renewable Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forero Camacho, Oscar Mauricio; Mihet-Popa, Lucian

    2016-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EV) technologies are still relatively new and under strong development. Although some standardized solutions are being promoted and becoming a new trend, there is an outstanding need for common platforms and sharing of knowledge and core technologies. This paper presents......, and forced and pulsed power. The aim of the tests has been to study the impact of smart charging and fast charging on the power system, on the battery state of health and degradation, and to find out the limitations of the batteries for a Smart Grid. The paper outlines the advantages and disadvantages...

  20. Reserving Charging Decision-Making Model and Route Plan for Electric Vehicles Considering Information of Traffic and Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoming Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the advance of battery energy technology, electric vehicles (EV are catching more and more attention. One of the influencing factors of electric vehicles large-scale application is the availability of charging stations and convenience of charging. It is important to investigate how to make reserving charging strategies and ensure electric vehicles are charged with shorter time and lower charging expense whenever charging request is proposed. This paper proposes a reserving charging decision-making model for electric vehicles that move to certain destinations and need charging services in consideration of traffic conditions and available charging resources at the charging stations. Besides, the interactive mechanism is described to show how the reserving charging system works, as well as the rolling records-based credit mechanism where extra charges from EV is considered to hedge default behavior. With the objectives of minimizing driving time and minimizing charging expenses, an optimization model with two objective functions is formulated. Then the optimizations are solved by a K shortest paths algorithm based on a weighted directed graph, where the time and distance factors are respectively treated as weights of corresponding edges of transportation networks. Case studies show the effectiveness and validity of the proposed route plan and reserving charging decision-making model.

  1. Electrode Cooling Effect on Out-Of-Phase Electrothermal Streaming in Rotating Electric Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyu Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we focus on investigating electrothermal flow in rotating electric fields (ROT-ETF, with primary attention paid to the horizontal traveling-wave electrothermal (TWET vortex induced at the center of the electric field. The frequency-dependent flow profiles in the microdevice are analyzed using different heat transfer models. Accordingly, we address in particular the importance of electrode cooling in ROT-ETF as metal electrodes of high thermal conductivity, while substrate material of low heat dissipation capability is employed to develop such microfluidic chips. Under this circumstance, cooling of electrode array due to external natural convection on millimeter-scale electrode pads for external wire connection occurs and makes the internal temperature maxima shift from the electrode plane to a bit of distance right above the cross-shaped interelectrode gaps, giving rise to reversal of flow rotation from a typical repulsion-type to attraction-type induction vortex, which is in good accordance with our experimental observations of co-field TWET streaming at frequencies in the order of reciprocal charge relaxation time of the bulk fluid. These results point out a way to make a correct interpretation of out-of-phase electrothermal streaming behavior, which holds great potential for handing high-conductivity analytes in modern microfluidic systems.

  2. Switchless charge-discharge circuit for electrical capacitance tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryszyn, J; Smolik, W T; Radzik, B; Olszewski, T; Szabatin, R

    2014-01-01

    The main factor limiting the performance of electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an extremely low value of inter-electrode capacitances. The charge-discharge circuit is a well suited circuit for a small capacitance measurement due to its immunity to noise and stray capacitance, although it has a problem associated with a charge injected by the analogue switches, which results in a dc offset. This paper presents a new diode-based circuit for capacitance measurement in which a charge transfer method is realized without switches. The circuit was built and tested in one channel configuration with 16 multiplexed electrodes. The performance of the elaborated circuit and a comparison with a classic charge-discharge circuit are presented. The elaborated circuit can be used for sensors with inter-electrode capacitances not lower than 10 fF. The presented approach allows us to obtain a similar performance to the classic charge-discharge circuit, but has a simplified design. A lack of the need to synchronize the analogue switches in the transmitter and the receiver part of this circuit could be a desirable feature in the design of measurement systems integrated with electrodes. (paper)

  3. Measurement of net electric charge and dipole moment of dust aggregates in a complex plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Razieh; Davis, Allen B; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Matthews, Lorin S; Hyde, Truell W

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the agglomeration of dust particles in complex plasmas requires knowledge of basic properties such as the net electrostatic charge and dipole moment of the dust. In this study, dust aggregates are formed from gold-coated mono-disperse spherical melamine-formaldehyde monomers in a radiofrequency (rf) argon discharge plasma. The behavior of observed dust aggregates is analyzed both by studying the particle trajectories and by employing computer models examining three-dimensional structures of aggregates and their interactions and rotations as induced by torques arising from their dipole moments. These allow the basic characteristics of the dust aggregates, such as the electrostatic charge and dipole moment, as well as the external electric field, to be determined. It is shown that the experimental results support the predicted values from computer models for aggregates in these environments.

  4. The electric field of a uniformly charged cubic shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Kaitlin; Greenside, Henry

    2018-01-01

    As an integrative and insightful example for undergraduates learning about electrostatics, we discuss how to use symmetry, Coulomb's law, superposition, Gauss's law, and visualization to understand the electric field E (x ,y ,z ) produced by a uniformly charged cubic shell. We first discuss how to deduce qualitatively, using freshman-level physics, the perhaps surprising fact that the interior electric field is nonzero and has a complex structure, pointing inwards from the middle of each face of the shell and pointing outwards towards each edge and corner. We then discuss how to understand the quantitative features of the electric field by plotting an analytical expression for E along symmetry lines and on symmetry surfaces of the shell.

  5. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  6. Experimental research of variable rotation speed ICE-based electric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing variable rotation speed ICE-based stand-alone electric power stations which can supply distant regions and autonomous objects with electricity are of scientific interest due to the insufficient study. The relevance of developing such electric power stations is determined by their usage is to provide a significant fuel saving as well as increase ICE motor service life. The article describes the electric station of autonomous objects with improved fuel economy. The article describes multivariate characteristic. Multivariate characteristic shows the optimal frequency of rotation of the internal combustion engine. At this rotational speed there is the greatest fuel economy.

  7. Cho decomposition of electrically charged one-half monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Ban-Loong; Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    Recently we have carried out some work on the Cho decomposition of the electrically neutral, finite energy one-half monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory. In this paper, we performed the decomposition of the electrically charged solution using the same numerical procedure. The gauge potential of the one-half dyon solution is decomposed into Abelian and non-Abelian components. The semi-infinite string singularity in the gauge potential is a contribution of the Higgs field and hence topological in nature. The string singularity cannot be cancelled by the non-Abelian components of the gauge potential. However, the string singularity is integrable and the energy of the solution is finite. By decomposing the magnetic fields and covariant derivatives of the Higgs field into three isospin space directions, we are able to provide conclusive evidence that the constructed one-half dyon is certainly a non-BPS solution even in the limit of vanishing Higgs self-coupling constant and electric charge. Furthermore, we found that the time component of gauge function is parallel to the Higgs field in isospace only at large distances, elsewhere they are non-parallel.

  8. Janis–Newman Algorithm: Generating Rotating and NUT Charged Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Erbin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review we present the most general form of the Janis–Newman algorithm. This extension allows generating configurations which contain all bosonic fields with spin less than or equal to two (real and complex scalar fields, gauge fields, metric field and with five of the six parameters of the Plebański–Demiański metric (mass, electric charge, magnetic charge, NUT charge and angular momentum. Several examples are included to illustrate the algorithm. We also discuss the extension of the algorithm to other dimensions.

  9. On Thermodynamical Relation Between Rotating Charged BTZ Black Holes and Effective String Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexis Larra(~n)aga

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the first law of thermodynamics for the (2+1)-dimensional rotating charged BTZ black hole considering a pair of thermodynamical systems constructed with the two horizons of this solution. We show that these two systems are similar to the right and left movers of string theory and that the temperature associated with the black hole is the harmonic mean of the temperatures associated with these two systems.

  10. Electrical charging of aerosol nanoparticles and some practical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, M.

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This review article summarizes the main results of recent fundamental research on the electrical charging of nanometer-sized aerosol particles (particle diameter below 10 nm, Knudsen number above about 15, kinetic regime. It covers topics of great relevance to aerosol processing and measurement, such as the effect of the presence of a number of ions on the surface of a nanoparticle on its electrical mobility; the experimental measurement of charging probability / efficiency for particle diameter below 10 nm, both for diffusion and corona discharge type chargers; the effect of particle growth by Brownian coagulation on the charging process; and the examination of after-charging effects downstream of an aerosol neutralizes The last part of this article discusses two practical applications of nanoaerosol charging, namely, the particle size measurement by electrical methods, and some electrostatic effects on the removal of nanoparticles from gas streams.

    El presente artículo es una revisión bibliográfica sobre el cargado eléctrico de aerosoles de nanopartículas (diámetro de partícula inferior a 10 nm, número de Knudsen mayor de 15, régimen cinético. El artículo abarca algunos tópicos de gran interés para el procesado y la medición de aerosoles, tales como el efecto de la presencia de iones en la superficie de la nanopartícula en su movilidad eléctrica; la medición experimental de probabilidad / eficacia de cargado para partículas de diámetro inferior a 10 nm, tanto para cargadores de tipo difusivo como para los de descarga de corona; el efecto del crecimiento de partícula por coagulación browniana en el proceso de cargado; y los efectos de post-cargado corriente abajo del neutralizados En la parte final del artículo, se analizan someramente dos aplicaciones prácticas del cargado eléctrico de nanoaerosoles, a saber, la medición del tamaño de partícula por métodos eléctricos, y algunos efectos electrostáticos en el

  11. The propagation of GPS signals through electrically charged plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Harper, J.; Steffes, P. G.; Dufek, J.

    2017-12-01

    Probing the interior dynamics of eruptive columns using electrostatic processes generated within the flows themselves has garnered much interest in the recent years. Indeed, large eruptions are often accompanied by brilliant displays of lightning, testifying to the high potentials that can be accumulated by a diverse set of electrification mechanisms. Unfortunately, lightning on its own cannot be used as a general remote sensing tool because not all volcanic eruptions produce spark discharges. As pointed out by McNutt and Williams, 2010, only 30-35% of volcanoes maintain lightning storms. The absence of lightning in two thirds of all eruptions indicates that most volcanoes produce flows with 1) inefficient or limited granular charging processes or 2) dynamics that do not promote the charge separation that sets up coherent electric fields needed for lightning. Yet, even if the prerequisites for spark discharges are not met, it is difficult to argue for plumes which are completely electrostatically neutral. The problems permeating passive electromagnetic sensing may be overcome through the use of active methods which involve interrogating charged volcanic plumes with electromagnetic radiation. The scattering of electromagnetic waves has been a common method to retrieve the physical properties of collections of particles, specifically those which cannot be accessed directly. By modifying the standard Mie formulation, Klavcka et al., 2007 showed that surface charge may influence the extinction properties of grains if such particles are much smaller than the wavelength of the incident radiation. Based on this model, we posit that the properties of charged clouds of particles can be readily assessed using robust, existing infrastructure-the Global Positioning System. In the present work, we numerically explore the manner in which electrostatic charge on particles affect the propagation of electromagnetic waves through volcanic plumes. We show that, for the range of

  12. Thermodynamics of charged rotating dilaton black branes with power-law Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangeneh, M.K.; Sheykhi, A.; Dehghani, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we construct a new class of charged rotating dilaton black brane solutions, with a complete set of rotation parameters, which is coupled to a nonlinear Maxwell field. The Lagrangian of the matter field has the form of the power-law Maxwell field. We study the causal structure of the spacetime and its physical properties in ample details. We also compute thermodynamic and conserved quantities of the spacetime, such as the temperature, entropy, mass, charge, and angular momentum. We find a Smarr-formula for the mass and verify the validity of the first law of thermodynamics on the black brane horizon. Finally, we investigate the thermal stability of solutions in both the canonical and the grand-canonical ensembles and disclose the effects of dilaton field and nonlinearity of the Maxwell field on the thermal stability of the solutions. We find that, for α ≤ 1, charged rotating black brane solutions are thermally stable independent of the values of the other parameters. For α > 1, the solutions can encounter an unstable phase depending on the metric parameters. (orig.)

  13. S-matrix analysis of the baryon electric charge correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Pok Man; Friman, Bengt; Redlich, Krzysztof; Sasaki, Chihiro

    2018-03-01

    We compute the correlation of the net baryon number with the electric charge (χBQ) for an interacting hadron gas using the S-matrix formulation of statistical mechanics. The observable χBQ is particularly sensitive to the details of the pion-nucleon interaction, which are consistently incorporated in the current scheme via the empirical scattering phase shifts. Comparing to the recent lattice QCD studies in the (2 + 1)-flavor system, we find that the natural implementation of interactions and the proper treatment of resonances in the S-matrix approach lead to an improved description of the lattice data over that obtained in the hadron resonance gas model.

  14. Calibration of the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic for core poloidal rotation velocity measurements on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crombe, K.; Andrew, Y.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N.C.; Murari, A.; Valisa, M.; Oost, G. van; Zastrow, K.-D.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes recent improvements in the measurement of C 6+ impurity ion poloidal rotation velocities in the core plasma of JET using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. Two independent techniques are used to provide an accurate line calibration. The first method uses a Perkin-Elmer type 303-306 samarium hollow cathode discharge lamp, with a Sm I line at 528.291 nm close to the C VI line at 529.1 nm. The second method uses the Be II at 527.06 nm and C III at 530.47 nm in the plasma spectrum as two marker lines on either side of the C VI line. Since the viewing chords have both a toroidal and poloidal component, it is important to determine the contribution of the toroidal rotation velocity component separately. The toroidal rotation velocity in the plasma core is measured with an independent charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic, looking tangentially at the plasma core. The contribution of this velocity along the lines of sight of the poloidal rotation diagnostic has been determined experimentally in L-mode plasmas keeping the poloidal component constant (K. Crombe et al., Proc. 30th EPS Conference, St. Petersburg, Russia, 7-11 July 2003, p. 1.55). The results from these experiments are compared with calculations of the toroidal contribution that take into account the original design parameters of the diagnostic and magnetic geometry of individual shots

  15. Optimal charging control of electric vehicles in smart grids

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Wanrong

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces the optimal online charging control of electric vehicles (EVs) and battery energy storage systems (BESSs) in smart grids. The ultimate goal is to minimize the total energy cost as well as reduce the fluctuation of the total power flow caused by the integration of the EVs and renewable energy generators. Using both theoretic analysis and data-driven numerical results, the authors reveal the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed control techniques. A major benefit of these control techniques is their practicality, since they do not rely on any non-causal knowledge of future information. Researchers, operators of power grids, and EV users will find this to be an exceptional resource. It is also suitable for advanced-level students of computer science interested in networks, electric vehicles, and energy systems.

  16. Electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, I.; Fuchino, S.; Okano, M.; Tamada, N.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical breakdown behavior of liquid helium was investigated under high speed rotating field. In the development of superconducting turbine generator it is essential to get the knowledge of electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field. When the current of the field magnet of a superconducting generator is changed, changing magnetic field generates heat in the conductor and it causes bubbles in the liquid helium around the conductor. The behavior of the bubbles is affected largely by the buoyancy which is generated by the centrifugal force. Electrical breakdown behavior of the liquid helium is strongly dependent on the gas bubbles in the liquid. Electrical breakdown voltage between electrodes was measured in a rotating cryostat with and without heater input for bubble formation. Decrease of the breakdown voltage by the heater power was smaller in the rotating field than that in the non rotating field

  17. Study on Impact of Electric Vehicles Charging Models on Power Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chen; Hui-mei, Yuan

    2017-05-01

    With the rapid increase in the number of electric vehicles, which will lead the power load on grid increased and have an adversely affect. This paper gives a detailed analysis of the following factors, such as scale of the electric cars, charging mode, initial charging time, initial state of charge, charging power and other factors. Monte Carlo simulation method is used to compare the two charging modes, which are conventional charging and fast charging, and MATLAB is used to model and simulate the electric vehicle charging load. The results show that compared with the conventional charging mode, fast charging mode can meet the requirements of fast charging, but also bring great load to the distribution network which will affect the reliability of power grid.

  18. From static to rotating to conformal static solutions: rotating imperfect fluid wormholes with(out) electric or magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Department of Mathematics, Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-05-15

    We derive a shortcut stationary metric formula for generating imperfect fluid rotating solutions, in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, from spherically symmetric static ones. We explore the properties of the curvature scalar and stress-energy tensor for all types of rotating regular solutions we can generate without restricting ourselves to specific examples of regular solutions (regular black holes or wormholes). We show through examples how it is generally possible to generate an imperfect fluid regular rotating solution via radial coordinate transformations. We derive rotating wormholes that are modeled as imperfect fluids and discuss their physical properties. These are independent on the way the stress-energy tensor is interpreted. A solution modeling an imperfect fluid rotating loop black hole is briefly discussed. We then specialize to the recently discussed stable exotic dust Ellis wormhole as emerged in a source-free radial electric or magnetic field, and we generate its, conjecturally stable, rotating counterpart. This turns out to be an exotic imperfect fluid wormhole, and we determine the stress-energy tensor of both the imperfect fluid and the electric or magnetic field. (orig.)

  19. From static to rotating to conformal static solutions: rotating imperfect fluid wormholes with(out) electric or magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    We derive a shortcut stationary metric formula for generating imperfect fluid rotating solutions, in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates, from spherically symmetric static ones. We explore the properties of the curvature scalar and stress-energy tensor for all types of rotating regular solutions we can generate without restricting ourselves to specific examples of regular solutions (regular black holes or wormholes). We show through examples how it is generally possible to generate an imperfect fluid regular rotating solution via radial coordinate transformations. We derive rotating wormholes that are modeled as imperfect fluids and discuss their physical properties. These are independent on the way the stress-energy tensor is interpreted. A solution modeling an imperfect fluid rotating loop black hole is briefly discussed. We then specialize to the recently discussed stable exotic dust Ellis wormhole as emerged in a source-free radial electric or magnetic field, and we generate its, conjecturally stable, rotating counterpart. This turns out to be an exotic imperfect fluid wormhole, and we determine the stress-energy tensor of both the imperfect fluid and the electric or magnetic field. (orig.)

  20. Influence of magneto-electric coefficient for magnetic and electric charge injection properties in magneto-electric MIS capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, T; Tsuboi, Y; Imura, R; Kito, S; Gomi, M, E-mail: yokota.takeshi@nitech.ac.jp [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya City, Aichi, 466-8555 (Japan)

    2011-10-29

    We investigated the electric charge injection properties of a floating-gate type metal-insulator Si capacitor having different-ME gate insulators. The samples showed charge-injection type behaviour in capacitance-voltage curves, and it was revealed that the amount of injected charges can be controlled by the application of an external magnetic field. The sample having a high-ME-coefficient gate insulator showed stepwise capacitance-voltage curves unlike the normal one. These results indicate that this capacitor, which employs a magnetic gate insulator, has the potential to be used in multilevel memory by the application of an external magnetic field.

  1. Design and development of electric vehicle charging station equipped with RFID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panatarani, C.; Murtaddo, D.; Maulana, D. W.; Irawan, S.; Joni, I. M.

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the development of electric charging station from distributed renewable for electric vehicle (EV). This designed refer to the input voltage standard of IEC 61851, plugs features of IEC 62196 and standard communication of ISO 15118. The developed electric charging station used microcontroller ATMEGA8535 and RFID as controller and identifier of the EV users, respectively. The charging station successfully developed as desired features for electric vehicle from renewable energy resources grid with solar panel, wind power and batteries storage.

  2. Electric-field Induced Microdynamics of Charged Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyongok eKang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric-field induced phase/state transitions are observed in AC electric fields with small amplitudes and low frequencies in suspensions of charged fibrous viruses (fd, which are model systems for highly charged rod-like colloids. Texture- and particle-dynamics in these field-induced states, and on crossing transition lines, are explored by image time-correlation and dynamic light scattering, respectively. At relatively low frequencies, starting from a system within the isotropic-nematic coexistence region, a transition from a nematic to a chiral nematic is observed, as well as a dynamical state where nematic domains melt and reform. These transitions are preliminary due to field-induced dissociation/association of condensed ions. At higher frequencies a uniform state is formed that is stabilized by hydrodynamic interactions through field-induced electro-osmotic flow where the rods align along the field direction. There is a point in the field-amplitude versus frequency plane where various transition lines meet. This point can be identified as a non-equilibrium critical point, in the sense that a length scale and a time scale diverge on approach of that point. The microscopic dynamics exhibits discontinuities on crossing transition lines that were identified independently by means of image and signal correlation spectroscopy.

  3. Electric generation and ratcheted transport of contact-charged drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartier, Charles A.; Graybill, Jason R.; Bishop, Kyle J. M.

    2017-10-01

    We describe a simple microfluidic system that enables the steady generation and efficient transport of aqueous drops using only a constant voltage input. Drop generation is achieved through an electrohydrodynamic dripping mechanism by which conductive drops grow and detach from a grounded nozzle in response to an electric field. The now-charged drops are transported down a ratcheted channel by contact charge electrophoresis powered by the same voltage input used for drop generation. We investigate how the drop size, generation frequency, and transport velocity depend on system parameters such as the liquid viscosity, interfacial tension, applied voltage, and channel dimensions. The observed trends are well explained by a series of scaling analyses that provide insight into the dominant physical mechanisms underlying drop generation and ratcheted transport. We identify the conditions necessary for achieving reliable operation and discuss the various modes of failure that can arise when these conditions are violated. Our results demonstrate that simple electric inputs can power increasingly complex droplet operations with potential opportunities for inexpensive and portable microfluidic systems.

  4. Solar-Assisted Electric Vehicle Charging Station Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Durfee, Norman [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Overbey, Randall M [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been awarded $6.8 million in the Department of Energy (DOE) American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds as part of an overall $114.8 million ECOtality grant with matching funds from regional partners to install 125 solar-assisted Electric Vehicle (EV) charging stations across Knoxville, Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis. Significant progress has been made toward completing the scope with the installation of 25 solar-assisted charging stations at ORNL; six stations at Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); and 27 stations at Nissan's Smyrna and Franklin sites, with three more stations under construction at Nissan's new lithium-ion battery plant. Additionally, the procurement process for contracting the installation of 34 stations at Knoxville, the University of Tennessee Knoxville (UTK), and Nashville sites is underway with completion of installation scheduled for early 2012. Progress is also being made on finalizing sites and beginning installations of 30 stations in Nashville, Chattanooga, and Memphis by EPRI and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). The solar-assisted EV charging station project has made great strides in fiscal year 2011. A total of 58 solar-assisted EV parking spaces have been commissioned in East and Middle Tennessee, and progress on installing the remaining 67 spaces is well underway. The contract for the 34 stations planned for Knoxville, UTK, and Nashville should be underway in October with completion scheduled for the end of March 2012; the remaining three Nissan stations are under construction and scheduled to be complete in November; and the EPRI/TVA stations for Chattanooga, Vanderbilt, and Memphis are underway and should be complete by the end of March 2012. As additional Nissan LEAFs are being delivered, usage of the charging stations has increased substantially. The project is on course to complete all 125 solar-assisted EV charging stations in time to collect meaningful data

  5. The System of Fast Charging Station for Electric Vehicles with Minimal Impact on the Electrical Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chlebis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The searching and utilization of new energy sources and technologies is a current trend. The effort to increase the share of electricity production from renewable energy sources is characteristic for economically developed countries. The use of accumulation of electrical energy with a large number of decentralized storage units is most preferred, as well as the focus on the production of energy at the point of its consumption. Modern cogeneration units are a good example. This paper describes the accumulation of electrical energy for equalizing the power balance of electric charging stations with high instantaneous power. The possibility of re-utilization of electrical energy from the charged vehicle in the case of lack of electricity in the power grid is solved at the same time. This paper also deals with the selection of appropriate concept of accumulation system and its cooperation with both renewable and distribution networks. Details of the main power components including the results obtained from the system implementation are also described in this paper.

  6. Electrical control of Faraday rotation at a liquid-liquid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Monica; Kornyshev, Alexei A; Flatté, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    A theory is developed for the Faraday rotation of light from a monolayer of charged magnetic nanoparticles at an electrified liquid-liquid interface. The polarization fields of neighboring nanoparticles enhance the Faraday rotation. At such interfaces, and for realistic sizes and charges of nanoparticles, their adsorption-desorption can be controlled with a voltage variationFaraday rotation. A calculation based on the Maxwell-Garnett theory predicts that the corresponding redistribution of 40 nm nanoparticles of yttrium iron garnet can switch a cavity with a quality factor larger than 10(4) for light of wavelength 500 nm at normal incidence.

  7. Level 1 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations at the Workplace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Margaret [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-07-29

    Level 1 charging (110-120 V) can be a good fit for many workplace charging programs. This document highlights the experiences of a selection of Workplace Charging Challenge partners that use Level 1 charging.

  8. System and method for charging a plug-in electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassham, Marjorie A.; Spigno, Jr., Ciro A.; Muller, Brett T.; Newhouse, Vernon L.

    2017-05-02

    A charging system and method that may be used to automatically apply customized charging settings to a plug-in electric vehicle, where application of the settings is based on the vehicle's location. According to an exemplary embodiment, a user may establish and save a separate charging profile with certain customized charging settings for each geographic location where they plan to charge their plug-in electric vehicle. Whenever the plug-in electric vehicle enters a new geographic area, the charging method may automatically apply the charging profile that corresponds to that area. Thus, the user does not have to manually change or manipulate the charging settings every time they charge the plug-in electric vehicle in a new location.

  9. Electric vehicle charge patterns and the electricity generation mix and competitiveness of next generation vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Murata, Akinobu; Endo, Eiichi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The energy system of whole of Japan is analyzed in this study. • An advanced model based on MARKAL is used for the energy system analysis. • The impact of charge patterns of EVs on electricity generation mix is evaluated. • Technology competitiveness of the next generation vehicles is also evaluated. - Abstract: The nuclear accident of 2011 brought about a reconsideration of the future electricity generation mix of power systems in Japan. A debate on whether to phase out nuclear power plants and replace them with renewable energy sources is taking place. Demand-side management becomes increasingly important in future Japanese power systems with a large-scale integration of renewable energy sources. This paper considers the charge control of electric vehicles (EVs) through demand-side management. There have been many studies of the control or operation methods of EVs known as vehicle-to-grid (V2G), and it is important to evaluate both their short-term and long-term operation. In this study, we employ energy system to evaluate the impact of the charge patterns of EVs on both the electricity generation mix and the technology competitiveness of the next generation vehicles. An advanced energy system model based on Market Allocation (MARKAL) is used to consider power system control in detail

  10. AC electric field induced dipole-based on-chip 3D cell rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhal, Prateek; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gaynor, Paul; Oback, Björn; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-08-07

    The precise rotation of suspended cells is one of the many fundamental manipulations used in a wide range of biotechnological applications such as cell injection and enucleation in nuclear transfer (NT) cloning. Noticeably scarce among the existing rotation techniques is the three-dimensional (3D) rotation of cells on a single chip. Here we present an alternating current (ac) induced electric field-based biochip platform, which has an open-top sub-mm square chamber enclosed by four sidewall electrodes and two bottom electrodes, to achieve rotation about the two axes, thus 3D cell rotation. By applying an ac potential to the four sidewall electrodes, an in-plane (yaw) rotating electric field is generated and in-plane rotation is achieved. Similarly, by applying an ac potential to two opposite sidewall electrodes and the two bottom electrodes, an out-of-plane (pitch) rotating electric field is generated and rolling rotation is achieved. As a prompt proof-of-concept, bottom electrodes were constructed with transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) using the standard lift-off process and the sidewall electrodes were constructed using a low-cost micro-milling process and then assembled to form the chip. Through experiments, we demonstrate rotation of bovine oocytes of ~120 μm diameter about two axes, with the capability of controlling the rotation direction and the rate for each axis through control of the ac potential amplitude, frequency, and phase shift, and cell medium conductivity. The maximum observed rotation rate reached nearly 140° s⁻¹, while a consistent rotation rate reached up to 40° s⁻¹. Rotation rate spectra for zona pellucida-intact and zona pellucida-free oocytes were further compared and found to have no effective difference. This simple, transparent, cheap-to-manufacture, and open-top platform allows additional functional modules to be integrated to become a more powerful cell manipulation system.

  11. CHAOTIC MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES IN AN ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD SURROUNDING A ROTATING BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaaki; Koyama, Hiroko

    2009-01-01

    The observational data from some black hole candidates suggest the importance of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of a black hole. Highly magnetized disk accretion may play an importance rule, and large-scale magnetic field may be formed above the disk surface. Then, we expect that the nature of the black hole spacetime would be revealed by magnetic phenomena near the black hole. We will start investigating the motion of a charged test particle which depends on the initial parameter setting in the black hole dipole magnetic field, which is a test field on the Kerr spacetime. Particularly, we study the spin effects of a rotating black hole on the motion of the charged test particle trapped in magnetic field lines. We make detailed analysis for the particle's trajectories by using the Poincare map method, and show the chaotic properties that depend on the black hole spin. We find that the dragging effects of the spacetime by a rotating black hole weaken the chaotic properties and generate regular trajectories for some sets of initial parameters, while the chaotic properties dominate on the trajectories for slowly rotating black hole cases. The dragging effects can generate the fourth adiabatic invariant on the particle motion approximately.

  12. The charged component of the vacuum field as the source of electric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The formula is derived for the electric force inside a uniformly charged spherical body, as well as for the Coulomb force between the charged bodies from the standpoint of the model of the vacuum field with charged particles. The parameters of the fluxes of charged particles are estimated, including the energy density, ...

  13. Authentication System for Electrical Charging of Electrical Vehicles in the Housing Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wang-Cheol

    Recently the smart grid has been a hot issue in the research area. The Electric Vehicle (EV) is the most important component in the Smart Grid, having a role of the battery component with high capacity. We have thought how to introduce the EV in the housing development, and for proper operation of the smart grid systems in the housing area the authentication system is essential for the individual houses. We propose an authentication system to discriminate an individual houses, so that the account management component can appropriately operate the electrical charging and billing in the housing estate. The proposed system has an architecture to integrate the charging system outside a house and the monitoring system inside a house.

  14. Tunable and rotatable birefringence controller based on electrical control of liquid crystal filled photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Lei; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the first compact electrically tunable and rotatable birefringence controller based on LCPBG fibers. The birefringence can be tuned electrically to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm.......We demonstrate the first compact electrically tunable and rotatable birefringence controller based on LCPBG fibers. The birefringence can be tuned electrically to work as a quarter-wave or a half-wave plate in the wavelength range 1520nm-1600nm....

  15. Coordinating plug-in electric vehicle charging with electric grid: Valley filling and target load following

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar; Brown, Tim; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-12-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) shift energy consumption from petroleum to electricity for the personal transportation sector. This work proposes a decentralized charging protocol for PEVs with grid operators updating the cost signal. Each PEV calculates its own optimal charging profile only once based on the cost signal, after it is plugged in, and sends the result back to the grid operators. Grid operators only need to aggregate charging profiles and update the load and cost. The existing PEV characteristics, national household travel survey (NHTS), California Independent System Operator (CAISO) demand, and estimates for future renewable generation in California are used to simulate PEV operation, PEV charging profiles, grid demand, and grid net load (demand minus renewable). Results show the proposed protocol has good performance for overnight net load valley filling if the costs to be minimized are proportional to the net load. Annual results are shown in terms of overnight load variation and comparisons are made with grid level valley filling results. Further, a target load can be approached in the same manner by using the gap between current load and the target load as the cost. The communication effort involved is quite modest.

  16. Neutron charge radius and the neutron electric form factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, T. R.; Crawford, C. B.

    2011-01-01

    For nearly forty years, the Galster parametrization has been employed to fit existing data for the neutron electric form factor, G E n , vs the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q 2 . Typically this parametrization is constrained to be consistent with experimental data for the neutron charge radius. However, we find that the Galster form does not have sufficient freedom to accommodate reasonable values of the radius without constraining or compromising the fit. In addition, the G E n data are now at sufficient precision to motivate a two-parameter fit (or three parameters if we include thermal neutron data). Here we present a modified form of a two-dipole parametrization that allows this freedom and fits both G E n (including recent data at both low and high four-momentum transfer) and the charge radius well with simple, well-defined parameters. Analysis reveals that the Galster form is essentially a two-parameter approximation to the two-dipole form but becomes degenerate if we try to extend it naturally to three parameters.

  17. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Cirigliano, Vincenzo; Gupta, Rajan; Lin, Huey-Wen; Yoon, Boram

    2015-11-20

    We present lattice QCD results on the neutron tensor charges including, for the first time, a simultaneous extrapolation in the lattice spacing, volume, and light quark masses to the physical point in the continuum limit. We find that the "disconnected" contribution is smaller than the statistical error in the "connected" contribution. Our estimates in the modified minimal subtraction scheme at 2 GeV, including all systematics, are g_{T}^{d-u}=1.020(76), g_{T}^{d}=0.774(66), g_{T}^{u}=-0.233(28), and g_{T}^{s}=0.008(9). The flavor diagonal charges determine the size of the neutron electric dipole moment (EDM) induced by quark EDMs that are generated in many new scenarios of CP violation beyond the standard model. We use our results to derive model-independent bounds on the EDMs of light quarks and update the EDM phenomenology in split supersymmetry with gaugino mass unification, finding a stringent upper bound of d_{n}<4×10^{-28} e cm for the neutron EDM in this scenario.

  18. Simple supercapacitor charging scheme of an electric vehicle on small-scale hardware simulator: a prototype development for education purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Rafi Al Tahtawi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitor is one of electrical energy sources that have faster charging-discharging times when compared to other power sources, such as battery and fuel cell. Therefore, it is often used as an additional power source in an electric vehicle. In this paper, a prototype of small-scale electric vehicle simulator (EVS is built and a simple charging scheme of supercapacitor is used for education purpose. EVS is an electric vehicle prototype which can show the vehicle’s powertrain on small-scale configuration. Main components of this device are two direct current motors (DCMs with a linked axis of rotation. Therefore one of them will be able to act as a generator. The supercapacitor charging scheme is employed by controlling the relays. The hardware experimental result shows that the averages of charging current are proportional to the maximum slope angle of the road profiles. This scheme is simple due to the EVS utility and it is useful for education purpose.

  19. Control of the dielectric microrods rotation in liquid by alternating current electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yukun; Li, Bin; Jiang, Hongyuan

    2014-05-01

    Microfluidics is a promising system for the manipulation of micro-nano particles and fluids. In this platform, alternating current (AC) electric field is usual an effective tool for the general particles control. However, traditional work paid more attention on the regular spherical particles with no obvious distinction when rotating, resulting in imprecise rotation speed calculation. In essence, non-spherical especially biocompatible particles are not only important for biology application but also significant for obtaining accurate rotating results. Hence, in this paper, SU-8, one of the most biocompatible materials was selected as the manipulation object. AC electric field is employed to rotate SU-8 microrods, in order to obtain a controllable rotation angle for both the accurate experimental results and biosensor applications. Firstly, Clausius-Mossotti(CM) factors frequency spectra with different surface conductance and medium conductivities are presented, thereby the theoretical formula is carried out, including both the torque and rotation velocity expressions of SU-8 microrods. Moreover, simulations for the electric field distribution are developed, indicating the rotating direction. Secondly, the quadrupole electrodes are used to generate rotating electric field, and the electrorotation of SU-8 microrods in different medium is carried out, showing that the particles rotate in the opposite direction of the electric field, meanwhile, the peak frequency increases with the conductivity increases. Finally, the experimental results are discussed and compared with theoretical analysis, and the comparison result shows that they have a good agreement. This work proposes an effective and controllable method to rotate microrods, showing extend application potentials in microelectronics and biosensors.

  20. Electric bus migration in Bengaluru with dynamic charging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Kumar Begwani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid but unplanned urban development coupled with economic growth has resulted in congestion and pollution concerns in Indian cities. This forced India consider taking concrete steps towards design policies that would help stir the nation towards a more sustainable future. India, along with other bigger Asian economies like China, needs to address the growing global concerns over climate change and design their framework and policies to help cut down the greenhouse gas emissions. Transportation is a major source of pollution. A shift towards a pro-public transport policy would solve the traffic congestion problems and address the emission concerns. India has a significantly higher modal share of public transportation in its major cities. Public bus transport system acts as a lifeline to the India’s poor and middle class citizens. The following study focuses on the need for a replacement of conventional fossil fuel dependent buses with Electric buses in the existing public transport bus fleet in the city of Bengaluru. A design has been developed to utilize wireless charging technologies to realize electric bus migration in Bengaluru.

  1. Optical and electrical properties of negatively charged aluminium oxynitride films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Kyungsoo; Jung, Sungwook; Lee, Jeoungin; Lee, Kwangsoo; Kim, Jaehong; Son, Hyukjoo [School of information and communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Junsin [School of information and communication Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: yi@yurim.ac.kr

    2008-11-03

    Aluminium oxynitride (AlON) thin films were deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on n-type silicon (Si) substrate of (100) orientation using argon (Ar) and oxygen (O{sub 2}) gases at substrate temperature of 450 {sup o}C. To know the change in electrical properties with gases ratio, a deposition was carried out for 140 s with Ar:O{sub 2} ratio changed from 1:3 to 4:3. After that, electrical properties of Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor (MIS) structure with AlON was analyzed. For Ar:O{sub 2} ratios from 1:3 to 4:3, all samples showed characteristics of negative charge. In particular, when Ar:O{sub 2} were 2:3 and 3:3, the value of flatband voltage in normal C-V curve showed above 14 V. The composition of the AlON in the film was investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). The flatband voltages (V{sub FB}) in C-V curves were found to depend on compositions. The characteristics of photon energy band gap were obtained by UV/VIS spectrum.

  2. Electric field and energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperbolaidal electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ley-Koo, E. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    2001-06-01

    The electric potential and intensity field, as well as the energy of a point electric charge between confocal hyperboloidal electrodes is evaluated as a superposition of prolate spheroidal harmonics using the Green-function technique. This study is motivated by the need to model the electric field between the tip and the sample in a scanning tunnelling microscope, and it can also be applied to a conductor-insulator-conductor junction. [Spanish] Los campos de potencial y de intensidad electrica, asi como la energia de una carga electrica puntual entre electrodos hiperboloidales confocales se evaluan como superposiciones de armonicos esferoidales prolatos usando la tecnica de la funcion de Green. Este estudio ha sido motivado por la necesidad de modelar el campo electrico entre la punta y la muestra de un microscopio de tunelamiento y barrido, y se puede aplicar tambien a una union de conductor-aislante-conductor.

  3. Distributed Coordination of Electric Vehicle Charging in a Community Microgrid Considering Real-Time Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Schaltz, Erik; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    The predictable increasing adoption of EV by residential users imposes the necessity of Electric Vehicle charging coordination, in order to charge effectively while minimizing the impact on the grid. In this paper, a two-stage distributed coordination algorithm for electric vehicle charging...... management in a community microgrid is proposed. Each local EV charging controller is taken as an agent, which can manage the charging to achieve the optimization of the whole community by communicating in a sparse network. The proposed algorithm aims at optimizing real-time, which manages the charging...

  4. Distribution of electric field and charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of electric field in silicon strip detectors is analyzed in the case of dull depletion as well as for partial depletion. Influence of inhomogeneous electric fields on the charge collection and performances of silicon strip detectors is discussed

  5. Considerations on 'Harmonic balancing approach to nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of charged ring'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Rodes, J.J.; Fuentes, R.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    In a previous short communication [A. Belendez, E. Fernandez, J.J. Rodes, R. Fuentes, I. Pascual, Phys. Lett. A 373 (2009) 735] the nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of a charged ring were analyzed. Approximate frequency-amplitude relations and periodic solutions were obtained using the harmonic balance method. Now we clarify an important aspect about of this oscillation charge. Taking into account Earnshaw's theorem, this punctual charge cannot be a free charge and so it must be confined, for example, on a finite conducting wire placed along the axis of the ring. Then, the oscillatory system may consist of a punctual charge on a conducting wire placed along the axis of the uniformly charged ring.

  6. Slowly rotating charged fluid balls and their matching to an exterior domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodor, Gyula; Perjes, Zoltan; Bradley, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The slow-rotation approximation of Hartle is developed to a setting where a charged rotating fluid is present. The linearized Einstein-Maxwell equations are solved on the background of the Reissner-Nordstroem space-time in the exterior electrovacuum region. The theory is put to action for the charged generalization of the Wahlquist solution found by Garcia. The Garcia solution is transformed to coordinates suitable for the matching and expanded in powers of the angular velocity. The two domains are then matched along the zero pressure surface using the Darmois-Israel procedure. We prove a theorem to the effect that the exterior region is asymptotically flat if and only if the parameter C 2 , characterizing the magnitude of an external magnetic field, vanishes. We obtain the form of the constant C 2 for the Garcia solution. We conjecture that the Garcia metric cannot be matched to an asymptotically flat exterior electrovacuum region even to first order in the angular velocity. This conjecture is supported by a high precision numerical analysis

  7. A Study of Charge-Exchange Neutrals from a Rotating Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of charge-exchange neutrals leaving a rotating plasma (a puffatron device) are reported. Neutrals are observed only during the breakdown phase (2-3 mu s) indicating that the created plasma is fully ionized. Several energy spectra of the neutrals for different plasma parameters are ob....... Neutral particle measurements at different distances from the puffatron midplane show ionization velocities parallel with the magnetic field of about 2*104 ms-1 and plasma expansion velocities of about 5-6*104 ms-1 corresponding to an electron temperature of about 25 eV.......Measurements of charge-exchange neutrals leaving a rotating plasma (a puffatron device) are reported. Neutrals are observed only during the breakdown phase (2-3 mu s) indicating that the created plasma is fully ionized. Several energy spectra of the neutrals for different plasma parameters...... are obtained. These spectra are grossly explained using a single-particle orbit model of the plasma ions. Assuming a Maxwellian distribution for the spread in the ion Larmor energy for the central part of the measured energy spectra, it is possible to determine the ion energy during the breakdown phase...

  8. Entropy of a rotating and charged black string to all orders in the Planck length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren, Zhao; Yue-Qin, Wu; Li-Chun, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    By using the entanglement entropy method, this paper calculates the statistical entropy of the Bose and Fermi fields in thin films, and derives the Bekenstein–Hawking entropy and its correction term on the background of a rotating and charged black string. Here, the quantum field is entangled with quantum states in the black string and thin film to the event horizon from outside the rotating and charged black string. Taking into account the effect of the generalized uncertainty principle on quantum state density, it removes the difficulty of the divergence of state density near the event horizon in the brick-wall model. These calculations and discussions imply that high density quantum states near the event horizon of a black string are strongly correlated with the quantum states in a black string and that black string entropy is a quantum effect. The ultraviolet cut-off in the brick-wall model is not reasonable. The generalized uncertainty principle should be considered in the high energy quantum field near the event horizon. From the viewpoint of quantum statistical mechanics, the correction value of Bekenstein–Hawking entropy is obtained. This allows the fundamental recognition of the correction value of black string entropy at nonspherical coordinates

  9. Smart electric vehicle (EV) charging and grid integration apparatus and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadh, Rajit; Mal, Siddhartha; Prabhu, Shivanand; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Sheikh, Omar; Chung, Ching-Yen; He, Lei; Xiao, Bingjun; Shi, Yiyu

    2015-05-05

    An expert system manages a power grid wherein charging stations are connected to the power grid, with electric vehicles connected to the charging stations, whereby the expert system selectively backfills power from connected electric vehicles to the power grid through a grid tie inverter (if present) within the charging stations. In more traditional usage, the expert system allows for electric vehicle charging, coupled with user preferences as to charge time, charge cost, and charging station capabilities, without exceeding the power grid capacity at any point. A robust yet accurate state of charge (SOC) calculation method is also presented, whereby initially an open circuit voltage (OCV) based on sampled battery voltages and currents is calculated, and then the SOC is obtained based on a mapping between a previously measured reference OCV (ROCV) and SOC. The OCV-SOC calculation method accommodates likely any battery type with any current profile.

  10. Demand Profile Study of Battery Electric Vehicle under Different Charging Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guang Ya; Træholt, Chresten

    2012-01-01

    An increased research on electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) deals with their flexible use in electric power grids. Several research projects on smart grids and electric mobility are now looking into realistic models representing the behavior of an EV during charging...

  11. 29 CFR 1926.906 - Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) After firing an electric blast from a blasting machine, the leading wires shall be immediately... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initiation of explosive charges-electric blasting. 1926.906... Use of Explosives § 1926.906 Initiation of explosive charges—electric blasting. (a) Electric blasting...

  12. Rotation of a Spherical Particle with Electrical Dipole Moment Induced by Steady Irradiation in a Static Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Rotation of a spherical particle in a static electric field and under steady irradiation that induces an electric dipole moment in the particle is studied for the first time. Along with the general treatment of the phenomenon, we analyze possible mechanisms underlying the photoinduction of dipole moment in the particle. Estimations of the angular velocity and the power expended by the rotating particle are provided. The indicated characteristics reach their maximum values if the size of particles is within the range of 10 nm to 10 μm.

  13. Effect of Cation Rotation on Charge Dynamics in Hybrid Lead Halide Perovskites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gélvez-Rueda, María C.; Cao, Duyen H.; Patwardhan, Sameer; Renaud, Nicolas; Stoumpos, Constantinos C.; Schatz, George C.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.; Savenije, Tom J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Grozema, Ferdinand C.

    2016-08-04

    Organic-inorganic hybrid halide perovskites are a promising class of materials for photovoltaic application with reported power efficiencies over similar to 22%. However, not much is known about the influence of the organic dipole rotation and phase transitions on charge carrier dynamics. Here, we report substantial changes in mobility and lifetime of charge carriers in CH3NH3PbI3 after the low-temperature tetragonal (beta) to orthorhombic (gamma) phase transition. By using microwave conductivity measurements, we observed that the mobility and lifetime of ionized charge carriers increase as the temperature decreases and a sudden increment is seen after the beta-gamma phase transition. For CH3NH3PbI3, the mobility and the half-lifetime increase by a factor of 36 compared with the values before the beta-gamma phase transition. We attribute the considerable change in the dynamics at low temperature to the decrease of the inherent dynamic disorder of the organic cation (CH3NH3+) inside the perovskite crystal structure.

  14. Plasma rotation and radial electric field with a density ramp in an ohmically heated tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Marchal, B.

    1991-10-01

    Measurements of toroidal and poloidal rotation of the TCA plasma with Alfven Wave Heating and different levels of gas feed are reported. The temporal evolution of the rotation was inferred from intrinsic spectral lines of CV, CIII and, using injected helium gas, from HeII. The light collection optics and line intensity permitted the evolution of the plasma rotation to be measured with a time resolution of 2ms. The rotation velocities were used to deduce the radial electric field. With Alfven heating there was no observable change of this electric field that could have been responsible for the density rise which is characteristic of the RF experiments on TCA. The behaviour of the plasma rotation with different plasma density ramp rates was investigated. The toroidal rotation was observed to decrease with increasing plasma density. The poloidal rotation was observed to follow the value of the plasma density. With hard gas puffing, changes in the deduced radial electric field were found to coincide with changes in the peaking of the plasma density profile. Finally, with frozen pellet injection, the expected increase in the radial electric field due to the increased plasma density was not observed, which may explain the poorer confinement of the injected particles. Even in an ohmically heated tokamak, the measurement of the plasma rotation and the radial electric field are shown to be strongly related to the confinement. A thorough statistical analysis of the systematic errors is presented and a new and significant source of uncertainty in the experimental technique is identified. (author) 18 figs., 18 refs

  15. Assessment of renewable energy technologies for charging electric vehicles in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, Aman; Raj, Ratan; Kumar, Mayank; Ghandehariun, Samane; Kumar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Electric vehicle charging by renewable energy can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a data-intensive techno-economic model to estimate the cost of charging an electric vehicle with a battery capacity of 16 kW h for an average travel distance of 65 km from small-scale renewable electricity in various jurisdictions in Canada. Six scenarios were developed that encompass scale of operation, charging time, and type of renewable energy system. The costs of charging an electric vehicle from an off-grid wind energy system at a charging time of 8 h is 56.8–58.5 cents/km in Montreal, Quebec, and 58.5–60.0 cents/km in Ottawa, Ontario. However, on integration with a small-scale hydro, the charging costs are 9.4–11.2 cents/km in Montreal, 9.5–11.1 cents/km in Ottawa and 10.2–12.2 cents/km in Vancouver, British Columbia. The results show that electric vehicle charging from small-scale hydro energy integration is cost competitive compared charging from conventional grid electricity in all the chosen jurisdictions. Furthermore, when the electric vehicle charging time decreases from 8 to 4 h, the cost of charging increases by 83% and 11% from wind and hydro energy systems, respectively. - Highlights: • Techno-economic analysis conducted for EV charging from wind and hydro. • EV charging from hydro energy is cost competitive than from wind energy. • GHG mitigation estimated from operation of EV charged from renewable energy. • Sensitivity of key parameters on cost of charging considered

  16. Electric vehicle charging infrastructure assignment and power grid impacts assessment in Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Jian

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates the charging demand of an early electric vehicle (EV) market in Beijing and proposes an assignment model to distribute charging infrastructure. It finds that each type of charging infrastructure has its limitation, and integration is needed to offer a reliable charging service. It also reveals that the service radius of fast charging stations directly influences the final distribution pattern and an infrastructure deployment strategy with short service radius for fast charging stations has relatively fewer disturbances on the power grid. Additionally, although the adoption of electric vehicles will cause an additional electrical load on the Beijing's power grid, this additional load can be accommodated by the current grid's capacity via the charging time management and the battery swap strategy. - Highlight: ► Charging posts, fast charging stations, and battery swap stations should be integrated. ► Charging posts at home parking places will take a major role in a charging network. ► A service radius of 2 km is proposed for fast charging stations deployment. ► The additional charging load from EVs can be accommodated by charging time management.

  17. Do the SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino results explain electric charge quantisation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foot, R.; Volkas, R.R.

    1998-08-01

    It is shown that the SuperKamiokande atmospheric neutrino results explain electric charge quantisation, provided that the oscillation mode is ν μ → ν τ and that the neutrino mass is of the Majorana type. It is emphasised that neutrino oscillation and neutrinoless double beta decay experiments provide important information regarding the seemingly unrelated issue of electric charge quantisation

  18. Effects of charging and electric field on graphene functionalized with titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gürel, H Hakan; Ciraci, S

    2013-01-01

    Titanium atoms are adsorbed to graphene with a significant binding energy and render diverse functionalities to it. Carrying out first-principles calculations, we investigated the effects of charging and static electric field on the physical and chemical properties of graphene covered by Ti adatoms. When uniformly Ti covered graphene is charged positively, its antiferromagnetic ground state changes to ferromagnetic metal and attains a permanent magnetic moment. Static electric field applied perpendicularly causes charge transfer between Ti and graphene, and can induce metal–insulator transition. While each Ti adatom adsorbed to graphene atom can hold four hydrogen molecules with a weak binding, these molecules can be released by charging or applying electric field perpendicularly. Hence, it is demonstrated that charging and applied static electric field induce quasi-continuous and side specific modifications in the charge distribution and potential energy of adatoms absorbed to single-layer nanostructures, resulting in fundamentally crucial effects on their physical and chemical properties. (paper)

  19. Optimal Day-ahead Charging Scheduling of Electric Vehicles through an Aggregative Game Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Huang, Shaojun

    2017-01-01

    The electric vehicle (EV) market has been growing rapidly around the world. With large scale deployment of EVs in power systems, both the grid and EV owners will benefit if the flexible demand of EV charging is properly managed through the electricity market. When EV charging demand is considerable...... in a grid, it will impact spot prices in the electricity market and consequently influence the charging scheduling itself. The interaction between the spot prices and the EV demand needs to be considered in the EV charging scheduling, otherwise it will lead to a higher charging cost. A day-ahead EV charging...... scheduling based on an aggregative game model is proposed in this paper. The impacts of the EV demand on the electricity prices are formulated with the game model in the scheduling considering possible actions of other EVs. The existence and uniqueness of the pure strategy Nash equilibrium are proved...

  20. Electrostatic sensors applied to the measurement of electric charge transfer in gas-solids pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodhead, S R; Denham, J C; Armour-Chelu, D I

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a number of electric charge sensors. The sensors have been developed specifically to investigate triboelectric charge transfer which takes place between particles and the pipeline wall, when powdered materials are conveyed through a pipeline using air. A number of industrial applications exist for such gas-solids pipelines, including pneumatic conveyors, vacuum cleaners and dust extraction systems. The build-up of electric charge on pipelines and powdered materials can lead to electrostatic discharge and so is of interest from a safety viewpoint. The charging of powders can also adversely affect their mechanical handling characteristics and so is of interest to handling equipment engineers. The paper presents the design of the sensors, the design of the electric charge test rig and electric charge measurement test results

  1. Dirac particles in the field of magnetic monopoles and of strong electric charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, A.; Muller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-01-01

    The field of a magnetic pointlike monopole acts in a similar way on a charged Dirac particle as the field of a very strong electric point charge. To explore this parallel it is constructed a field solution for an extended magnetic-charge distribution. In contrast to what is found for extended electric charges, the Hamiltonian remains nonself-adjoint for an extended magnetic monopole. This suggests that there exist a fundamental difference between the two cases. In particular, the appearance of undefined states for point monopoles is not a consequence of the mere strength of the magnetic-monopole charge, which has a minimum value fixed by Dirac's quantization condition

  2. Modeling the Electric Potential and Surface Charge Density near Charged Thunderclouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neel, Matthew Stephen

    2018-01-01

    Thundercloud charge separation, or the process by which the bottom portion of a cloud gathers charge and the top portion of the cloud gathers the opposite charge, is still not thoroughly understood. Whatever the mechanism, though, a charge separation definitely exists and can lead to electrostatic discharge via cloud-to-cloud lightning and…

  3. Design of electric vehicle charging station based on wind and solar complementary power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li

    2018-05-01

    Electric vehicles have become a major trend in the development of the automobile industry. Green energy saving is an important feature of their development. At the same time, the related charging facilities construction is also critical. If we improve the charging measures to adapt to its green energy-saving features, it will be to a greater extent to promote its further development. This article will propose a highly efficient green energy-saving charging station designed for the electric vehicles.

  4. Workplace Electric Vehicle Solar Smart Charging based on Solar Irradiance Forecasting

    OpenAIRE

    Almquist, Isabelle; Lindblom, Ellen; Birging, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to investigate different outcomes of the usage of photovoltaic (PV) power for electric vehicle (EV) charging adjacent to workplaces. In the investigated case, EV charging stations are assumed to be connected to photovoltaic systems as well as the electricity grid. The model used to simulate different scenarios is based on a goal of achieving constant power exchange with the grid by adjusting EV charging to a solar irradiance forecast. The model is implem...

  5. NONLINEAR DYNAMO IN A ROTATING ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Kopp

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We found a new large-scale instability, which arises in the rotating conductive fluid with small-scale turbulence. Turbulence is generated by small-scale external force with a low Reynolds number. The theory is built simply by the method of multiscale asymptotic expansions. Nonlinear equations for vortex and magnetic perturbations obtained in the third order for small Reynolds number. It is shown that the combined effects of the Coriolis force and the small external forces in a rotating conducting fluid possible large-scale instability. The large-scale increments of the instability, correspond to generation as the vortex and magnetic disturbances. This type of instability is classified as hydrodynamic and MHD alpha-effect. We studied the stationary regimes of nonlinear equations of magneto-vortex dynamo. In the limit of weakly conducting fluid found stationary solutions in the form of helical kinks. In the limit of high conductivity fluid was obtained stationary solutions in the form of nonlinear periodic waves and kinks.

  6. Three Players Nash Equilibrium Game Concerning the Charging Time and Place of Employee Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie; Hirte, Georg; Tscharaktschiew, Stefan

    the charging time and increases the share of EVs as commuting mode, it results in unintended consequences including electricity peak-load problem, an increase in electricity tariff for household use, and an increase in car use that worsens traffic congestion. For the electricity supplier, workplace charging...... and when the labor tax is high; ii) employers pay less electricity tariff than households do; iii) the employment contract duration is long; iv) recharging electric vehicles (EVs) takes longer time and the value of time is higher. Accessibility of cheaper charging facility at workplace, while saves...... increases the cost of supplying electricity by aggravating the daytime peak-load problem and by increasing the demand variation from the mean. Tax based on yearly travel distance, and restriction on free workplace charging access improves social welfare. The results from this study are relevant in (i...

  7. Time-of-flight mass spectrometer using an imaging detector and a rotating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, Atsushi; Kameo, Yutaka; Nakashima, Mikio

    2008-01-01

    A new technique for minor isotope analysis that uses a rotating electric field and an imaging detector is described. The rotating electric field is generated by six cylindrically arranged plane electrodes with multi-phase sinusoidal wave voltage. When ion packets that are discriminated by time-of-flight enter the rotating electric field, they are circularly deflected, rendering a spiral image on the fluorescent screen of the detector. This spiral image represents m/z values of ions as the position and abundance of ions as brightness. For minor isotopes analyses, the micro channel plate detector under gate control operation is used to eliminate the influence of high intensity of major isotopes. (author)

  8. Electric Car Users’ Time of Charging Problem under Peak Load Pricing When Delay in Charging Time Involves Uncertain Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie

    The problem of peak load arises when demand fluctuates over time while the pro- duction technology is not flexible (or making it flexible is economically inefficient) and/or when a product is non-storable (or storage cost is huge). Peak load is a com- mon problem in consumption of public utilities......, on the one hand, observed cost saving benefit of postponing the time of charging to off-peak lower fee of charging and, on the other hand, the cost of delay in departure time for planned trips and uncertain cost of late charging associated with likelihood occur- rence of unanticipated trip before the car...... of electricity. The electric vehicle (EV) users choice of time of charging problem under PLP is different from that of general households using energy for house appliances since there is uncertain cost to the former as- sociated with likelihood occurrence of unanticipated trips such as visiting hospital...

  9. Safety Design for Smart Electric Vehicle Charging with Current and Multiplexing Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Youn, Edward; Chynoweth, Joshua; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-21

    As Electric Vehicles (EVs) increase, charging infrastructure becomes more important. When during the day there is a power shortage, the charging infrastructure should have the options to either shut off the power to the charging stations or to lower the power to the EVs in order to satisfy the needs of the grid. This paper proposes a design for a smart charging infrastructure capable of providing power to several EVs from one circuit by multiplexing power and providing charge control and safety systems to prevent electric shock. The safety design is implemented in different levels that include both the server and the smart charging stations. With this smart charging infrastructure, the shortage of energy in a local grid could be solved by our EV charging management system.

  10. Charge transport in electrically doped amorphous organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seung-Jun; Kim, Jang-Joo

    2015-06-01

    This article reviews recent progress on charge generation by doping and its influence on the carrier mobility in organic semiconductors (OSs). The doping induced charge generation efficiency is generally low in OSs which was explained by the integer charge transfer model and the hybrid charge transfer model. The ionized dopants formed by charge transfer between hosts and dopants can act as Coulomb traps for mobile charges, and the presence of Coulomb traps in OSs broadens the density of states (DOS) in doped organic films. The Coulomb traps strongly reduce the carrier hopping rate and thereby change the carrier mobility, which was confirmed by experiments in recent years. In order to fully understand the doping mechanism in OSs, further quantitative and systematic analyses of charge transport characteristics must be accomplished. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. The influence of electric charge transferred during electro-mechanical reshaping on mechanical behavior of cartilage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, Dimitry E.; Lim, Amanda; Wu, Edward C.; Manuel, Cyrus; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2011-03-01

    Electromechanical reshaping (EMR) of cartilage has been suggested as an alternative to the classical surgical techniques of modifying the shape of facial cartilages. The method is based on exposure of mechanically deformed cartilaginous tissue to a low level electric field. Electro-chemical reactions within the tissue lead to reduction of internal stress, and establishment of a new equilibrium shape. The same reactions offset the electric charge balance between collagen and proteoglycan matrix and interstitial fluid responsible for maintenance of cartilage mechanical properties. The objective of this study was to investigate correlation between the electric charge transferred during EMR and equilibrium elastic modulus. We used a finite element model based on the triphasic theory of cartilage mechanical properties to study how electric charges transferred in the electro-chemical reactions in cartilage can change its mechanical responses to step displacements in unconfined compression. The concentrations of the ions, the strain field and the fluid and ion velocities within the specimen subject to an applied mechanical deformation were estimated and apparent elastic modulus (the ratio of the equilibrium axial stress to the axial strain) was calculated as a function of transferred charge. The results from numerical calculations showed that the apparent elastic modulus decreases with increase in electric charge transfer. To compare numerical model with experimental observation we measured elastic modulus of cartilage as a function of electric charge transferred in electric circuit during EMR. Good correlation between experimental and theoretical data suggests that electric charge disbalance is responsible for alteration of cartilage mechanical properties.

  12. Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debnath, Ujjal

    2016-01-01

    We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr–Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.

  13. Entropy bound of horizons for accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debnath, Ujjal, E-mail: ujjaldebnath@yahoo.com

    2016-09-15

    We first review the accelerating, rotating and charged Plebanski–Demianski (PD) black hole, which includes the Kerr–Newman rotating black hole and the Taub-NUT spacetime. The main feature of this black hole is that it has 4 horizons like event horizon, Cauchy horizon and two accelerating horizons. In the non-extremal case, the surface area, entropy, surface gravity, temperature, angular velocity, Komar energy and irreducible mass on the event horizon and Cauchy horizon are presented for PD black hole. The entropy product, temperature product, Komar energy product and irreducible mass product have been found for event horizon and Cauchy horizon. Also their sums are found for both horizons. All these relations are dependent on the mass of the PD black hole and other parameters. So all the products are not universal for PD black hole. The entropy and area bounds for two horizons have been investigated. Also we found the Christodoulou–Ruffini mass for extremal PD black hole. Finally, using first law of thermodynamics, we also found the Smarr relation for PD black hole.

  14. Magnetic fields produced by rotating symmetrical bodies with homogeneous surface charge density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espejel-Morales, R; Murguía-Romero, G; Calles, A; Cabrera-Bravo, E; Morán-López, J L

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical calculation for the stationary magnetic field produced by different rotating bodies with homogeneous and constant surface charge density. The calculation is done by superposing the magnetic field produced by a set of loops of current which mimic the magnetic field produced by belts of current defined by slices of fixed width. We consider the cases of a sphere, ellipsoids, open and closed cylinders and a combination of these in a dumbbell -like shell. We also plot their magnetic field lines using a technique that make use of the Runge–Kutta fourth-order method. Up to our knowledge, the case of closed cylinders was not calculated before. In contrast to previous results, we find that the magnetic field inside finite hollow bodies is homogeneous only in the case of a sphere. This is consequence of the fact that, for the sphere, the surface of any slice taken perpendicularly to the rotation axis, depends only on its thickness, like in the case of an infinite cylinder. (paper)

  15. Design of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Ching-Yen; Shepelev, Aleksey; Qiu, Charlie; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-09-04

    With an increased number of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on the roads, charging infrastructure is gaining an ever-more important role in simultaneously meeting the needs of the local distribution grid and of EV users. This paper proposes a mesh network RFID system for user identification and charging authorization as part of a smart charging infrastructure providing charge monitoring and control. The Zigbee-based mesh network RFID provides a cost-efficient solution to identify and authorize vehicles for charging and would allow EV charging to be conducted effectively while observing grid constraints and meeting the needs of EV drivers

  16. Instability of dust ion-acoustic waves in a dusty plasma containing elongated and rotating charged dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Tskhakaya, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The dispersion properties of the dust ion-acoustic waves (DIAWs) in an unmagnetized dusty plasma is examined when the plasma constituents are electrons, ions, and charged dust grains which are elongated and rotating. Since the dipole moment of elongated and rotating dust grains is nonzero, significant modifications of the DIAW spectrum emerge. It is found that the DIAWs are subjected to an instability when the DIAW frequency approximately equals the angular rotation frequency of the elongated dust grains. The relevance of our investigation to enhanced fluctuations in space and laboratory dusty plasmas is pointed out

  17. A Review of Demand Forecast for Charging Facilities of Electric Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiming, Han; Lingyu, Kong; Yaqi, Shen; Ying, Li; Wenting, Xiong; Hao, Wang

    2017-05-01

    The demand forecasting of charging facilities is the basis of its planning and locating, which has important role in promoting the development of electric vehicles and alleviating the energy crisis. Firstly, this paper analyzes the influence of the charging mode, the electric vehicle population and the user’s charging habits on the demand of charging facilities; Secondly, considering these factors, the recent analysis on charging and switching equipment demand forecast is divided into two methods—forecast based on electric vehicle population and user traveling behavior. Then, the article analyzes the two methods and puts forward the advantages and disadvantages. Finally, in view of the defects of current research, combined with the current situation of the development of the city and comprehensive consideration of economic, political, environmental and other factors, this paper proposes an improved demand forecasting method which has great practicability and pertinence and lays the foundation for the plan of city electric facilities.

  18. Prediction and optimization methods for electric vehicle charging schedules in the EDISON project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabrandt, Andreas; Andersen, Peter Bach; Pedersen, Anders Bro

    2012-01-01

    project has been launched to investigate various areas relevant to electric vehicle integration. As part of EDISON an electric vehicle aggregator has been developed to demonstrate smart charging of electric vehicles. The emphasis of this paper is the mathematical methods on which the EDISON aggregator...

  19. Decentralized Electric Vehicle Charging Strategies for Reduced Load Variation and Guaranteed Charge Completion in Regional Distribution Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weige Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, fully decentralized strategy to coordinate charge operation of electric vehicles is proposed in this paper. Based on stochastic switching control of on-board chargers, this strategy ensures high-efficiency charging, reduces load variations to the grid during charging periods, achieves charge completion with high probability, and accomplishes approximate “valley-filling”. Further improvements on the core strategy, including individualized power management, adaptive strategies, and battery support systems, are introduced to further reduce power fluctuation variances and to guarantee charge completion. Stochastic analysis is performed to establish the main properties of the strategies and to quantitatively show the performance improvements. Compared with the existing decentralized charging strategies, the strategies proposed in this paper can be implemented without any information exchange between grid operators and electric vehicles (EVs, resulting in a communications cost reduction. Additionally, it is shown that by using stochastic charging rules, a grid-supporting battery system with a very small energy capacity can achieve substantial reduction of EV load fluctuations with high confidence. An extensive set of simulations and case studies with real-world data are used to demonstrate the benefits of the proposed strategies.

  20. Second rank direction cosine spherical tensor operators and the nuclear electric quadrupole hyperfine structure Hamiltonian of rotating molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Lauro, C.

    2018-03-01

    Transformations of vector or tensor properties from a space-fixed to a molecule-fixed axis system are often required in the study of rotating molecules. Spherical components λμ,ν of a first rank irreducible tensor can be obtained from the direction cosines between the two axis systems, and a second rank tensor with spherical components λμ,ν(2) can be built from the direct product λ × λ. It is shown that the treatment of the interaction between molecular rotation and the electric quadrupole of a nucleus is greatly simplified, if the coefficients in the axis-system transformation of the gradient of the electric field of the outer charges at the coupled nucleus are arranged as spherical components λμ,ν(2). Then the reduced matrix elements of the field gradient operators in a symmetric top eigenfunction basis, including their dependence on the molecule-fixed z-angular momentum component k, can be determined from the knowledge of those of λ(2) . The hyperfine structure Hamiltonian Hq is expressed as the sum of terms characterized each by a value of the molecule-fixed index ν, whose matrix elements obey the rule Δk = ν. Some of these terms may vanish because of molecular symmetry, and the specific cases of linear and symmetric top molecules, orthorhombic molecules, and molecules with symmetry lower than orthorhombic are considered. Each ν-term consists of a contraction of the rotational tensor λ(2) and the nuclear quadrupole tensor in the space-fixed frame, and its matrix elements in the rotation-nuclear spin coupled representation can be determined by the standard spherical tensor methods.

  1. German electric vehicle charging infrastructure: statistically based approach to derive the demand and geographical distribution of charging points

    OpenAIRE

    González Villafranca, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Electromobility is widely seen as one of the most promising options to reduce Greenhouse gas emissions in passenger transport. In accordance with the German Government via the National Platform for Electromobility (NPE), an estimated target of 1 million of electric vehicles for 2020 is expected for Germany. One challenge for the widespread development of electric vehicles market is the lack of infrastructure. The great unknowns here are: how many charging stations will be needed in the future...

  2. A control system for and a method of controlling a superconductive rotating electrical machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of controlling and a control system (100) for a superconductive rotating electric machine (200) comprising at least one superconductive winding (102; 103), where the control system (100) is adapted to control a power unit (101) supplying during use the at least...... or more actual values (110, 111)of one or more parameters for a given superconductive winding (102; 103), each parameter representing a physical condition of the given superconductive winding (102; 103), and to dynamically derive one or more electrical current values to be maintained in the given...... superconductive winding (102; 103) by the power unit (101) where the one or more electrical current values is/are derived taking into account the received one or more actual values (110, 111). In this way,greater flexibility and more precise control of the performance of the superconducting rotating electrical...

  3. Mesh Network Design for Smart Charging Infrastructure and Electric Vehicle Remote Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepelev, Aleksey; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Gadh, Rajit

    2013-10-14

    Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) charging today happens with little knowledge of the state of the vehicle being charged. In order to implement smart charging algorithms and other capabilities of the future smart grid, provisions for remote PEV monitoring will have to be developed and tested. The UCLA Smart-grid Energy Research Center (SMERC) is working on a smart charging research platform that includes data acquired in real time from PEVs being charged in order to investigate smart charging algorithms and demand response (DR) strategies for PEVs in large parking garage settings. The system outlined in this work allows PEVs to be remotely monitored throughout the charging process by a smart-charging controller communicating through a mesh network of charging stations and in-vehicle monitoring devices. The approach may be used for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) communication as well as PEV monitoring.

  4. Study on the Optimal Charging Strategy for Lithium-Ion Batteries Used in Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The charging method of lithium-ion batteries used in electric vehicles (EVs significantly affects its commercial application. This paper aims to make three contributions to the existing literature. (1 In order to achieve an efficient charging strategy for lithium-ion batteries with shorter charging time and lower charring loss, the trade-off problem between charging loss and charging time has been analyzed in details through the dynamic programing (DP optimization algorithm; (2 To reduce the computation time consumed during the optimization process, we have proposed a database based optimization approach. After off-line calculation, the simulation results can be applied to on-line charge; (3 The novel database-based DP method is proposed and the simulation results illustrate that this method can effectively find the suboptimal charging strategies under a certain balance between the charging loss and charging time.

  5. Searches for fractional electric charge on niobium samples exposed to liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.F.; Homer, G.J.; Lewin, J.D.; Walford, H.E.; Jones, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    Levitation measurements at room temperature described in a previous paper did not confirm the apparent fractional electric charges reported by the Stanford Group for niobium samples at liquid helium temperature. To simulate possible effects of a low-temperature environment, both niobium and steel samples have been exposed to liquid helium for periods of typically 48 h, both with and without the assistance of electric fields to extract possible fractionally charged ions. Subsequent levitation tests show no indication of fractional charge. With some additional assumptions regarding ionic mobility and surface energy, an upper limit ∝10 -2 fractional charges/g is inferred for the liquid helium itself. (orig.)

  6. An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids

  7. Dynamics of electrically charged extended bodies: classical and quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaberge, T.

    1987-01-01

    The author present generalizations of classical mechanics and quantum mechanics that make it possible to describe N charged extended bodies.In particular, we are able to write down a set of coupled equations for the system of N bodies plus field. The theory is based on a theory for the description of N charged chemical fluid components

  8. Intelligent electric vehicle charging: Rethinking the valley-fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Keenan; Temple, William G.; Zhang, K. Max

    This study proposes an intelligent PEV charging scheme that significantly reduces power system cost while maintaining reliability compared to the widely discussed valley-fill method of aggregated charging in the early morning. This study considers optimal PEV integration into the New York Independent System Operator's (NYISO) day-ahead and real-time wholesale energy markets for 21 days in June, July, and August of 2006, a record-setting summer for peak load. NYISO market and load data is used to develop a statistical Locational Marginal Price (LMP) and wholesale energy cost model. This model considers the high cost of ramping generators at peak-load and the traditional cost of steady-state operation, resulting in a framework with two competing cost objectives. Results show that intelligent charging assigns roughly 80% of PEV load to valley hours to take advantage of low steady-state cost, while placing the remaining 20% equally at shoulder and peak hours to reduce ramping cost. Compared to unregulated PEV charging, intelligent charging reduces system cost by 5-16%; a 4-9% improvement over the flat valley-fill approach. Moreover, a Charge Flexibility Constraint (CFC), independent of market modeling, is constructed from a vehicle-at-home profile and the mixture of Level 1 and Level 2 charging infrastructure. The CFC is found to severely restrict the ability to charge vehicles during the morning load valley. This study further shows that adding more Level 2 chargers without regulating PEV charging will significantly increase wholesale energy cost. Utilizing the proposed intelligent PEV charging method, there is a noticeable reduction in system cost if the penetration of Level 2 chargers is increased from 70/30 to 50/50 (Level 1/Level 2). However, the system benefit is drastically diminished for higher penetrations of Level 2 chargers.

  9. A Soft Sensor Development for the Rotational Speed Measurement of an Electric Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchao Ye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, micro air vehicles driven by electric propellers have become a hot topic, and developed quickly. The performance of the vehicles depends on the rotational speed of propellers, thus, improving the accuracy of rotational speed measurement is beneficial to the vehicle’s performance. This paper presents the development of a soft sensor for the rotational speed measurement of an electric propeller. An adaptive learning algorithm is derived for the soft sensor by using Popov hyperstability theory, based on which a one-step-delay adaptive learning algorithm is further proposed to solve the implementation problem of the soft sensor. It is important to note that only the input signal and the commutation instant of the motor are employed as inputs in the algorithm, which makes it possible to be easily implemented in real-time. The experimental test results have demonstrated the learning performance and the accuracy of the soft sensor.

  10. Effects of electric field and charge distribution on nanoelectronic processes involving conducting polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Marta M.D.; Correia, Helena M.G.

    2006-01-01

    The injection of charge carriers in conducting polymer layers gives rise to local electric fields which should have serious implications on the charge transport through the polymer layer. The charge distribution and the related electric field inside the ensemble of polymer molecules, with different molecular arrangements at nanoscale, determine whether or not intra-molecular charge transport takes place and the preferential direction for charge hopping between neighbouring molecules. Consequently, these factors play a significant role in the competition between current flow, charge trapping and recombination in polymer-based electronic devices. By suitable Monte Carlo calculations, we simulated the continuous injection of electrons and holes into polymer layers with different microstructures and followed their transport through those polymer networks. Results of these simulations provided a detailed picture of charge and electric field distribution in the polymer layer and allowed us to assess the consequences for current transport and recombination efficiency as well as the distribution of recombination events within the polymer film. In the steady state we found an accumulation of electrons and holes near the collecting electrodes giving rise to an internal electric field which is greater than the external applied field close to the electrodes and lower than the one in the central region of the polymer layer. We also found that a strong variation of electric field inside the polymer layer leads to an increase of recombination events in regions inside the polymer layer where the values of the internal electric field are lower

  11. Deterministic Electrical Charge-State Initialization of Single Nitrogen-Vacancy Center in Diamond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Doi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Apart from applications in classical information-processing devices, the electrical control of atomic defects in solids at room temperature will have a tremendous impact on quantum devices that are based on such defects. In this study, we demonstrate the electrical manipulation of individual prominent representatives of such atomic solid-state defects, namely, the negative charge state of single nitrogen-vacancy defect centers (NV^{−} in diamond. We experimentally demonstrate, deterministic, purely electrical charge-state initialization of individual NV centers. The NV centers are placed in the intrinsic region of a p-i-n diode structure that facilitates the delivery of charge carriers to the defect for charge-state switching. The charge-state dynamics of a single NV center were investigated by time-resolved measurements and a nondestructive single-shot readout of the charge state. Fast charge-state switching rates (from negative to neutrally charged defects, which are greater than 0.72 ± 0.10  μs^{−1}, were realized. Furthermore, in no-operation mode, the realized charge states were stable for presumably much more than 0.45 s. We believe that the results obtained are useful not only for ultrafast electrical control of qubits, long T_{2} quantum memory, and quantum sensors associated with single NV centers but also for classical memory devices based on single atomic storage bits working under ambient conditions.

  12. A simple model for electrical charge in globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes in solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, M.

    2017-05-01

    We present a model for calculating the net and effective electrical charge of globular macromolecules and linear polyelectrolytes such as proteins and DNA, given the concentration of monovalent salt and pH in solution. The calculation is based on a numerical solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a finite element discretized continuum approach. The model simultaneously addresses the phenomena of charge regulation and renormalization, both of which underpin the electrostatics of biomolecules in solution. We show that while charge regulation addresses the true electrical charge of a molecule arising from the acid-base equilibria of its ionizable groups, charge renormalization finds relevance in the context of a molecule's interaction with another charged entity. Writing this electrostatic interaction free energy in terms of a local electrical potential, we obtain an "interaction charge" for the molecule which we demonstrate agrees closely with the "effective charge" discussed in charge renormalization and counterion-condensation theories. The predictions of this model agree well with direct high-precision measurements of effective electrical charge of polyelectrolytes such as nucleic acids and disordered proteins in solution, without tunable parameters. Including the effective interior dielectric constant for compactly folded molecules as a tunable parameter, the model captures measurements of effective charge as well as published trends of pKa shifts in globular proteins. Our results suggest a straightforward general framework to model electrostatics in biomolecules in solution. In offering a platform that directly links theory and experiment, these calculations could foster a systematic understanding of the interrelationship between molecular 3D structure and conformation, electrical charge and electrostatic interactions in solution. The model could find particular relevance in situations where molecular crystal structures are not available or

  13. Non-abelian gauge invariant classical Lagrangian formalism for point electric and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.A.; Neri, F.

    1978-01-01

    The classical electrodynamics of electrically charged point particles has been generalized to include non-Abelian gauge groups and to include magnetically charged point particles. In this paper these two distinct generalizations are unified into a non-Abelian gauge theory of electric and magnetic charge. Just as the electrically charged particles constitute the generalized source of the gauge fields, the magnetically charged particles constitute the generalized source of the dual fields. The resultant equations of motion are invariant to the original 'electric' non-Abelian gauge group, but, because of the absence of a corresponding 'magnetic' gauge group, there is no 'duality' symmetry between electric and magnetic quantities. However, for a class of solutions to these equations, which includes all known point electric and magnetic monopole constructions, there is shown to exist an equivalent description based on a magnetic, rather than electric, gauge group. The gauge potentials in general are singular on strings extending from the particle position to infinity, but it is shown that the observables are without string singularities, and that the theory is Lorentz invariant, provided a charge quantization condition is satisfied. This condition, deduced from a stability analysis, is necessary for the consistency of the classical non-Abelian theory, in contrast to the Abelian case, where such a condition is necessary only for the consistency of the quantum theory. It is also shown that in the classical theory the strings cannot be removed by gauge transformations, as they sometimes can be in the quantum theory. (Auth.)

  14. Probabilistic modeling of nodal electric vehicle load due to fast charging stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Difei; Wang, Peng; Wu, Qiuwei

    2016-01-01

    In order to reduce greenhouse gas emission and fossil fuel dependence, Electric Vehicle (EV) has drawn increasing attention due to its zero emission and high efficiency. However, new problems such as range anxiety, long charging duration and high charging power may threaten the safe and efficient...... station into consideration. Fuzzy logic inference system is applied to simulate the charging decision of EV drivers at fast charging station. Due to increasing EV loads in power system, the potential traffic congestion in fast charging stations is modeled and evaluated by queuing theory with spatial...

  15. Distributed Solar Photovoltaics for Electric Vehicle Charging: Regulatory and Policy Considerations (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-09-01

    Increasing demand for electric vehicle (EV) charging provides an opportunity for market expansion of distributed solar technology. A major barrier to the current deployment of solar technology for EV charging is a lack of clear information for policy makers, utilities and potential adopters. This paper introduces the pros and cons of EV charging during the day versus at night, summarizes the benefits and grid implications of combining solar and EV charging technologies, and offers some regulatory and policy options available to policy makers and regulators wanting to incentivize solar EV charging.

  16. Search for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using an automated millikan oil drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo; Kim; Lee; Lee; Loomba; Perl

    2000-03-20

    We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied-about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0. 16e ( e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71x10(-22) particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  17. The load shift potential of plug-in electric vehicles with different amounts of charging infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnann, Till; Klingler, Anna-Lena; Kühnbach, Matthias

    2018-06-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles are the currently favoured option to decarbonize the passenger car sector. However, a decarbonisation is only possible with electricity from renewable energies and plug-in electric vehicles might cause peak loads if they started to charge at the same time. Both these issues could be solved with coordinated load shifting (demand response). Previous studies analyzed this research question by focusing on private vehicles with domestic and work charging infrastructure. This study additionally includes the important early adopter group of commercial fleet vehicles and reflects the impact of domestic, commercial, work and public charging. For this purpose, two models are combined. In a comparison of three scenarios, we find that charging of commercial vehicles does not inflict evening load peaks in the same magnitude as purely domestic charging of private cars does. Also for private cars, charging at work occurs during the day and may reduce the necessity of load shifting while public charging plays a less important role in total charging demand as well as load shifting potential. Nonetheless, demand response reduces the system load by about 2.2 GW or 2.8% when domestic and work charging are considered compared to a scenario with only domestic charging.

  18. Josephson junction in the quantum mesoscopic electric circuits with charge discreteness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlavani, H.

    2018-04-01

    A quantum mesoscopic electrical LC-circuit with charge discreteness including a Josephson junction is considered and a nonlinear Hamiltonian that describing the dynamic of such circuit is introduced. The quantum dynamical behavior (persistent current probability) is studied in the charge and phase regimes by numerical solution approaches. The time evolution of charge and current, number-difference and the bosonic phase and also the energy spectrum of a quantum mesoscopic electric LC-circuit with charge discreteness that coupled with a Josephson junction device are investigated. We show the role of the coupling energy and the electrostatic Coulomb energy of the Josephson junction in description of the quantum behavior and the spectral properties of a quantum mesoscopic electrical LC-circuits with charge discreteness.

  19. A differential dielectric spectroscopy setup to measure the electric dipole moment and net charge of colloidal quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschot, R. J.; Bakelaar, I. A.; Erné, B. H.; Kuipers, B. W. M., E-mail: B.W.M.Kuipers@uu.nl [Van ' t Hoff Laboratory for Physical and Colloid Chemistry, Debye Institute for Nanomaterials Science, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2014-03-15

    A sensitive dielectric spectroscopy setup is built to measure the response of nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid to an alternating electric field over a frequency range from 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 7} Hz. The measured complex permittivity spectrum records both the rotational dynamics due to a permanent electric dipole moment and the translational dynamics due to net charges. The setup consists of a half-transparent capacitor connected in a bridge circuit, which is balanced on pure solvent only, using a software-controlled compensating voltage. In this way, the measured signal is dominated by the contributions of the nanoparticles rather than by the solvent. We demonstrate the performance of the setup with measurements on a dispersion of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in the apolar liquid decalin.

  20. A differential dielectric spectroscopy setup to measure the electric dipole moment and net charge of colloidal quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortschot, R J; Bakelaar, I A; Erné, B H; Kuipers, B W M

    2014-03-01

    A sensitive dielectric spectroscopy setup is built to measure the response of nanoparticles dispersed in a liquid to an alternating electric field over a frequency range from 10(-2) to 10(7) Hz. The measured complex permittivity spectrum records both the rotational dynamics due to a permanent electric dipole moment and the translational dynamics due to net charges. The setup consists of a half-transparent capacitor connected in a bridge circuit, which is balanced on pure solvent only, using a software-controlled compensating voltage. In this way, the measured signal is dominated by the contributions of the nanoparticles rather than by the solvent. We demonstrate the performance of the setup with measurements on a dispersion of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in the apolar liquid decalin.

  1. Plasma rotation by electric and magnetic fields in a discharge cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, H. E.; Hong, S. H.

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical model for an electric discharge consisting of a spatially diverging plasma sustained electrically between a small ring cathode and a larger ring anode in a cylindrical chamber with an axial magnetic field is developed to study the rotation of the discharge plasma in the crossed electric and magnetic fields. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations which describe the electric potential and the plasma velocity fields is solved in closed form. The electric field, current density, and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number and the Hall coefficient. As a result of Lorentz forces, the plasma rotates with speeds as high as 1 million cm/sec around its axis of symmetry at typical conditions. As an application, it is noted that rotating discharges of this type could be used to develop a high-density plasma-ultracentrifuge driven by j x B forces, in which the lighter (heavier) ion and atom components would be enriched in (off) the center of the discharge cylinder.

  2. Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  3. Impact of uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging on residential power demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  4. An Analytical Planning Model to Estimate the Optimal Density of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Ahn

    Full Text Available The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station's density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive

  5. An Analytical Planning Model to Estimate the Optimal Density of Charging Stations for Electric Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Yongjun; Yeo, Hwasoo

    2015-01-01

    The charging infrastructure location problem is becoming more significant due to the extensive adoption of electric vehicles. Efficient charging station planning can solve deeply rooted problems, such as driving-range anxiety and the stagnation of new electric vehicle consumers. In the initial stage of introducing electric vehicles, the allocation of charging stations is difficult to determine due to the uncertainty of candidate sites and unidentified charging demands, which are determined by diverse variables. This paper introduces the Estimating the Required Density of EV Charging (ERDEC) stations model, which is an analytical approach to estimating the optimal density of charging stations for certain urban areas, which are subsequently aggregated to city level planning. The optimal charging station's density is derived to minimize the total cost. A numerical study is conducted to obtain the correlations among the various parameters in the proposed model, such as regional parameters, technological parameters and coefficient factors. To investigate the effect of technological advances, the corresponding changes in the optimal density and total cost are also examined by various combinations of technological parameters. Daejeon city in South Korea is selected for the case study to examine the applicability of the model to real-world problems. With real taxi trajectory data, the optimal density map of charging stations is generated. These results can provide the optimal number of chargers for driving without driving-range anxiety. In the initial planning phase of installing charging infrastructure, the proposed model can be applied to a relatively extensive area to encourage the usage of electric vehicles, especially areas that lack information, such as exact candidate sites for charging stations and other data related with electric vehicles. The methods and results of this paper can serve as a planning guideline to facilitate the extensive adoption of electric

  6. A Pattern Analysis of Daily Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles: Operational Efficiency and Environmental Impacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit R. Desai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plug-in Electric Vehicles (PEVs are considered one solution to reducing GHG emissions from private transport. Additionally, PEV adopters often have free access to public charging facilities. Through a pattern analysis, this study identifies five distinct clusters of daily PEV charging profiles observed at the public charging stations. Empirically observed patterns indicate a significant amount of operational inefficiency, where 54% of the total parking duration PEVs do not consume electricity, preventing other users from charging. This study identifies the opportunity cost in terms of GHG emissions savings if gasoline vehicles are replaced with potential PEV adopters. The time spent in parking without charging by current PEV users can be used by these potential PEV users to charge their PEVs and replace the use of gasoline. The results suggest that reducing inefficient station use leads to significant reductions in emissions. Overall, there is significant variability in outcomes depending on the specific cluster membership.

  7. Two-Stage Optimal Scheduling of Electric Vehicle Charging based on Transactive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Ma, Kang

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a two-stage optimal charging scheme based on transactive control is proposed for the aggregator to manage day-ahead electricity procurement and real-time EV charging management in order to minimize its total operating cost. The day-ahead electricity procurement considers both the day......-ahead energy cost and expected real-time operation cost. In the real-time charging management, the cost of employing the charging flexibility from the EV owners is explicitly modelled. The aggregator uses a transactive market to manage the real-time charging demand to provide the regulating power. A model...... predictive control (MPC) based method is proposed for the aggregator to clear the transactive market. The realtime charging decisions of the EVs are determined by the clearing of the proposed transactive market according to the realtime requests and preferences of the EV owners. As such, the aggregators...

  8. Bulk-Like Electrical Properties Induced by Contact-Limited Charge Transport in Organic Diodes: Revised Space Charge Limited Current

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guangwei

    2018-02-22

    Charge transport governs the operation and performance of organic diodes. Illuminating the charge-transfer/transport processes across the interfaces and the bulk organic semiconductors is at the focus of intensive investigations. Traditionally, the charge transport properties of organic diodes are usually characterized by probing the current–voltage (I–V) curves of the devices. However, to unveil the landscape of the underlying potential/charge distribution, which essentially determines the I–V characteristics, still represents a major challenge. Here, the electrical potential distribution in planar organic diodes is investigated by using the scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy technique, a method that can clearly separate the contact and bulk regimes of charge transport. Interestingly, by applying to devices based on novel, high mobility organic materials, the space-charge-limited-current-like I–V curves, which are previously believed to be a result of the bulk transport, are surprisingly but unambiguously demonstrated to be caused by contact-limited conduction. A model accounting is developed for the transport properties of both the two metal/organic interfaces and the bulk. The results indicate that pure interface-dominated transport can indeed give rise to I–V curves similar to those caused by bulk transport. These findings provide a new insight into the charge injection and transport processes in organic diodes.

  9. Development & Implementation of Electric Tram System with Wireless Charging Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DongHo Cho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an electric tram system with a wireless power transfer system based on SMFIR technology is presented. The detailed technology of power-line infra, regulator, and pick-up device is described for train application, respectively. Furthermore, implementation and experimental results for wireless power transfer electric tram are presented

  10. Covariant anomalies and Hawking radiation from charged rotating black strings in anti-de Sitter spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Junjin; Wu Shuangqing

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by the success of the recently proposed method of anomaly cancellation to derive Hawking fluxes from black hole horizons of spacetimes in various dimensions, we have further extended the covariant anomaly cancellation method shortly simplified by Banerjee and Kulkarni to explore the Hawking radiation of the (3+1)-dimensional charged rotating black strings and their higher dimensional extensions in anti-de Sitter spacetimes, whose horizons are not spherical but can be toroidal, cylindrical or planar, according to their global identifications. It should be emphasized that our analysis presented here is very general in the sense that the determinant of the reduced (1+1)-dimensional effective metric from these black strings need not be equal to one (√(-g)≠1). Our results indicate that the gauge and energy-momentum fluxes needed to cancel the (1+1)-dimensional covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies are compatible with the Hawking fluxes. Besides, thermodynamics of these black strings are studied in the case of a variable cosmological constant

  11. Hidden conformal symmetry of a rotating black hole with four charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Kainan; Zhang Zhibai

    2011-01-01

    Kerr/CFT correspondence exhibits many remarkable connections between the near-horizon Kerr black hole and a conformal field theory (CFT). Recently, Castro, Maloney, and Strominger showed that a hidden conformal symmetry exists in the solution space of a Kerr black hole. In this paper we investigate a rotating black hole with four independent U(1) charges derived from string theory which is known as the four-dimensional Cvetic-Youm solution, and we prove that the same hidden conformal symmetry also holds. We obtain the exact black hole entropy using the temperatures derived. The entropy and absorption cross section agree with the previous results [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, Nucl. Phys. B506, 107 (1997).] and [M. Cvetic and F. Larsen, J. High Energy Phys. 09 (2009) 088.]. In addition, we clarify a previous explanation on the temperatures of the Cvetic-Youm solution's dual CFT. This work provides more robust derivation of the hidden conformal symmetry of Kerr-like black holes and as well as Kerr/CFT correspondence.

  12. Charge transport in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) at low temperature and high electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katsouras, I.; Najafi, A.; Asadi, K.; Kronemeijer, A. J.; Oostra, A. J.; Koster, L. J. A.; de Leeuw, D. M.; Blom, P. W. M.

    Charge transport in poly(2-methoxy, 5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV)-based hole-only diodes is investigated at high electric fields and low temperatures using a novel diode architecture. Charge carrier densities that are in the range of those in a field-effect transistor are

  13. Effect of electric charge on the transperitoneal transport of plasma proteins during CAPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buis, B.; Koomen, G. C.; Imholz, A. L.; Struijk, D. G.; Reddingius, R. E.; Arisz, L.; Krediet, R. T.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Controversy exists as to whether electric charges of plasma proteins influence their transport across the peritoneal membrane during CAPD. Fixed negative charges in the peritoneal membrane are diminished during peritonitis in rats. METHODS: Peritoneal clearances of 10 proteins and their

  14. A Control Algorithm for Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Stations Equipped with Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Freijedo Fernandez, Francisco Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a control strategy for plugin electric vehicle (PEV) fast charging station (FCS) equipped with a flywheel energy storage system (FESS). The main role of the FESS is not to compromise the predefined charging profile of PEV battery during the provision of a hysteresis-type active...

  15. Effect of the surface charge discretization on electric double layers. A Monte Carlo simulation study

    OpenAIRE

    Madurga Díez, Sergio; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Vilaseca i Font, Eudald; Mas i Pujadas, Francesc; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    The structure of the electric double layer in contact with discrete and continuously charged planar surfaces is studied within the framework of the primitive model through Monte Carlo simulations. Three different discretization models are considered together with the case of uniform distribution. The effect of discreteness is analyzed in terms of charge density profiles. For point surface groups,a complete equivalence with the situation of uniformly distributed charge is found if profiles are...

  16. On the checking of electric charge conservation law and the pauli principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okun', L.B.

    1989-01-01

    This is a short critical review of the attempts to check the accuracy with which are carried out in experiment the electric charge conservation law and the Pauli principle. The absence of the inwardly noncontradictory phenomenological theory is emphasized, which could describe the charge conservation and/or the Pauli principle violation. Under charge nonconservation longitudinal photons are of a principal importance. New suggestions concerning the principle Puli checking are discussed

  17. Study of electric field distorted by space charges under positive lightning impulse voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zezhong; Geng, Yinan

    2018-03-01

    Actually, many insulation problems are related to electric fields. And measuring electric fields is an important research topic of high-voltage engineering. In particular, the electric field distortion caused by space charge is the basis of streamer theory, and thus quantitatively measuring the Poisson electric field caused by space charge is significant to researching the mechanism of air gap discharge. In this paper, we used our photoelectric integrated sensor to measure the electric field distribution in a 1-m rod-plane gap under positive lightning impulse voltage. To verify the reliability of this quantitative measurement, we compared the measured results with calculated results from a numerical simulation. The electric-field time domain waveforms on the axis of the 1-m rod-plane out of the space charge zone were measured with various electrodes. The Poisson electric fields generated by space charge were separated from the Laplace electric field generated by applied voltages, and the amplitudes and variations were measured for various applied voltages and at various locations. This work also supplies the feasible basis for directly measuring strong electric field under high voltage.

  18. Hall effect in the presence of rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, M. A.

    2018-02-01

    A rotating relativistic fermion system is considered. The consideration is based on the Dirac equation written in the laboratory (non-rotating) reference frame. Rotation in this approach gives rise to the effective magnetic and electric fields that act in the same way both on positive and negative electric charges. In the presence of external electric field in the given system the electric current appears orthogonal to both the electric field and the axis of rotation. The possible applications to the physics of quark-gluon plasma are discussed.

  19. Life cycle assessment of five batteries for electric vehicles under different charging regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantik, M. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Transportation and Logistics

    1999-12-01

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology is used in this study to assess the environmental impact of five candidate batteries for electric vehicles under different conditions of charging. The entire lifetime of a passenger electric vehicle is considered as the basis for all batteries. Five different battery systems are considered. The four of them are electrically recharged - Lead-Acid, Nickel-Cadmium, Nickel-Metal hydride and Sodium-Nickel chloride whereas one system comprises batteries that are recharged mechanically (Zinc-Air). One specific battery from these five systems is selected. The results are representative of these particular batteries and not of the battery systems to which they belong. The study includes three scenarios, the basic scenario and two fast charging scenarios. The difference between the scenarios is in the phase of the battery's use and involves the charging regimes. Consequently, the other stages of the battery's life are identical in all three scenarios. The basic scenario implies normal overnight charging is used during the entire lifetime of an electric vehicle. In the first fast charging scenario, fast charging is combined with normal charging. The second fast charging scenario involves the exclusive use of fast charging. In both fast charging scenarios the user's behaviour is considered. In this study, it is believed that it is the violation of fast charging rules, set by the battery manufacturer rather than the fast charging technique, that will be critical for the cycle life of the battery. Due to low energy efficiency of the batteries and losses in the charging procedure, the use of energy for operating the electric vehicle seems to be a major contributor to the total environmental impact of the system. Significant resource constraints may prevent mass production of certain batteries or lead to increased prices of others. Use of fast charging increases the number of batteries used during the lifetime of the electric

  20. Investigation of surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces by modulating the electrical double layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Jong Kyun; Song, Myung Won; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2015-01-01

    A solid surface in contact with water or aqueous solution usually carries specific electric charges. These surface charges attract counter ions from the liquid side. Since the geometry of opposite charge distribution parallel to the solid–liquid interface is similar to that of a capacitor, it is called an electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC). Therefore, there is an electrical potential difference across an EDLC in equilibrium. When a liquid bridge is formed between two conducting plates, the system behaves as two serially connected EDLCs. In this work, we propose a new method for investigating the surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces. By mechanically modulating the electrical double layers and simultaneously applying a dc bias voltage across the plates, an ac electric current can be generated. By measuring the voltage drop across a load resistor as a function of bias voltage, we can study the surface charge density on solid–liquid interfaces. Our experimental results agree very well with the simple equivalent electrical circuit model proposed here. Furthermore, using this method, one can determine the polarity of the adsorbed state on the solid surface depending on the material used. We expect this method to aid in the study of electrical phenomena on solid–liquid interfaces. (paper)

  1. Electric vehicle charging algorithms for coordination of the grid and distribution transformer levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Muñoz, Edgar; Razeghi, Ghazal; Zhang, Li; Jabbari, Faryar

    2016-01-01

    The need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel consumption has increased the popularity of plug-in electric vehicles. However, a large penetration of plug-in electric vehicles can pose challenges at the grid and local distribution levels. Various charging strategies have been proposed to address such challenges, often separately. In this paper, it is shown that, with uncoordinated charging, distribution transformers and the grid can operate under highly undesirable conditions. Next, several strategies that require modest communication efforts are proposed to mitigate the burden created by high concentrations of plug-in electric vehicles, at the grid and local levels. Existing transformer and battery electric vehicle characteristics are used along with the National Household Travel Survey to simulate various charging strategies. It is shown through the analysis of hot spot temperature and equivalent aging factor that the coordinated strategies proposed here reduce the chances of transformer failure with the addition of plug-in electric vehicle loads, even for an under-designed transformer while uncontrolled and uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging results in increased risk of transformer failure. - Highlights: • Charging algorithm for battery electric vehicles, for high penetration levels. • Algorithm reduces transformer overloading, for grid level valley filling. • Computation and communication requirements are minimal. • The distributed algorithm is implemented without large scale iterations. • Hot spot temperature and loss of life for transformers are evaluated.

  2. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Robinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.

  3. Planning Future Electric Vehicle Central Charging Stations Connected to Low-Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Træholt, Chresten; Larsen, Esben

    2012-01-01

    A great interest is recently paid to Electric Vehicles (EV) and their integration into electricity grids. EV can potentially play an important role in power system operation, however, the EV charging infrastructures have been only partly defined, considering them as limited to individual charging...... on their investment cost. Investigation on location and size of CCS is conducted, analyzing two LV grids of different capacity. The results enlighten that a public CCS should be preferably located in the range of 100 m from the transformer. The AC charging levels of 11 kW and 22 kW have the highest potential in LV...

  4. Morphological Analysis on Business Model of Electric Vehicles Charging Infrastructure in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Suxiu; Liu, Yingqi; Wang, Jingyu

    2016-01-01

    of EVs charging infrastructure business model for China, and takes the city Shenzhen as a case study. The research shows that we can achieve EVs Charging infrastructure business model innovation by combining design possibility on the right side of morphological box as much as possible.......The issues of energy crisis and environment pollution have paved opportunities to electric vehicles (EVs), many countries take it as an effective way to reducing the depletion of fossil fuels and CO2 emissions. As the energy supply of electric vehicles, the development of charging infrastructure...

  5. Very-low-frequency and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields associated with electric shuttle bus wireless charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tell, R. A.; Kavet, R.; Bailey, J. R.; Halliwell, J.

    2014-01-01

    Tests conducted to date at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC) indicate that wireless charging of the Chattanooga Area Regional Transportation Authority's (CARTA) downtown shuttle bus, currently operating with off-board battery charging technology, offers significant improvements in performance and cost. The system operates at a frequency of 20 kHz and a peak power of 60 kW. Because the system's wireless charging is expected to occur during a nominal 3-min charging period with passengers on-board, the magnetic and electric fields associated with charging were characterised at UTC's Advanced Vehicle Test Facility and compared with established human exposure limits. The two most prominent exposure limits are those published by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and the Institute for Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE). Both organisations include limits for groups who are trained (workers in specific industries) to be aware of electromagnetic environments and their potential hazards, as well as a lower set of limits for the general public, who are assumed to lack such awareness. None of the magnetic or electric fields measured either within or outside the bus during charging exceeded either the ICNIRP or the IEEE exposure limits for the general public. (authors)

  6. Charge transfer to a dielectric target by guided ionization waves using electric field measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikboer, E.T.; Garcia-Caurel, E.; Guaitella, O.; Sobota, A.

    2017-01-01

    A kHz-operated atmospheric pressure plasma jet is investigated by measuring charge transferred to a dielectric electro-optic surface (BSO crystal) allowing for the measurement of electric field by exploiting the Pockels effect. The electric field values, distribution of the surface discharge and

  7. Optimal Electricity Charge Strategy Based on Price Elasticity of Demand for Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Xu, Daidai; Zang, Chuanzhi

    The price elasticity is very important for the prediction of electricity demand. This paper mainly establishes the price elasticity coefficient for electricity in single period and inter-temporal. Then, a charging strategy is established based on these coefficients. To evaluate the strategy proposed, simulations of the two elastic coefficients are carried out based on the history data of a certain region.

  8. Quantum phases for a charged particle and electric/magnetic dipole in an electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kholmetskii, Alexander; Yarman, Tolga

    2017-11-01

    We point out that the known quantum phases for an electric/magnetic dipole moving in an electromagnetic field must be composed from more fundamental quantum phases emerging for moving elementary charges. Using this idea, we have found two new fundamental quantum phases, next to the known magnetic and electric Aharonov-Bohm phases, and discuss their general properties and physical meaning.

  9. Orbital Motion of Electrically Charged Spheres in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Shubho; Andring, Kevin; Campbell, Desmond; Janeski, John; Keedy, Daniel; Quinn, Sean; Hoffmeister, Brent

    2008-01-01

    The similar mathematical forms of Coulomb's law and Newton's law of gravitation suggest that two uniformly charged spheres should be able to orbit each other just as two uniform spheres of mass are known to do. In this paper we describe an experiment that we performed to demonstrate such an orbit. This is the first published account of a…

  10. Numerical investigation of space charge electric field for a sheet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One of the problems in scaling high power vacuum and plasma microwave sources to higher frequencies is the need to transport beams with higher space charge density, since the radio frequency circuit transverse dimensions tend to decrease with wavelength. The use of sheet electron beams can alleviate this difficulty ...

  11. Assessing the potential of different charging strategies for electric vehicle fleets in closed transport systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Johannes; Eisel, Matthias; Kolbe, Lutz M.

    2014-01-01

    A key reason for the low sales volumes of electric vehicles is their significantly higher purchasing price in comparison to conventional vehicles. However, various charging strategies can be applied to make these vehicles more profitable. In this paper, controlled charging concepts are transferred to commercial fleets operating in closed transport systems, as we found this field of application particularly well suited for the implementation of charging strategies. We analyzed data gathered in a field experiment conducted in a European port using electric vehicles in combination with a battery-swapping station to calculate the economic potentials of three charging scenarios: (1) optimizing energy procurement (2) trading load-shifting potential on control markets, and (3) a combination of the two. The findings indicate that all approaches are appropriate for reducing economic disadvantages of electric transport vehicles. Furthermore, we find that adjusting charging processes to avoid price peaks is more profitable than offering control reserve. Finally, focusing on the combination of both strategies seems to be most promising from an economic perspective. In this context, operational cost savings of more than 65% can be achieved compared to a similar dieselpowered vehicle when applying this strategy. - Highlights: • We model various charging strategies for electric transport vehicles. • The economic assessment is based on a field experiment with a port operator. • We consider the special market design of spot and ancillary service markets. • All charging strategies presented provide substantial cost-saving potentials. • Optimizing energy procurement is more profitable than offering control reserve

  12. Lorentz invariance from classical particle paths in quantum field theory of electric and magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, R.A.; Neri, F.; Zwanziger, D.

    1979-01-01

    We establish the Lorentz invariance of the quantum field theory of electric and magnetic charge. This is a priori implausible because the theory is the second-quantized version of a classical field theory which is inconsistent if the minimally coupled charged fields are smooth functions. For our proof we express the generating functional for the gauge-invariant Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics: with or without magnetic charge: as a path integral over the trajectories of classical charged point particles. The electric-electric and electric-magnetic interactions contribute factors exp(JDJ) and exp(JD'K), where J and K are the electric and magnetic currents of classical point particles and D is the usual photon propagator. The propagator D' involves the Dirac string but exp(JD'K) depends on it only through a topological integer linking string and classical particle trajectories. The charge quantization condition e/sub i/g/sub j/ - g/sub i/e/sub j/ = integer then suffices to make the gauge-invariant Green's functions string independent. By implication our formulation shows that if the Green's functions of quantum electrodynamics are expressed as usual as functional integrals over classical charged fields, the smooth field configurations have measure zero and all the support of the Feynman measure lies on the trajectories of classical point particles

  13. Secure Plug-in Electric Vehicle PEV Charging in a Smart Grid Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Shuaib

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Charging of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs exposes smart grid systems and their users to different kinds of security and privacy attacks. Hence, a secure charging protocol is required for PEV charging. Existing PEV charging protocols are usually based on insufficiently represented and simplified charging models that do not consider the user’s charging modes (charging at a private location, charging as a guest user, roaming within one’s own supplier network or roaming within other suppliers’ networks. However, the requirement for charging protocols depends greatly on the user’s charging mode. Consequently, available solutions do not provide complete protocol specifications. Moreover, existing protocols do not support anonymous user authentication and payment simultaneously. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive end-to-end charging protocol that addresses the security and privacy issues in PEV charging. The proposed protocol uses nested signatures to protect users’ privacy from external suppliers, their own suppliers and third parties. Our approach supports anonymous user authentication, anonymous payment, as well as anonymous message exchange between suppliers within a hierarchical smart grid architecture. We have verified our protocol using the AVISPA software verification tool and the results showed that our protocol is secure and works as desired.

  14. Research on charging and discharging control strategy for electric vehicles as distributed energy storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Dongqing; Tang, Pengcheng

    2018-02-01

    A large number of electric vehicles are connected to the family micro grid will affect the operation safety of the power grid and the quality of power. Considering the factors of family micro grid price and electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device, a two stage optimization model is established, and the improved discrete binary particle swarm optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameters in the model. The proposed control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging is of practical significance for the rational control of electric vehicle as a distributed energy storage device and electric vehicle participating in the peak load regulation of power consumption.

  15. Electron Electric Dipole Moment from CP Violation in the Charged Higgs Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowser-Chao, D.; Keung, W.; Chang, D.; Chang, D.

    1997-01-01

    The leading contributions to the electron (or muon) electric dipole moment due to CP violation in the charged Higgs sector are at the two level. A careful model-independent analysis of the heavy fermion contribution is provided. We also consider some specific scenarios to demonstrate how charged Higgs sector CP violation can naturally give rise to large electric dipole moments. Numerical results show that the electron electric dipole moment in such models can lie at the experimentally accessible level. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  16. Numerical investigation of the contraction of neutral-charged diblock copolymer brushes in electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuwei; Li, Haiming; Zhu, Yuejin; Tong, Chaohui

    2016-01-01

    Using self-consistent field theory (SCFT), the contraction of neutral-charged A-B diblock copolymer brushes in electric fields generated by opposite surface charges on two parallel electrodes has been numerically investigated. The diblock copolymer chains were grafted with the free end of the neutral block to one electrode and immersed in a salt-free solution sandwiched between the two electrodes. The numerical results reveal that the charged monomers, A-B joint segment and the tail exhibit bimodal distributions under external electric fields, which are absent for homopolymer polyelectrolyte brushes. The dependences of the relative populations and peak positions of the two modes on various parameters such as block ratio, grafting density, chain length and strength of the applied electric field were systematically examined and the underlining mechanisms were elucidated. It was found in this study that, if the total amount of surface charges on the grafting electrode is no more than that of the counter-ions in the system, overall charge neutrality is generally maintained inside the brushes when including the contribution of surface charges on the grafting electrode. In such a case, the counter-ions expelled from the brushes are highly enriched in the immediate vicinity of the second electrode and an approximate charge balance between these expelled counter-ions and the opposite surface charges on the second electrode is achieved. (paper)

  17. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  18. Method and apparatus for controlling battery charging in a hybrid electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Anthony Mark; Blankenship, John Richard; Bailey, Kathleen Ellen; Jankovic, Miroslava

    2003-06-24

    A starter/alternator system (24) for hybrid electric vehicle (10) having an internal combustion engine (12) and an energy storage device (34) has a controller (30) coupled to the starter/alternator (26). The controller (30) has a state of charge manager (40) that monitors the state of charge of the energy storage device. The controller has eight battery state-of-charge threshold values that determine the hybrid operating mode of the hybrid electric vehicle. The value of the battery state-of-charge relative to the threshold values is a factor in the determination of the hybrid mode, for example; regenerative braking, charging, battery bleed, boost. The starter/alternator may be operated as a generator or a motor, depending upon the mode.

  19. Analysis and quality of service evaluation of a fast charging station for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zenginis, Ioannis; Vardakas, John S.; Zorba, Nizar; Verikoukis, Christos V.

    2016-01-01

    Electrification of transportation is considered as one of the most promising ways to mitigate climate change and reduce national security risks from oil and gasoline imports. Fast charging stations that provide high quality of service will facilitate the wide market penetration of electric vehicles. In this paper, the operation of a fast charging station is analyzed by employing a novel queuing model. The proposed analysis considers that the various electric vehicle models are classified by their battery size, and computes the customers' mean waiting time in the queue by taking into account the available charging spots, as well as the stochastic arrival process and the stochastic recharging needs of the various electric vehicle classes. Furthermore, a charging strategy is proposed according to which the drivers are motivated to limit their energy demands. The implementation of the proposed strategy allows the charging station to serve more customers without any increase in the queue waiting time. The high precision of the present analytical model is confirmed through simulations. Therefore, it may be utilized by existing fast charging station operators that need to provide high quality of service, or by future investors that need to design an efficient installation. - Highlights: • A fast charging station for multiple classes of electric vehicles is presented and analyzed. • A novel multiclass queuing model is presented for the mean queue waiting time derivation. • The system's arrival rate capacity is derived given a maximum tolerable waiting time limit. • A charging strategy is proposed aiming at increasing the system's arrival rate capacity. • The charging station operator's revenue is calculated based on the energy drawn by the electric vehicles.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Comparison of Coupler Designs of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Dynamic Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weitong Chen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cost-effectiveness comparison of coupler designs for wireless power transfer (WPT, meant for electric vehicle (EV dynamic charging. The design comparison of three common types of couplers is first based on the raw material cost, output power, transfer efficiency, tolerance of horizontal offset, and flux density. Then, the optimal cost-effectiveness combination is selected for EV dynamic charging. The corresponding performances of the proposed charging system are compared and analyzed by both simulation and experimentation. The results verify the validity of the proposed dynamic charging system for EVs.

  1. Charged vector particle tunneling from a pair of accelerating and rotating and 5D gauged super-gravity black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javed, Wajiha; Ali, Riasat [University of Education, Division of Science and Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Abbas, G. [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Mathematics, Bahawalpur (Pakistan)

    2017-05-15

    The aim of this paper is to study the quantum tunneling process for charged vector particles through the horizons of more generalized black holes by using the Proca equation. For this purpose, we consider a pair of charged accelerating and rotating black holes with Newman-Unti-Tamburino parameter and a black hole in 5D gauged super-gravity theory, respectively. Further, we study the tunneling probability and corresponding Hawking temperature for both black holes by using the WKB approximation. We find that our analysis is independent of the particles species whether or not the background black hole geometries are more generalized. (orig.)

  2. Liberation of a pinned spiral wave by a rotating electric pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang-Xing; Peng, Liang; Ma, Jun; Ying, He-Ping

    2014-08-01

    Spiral waves may be pinned to anatomical heterogeneities in the cardiac tissue, which leads to monomorphic ventricular tachycardia. Wave emission from heterogeneities (WEH) induced by electric pulses in one direction (EP) is a promising method for liberating such waves by using heterogeneities as internal virtual pacing sites. Here, based on the WEH effect, a new mechanism of liberation by means of a rotating electric pulse (REP) is proposed in a generic model of excitable media. Compared with the EP, the REP has the advantage of opening wider time window to liberate pinned spiral. The influences of rotating direction and frequency of the REP, and the radius of the obstacles on this new mechanism are studied. We believe this strategy may improve manipulations with pinned spiral waves in heart experiments.

  3. Quasinormal modes of semiclassical electrically charged black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Piedra, Owen Pavel [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Facultad de Mecanica, Universidad de Cienfuegos, Carretera a Rodas, km 4, Cuatro Caminos, Cienfuegos (Cuba); De Oliveira, Jeferson, E-mail: opavel@ucf.edu.cu, E-mail: jeferson@fma.if.usp.br [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 66318, 05315-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-04-21

    We report the results concerning the influence of vacuum polarization due to quantum massive vector, scalar and spinor fields on the scalar sector of quasinormal modes in spherically symmetric charged black holes. The vacuum polarization from quantized fields produces a shift in the values of the quasinormal frequencies, and correspondingly the semiclassical system becomes a better oscillator with respect to the classical Reissner-Nordstroem black hole.

  4. The electric charge of the aerosols under gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gensdarmes, F.; Cetier, P.; Boulaud, D.; Gensdarmes, F.; Renoux, A.

    2000-01-01

    During a PWR type reactor accident, the gamma radiation may create a high ionized atmosphere. In such a situation the aerosols properties knowledge is useful to simulate the particles transport and deposit in the enclosed. The aim of this study is to determine the aerosol charges distribution in a high ionized medium, in function of the ionic properties of the medium. (A.L.B.)

  5. Effects of fluid flow on heat transfer in large rotating electrical machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancial, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    EDF operates a large number of electrical rotating machines in its electricity generation capacity. Thermal stresses which affect them can cause local heating, sufficient to damage their integrity. The present work contributes to provide methodologies for detecting hot spots in these machines, better understanding the topology of rotating flows and identifying their effects on heat transfer. Several experimental scale model were used by increasing their complexity to understand and validate the numerical simulations. A first study on a turbulent wall jet over a non-confined backward-facing step (half-pole hydro-generator) notes significant differences compared to results from confined case: both of them are present in an hydro-generator. A second study was done on a small confined rotating scale model to determinate the effects of a Taylor-Couette-Poiseuille on temperature distribution and position of hot spots on the heated rotor, by studying the overall flow regimes flow. These studies have helped to obtain a reliable method based on conjugate heat transfer (CHT) simulations. Another method, based on FEM coupled with the use of an inverse method, has been studied on a large model of hydraulic generator so as to solve the computation time issue of the first methodology. It numerically calculates the convective heat transfer from temperature measurements, but depends on the availability of experimental data. This work has also developed new no-contact measurement techniques as the use of a high-frequency pyrometer which can be applied on rotating machines for monitoring temperature. (author)

  6. Nonspreading Wave Packets for Rydberg Electrons in Rotating Molecules with Electric Dipole Moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bialynicki-Birula, I.; Bialynicka-Birula, Z.

    1996-01-01

    Nonspreading wave packets for Rydberg electrons are predicted in rotating molecules with electric dipole moments. We have named them the Trojan wave packets since their stability is due to the same mechanism that governs the motion of the Trojan asteroids in the Sun-Jupiter system. Unlike all previously predicted Trojan wave packets in atoms, molecular Trojan states do not require external fields for their existence

  7. Current Capacity of Ag/Bi-2223 Wires for Rotating Electric Machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussennether, Volker; Leghissa, Martino; Neumueller, Heinz-Werner

    2006-01-01

    With focus on the application in rotating electric machines we measured the dependence of current capacity of Ag/Bi-2223 wires on temperature and magnetic field. Even for wires stemming from a single manufacturer we observe a significant spread of wire properties. We study different temperature and magnetic field dependence by a parallel path model which allows for a quantitative analysis. The implications of experiments and modelling are discussed with regard to the further wire development and for application within windings

  8. Radio Frequency (RF) Trap for Confinement of Antimatter Plasmas Using Rotating Wall Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Pearson, J. Boise

    2004-01-01

    Perturbations associated with a rotating wall electric field enable the confinement of ions for periods approaching weeks. This steady state confinement is a result of a radio frequency manipulation of the ions. Using state-of-the-art techniques it is shown that radio frequency energy can produce useable manipulation of the ion cloud (matter or antimatter) for use in containment experiments. The current research focuses on the improvement of confinement systems capable of containing and transporting antimatter.

  9. Optimal Charging of Electric Drive Vehicles: A Dynamic Programming Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delikaraoglou, Stefanos; Capion, Karsten Emil; Juul, Nina

    2013-01-01

    , therefore, we propose an ex ante vehicle aggregation approach. We illustrate the results in a Danish case study and find that, although optimal management of the vehicles does not allow for storage and day-to-day flexibility in the electricity system, the market provides incentive for intra-day flexibility....

  10. Electric mobility and charging: systems of systems and infrastructure systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonnema, Gerrit Maarten; Muller, Gerrit; Schuddeboom, Lisette

    2015-01-01

    In light of European and worldwide environmental programs, reduction of CO2 emissions and improvements in air quality receive a lot of attention. A prominent way to improve on both aspects is the replacement of Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles with Electrical Vehicles. Yet, simply replacing

  11. Impacts of electric vehicle charging on distribution networks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Lizhong; Yang, Guang Ya; Xu, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) provide a unique opportunity to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from the transport sector by drawing on renewable resources. As EVs become increasingly popular in the automotive market, the study of its impacts on the low-voltage grid has become increasingly important...

  12. Sustainable Governance for the Opened Electric Vehicle Charging and Upgraded Facilities Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Wu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the China State Grid opened the market for infrastructure construction of electric charging stations and allowed Tesla, Potevio, BAIC BJEV and other enterprises to provide their own charging stations and other infrastructure construction, the development of electric vehicles has been greatly affected. How to maintain a sustainable governance in the opened electric vehicle charging and upgraded facilities market is an important policy issues. This paper presents a monopolistic competition model for the differentiated products market and addresses several issues related to Cournot equilibrium to illustrate why the expected free market actually operates in a monopolistic competition market structure. The analytic solution of the model shows that whether the extent of firm entry is insufficient, excessive or optimum is determined by consumers’ time preference, level of production differentiation and features of cost structure, including fixed cost and marginal cost. The sensitivity analysis has been performed among the above factors and tracked some other factors which would determine the effect of the new policy issues. The main policy suggestion is that the government should optimize entry regulations and lay down the criterion of charging interface standards for charging stations to avoid the electric vehicle charging and upgraded facilities marketization process of a one-size-fits-all solution and form a monopolistic competition market.

  13. Electric Double-Layer Interaction between Dissimilar Charge-Conserved Conducting Plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Derek Y C

    2015-09-15

    Small metallic particles used in forming nanostructured to impart novel optical, catalytic, or tribo-rheological can be modeled as conducting particles with equipotential surfaces that carry a net surface charge. The value of the surface potential will vary with the separation between interacting particles, and in the absence of charge-transfer or electrochemical reactions across the particle surface, the total charge of each particle must also remain constant. These two physical conditions require the electrostatic boundary condition for metallic nanoparticles to satisfy an equipotential whole-of-particle charge conservation constraint that has not been studied previously. This constraint gives rise to a global charge conserved constant potential boundary condition that results in multibody effects in the electric double-layer interaction that are either absent or are very small in the familiar constant potential or constant charge or surface electrochemical equilibrium condition.

  14. Electric Vehicles Integration in the Electric Power System with Intermittent Energy Sources - The Charge/Discharge infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco

    The replacement of conventional fuelled vehicles with electric vehicles (EVs) is going to increase in the coming years, following the trend seen for renewable energy sources (RES), as photovoltaic (PV) and wind power. In this scenario, the electric power systems in Europe are going to accommodate...... increased levels of non-dispatchable and fluctuating energy sources, as well as additional power demand due to EV charging. If the charging of EVs can be intelligently managed, several advantages can be offered to the power system. How useful coordinated EV charging can be, in combination with RES...... and the power levels needed. Furthermore, during EV coordination, a number of nonlinearities and battery ageing issues should be taken into account, to ensure a correct EV coordination and to preserve the EV battery lifetime. The third part of this research exploits the use of EV load coordination as an energy...

  15. Concept of intellectual charging system for electrical and plug-in hybrid vehicles in Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, A.; Karpukhin, K.; Terenchenko, A.; Kavalchuk, I.

    2018-02-01

    Electric vehicles have become the most common solution to improve sustainability of the transportation systems all around the world. Despite all benefits, wide adaptation of electric vehicles requires major changes in the infrastructure, including grid adaptation to the rapidly increased power demand and development of the Connected Car concept. This paper discusses the approaches to improve usability of electric vehicles, by creating suitable web-services, with possible connections vehicle-to-vehicle, vehicle-to-infrastructure, and vehicle-to-grid. Developed concept combines information about electrical loads on the grid in specific direction, navigation information from the on-board system, existing and empty charging slots and power availability. In addition, this paper presents the universal concept of the photovoltaic integrated charging stations, which are connected to the developed information systems. It helps to achieve rapid adaptation of the overall infrastructure to the needs of the electric vehicles users with minor changes in the existing grid and loads.

  16. NREL Evaluates Performance of Fast-Charge Electric Buses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-09-16

    This real-world performance evaluation is designed to enhance understanding of the overall usage and effectiveness of electric buses in transit operation and to provide unbiased technical information to other agencies interested in adding such vehicles to their fleets. Initial results indicate that the electric buses under study offer significant fuel and emissions savings. The final results will help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals. help Foothill Transit optimize the energy-saving potential of its transit fleet. NREL's performance evaluations help vehicle manufacturers fine-tune their designs and help fleet managers select fuel-efficient, low-emission vehicles that meet their bottom line and operational goals.

  17. Profit maximization with customer satisfaction control for electric vehicle charging in smart grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Collado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available As the market of electric vehicles is gaining popularity, large-scale commercialized or privately-operated charging stations are expected to play a key role as a technology enabler. In this paper, we study the problem of charging electric vehicles at stations with limited charging machines and power resources. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel profit maximization framework for station operation in both offline and online charging scenarios, under certain customer satisfaction constraints. The main goal is to maximize the profit obtained by the station owner and provide a satisfactory charging service to the customers. The framework includes not only the vehicle scheduling and charging power control, but also the managing of user satisfaction factors, which are defined as the percentages of finished charging targets. The profit maximization problem is proved to be NPcomplete in both scenarios (NP refers to “nondeterministic polynomial time”, for which two-stage charging strategies are proposed to obtain efficient suboptimal solutions. Competitive analysis is also provided to analyze the performance of the proposed online two-stage charging algorithm against the offline counterpart under non-congested and congested charging scenarios. Finally, the simulation results show that the proposed two-stage charging strategies achieve performance close to that with exhaustive search. Also, the proposed algorithms provide remarkable performance gains compared to the other conventional charging strategies with respect to not only the unified profit, but also other practical interests, such as the computational time, the user satisfaction factor, the power consumption, and the competitive ratio.

  18. Particle concentrating and sorting under a rotating electric field by direct optical-liquid heating in a microfluidics chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Liang; Jiang, Hong-Ren

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate a functional rotating electrothermal technique for rapidly concentrating and sorting a large number of particles on a microchip by the combination of particle dielectrophoresis (DEP) and inward rotating electrothermal (RET) flows. Different kinds of particles can be attracted (positive DEP) to or repelled (negative DEP) from electrode edges, and then the n-DEP responsive particles are further concentrated in the heated region by RET flows. The RET flows arise from the spatial inhomogeneous electric properties of fluid caused by direct infrared laser (1470 nm) heating of solution in a rotating electric field. The direction of the RET flows is radially inward to the heated region with a co-field (the same as the rotating electric field) rotation. Moreover, the velocity of the RET flows is proportional to the laser power and the square of the electric field strength. The RET flows are significant over a frequency range from 200 kHz to 5 MHz. The RET flows are generated by the simultaneous application of the infrared laser and the rotating electric field. Therefore, the location of particle concentrating can be controlled within the rotating electric field depending on the position of the laser spot. This multi-field technique can be operated in salt solutions and at higher frequency without external flow pressure, and thus it can avoid electrokinetic phenomena at low frequency to improve the manipulation accuracy for lab-on-chip applications.

  19. Study Of Solar Charging Facility For Electric Vehicles In Edinburgh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid Nassar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The solar power system decreases carbon dioxide CO2 emissions which are the lead cause of global warming. This paper presented a novel way to design a commercial solar photovoltaic PV farm to provide electricity for 10 of the Edinburgh domestic car fleet. The design is used for sizing of the solar system based on an excel spreadsheets. The results show that the proposed solar system reduces the CO2 emissions with around 95 less than the conventional energy system. Around 0.5TWh of electrical energy is required to meet Edinburgh domestic car fleet whenever converted to electrical vehicles. The PV solar panels at the investigated site has a capacity factor of around 12. The dynamic tilt angle is estimated for the investigated site while the fixed tilt angle is determined to be 49. Depending on dynamic solar panels leads to harvesting more solar energy than depending on fixed tilt angle around 14 higher energy. The meter square of land in Edinburgh receive some 950KWh per year based on the dynamic tilt angle. Around 218000 of solar panels are required to meet 10 of Edinburgh domestic car fleet.

  20. Utility emissions associated with electric and hybrid vehicle (EHV) charging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    This project is a joint effort between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) to conduct a comprehensive, in-depth assessment of the emission impacts of electric and hybrid vehicles (EHVs). The study determines local and regional emission impacts under a variety of scenarios, covering both conservative and optimistic assumptions about vehicle efficiency, power plant efficiency, and other factors. In all scenarios, EHV use significantly reduces urban emissions of CO, VOC, and TSP. Changes in NO x and CO 2 emissions are very sensitive to average or marginal power plant emissions and vehicle efficiency assumptions. NO x and CO 2 emissions changes vary dramatically by region. Certain combinations of EHV and CV scenarios and regions result in significant reductions, while other combinations result in significant increases. Careful use of these results is advised. In all scenarios, SO 2 increases with EHV use although the amount is small-less than 1% of total utility emissions even vath the deployment of 12 million EHVS. But because of emission cap provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, national SO 2 totals will not be allowed to increase. Thus, utilities will have to apply more stringent measures to combat increased SO 2 emissions due to the increased use of electric vehicles

  1. The electrical charging of inactive aerosols in high ionised atmosphere, the electrical charging of artificial beta radioactive aerosols; Le processus de charge electrique: des aerosols non radioactifs en milieu fortement ionise, des aerosols radioactifs artificiels emetteurs beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensdarmes, F

    2000-07-01

    The electrical properties of aerosols greatly influence their transport and deposition in a containment. In a bipolar ionic atmosphere, a neutral electric charge on aerosols is commonly assumed. However, many studies report a different charge distribution in some situations, like highly ionised atmosphere or in the case of radioactive aerosols. Such situations could arise from a hypothetical accident in a nuclear power plant. Within the framework of safety studies which are carried out at IPSN, our aims were the study of electrical properties of aerosols in highly ionised atmosphere, and the study of artificial radioactive aerosols, in order to suggest experimental validation of available theories. For this purpose, we designed an experimental device that allows us to measure non-radioactive aerosol charge distribution under high gamma irradiation, up to 10{sup 4} Gy/h. With our experimental device we also studied the properties of small ions in the medium. Our results show a variation of the charge distribution in highly ionised atmosphere. The charge increases with the dose of gamma ray. We have related this variation with the one of the small ions in the gases, according to theoretical prediction. However, the model overestimates slightly our experimental results. In the case of the radioactive aerosols, we have designed an original experimental device, which allows us to study the charge distribution of a {sup 137}Cs aerosol. Our results show that the electric charging of such aerosols is strongly dependent on evolution parameters in a containment. So, our results underline a great enhancement of self-charging of particles which are sampled in a confined medium. Our results are qualitatively in agreement with the theoretical model; nevertheless the latter underestimates appreciably the self-charging, owing to the fact that wall effects are not taken into account. (author)

  2. Network access charges, vertical integration, and property rights structure - experiences from the German electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growitsch, C.; Wein, T.

    2005-01-01

    After the deregulation of the German electricity markets in 1998, the German government opted for a regulatory regime called negotiated third party access, which would be subject to ex-post control by the federal cartel office. Network access charges for new competitors are based on contractual arrangements between energy producers and industrial consumers. As the electricity networks are incontestable natural monopolies, the local and regional network operators are able to set (monopolistic) charges at their own discretion, restricted only by the possible interference of the federal cartel office (Bundeskartellamt). In this paper we analyze if there is evidence for varying charging behaviour depending on the supplier's economic independence (structure of property rights) or its level of vertical integration. For this purpose, we hypothesise that incorporated and vertically integrated suppliers set different charges than independent utility companies. Multivariate estimations show a relation between network access charges and the network operator's economic independence as well as level of vertical integration: on the low voltage level for an estimated annual consumption of 1700 kW/h, vertically integrated firms set-in accordance with our hypothesis-significantly lower access charges than vertically separated suppliers, whereas incorporated network operators charge significantly higher charges compared to independent suppliers. These results could not have been confirmed for other consumptions or voltage levels. (author)

  3. Study of the top quark electric charge at the CDF experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartos, Pavol [Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2011-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the top quark electric charge using the jet charge tagging method on events containing a single lepton collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab between February 2002 and February 2010 at the center-of-mass energy √s = 1.96 TeV. There are three main components to this measurement: determining the charge of the W (using the charge of the lepton), pairing the W with the b-jet to ensure that they are from the same top decay branch and finally determining the charge of the b-jet using the Jet Charge algorithm. We found, on a sample of 5.6 fb-1 of data, that the p-value under the standard model hypothesis is equal to 13.4%, while the p-value under the exotic model hypothesis is equal to 0.014%. Using the a priori criteria generally accepted by the CDF collaboration, we can say that the result is consistent with the standard model, while we exclude an exotic quark hypothesis with 95% confidence. Using the Bayesian approach, we obtain for the Bayes factor (2ln(BF)) a value of 19.6, that favors very strongly the SM hypothesis over the XM one. The presented method has the highest sensitivity to the top quark electric charge among the presented so far top quark charge analysis.

  4. Regional Charging Infrastructure for Plug-In Electric Vehicles: A Case Study of Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eichman, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Melaina, Marc [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Given the complex issues associated with plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging and options in deploying charging infrastructure, there is interest in exploring scenarios of future charging infrastructure deployment to provide insight and guidance to national and regional stakeholders. The complexity and cost of PEV charging infrastructure pose challenges to decision makers, including individuals, communities, and companies considering infrastructure installations. The value of PEVs to consumers and fleet operators can be increased with well-planned and cost-effective deployment of charging infrastructure. This will increase the number of miles driven electrically and accelerate PEV market penetration, increasing the shared value of charging networks to an expanding consumer base. Given these complexities and challenges, the objective of the present study is to provide additional insight into the role of charging infrastructure in accelerating PEV market growth. To that end, existing studies on PEV infrastructure are summarized in a literature review. Next, an analysis of current markets is conducted with a focus on correlations between PEV adoption and public charging availability. A forward-looking case study is then conducted focused on supporting 300,000 PEVs by 2025 in Massachusetts. The report concludes with a discussion of potential methodology for estimating economic impacts of PEV infrastructure growth.

  5. Study of the top quark electric charge at the cdf experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, P.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the measurement of the top quark electric charge using the jet charge tagging method on events containing a single lepton collected by the CDF II detector at Fermilab between February 2002 and February 2010 at the center-of-mass energy ps = 1.96 TeV . There are three main components to this measurement: determining the charge of the W (using the charge of the lepton), pairing the W with the b-jet to ensure that they are from the same top decay branch and finally determining the charge of the b-jet using the Jet Charge algorithm. We found, on a sample of 5.6 fb -1 of data, that the p-value under the standard model hypothesis is equal to 13.4%, while the p-value under the exotic model hypothesis is equal to 0.014%. Using the a priori criteria generally accepted by the CDF collaboration, we can say that the result is consistent with the standard model, while we exclude an exotic quark hypothesis with 95% confidence. Using the Bayesian approach, we obtain for the Bayes factor (2 · ln(BF)) a value of 19.6, that favors very strongly the SM hypothesis over the XM one. The presented method has the highest sensitivity to the top quark electric charge among the presented so far top quark charge analysis. (author)

  6. A molecular dynamics study of nanoconfined water flow driven by rotating electric fields under realistic experimental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Luca, Sergio; Todd, Billy; Hansen, Jesper Schmidt

    2014-01-01

    by an external spatially uniform rotating electric field and confined between two planar surfaces exposing different degrees of hydrophobicity. The permanent dipole moment of water follows the rotating field, thus inducing the molecules to spin, and the torque exerted by the field is continuously injected...... into the fluid, enabling a steady conversion of spin angular momentum into linear momentum. The translational–rotational coupling is a sensitive function of the rotating electric field parameters. In this work, we have found that there exists a small energy dissipation region attainable when the frequency...... of the rotating electric field matches the inverse of the dielectric relaxation time of water and when its amplitude lies in a range just before dielectric saturation effects take place. In this region, that is, when the frequency lies in a small window of the microwave region around ∼20 GHz and amplitude ∼0.03 V...

  7. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2016-11-07

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, Micromega detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  8. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Blasius

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high irradiation seasons influenced the PV output. The charging demand of electric vehicles varied over the course of a year and was correlated to weather conditions. Therefore, the sizing and performance of a supportive storage device should be evaluated in a statistical manner using long period observations.

  9. Electric bus fleet size and mix problem with optimization of charging infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogge, Matthias; van der Hurk, Evelien; Larsen, Allan

    2018-01-01

    Battery electric buses are seen as a well-suited technology for the electrification of road-based public transport. However, the transition process from conventional diesel to electric buses faces major hurdles caused by range limitations and required charging times of battery buses. This work...... addresses these constraints and provides a methodology for the cost-optimized planning of depot charging battery bus fleets and their corresponding charging infrastructure. The defined problem covers the scheduling of battery buses, the fleet composition, and the optimization of charging infrastructure...... in a joint process. Vehicle schedule adjustments are monetized and evaluated together with the investment and operational costs of the bus system. The resulting total cost of ownership enables a comparison of technical alternatives on a system level, which makes this approach especially promising...

  10. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, MICROMEGAS detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  11. Causal electric charge diffusion and balance functions in relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapusta, Joseph I.; Plumberg, Christopher

    2018-01-01

    We study the propagation and diffusion of electric charge fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions using the Cattaneo form for the dissipative part of the electric current. As opposed to the ordinary diffusion equation this form limits the speed at which charge can propagate. Including the noise term in the current, which arises uniquely from the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, we calculate the balance functions for charged hadrons in a simple 1+1-dimensional Bjorken hydrodynamical model. Limiting the speed of propagation of charge fluctuations increases the height and reduces the width of these balance functions when plotted versus rapidity. We also estimate the numerical value of the associated diffusion time constant from anti-de Sitter-space/conformal-field theory.

  12. International standard for the charging of electric vehicles; Internationaler Standard fuer das Laden von Elektrofahrzeugen - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathoy, A.

    2001-12-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on the situation regarding the standardisation of battery charging systems for electric vehicles. The advantages of an international standard both for users and manufacturers of electrically-powered vehicles are discussed. The work done in the IEC and CENELEC technical committees is reviewed. Developments achieved since 1999 are reviewed and further developments and work to be done are examined. The most important points in the IEC standard 61851 are looked at and various connector interfaces are described. Direct and inductive charging systems according to IEC 61980 are examined and the special situation in Italy, where power available in homes for the charging of electrical vehicles is more limited, is reviewed.

  13. Optimal Routing and Scheduling of Charge for Electric Vehicles: Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Barco, John; Guerra, Andres; Muñoz, Luis; Quijano, Nicanor

    2013-01-01

    In Colombia, there is an increasing interest about improving public transportation. One of the proposed strategies in that way is the use battery electric vehicles (BEVs). One of the new challenges is the BEVs routing problem, which is subjected to the traditional issues of the routing problems, and must also consider the particularities of autonomy, charge and battery degradation of the BEVs. In this work, a scheme that coordinates the routing, scheduling of charge and operating costs of BEV...

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, quantization of the electric charge and the anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, Afsar

    1990-01-01

    Cancellation of anomalies and on ensuring that fermions are massive, one obtains quantization of the electric charge, which is shown to be independent of the hypercharge quantum number of the Higgs doublet in the Standard Model. Ignorance of this fact can lead to pitfalls. It is shown that contrary to the popular belief, charge quantization is not a consequence of the anomalies but that in addition spontaneous symmetry breaking is essential. (author)

  15. Beyond the Point Charge: Equipotential Surfaces and Electric Fields of Various Charge Configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Sanny, Jeff; Berube, David; Hoemke, Anatol

    2017-01-01

    A laboratory experiment often performed in an introductory electricity and magnetism course involves the mapping of equipotential lines on a conductive sheet between two objects at different potentials. In this article, we describe how we have expanded this experiment so that it can be used to illustrate the electrostatic properties of conductors.…

  16. Charge and energy minimization in electrical/magnetic stimulation of nervous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezernik, Saso; Sinkjaer, Thomas; Morari, Manfred

    2010-08-01

    In this work we address the problem of stimulating nervous tissue with the minimal necessary energy at reduced/minimal charge. Charge minimization is related to a valid safety concern (avoidance and reduction of stimulation-induced tissue and electrode damage). Energy minimization plays a role in battery-driven electrical or magnetic stimulation systems (increased lifetime, repetition rates, reduction of power requirements, thermal management). Extensive new theoretical results are derived by employing an optimal control theory framework. These results include derivation of the optimal electrical stimulation waveform for a mixed energy/charge minimization problem, derivation of the charge-balanced energy-minimal electrical stimulation waveform, solutions of a pure charge minimization problem with and without a constraint on the stimulation amplitude, and derivation of the energy-minimal magnetic stimulation waveform. Depending on the set stimulus pulse duration, energy and charge reductions of up to 80% are deemed possible. Results are verified in simulations with an active, mammalian-like nerve fiber model.

  17. Combined Solar Charging Stations and Energy Storage Units Allocation for Electric Vehicles by Considering Uncertainties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yousefi Khanghah, Babak; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming a key feature of smart grids. EVs will be embedded in the smart grids as a mobile load-storage with probabilistic behavior. In order to manage EVs as flexible loads, charging stations (CSs) have essential roles. In this paper, a new method for optimal sitting...... are considered based on time-of-use (TOU) demand response programs (DRPs). In order to solve the optimization problem considering uncertainty of load growth, electricity price, initial state of charge of batteries and solar power generation, genetic algorithm method using Monte-Carlo simulation is used...

  18. Rotational electrical impedance tomography using electrodes with limited surface coverage provides window for multimodal sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehti-Polojärvi, Mari; Koskela, Olli; Seppänen, Aku; Figueiras, Edite; Hyttinen, Jari

    2018-02-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is an imaging method that could become a valuable tool in multimodal applications. One challenge in simultaneous multimodal imaging is that typically the EIT electrodes cover a large portion of the object surface. This paper investigates the feasibility of rotational EIT (rEIT) in applications where electrodes cover only a limited angle of the surface of the object. In the studied rEIT, the object is rotated a full 360° during a set of measurements to increase the information content of the data. We call this approach limited angle full revolution rEIT (LAFR-rEIT). We test LAFR-rEIT setups in two-dimensional geometries with computational and experimental data. We use up to 256 rotational measurement positions, which requires a new way to solve the forward and inverse problem of rEIT. For this, we provide a modification, available for EIDORS, in the supplementary material. The computational results demonstrate that LAFR-rEIT with eight electrodes produce the same image quality as conventional 16-electrode rEIT, when data from an adequate number of rotational measurement positions are used. Both computational and experimental results indicate that the novel LAFR-rEIT provides good EIT with setups with limited surface coverage and a small number of electrodes.

  19. Standardization of calibration of clinic dosemeters using electric currents and charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peres, Marcos Antonio de Lima

    1999-09-01

    Clinical dosimeters used in radiotherapy are calibrated in Latin American countries, including Brazil, as a complete 'system, i.e., ionization chamber and electrometer together. Some countries, as European ones, and USA calibrate them by component, i.e., ionisation chamber apart from electrometer. This method is more advantageous than the previous one, since it makes possible the automation of the calibration process, allowing the acquisition of data related to the chamber and the electrometer measurements independently, as well as the substitution of one of the components, in case of failure. This work proposes a method for standardisation of low intensity electric charge and currents in order to implement electric calibration of electrometers. This will make possible the implementation of a by components calibration technique, by components, of clinical dosimeters in Brazil. The results obtained with the calibration by components prove that the proposed method of standardisation of low electric charges and currents is viable. The difficulties found for the generation and measurement of low intensity electric charges and currents and the procedures adopted for the calibration by components are presented. Additionally, a current source was built to yield reference electric charges that will make possible the quality control clinical dosimeters. This source will also allow the user to identify the defective components of the dosimeters, through a simple verification test. (author)

  20. The electrically charged BTZ black hole with self (anti-self) dual Maxwell field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, M.; Koikawa, T.

    1995-04-01

    The Einstein-Maxwell equations with a negative cosmological constant Λ in 2 + 1 spacetime dimensions discussed by Banados, Teitelboim and Zanelli are solved by assuming a self (anti-self) dual equation E r-circumflex = ± B -circumflex , which is imposed on the orthonormal basis components of the electric field E r-circumflex and the magnetic field B -circumflex . This solution describes an electrically charged extra black hole with mass M=8πGQ 2 e , angular momentum J = ±8πGQ 2 e / modul Λ 1/2 and electric charge Q e . Although the coordinate components of the electric field E r and the magnetic field B have singularities on the horizon at r (4πGQ 2 e / modul Λ) 1/2 , the spacetime has the same value of constant negative curvature R = 6Λ as that of Banados et al. (author). 5 refs

  1. Effect of the surface charge discretization on electric double layers: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madurga, Sergio; Martín-Molina, Alberto; Vilaseca, Eudald; Mas, Francesc; Quesada-Pérez, Manuel

    2007-06-21

    The structure of the electric double layer in contact with discrete and continuously charged planar surfaces is studied within the framework of the primitive model through Monte Carlo simulations. Three different discretization models are considered together with the case of uniform distribution. The effect of discreteness is analyzed in terms of charge density profiles. For point surface groups, a complete equivalence with the situation of uniformly distributed charge is found if profiles are exclusively analyzed as a function of the distance to the charged surface. However, some differences are observed moving parallel to the surface. Significant discrepancies with approaches that do not account for discreteness are reported if charge sites of finite size placed on the surface are considered.

  2. Applying electric field to charged and polar particles between metallic plates: extension of the Ewald method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takae, Kyohei; Onuki, Akira

    2013-09-28

    We develop an efficient Ewald method of molecular dynamics simulation for calculating the electrostatic interactions among charged and polar particles between parallel metallic plates, where we may apply an electric field with an arbitrary size. We use the fact that the potential from the surface charges is equivalent to the sum of those from image charges and dipoles located outside the cell. We present simulation results on boundary effects of charged and polar fluids, formation of ionic crystals, and formation of dipole chains, where the applied field and the image interaction are crucial. For polar fluids, we find a large deviation of the classical Lorentz-field relation between the local field and the applied field due to pair correlations along the applied field. As general aspects, we clarify the difference between the potential-fixed and the charge-fixed boundary conditions and examine the relationship between the discrete particle description and the continuum electrostatics.

  3. Thermal pulse measurements of space charge distributions under an applied electric field in thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Feihu; An, Zhenlian; Zhang, Yewen; Liu, Chuandong; Lin, Chen; Lei, Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    The thermal pulse method is a powerful method to measure space charge and polarization distributions in thin dielectric films, but a complicated calibration procedure is necessary to obtain the real distribution. In addition, charge dynamic behaviour under an applied electric field cannot be observed by the classical thermal pulse method. In this work, an improved thermal pulse measuring system with a supplemental circuit for applying high voltage is proposed to realize the mapping of charge distribution in thin dielectric films under an applied field. The influence of the modified measuring system on the amplitude and phase of the thermal pulse response current are evaluated. Based on the new measuring system, an easy calibration approach is presented with some practical examples. The newly developed system can observe space charge evolution under an applied field, which would be very helpful in understanding space charge behaviour in thin films. (paper)

  4. Stark tuning and electrical charge state control of single divacancies in silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    de las Casas, Charles F.; Christle, David J.; Ul Hassan, Jawad; Ohshima, Takeshi; Son, Nguyen T.; Awschalom, David D.

    2017-12-01

    Neutrally charged divacancies in silicon carbide (SiC) are paramagnetic color centers whose long coherence times and near-telecom operating wavelengths make them promising for scalable quantum communication technologies compatible with existing fiber optic networks. However, local strain inhomogeneity can randomly perturb their optical transition frequencies, which degrades the indistinguishability of photons emitted from separate defects and hinders their coupling to optical cavities. Here, we show that electric fields can be used to tune the optical transition frequencies of single neutral divacancy defects in 4H-SiC over a range of several GHz via the DC Stark effect. The same technique can also control the charge state of the defect on microsecond timescales, which we use to stabilize unstable or non-neutral divacancies into their neutral charge state. Using fluorescence-based charge state detection, we show that both 975 nm and 1130 nm excitation can prepare their neutral charge state with near unity efficiency.

  5. Simulation of the Universal-Time Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Charging Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackerras, D.; Darvenzia, M.; Orville, R. E.; Williams, E. R.; Goodman, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A global lightning model that includes diurnal and annual lightning variation, and total flash density versus latitude for each major land and ocean, has been used as the basis for simulating the global electric circuit charging rate. A particular objective has been to reconcile the difference in amplitude ratios [AR=(max-min)/mean] between global lightning diurnal variation (AR approx. = 0.8) and the diurnal variation of typical atmospheric potential gradient curves (AR approx. = 0.35). A constraint on the simulation is that the annual mean charging current should be about 1000 A. The global lightning model shows that negative ground flashes can contribute, at most, about 10-15% of the required current. For the purpose of the charging rate simulation, it was assumed that each ground flash contributes 5 C to the charging process. It was necessary to assume that all electrified clouds contribute to charging by means other than lightning, that the total flash rate can serve as an indirect indicator of the rate of charge transfer, and that oceanic electrified clouds contribute to charging even though they are relatively inefficient in producing lightning. It was also found necessary to add a diurnally invariant charging current component. By trial and error it was found that charging rate diurnal variation curves in Universal time (UT) could be produced with amplitude ratios and general shapes similar to those of the potential gradient diurnal variation curves measured over ocean and arctic regions during voyages of the Carnegie Institute research vessels.

  6. Internal electric fields of electrolytic solutions induced by space-charge polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Atsushi

    2006-10-01

    The dielectric dispersion of electrolytic solutions prepared using chlorobenzene as a solvent and tetrabutylammonium tetraphenylborate as a solute is analyzed in terms of space-charge polarization in order to derive the ionic constants, and the Stokes radius obtained is discussed in comparison with the values that have been measured by conductometry. A homogeneous internal electric field is assumed for simplicity in the analysis of the space-charge polarization. The justification of the approximation by the homogeneous field is discussed from two points of view: one is the accuracy of the Stokes radius value observed and the other is the effect of bound charges on electrodes in which they level the highly inhomogeneous field, which has been believed in the past. In order to investigate the actual electric field, numerical calculations based on the Poisson equation are carried out by considering the influence of the bound charges. The variation of the number of bound charges with time is clarified by determining the relaxation function of the dielectric constant attributed to the space-charge polarization. Finally, a technique based on a two-field approximation, where homogeneous and hyperbolic fields are independently applied in relevant frequency ranges, is introduced to analyze the space-charge polarization of the electrolytic solutions, and further improvement of the accuracy in the determination of the Stokes radius is achieved.

  7. Electric Vehicle Fast-Charging Station Unified Modeling and Stability Analysis in the dq Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The electric vehicle fast-charging station is an important guarantee for the popularity of electric vehicle. As the fast-charging piles are voltage source converters, stability issues will occur in the grid-connected fast-charging station. Since the dynamic input admittance of the fast-charging pile and the dynamic output impedance play an important role in the interaction system stability, the station and grid interaction system is regarded as load-side and source-side sub-systems to build the dynamic impedance model. The dynamic input admittance in matrix form is derived from the fast-charging pile current control loop considering the influence of the LC filter. Similarly, the dynamic output impedance can be obtained similarly by considering the regional power grid capacity, transformer capacity, and feed line length. On this basis, a modified forbidden region-based stability criterion is used for the fast-charging station stability analysis. The frequency-domain case studies and time-domain simulations are presented next to show the influence of factors from both the power grid side and fast-charging pile side. The simulation results validated the effectiveness of the dq frame impedance model and the stability analysis method.

  8. Trapping-charging ability and electrical properties study of amorphous insulator by dielectric spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mekni, Omar; Arifa, Hakim; Askri, Besma; Yangui, Béchir; Raouadi, Khaled; Damamme, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Usually, the trapping phenomenon in insulating materials is studied by injecting charges using a Scanning Electron Microscope. In this work, we use the dielectric spectroscopy technique for showing a correlation between the dielectric properties and the trapping-charging ability of insulating materials. The evolution of the complex permittivity (real and imaginary parts) as a function of frequency and temperature reveals different types of relaxation according to the trapping ability of the material. We found that the space charge relaxation at low frequencies affects the real part of the complex permittivity ε ′ and the dissipation factor Tan(δ). We prove that the evolution of the imaginary part of the complex permittivity against temperature ε ″ =f(T) reflects the phenomenon of charge trapping and detrapping as well as trapped charge evolution Q p (T). We also use the electric modulus formalism to better identify the space charge relaxation. The investigation of trapping or conductive nature of insulating materials was mainly made by studying the activation energy and conductivity. The conduction and trapping parameters are determined using the Correlated Barrier Hopping (CBH) model in order to confirm the relation between electrical properties and charge trapping ability.

  9. Neoclassical transport, poloidal rotation and radial electric field at the L-H transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minardi, E.; Gervasini, G.; Lazzaro, E.

    1993-01-01

    The transition to a high confinement regime in tokamaks operating with a magnetic divertor configuration is accompanied by the strong steepening of the edge temperature profile and the onset of a large positive poloidal mass rotation associated with a negative radial electric field. The latter phenomena are signatures of a neoclassical transport mechanism. We address the question of establishing whether neoclassical transport is indeed sufficient to establish high edge gradients and drive poloidal rotation under strong auxiliary heating. The heat transport equation is solved numerically in a narrow edge layer interfaced to the plasma body through heat flux continuity, but allowing for heat conductivity discontinuity. The results compared with recent experimental measurements support the assumption that a highly sheared neoclassical poloidal velocity profile can suppress the anomalous part of the heat transport, and that the neoclassical residual transport, characterizes the plasma behaviour at the edge during H modes. (author) 3 refs., 4 figs

  10. Coherent and Semiclassical States of a Charged Particle in a Constant Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adorno, T. C.; Pereira, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    The method of integrals of motion is used to construct families of generalized coherent states of a nonrelativistic spinless charged particle in a constant electric field. Families of states, differing in the values of their standard deviations at the initial time, are obtained. Depending on the initial values of the standard deviations, and also on the electric field, it turns out to be possible to identify some families with semiclassical states.

  11. Smart and secure charging of electric vehicles in public parking spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Strobbe, Matthias; Mets, Kevin; Tahon, Mathieu; Tilman, M; Spiessens, F; Gheerardyn, J; De Craemer, K; Vandael, S; Geebelen, K; Lagaisse, B; Claessens, B; Develder, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Governments worldwide are starting to give incentives to promote the use of (hybrid) electrical vehicles to achieve cleaner and more energy-efficient road transport with a low carbon footprint. Through tax/VAT reductions and free additional services — such as free parking, and/or battery charging or lower traffic congestion taxes — private users, public organizations and car fleet operators are stimulated to adopt the plug-in (hybrid) electrical vehicle (PHEV). This upcoming breakthrough of P...

  12. Comparative Study of White Layer Characteristics for Static and Rotating Workpiece during Electric Discharge Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHAHID MEHMOOD

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available EDMed (Electric Discharge Machined surfaces are unique in their appearance and metallurgical characteristics, which depend on different parameter such as electric parameters, flushing method, and dielectric type. Conventionally, in static workpiece method the EDM (Electric Discharge Machining is performed by submerging both of the tool and workpiece in dielectric liquid and side flushing is provided by impinging pressurized dielectric liquid into the gap. Another flushing method has been investigated in this study, in which, instead of side flushing the rotation motion is provided to the workpiece. Surface characteristics for both flushing methods are determined and compared in this study. The investigated surface characteristics are: surface roughness, crater size, surface morphology, white layer thickness and composition. These investigations are performed using optical and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope. Statistical confidence limits are determined for scattered data of surface roughness. It is found that the white layer thickness and surface roughness are directly proportional to discharge current for both flushing methods. The comparison has shown that the side flushing of statics workpiece gives thicker white layer and lower surface finish as compared to the flushing caused by the rotation of workpiece

  13. Comparative study of white layer characteristics for static and rotating workpiece during electric discharge machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehmood, S.; Shah, M.; Anjum, N.A.

    2017-01-01

    EDMed (Electric Discharge Machined) surfaces are unique in their appearance and metallurgical characteristics, which depend on different parameter such as electric parameters, flushing method, and dielectric type. Conventionally, in static workpiece method the EDM (Electric Discharge Machining) is performed by submerging both of the tool and workpiece in dielectric liquid and side flushing is provided by impinging pressurized dielectric liquid into the gap. Another flushing method has been investigated in this study, in which, instead of side flushing the rotation motion is provided to the workpiece. Surface characteristics for both flushing methods are determined and compared in this study. The investigated surface characteristics are: surface roughness, crater size, surface morphology, white layer thickness and composition. These investigations are performed using optical and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). Statistical confidence limits are determined for scattered data of surface roughness. It is found that the white layer thickness and surface roughness are directly proportional to discharge current for both flushing methods. The comparison has shown that the side flushing of statics workpiece gives thicker white layer and lower surface finish as compared to the flushing caused by the rotation of workpiece. (author)

  14. Charging Electric Vehicles in Smart Cities: An EVI-Pro Analysis of Columbus, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Srinivasa Raghavan, Sesha [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Young, Stanley E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-09

    With the support of the U.S. Department of Energy's Vehicle Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) worked with the City of Columbus, Ohio, to develop a plan for the expansion of the region's network of charging stations to support increased adoption of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in the local market. NREL's Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection (EVI-Pro) model was used to generate scenarios of regional charging infrastructure to support consumer PEV adoption. Results indicate that approximately 400 Level 2 plugs at multi-unit dwellings and 350 Level 2 plugs at non-residential locations are required to support Columbus' primary PEV goal of 5,300 PEVs on the road by the end of 2019. This analysis finds that while consumer demand for fast charging is expected to remain low (due to modest anticipated adoption of short-range battery electric vehicles), a minimum level of fast charging coverage across the city is required to ease consumer range anxiety concerns by providing a safety net for unexpected charging events. Sensitivity analyses around some key assumptions have also been performed; of these, consumer preference for PHEV versus BEV and for their electric driving range, ambient conditions, and availability of residential charging at multi-unit dwellings were identified as key determinants of the non-residential PEV charging infrastructure required to support PEV adoption. The results discussed in this report can be leveraged by similar U.S. cities as part of a strategy to accelerate PEV adoption in the light-duty vehicle market.

  15. Charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibits neurite extension of spiral ganglion neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Na; Liang, Qiong; Liu, Yuehong; Lai, Bin; Li, Wen; Wang, Zhengmin; Li, Shufeng

    2016-06-15

    Intracochlear application of exogenous or transgenic neurotrophins, such as neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), could promote the resprouting of spiral ganglion neuron (SGN) neurites in deafened animals. These resprouting neurites might reduce the gap between cochlear implant electrodes and their targeting SGNs, allowing for an improvement of spatial resolution of electrical stimulation. This study is to investigate the impact of electrical stimulation employed in CI on the extension of resprouting SGN neurites. We established an in vitro model including the devices delivering charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation, and spiral ganglion (SG) dissociated culture treated with BDNF and NT-3. After electrical stimulation with varying durations and intensities, we quantified neurite lengths and Schwann cell densities in SG cultures. Stimulations that were greater than 50μA or longer than 8h significantly decreased SG neurite length. Schwann cell density under 100μA electrical stimulation for 48h was significantly lower compared to that in non-stimulated group. These electrical stimulation-induced decreases of neurite extension and Schwann cell density were attenuated by various types of voltage-dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blockers, or completely prevented by their combination, cadmium or calcium-free medium. Our study suggested that charge-balanced biphasic electrical stimulation inhibited the extension of resprouting SGN neurites and decreased Schwann cell density in vitro. Calcium influx through multiple types of VDCCs was involved in the electrical stimulation-induced inhibition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of cross-section correction to charge exchange recombination spectroscopy rotation measurements using co- and counter-neutral-beam views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, W M; Burrell, K H; Feder, R; Nagy, A; Gohil, P; Groebner, R J

    2008-10-01

    Measurements of rotation using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy can be affected by the energy dependence of the charge exchange cross section. On DIII-D, the associated correction to the rotation can exceed 100 kms at high temperatures. In reactor-relevant low rotation conditions, the correction can be several times larger than the actual plasma rotation and therefore must be carefully validated. New chords have been added to the DIII-D CER diagnostic to view the counter-neutral-beam line. The addition of these views allows determination of the toroidal rotation without depending on detailed atomic physics calculations, while also allowing experimental characterization of the atomic physics. A database of rotation comparisons from the two views shows that the calculated cross-section correction can adequately describe the measurements, although there is a tendency for "overcorrection." In cases where accuracy better than about 15% is desired, relying on calculation of the cross-section correction may be insufficient.

  17. On the business value of ICT-controlled plug-in electric vehicle charging in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The increasing penetration of variable renewable energy, such as wind and solar, requires the deployment of large scale energy storage or dynamic demand side management. Leveraging the intrinsic energy storage potential of certain electric loads could be the key for an efficient transition to green power generation. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are about to be introduced on a large scale. In this paper, we investigate the savings potential of electricity retailers resulting from the ability to control the charging behavior of a fleet of PEVs using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). This savings potential is important as it could jumpstart the development of advanced control infrastructures for dynamic demand side management. The paper makes three major contributions: first, it applies a novel car usage model based on data from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS). Second, it develops and evaluates several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements. Third, it identifies several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging. We obtain a relative savings potential of up to 45%. The absolute yearly savings per PEV, however, are rather small, which could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure. - Highlights: ► The paper presents a novel model for car usage based on NHTS. ► Several charging scheduling algorithms with low computational requirements are developed and evaluated. ► Several key parameters influencing the relative and absolute savings potential of ICT-controlled PEV charging are identified. ► PEVs can be used to reduce electricity sourcing cost by up to 45%. ► The absolute yearly savings per controlled PEV are rather small and could limit the economic incentives of electricity retailers to deploy the required infrastructure.

  18. Research of Charging(Discharging Orderly and Optimizing Load Curve for Electric Vehicles Based on Dynamic Electric Price and V2G

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Firstly, using the Monte Carlo method and simulation analysis, this paper builds models for the behaviour of electric vehicles, the conventional charging model and the fast charging model. Secondly, this paper studies the impact that the number of electric vehicles which get access to power grid has on the daily load curve. Then, the paper put forwards a dynamic pricing mechanism of electricity, and studies how this dynamic pricing mechanism guides the electric vehicles to charge orderly. Last but not the least, the paper presents a V2G mechanism. Under this mechanism, electric vehicles can charge orderly and take part in the peak shaving. Research finds that massive electric vehicles’ access to the power grid will increase the peak-valley difference of daily load curve. Dynamic pricing mechanism and V2G mechanism can effectively lead the electric vehicles to take part in peak-shaving, and optimize the daily load curve.

  19. Privacy-Preserving Billing Scheme against Free-Riders for Wireless Charging Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwen Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, scientists in South Korea developed on-line electric vehicle (OLEV, which is a kind of electric vehicle that can be charged wirelessly while it is moving on the road. The battery in the vehicle can absorb electric energy from the power transmitters buried under the road without any contact with them. Several billing schemes have been presented to offer privacy-preserving billing for OLEV owners. However, they did not consider the existence of free-riders. When some vehicles are being charged after showing the tokens, vehicles that are running ahead or behind can switch on their systems and drive closely for a free charging. We describe a billing scheme against free-riders by using several cryptographic tools. Each vehicle should authenticate with a compensation-prepaid token before it can drive on the wireless-charging-enabled road. The service provider can obtain compensation if it can prove that certain vehicle is a free-rider. Our scheme is privacy-preserving so the charging will not disclose the locations and routine routes of each vehicle. In fact, our scheme is a fast authentication scheme that anonymously authenticates each user on accessing a sequence of services. Thus, it can be applied to sequential data delivering services in future 5G systems.

  20. A technological review on electric vehicle DC charging stations using photovoltaic sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Cheddadi; Fatima, Errahimi; najia, Es-sbai; Chakib, Alaoui

    2018-05-01

    Within the next few years, Electrified vehicles are destined to become the essential component of the transport field. Consequently, the charging infrastructure should be developed in the same time. Among this substructure, Charging stations photovoltaic-assisted are attracting a substantial interest due to increased environmental awareness, cost reduction and rise in efficiency of the PV modules. The intention of this paper is to review the technological status of Photovoltaic–Electric vehicle (PV-EV) charging stations during the last decade. The PV-EV charging station is divided into two categories, which are PV-grid and PV-standalone charging systems. From a practical point view, the distinction between the two architectures is the bidirectional inverter, which is added to link the station to the smart grid. The technological infrastructure includes the common hardware components of every station, namely: PV array, dc-dc converter provided with MPPT control, energy storage unit, bidirectional dc charger and inverter. We investigate, compare and evaluate many valuable researches that contain the design and control of PV-EV charging system. Additionally, this concise overview reports the studies that include charging standards, the power converters topologies that focus on the adoption of Vehicle-to grid technology and the control for both PV–grid and PV standalone DC charging systems.

  1. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  2. Electric field confinement effect on charge transport in organic field-effect transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, X.; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I.I.; Smaal, W.T.T.; Gelinck, G.H.; Broer, D.J.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.; Bässler, H.

    2012-01-01

    While it is known that the charge-carrier mobility in organic semiconductors is only weakly dependent on the electric field at low fields, the experimental mobility in organic field-effect transistors using silylethynyl-substituted pentacene is found to be surprisingly field dependent at low

  3. A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the Cern collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge has been performed at the CERN collider using a telescope of scintillation counters to detect particles with abnormally low ionisation. The thickness of the detector (40 gr cm−2) limits this search to particles without strong...

  4. Method for measuring the charge of electric storage batteries. Verfahren zur Messung des Ladezustandes elektrischer Akkumulatoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappus, W.

    1982-03-11

    With liquid-electrolyte storage batteries, charge can be deduced from density measurement which is feasible in a simple technical way by measuring hydrostatic pressure in the electrolyte fluid. Pressure difference is detected piezo-electrically and indicated externally by a voltmeter. Gas-filled or fluid-filled bellows serve as pressure sensors.

  5. A Data-Driven Approach to Manage Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles in Parking Lots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Babic (Jurica); A. Carvalho (Arthur); W. Ketter (Wolfgang); V. Podobnik (Vedran)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe ever-increasing number of electric vehicles (EV) on the road is in line with many governments' efforts to tackle urgent environmental challenges. This inherently means that there is a growing need for charging infrastructure as well. A potential solution to address the need for

  6. Measurement of the electric charge of the top quark in tt¯ events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Kupčo, Alexander; Lokajíček, Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2014), "051101-1"-"051101-8" ISSN 1550-7998 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12006 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : pair production * top * charge * electric * jet * final state * Batavia TEVATRON Coll * admixture * lepton * quark Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 4.643, year: 2014

  7. Lie symmetries for the electric charge-magnetic monopole interaction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, I.C.; Ritter, O.M.; Santos, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The symmetries of the equation of motion for an electric charge interacting with a magnetic monopole are analyzed. Two methods, starting from the knowledge of the Lie symmetries, are discussed and employed in this case. This procedure is also compared with the hamiltonians methods. (ltonians methods. (Author) [pt

  8. Two-Level Control for Fast Electrical Vehicle Charging Stations with Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    This paper applies a hierarchical control for a fast charging station (FCS) composed of paralleled PWM rectifier and dedicated paralleled multiple flywheel energy storage systems (FESSs), in order to mitigate peak power shock on grid caused by sudden connection of electrical vehicle (EV) chargers...

  9. Isoelectric Point, Electric Charge, and Nomenclature of the Acid-Base Residues of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Andres A.; Ribeiro, Joao M.; Sillero, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The main object of this work is to present the pedagogical usefulness of the theoretical methods, developed in this laboratory, for the determination of the isoelectric point (pI) and the net electric charge of proteins together with some comments on the naming of the acid-base residues of proteins. (Contains 8 figures and 4 tables.)

  10. Electric field of not completely symmetric systems earthed sphere-uniformly charged dielectric plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vila, F.

    1994-07-01

    In this paper we study theoretically the electric field in the not completely symmetric system, earthed metallic sphere-uniformly charged dielectric plan, for sphere surface points situated in the plan that contains sphere's center and vertical symmetry axe of dielectric plan. (author). 11 refs, 1 fig

  11. System design for a solar powered electric vehicle charging station for workplaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chandra Mouli, G.R.; Bauer, P.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility of charging battery electric vehicles at workplace in Netherlands using solar energy. Data from the Dutch Meteorological Institute is used to determine the optimal orientation of PV panels for maximum energy yield in the Netherlands. The seasonal and diurnal

  12. Coupled heat-electromagnetic simulation of inductive charging stations for electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, C.; Günther, M.; Klagges, D.; Richwin, M.; Schöps, S.; Maten, ter E.J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Coupled electromagnetic-heat problems have been studied for induction or inductive heating, for dielectric heating, for testing of corrosion, for detection of cracks, for hardening of steel, and more recently for inductive charging of electric vehicles. In nearly all cases a simple co-simulation is

  13. Coupled heat-electromagnetic simulation of inductive charging stations for electric vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaufmann, C.; Günther, M.; Klagges, D.; Richwin, M.; Schöps, S.; Maten, ter E.J.W.; Fontes, M.; Günther, M.; Marheineke, N.

    2014-01-01

    Coupled electromagnetic-heat problems have been studied for induction or inductive heating, for dielectric heating, for testing of corrosion, for detection of cracks, for hardening of steel, and more recently for inductive charging of electric vehicles. In nearly all cases a simple co-simulation is

  14. Trajectory of Charged Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields Using Interactive Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambade, Popat S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to graphically illustrate to the students the physical phenomenon of motion of charged particle under the action of simultaneous electric and magnetic fields by simulating particle motion on a computer. Differential equations of motions are solved analytically and path of particle in three-dimensional space are…

  15. Radial electric field evolution in the vicinity of a rotating magnetic island in the TUMAN-3M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askinazi, L G; Golant, V E; Kornev, V A; Lebedev, S V; Tukachinsky, A S; Vildjunas, M I; Zhubr, N A

    2006-01-01

    Radial electric field is known to be an important factor affecting transport and confinement in toroidal fusion plasmas. Langmuire probe measurements of peripheral radial electric field evolution in the presence of a rotating MHD island were performed on the TUMAN-3M tokamak in order to clear up the possible connection between the radial electric field and the island rotation, both in L and H-modes. The measurements showed that E r became positive, if the island was large enough, in spite of the constant direction of the island's rotation. Comparing similar ohmic H-mode discharges with or without a rotating MHD island, it was found that in the presence of the large island E r was always more positive. Possible explanations of this observation are discussed

  16. Thermospheric neutral temperatures derived from charge-exchange produced N{sub 2}{sup +} Meinel (1,0) rotational distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mutiso, C.K.; Zettergren, M.D.; Hughes, J.M.; Sivjee, G.G. [Embry-Riddle Aeronautical Univ., Daytona Beach, FL (United States). Space Physics Research Lab.

    2013-06-01

    Thermalized rotational distributions of neutral and ionized N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} have long been used to determine neutral temperatures (T{sub n}) during auroral conditions. In both bright E-region (charge-exchange reactions between high-altitude (>or similar 130 km) species provide an exception to this situation. In particular, the charge-exchange reaction O{sup +}({sup 2}D)+N{sub 2}(X) {yields}N{sub 2}{sup +} (A{sup 2}{Pi}{sub u}, {nu}' = 1) + O({sup 3}P) yields thermalized N{sub 2}{sup +} Meinel (1,0) emissions, which, albeit weak, can be used to derive neutral temperatures at altitudes of {proportional_to} 130 km and higher. In this work, we present N{sub 2}{sup +} Meinel (1,0) rotational temperatures and brightnesses obtained at Svalbard, Norway, during various auroral conditions. We calculate T{sub n} at thermospheric altitudes of 130-180 km from thermalized rotational populations of N{sub 2}{sup +} Meinel (1,0); these emissions are excited by soft electron (charge-exchange reactions. We model the contributions of the respective excitation mechanisms, and compare derived brightnesses to observations. The agreement between the two is good. Emission heights obtained from optical data, modeling, and ISR data are consistent. Obtaining thermospheric T{sub n} from chargeexchange excited N{sub 2}{sup +} Meinel (1,0) emissions provides an additional means of remotely sensing the neutral atmosphere, although certain limiting conditions are necessary. These include precipitation of low-energy electrons, and a non-sunlit emitting layer. (orig.)

  17. A direct and at nanometer scale study of electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlière Christian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is presented an innovative method to map in-vivo and at nanometer scale the electrical charge distribution on membranes of alive cells. It relies on a new atomic force microscopy (AFM mode based on an electro-mechanical coupling effect. Furthermore, an additional electrical signal detected by both the deflection of the AFM cantilever and simultaneous direct current measurements was detected at low scanning rates. It was attributed to the detection of the current stemming from ionic channels. It opens a new way to directly investigate in situ biological electrical surface processes involved in bacterial adhesion, biofilm formation, microbial fuel cells, etc.

  18. ptchg: A FORTRAN program for point-charge calculations of electric field gradients (EFGs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Dane R.

    1994-05-01

    ptchg, a FORTRAN program, has been developed to calculate electric field gradients (EFG) around an atomic site in crystalline solids using the point-charge direct-lattice summation method. It uses output from the crystal structure generation program Atoms as its input. As an application of ptchg, a point-charge calculation of the EFG quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite is demonstrated. Although point-charge calculations of electric field gradients generally are limited to ionic compounds, the computed quadrupolar parameters around the oxygen site in SiO 2 cristobalite, a highly covalent material, are in good agreement with the experimentally determined values from nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.

  19. Optimal planning of electric vehicle charging station at the distribution system using hybrid optimization algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awasthi, Abhishek; Venkitusamy, Karthikeyan; Padmanaban, Sanjeevikumar

    2017-01-01

    India's ever increasing population has made it necessary to develop alternative modes of transportation with electric vehicles being the most preferred option. The major obstacle is the deteriorating impact on the utility distribution system brought about by improper setup of these charging...... stations. This paper deals with the optimal planning (siting and sizing) of charging station infrastructure in the city of Allahabad, India. This city is one of the upcoming smart cities, where electric vehicle transportation pilot project is going on under Government of India initiative. In this context......, a hybrid algorithm based on genetic algorithm and improved version of conventional particle swarm optimization is utilized for finding optimal placement of charging station in the Allahabad distribution system. The particle swarm optimization algorithm re-optimizes the received sub-optimal solution (site...

  20. A Comparative Study of Power Supply Architectures In Wireless Electric Vehicle Charging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Bryan

    Wireless inductive power transfer is a transformational and disruptive technology that enables the reliable and efficient transfer of electrical power over large air gaps for a host of unique applications. One such application that is now gaining much momentum worldwide is the wireless charging of electric vehicles (EVs). This thesis examines two of the primary power supply topologies being predominantly used for EV charging, namely the SLC and the LCL resonant full bridge inverter topologies. The study of both of these topologies is presented in the context of designing a 3 kW, primary side controlled, wireless EV charger with nominal operating parameters of 30 kHz centre frequency and range of coupling in the neighborhood of .18-.26. A comparison of both topologies is made in terms of their complexity, cost, efficiency, and power quality. The aim of the study is to determine which topology is better for wireless EV charging.

  1. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anele, A. O.; Hamam, Y.; Chassagne, L.; Linares, J.; Alayli, Y.; Djouani, K.

    2015-09-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV.

  2. Computational models of an inductive power transfer system for electric vehicle battery charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anele, A O; Hamam, Y; Djouani, K; Chassagne, L; Alayli, Y; Linares, J

    2015-01-01

    One of the issues to be solved for electric vehicles (EVs) to become a success is the technical solution of its charging system. In this paper, computational models of an inductive power transfer (IPT) system for EV battery charge are presented. Based on the fundamental principles behind IPT systems, 3 kW single phase and 22 kW three phase IPT systems for Renault ZOE are designed in MATLAB/Simulink. The results obtained based on the technical specifications of the lithium-ion battery and charger type of Renault ZOE show that the models are able to provide the total voltage required by the battery. Also, considering the charging time for each IPT model, they are capable of delivering the electricity needed to power the ZOE. In conclusion, this study shows that the designed computational IPT models may be employed as a support structure needed to effectively power any viable EV. (paper)

  3. Water Tree Influence on Space Charge Distribution and on the Residual Electric Field in Polyethylene Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Stancu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A computation method of the electricfield and ionic space charge density in planeinsulations with water trees (using a ComsolMultiphysics software and the thermal step currents(Im(t measured with Thermal Step Method ispresented. A parabolic spatial variation of volumecharge density, an exponential spatial variation ofthe electric permittivity ε and a linear dependency ofε and the temperature coefficient of permittivity αεwith the average water concentration in trees, areconsidered. For a water tree with a known length,different values of charge density are consideredand the electric field and the thermal step currentsIc(t are calculated. The currents Ic(t and Im(t arecompared and the volume of charge density andelectric field for which Ic(t is identical with Im(t arekept.

  4. On the performance of accelerated particle swarm optimization for charging plug-in hybrid electric vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Rahman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation electrification has undergone major changes since the last decade. Success of smart grid with renewable energy integration solely depends upon the large-scale penetration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs for a sustainable and carbon-free transportation sector. One of the key performance indicators in hybrid electric vehicle is the State-of-Charge (SoC which needs to be optimized for the betterment of charging infrastructure using stochastic computational methods. In this paper, a newly emerged Accelerated particle swarm optimization (APSO technique was applied and compared with standard particle swarm optimization (PSO considering charging time and battery capacity. Simulation results obtained for maximizing the highly nonlinear objective function indicate that APSO achieves some improvements in terms of best fitness and computation time.

  5. Model of electric field-induced charge disordering in praseodymium manganites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapinskas, S.; Tornau, E.E.; Semiconductor Physics Inst., Vilnius

    2001-01-01

    We propose a model for an electric field-driven transition from the ordered NaCl-type phase to the disordered phase. Such a transition might be a prototype of charge disordering transition observed in Pr 1-c Ca c MnO 3 . We assume the lattice-gas model and hopping conductivity of charge carriers. The solution of this model, performed by the Monte Carlo method, demonstrates that considerably high electric field can disorder well-ordered phases. The comparison with the data for charge disordering in Pr 1-c Ca c MnO 3 shows that required fields are much too high. We analyze the obtained results trying to determine a possible scenario for conductivity in Pr 1-c Ca c MnO 3 . (orig.)

  6. Contribution to the study of an electric rotating furnace with gaseous electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallaire, Serge

    1976-01-01

    As the most primary and also most efficient way to transfer to a body the energetic content of an electric arc is to put it directly in contact with the arc, this research thesis reports the study of the development of a device allowing this operation: the electric rotating furnace with gaseous electrodes. In the first part, the author presents the furnace and its operation characteristics: thermal enclosure, heat source, hardware and installation description, operation characteristics. The second part reports the study of heat transfer phenomena: main determinations of the transfer coefficient, inverse problem, study of the thermal diffusivity with phase change, proposed solutions, and experimental study. The third part reports the search for boundary conditions and the study of furnace efficiency [fr

  7. On the theory of the electrical field and the plasma rotation in the stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado-Gallardo, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the context of neoclassical transport theory, the macroscopic torque equations for several liquids in toroidal plasmas are used with general geometry. In order to examine plasma rotation and the electrical field in equilibrium and the effect of sources of particles and pulses, the continuity and pulse balance equations are dealt with. In order to use them on the WVII-A stellarator in the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, existing formulae are expanded and the viscosity tensor is calculated in the CGL form in the plateau range. General expressions for plasma speed, electrical field, plasma diffusion and current are obtained, in which the effect of the sources occurs explicitly. The theory is applied to the WVII-A stellarator, in which neutral particle injection represents one pulse source. (orig.) [de

  8. Magnitude and Variability of Controllable Charge Capacity Provided by Grid Connected Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scoffield, Don R [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Smart, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salisbury, Shawn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    As market penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) increases over time, the number of PEVs charging on the electric grid will also increase. As the number of PEVs increases, their ability to collectively impact the grid increases. The idea of a large body of PEVs connected to the grid presents an intriguing possibility. If utilities can control PEV charging, it is possible that PEVs could act as a distributed resource to provide grid services. The technology required to control charging is available for modern PEVs. However, a system for wide-spread implementation of controllable charging, including robust communication between vehicles and utilities, is not currently present. Therefore, the value of controllable charging must be assessed and weighed against the cost of building and operating such as system. In order to grasp the value of PEV charge control to the utility, the following must be understood: 1. The amount of controllable energy and power capacity available to the utility 2. The variability of the controllable capacity from day to day and as the number of PEVs in the market increases.

  9. Important Factors for Early Market Microgrids: Demand Response and Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David Masaki

    Microgrids are evolving concepts that are growing in interest due to their potential reliability, economic and environmental benefits. As with any new concept, there are many unresolved issues with regards to planning and operation. In particular, demand response (DR) and plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging are viewed as two key components of the future grid and both will likely be active technologies in the microgrid market. However, a better understanding of the economics associated with DR, the impact DR can have on the sizing of distributed energy resource (DER) systems and how to accommodate and price PEV charging is necessary to advance microgrid technologies. This work characterizes building based DR for a model microgrid, calculates the DER systems for a model microgrid under DR through a minimization of total cost, and determines pricing methods for a PEV charging station integrated with an individual building on the model microgrid. It is shown that DR systems which consist only of HVAC fan reductions provide potential economic benefits to the microgrid through participation in utility DR programs. Additionally, peak shaving DR reduces the size of power generators, however increasing DR capacity does not necessarily lead to further reductions in size. As it currently stands for a microgrid that is an early adopter of PEV charging, current installation costs of PEV charging equipment lead to a system that is not competitive with established commercial charging networks or to gasoline prices for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV).

  10. Electric Charge Accumulation in Polar and Non-Polar Polymers under Electron Beam Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Kenichiro; Honjoh, Masato; Takada, Tatsuo; Miyake, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    The electric charge accumulation under an electron beam irradiation (40 keV and 60 keV) was measured by using the pressure wave propagation (PWP) method in the dielectric insulation materials, such as polar polymeric films (polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN), polyimide (PI), and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET)) and non-polar polymeric films (polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). The PE and PTFE (non-polar polymers) showed the properties of large amount of electric charge accumulation over 50 C/m3 and long saturation time over 80 minutes. The PP and PS (non-polar polymer) showed the properties of middle amount of charge accumulation about 20 C/m3 and middle saturation time about 1 to 20 minutes. The PC, PEN, PI and PET (polar polymers) showed the properties of small amount of charge accumulation about 5 to 20 C/m3 and within short saturation time about 1.0 minutes. This paper summarizes the relationship between the properties of charge accumulation and chemical structural formula, and compares between the electro static potential distribution with negative charged polymer and its chemical structural formula.

  11. Electric charge accumulation in polar and non-polar polymers under electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagasawa, Kenichiro; Honjoh, Masato; Takada, Tatsuo; Miyake, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yasuhiro

    2010-01-01

    The electric charge accumulation under an electron beam irradiation (40 keV and 60 keV) was measured by using the pressure wave propagation (PWP) method in the dielectric insulation materials, such as polar polymeric films (polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene-naphthalate (PEN), polyimide (PI), and polyethylene-terephthalate (PET)) and non-polar polymeric films (polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)). The PE and PTFE (non-polar polymers) showed the properties of large amount of electric charge accumulation over 50 C/m 3 and long saturation time over 80 minutes. The PP and PS (non-polar polymer) showed the properties of middle amount of charge accumulation about 20 C/m 3 and middle saturation time about 1 to 20 minutes. The PC, PEN, PI and PET (polar polymers) showed the properties of small amount of charge accumulation about 5 to 20 C/m 3 and within short saturation time about 1.0 minutes. This paper summarizes the relationship between the properties of charge accumulation and chemical structural formula, and compares between the electro static potential distribution with negative charged polymer and its chemical structural formula. (author)

  12. Prospects of real-time ion temperature and rotation profiles based on neural-network charge exchange analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R W.T.; Von Hellermann, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Svensson, J [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-07-01

    A back-propagation neural network technique is used at JET to extract plasma parameters like ion temperature, rotation velocities or spectral line intensities from charge exchange (CX) spectra. It is shown that in the case of the C VI CX spectra, neural networks can give a good estimation (better than +-20% accuracy) for the main plasma parameters (Ti, V{sub rot}). Since the neural network approach involves no iterations or initial guesses the speed with which a spectrum is processed is so high (0.2 ms/spectrum) that real time analysis will be achieved in the near future. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Prospects of real-time ion temperature and rotation profiles based on neural-network charge exchange analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.W.T.; Von Hellermann, M.

    1994-01-01

    A back-propagation neural network technique is used at JET to extract plasma parameters like ion temperature, rotation velocities or spectral line intensities from charge exchange (CX) spectra. It is shown that in the case of the C VI CX spectra, neural networks can give a good estimation (better than +-20% accuracy) for the main plasma parameters (Ti, V rot ). Since the neural network approach involves no iterations or initial guesses the speed with which a spectrum is processed is so high (0.2 ms/spectrum) that real time analysis will be achieved in the near future. 4 refs., 8 figs

  14. Electric Vehicles in Colorado: Anticipating Consumer Demand for Direct Current Fast Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-01

    To support the State of Colorado in planning for growth in direct current fast charging (DCFC) for electric vehicles, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has partnered with the Regional Air Quality Council (RAQC) and the Colorado Department of Transportation (CDOT) to analyze a number of DCFC investment scenarios. NREL analyzed existing electric vehicle registration data from IHS Markit (IHS) to highlight early trends in the electric vehicle market, which were compared with sales forecasts predicting large growth in the Colorado electric vehicle market. Electric vehicle forecasts were then used to develop future DCFC scenarios to be evaluated in a simulation environment to estimate consumer benefits of the hypothetical DCFC networks in terms of increased driving range and electric vehicle miles traveled (eVMT). Simulated utilization of the hypothetical DCFC networks was analyzed for geographic trends, particularly for correlations with vehicle electric range. Finally, a subset of simulations is presented for consumers with potentially inconsistent access to charging at their home location and presumably greater reliance on public DCFC infrastructure.

  15. Time dependent charging of layer clouds in the global electric circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Limin; Tinsley, Brian A.

    2012-09-01

    There is much observational data consistent with the hypothesis that the ionosphere-earth current density (Jz) in the global electric circuit, which is modulated by both solar activity and thunderstorm activity, affects atmospheric dynamics and cloud cover. One candidate mechanism involves Jz causing the accumulation of space charge on droplets and aerosol particles, that affects the rate of scavenging of the latter, notably those of Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) and Ice Forming Nuclei (IFN) (Tinsley, 2008, 2010). Space charge is the difference, per unit volume, between total positive and total negative electrical charge that is on droplets, aerosol particles (including the CCN and IFN) and air ions. The cumulative effects of the scavenging in stratiform clouds and aerosol layers in an air mass over the lifetime of the aerosol particles of 1-10 days affects the concentration and size distribution of the CCN, so that in subsequent episodes of cloud formation (including deep convective clouds) there can be effects on droplet size distribution, coagulation, precipitation processes, and even storm dynamics.Because the time scales for charging for some clouds can be long compared to cloud lifetimes, the amount of charge at a given time, and its effect on scavenging, depend more on the charging rate than on the equilibrium charge that would eventually be attained. To evaluate this, a new time-dependent charging model has been developed. The results show that for typical altostratus clouds with typical droplet radii 10 μm and aerosol particles of radius of 0.04 μm, the time constant for charging in response to a change in Jz is about 800 s, which is comparable to cloud formation and dissipation timescales for some cloud situations. The charging timescale is found to be strong functions of altitude and aerosol concentration, with the time constant for droplet charging at 2 km in air with a high concentration of aerosols being about an hour, and for clouds at 10 km in

  16. The electrical MHD and Hall current impact on micropolar nanofluid flow between rotating parallel plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Zahir; Islam, Saeed; Gul, Taza; Bonyah, Ebenezer; Altaf Khan, Muhammad

    2018-06-01

    The current research aims to examine the combined effect of magnetic and electric field on micropolar nanofluid between two parallel plates in a rotating system. The nanofluid flow between two parallel plates is taken under the influence of Hall current. The flow of micropolar nanofluid has been assumed in steady state. The rudimentary governing equations have been changed to a set of differential nonlinear and coupled equations using suitable similarity variables. An optimal approach has been used to acquire the solution of the modelled problems. The convergence of the method has been shown numerically. The impact of the Skin friction on velocity profile, Nusslet number on temperature profile and Sherwood number on concentration profile have been studied. The influences of the Hall currents, rotation, Brownian motion and thermophoresis analysis of micropolar nanofluid have been mainly focused in this work. Moreover, for comprehension the physical presentation of the embedded parameters that is, coupling parameter N1 , viscosity parameter Re , spin gradient viscosity parameter N2 , rotating parameter Kr , Micropolar fluid constant N3 , magnetic parameter M , Prandtl number Pr , Thermophoretic parameter Nt , Brownian motion parameter Nb , and Schmidt number Sc have been plotted and deliberated graphically.

  17. Two-Stage Electric Vehicle Charging Coordination in Low Voltage Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2014-01-01

    ). Being a sizable rated element, electric vehicles (EVs) can offer a great deal of demand flexibility in future intelligent grids. This paper first investigates and analyzes driving pattern and charging requirements of EVs. Secondly, a two-stage charging algorithm, namely local adaptive control...... encompassed by a central coordinative control, is proposed to realize the flexibility offered by EV. The local control enables adaptive charging; whereas the central coordinative control prepares optimized charging schedules. Results from various scenarios show that the proposed algorithm enables significant......Increased environmental awareness in the recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources (RESs); especially solar PV and wind. One of the effective solutions to compensate intermittencies in generation from the RESs is to enable consumer participation in demand response (DR...

  18. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...... the operation of each component in the system. As a result, the charging station could supply the reactive power support to the utility grid without compromising the charging algorithm and preserve the battery’s lifetime. Finally, the real-time simulation results based on dSPACE1006 verifies the proposed...

  19. Charges in gravitational fields: From Fermi, via Hanni-Ruffini-Wheeler, to the 'electric Meissner effect'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffini, R.

    2004-07-01

    Recent developments in obtaining a detailed model for gamma-ray bursts have shown the need for a deeper understanding of phenomena described by solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equations, reviving interest in the behavior of charges close to a black hole. In particular a drastic difference has been found between the lines of force of a charged test particle in the fields of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström black holes. This difference characterizes a general relativistic effect for the electric field of a charged test particle around a (charged) Reissner-Nordström black hole similar to the “Meissner effect” for a magnetic field around a superconductor. These new results are related to earlier work by Fermi and Hanni-Ruffini-Wheeler.

  20. Multiple Charging Station Location-Routing Problem with Time Window of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Li-ying

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the electric vehicle (EV multiple charging station location-routing problem with time window to optimize the routing plan of capacitated EVs and the strategy of charging stations. In particular, the strategy of charging stations includes both infrastructure-type selection and station location decisions. The problem accounts for two critical constraints in logistic practice: the vehicle loading capacity and the customer time windows. A hybrid heuristic that incorporates an adaptive variable neighborhood search (AVNS with the tabu search algorithm for intensification was developed to address the problem. The specialized neighborhood structures and the selection methods of charging station used in the shaking step of AVNS were proposed. In contrast to the commercial solver CPLEX, experimental results on small-scale test instances demonstrate that the algorithm can find nearly optimal solutions on small-scale instances. The results on large-scale instances also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles - CRADA Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onar, Omer C [ORNL; Campbell, Steven L [ORNL; Seiber, Larry Eugene [ORNL; White, Cliff P [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL; Tang, Lixin [ORNL; Chambon, Paul H [ORNL; Ozpineci, Burak [ORNL; Smith, David E [ORNL

    2016-06-20

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) is a paradigm shift in electric-vehicle (EV) charging that offers the consumer an autonomous, safe, and convenient option to conductive charging and its attendant need for cables. With WPT, charging process can be fully automated due to the vehicle and grid side radio communication systems, and is non-contacting; therefore issues with leakage currents, ground faults, and touch potentials do not exist. It also eliminates the need for touching the heavy, bulky, dirty cables and plugs. It eliminates the fear of forgetting to plug-in and running out of charge the following day and eliminates the tripping hazards in public parking lots and in highly populated areas such as shopping malls, recreational areas, parking buildings, etc. Furthermore, the high-frequency magnetic fields employed in power transfer across a large air gap are focused and shielded, so that fringe fields (i.e., magnetic leakage/stray fields) attenuate rapidly over a transition region to levels well below limits set by international standards for the public zone (which starts at the perimeter of the vehicle and includes the passenger cabin). Oak Ridge National Laboratory s approach to WPT charging places strong emphasis on radio communications in the power regulation feedback channel augmented with software control algorithms. The over-arching goal for WPT is minimization of vehicle on-board complexity by keeping the secondary side content confined to coil tuning, rectification, filtering, and interfacing to the regenerative energy-storage system (RESS). This report summarizes the CRADA work between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the Toyota Research Institute of North America, Toyota Motor Engineering and Manufacturing North America (TEMA) on the wireless charging of electric vehicles which was funded by Department of Energy under DE-FOA-000667. In this project, ORNL is the lead agency and Toyota TEMA is one of the major partners. Over the course of the project

  2. Electroconvulsive therapy clinical database: Influence of age and gender on the electrical charge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador Sánchez, Javier; David, Mónica Delia; Torrent Setó, Aurora; Martínez Alonso, Montserrat; Portella Moll, Maria J; Pifarré Paredero, Josep; Vieta Pascual, Eduard; Mur Laín, María

    The influence of age and gender in the electrical charge delivered in a given population was analysed using an electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) clinical database. An observational, prospective, longitudinal study with descriptive analysis was performed using data from a database that included total bilateral frontotemporal ECT carried out with a Mecta spECTrum 5000Q ® in our hospital over 6 years. From 2006 to 2012, a total of 4,337 ECT were performed on 187 patients. Linear regression using mixed effects analysis was weighted by the inverse of the number of ECT performed on each patient per year of treatment. The results indicate that age is related with changes in the required charge (P=.031), as such that the older the age a higher charge is needed. Gender is also associated with changes in charge (P=.014), with women requiring less charge than men, a mean of 87.3mC less. When the effects of age and gender are included in the same model, both are significant (P=.0080 and P=.0041). Thus, for the same age, women require 99.0mC less charge than men, and in both genders the charge increases by 2.3mC per year. From our study, it is concluded that the effect of age on the dosage of the electrical charge is even more significant when related to gender. It would be of interest to promote the systematic collection of data for a better understanding and application of the technique. Copyright © 2015 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Considering the dynamic refueling behavior in locating electric vehicle charging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Sun, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) will certainly play an important role in addressing the energy and environmental challenges at current situation. However, location problem of EV charging stations was realized as one of the key issues of EVs launching strategy. While for the case of locating EV charging stations, more influence factors and constraints need to be considered since the EVs have some special attributes. The minimum requested charging time for EVs is usually more than 30minutes, therefore the possible delay time due to waiting or looking for an available station is one of the most important influence factors. In addition, the intention to purchase and use of EVs that also affects the location of EV charging stations is distributed unevenly among regions and should be considered when modelling. Unfortunately, these kinds of time-spatial constraints were always ignored in previous models. Based on the related research of refuelling behaviours and refuelling demands, this paper developed a new concept with dual objectives of minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for locating EV charging stations - named as Time-Spatial Location Model (TSLM). The proposed model and the traditional flow-capturing location model are applied on an example network respectively and the results are compared. Results demonstrate that time constraint has great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model has some obvious advantages and will help energy providers to make a viable plan for the network of EV charging stations.

  4. A comprehensive approach for computation and implementation of efficient electricity transmission network charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmos, Luis; Perez-Arriaga, Ignacio J. [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2009-12-15

    This paper presents a comprehensive design of electricity transmission charges that are meant to recover regulated network costs. In addition, these charges must be able to meet a set of inter-related objectives. Most importantly, they should encourage potential network users to internalize transmission costs in their location decisions, while interfering as least as possible with the short-term behaviour of the agents in the power system, since this should be left to regulatory instruments in the operation time range. The paper also addresses all those implementation issues that are essential for the sound design of a system of transmission network charges: stability and predictability of the charges; fair and efficient split between generation and demand charges; temporary measures to account for the low loading of most new lines; number and definition of the scenarios to be employed for the calculation and format of the final charges to be adopted: capacity, energy or per customer charges. The application of the proposed method is illustrated with a realistic numerical example that is based on a single scenario of the 2006 winter peak in the Spanish power system. (author)

  5. Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule interfaces studied by electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yun; Pan Lijia; Pu Lin; Shi Yi; Liu Chuan; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2012-01-01

    Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule (SAM) interfaces is studied by the electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure, where interfacial charge trapping tunes the potential barrier of the SAM layer. The sample with rubrene exhibits the write-once read-many-times memory effect, which is due to the interfacial charges trapped at deep states. On the other hand, the sample with 2-amino-4,5-dicyanoimidazole presents recyclable conduction transition, which results from the trapped charges distributed at shallow states. Moreover, the percentage of the charges trapped at shallow states can be estimated from electrical transition levels. (paper)

  6. Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule interfaces studied by electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun; Liu, Chuan; Pan, Lijia; Pu, Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Shi, Yi

    2012-01-01

    Charge trapping at organic/self-assembly molecule (SAM) interfaces is studied by the electrical switching behaviour in a crosspoint structure, where interfacial charge trapping tunes the potential barrier of the SAM layer. The sample with rubrene exhibits the write-once read-many-times memory effect, which is due to the interfacial charges trapped at deep states. On the other hand, the sample with 2-amino-4,5-dicyanoimidazole presents recyclable conduction transition, which results from the trapped charges distributed at shallow states. Moreover, the percentage of the charges trapped at shallow states can be estimated from electrical transition levels.

  7. Numerical and experimental investigation on static electric charge model at stable cone-jet region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Reza; Pishevar, Ahmad Reza; Valipouri, Afsaneh; Pǎrǎu, Emilian I.

    2018-03-01

    In a typical electro-spinning process, the steady stretching process of the jet beyond the Taylor cone has a significant effect on the dimensions of resulting nanofibers. Also, it sets up the conditions for the onset of the bending instability. The focus of this work is the modeling and simulation of the initial stable jet phase seen during the electro-spinning process. The perturbation method was applied to solve hydrodynamic equations, and the electrostatic equation was solved by a boundary integral method. These equations were coupled with the stress boundary conditions derived appropriate at the fluid-fluid interface. Perturbation equations were discretized by the second-order finite difference method, and the Newton method was implemented to solve the discretized nonlinear system. Also, the boundary element method was utilized to solve the electrostatic equation. In the theoretical study, the fluid is described as a leaky dielectric with charges only on the jet surface in dielectric air. In this study, electric charges were modeled as static. Comparison of numerical and experimental results shows that at low flow rates and high electric field, good agreement was achieved because of the superior importance of the charge transport by conduction rather than convection and charge concentration. In addition, the effect of unevenness of the electric field around the nozzle tip was experimentally studied through plate-plate geometry as well as point-plate geometry.

  8. Investigating the impact of visuohaptic simulations for the conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Uzma Abdul Sattar

    The present study assessed the benefits of a multisensory intervention on the conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges in engineering and technology undergraduate students. A novel visuohaptic intervention was proposed, which focused on exploring the forces around the different electric field configurations for distributed charges namely point, infinitely long line and uniformly charged ring. The before and after effects of the visuohaptic intervention are compared, wherein the intervention includes instructional scaffolding. Three single-group studies were conducted to investigate the effect among three different populations: (a) Undergraduate engineering students, (b) Undergraduate technology students and (c) Undergraduate engineering technology students from a different demographic setting. The findings from the three studies suggests that the haptic modality intervention provides beneficial effects by allowing students to improve their conceptual understanding of electric field for distributed charges, although students from groups (b) and (c) showed a statistically significant increase in the conceptual understanding. The findings also indicate a positive learning perception among all the three groups.

  9. Precise Analysis on Mutual Inductance Variation in Dynamic Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Rakhymbay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Wireless power transfer provides an opportunity to charge electric vehicles (EVs without electrical cables. Two categories of this technique are distinguished: Stationary Wireless Charging (SWC and Dynamic Wireless Charging (DWC systems. Implementation of DWC is more desirable than SWC as it can potentially eliminate challenges associated with heavy weight batteries and time-consuming charging processes. However, power transfer efficiency and range, lateral misalignment of coils as well as implementation cost are issues affecting DWC. These issues need to be addressed through developing coil architectures and topologies as well as operating novel semiconductor switches at higher frequencies. This study presents a small-scale dynamic wireless power transfer system for EV. It specifically concentrates on analyzing the dynamic mutual inductance between the coils due to the misalignment as it has significant influence on the EV charging process, particularly, over the output power and overall efficiency. A simulation study is carried out to explore dynamic mutual inductance profile between the transmitter and receiver coils. Mutual inductance simulation results are then verified through practical measurements on fabricated coils. Integrating the practical results into the model, an EV DWC power transfer simulation is conducted and the relation between dynamic mutual inductance and output power are discussed technically.

  10. Optimal Planning of Charging for Plug-In Electric Vehicles Focusing on Users’ Benefits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Su

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Many electric vehicles’ (EVs charging strategies were proposed to optimize the operations of the power grid, while few focus on users’ benefits from the viewpoint of EV users. However, low participation is always a problem of those strategies since EV users also need a charging strategy to serve their needs and interests. This paper proposes a method focusing on EV users’ benefits that reduce the cost of battery capacity degradation, electricity cost, and waiting time for different situations. A cost model of battery capacity degradation under different state of charge (SOC ranges is developed based on experimental data to estimate the cost of battery degradation. The simulation results show that the appropriate planning of the SOC range reduces 80% of the cost of battery degradation, and the queuing theory also reduces over 60% of the waiting time in the busy situations. Those works can also become a premise of charging management to increase the participation. The proposed strategy focusing on EV users’ benefits would not give negative impacts on the power grid, and the grid load is also optimized by an artificial fish swarm algorithm (AFSA in the solution space of the charging time restricted by EV users’ benefits.

  11. Hybrid optimal online-overnight charging coordination of plug-in electric vehicles in smart grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoum, Mohammad A. S.; Nabavi, Seyed M. H.

    2016-10-01

    Optimal coordinated charging of plugged-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in smart grid (SG) can be beneficial for both consumers and utilities. This paper proposes a hybrid optimal online followed by overnight charging coordination of high and low priority PEVs using discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) that considers the benefits of both consumers and electric utilities. Objective functions are online minimization of total cost (associated with grid losses and energy generation) and overnight valley filling through minimization of the total load levels. The constraints include substation transformer loading, node voltage regulations and the requested final battery state of charge levels (SOCreq). The main challenge is optimal selection of the overnight starting time (toptimal-overnight,start) to guarantee charging of all vehicle batteries to the SOCreq levels before the requested plug-out times (treq) which is done by simultaneously solving the online and overnight objective functions. The online-overnight PEV coordination approach is implemented on a 449-node SG; results are compared for uncoordinated and coordinated battery charging as well as a modified strategy using cost minimizations for both online and overnight coordination. The impact of toptimal-overnight,start on performance of the proposed PEV coordination is investigated.

  12. Integration Assessment of Visiting Vehicle Induced Electrical Charging of the International Space Station Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Galofaro, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) undergoes electrical charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to positively biased, exposed conductors on solar arrays that collect electrical charges from the space plasma. Exposed solar array conductors predominately collect negatively charged electrons and thus drive the metal ISS structure electrical ground to a negative floating potential (FP) relative to plasma. This FP is variable in location and time as a result of local ionospheric conditions. ISS motion through Earth s magnetic field creates an addition inductive voltage up to 20 positive and negative volts across ISS structure depending on its attitude and location in orbit. ISS Visiting Vehicles (VVs), such as the planned Orion crew exploration vehicle, contribute to the ISS plasma charging processes. Upon physical contact with ISS, the current collection properties of VVs combine with ISS. This is an ISS integration concern as FP must be controlled to minimize arcing of ISS surfaces and ensure proper management of extra vehicular activity crewman shock hazards. This report is an assessment of ISS induced charging from docked Orion vehicles employing negatively grounded, 130 volt class, UltraFlex (ATK Space Systems) solar arrays. To assess plasma electron current collection characteristics, Orion solar cell test coupons were constructed and subjected to plasma chamber current collection measurements. During these tests, coupon solar cells were biased between 0 and 120 V while immersed in a simulated LEO plasma. Tests were performed using several different simulated LEO plasma densities and temperatures. These data and associated theoretical scaling of plasma properties, were combined in a numerical model which was integrated into the Boeing Plasma Interaction Model. It was found that the solar array design for Orion will not affect the ISS FP by more than about 2 V during worst case charging conditions. This assessment also motivated a trade study to determine

  13. Assessing the stationary energy storage equivalency of vehicle-to-grid charging battery electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarroja, Brian; Zhang, Li; Wifvat, Van; Shaffer, Brendan; Samuelsen, Scott

    2016-01-01

    A study has been performed to understand the quantitative impact of key differences between vehicle-to-grid and stationary energy storage systems on renewable utilization, greenhouse gas emissions, and balancing fleet operation, using California as the example. To simulate the combined electricity and light-duty transportation system, a detailed electric grid dispatch model (including stationary energy storage systems) was combined with an electric vehicle charging dispatch model that incorporates conventional smart and vehicle-to-grid capabilities. By subjecting smaller amounts of renewable energy to round-trip efficiency losses and thereby increasing the efficiency of renewable utilization, it was found that vehicle-to-grid energy storage can achieve higher renewable utilization levels and reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared to stationary energy storage systems. Vehicle-to-grid energy storage, however, is not as capable of balancing the power plant fleet compared to stationary energy storage systems due to the constraints of consumer travel patterns. The potential benefits of vehicle-to-grid are strongly dependent on the availability of charging infrastructure at both home and workplaces, with potential benefits being compromised with residential charging availability only. Overall, vehicle-to-grid energy storage can provide benefits over stationary energy storage depending on the system attribute selected for improvement, a finding amenable to managing through policy. - Highlights: • Using vehicle-to-grid-based storage increases the efficiency of renewable energy utilization. • Vehicle-to-grid-based energy storage has less overall flexibility compared to stationary energy storage. • The discharge ability of vehicle-to-grid-based provides a significant benefit over one-way smart charging. • Both workplace and home charging are critical for providing vehicle-to-grid-related benefits. • Increasing charging intelligence reduces stationary energy

  14. Technical and legal considerations and solutions in the area of battery charging for electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juda, Z.

    2016-09-01

    The issue of protecting health of residents of urbanized areas from the effect of excessive particulate matter and toxic components of car exhaust gases imposes the need of introduction of clean electric vehicles to the market. The increasing market availability of electric vehicles, especially in the segment of short-range (neighborhood) vehicles is followed by development of new and advanced infrastructure solutions. This also applies to the increasingly popular hybrid vehicles PHEV (Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles). However, problems with the existing designs are primarily associated with limited driving range on a single battery charge, the density of charging stations in urban and suburban area, energy system efficiency due to increased electricity demand and the unification of solutions for charging stations, on-board chargers and the necessary accessories. Technical solutions are dependent on many factors, including the type and size of battery in the vehicle and access to power grid with increased load capacity. The article discusses the legal and technical actions outlined in the above directions. It shows the available and planned solutions in this area.

  15. Emissions and Cost Implications of Controlled Electric Vehicle Charging in the U.S. PJM Interconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weis, Allison; Michalek, Jeremy J; Jaramillo, Paulina; Lueken, Roger

    2015-05-05

    We develop a unit commitment and economic dispatch model to estimate the operation costs and the air emissions externality costs attributable to new electric vehicle electricity demand under controlled vs uncontrolled charging schemes. We focus our analysis on the PJM Interconnection and use scenarios that characterize (1) the most recent power plant fleet for which sufficient data are available, (2) a hypothetical 2018 power plant fleet that reflects upcoming plant retirements, and (3) the 2018 fleet with increased wind capacity. We find that controlled electric vehicle charging can reduce associated generation costs by 23%-34% in part by shifting loads to lower-cost, higher-emitting coal plants. This shift results in increased externality costs of health and environmental damages from increased air pollution. On balance, we find that controlled charging of electric vehicles produces negative net social benefits in the recent PJM grid but could have positive net social benefits in a future grid with sufficient coal retirements and wind penetration.

  16. Comprehensive Study of the Flow Control Strategy in a Wirelessly Charged Centrifugal Microfluidic Platform with Two Rotation Axes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yunzeng; Chen, Yiqi; Meng, Xiangrui; Wang, Jing; Lu, Ying; Xu, Youchun; Cheng, Jing

    2017-09-05

    Centrifugal microfluidics has been widely applied in the sample-in-answer-out systems for the analyses of nucleic acids, proteins, and small molecules. However, the inherent characteristic of unidirectional fluid propulsion limits the flexibility of these fluidic chips. Providing an extra degree of freedom to allow the unconstrained and reversible pumping of liquid is an effective strategy to address this limitation. In this study, a wirelessly charged centrifugal microfluidic platform with two rotation axes has been constructed and the flow control strategy in such platform with two degrees of freedom was comprehensively studied for the first time. Inductively coupled coils are installed on the platform to achieve wireless power transfer to the spinning stage. A micro servo motor is mounted on both sides of the stage to alter the orientation of the device around a secondary rotation axis on demand during stage rotation. The basic liquid operations on this platform, including directional transport of liquid, valving, metering, and mixing, are comprehensively studied and realized. Finally, a chip for the simultaneous determination of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] and methanal in water samples is designed and tested based on the strategy presented in this paper, demonstrating the potential use of this platform for on-site environmental monitoring, food safety testing, and other life science applications.

  17. Current flow and pair creation at low altitude in rotation-powered pulsars' force-free magnetospheres: space charge limited flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timokhin, A. N.; Arons, J.

    2013-02-01

    We report the results of an investigation of particle acceleration and electron-positron plasma generation at low altitude in the polar magnetic flux tubes of rotation-powered pulsars, when the stellar surface is free to emit whatever charges and currents are demanded by the force-free magnetosphere. We apply a new 1D hybrid plasma simulation code to the dynamical problem, using Particle-in-Cell methods for the dynamics of the charged particles, including a determination of the collective electrostatic fluctuations in the plasma, combined with a Monte Carlo treatment of the high-energy gamma-rays that mediate the formation of the electron-positron pairs. We assume the electric current flowing through the pair creation zone is fixed by the much higher inductance magnetosphere, and adopt the results of force-free magnetosphere models to provide the currents which must be carried by the accelerator. The models are spatially one dimensional, and designed to explore the physics, although of practical relevance to young, high-voltage pulsars. We observe novel behaviour (a) When the current density j is less than the Goldreich-Julian value (0 electrically trapped particles with the same sign of charge as the beam. The voltage drops are of the order of mc2/e, and pair creation is absent. (b) When the current density exceeds the Goldreich-Julian value (j/jGJ > 1), the system develops high voltage drops (TV or greater), causing emission of curvature gamma-rays and intense bursts of pair creation. The bursts exhibit limit cycle behaviour, with characteristic time-scales somewhat longer than the relativistic fly-by time over distances comparable to the polar cap diameter (microseconds). (c) In return current regions, where j/jGJ generated pairs allow the system to simultaneously carry the magnetospherically prescribed currents and adjust the charge density and average electric field to force-free conditions. We also elucidate the conditions for pair creating beam flow to be

  18. Electrical conductivity and charge diffusion in thermal QCD from the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarts, Gert; Allton, Chris [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Amato, Alessandro [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Department of Physics and Helsinki Institute of Physics P.O. Box 64, FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Giudice, Pietro [Universität Münster, Institut für Theoretische Physik Wilhelm-Klemm-Str. 9, D-48149 Münster (Germany); Hands, Simon [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University Swansea SA2 8PP (United Kingdom); Skullerud, Jon-Ivar [Department of Mathematical Physics, National University of Ireland Maynooth Maynooth, Co Kildare (Ireland)

    2015-02-27

    We present a lattice QCD calculation of the charge diffusion coefficient, the electrical conductivity and various susceptibilities of conserved charges, for a range of temperatures below and above the deconfinement crossover. The calculations include the contributions from up, down and strange quarks. We find that the diffusion coefficient is of the order of 1/(2πT) and has a dip around the crossover temperature. Our results are obtained with lattice simulations containing 2+1 dynamical flavours on anisotropic lattices. The Maximum Entropy Method is used to construct spectral functions from correlators of the conserved vector current.

  19. Formation and evaporation of an electrically charged black hole in conformal gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo [Fudan University, Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Shanghai (China); Eberhard-Karls Universitaet Tuebingen, Theoretical Astrophysics, Tuebingen (Germany); Modesto, Leonardo [Southern University of Science and Technology, Department of Physics, Shenzhen (China); Porey, Shiladitya [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Rachwal, Leslaw [Universidade de Brasilia, Instituto de Fisica, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2018-02-15

    Extending previous work on the formation and the evaporation of black holes in conformal gravity, in the present paper we study the gravitational collapse of a spherically symmetric and electrically charged thin shell of radiation. The process creates a singularity-free black hole. Assuming that in the evaporation process the charge Q is constant, the final product of the evaporation is an extremal remnant with M = Q, which is reached in an infinite amount of time. We also discuss the issue of singularity and thermodynamics of black holes in Weyl's conformal gravity. (orig.)

  20. Quantum dynamics of an electric charge in an oscillating pulsed magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, I.S.; Guimaraes, A.P.; Silva, X.A. da

    1996-11-01

    The motion of a charged particle under the action of a time-dependent oscillating magnetic field has been investigated. For one and two magnetic pulses were obtained analytical expressions for the free current decay and current echo in agreement with a recently proposed classical description of electrical current in fields E and B. When the resonance condition is achieved, the axis of quantization is turned over by 90 degrees. The results suggest a magnetic pulsed resonant method to separate charged particles in a beam. (author). 12 refs

  1. Novel wind powered electric vehicle charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) connection capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathabadi, Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The only wind powered EV charging station reported in the literature. • The charging station maximally converts wind energy into electric energy. • Novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique implemented in the EV charging station. • The charging station is grid-connected type with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology. • The charging station balances load demand in the grid connected to it. - Abstract: In this study, a novel grid-connected wind powered electric vehicle (EV) charging station with vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is designed and constructed. The wind powered EV charging station consists of a wind energy conversion system (WECS), a unidirectional DC/DC converter connected to the WECS, a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) controller, 15 bidirectional DC/DC converters dedicated to 15 charging stations provided for charging EVs, and a three-phase bidirectional DC/AC inverter connected to the grid. The contribution of this work is that the grid-connected wind powered EV charging station presented in this work is the only constructed EV charging station reported in the literature that uses wind energy as a renewable resource to produce electric energy for charging EVs, and moreover, it maximally converts wind energy into electric energy because it uses a novel fast and highly accurate MPPT technique proposed in this study. Other works are only simulated models without any new MPPT consideration. It is demonstrated that the constructed wind powered EV charging station is a perfect charging station that not only produces electric energy to charge EVs but also balances load demand in the grid connected to it.

  2. Combining Market-Based Control with Distribution Grid Constraints when Coordinating Electric Vehicle Charging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geert Deconinck

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The charging of electric vehicles (EVs impacts the distribution grid, and its cost depends on the price of electricity when charging. An aggregator that is responsible for a large fleet of EVs can use a market-based control algorithm to coordinate the charging of these vehicles, in order to minimize the costs. In such an optimization, the operational parameters of the distribution grid, to which the EVs are connected, are not considered. This can lead to violations of the technical constraints of the grid (e.g., under-voltage, phase unbalances; for example, because many vehicles start charging simultaneously when the price is low. An optimization that simultaneously takes the economic and technical aspects into account is complex, because it has to combine time-driven control at the market level with event-driven control at the operational level. Different case studies investigate under which circumstances the market-based control, which coordinates EV charging, conflicts with the operational constraints of the distribution grid. Especially in weak grids, phase unbalance and voltage issues arise with a high share of EVs. A low-level voltage droop controller at the charging point of the EV can be used to avoid many grid constraint violations, by reducing the charge power if the local voltage is too low. While this action implies a deviation from the cost-optimal operating point, it is shown that this has a very limited impact on the business case of an aggregator, and is able to comply with the technical distribution grid constraints, even in weak distribution grids with many EVs.

  3. Harmonic balancing approach to nonlinear oscillations of a punctual charge in the electric field of charged ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belendez, A.; Fernandez, E.; Rodes, J.J.; Fuentes, R.; Pascual, I.

    2009-01-01

    The harmonic balance method is used to construct approximate frequency-amplitude relations and periodic solutions to an oscillating charge in the electric field of a ring. By combining linearization of the governing equation with the harmonic balance method, we construct analytical approximations to the oscillation frequencies and periodic solutions for the oscillator. To solve the nonlinear differential equation, firstly we make a change of variable and secondly the differential equation is rewritten in a form that does not contain the square-root expression. The approximate frequencies obtained are valid for the complete range of oscillation amplitudes and excellent agreement of the approximate frequencies and periodic solutions with the exact ones are demonstrated and discussed

  4. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  5. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-01-01

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris. PMID:23429581

  6. Autonomous docking based on infrared system for electric vehicle charging in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Joshué; Nashashibi, Fawzi; Lefaudeux, Benjamin; Resende, Paulo; Pollard, Evangeline

    2013-02-21

    Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  7. Autonomous Docking Based on Infrared System for Electric Vehicle Charging in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshué Pérez

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Electric vehicles are progressively introduced in urban areas, because of their ability to reduce air pollution, fuel consumption and noise nuisance. Nowadays, some big cities are launching the first electric car-sharing projects to clear traffic jams and enhance urban mobility, as an alternative to the classic public transportation systems. However, there are still some problems to be solved related to energy storage, electric charging and autonomy. In this paper, we present an autonomous docking system for electric vehicles recharging based on an embarked infrared camera performing infrared beacons detection installed in the infrastructure. A visual servoing system coupled with an automatic controller allows the vehicle to dock accurately to the recharging booth in a street parking area. The results show good behavior of the implemented system, which is currently deployed as a real prototype system in the city of Paris.

  8. Battery charging and discharging research based on the interactive technology of smart grid and electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingyang

    2018-06-01

    To further study the bidirectional flow problem of V2G (Vehicle to Grid) charge and discharge motor, the mathematical model of AC/DC converter and bi-directional DC/DC converter was established. Then, lithium battery was chosen as the battery of electric vehicle and its mathematical model was established. In order to improve the service life of lithium battery, bidirectional DC/DC converter adopted constant current and constant voltage control strategy. In the initial stage of charging, constant current charging was adopted with current single closed loop control. After reaching a certain value, voltage was switched to constant voltage charging controlled by voltage and current. Subsequently, the V2G system simulation model was built in MATLAB/Simulink. The simulation results verified the correctness of the control strategy and showed that when charging, constant current and constant voltage charging was achieved, the grid side voltage and current were in the same phase, and the power factor was about 1. When discharging, the constant current discharge was applied, and the grid voltage and current phase difference was r. To sum up, the simulation results are correct and helpful.

  9. Redistribution of charged aluminum nanoparticles on oil droplets in water in response to applied electrical field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mengqi; Li, Dongqing, E-mail: dongqing@mme.uwaterloo.ca [University of Waterloo, Department of Mechanical and Mechatronics Engineering (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    Janus droplets with two opposite faces of different physical or chemical properties have great potentials in many fields. This paper reports a new method for making Janus droplets by covering one side of the droplet with charged nanoparticles in an externally applied DC electric field. In this paper, aluminum oxide nanoparticles on micro-sized and macro-sized oil droplets were studied. In order to control the surface area covered by the nanoparticles on the oil droplets, the effects of the concentration of nanoparticle suspension, the droplet size as well as the strength of electric field on the final accumulation area of the nanoparticles are studied.Graphical abstract.

  10. Surface charges and J H Poynting’s disquisitions on energy transfer in electrical circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matar, M.; Welti, R.

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we review applications given by J H Poynting (1884) on the transfer of electromagnetic energy in DC circuits. These examples were strongly criticized by O Heaviside (1887). Heaviside stated that Poynting had a misconception about the nature of the electric field in the vicinity of a wire through which a current flows. The historical review of this conflict and its resolution based on the consideration of electrical charges on the surface of the wires can be useful for student courses on electromagnetism or circuit theory.

  11. ANALYSIS OF SOLAR POWER STATION SCHEMES ON PHOTOELECTRIC MODULES FOR ELECTRIC CARS CHARGING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hnatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing schemes for building solar power stations on photoelectric modules with the revealing of their operation principles and functionality has been conducted. The specified technical characteristics of each of the analyzed schemes are given. The structural scheme of the solar charging station for electric cars with determining its functional capabilities and operation features is proposed. The practical application of this scheme will help to reduce the dependence on the general electric power supply network and will create conditions for its total rejection.

  12. Novel applications of Lattice QCD: Parton Distributions, proton charge radius and neutron electric dipole moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrou Constantia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We briefly discuss the current status of lattice QCD simulations and review selective results on nucleon observables focusing on recent developments in the lattice QCD evaluation of the nucleon form factors and radii, parton distribution functions and their moments, and the neutron electric dipole moment. Nucleon charges and moments of parton distribution functions are presented using simulations generated at physical values of the quark masses, while exploratory studies are performed for the parton distribution functions and the neutron electric dipole moment at heavier than physical value of the pion mass.

  13. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad

    2013-07-14

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  14. Integral transport theory for charged particles in electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boffi, V.C.; Molinari, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    An integral transport theory for charged particles which, in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, diffuse by collisions against the atoms (or molecules) of a host medium is proposed. The combined effects of both the external fields and the mechanisms of scattering, removal and creation in building up the distribution function of the charged particles considered are investigated. The eigenvalue problem associated with the sourceless case of the given physical situation is also commented. Applications of the theory to a purely velocity-dependent problem and to a space-dependent problem, respectively, are illustrated for the case of a separable isotropic scattering kernel of synthetic type. Calculations of the distribution function, of the total current density and of relevant electrical conductivity are then carried out for different specializations of the external fields. (author)

  15. High-Fidelity Simulations of Electrically-Charged Atomizing Diesel-Type Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Benoit; Owkes, Mark; van Poppel, Bret

    2015-11-01

    Combustion of liquid fuels accounts for over a third of the energy usage today. Improving efficiency of combustion systems is critical to meet the energy needs while limiting environmental impacts. Additionally, a shift away from traditional fossil fuels to bio-derived alternatives requires fuel injection systems that can atomize fuels with a wide range of properties. In this work, the potential benefits of electrically-charged atomization is investigated using numerical simulations. Particularly, the electrostatic forces on the hydrodynamic jet are quantified and the impact of the forces is analyzed by comparing simulations of Diesel-type jets at realistic flow conditions. The simulations are performed using a state-of-the-art numerical framework that globally conserves mass, momentum, and the electric charge density even at the gas-liquid interface where discontinuities exist.

  16. An analysis of a demand charge electricity grid tariff in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokke, A. V.; Doorman, G.L.; Ericson, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demand response from residential electricity consumers to a demand charge grid tariff. The tariff charges the maximum hourly peak consumption in each of the winter months Dec, Jan, and Feb, thus giving incentives to reduce peak consumption. We use hourly electricity consumption data from 443 households, as well as data on their grid and power prices, the local temperature, wind speed, and hours of daylight. The panel data set is analyzed with a fixed effects regression model. The estimates indicate average demand reductions up to 0.37 kWh/h per household in response to the tariff. This is on average a 5% reduction, with a maximum reduction of 12% in hour 8 in Dec. The consumers did not receive any information on their continuous consumption or any reminders when the tariff was in effect. It is likely that the consumption reductions would have been even higher with more information to the consumers.

  17. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Raposo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city’s urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE’s characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  18. An electric vehicle driving behavior model in the traffic system with a wireless charging lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jia; Huang, Hai-Jun; Yang, Hai; Tang, Tie-Qiao

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, a car-following model is proposed to study each EV's (electric vehicle) motion behavior near the WCL (wireless charging lane) and a lane-changing rule is designed to describe the EV's lane-changing behavior. Then, the car-following model and lane-changing rule are used to explore each EV's micro driving behavior in a two-lane system with a WCL. Finally, the impacts of the WCL on each EV's motion behavior are investigated. The numerical results show that each EV should run slowly on the WCL if it needs charge of electricity, that the EV's lane-changing behavior has great effects on the whole system, that the delay time caused by the WCL turns more prominent when the traffic turns heavy, and that lane-changing frequently occurs near the WCL (especially at the downstream of the WCL).

  19. A multi-criteria decision aid methodology to design electric vehicles public charging networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, João; Rodrigues, Ana; Silva, Carlos; Dentinho, Tomaz

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a new multi-criteria decision aid methodology, dynamic-PROMETHEE, here used to design electric vehicle charging networks. In applying this methodology to a Portuguese city, results suggest that it is effective in designing electric vehicle charging networks, generating time and policy based scenarios, considering offer and demand and the city's urban structure. Dynamic-PROMETHE adds to the already known PROMETHEE's characteristics other useful features, such as decision memory over time, versatility and adaptability. The case study, used here to present the dynamic-PROMETHEE, served as inspiration and base to create this new methodology. It can be used to model different problems and scenarios that may present similar requirement characteristics.

  20. OPTIMAL CHARGING OF ELECTRICAL VEHICLES IN THE SMART CITY FOR LOSS MINIMIZATION AND VOLTAGE IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Toni Radu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The world is two-thirds of the way through a century-long cycle of rapid urbanisation, at the end of which more than 70% of people will live in cities (World Health Organization, 2014. The urban transformation has become a major contributor to economic, demographic, social and environmental change. Electric vehicles (EVs have become increasingly popular over the last few years and are considered as an important means to mitigate air pollution problems in big cities around the world. With their onboard batteries, EVs also present an opportunity to serve as a demand response tool in supporting future smart grid where there is usually high penetration level of renewable energy (RE sources. In this paper, we consider the coordinated charging control of electrical vehicles in the charging stations. The goals are to illustrate how the integration of EVs at the urban area improve the overall load schedule of the distribution network.

  1. Slightly uneven electric field trigatron employed in tens of microseconds charging time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiajin; Yang, Jianhua; Zhang, Jiande; Zhang, Huibo; Yang, Xiao

    2014-09-01

    To solve the issue of operation instability for the trigatron switch in the application of tens of microseconds or even less charging time, a novel trigatron spark gap with slightly uneven electric field was presented. Compared with the conventional trigatron, the novel trigatron was constructed with an obvious field enhancement on the edge of the opposite electrode. The selection of the field enhancement was analyzed based on the theory introduced by Martin. A low voltage trigatron model was constructed and tested on the tens of microseconds charging time platform. The results show that the character of relative range was improved while the trigger character still held a high level. This slightly uneven electric field typed trigatron is willing to be employed in the Tesla transformer - pulse forming line system.

  2. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahid, Muhammad, E-mail: shahid@skku.edu [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Material Science and Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Nafady, Ayman [King Saud University, Department of Chemistry, College of Science (Saudi Arabia); Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor [King Saud University, Sustainable Energy Technologies (SET) Center, College of Engineering (Saudi Arabia); Warsi, Muhammad Farooq [The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Department of Chemistry (Pakistan); Hussain, Rafaqat [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies (Malaysia); Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem [Bahauddin Zakaryia University, Institute of Chemical Sciences (Pakistan)

    2013-08-15

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO{sub 2} substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 Degree-Sign C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices.

  3. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad; Nafady, Ayman; Shakir, Imran; Rana, Usman Ali; Sarfraz, Mansoor M.; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq; Hussain, Rafaqat; Ashiq, Muhammad Naeem

    2013-01-01

    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  4. Charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy measurements of ion temperature and plasma rotation in PBX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaehnig, K.P.; Fonck, R.J.; Ida, K.; Powell, E.T.

    1984-11-01

    The primary diagnostic on PBX for ion temperature measurements is charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy of low Z ions, wherein fast neutrals from the heating neutral beams excite spectral lines from highly excited states (n greater than or equal to 4) of hydrogenic 0, C, and He via charge-exchange collisions with the respective fully stripped ions. Since the neutral beams on PBX provide relatively low velocity neutrals (i.e., D 0 beams at 44 keV), the best signals are obtained using the near-uv lines of 0 7+ (e.g., n = 8-7, 2976 A). Off-line analysis of the Doppler broadened and shifted line profiles includes non-linear least squares fitting to a model line profile, while a simplified on-line fast analysis code permits between-shot data analysis

  5. Hierarchical control of a photovoltaic/battery based DC microgrid including electric vehicle wireless charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Zhao xia; Fan, Haodong; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the hierarchical control strategy of a photovoltaic/battery based dc microgrid is presented for electric vehicle (EV) wireless charging. Considering irradiance variations, battery charging/discharging requirements, wireless power transmission characteristics, and onboard battery...... coils, receiving coils and compensation capacitors, the wireless power transmission system is designed to be resonant when it is operating at the rated power, with the aim to achieve the optimum transmission system efficiency. Simulation and experimental results of the hierarchical control...... charging power change and other factors, the possible operation states are obtained. A hierarchical control strategy is established, which includes central and local controllers. The central controller is responsible for the selection and transfer of operation states and the management of the local...

  6. Exposing metal and silicate charges to electrical discharges: Did chondrules form by nebular lightning?

    OpenAIRE

    Güttler, C.; Poppe, T.; Wasson, J. T.; Blum, J.

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the hypothesis that dust aggregates were transformed to meteoritic chondrules by nebular lightning, we exposed silicatic and metallic dust samples to electric discharges with energies of 120 to 500 J in air at pressures between 10 and 10^5 Pa. The target charges consisted of powders of micrometer-sized particles and had dimensions of mm. The dust samples generally fragmented leaving the major fraction thermally unprocessed. A minor part formed sintered aggregates of 50...

  7. Taking into account the Earth's rotation in experiments on search for the electric dipole moment of neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silenko, A.Ya.

    2007-01-01

    Analysis of the problem of taking into account the Earth's rotation in a search for the electric dipole moment (EDM) of the neutron in experiments with ultracold neutrons and in a diffractional experiment is fulfilled. Taking into account the Earth's rotation in the diffractional experiment gives an exactly calculated correction which is negligible as compared with the accuracy reached at present time. In the experiments with ultracold neutrons, the correction is greater than the systematical error and the exact calculation of it needs further investigation. In this connection, further developments of diffractional method would considerably promote progress in the search for the electric dipole moment of the neutron

  8. Charge collection efficiency in a semiconductor radiation detector with a non-constant electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.S.; Lund, J.C.; Olschner, F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of improved semiconductor radiation detectors would be facilitated by a quantitative model that predicts the performance of these detectors as a function of material characteristics and device operating parameters. An accurate prediction of the pulse height spectrum from a radiation detector can be made if both the noise and the charge collection properties of the detector are understood. The noise characteristics of semiconductor radiation detectors have been extensively studied. The effect of noise can be closely simulated by convoluting the noise-free pulse height spectrum with a Gaussian function. Distortion of semiconductor detector's pulse height spectrum from charge collection effects is more complex than the effects of noise and is more difficult to predict. To compute these distortions it is necessary to know how the charge collection efficiency η varies as a function of position within the detector x. These effects are shown. This problem has been previously solved for planar detectors with a constant electric field, for the case of spherical detectors, and for coaxial detectors. In this paper the authors describe a more general solution to the charge collection problem which includes the case of a non-constant electric field in a planar geometry

  9. A New Search for Elementary Particles with Fractional Electric Charge Using an Improved Millikan Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mar, Nancy

    2003-08-18

    The authors have devised and demonstrated the successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput technique capable of performing bulk matter searches for fractionally charged particles based on an improved Millikan liquid drop method. The method uses a stroboscopic lamp and a CCD video camera to image the trajectories of silicone oil drops falling through air in the presence of a vertical, alternating electric field. The images of the trajectories are computer processed in real time, the electric charge on a drop being measured with an rms error of 0.025 of an electron charge. This error is dominated by Brownian motion. In the first use of this method, they have looked at 5,974,941 drops and found no evidence for fractional charges in 1.07 mg of oil. With 95% confidence, the concentration of isolated quarks with {+-} 1/3e or {+-} 2/3e in silicone oil is less than one per 2.14 x 10{sup 20} nucleons.

  10. Effects of pressure and electrical charge on macromolecular transport across bovine lens basement membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Nicholas; Cameron, Kathleen O; Groszek, Joseph J; Hofmann, Christina L; Li, Lingyan; Smith, Ross A; Bian, Aihua; Shintani, Ayumi; Zydney, Andrew L; Fissell, William H

    2013-04-02

    Molecular transport through the basement membrane is important for a number of physiological functions, and dysregulation of basement membrane architecture can have serious pathological consequences. The structure-function relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes are not fully understood. The basement membrane from the lens capsule of the eye is a collagen IV-rich matrix that can easily be extracted and manipulated in vitro. As such, it provides a convenient model for studying the functional relationships that govern molecular transport in basement membranes. Here we investigate the effects of increased transmembrane pressure and solute electrical charge on the transport properties of the lens basement membrane (LBM) from the bovine eye. Pressure-permeability relationships in LBM transport were governed primarily by changes in diffusive and convective contributions to solute flux and not by pressure-dependent changes in intrinsic membrane properties. The solute electrical charge had a minimal but statistically significant effect on solute transport through the LBM that was opposite of the expected electrokinetic behavior. The observed transport characteristics of the LBM are discussed in the context of established membrane transport modeling and previous work on the effects of pressure and electrical charge in other basement membrane systems. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Electrical control of charged carriers and excitons in atomically thin materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; De Greve, Kristiaan; Jauregui, Luis A.; Sushko, Andrey; High, Alexander; Zhou, You; Scuri, Giovanni; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun; Kim, Philip

    2018-02-01

    Electrical confinement and manipulation of charge carriers in semiconducting nanostructures are essential for realizing functional quantum electronic devices1-3. The unique band structure4-7 of atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) offers a new route towards realizing novel 2D quantum electronic devices, such as valleytronic devices and valley-spin qubits8. 2D TMDs also provide a platform for novel quantum optoelectronic devices9-11 due to their large exciton binding energy12,13. However, controlled confinement and manipulation of electronic and excitonic excitations in TMD nanostructures have been technically challenging due to the prevailing disorder in the material, preventing accurate experimental control of local confinement and tunnel couplings14-16. Here we demonstrate a novel method for creating high-quality heterostructures composed of atomically thin materials that allows for efficient electrical control of excitations. Specifically, we demonstrate quantum transport in the gate-defined, quantum-confined region, observing spin-valley locked quantized conductance in quantum point contacts. We also realize gate-controlled Coulomb blockade associated with confinement of electrons and demonstrate electrical control over charged excitons with tunable local confinement potentials and tunnel couplings. Our work provides a basis for novel quantum opto-electronic devices based on manipulation of charged carriers and excitons.

  12. Electrical Detection of Spin-to-Charge Conversion in a Topological Insulator Bi2Te3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Connie H.; van't Erve, Olaf M. J.; Li, Yaoyi; Li, Lian; Jonker, Berry T.

    Spin-momentum locking in topological insulators (TIs) dictates that an unpolarized charge current creates a net spin polarization. We recently demonstrated the first electrical detection of this spontaneous polarization in a transport geometry, using a ferromagnetic (FM) / tunnel barrier contact, where the projection of the TI surface state spin on the magnetization of detector is measured as a voltage [1]. Alternatively, if spins are injected into the TI surface state system, it is distinctively associated with a unique carrier momentum, and hence should generated a charge accumulation, similar to that of inverse spin Hall effect. Here we experimentally demonstrate both effects in the same device fabricated in Bi2Te3: the electrical detection of the spin accumulation generated by an unpolarized current flowing through the surface states, and that of the charge accumulation generated by spins injected into the surface states system. This reverse measurement is an independent confirmation of spin-momentum locking in the TI surface states, and offers additional avenue for spin manipulation. It further demonstrates the robustness and versatility of electrical access to the TI surface state spin system, an important step towards its utilization in TI-based spintronics devices. C.H. Li et al., Nat. Nanotech. 9, 218 (2014). Supported by NRL core funds and Nanoscience Institute.

  13. A Review of Control Strategy of the Large-scale of Electric Vehicles Charging and Discharging Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingyu; Han, Jiming; Xiong, Wenting; Wang, Hao; Shen, Yaqi; Li, Ying

    2017-05-01

    Large scale access of electric vehicles will bring huge challenges to the safe operation of the power grid, and it’s important to control the charging and discharging of the electric vehicle. First of all, from the electric quality and network loss, this paper points out the influence on the grid caused by electric vehicle charging behaviour. Besides, control strategy of electric vehicle charging and discharging has carried on the induction and the summary from the direct and indirect control. Direct control strategy means control the electric charging behaviour by controlling its electric vehicle charging and discharging power while the indirect control strategy by means of controlling the price of charging and discharging. Finally, for the convenience of the reader, this paper also proposed a complete idea of the research methods about how to study the control strategy, taking the adaptability and possibility of failure of electric vehicle control strategy into consideration. Finally, suggestions on the key areas for future research are put up.

  14. Antitumor effectiveness of different amounts of electrical charge in Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciria, HC; Quevedo, MS; Cabrales, LB; Bruzón, RP; Salas, MF; Pena, OG; González, TR; López, DS; Flores, JM

    2004-01-01

    In vivo studies were conducted to quantify the effectiveness of low-level direct electric current for different amounts of electrical charge and the survival rate in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors, also the effect of direct electric in Ehrlich tumor was evaluate through the measurements of tumor volume and the peritumoral and tumoral findings. BALB/c male mice, 7–8 week old and 20–22 g weight were used. Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 cell lines, growing in BALB/c mice. Solid and subcutaneous Ehrlich and fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumors, located dorsolaterally in animals, were initiated by the inoculation of 5 × 10 6 and 1 × 10 5 viable tumor cells, respectively. For each type of tumor four groups (one control group and three treated groups) consisting of 10 mice randomly divided were formed. When the tumors reached approximately 0.5 cm 3 , four platinum electrodes were inserted into their bases. The electric charge delivered to the tumors was varied in the range of 5.5 to 110 C/cm 3 for a constant time of 45 minutes. An additional experiment was performed in BALB/c male mice bearing Ehrlich tumor to examine from a histolological point of view the effects of direct electric current. A control group and a treated group with 77 C/cm 3 (27.0 C in 0.35 cm 3 ) and 10 mA for 45 min were formed. In this experiment when the tumor volumes reached 0.35 cm 3 , two anodes and two cathodes were inserted into the base perpendicular to the tumor long axis. Significant tumor growth delay and survival rate were achieved after electrotherapy and both were dependent on direct electric current intensity, being more marked in fibrosarcoma Sa-37 tumor. Complete regressions for fibrosarcoma Sa-37 and Ehrlich tumors were observed for electrical charges of 80 and 92 C/cm 3 , respectively. Histopathological and peritumoral findings in Ehrlich tumor revealed in the treated group marked tumor necrosis, vascular congestion, peritumoral neutrophil infiltration, an acute inflammatory

  15. Net air emissions from electric vehicles: the effect of carbon price and charging strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Scott B; Whitacre, J F; Apt, Jay

    2011-03-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) may become part of the transportation fleet on time scales of a decade or two. We calculate the electric grid load increase and emissions due to vehicle battery charging in PJM and NYISO with the current generation mix, the current mix with a $50/tonne CO(2) price, and this case but with existing coal generators retrofitted with 80% CO(2) capture. We also examine all new generation being natural gas or wind+gas. PHEV fleet percentages between 0.4 and 50% are examined. Vehicles with small (4 kWh) and large (16 kWh) batteries are modeled with driving patterns from the National Household Transportation Survey. Three charging strategies and three scenarios for future electric generation are considered. When compared to 2020 CAFE standards, net CO(2) emissions in New York are reduced by switching from gasoline to electricity; coal-heavy PJM shows somewhat smaller benefits unless coal units are fitted with CCS or replaced with lower CO(2) generation. NO(X) is reduced in both RTOs, but there is upward pressure on SO(2) emissions or allowance prices under a cap.

  16. Momentum transfer theory of non-conservative charged particle transport in crossed electric and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrhovac, S.B.; Petrovic, Z.Lj.

    1995-01-01

    Momentum - transfer approximation is applied to momentum and energy balance equations describing reacting particle swarms in gases in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Transport coefficients of charged particles undergoing both inelastic and reactive, non-particle-conserving collisions with a gas of neutral molecules are calculated. Momentum - transfer theory (MTT) has been developed mainly by Robson and collaborators. It has been applied to a single reactive gas and mixtures of reactive gases in electric field only. MTT has also been applied in crossed electric and magnetic fields recently and independently of our work but the reactive collisions were not considered. Consider a swarm of electrons of charge e and mass m moving with velocity rvec v through a neutral gas under the influence of an applied electric rvec E and magnetic rvec B field. The collision processes which we shall investigate are limited to elastic, inelastic and reactive collisions of electrons with gas molecules. Here we interpret reactive collisions as collisions which produce change in number of the swarm particles. Reactive collisions involve creation (ionization by electron impact) or loss (electron attachment) of swarm particles. We consider only single ionization in approximation of the mass ratio m/m 0 0 are masses of electrons and neutral particles, respectively. We assume that the stage of evolution of the swarm is the hydrodynamic limit (HDL). In HDL, the space - time dependence of all properties is carried by the number density n of swarm particles

  17. Power Stabilization Strategy of Random Access Loads in Electric Vehicles Wireless Charging System at Traffic Lights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linlin Tan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An opportunity wireless charging system for electric vehicles when they stop and wait at traffic lights is proposed in this paper. In order to solve the serious power fluctuation caused by random access loads, this study presents a power stabilization strategy based on counting the number of electric vehicles in a designated area, including counting method, power source voltage adjustment strategy and choice of counting points. Firstly, the circuit model of a wireless power system with multi-loads is built and the equation of each load is obtained. Secondly, after the counting method of electric vehicles is stated, the voltage adjustment strategy, based on the number of electric vehicles when the system is at a steady state, is set out. Then, the counting points are chosen according to power curves when the voltage adjustment strategy is adopted. Finally, an experimental prototype is implemented to verify the power stabilization strategy. The experimental results show that, with the application of this strategy, the charging power is stabilized with the fluctuation of no more than 5% when loads access randomly.

  18. Feasibility Study of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In China, the power sector is currently the largest carbon emitter and the transportation sector is the fastest-growing carbon emitter. This paper proposes a model of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles to mitigate problems encountered in China’s renewable energy utilization processes and to cope with the increasing power demand by electric vehicles for the near future. This study applies the proposed model to Shenzhen City to verify its technical and economic feasibility. Modeling results showed that the total net present value of a photovoltaic power charging station that meets the daily electricity demand of 4500 kWh is $3,579,236 and that the cost of energy of the combined energy system is $0.098/kWh. In addition, the photovoltaic powered electric vehicle model has pollutant reduction potentials of 99.8%, 99.7% and 100% for carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, respectively, compared with a traditional gasoline-fueled car. Sensitivity analysis results indicated that interest rate has a relatively strong influence on COE (Cost of Energy. An increase in the interest rate from 0% to 6% increases COE from $0.027/kWh to $0.097/kWh. This analysis also suggests that carbon pricing promotes renewable energy only when the price of carbon is above $20/t.

  19. Planning Minimum Interurban Fast Charging Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles: Methodology and Application to Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Colmenar-Santos

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the research is to assess the minimum requirement of fast charging infrastructure to allow country-wide interurban electric vehicle (EV mobility. Charging times comparable to fueling times in conventional internal combustion vehicles are nowadays feasible, given the current availability of fast charging technologies. The main contribution of this paper is the analysis of the planning method and the investment requirements for the necessary infrastructure, including the definition of the Maximum Distance between Fast Charge (MDFC and the Basic Highway Charging Infrastructure (BHCI concepts. According to the calculations, distance between stations will be region-dependent, influenced primarily by weather conditions. The study considers that the initial investment should be sufficient to promote the EV adoption, proposing an initial state-financed public infrastructure and, once the adoption rate for EVs increases, additional infrastructure will be likely developed through private investment. The Spanish network of state highways is used as a case study to demonstrate the methodology and calculate the investment required. Further, the results are discussed and quantitatively compared to other incentives and policies supporting EV technology adoption in the light-vehicle sector.

  20. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  1. Regulatory framework and business models for charging plug-in electric vehicles: Infrastructure, agents, and commercial relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez San Roman, Tomas; Momber, Ilan; Rivier Abbad, Michel; Sanchez Miralles, Alvaro

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) present efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional transportation. It is expected that in the next decade this technology will progressively penetrate the market. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles in electric power systems poses new challenges in terms of regulation and business models. This paper proposes a conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs. Two new electricity market agents, the EV charging manager and the EV aggregator, in charge of developing charging infrastructure and providing charging services are introduced. According to that, several charging modes such as EV home charging, public charging on streets, and dedicated charging stations are formulated. Involved market agents and their commercial relationships are analysed in detail. The paper elaborates the opportunities to formulate more sophisticated business models for vehicle-to-grid applications under which the storage capability of EV batteries is used for providing peak power or frequency regulation to support the power system operation. Finally penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given concerning time-of-use pricing, smart meter deployment, stable and simple regulation for reselling energy on private property, roll-out of public charging infrastructure as well as reviewing of grid codes and operational system procedures for interactions between network operators and vehicle aggregators. - Highlights: → A conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs is proposed. → 2 new agents, EV charging point manager, EV aggregator and their functions are introduced. → Depending on private or public access of charging points, contractual relations change. → A classification of charging scenarios alludes implications on regulatory topics. → EV penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given.

  2. Regulatory framework and business models for charging plug-in electric vehicles: Infrastructure, agents, and commercial relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez San Roman, Tomas [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Momber, Ilan, E-mail: ilan.momber@iit.upcomillas.es [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain); Rivier Abbad, Michel; Sanchez Miralles, Alvaro [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica, Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Electric vehicles (EVs) present efficiency and environmental advantages over conventional transportation. It is expected that in the next decade this technology will progressively penetrate the market. The integration of plug-in electric vehicles in electric power systems poses new challenges in terms of regulation and business models. This paper proposes a conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs. Two new electricity market agents, the EV charging manager and the EV aggregator, in charge of developing charging infrastructure and providing charging services are introduced. According to that, several charging modes such as EV home charging, public charging on streets, and dedicated charging stations are formulated. Involved market agents and their commercial relationships are analysed in detail. The paper elaborates the opportunities to formulate more sophisticated business models for vehicle-to-grid applications under which the storage capability of EV batteries is used for providing peak power or frequency regulation to support the power system operation. Finally penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given concerning time-of-use pricing, smart meter deployment, stable and simple regulation for reselling energy on private property, roll-out of public charging infrastructure as well as reviewing of grid codes and operational system procedures for interactions between network operators and vehicle aggregators. - Highlights: > A conceptual regulatory framework for charging EVs is proposed. > 2 new agents, EV charging point manager, EV aggregator and their functions are introduced. > Depending on private or public access of charging points, contractual relations change. > A classification of charging scenarios alludes implications on regulatory topics. > EV penetration phase dependent policy and regulatory recommendations are given.

  3. Shot noise of charge current in a quantum dot responded by rotating and oscillating magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Hong-Kang, E-mail: zhaohonk@yahoo.com; Zou, Wei-Ke [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Chen, Qiao [Department of Maths and Physics, Hunan Institute of Engineering, Xiangtan 411104 (China)

    2014-09-07

    We have investigated the shot noise and Fano factor of the dynamic spin-polarized quantum dot under the perturbations of a rotating magnetic field (RMF), and an oscillating magnetic field (OMF) by employing the non-equilibrium Green's function approach. The shot noise is enhanced from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian due to the application of RMF and OMF, and it is controlled sensitively by the tilt angle θ of RMF. The magnitude of shot noise increases as the photon energy ℏω of OMF increases, and its valley eventually is reversed to peaks as the photon energy is large enough. Double-peak structure of Fano factor is exhibited as the frequency of OMF increases to cover a large regime. The Zeeman energy μ{sub 0}B{sub 0} acts as an effective gate bias to exhibit resonant behavior, and novel peak emerges associated with the applied OMF.

  4. Energy, Environmental and Economic Performance of a Micro-trigeneration System upon Varying the Electric Vehicle Charging Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Sibilio

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The widespread adoption of electric vehicles and electric heat pumps would result in radically different household electrical demand characteristics, while also possibly posing a threat to the stability of the electrical grid. In this paper, a micro-trigeneration system (composed of a 6.0 kWel cogeneration device feeding a 4.5 kWcool electric air-cooled vapor compression water chiller serving an Italian residential multi-family house was investigated by using the dynamic simulation software TRNSYS. The charging of an electric vehicle was considered by analyzing a set of seven electric vehicle charging profiles representing different scenarios. The simulations were performed in order to evaluate the capability of micro-cogeneration technology in: alleviating the impact on the electric infrastructure (a; saving primary energy (b; reducing the carbon dioxide equivalent emissions (c and determining the operating costs in comparison to a conventional supply system based on separate energy production (d.

  5. In situ electric fields causing electro-stimulation from conductor contact of charged human

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, T.; Hirata, A.

    2010-01-01

    Contact currents flow from/into a human body when touching an object such as a metal structure with a different electric potential. These currents can stimulate muscle and peripheral nerves. In this context, computational analyses of in situ electric fields caused by the contact current have been performed, while their effectiveness for transient contact currents has not well been investigated. In the present study, using an anatomically based human model, a dispersive finite-difference time-domain model was utilised to computed transient contact current and in situ electric fields from a charged human. Computed in situ electric fields were highly localised in the hand. In order to obtain an insight into the relationship between in situ electric field and electro-stimulation, cell-maximum and 5-mm averaged in situ electric fields were computed and compared with strength-duration curves. The comparison suggests that both measures could be larger than thresholds derived from the strength- duration curves with parameters used in previous studies. (authors)

  6. An Optimal Domestic Electric Vehicle Charging Strategy for Reducing Network Transmission Loss While Taking Seasonal Factors into Consideration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Zhao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of domestic electric vehicle charging loads, the peak-valley gap and power fluctuation rate of power systems increase sharply, which can lead to the increase of network losses and energy efficiency reduction. This paper tries to regulate network loads and reduce power system transmission loss by optimizing domestic electric vehicle charging loads. In this paper, a domestic electric vehicle charging loads model is first developed by analyzing the key factors that can affect users’ charging behavior. Subsequently, the Monte Carlo method is proposed to simulate the power consumption of a cluster of domestic electric vehicles. After that, an optimal electric vehicle charging strategy based on the 0-1 integer programming is presented to regulate network daily loads. Finally, by taking the IEEE33 distributed power system as an example, this paper tries to verify the efficacy of the proposed optimal charging strategy and the necessity for considering seasonal factors when scheduling electric vehicle charging loads. Simulation results show that the proposed 0-1 integer programming method does have good performance in reducing the network peak-valley gap, voltage fluctuation rate, and transmission loss. Moreover, it has some potential to further reduce power system transmission loss when seasonal factors are considered.

  7. Dark sector impact on gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakonieczna, Anna [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences,Doświadczalna 4, 20-290 Lublin (Poland); Rogatko, Marek [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,Plac Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Nakonieczny, Łukasz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2015-11-04

    Dark matter and dark energy are dominating components of the Universe. Their presence affects the course and results of processes, which are driven by the gravitational interaction. The objective of the paper was to examine the influence of the dark sector on the gravitational collapse of an electrically charged scalar field. A phantom scalar field was used as a model of dark energy in the system. Dark matter was modeled by a complex scalar field with a quartic potential, charged under a U(1)-gauge field. The dark components were coupled to the electrically charged scalar field via the exponential coupling and the gauge field-Maxwell field kinetic mixing, respectively. Complete non-linear simulations of the investigated process were performed. They were conducted from regular initial data to the end state, which was the matter dispersal or a singularity formation in a spacetime. During the collapse in the presence of dark energy dynamical wormholes and naked singularities were formed in emerging spacetimes. The wormhole throats were stabilized by the violation of the null energy condition, which occurred due to a significant increase of a value of the phantom scalar field function in its vicinity. The square of mass parameter of the dark matter scalar field potential controlled the formation of a Cauchy horizon or wormhole throats in the spacetime. The joint impact of dark energy and dark matter on the examined process indicated that the former decides what type of an object forms, while the latter controls the amount of time needed for the object to form. Additionally, the dark sector suppresses the natural tendency of an electrically charged scalar field to form a dynamical Reissner-Nordström spacetime during the gravitational collapse.

  8. Topological black holes dressed with a conformally coupled scalar field and electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Cristian; Troncoso, Ricardo; Staforelli, Juan Pablo

    2006-01-01

    Electrically charged solutions for gravity with a conformally coupled scalar field are found in four dimensions in the presence of a cosmological constant. If a quartic self-interaction term for the scalar field is considered, there is a solution describing an asymptotically locally AdS charged black hole dressed with a scalar field that is regular on and outside the event horizon, which is a surface of negative constant curvature. This black hole can have negative mass, which is bounded from below for the extremal case, and its causal structure shows that the solution describes a ''black hole inside a black hole''. The thermodynamics of the nonextremal black hole is analyzed in the grand canonical ensemble. The entropy does not follow the area law, and there is an effective Newton constant which depends on the value of the scalar field at the horizon. If the base manifold is locally flat, the solution has no electric charge, and the scalar field has a vanishing stress-energy tensor so that it dresses a locally AdS spacetime with a nut at the origin. In the case of vanishing self interaction, the solutions also dress locally AdS spacetimes, and if the base manifold is of negative constant curvature a massless electrically charged hairy black hole is obtained. The thermodynamics of this black hole is also analyzed. It is found that the bounds for the black holes parameters in the conformal frame obtained from requiring the entropy to be positive are mapped into the ones that guarantee cosmic censorship in the Einstein frame

  9. Overview on the radial electric field, plasma rotation and transport in the stellarator W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldzuhn, J.; Kick, M.; Maassberg, H.; Ohlendorf, W.

    1998-01-01

    In the advanced stellarator W7-AS the radial electric field E r is measured by active charge exchange recombination spectroscopy CXRS. In parallel, it is calculated by using the neoclassical DKES code. A comparison of calculated and measured solutions reveals in how far the neoclassical model is valid for the description of the radial particle transport and the formation of E r . In general good consistency is found, even for the outer radii where the neoclassical fluxes become much smaller than the experimental ones. In this paper the interplay between the particular E r roots and transport is considered. For strongly positive E r a reduction of χ e is observed in the vicinity of the magnetic axis. The typically negative ion-root in the gradient region strongly influences the local ∇ T i , thus determining the maximum attainable T i (0). (author)

  10. Stress-energy tensor near a charged, rotating, evaporating black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiscock, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    The recently developed two-dimensional stress-energy regularization techniques are applied to the two-dimensional analog of the Reissner-Nordstroem family of black-hole metrics. The calculated stress-energy tensor in all cases contains the thermal radiation discovered by Hawking. Implications for the evolution of the interior of a charged black hole are considered. The calculated stress-energy tensor is found to diverge on the inner, Cauchy, horizon. Thus the effect of quantum mechanics is to cause the Cauchy horizon to become singular. The stress-energy tensor is also calculated for the ''most reasonable'' two-dimensional analog of the Kerr-Newman family of black-hole metrics. Although the analysis is not as rigorous as in the Reissner-Nordstroem case, it appears that the correct value for the Hawking radiation also appears in this model

  11. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems § 108.437 Pipe sizes and discharge rates for...

  12. A relation between the rotational g-factor and the electric dipole moment of a diatomic molecule

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    1998-01-01

    The relation between the rotational g-factor and the electric dipole moment of a diatomic molecule is investigated. An explicit expression for the irreducible nonadiabatic contribution in terms of excited electronic states is derived. The importance of this expression for the analysis of vibration...

  13. Modeling plug-in electric vehicle charging demand with BEAM: the framework for behavior energy autonomy mobility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheppard, Colin; Waraich, Rashid; Campbell, Andrew; Pozdnukov, Alexei; Gopal, Anand R.

    2017-05-01

    This report summarizes the BEAM modeling framework (Behavior, Energy, Mobility, and Autonomy) and its application to simulating plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) mobility, energy consumption, and spatiotemporal charging demand. BEAM is an agent-based model of PEV mobility and charging behavior designed as an extension to MATSim (the Multi-Agent Transportation Simulation model). We apply BEAM to the San Francisco Bay Area and conduct a preliminary calibration and validation of its prediction of charging load based on observed charging infrastructure utilization for the region in 2016. We then explore the impact of a variety of common modeling assumptions in the literature regarding charging infrastructure availability and driver behavior. We find that accurately reproducing observed charging patterns requires an explicit representation of spatially disaggregated charging infrastructure as well as a more nuanced model of the decision to charge that balances tradeoffs people make with regards to time, cost, convenience, and range anxiety.

  14. Experiments in the accelerator beam: change in the charge radius of 2+ rotational levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    The method of in-beam implantation is discussed and illustrated by implantation of 57 Fe into single crystals of semiconductors. The application to isotopes which cannot be produced by radioactive sources is illustrated by a study of the isomer shifts in isotopic series of rotational nuclei. Spectra obtained for implantation of 57 Fe into single crystals of germanium as a function of temperature are shown. Two well defined sites are observed. The right hand resonance can be identified with a substitutional site, while the left hand resonance is produced by either an interstitial or a ''damage'' site. A series of experiments are considered which illustrate the use of in-beam implantation to produce high-quality, single-line sources of nuclei which cannot be produced by radioactive parents. In particular, these experiments measure the isomer shifts in a complete series of isotopes. Usually only the proton-rich isotopes can be measured with radioactive sources; in-beam implantation can then be used to complete the series. The Gd and Yb series are completed in this way. 10 references

  15. A MODEL FOR THE ELECTRICALLY CHARGED CURRENT SHEET OF A PULSAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Black, C. E. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Harding, A. K.; Kalapotharakos, C.; Kazanas, D.; Timokhin, A. N., E-mail: c.richard.devore@nasa.gov [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Global-scale solutions for the magnetosphere of a pulsar consist of a region of low-lying, closed magnetic field near the star, bounded by opposite-polarity regions of open magnetic field along which the pulsar wind flows into space. Separating these open-field regions is a magnetic discontinuity—an electric current sheet—consisting of generally nonneutral plasma. We have developed a self-consistent model for the internal equilibrium structure of the sheet by generalizing the charge-neutral Vlasov/Maxwell equilibria of Harris and Hoh to allow for net electric charge. The resulting equations for the electromagnetic field are solved analytically and numerically. Our results show that the internal thermal pressure needed to establish equilibrium force balance, and the associated effective current-sheet thickness and magnetization, can differ by orders of magnitude from the Harris/Hoh charge-neutral limit. The new model provides a starting point for kinetic or fluid investigations of instabilities that can cause magnetic reconnection and flaring in pulsar magnetospheres.

  16. Electric fields and electron energies in sprites and temporal evolutions of lightning charge moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, T; Hiraki, Y; Yamamoto, K; Takahashi, Y; Fukunishi, H; Hsu, R-R; Su, H-T; Chen, A B; Mende, S B; Frey, H U; Lee, L C

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental electrodynamical coupling processes between lightning and sprites are investigated. By combining the observed spectral data with the Monte Carlo swarm experiments, reduced electric fields and electron energies in sprite streamers and halos are estimated. The obtained fields inside sprite halos (70-97 Td with an analysis error of ±5 Td) are lower than the conventional breakdown field, E k ∼ 128 Td, indicating a significant reduction of electrons associated with halos while those in sprite streamers (98-380 Td with an error of ±50 Td) are higher than E k , suggesting that a significant ionization process drives their formation and development. A combined analysis of photometric and electromagnetic data makes it possible to estimate temporal evolutions of lightning charge moment. It is found that lightning discharges with a short time scale (∼1 ms) and a moderate amount of charge moment (∼400 C km) produce discernible halos. On the other hand, lightning discharges with a large amount of charge moment (∼1300 C km) produce streamers regardless of their time scale. The results obtained are comprehensively interpreted with both the conventional breakdown field necessary for the formation of streamers and the electric field necessary for the production of optical emissions of halo which is sensitive to the time scale of the thundercloud field due to the significant reduction of electrons.

  17. Exclusion of exotic top-like quarks with -4/3 electric charge using jet-charge tagging in single-lepton ttbar events at CDF

    CERN Document Server

    Aaltonen, T.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Arisawa, T.; Artikov, A.; Asaadi, J.; Ashmanskas, W.; Auerbach, B.; Aurisano, A.; Azfar, F.; Badgett, W.; Bae, T.; Barbaro-Galtieri, A.; Barnes, V.E.; Barnett, B.A.; Barria, P.; Bartos, P.; Bauce, M.; Bedeschi, F.; Behari, S.; Bellettini, G.; Bellinger, J.; Benjamin, D.; Beretvas, A.; Bhatti, A.; Bland, K.R.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bocci, A.; Bodek, A.; Boisvert, V.; Bortoletto, D.; Boudreau, J.; Boveia, A.; Brigliadori, L.; Bromberg, C.; Brucken, E.; Budagov, J.; Budd, H.S.; Burkett, K.; Busetto, G.; Bussey, P.; Butti, P.; Buzatu, A.; Calamba, A.; Camarda, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canelli, F.; Carls, B.; Carlsmith, D.; Carosi, R.; Carrillo, S.; Casal, B.; Casarsa, M.; Castro, A.; Catastini, P.; Cauz, D.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Chen, Y.C.; Chertok, M.; Chiarelli, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Cho, K.; Chokheli, D.; Ciocci, M.A.; Clark, A.; Clarke, C.; Convery, M.E.; Conway, J.; Corbo, M.; Cordelli, M.; Cox, C.A.; Cox, D.J.; Cremonesi, M.; Cruz, D.; Cuevas, J.; Culbertson, R.; d'Ascenzo, N.; Datta, M.; de Barbaro, P.; Demortier, L.; Deninno, M.; d'Errico, M.; Devoto, F.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruzza, B.; Dittmann, J.R.; D'Onofrio, M.; Donati, S.; Dorigo, M.; Driutti, A.; Ebina, K.; Edgar, R.; Elagin, A.; Erbacher, R.; Errede, S.; Esham, B.; Eusebi, R.; Farrington, S.; Fernandez Ramos, J.P.; Field, R.; Flanagan, G.; Forrest, R.; Franklin, M.; Freeman, J.C.; Frisch, H.; Funakoshi, Y.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Garosi, P.; Gerberich, H.; Gerchtein, E.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Gibson, K.; Ginsburg, C.M.; Giokaris, N.; Giromini, P.; Giurgiu, G.; Glagolev, V.; Glenzinski, D.; Gold, M.; Goldin, D.; Golossanov, A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez-Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Gorelov, I.; Goshaw, A.T.; Goulianos, K.; Gramellini, E.; Grinstein, S.; Grosso-Pilcher, C.; Group, R.C.; Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Hahn, S.R.; Han, J.Y.; Happacher, F.; Hara, K.; Hare, M.; Harr, R.F.; Harrington-Taber, T.; Hatakeyama, K.; Hays, C.; Heinrich, J.; Herndon, M.; Hocker, A.; Hong, Z.; Hopkins, W.; Hou, S.; Hughes, R.E.; Husemann, U.; Hussein, M.; Huston, J.; Introzzi, G.; Iori, M.; Ivanov, A.; James, E.; Jang, D.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jeon, E.J.; Jindariani, S.; Jones, M.; Joo, K.K.; Jun, S.Y.; Junk, T.R.; Kambeitz, M.; Kamon, T.; Karchin, P.E.; Kasmi, A.; Kato, Y.; Ketchum, W.; Keung, J.; Kilminster, B.; Kim, D.H.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, M.J.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, S.H.; Kim, Y.J.; Kim, Y.K.; Kimura, N.; Kirby, M.; Knoepfel, K.; Kondo, K.; Kong, D.J.; Konigsberg, J.; Kotwal, A.V.; Kreps, M.; Kroll, J.; Kruse, M.; Kuhr, T.; Kurata, M.; Laasanen, A.T.; Lammel, S.; Lancaster, M.; Lannon, K.; Latino, G.; Lee, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Leo, S.; Leone, S.; Lewis, J.D.; Limosani, A.; Lipeles, E.; Lister, A.; Liu, H.; Liu, Q.; Liu, T.; Lockwitz, S.; Loginov, A.; Luca, A.; Lucchesi, D.; Lueck, J.; Lujan, P.; Lukens, P.; Lungu, G.; Lys, J.; Lysak, R.; Madrak, R.; Maestro, P.; Malik, S.; Manca, G.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Margaroli, F.; Marino, P.; Martinez, M.; Matera, K.; Mattson, M.E.; Mazzacane, A.; Mazzanti, P.; McFarland, K.S.; McNulty, R.; Mehta, A.; Mehtala, P.; Mesropian, C.; Miao, T.; Mietlicki, D.; Mitra, A.; Miyake, H.; Moed, S.; Moggi, N.; Moon, C.S.; Moore, R.; Morello, M.J.; Mukherjee, A.; Muller, Th.; Murat, P.; Mussini, M.; Nachtman, J.; Nagai, Y.; Naganoma, J.; Nakano, I.; Napier, A.; Nett, J.; Neu, C.; Nigmanov, T.; Nodulman, L.; Noh, S.Y.; Norniella, O.; Oakes, L.; Oh, S.H.; Oh, Y.D.; Oksuzian, I.; Okusawa, T.; Orava, R.; Ortolan, L.; Pagliarone, C.; Palencia, E.; Palni, P.; Papadimitriou, V.; Parker, W.; Pauletta, G.; Paulini, M.; Paus, C.; Phillips, T.J.; Piacentino, G.; Pianori, E.; Pilot, J.; Pitts, K.; Plager, C.; Pondrom, L.; Poprocki, S.; Potamianos, K.; Pranko, A.; Prokoshin, F.; Ptohos, F.; Punzi, G.; Ranjan, N.; Redondo Fernandez, I.; Renton, P.; Rescigno, M.; Rimondi, F.; Ristori, L.; Robson, A.; Rodriguez, T.; Rolli, S.; Ronzani, M.; Roser, R.; Rosner, J.L.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, A.; Russ, J.; Rusu, V.; Sakumoto, W.K.; Sakurai, Y.; Santi, L.; Sato, K.; Saveliev, V.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Schlabach, P.; Schmidt, E.E.; Schwarz, T.; Scodellaro, L.; Scuri, F.; Seidel, S.; Seiya, Y.; Semenov, A.; Sforza, F.; Shalhout, S.Z.; Shears, T.; Shepard, P.F.; Shimojima, M.; Shochet, M.; Shreyber-Tecker, I.; Simonenko, A.; Sinervo, P.; Sliwa, K.; Smith, J.R.; Snider, F.D.; Song, H.; Sorin, V.; Stancari, M.; St. Denis, R.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stentz, D.; Strologas, J.; Sudo, Y.; Sukhanov, A.; Suslov, I.; Takemasa, K.; Takeuchi, Y.; Tang, J.; Tecchio, M.; Teng, P.K.; Thom, J.; Thomson, E.; Thukral, V.; Toback, D.; Tokar, S.; Tollefson, K.; Tomura, T.; Tonelli, D.; Torre, S.; Torretta, D.; Totaro, P.; Trovato, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Uozumi, S.; Vazquez, F.; Velev, G.; Vellidis, C.; Vernieri, C.; Vidal, M.; Vilar, R.; Vizan, J.; Vogel, M.; Volpi, G.; Wagner, P.; Wallny, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Waters, D.; Wester, W.C., III; Whiteson, D.; Wicklund, A.B.; Wilbur, S.; Williams, H.H.; Wilson, J.S.; Wilson, P.; Winer, B.L.; Wittich, P.; Wolbers, S.; Wolfe, H.; Wright, T.; Wu, X.; Wu, Z.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamato, D.; Yang, T.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.C.; Yao, W.M.; Yeh, G.P.; Yi, K.; Yoh, J.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, T.; Yu, G.B.; Yu, I.; Zanetti, A.M.; Zeng, Y.; Zhou, C.; Zucchelli, S.

    2013-08-05

    We report on a measurement of the top-quark electric charge in ttbar events in which one W boson originating from the top-quark pair decays into leptons and the other into hadrons. The event sample was collected by the CDF II detector in sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV proton-antiproton collisions and corresponds to 5.6 fb^(-1). We find the data to be consistent with the standard model and exclude the existence of an exotic quark with -4/3 electric charge and mass of the conventional top quark at the 99% confidence level.

  18. Plasma dynamics near an earth satellite and neutralization of its electric charge during electron beam injection into the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.A.

    2000-01-01

    A study is made of the dynamics of the ionospheric plasma in the vicinity of an earth satellite injecting an electron beam. The time evolution of the electric charge of the satellite is determined. The electric potential of the satellite is found to be well below the beam-cutoff potential. It is shown that, under conditions typical of active experiments in space, the plasma electrons are capable of neutralizing the satellite's charge

  19. Modeling Electric Double-Layer Capacitors Using Charge Variation Methodology in Gibbs Ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganeshprasad Pavaskar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Supercapacitors deliver higher power than batteries and find applications in grid integration and electric vehicles. Recent work by Chmiola et al. (2006 has revealed unexpected increase in the capacitance of porous carbon electrodes using ionic liquids as electrolytes. The work has generated curiosity among both experimentalists and theoreticians. Here, we have performed molecular simulations using a recently developed technique (Punnathanam, 2014 for simulating supercapacitor system. In this technique, the two electrodes (containing electrolyte in slit pore are simulated in two different boxes using the Gibbs ensemble methodology. This reduces the number of particles required and interfacial interactions, which helps in reducing computational load. The method simulates an electric double-layer capacitor (EDLC with macroscopic electrodes with much smaller system sizes. In addition, the charges on individual electrode atoms are allowed to vary in response to movement of electrolyte ions (i.e., electrode is polarizable while ensuring these atoms are at the same electric potential. We also present the application of our technique on EDLCs with the electrodes modeled as slit pores and as complex three-dimensional pore networks for different electrolyte geometries. The smallest pore geometry showed an increase in capacitance toward the potential of 0 charge. This is in agreement with the new understanding of the electrical double layer in regions of dense ionic packing, as noted by Kornyshev’s theoretical model (Kornyshev, 2007, which also showed a similar trend. This is not addressed by the classical Gouy–Chapman theory for the electric double layer. Furthermore, the electrode polarizability simulated in the model improved the accuracy of the calculated capacitance. However, its addition did not significantly alter the capacitance values in the voltage range considered.

  20. Treatment of Cerenkov radiation from electric and magnetic charges in dispersive and dissipative media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saffouri, M.H.

    1982-07-01

    A rigorous treatment of the problem of Cerenkov radiation from fast moving electric and magnetic charges is presented. This is based on the rigorous solution of Maxwell's equations in a general dispersive medium possessing dielectric and magnetic properties and with, and without, dissipation. It is shown that the fields are completely determined by one scalar function. Expressions for the exact fields are obtained. From the asymptotic fields all the relevant properties of Cerenkov radiation are reproduced. In particular, it is shown that in the absence of dissipation the energy in each mode travels with the phase velocity of that mode. For a dissipative medium the electric field develops a longitudinal component and the energy propagates at an angle to the phase velocity. Application to the case of a Tachyon shows that it must emit Cerenkov radiation in vacuum. An estimate is given for the resulting linear density of emitted radiation. Finally, two suggestions are made for the experimental detection of magnetic charges and electric dipole moments of elementary particles based upon the Cerenkov radiation which they would emit in dispersive media. (author)

  1. Hall-effect based semi-fast AC on-board charging equipment for electric vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanés-Montero, María Isabel; Gallardo-Lozano, Javier; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; González-Romera, Eva

    2011-01-01

    The expected increase in the penetration of electric vehicles (EV) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) will produce unbalanced conditions, reactive power consumption and current harmonics drawn by the battery charging equipment, causing a great impact on the power quality of the future smart grid. A single-phase semi-fast electric vehicle battery charger is proposed in this paper. This ac on-board charging equipment can operate in grid-to-vehicle (G2V) mode, and also in vehicle-to-grid (V2G) mode, transferring the battery energy to the grid when the vehicle is parked. The charger is controlled with a Perfect Harmonic Cancellation (PHC) strategy, contributing to improve the grid power quality, since the current demanded or injected has no harmonic content and a high power factor. Hall-effect current and voltage transducers have been used in the sensor stage to carry out this control strategy. Experimental results with a laboratory prototype are presented.

  2. Regular black holes: electrically charged solutions, Reissner-Nordstroem outside a De Sitter core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemos, Jose P.S. [Universidade Tecnica de Lisboa (CENTRA/IST/UTL) (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico. Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica; Zanchin, Vilson T. [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas

    2011-07-01

    Full text: The understanding of the inside of a black hole is of crucial importance in order to have the correct picture of a black hole as a whole. The singularities that lurk inside of the usual black hole solutions are things to avoid. Their substitution by a regular part is of great interest, the process generating regular black holes. In the present work regular black hole solutions are found within general relativity coupled to Maxwell's electromagnetism and charged matter. We show that there are objects which correspond to regular charged black holes, whose interior region is de Sitter, whose exterior region is Reissner-Nordstroem, and the boundary between both regions is made of an electrically charged spherically symmetric coat. There are several solutions: the regular nonextremal black holes with a null matter boundary, the regular nonextremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, the regular extremal black holes with a timelike matter boundary, and the regular overcharged stars with a timelike matter boundary. The main physical and geometrical properties of such charged regular solutions are analyzed. (author)

  3. On the optimal sizing of batteries for electric vehicles and the influence of fast charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugge, Mark W.; Wampler, Charles W.

    2018-04-01

    We provide a brief summary of advanced battery technologies and a framework (i.e., a simple model) for assessing electric-vehicle (EV) architectures and associated costs to the customer. The end result is a qualitative model that can be used to calculate the optimal EV range (which maps back to the battery size and performance), including the influence of fast charge. We are seeing two technological pathways emerging: fast-charge-capable batteries versus batteries with much higher energy densities (and specific energies) but without the capability to fast charge. How do we compare and contrast the two alternatives? This work seeks to shed light on the question. We consider costs associated with the cells, added mass due to the use of larger batteries, and charging, three factors common in such analyses. In addition, we consider a new cost input, namely, the cost of adaption, corresponding to the days a customer would need an alternative form of transportation, as the EV would not have sufficient range on those days.

  4. Effect of extreme temperatures on battery charging and performance of electric vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Juuso; Lund, Peter D.

    2016-10-01

    Extreme temperatures pose several limitations to electric vehicle (EV) performance and charging. To investigate these effects, we combine a hybrid artificial neural network-empirical Li-ion battery model with a lumped capacitance EV thermal model to study how temperature will affect the performance of an EV fleet. We find that at -10 °C, the self-weighted mean battery charging power (SWMCP) decreases by 15% compared to standard 20 °C temperature. Active battery thermal management (BTM) during parking can improve SWMCP for individual vehicles, especially if vehicles are charged both at home and at workplace; the median SWMCP is increased by over 30%. Efficiency (km/kWh) of the vehicle fleet is maximized when ambient temperature is close to 20 °C. At low (-10 °C) and high (+40 °C) ambient temperatures, cabin preconditioning and BTM during parking can improve the median efficiency by 8% and 9%, respectively. At -10 °C, preconditioning and BTM during parking can also improve the fleet SOC by 3-6%-units, but this also introduces a ;base; load of around 140 W per vehicle. Finally, we observe that the utility of the fleet can be increased by 5%-units by adding 3.6 kW chargers to workplaces, but further improved charging infrastructure would bring little additional benefit.

  5. Conception, development, and test of an apparature for the measurement of the electrical charge of the neutron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brose, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The electric charge of the neutron is related to the question of charge conservation: If there exists a neutron charge there can be no quantization of charge in units of the elementary charge e. Charge quantization is not inherent in the theories of electrodynamics and the minimal standard model and hence it would not falsify them. But in further theories as grand unified theories charge quantization is an important aspect, for example to allow the decay of the proton. A measurement of a neutron charge would test these theories. In the past three years an apparatus for the measurement of the electric charge of the neutron was constructed. The principle was used before in 1988 but the current apparatus is an improvement in many aspects. E.g. the fluid Fomblin neutron mirror was the first use of a fluid neutron mirror ever. With all the improvements it was possible to reach an sensitivity five times higher than before. A possible neutron charge can be measured with an sensitivity of δq n =2.15.10 -20 (e)/(√(day)). In winter 2014 the measurement of the charge will be performed. Till then the sensitivity will be augmented to δq n =1.4.10 -21 (e)/(√(day)).

  6. On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill [Tomsk Polytechnic University, Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d = 4 and d = 5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d = 4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d = 5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d = 5 near horizon Myers- Perry black hole with a NUT charge. (orig.)

  7. On the near horizon rotating black hole geometries with NUT charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galajinsky, Anton; Orekhov, Kirill

    2016-01-01

    The near horizon geometries are usually constructed by implementing a specific limit to a given extreme black hole configuration. Their salient feature is that the isometry group includes the conformal subgroup SO(2, 1). In this work, we turn the logic around and use the conformal invariants for constructing Ricci-flat metrics in d = 4 and d = 5 where the vacuum Einstein equations reduce to a coupled set of ordinary differential equations. In four dimensions the analysis can be carried out in full generality and the resulting metric describes the d = 4 near horizon Kerr-NUT black hole. In five dimensions we choose a specific ansatz whose structure is similar to the d = 5 near horizon Myers-Perry black hole. A Ricci-flat metric involving five arbitrary parameters is constructed. A particular member of this family, which is characterized by three parameters, seems to be a natural candidate to describe the d = 5 near horizon Myers- Perry black hole with a NUT charge. (orig.)

  8. Analysis and Comparison of Voltage Dependent Charging Strategies for Single-Phase Electric Vehicles in an Unbalanced Danish Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Álvarez, Jorge Nájera; Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This paper studies four voltage dependent solutions for modulating the charging of multiple Electric Vehicles (EVs) in a real Danish network. Uncontrolled EV charging, especially in grid with high EV penetration, can result in overloaded lines and transformers, low-voltages and other performance...

  9. Studies of the mobility of charge carriers in low-dimensional systems in a transverse DC electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinyavskii, E. P., E-mail: sinyavskii@gmail.com [Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Institute of Applied Physics (Moldova, Republic of); Karapetyan, S. A., E-mail: karapetyan.sa@gmail.com [Shevchenko Pridnestrovskii State University (Moldova, Republic of)

    2011-08-15

    The mobility of charge carriers {mu} in a parabolic quantum well in an electric field E directed along the size-confinement axis is calculated. With consideration for scattering of charge carriers at a rough surface, the mobility {mu} is shown to decrease with increasing E. A physical interpretation of this effect is proposed.

  10. Decree no. 2004-90 from January 28, 2004 relative to the compensation of electric public utility charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-03-01

    This decree defines the charges imputable to the missions of electric public utility, the procedure of determination of their amount, the contribution to these charges by end-users and the operations of recovery and transfer, the processing of declaration defects and payment failures and some other various dispositions. (J.S.)

  11. Bulk-Like Electrical Properties Induced by Contact-Limited Charge Transport in Organic Diodes: Revised Space Charge Limited Current

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Guangwei; Gao, Nan; Lu, Congyan; Wang, Wei; Ji, Zhuoyu; Bi, Chong; Han, Zhiheng; Lu, Nianduan; Yang, Guanhua; Li, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Li, Ling; Liu, Ming

    2018-01-01

    , the charge transport properties of organic diodes are usually characterized by probing the current–voltage (I–V) curves of the devices. However, to unveil the landscape of the underlying potential/charge distribution, which essentially determines the I

  12. Design of Static Wireless Charging System for Electric Vehicles with Focus on Magnetic Coupling and Emissions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar

    summarizes the research findings of the study. Wireless charging system as per state of art design approach consists of four major blocks: primary power electronics, inductors, secondary power electronics including load and resonant circuits (capacitors). The first contribution of this project is addition...... as an equivalent power source and transmission system including the load similar to other electric system like grids. Secondly, design parameters of output power, circuit efficiency and voltage or current stress across resonant components can be expressed as simple functions of the five blocks. Inductors......-parallel are compared in term of the emissions for similar power rating. Series-parallel topology has slight advantage over its series-series counterpart on account of additional inductive secondary current component as advised by the results. At the end, a wireless charging system has been designed and constructed...

  13. Price and access charge discrimination in electricity distribution: an application to the Chilean case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raineri, R.; Giaconi, P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a model of electricity distribution in Chile with three alternative regulatory pricing contract schemes for assigning a common capacity cost to final customers and competitive energy sellers. The first scheme involves Ramsey Pricing, while under the second and third schemes the monopoly chooses final prices and access charges subject either to a peak-load Physical Cap or a total revenue Price Cap constraint. In addition, we consider circumstances in which the regulator does not know consumer demand, the monopoly cannot price discriminate beyond a range defined by the marginal cost as a floor and the stand-alone cost as a ceiling, and access charges are set at the fully distributed cost allocation level currently in force. The model is calibrated with Chilean data, and demonstrates that in terms of social welfare the fully distributed cost contract scheme currently in effect can be improved by discriminatory pricing complemented by certain of the analyzed constraints. (author)

  14. Evaluation of Electric Vehicle Charging Controllability for Provision of Time Critical Grid Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinenas, Sergejus; Marinelli, Mattia; Andersen, Peter Bach

    2016-01-01

    Replacement of conventional generation by more stochastic renewable generation sources leads to reduction of inertia and controllability in the power system. This introduces the need for more dynamic regulation services. These faster services could potentially be provided by the growing number...... of electric vehicles. EVs are a fast responding energy resource with high availability. This work evaluates and experimentally shows the limits of EV charging controllability with the focus on its suitability for providing ancillary grid services. Three different series produced EVs are tested....... The experimental testing is done by using charging current controllability of built-in AC charger to provide a primary frequency regulation service with very dynamic input frequency. The results show that most the controllability of most EVs is more than suitable for providing time critical grid services...

  15. Gradients of electric fields and effective charges in alkali metal permanganates on NMR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasov, V.P.; Kirakosyan, G.A.; Meladze, M.A.; German, K.Eh.

    1993-01-01

    Pulse method of 55 Mn, 39 K, 87 Rb, 133 Cs NMR in 7.04 T field was used to study polycrystal permanganates of alkali metals KMnO 4 , RbMnO 4 , CsMnO 4 in 100-440 K range. Qaudrupole bond constants, parameters of tensor asymmetry of electric field gradient (EFG) and isotropic values of chemical shifts were determined in result of analysis of resonance line shape. Cation positions in RbMnO 4 and CsMnO 4 are characterized by two nonequivalent states with 1:1 occupation. Effective charges on oxygen and manganese atoms were calculated in the framework of point charge model, using structural data and experimental EFG values on cation nuclei

  16. Fast Demand Forecast of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations for Cell Phone Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidpour, Mostafa; Qiu, Charlie; Chung, Ching-Yen; Chu, Peter; Gadh, Rajit; Pota, Hemanshu R.

    2014-07-31

    This paper describes the core cellphone application algorithm which has been implemented for the prediction of energy consumption at Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging Stations at UCLA. For this interactive user application, the total time of accessing database, processing the data and making the prediction, needs to be within a few seconds. We analyze four relatively fast Machine Learning based time series prediction algorithms for our prediction engine: Historical Average, kNearest Neighbor, Weighted k-Nearest Neighbor, and Lazy Learning. The Nearest Neighbor algorithm (k Nearest Neighbor with k=1) shows better performance and is selected to be the prediction algorithm implemented for the cellphone application. Two applications have been designed on top of the prediction algorithm: one predicts the expected available energy at the station and the other one predicts the expected charging finishing time. The total time, including accessing the database, data processing, and prediction is about one second for both applications.

  17. Transfer of electrical space charge from corona between ground and thundercloud: Measurements and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of the vertical electric field profile deduced from simultaneous field measurements at several levels below a thundercloud shows the development of a space charge layer at least up to 600 m. The average charge density in the whole layer from 0 m to 600 m can reach about 1 nC m(exp -3). The ions are generated at the ground by corona effect and the production rate is evaluated with a new method from the comparison of field evolutions at the ground and at altitude after a lightning flash. The modeling of the relevant processes shows tht ground corona accounts for the observed field evolutions and that the aerosol particles concentration has a very large effect on the evolution of corona ions. However, with a realistic value for this concentration a large amount of ground corona ions reach the level of 600 m.

  18. Open and closed loop manipulation of charged microchiplets in an electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, J. P., E-mail: jplu@parc.com; Thompson, J. D.; Whiting, G. L.; Biegelsen, D. K.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Lujan, R.; Veres, J.; Lavery, L. L.; Völkel, A. R.; Chow, E. M. [Palo Alto Research Center, Inc., 3333 Coyote Hill Rd., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate the ability to orient, position, and transport microchips (“chiplets”) with electric fields. In an open-loop approach, modified four phase traveling wave potential patterns manipulate chiplets in a dielectric solution using dynamic template agitation techniques. Repeatable parallel assembly of chiplets is demonstrated to a positional accuracy of 6.5 μm using electrodes of 200 μm pitch. Chiplets with dipole surface charge patterns are used to show that orientation can be controlled by adding unique charge patterns on the chiplets. Chip path routing is also demonstrated. With a closed-loop control system approach using video feedback, dielectric, and electrophoretic forces are used to achieve positioning accuracy of better than 1 μm with 1 mm pitch driving electrodes. These chip assembly techniques have the potential to enable future printer systems where inputs are electronic chiplets and the output is a functional electronic system.

  19. Nonlinear Adaptive Rotational Speed Control Design and Experiment of the Propeller of an Electric Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs driven by electric propellers are of interest for military and civilian applications. The rotational speed control of such electric propellers is an important factor for improving the flight performance of the vehicles, such as their positioning accuracy and stability. Therefore, this paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for the electric propulsion system of a certain MAV, which can not only speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, but can also ensure the overall stability of the adjustable parameters. The significant improvement of the dynamic tracking accuracy of the rotational speed can be easily achieved through the combination of the proposed control algorithm and linear control methods. The experimental test results have also demonstrated the positive effect of the nonlinear adaptive control scheme on the flight performance of the MAV.

  20. Supramolecular ionics: electric charge partition within polymers and other non-conducting solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FERNANDO GALEMBECK

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrostatic phenomena in insulators have been known for the past four centuries, but many related questions are still unanswered, for instance: which are the charge-bearing species in an electrified organic polymer, how are the charges spatially distributed and which is the contribution of the electrically charged domains to the overall polymer properties? New scanning probe microscopies were recently introduced, and these are suitable for the mapping of electric potentials across a solid sample thus providing some answers for the previous questions. In this work, we report results obtained with two of these techniques: scanning electric potential (SEPM and electric force microscopy (EFM. These results were associated to images acquired by using analytical electron microscopy (energy-loss spectroscopy imaging in the transmission electron microscope, ESI-TEM for colloid polymer samples. Together, they show domains with excess electric charges (and potentials extending up to hundreds of nanometers and formed by large clusters of cations or anions, reaching supramolecular dimensions. Domains with excess electric charge were also observed in thermoplastics as well as in silica, polyphosphate and titanium oxide particles. In the case of thermoplastics, the origin of the charges is tentatively assigned to their tribochemistry, oxidation followed by segregation or the Mawell-Wagner-Sillars and Costa Ribeiro effects.A eletrificação de sólidos é conhecida há quatro séculos, mas há muitas questões importantes sobre este assunto, ainda não respondidas: por exemplo, quais são as espécies portadoras de cargas em um polímero isolante eletrificado, como estas cargas estão espacialmente distribuídas e qual é a contribuição destas cargas para as propriedades do polímero? Técnicas microscópicas introduzidas recentemente são apropriadas para o mapeamento de potenciais elétricos ao longo de uma superfície sólida, portanto podem responder a

  1. Electro-Optic Sampling of Transient Electric Fields from Charged Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitch, Michael James [Rochester U.

    2000-01-01

    The passage of a relativistic charged particle beam bunch through a structure is accompanied by transient electromagnetic fields. By causality, these fields must be behind the bunch, and are called "wakefields." The wakefields act back on the beam, and cause instabilities such as the beam break-up instability, and the headtail instability, which limit the luminosity of linear colliders. The wakefields are particularly important for short bunches with high charge. A great deal of effort is devoted to analytical and numerical calculations of wakefields, and wakefield effects. Experimental numbers are needed. In this thesis, we present measurements of the transient electric fields induced by a short high-charge electron bunch passing through a 6-way vacuum cross. These measurements are performed in the time domain using electro-optic sampling with a time resolution of approximately 5 picoseconds. With different orientations of the electro-optic crystal, we have measured different vector components of the electric field. The Fourier transform of the time-domain data yields the product of the beam impedance with the excitation spectrum of the bunch. Since the bunch length is known from streak camera measurements, the k loss factor is directly obtained. There is reasonably good agreement between the experimental k loss factor with calculations from the code MAFIA. To our knowledge, this is the first direct measurement of the k loss factor for bunch lengths shorter than one millimeter ( nns). We also present results of magnetic bunch compression (using a dipole chicane) of a high-charge photoinjector beam for two different UV laser pulse lengths on the pholocalhode. Al best compression, a 13.87 nC bunch was compressed to 0.66 mm (2.19 ps) rms, or a peak current of 3 kA. Other results from the photoinjeclor are given, and the laser system for pholocalhode excitation and electro-optic sampling is described.

  2. Characterization of In-Use Medium Duty Electric Vehicle Driving and Charging Behavior: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, A.; Ragatz, A.; Prohaska, R.; Kelly, K.; Walkowicz, K.

    2014-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) deployment and demonstration projects are helping to commercialize technologies for all-electric vehicles (EVs). Under the ARRA program, data from Smith Electric and Navistar medium duty EVs have been collected, compiled, and analyzed in an effort to quantify the impacts of these new technologies. Over a period of three years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has compiled data from over 250 Smith Newton EVs for a total of over 100,000 days of in-use operation. Similarly, data have been collected from over 100 Navistar eStar vehicles, with over 15,000 operating days having been analyzed. NREL has analyzed a combined total of over 4 million kilometers of driving and 1 million hours of charging data for commercial operating medium duty EVs. In this paper, the authors present an overview of medium duty EV operating and charging behavior based on in-use data collected from both Smith and Navistar vehicles operating in the United States. Specifically, this paper provides an introduction to the specifications and configurations of the vehicles examined; discusses the approach and methodology of data collection and analysis, and presents detailed results regarding daily driving and charging behavior. In addition, trends observed over the course of multiple years of data collection are examined, and conclusions are drawn about early deployment behavior and ongoing adjustments due to new and improving technology. Results and metrics such as average daily driving distance, route aggressiveness, charging frequency, and liter per kilometer diesel equivalent fuel consumption are documented and discussed.

  3. Plug-in vs. wireless charging: Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an electric bus system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bi, Zicheng; Song, Lingjun; De Kleine, Robert; Mi, Chunting Chris; Keoleian, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: In this study, plug-in and wireless charging for an all-electric bus system are compared from the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions perspectives. The comparison of life cycle GHG emissions is shown in the graph below. The major differences between the two systems, including the charger, battery and use-phase electricity consumption, are modeled separately and compared aggregately. In the base case, the wireless charging system consumes 0.3% less energy and emits 0.5% less greenhouse gases than plug-in charging system in the total life cycle. To further improve the energy and environmental performance of the wireless charging system, key parameters including grid carbon intensity and wireless charging efficiency are analyzed and discussed in this paper. - Highlights: • Compared life cycle energy and GHG emissions of wireless to plug-in charging. • Modeled a transit bus system to compare both charging methods as a case study. • Contrasted tradeoffs of infrastructure burdens with lightweighting benefits. • The wireless battery can be downsized to 27–44% of a plug-in charged battery. • Explored sensitivity of wireless charging efficiency & grid carbon intensity. - Abstract: Wireless charging, as opposed to plug-in charging, is an alternative charging method for electric vehicles (EVs) with rechargeable batteries and can be applicable to EVs with fixed routes, such as transit buses. This study adds to the current research of EV wireless charging by utilizing the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to provide a comprehensive framework for comparing the life cycle energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with a stationary wireless charging all-electric bus system to a plug-in charging all-electric bus system. Life cycle inventory analysis of both plug-in and wireless charging hardware was conducted, and battery downsizing, vehicle lightweighting and use-phase energy consumption were modeled. A bus system in Ann Arbor

  4. Assessing the Energy Content of System Frequency and Electric Vehicle Charging Efficiency for Ancillary Service Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thingvad, Andreas; Ziras, Charalampos; Hu, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effect of biased system frequency deviations and charger losses in order for an aggregation of electric vehicles (EVs) to provide reliable primary frequency control (PFC). A data set consisting of one year of frequency measurements of the Nordic....... Additionally, a method for calculating the expected energy loss caused by continuous charging and discharging is presented together with efficiency measurements of a commercial bidirectional EV charger. It is found that during a year, the energy balance of the service provider, relative to the grid, is within...

  5. Gravitational Rutherford scattering and Keplerian orbits for electrically charged bodies in heterotic string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, J. R.; Olivares, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Properties of the motion of electrically charged particles in the background of the Gibbons–Maeda–Garfinkle–Horowitz–Strominger black hole is presented in this paper. Radial and angular motions are studied analytically for different values of the fundamental parameter. Therefore, gravitational Rutherford scattering and Keplerian orbits are analyzed in detail. Finally, this paper complements previous work by Fernando for null geodesics (Phys Rev D 85:024033, 2012), Olivares and Villanueva (Eur Phys J C 73:2659, 2013) and Blaga (Automat Comp Appl Math 22:41–48, 2013; Serb Astron 190:41, 2015) for time-like geodesics

  6. A spin-statistics theorem for composites containing both electric and magnetic charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, J.L.; Sorkin, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    The present paper states and proves an asymptotic spin-statistics theorem for composites consisting of electrically and magnetically charged particles. We work in the framework of a nonrelativistic theory, taking as the classical configuration space a U(1) bundle over the space of physical configurations, and as the quantum hilbert space the homogeneous square integrable functions on that bundle. The theorems are proved using a formalism we develop here for treating 'gauge spaces' - U(1) bundles with connections; in particular, two products related to tensor products of vector bundles prove to be extremely useful in displaying the structure of the gauge spaces that naturally arise in this theory. (orig.)

  7. Gravitational Rutherford scattering and Keplerian orbits for electrically charged bodies in heterotic string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva, J.R. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Instituto de Fisica y Astronomia, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro de Astrofisica de Valparaiso, Valparaiso (Chile); Olivares, Marco [Universidad Diego Portales, Avenida Ejercito Libertador 441, Facultad de Ingenieria, Santiago (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    Properties of the motion of electrically charged particles in the background of the Gibbons-Maeda-Garfinkle-Horowitz-Strominger black hole is presented in this paper. Radial and angular motions are studied analytically for different values of the fundamental parameter. Therefore, gravitational Rutherford scattering and Keplerian orbits are analyzed in detail. Finally, this paper complements previous work by Fernando for null geodesics (Phys Rev D 85:024033, 2012), Olivares and Villanueva (Eur Phys J C 73:2659, 2013) and Blaga (Automat Comp Appl Math 22:41-48, 2013; Serb Astron 190:41, 2015) for time-like geodesics. (orig.)

  8. Transverse kinetics of a charged drop in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate a non-equilibrium behavior of a small, dense and charged drop in the transverse plane. A collective motion of the drop’s particles with constant entropy is described. Namely, we solve Vlasov’s equation with non-isotropic initial conditions. Thereby a non-equilibrium distribution function of the process of the droplet evolution in the transverse plane is calculated. An external electric field is included in the initial conditions of the equation that affects on the form of the obtained solution. Applicability of the results to the description of initial states of quark-gluon plasma is also discussed

  9. Transverse kinetics of a charged drop in an external electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondarenko, S.; Komoshvili, K. [Ariel University (Israel)

    2016-01-22

    We investigate a non-equilibrium behavior of a small, dense and charged drop in the transverse plane. A collective motion of the drop’s particles with constant entropy is described. Namely, we solve Vlasov’s equation with non-isotropic initial conditions. Thereby a non-equilibrium distribution function of the process of the droplet evolution in the transverse plane is calculated. An external electric field is included in the initial conditions of the equation that affects on the form of the obtained solution. Applicability of the results to the description of initial states of quark-gluon plasma is also discussed.

  10. Air quality impacts of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles in Texas: evaluating three battery charging scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Tammy M; King, Carey W; Webber, Michael E; Allen, David T

    2011-01-01

    The air quality impacts of replacing approximately 20% of the gasoline-powered light duty vehicle miles traveled (VMT) with electric VMT by the year 2018 were examined for four major cities in Texas: Dallas/Ft Worth, Houston, Austin, and San Antonio. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) charging was assumed to occur on the electric grid controlled by the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and three charging scenarios were examined: nighttime charging, charging to maximize battery life, and charging to maximize driver convenience. A subset of electricity generating units (EGUs) in Texas that were found to contribute the majority of the electricity generation needed to charge PHEVs at the times of day associated with each scenario was modeled using a regional photochemical model (CAMx). The net impacts of the PHEVs on the emissions of precursors to the formation of ozone included an increase in NO x emissions from EGUs during times of day when the vehicle is charging, and a decrease in NO x from mobile emissions. The changes in maximum daily 8 h ozone concentrations and average exposure potential at twelve air quality monitors in Texas were predicted on the basis of these changes in NO x emissions. For all scenarios, at all monitors, the impact of changes in vehicular emissions, rather than EGU emissions, dominated the ozone impact. In general, PHEVs lead to an increase in ozone during nighttime hours (due to decreased scavenging from both vehicles and EGU stacks) and a decrease in ozone during daytime hours. A few monitors showed a larger increase in ozone for the convenience charging scenario versus the other two scenarios. Additionally, cumulative ozone exposure results indicate that nighttime charging is most likely to reduce a measure of ozone exposure potential versus the other two scenarios.

  11. Prediction Model of Battery State of Charge and Control Parameter Optimization for Electric Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Wahono

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction of a battery state of charge (SOC prediction model and the optimization method of the said model to appropriately control the number of parameters in compliance with the SOC as the battery output objectives. Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences has tested its electric vehicle research prototype on the road, monitoring its voltage, current, temperature, time, vehicle velocity, motor speed, and SOC during the operation. Using this experimental data, the prediction model of battery SOC was built. Stepwise method considering multicollinearity was able to efficiently develops the battery prediction model that describes the multiple control parameters in relation to the characteristic values such as SOC. It was demonstrated that particle swarm optimization (PSO succesfully and efficiently calculated optimal control parameters to optimize evaluation item such as SOC based on the model.

  12. Distributed Cooperative Control of Multi Flywheel Energy Storage System for Electrical Vehicle Fast Charging Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Bo; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    Plug-in electrical vehicles will play a critical role in future smart grid and sudden connection of electrical vehicles chargers may cause huge power-peaks with high slew-rates on grid. In order to cope with this issue, this paper applies a distributed cooperative control for fast charging station...... with dedicated paralleled flywheel-based energy storage system. The distributed DC-bus signaling method is employed in the power coordination of grid and flywheel converters, and a distributed secondary controller generates DC voltage correction term to adjust the local voltage set-point through a dynamic...... consensus based voltage observer by communicating with its neighbors. The control system can realize the power balancing and DC voltage regulation with low reliance on communications. Finally, real-time hardware-in-the-loop results have been reported in order to verify the feasibility of proposed approach....

  13. Dielectric Response and Born Dynamic Charge of BN Nanotubes from Ab Initio Finite Electric Field Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guang-Yu; Ishibashi, Shoji; Tamura, Tomoyuki; Terakura, Kiyoyuki

    2007-03-01

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in 1991 by Iijima, carbon and other nanotubes have attracted considerable interest worldwide because of their unusual properties and also great potentials for technological applications. Though CNTs continue to attract great interest, other nanotubes such as BN nanotubes (BN-NTs) may offer different opportunities that CNTs cannot provide. In this contribution, we present the results of our recent systematic ab initio calculations of the static dielectric constant, electric polarizability, Born dynamical charge, electrostriction coefficient and piezoelectric constant of BN-NTs using the latest crystalline finite electric field theory [1]. [1] I. Souza, J. Iniguez, and D. Vanderbilt, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 117602 (2002); P. Umari and A. Pasquarello, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 157602 (2002).

  14. Protecting Public Health: Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging and the Healthcare Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, Carrie; Lommele, Stephen

    2016-10-01

    In 2014, the U.S. transportation sector consumed more than 13 million barrels of petroleum a day, approximately 70% of all domestic petroleum consumption. Internal combustion engine vehicles are major sources of greenhouse gases (GHGs), smog-forming compounds, particulate matter, and other air pollutants. Widespread use of alternative fuels and advanced vehicles, including plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), can reduce our national dependence on petroleum and decrease the emissions that impact our air quality and public health. Healthcare organizations are major employers and community leaders that are committed to public well-being and are often early adopters of employer best practices. A growing number of hospitals are offering PEV charging stations for employees to help promote driving electric vehicles, reduce their carbon footprint, and improve local air quality.

  15. Greenhouse gas mitigation potential of short-rotation-coppice based generation of electricity in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.; Meyer-Aurich, A.; Kern, J.; Balasus, A.; Prochnow, A. [Leibniz Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The generation of energy from wood biomass may help secure local energy supplies and reduce the greenhouse effect by substituting fossil resources with bio-based ones. In the case of short rotation coppice (SRC), bio-based resources can be generated by extensive agricultural production systems. They produce less carbon dioxide equivalent (CO{sub 2eq}) emissions than fossil resources. This paper reported on a study in which a model system was developed for a regional supply chain producing second generation bioenergy generated from SRC in eastern Germany. The study focuses on the generation of electricity and was compared to a business-as-usual reference system, based on the latest CO{sub 2} mitigation factors for renewable energies in the German power-generation mix. A life cycle assessment based on greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories was also conducted in which other factors were also considered, such as options for nutrient cycling. The key determinants for GHG mitigation with SRC were also discussed with regards to indirect land-use effects resulting from increased demand for land.

  16. Transparent and Electrically Conductive Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Nanocomposite Materials for Electrostatic Charge Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervishi, E.; Biris, A. S.; Biris, A. R.; Lupu, D.; Trigwell, S.; Miller, D. W.; Schmitt, T.; Buzatu, D. A.; Wilkes, J. G.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, nanocomposite materials have been extensively studied because of their superior electrical, magnetic, and optical properties and large number of possible applications that range from nano-electronics, specialty coatings, electromagnetic shielding, and drug delivery. The aim of the present work is to study the electrical and optical properties of carbon nanotube(CNT)-polymer nanocomposite materials for electrostatic charge dissipation. Single and multi-wall carbon nanotubes were grown by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CCVD) on metal/metal oxide catalytic systems using acetylene or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. After the purification process, in which amorphous carbon and non-carbon impurities were removed, the nanotubes were functionalized with carboxylic acid groups in order to achieve a good dispersion in water and various other solvents. The carbon nanostructures were analyzed, both before and after functionalization by several analytical techniques, including microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Solvent dispersed nanotubes were mixed (1 to 7 wt %) into acrylic polymers by sonication and allowed to dry into 25 micron thick films. The electrical and optical properties of the films were analyzed as a function of the nanotubes' concentration. A reduction in electrical resistivity, up to six orders of magnitude, was measured as the nanotubes' concentration in the polymeric films increased, while optical transparency remained 85 % or higher relative to acrylic films without nanotubes.

  17. Optimizing plug-in electric vehicle charging in interaction with a small office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momber, Ilan; Gomez, Tomas [Instituto de Investigacion Tecnologica (IIT), Madrid (Spain); Dallinger, David; Beer, Sebastian; Wietschel, Martin [Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research, Karlsruhe (Germany). Competence Center Energy Policy and Energy Systems; Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    2011-07-01

    This paper considers the integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in micro-grids. Extending a theoretical framework for mobile storage connection, the economic analysis here turns to the interactions of commuters and their driving behavior with office buildings. An illustrative example for a real office building is reported. The chosen system includes solar thermal, photovoltaic, combined heat and power generation as well as an array of plug-in electric vehicles with a combined aggregated capacity of 864 kWh. With the benefit-sharing mechanism proposed here and idealized circumstances, estimated cost savings of 5% are possible. Different pricing schemes were applied which include flat rates, demand charges, as well as hourly variable final customer tariffs and their effects on the operation of intermittent storage were revealed and examined in detail. Because the plug-in electric vehicle connection coincides with peak heat and electricity loads as well as solar radiation, it is possible to shift energy demand as desired in order to realize cost savings. (orig.)

  18. Space-charge-limited currents for cathodes with electric field enhanced geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Dingguo, E-mail: laidingguo@nint.ac.cn; Qiu, Mengtong; Xu, Qifu [State Key Laboratory of Intense Pulsed Radiation Simulation and Effect, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 701124 (China); Huang, Zhongliang [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-08-15

    This paper presents the approximate analytic solutions of current density for annulus and circle cathodes. The current densities of annulus and circle cathodes are derived approximately from first principles, which are in agreement with simulation results. The large scaling laws can predict current densities of high current vacuum diodes including annulus and circle cathodes in practical applications. In order to discuss the relationship between current density and electric field on cathode surface, the existing analytical solutions of currents for concentric cylinder and sphere diodes are fitted from existing solutions relating with electric field enhancement factors. It is found that the space-charge-limited current density for the cathode with electric-field enhanced geometry can be written in a general form of J = g(β{sub E}){sup 2}J{sub 0}, where J{sub 0} is the classical (1D) Child-Langmuir current density, β{sub E} is the electric field enhancement factor, and g is the geometrical correction factor depending on the cathode geometry.

  19. A probabilistic approach to combining smart meter and electric vehicle charging data to investigate distribution network impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neaimeh, Myriam; Wardle, Robin; Jenkins, Andrew M.; Yi, Jialiang; Hill, Graeme; Lyons, Padraig F.; Hübner, Yvonne; Blythe, Phil T.; Taylor, Phil C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Working with unique datasets of EV charging and smart meter load demand. • Distribution networks are not a homogenous group with more capabilities to accommodate EVs than previously suggested. • Spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand alleviate the impacts on networks. • An extensive recharging infrastructure could enable connection of additional EVs on constrained distribution networks. • Electric utilities could increase the network capability to accommodate EVs by investing in recharging infrastructure. - Abstract: This work uses a probabilistic method to combine two unique datasets of real world electric vehicle charging profiles and residential smart meter load demand. The data was used to study the impact of the uptake of Electric Vehicles (EVs) on electricity distribution networks. Two real networks representing an urban and rural area, and a generic network representative of a heavily loaded UK distribution network were used. The findings show that distribution networks are not a homogeneous group with a variation of capabilities to accommodate EVs and there is a greater capability than previous studies have suggested. Consideration of the spatial and temporal diversity of EV charging demand has been demonstrated to reduce the estimated impacts on the distribution networks. It is suggested that distribution network operators could collaborate with new market players, such as charging infrastructure operators, to support the roll out of an extensive charging infrastructure in a way that makes the network more robust; create more opportunities for demand side management; and reduce planning uncertainties associated with the stochastic nature of EV charging demand.

  20. Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering for state of charge estimation of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Fengchun; Hu, Xiaosong; Zou, Yuan; Li, Siguang

    2011-01-01

    An accurate battery State of Charge estimation is of great significance for battery electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. This paper presents an adaptive unscented Kalman filtering method to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for battery electric vehicles. The adaptive adjustment of the noise covariances in the State of Charge estimation process is implemented by an idea of covariance matching in the unscented Kalman filter context. Experimental results indicate that the adaptive unscented Kalman filter-based algorithm has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. A comparison with the adaptive extended Kalman filter, extended Kalman filter, and unscented Kalman filter-based algorithms shows that the proposed State of Charge estimation method has a better accuracy. -- Highlights: → Adaptive unscented Kalman filtering is proposed to estimate State of Charge of a lithium-ion battery for electric vehicles. → The proposed method has a good performance in estimating the battery State of Charge. → A comparison with three other Kalman filtering algorithms shows that the proposed method has a better accuracy.