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Sample records for elcatonin injections suppress

  1. Improvement of Quality of Life (QOL in Osteoporotic Patients by Elcatonin Treatment: A Trial Taking the Participants’ Preference into Account

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yoh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is associated with compromised quality of life (QOL, to which pain has the most important contribution. Elcatonin, a derivative of calcitonin, is widely used in the treatment of osteoporosis in two ways. One is as the inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption. The other is for osteoporosis-related pain based on the unique analgesic effects of elcatonin. Since pain is subjective in nature, and QOL is the only clinical outcome representing the patients’ subjective perception of health status, pain associated with osteoporosis would be best evaluated based on QOL assessment. Evidence based medicine gives the highest remarks to the double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, which, however, cannot be free from methodological problems on some occasions. For example, it is practically impossible to remain blinded in the trial of a potent analgesia, which in turn causes biases. Thus, the significance of taking the patients’ preference into account is increasingly acknowledged. In this study, 45 osteoporotic patients were given brochures describing the pros and cons on the three treatment choices; calcium and alfacalcidol, additional use of elcatonin, and additional use of bisphosphonate. Those who favored elcatonin were older, had more vertebral fractures, and lower QOL scores. QOL was evaluated before and three months after the treatment using SF-8; the most widely used generic questionnaire, and RDQ; a lumbago-specific measure. Elcatonin treatment improved physical function, general health, and vitality of SF-8, and RDQ score. Although this is a preliminary study, our results suggest that patients with vertebral fracture(s have impaired QOL and more likely to favor elcatonin treatment expecting analgesia.

  2. Steam CFD simulation of injection in suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen Samad, A.M.; Ghosh, Sumana

    2015-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) is one of the common types of electricity generating nuclear reactor. Suppression pool system is a major component of the BWR which has to be designed efficiently for the safe operations. During some accidents like Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) large amount of steam are injected to the pressure suppression system resulting in increase in temperature of the pool and thereby increasing the pressure. The present work discuss about the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of steam injected to the wet well of BWR through the blow down pipes and there by investigating the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of the system. The simulations were carried out for three different steam injection velocities. The numerical simulations were performed with ANSYS FLUENT using multiphase 3D Volume of Fluid (VOF) model and k-ε model was adopted for modelling turbulence flow. (author)

  3. Amplitude Noise Suppression and Orthogonal Multiplexing Using Injection-Locked Single-Mode VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir; von Lerber, Tuomo; Lassas, Matti

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel.......We experimentally demonstrate BER reduction and orthogonal modulation using an injection locked single-mode VCSEL. It allows us suppressing an amplitude noise of optical signal and/or double the capacity of an information channel....

  4. Locoregional injection of F-18 radiopharmaceuticals suppresses tumor xenograft growth in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C -L [The Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The energetic positrons (0.633 Mev) from F-18 dissipate kinetic energies before annihilation to produce two 0.511 Mev photons which also contribute to the radiation absorbed dose to the surroundings. In living organism, the contribution from the positron itself to the surrounding tissues (up to 2 mm) is larger than from the 2 photons. Apoptosis has been reported in rat tumors after systemic injection of F-18 FDG although no growth retardation was noted. This study is designed to exploit the pharmacokinetic advantages of locoregional injection of positron emitters in the suppression of tumor growth in rats. Methods: Groups of Fisher 344 adult female rats were inoculated with rat mammary tumors (100,000 cells) intramuscularly (IM) in the thigh. Locoregional injection with F-18 NaF or F-18 FDG was accomplished in days 3 or 7 with single doses of increasing strengths (0.2 to 3 mCi). Tumor growth rates were noted and compared to control (sham injection with saline). The locoregional distribution and clearance of F-18 were estimated from serial tomograms using a Concord MicroPET (R4) after intramuscular injection of 0.1-0.2 mCi of F-18 NaF or F-18 FDG in groups of triplicate rats. Results: A dose-related pattern of tumor suppression is noted with F-18 FDG, whether treatment occurs in day 3 or 7 after inoculation. Additional experiment of injection of 5 mci of F-18 FDG at day 14 also suppressed the growth of a well-formed tumor. Tumor suppression by F-18 NaF is less obvious and only occurs with high dose (2 mCi). MicroPET images demonstrate that F-18 FDG is retained in the injection site while F-18 NaF dissipates rapidly. Conclusion: Locoregional injection of positron-emitters may be sufficient to suppress tumor growth. The mechanism is likely related to the pharmacokinetic profile of the compound within the tissue. Discussion: Locoregional application of radionuclides may provide feasible alternatives to slow tumor growth or prevent tumor recurrence. The use of

  5. Injection-locked single-mode VCSEL for orthogonal multiplexing and amplitude noise suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chipouline, Arkadi; Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Malekizandi, Mohammadreza

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown earlier, that the injection locked semiconductor lasers enable effective amplitude noise suppression [1] and makes possible an extra level of signal multiplexing-orthogonal modulation [2], where DPSK and ASK NRZ channels propagate at the same wavelength [3]. In our work we use...... an injection-locked 1550 nm VCSEL as a slave laser providing separation of amplitude and phase modulations, carrying independent information flows. To validate the possibility of phase modulation extraction by an injection-locked VCSEL, an experimental setup shown in Fig. 1 has been built....

  6. A Study of Residual Amplitude Modulation Suppression in Injection Locked Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on a Simplified Rate Equation Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J F; Yong, K S C; Haldar, M K

    2015-01-01

    Using results that come out of a simplified rate equation model, the suppression of residual amplitude modulation in injection locked quantum cascade lasers with the master laser modulated by its drive current is investigated. Quasi-static and dynamic expressions for intensity modulation are used. The suppression peaks at a specific value of the injection ratio for a given detuning and linewidth enhancement factor. The intensity modulation suppression remains constant over a range of frequencies. The effects of injection ratio, detuning, coupling efficiency and linewidth enhancement factor are considered. (paper)

  7. Simultaneous Suppression of IMD3 and IMD5 in Space TWT by IMD3 and 2HD Signal Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a signal injection technology showing significant reductions in both 3rd-order and 5th-order intermodulation distortions (IMD3 and IMD5 in space traveling wave tube (STWT. By applying the IMD3 to the IMD5 ratio (TFR as measures of location, the simultaneous suppressions of IMD3 and IMD5 in TWT are achieved by second harmonic distortion (2HD and IMD3 injection. According to the research on theoretical analysis and computer simulation, the optimum amplitude and phase parameters of the injected signal for maximum simultaneous suppressions are obtained. Then an experiment system is established based on vector network analyzer, optimum TFR are 2.1 dB and 12.5 dB, respectively, by second harmonic and IM3 injection, and the output powers of IMD3 and IMD5 were decreased. TFR with IMD3 injection is smaller than that with second harmonic injection in STWT, and the experiment system is more straightforward and easy to operate. Thus, the IMD3 injection performs better than that of second harmonic injection to suppress IMD5s for the narrow-band STWT.

  8. Instability Suppression in a Swirl-Stabilized Combustor Using Microjet Air Injection

    KAUST Repository

    LaBry, Zachary

    2010-01-04

    In this study, we examine the effectiveness of microjet air injection as a means of suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities in a swirl-stabilized, lean-premixed propane/air combustor. High-speed stereo PIV measurements, taken to explore the mechanism of combustion instability, reveal that the inner recirculation zone plays a dominant role in the coupling of acoustics and heat release that leads to combustion instability. Six microjet injector configurations were designed to modify the inner and outer recirculation zones with the intent of decoupling the mechanism leading to instability. Microjets that injected air into the inner recirculation zone, swirling in the opposite sense to the primary swirl were effective in suppressing combustion instability, reducing the overall sound pressure level by up to 17 dB within a certain window of operating conditions. Stabilization was achieved near an equivalence ratio of 0.65, corresponding to the region where the combustor transitions from a 40 Hz instability mode to a 110 Hz instability mode. PIV measurements made of the stabilized flow revealed significant modification of the inner recirculation zone and substantial weakening of the outer recirculation zone.

  9. Use of a Risk-Stratification Tool in Identification of Potential Adrenal Suppression Preceding Steroid Injection Therapy in Chronic Pain Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Aneesh Paul; Nguyen, Vu Huy; Hamill-Ruth, Robin

    2015-12-01

    Patients who present for steroid injections are not routinely screened for potential hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression from previous steroid exposure. Patients often receive various steroid therapies that are not reported by the patient or recorded in available medical records. Yet, HPA axis suppression has been reported with a single intra-articular injection. An IRB-approved quality improvement questionnaire was implemented to comprehensively screen patients for risk of HPA axis suppression secondary to prior and/or concurrent corticosteroid use. This questionnaire was given to adult patients seen in a University Pain Management Clinic, who were being considered for a steroid injection, to define the extent of exposure to corticosteroids either by mouth, topically, inhaled, or systemic/local injection within the past 6 months. Two hundred patients completed the questionnaire. Eighty-nine patients (44.5%) screened positive for significant steroid exposure with a screen score of three or above. The average score for the screen positive group was 6.31 ± 3.47 (range 3-22). Women were 1.9 times more likely to screen positive than men (53.4% vs 27.5%, P suppression. Further testing is necessary to determine if these patients indeed have biochemical evidence of adrenal suppression. Utilization of a screening questionnaire might help identify patients who should be considered for HPA axis testing prior to steroid injections. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Suppression of Alfven Modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade with Outboard Beam Injection [Suppression of Alfven Modes on the NSTX-U with Outboard Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Belova, E. V.; Battaglia, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present data from experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, where it is shown for the first time that small amounts of high pitch-angle beam ions can strongly suppress the counterpropagating global Alfven eigenmodes (GAE). GAE have been implicated in the redistribution of fast ions and modification of the electron power balance in previous experiments on NSTX. The ability to predict the stability of Alfven modes, and developing methods to control them, is important for fusion reactors like the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, which are heated by a large population of nonthermal, super-Alfvenic ions consisting of fusion generated alpha's and beam ions injected for current profile control. We present a qualitative interpretation of these observations using an analytic model of the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron resonance drive responsible for GAE instability which has an important dependence on k(perpendicular to rho L). A quantitative analysis of this data with the HYM stability code predicts both the frequencies and instability of the GAE prior to, and suppression of the GAE after the injection of high pitch-angle beam ions.

  11. Suppression of Tritium Retention in Remote Areas of ITER by Nonperturbative Reactive Gas Injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabares, F. L.; Ferreira, J. A.; Ramos, A.; van Rooij, G. J.; Westerhout, J.; Al, R.; Rapp, J.; Drenik, A.; Mozetic, M.

    2010-01-01

    A technique based on reactive gas injection in the afterglow region of the divertor plasma is proposed for the suppression of tritium-carbon codeposits in remote areas of ITER when operated with carbon-based divertor targets. Experiments in a divertor simulator plasma device indicate that a 4 nm/min

  12. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Suppression and Iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome as a Complication of Epidural Steroid Injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Leary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidural steroid injections are well accepted as a treatment for radicular back pain in appropriate candidates. While overall incidence of systemic side effects has not been well established, at least five biochemically proven cases of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome have been reported as complications of epidural steroid treatment. We present an additional case of iatrogenic Cushing's Syndrome and adrenal suppression in a middle-aged woman who received three epidural steroid injections over a four-month period. We review this case in the context of previous cases and discuss diagnostic and management issues.

  13. Hydrogen/oxygen injection stopping method for nuclear power plant and emergent hydrogen/oxygen injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Ryoichi; Ota, Masamoto; Takagi, Jun-ichi; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for suppressing increase of electroconductivity of reactor water during operation of a BWR type reactor, upon occurrence of reactor scram of the plant or upon stopping of hydrogen/oxygen injection due to emergent stoppage of an injection device so as not to deteriorate the integrity of a gas waste processing system upon occurrence of scram. Namely, when injection of hydrogen/oxygen is stopped during plant operation, the injection amount of hydrogen is reduced gradually. Subsequently, injection of hydrogen is stopped. With such procedures, the increase of electroconductivity of reactor water can be suppressed upon stoppage of hydrogen injection. When injection of hydrogen/oxygen is stopped upon shut down of the plant, the amount of hydrogen injection is changed depending on the change of the feedwater flow rate, and then the plant is shut down while keeping hydrogen concentration of feedwater to a predetermined value. With such procedures, increase of the reactor water electroconductivity can be suppressed upon stoppage of hydrogen injection. Upon emergent stoppage of the hydrogen/oxygen injection device, an emergent hydrogen/oxygen injection device is actuated to continue the injection of hydrogen/oxygen. With such procedures, elevation of reactor water electroconductivity can be suppressed. (I.S.)

  14. Chondromalacia of the knee: evaluation with a fat-suppression three-dimensional SPGR imaging after intravenous contrast injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, J S; Cho, J H; Shin, K H; Kim, S J

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-one MRI studies with a fat-suppression three-dimensional spoiled gradient-recalled echo in a steady state (3D SPGR) pulse sequence after intravenous contrast injection were evaluated to assess the accuracy in depicting chondromalacia of the knee. On the basis of MR images, chondromalacia and its grade were determined in each of five articular cartilage regions (total, 105 regions) and then the results were compared to arthroscopic findings. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MRI were 70%, 99%, and 93%, respectively. MR images depicted 7 of 11 lesions of arthroscopic grade 1 or 2 chondromalacia, and seven of nine lesions of arthroscopic grade 3 or 4 chondromalacia. The cartilage abnormalities in all cases appeared as focal lesions with high signal intensity. Intravenous contrast-injection, fat-suppression 3D SPGR imaging showed high specificity in excluding cartilage abnormalities and may be considered as an alternative to intra-articular MR arthrography when chondromalacia is suspected.

  15. Suppressing the relaxation oscillation noise of injection-locked WRC-FPLD for directly modulated OFDM transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Min-Chi; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2014-06-30

    By up-shifting the relaxation oscillation peak and suppressing its relative intensity noise in a weak-resonant-cavity Fabry-Perot laser diode (WRC-FPLD) under intense injection-locking, the directly modulated transmission of optical 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) data-stream is demonstrated. The total bit rate of up to 20 Gbit/s within 5-GHz bandwidth is achieved by using the OFDM subcarrier pre-leveling technique. With increasing the injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm, the effective reduction on threshold current of the WRC-FPLD significantly shifts its relaxation oscillation frequency from 5 to 7.5 GHz. This concurrently induces an up-shift of the peak relative intensity noise (RIN) of the WRC-FPLD, and effectively suppresses the background RIN level to -104 dBc/Hz within the OFDM band between 3 and 6 GHz. The enhanced signal-to-noise ratio from 16 to 20 dB leads to a significant reduction of bit-error-rate (BER) of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-OFDM data from 1.3 × 10(-3) to 5 × 10(-5), which slightly degrades to 1.1 × 10(-4) after 25-km single-mode fiber (SMF) transmission. However, the enlarged injection-locking power from -12 to -3 dBm inevitably declines the modulation throughput and increases its negative throughput slope from -0.8 to -1.9 dBm/GHz. After pre-leveling the peak amplitude of the OFDM subcarriers to compensate the throughput degradation of the directly modulated WRC-FPLD, the BER under 25-km SMF transmission can be further improved to 3 × 10(-5) under a receiving power of -3 dBm.

  16. Li-ion battery thermal runaway suppression system using microchannel coolers and refrigerant injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandhauer, Todd M.; Farmer, Joseph C.

    2016-11-08

    A battery management system with thermally integrated fire suppression includes a multiplicity of individual battery cells in a housing; a multiplicity of cooling passages in the housing within or between the multiplicity of individual battery cells; a multiplicity of sensors operably connected to the individual battery cells, the sensors adapted to detect a thermal runaway event related to one or more of the multiplicity of individual battery cells; and a management system adapted to inject coolant into at least one of the multiplicity of cooling passages upon the detection of the thermal runaway event by the any one of the multiplicity of sensors, so that the thermal runaway event is rapidly quenched.

  17. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Aping [Laboratory of Molecular Cell Biology, Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food Science, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei [Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Cui, Guanglin, E-mail: guanglin.cui@yahoo.com [Research Group of Gastrointestinal Diseases, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan (China); Faculty of Health, Nord University at Levanger (Norway)

    2015-12-25

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. - Highlights: • The density of novel PU.1 positive Th9 cells is significantly increased in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • PU.1 positive Th9 cells are predominately located in the inflamed lamina propria in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • Blocking of Th9 cytokine IL-9 by antibody injection suppresses the severity of inflammation in the bowel in colitis mice. • Novel Th9 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of UC.

  18. IL-9 antibody injection suppresses the inflammation in colitis mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Aping; Yang, Hang; Qi, Haili; Cui, Jing; Hua, Wei; Li, Can; Pang, Zhigang; Zheng, Wei; Cui, Guanglin

    2015-01-01

    Diverse T help (Th) cells play a crucial role in the processing and maintaining of chronic inflammation as seen in ulcerative colitis (UC). Th9, a novel subset of Th cells that primarily produces interleukin (IL)-9, has recently been associated with the development of inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells in inflamed tissues of human and experimental mouse UC, and examined the therapeutic efficiency of anti Th9 cytokine IL-9 in the experimental mouse UC. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), we evaluated the presentation of Th9 cells labelled by transcriptional factor PU.1 in both human and dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced mouse colitis biopsies. The results showed that increased PU.1 positive Th9 cells were mainly located in the lamina propria in relative with the controls, intraepithelial Th9 cells can also be observed but at low density. Double IHCs revealed that most of PU.1 positive cells were CD3 positive lymphocytes in human UC specimens. Anti-IL-9 antibody injection for 2 weeks reduced the severity of inflammation in DSS induced colitis mice. Our results suggest that The Th9/IL-9 is involved in the pathogenesis of UC. - Highlights: • The density of novel PU.1 positive Th9 cells is significantly increased in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • PU.1 positive Th9 cells are predominately located in the inflamed lamina propria in both human and mouse colitis tissues. • Blocking of Th9 cytokine IL-9 by antibody injection suppresses the severity of inflammation in the bowel in colitis mice. • Novel Th9 cells contribute to the pathogenesis of UC.

  19. Suppression of roll-off characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes by narrowing current injection/transport area to 50 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kyohei, E-mail: k-hayashi@bioorg.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Inoue, Munetomo; Yoshida, Kou [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakanotani, Hajime [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c/o OPERA, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Innovative Organic Device Laboratory, Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies (ISIT), 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Mikhnenko, Oleksandr; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9510 (United States); Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c/o OPERA, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Innovative Organic Device Laboratory, Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies (ISIT), 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-03-02

    Using e-beam nanolithography, the current injection/transport area in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was confined into a narrow linear structure with a minimum width of 50 nm. This caused suppression of Joule heating and partial separation of polarons and excitons, so the charge density where the electroluminescent efficiency decays to the half of the initial value (J{sub 0}) was significantly improved. A device with a narrow current injection width of 50 nm exhibited a J{sub 0} that was almost two orders of magnitude higher compared with that of the unpatterned OLED.

  20. Results of zinc injection test for Hamaoka Unit-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, K.; Masuda, H.; Hayashi, Y.; Sudo, S.; Yamazaki, K.

    1998-01-01

    A zinc injection test was preformed at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station Unit-1 for suppressing radiation dose rate on primary coolant recirculation piping after the replacement of piping. Zinc ion was injected by using injection system where Depleted Zinc Oxide was dissolved in carbonated water. Controllability of the system was sufficient to maintain concentration of zinc in primary water. The concentration of zinc in the primary coolant was controlled from 1 ppb to 5 ppb gradually. The increasing trend of concentration of Co-60 in the coolant was suppressed at zinc concentration of 3 ppb. It is evaluated that the deposition coefficient of Co-60 onto the surface of primary coolant recirculation piping was suppressed to one-third of previous cycle in average, and one-fourth of that just before injection start at zinc concentration of 5 ppb. We concluded that zinc injection is effective for suppressing dose rate on the primary coolant piping and no adverse effect occurs by zinc injection up to 5 ppb in the primary coolant. (J.P.N.)

  1. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  2. Onset and duration of ejaculatory suppression effect of tamsulosin in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakdichod Kimsakulvech

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The duration of ejaculatory suppression of alpha adrenoceptor antagonist (tamsulosin, TAM was investigated in goats. Five males were injected intramuscularly with TAM 80 μg/kg (179.8 nmol/kg. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina with estrous female goats and the semen quality and libido score were evaluated at 1, 3, 6 and 9 h post TAM injection. Two replicates were carried out in the study. Heart rates were also measured before the injection and at 30 min before semen collection. The results showed that the libido score was not affected by TAM. At 1 h post injection, the highest percentage of suppressed ejaculation (80% was recorded and this effect was maintained for up to 3 h post injection (60%. Thereafter the percentage of suppressed ejaculation was significantly decreased (p < 0.05 at 6 h (20% and ejaculation was completely recovered at 9 h post injection. The semen characteristics of the collectable semen, semen volume and number of spermatozoa were lowest at 1 h and 3 h, thereafter they suddenly increased at 6 h and the significantly highest peak was noted at 9 h post injection. TAM injection suppressed goat ejaculation within 1 h and the duration was maintained up to 3 h post injection.

  3. Suppression of the Second Harmonic Subgroup Injected by an AC EAF: Design Considerations and Performance Estimation of a Shunt APF

    OpenAIRE

    Emre Durna; Cem Özgür Gerçek; Özgül Salor; Muammer Ermiş

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes a design methodology for an active power filter (APF) system to suppress the second harmonic subgroup injected by an AC electric arc furnace (EAF) to the utility grid. The APF system is composed of identical parallel units connected to the utility grid via a specially-designed coupling transformer. Each APF converter is a three-phase three-wire two-level voltage source converter (VSC). The number of parallel APF units, coupling transformer MVA rating, and turns ratio are o...

  4. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection

    OpenAIRE

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH ...

  5. Complex-enhanced chaotic signals with time-delay signature suppression based on vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers subject to chaotic optical injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianjun; Duan, Yingni; Zhong, Zhuqiang

    2018-03-01

    A chaotic system is constructed on the basis of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs), where a slave VCSEL subject to chaotic optical injection (COI) from a master VCSEL with the external feedback. The complex degree (CD) and time-delay signature (TDS) of chaotic signals generated by this chaotic system are investigated numerically via permutation entropy (PE) and self-correlation function (SF) methods, respectively. The results show that, compared with master VCSEL subject to optical feedback, complex-enhanced chaotic signals with TDS suppression can be achieved for S-VCSEL subject to COI. Meanwhile, the influences of several controllable parameters on the evolution maps of CD of chaotic signals are carefully considered. It is shown that the CD of chaotic signals for S-VCSEL is always higher than that for M-VCSEL due to the CIO effect. The TDS of chaotic signals can be significantly suppressed by choosing the reasonable parameters in this system. Furthermore, TDS suppression and high CD chaos can be obtained simultaneously in the specific parameter ranges. The results confirm that this chaotic system may effectively improve the security of a chaos-based communication scheme.

  6. A study on the boron injection initiation temperature curve of BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, S.-J.; Chien, C.-S.; Fann, S.-Y.; Chiang, S.-C.

    2007-01-01

    Boron injection initiation temperature (BIIT) provides important information for the safe shutdown of the reactor using boron injection system during anticipated transient without scram (ATWS). The purpose of this paper is to study BIIT curve of boiling water reactor owners' group (BWROG). The unreasonable and non-conservative parts of BIIT are pointed out and suggested modifications are made. The starting reactor power of BIIT is increased in order to meet the actual application. The lower limit of suppression pool temperature of BIIT is revised for conservative operation during ATWS conditions. Analysis of the effects of maximum temperature capacity of the suppression chamber and concentration of boron in standby liquid control tank shows that BIIT is decreased by adopting a more conservative value of maximum temperature capacity of the suppression chamber. Consequently, early boron injection is anticipated. For system with automatic boron injection system, BIIT is not required

  7. Gamma camera scatter suppression unit WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Haruo; Shibahara, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Oumura, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hozumi; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu; Itagane, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    In gamma camera imaging, scattered radiation is one of big factors to decrease image contrast. Simply, scatter suppression makes signal to noise ratio larger, but it makes statistics error because of radionuclide injection limit to the human body. EWA is a new method that suppresses scattered radiation and improves image contrast. In this article, WAM which is commercialized EWA method by Siemens Gammasonics Inc. is presented. (author)

  8. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larijani, Bagher; Pajouhi, Mohammad; Ghanaati, Hossein; Bastanhagh, Mohammad-Hassan; Abbasvandi, Fereshteh; Firooznia, Kazem; Shirzad, Mahmood; Amini, Mohammad-Reza; Sarai, Maryam; Abbasvandi, Nasreen; Baradar-Jalili, Reza

    2002-12-06

    BACKGROUND: Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. METHODS: 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH) were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (thyroid hormone levels. Ethanol injections were performed once every 1-4 weeks. Ethanol injections were stopped when serum T3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. RESULTS: Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 PlusMinus; 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 PlusMinus; 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P thyroid hormone levels at 3 and 6 months follow-up [P 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  9. Suppression of pool fires with HRC-125 in a simulated engine nacelle.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyser, David R. (INS, Inc., Lexington Park, MD); Hewson, John C.

    2007-06-01

    CFD simulations are conducted to predict the distribution of fire suppressant in an engine nacelle and to predict the suppression of pool fires by the application of this suppressant. In the baseline configuration, which is based on an installed system, suppressant is injected through four nozzles at a rate fast enough to suppress all simulated pool fires. Variations that reduce the mass of the suppression system (reducing the impact of the suppression system on meeting mission needs) are considered, including a reduction in the rate of suppressant injection, a reduction in the mass of suppressant and a reduction in the number of nozzles. In general, these variations should work to reduce the effectiveness of the suppression system, but the CFD results point out certain changes that have negligible impact, at least for the range of phenomena considered here. The results are compared with measurements where available. Comparisons with suppressant measurements are reasonable. A series of twenty-three fire suppression tests were conducted to check the predictions. The pre-test predictions were generally successful in identifying the range of successful suppression tests. In two separate cases, each where one nozzle of the suppression system was capped, the simulation results did indicate a failure to suppress for a condition where the tests indicated successful suppression. When the test-suppressant discharge rate was reduced by roughly 25%, the tests were in agreement with the predictions. That is, the simulations predict a failure to suppress slightly before observed in these cases.

  10. Treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules by percutaneous ethanol injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarai Maryam

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autonomous thyroid nodules can be treated by a variety of methods. We assessed the efficacy of percutaneous ethanol injection in treating autonomous thyroid nodules. Methods 35 patients diagnosed by technetium-99 scanning with hyperfunctioning nodules and suppressed sensitive TSH (sTSH were given sterile ethanol injections under ultrasound guidance. 29 patients had clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism. The other 6 had sub-clinical hyperthyroidism with suppressed sTSH levels (3, T4 and sTSH levels had returned to normal, or else injections could no longer be performed because significant side effects. Patients were followed up at 3, 6 and, in 15 patients, 24 months after the last injection. Results Average pre-treatment nodule volume [18.2 ± 12.7 ml] decreased to 5.7 ± 4.6 ml at 6 months follow-up [P 4 and sTSH did not change significantly between 6 months and 2 years [P > 0.05]. Ethanol injections were well tolerated by the patients, with only 2 cases of transient dysphonia. Conclusion Our findings indicate that ethanol injection is an alternative to surgery or radioactive iodine in the treatment of autonomous thyroid nodules.

  11. Suppression induction in vivo by a T helper clone?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crispe, I N; Owens, T

    1985-01-01

    We have previously described a helper T cell clone which augments in vivo cytotoxic T cell responses when injected at 10(4) cells per mouse, but not at 10(5) per mouse (Crispe, I. N. et al., Immunology 1984. 52:55). To test whether this dose-response relationship was due to the induction...... of suppression, naive syngeneic mice were injected with 10(5) cloned T helper cells, and their spleen cells were subsequently assayed for suppressive activity in adoptive transfer experiments. Lymphocytes from such mice indeed suppressed an antigen-specific cytotoxic response, but only in the presence...... of the same T helper cell clone freshly added at the time of adoptive transfer. On this basis we argue that the distinction between T helper cell activity and T suppressor-inducer activity corresponds to differences in cell numbers, rather than to two separate cell lineages....

  12. Pulse-amplitude modulation of optical injection-locked quantum-dot lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue-Guang; Wang, Cheng

    2018-02-01

    This work theoretically investigates the four-level pulse-amplitude modulation characteristics of quantum dot lasers subject to optical injection. The rate equation model takes into account carrier dynamics in the carrier reservoir, in the excited state, and in the ground state, as well as photon dynamics and phase dynamics of the electric field. It is found that the optical injection significantly improves the eye diagram quality through suppressing the relaxation oscillation, while the extinction ratio is reduced as well. In addition, both the adiabatic chirp and the transient chirp of the signal are substantially suppressed.

  13. Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Haruyuki

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. Methods Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1→3-β-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule assay. Results The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity Conclusion Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema.

  14. Verification of zinc injection applicability to Japanese BWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, H.; Uetake, N.; Ishida, K.; Nakamura, M.; Mochizuki, K.; Nagata, T.; Ogawa, N.; Baba, T.; Ono, S.; Ishigure, K.

    2002-01-01

    The verification test program on zinc injection applicability to Japanese BWRs was started in 1997. Laboratory tests using high temperature water loops under BWR reactor water conditions are in progress. This paper is an interim report on results obtained so far. Co-58 and Zn-65 were simultaneously used in the Co radioactivity buildup test to evaluate zinc injection suppression effects towards cobalt deposition on pre-oxidized stainless steel. The following results were obtained. The Co deposition was suppressed effectively by Zn injection, even when there was a pre-oxide film. For the test piping that had the pre-oxide film formed under the NWC (normal water chemistry) condition, when soaked under the HWC (hydrogen water chemistry) condition a large amount of Co-58 was taken into a small part of the inner layer. The distribution ratio of Co-58 in the inner layer and outer layer of the oxide film was almost the same for both the pre-oxidized test piping and the non pre-oxidized test piping under the HWC condition. Zn injection decreased the Co concentration in the inner layer of the oxide film under all conditions. The effect of gamma ray irradiation on the incorporation of Co into the oxide film is small. Gamma ray irradiation influenced the Co incorporation behavior complexly. The change of the Co amount incorporated into the non-pre-filmed specimen were small relatively, but the incorporation into the pre-filmed specimen promotes distinctly. Zn addition effectively suppresses the Co incorporation even gamma ray irradiation. (authors)

  15. Platelet activating factor receptor binding plays a critical role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Gerardo; Kazimi, Nasser; Nghiem, Dat X.; Walterscheid, Jeffrey P.; Ullrich, Stephen E.

    2004-01-01

    Applying military jet fuel (JP-8) or commercial jet fuel (Jet-A) to the skin of mice suppresses the immune response in a dose-dependant manner. The release of biological response modifiers, particularly prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ), is a critical step in activating immune suppression. Previous studies have shown that injecting selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors into jet fuel-treated mice blocks immune suppression. Because the inflammatory phospholipid mediator, platelet-activating factor (PAF), up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 production and PGE 2 synthesis by keratinocytes, we tested the hypothesis that PAF-receptor binding plays a role in jet fuel-induced immune suppression. Treating keratinocyte cultures with PAF and/or jet fuel (JP-8 and Jet-A) stimulates PGE 2 secretion. Jet fuel-induced PGE 2 production was suppressed by treating the keratinocytes with specific PAF-receptor antagonists. Injecting mice with PAF, or treating the skin of the mice with JP-8, or Jet-A, induced immune suppression. Jet fuel-induced immune suppression was blocked when the jet fuel-treated mice were injected with PAF-receptor antagonists before treatment. Jet fuel treatment has been reported to activate oxidative stress and treating the mice with anti-oxidants (Vitamins C, or E or beta-hydroxy toluene), before jet fuel application, interfered with immune suppression. These findings confirm previous studies showing that PAF-receptor binding can modulate immune function. Furthermore, they suggest that PAF-receptor binding may be an early event in the induction of immune suppression by immunotoxic environmental agents that target the skin

  16. Microstructural observation on helium injected and creep ruptured JPCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, N.; Shiraishi, H.; Hishinuma, A.

    1986-01-01

    Detailed and quantitative TEM observation was performed on high temperature helium injected and creep ruptured JPCA to seek the prominent TiC distribution developed for suppression of helium embrittlement. Three different preinjection treatments were adopted for changing the TiC distribution. Considerable degradation in creep rupture strength by helium occurred in solution-annealed specimens, although there was much less effect of other treatments which included aging prior to injection. The concentration of helium at grain boundaries and the promotion of precipitation by helium during injection were responsible for the degradation. Therefore, the presence of TiC precipitates before helium introduction will help prevent degradation. On the other hand, the rupture elongation was reduced by helium after all treatments, although helium trapping by TiC precipitates in the matrix was successfully achieved. Consequently, the combined use of several methods may be necessary for further suppression of helium embrittlement. (orig.)

  17. Mitigation of rotational instability of high-beta field-reversed configuration by double-sided magnetized plasmoid injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itagaki, H.; Inomoto, M. [Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Asai, T.; Takahashi, Ts. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda Surugadai, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 101-8308 (Japan)

    2014-03-15

    Active control of destructive rotational instability in a high-beta field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was demonstrated by using double-sided plasmoid injection technique. The elliptical deformation of the FRC's cross section was mitigated as a result of substantial suppression of spontaneous spin-up by the plasmoid injection. It was found that the injected plasmoid provided better stability against the rotational mode, suggesting that the compensation of the FRC's decaying magnetic flux might help to suppress its spin-up.

  18. Suppression of Runaway Electrons by Resonant Magnetic Perturbations in TEXTOR Disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnen, M.; Bozhenkov, S. A.; Abdullaev, S. S.; TEXTOR Team,; Jakubowski, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    The generation of runaway electrons in the international fusion experiment ITER disruptions can lead to severe damage at plasma facing components. Massive gas injection might inhibit the generation process, but the amount of gas needed can affect, e.g., vacuum systems. Alternatively, magnetic perturbations can suppress runaway generation by increasing the loss rate. In TEXTOR disruptions runaway losses were enhanced by the application of resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n=1 and n=2. The disruptions are initiated by fast injection of about 3x10 21 argon atoms, which leads to a reliable generation of runaway electrons. At sufficiently high perturbation levels a reduction of the runaway current, a shortening of the current plateau, and the suppression of high energetic runaways are observed. These findings indicate the suppression of the runaway avalanche during disruptions

  19. Effects of pancreatic intraductal injection of a radioisotope in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devonec, M.; Faure, J.L.; Blanc-Brunat, N.; Dubernard, J.M.; Traeger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects on exocrine and endocrine pancreatic functions of local irradiation by the intraductal injection of Rhenium 186 were investigated as an alternative to neoprene for exocrine secretion suppression. The results indicate that Rhenium 186 irradiation suppressed exocrine secretion of the pancreas while conserving the endocrine function. Although some edema and fibrosis were observed, the effects were not excessive

  20. Suppression of the Second Harmonic Subgroup Injected by an AC EAF: Design Considerations and Performance Estimation of a Shunt APF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre Durna

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design methodology for an active power filter (APF system to suppress the second harmonic subgroup injected by an AC electric arc furnace (EAF to the utility grid. The APF system is composed of identical parallel units connected to the utility grid via a specially-designed coupling transformer. Each APF converter is a three-phase three-wire two-level voltage source converter (VSC. The number of parallel APF units, coupling transformer MVA rating, and turns ratio are optimized in the view of the ratings of commercially-available high voltage (HV IGBTs. In this research work, line current waveforms sampled at 25.6-kS/s on the medium voltage (MV side of a 65-MVA EAF transformer are then used to extract the second harmonic subgroup, 95-, 100-, and 105-Hz current components, by multiple synchronous reference frame (MSRF analysis, which was previously proposed to decompose EAF current interharmonics and harmonics in real-time. By summing up this digital data of the second harmonic subgroup, the reference current signal for the APF system is produced in real-time. A detailed model of the APF system is then run on EMTDC/PSCAD to follow the produced reference current signal according to hysteresis band control philosophy. The simulation results show that the proposed APF system can successfully suppress the second harmonic subgroup of an AC EAF.

  1. Fuelling effect of tangential compact toroid injection in STOR-M Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onchi, T.; Liu, Y., E-mail: tao668@mail.usask.ca [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Dreval, M. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); McColl, D. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Dept. of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada); Asai, T. [Inst. of Plasma Physics NSC KIPT, Kharkov (Ukraine); Wolfe, S. [Nihon Univ., Dept. of Physics, Tokyo (Japan); Xiao, C.; Hirose, A. [Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-07-01

    Compact torus injection (CTI) is the only known candidate for directly fuelling the core of a tokamak fusion reactor. Compact torus (CT) injection into the STOR-M tokamak has induced improved confinement accompanied by an increase in the electron density, reduction in Hα emission, and suppression of the saw-tooth oscillations. The measured change in the toroidal flow velocity following tangential CTI has demonstrated momentum injection into the STOR-M plasma. (author)

  2. The numerical comparison of fire combustion model and water-mist suppression with experiments by FDS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hsuennien; Ferng Yuhming; Shih Chunkuan; Hsu Wensheng

    2007-01-01

    FDS [1] code numerically solves a form of the Navier-Stokes equations appropriate for low-speed, thermally driven flow with an emphasis on smoke and heat transport from fires. FDS uses a mixture fraction combustion model. The mixture fraction is a conserved scalar quantity that is defined as the fraction of fuel gas at a given point in the flow field. The model assumes that combustion is mixing-controlled, and that the reaction of fuel and oxygen is infinitely fast. In FDS, Lagrangian particles are used to simulate smoke movement and sprinkling water-mist discharge. In order to evaluate the combustion model and water-mist suppression function of the code, FDS analyses are conducted to simulate two enclosure fire cases available in the literature. Comparisons with other combustion models are also made. For fires suppression by water-mist in FDS, parametric studies are performed to compare various water-mist injection characteristics for maximum suppression. Numerical results indicate that the flame suppression is closely related to characteristics of the water mist, such as droplet diameter, mist injection velocity, injection density. Our present investigations show that the combustion model and water-mist suppression in FDS can provide simulation results that are comparable with the experiments. (author)

  3. The Potent Humanin Analogue (HNG) Protects Germ Cells and Leucocytes While Enhancing Chemotherapy-Induced Suppression of Cancer Metastases in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lue, YanHe; Swerdloff, Ronald; Wan, Junxiang; Xiao, Jialin; French, Samuel; Atienza, Vince; Canela, Victor; Bruhn, Kevin W; Stone, Brian; Jia, Yue; Cohen, Pinchas; Wang, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Humanin is a peptide that is cytoprotective against stresses in many cell types. We investigated whether a potent humanin analogue S14G-humanin (HNG) would protect against chemotherapy-induced damage to normal cells without interfering with the chemotherapy-induced suppression of cancer cells. Young adult male mice were inoculated iv with murine melanoma cells. After 1 week, cancer-bearing mice were randomized to receive either: no treatment, daily ip injection of HNG, a single ip injection of cyclophosphamide (CP), or CP+HNG and killed at the end of 3 weeks. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of leucocytes and protected germ cell from CP-induced apoptosis. Lung metastases were suppressed by HNG or CP alone, and further suppressed by CP+HNG treatment. Plasma IGF-1 levels were suppressed by HNG with or without CP treatment. To investigate whether HNG maintains its protective effects on spermatogonial stem cells, sperm output, and peripheral leucocytes after repeated doses of CP, normal adult male mice received: no treatment, daily sc injection of HNG, 6 ip injections of CP at 5-day intervals, and the same regimens of CP+HNG and killed at the end of 4 weeks of treatment. Cauda epididymal sperm counts were elevated by HNG and suppressed by CP. HNG rescued the CP-induced suppression of spermatogonial stem cells, sperm count and peripheral leucocytes. We conclude that HNG 1) protects CP-induced loss of male germ cells and leucocytes, 2) enhances CP-induced suppression of cancer metastases, and 3) acts as a caloric-restriction mimetic by suppressing IGF-1 levels. Our findings suggest that humanin analogues may be promising adjuvants to chemotherapy.

  4. Endocardial botulinum toxin injection into ganglionated plexi in order to reduce atrial fibrillation inducibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Г. Стрельников

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Prior animal studies suggest that botulinum toxin injection into the epicardial fat pads can suppress atrial fibrillation (AF inducibility. The purpose of the present study was to assess the efficacy and safety of endocardial botulinum toxin injection into epicardial fat pads and intramyocardial left atrial ganglionated plexi (GP for preventing AF.Methods. Twenty-four dogs were separated into 3 groups: endocardial approach for botulinum toxin (Xeomin, Germany injection into epicardial fat pads and intramyocardial GPs; endocardial approach for placebo injection (0.9% normal saline; control 1; n = 8 and epicardial approach for botulinum toxin injection (control 2; n = 8.Results. A mean of 6.9±1.7 intramyocardial injections (10 U/0.2 mL at each and 3 injections (50 U/1 mL at each were administered into each site exhibiting a positive vagal response and into each epicardial fat pad in all groups (p>0.05 between groups.The injections of botulinum toxin demonstrated dramatic prolongation of ERP in all PV-atrial junctions. This effect correlated with less pronounced ERP shortening in response to vagal nerve stimulation. Suppression of AF inducibility was observed at 7 days after endocardial botulinum toxin injections. The level of AF inducibility was: at 7 days – 57% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 14 days – 61% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 1 month – 38% (p<0.001 vs placebo; p<0.001 vs baseline; at 3 months – 23% (p = 0.003; p = 0.06 vs baseline. There were no differences between botulinum groups (p>0.05 for all. The effect of AF suppression disappeared at 3 months. No procedure-related complications occurred.Conclusion. Botulinum toxin injection into intramyocardial GPs and epicardial fat pads by an endocardial approach is feasible and safe. It provides complete removal of cardiac vagal responses and reliably reduces vulnerability to atrial fibrillation.

  5. Variable Suppression of Serum Thyroxine in Female Mice of Different Inbred Strains by Triiodothyronine Administered in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidi, Sepehr; Aliesky, Holly; Chen, Chun-Rong; Rapoport, Basil

    2010-01-01

    Background Recombinant-inbred mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to Graves'-like hyperthyroidism induced by immunization with adenovirus expressing the human thyrotropin (TSH) receptor. Because one genetic component contributing to this susceptibility is altered thyroid sensitivity to TSH receptor agonist stimulation, we wished to quantify thyroid responsiveness to TSH. For such studies, it is necessary to suppress endogenous TSH by administering L-3,5,3′-triiodothyronine (L-T3), with the subsequent decrease in serum thyroxine (T4) reflecting endogenous TSH suppression. Our two objectives were to assess in different inbred strains of mice (i) the extent of serum T4 suppression after L-T3 administration and (ii) the magnitude of serum T4 increase induced by TSH. Methods Mice were tail-bled to establish baseline-serum T4 before L-T3 administration. We initially employed a protocol of L-T3-supplemented drinking water for 7 days. In subsequent experiments, we injected L-T3 intraperitoneally (i.p.) daily for 3 days. Mice were then injected i.p. with bovine TSH (10 mU) and euthanized 5 hours later. Serum T4 was assayed before L-T3 administration, and before and after TSH injection. In some experiments, serum T3 and estradiol were measured in pooled sera. Results Oral L-T3 (3 or 5 μg/mL) suppressed serum T4 levels by 26%–64% in female BALB/c mice but >95% in males. T4 suppression in female B6 mice ranged from 0% to 90%. In C3H mice, L-T3 at 3 μg/mL was ineffective but 5 μg/mL achieved >80% serum T4 reduction. Unlike inbred mice, in outbred CF1 mice the same protocol was more effective: 83% in females and 100% suppression in males. The degree of T4 suppression was unrelated to baseline T4, T3, or estradiol, but was related to mouse weight and postmortem T3, with greater suppression in larger mice (outbred CF1 animals and inbred males). Among females with serum T4 suppression >80%, the increase in serum T4 after TSH injection was greater for BALB

  6. US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection in Plummer's adenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagalla, R.; Iovane, A.; Caruso, G.; Midiri, N.; Oliveri, D.; Brancato, G.; Cardinale, A.

    1991-01-01

    The authors report their experience in the study of 8 patients showing sympoms of thyroid hyperfunction (Plummer's adenoma) and treated with US-guided percutaneous ethanol injection. The treatment consisted in injecting sterile ethanol in varying amounts (2 to 5 ml) according to nodule size, using a fine needle under US guidance. The patients underwent 3 to 6 injections, according to biochemical (T3-T4-TSH) and scintigraphic findings. Follow-up ay 12 months showed regression of clinical symptoms, a trend of hormone levels toward normalization and recovery of previously suppressed parenchymal function. No significant complications were observed, except for a transient thyrotoxic crisis in the patient bearing the largest nodule. The treatment of Plummer's adenoma by means of percutaneous ethanol injection under us guidance appears to provide specific clinical and technical advantages over other conventional treatments

  7. High Tc superconducting three-terminal device under quasi-particle injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Kabasawa, U.; Tonouchi, M.; Kobayashi, T.

    1988-01-01

    A new type of the current injection type three terminal device was fabricated using the high Tc YBaCuO thin epitaxial films, wherein the hot quasi-particle injection effect on the superconducting current was closely examined. The zero bias drain current was efficiently suppressed by the injection of the hot quasi-particles through the gate electrode. Though it is speculative, a comparison of the experimental results and analyses based on the familiar BCS theory intimates that the main mechanism of the current modulation is the non-equilibrium superconductivity due to accumulation of the excess quasi-particles

  8. Water injection device for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakaki, Isao.

    1996-01-01

    A pressure vessel incorporating a reactor core is placed and secured on a pedestal in a dry well of a reactor container. A pedestal water injection line is disposed opened at one end in a pedestal cavity passing through the side wall of the pedestal and led at the other end to the outside of the reactor container. A substitution dry well spray line is connected to a spray header disposed at the upper portion of the dry well. When the pressure vessel should be damaged by a molten reactor core and the molten reactor core should drop to the dry well upon occurrence of an accident, the molten reactor core on the floor of the pedestal is cooled by water injection from the pedestal water injection line. At the same time, the elevation of the pressure and the temperature in the reactor container is suppressed by the water injection of the substitution dry well spray line. This can avoid large scaled release of radioactive materials to the environmental circumference. (I.N.)

  9. Experimental study on combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow using extinguishing powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo Yan; Zhang Zhigang; Li Jinke; Liu Zhongkun; Ma Yaolong

    2017-01-01

    In the operation of the sodium-cooled fast reactor, the leakage and fire accident of liquid sodium is common and it is frequent in sodium-related facilities. This study focuses on the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in a columnar flow. Liquid sodium (250°C) is injected into a 7.9 m"3 cylindrical chamber at a flow rate of about 1.0 m"3/h to create a columnar sodium fire, and 18.4 kg class D extinguishing powder is sprayed after the liquid sodium injection. The temperature in the chamber space and sodium collection plate and the heat release rate from sodium fire are measured and analyzed. Based on the temperature data the sodium fire under suppression could be divided into four phases of dropping sharply, continuously remaining lower, rising and declining mildly, and depressing. The sodium fire in the space could be suppressed and cooled down if the extinguishing agent could spray in the early period of the liquid sodium injection. The extinguishing agent could suppress the combustion and spreading of liquid sodium dropping on the collection plate, limit the pool combustion area and postpone the commencement of sodium pool burning in spite of its later re-ignition happening. This study promises to evaluate the combustion and suppression characteristics of sodium fire in the sodium-related facilities. (author)

  10. Desensitization of delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice: suppressive environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Katsura

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The systemic injection of high doses of antigen into a preimmunized animal results in transient unresponsiveness of cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon is known as desensitization. Serum interleukin 2 (IL-2 activity was found transiently in desensitized mice at 3 h after the antigen challenge. These mice could not reveal antigen nonspecific delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH 1 d after the challenge. Specific suppression of DTH was observed at later stages. Sera from 3 h desensitized mice showed suppressive effects on DTH in preo immunized mice. Administration of recombinant IL-2 into preimmunized mice led to the failure of development of DTH to antigens. These observations suggest that IL-2 plays an important role in the suppressive environment.

  11. Thermal stratification in a scaled-down suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Byeongnam, E-mail: jo@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Erkan, Nejdet [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Takahashi, Shinji [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Management, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Song, Daehun [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan); Hyundai and Kia Corporate R& D Division, Hyundai Motors, 772-1, Jangduk-dong, Hwaseong-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 445-706 (Korea, Republic of); Sagawa, Wataru; Okamoto, Koji [Nuclear Professional School, The University of Tokyo, 2-22 Shirakata, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1188 (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Thermal stratification was reproduced in a scaled-down suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants. • Horizontal temperature profiles were uniform in the toroidal suppression pool. • Subcooling-steam flow rate map of thermal stratification was obtained. • Steam bubble-induced flow model in suppression pool was suggested. • Bubble frequency strongly depends on the steam flow rate. - Abstract: Thermal stratification in the suppression pool of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plants was experimentally investigated in sub-atmospheric pressure conditions using a 1/20 scale torus shaped setup. The thermal stratification was reproduced in the scaled-down suppression pool and the effect of the steam flow rate on different thermal stratification behaviors was examined for a wide range of steam flow rates. A sparger-type steam injection pipe that emulated Fukushima Daiichi Unit 3 (F1U3) was used. The steam was injected horizontally through 132 holes. The development (formation and disappearance) of thermal stratification was significantly affected by the steam flow rate. Interestingly, the thermal stratification in the suppression pool vanished when subcooling became lower than approximately 5 °C. This occurred because steam bubbles are not well condensed at low subcooling temperatures; therefore, those bubbles generate significant upward momentum, leading to mixing of the water in the suppression pool.

  12. Active Suppression of Rotating Stall Inception with Distributed Jet Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu Duc Vo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical and experimental investigation of the effectiveness of full-span distributed jet actuation for active suppression of long length-scale rotating stall inception is carried out. Detailed modeling and experimental verification highlight the important effects of mass addition, discrete injectors, and feedback dynamics, which may be overlooked in preliminary theoretical studies of active control with jet injection. A model of the compression system incorporating nonideal injection and feedback dynamics is verified with forced response measurements to predict the right trends in the movement of the critical pole associated with the stall precursor. Active control experiments with proportional feedback control show that the predicted stall precursors are suppressed to give a 5.5% range extension in compressor flow coefficient. In addition, results suggest that the proposed model could be used to design a more sophisticated controller to further improve performance while reducing actuator bandwidth requirements.

  13. Ultraviolet-irradiated urocanic acid suppresses delayed-type hypersensitivity to herpes simplex virus in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, J.A.; Howie, S.E.; Norval, M.; Maingay, J.; Simpson, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Ultraviolet radiation is known to induce a transient defect in epidermal antigen presentation which leads to the generation of antigen-specific suppression of the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. The putative receptor in skin for the primary event in UV-suppression is urocanic acid (UCA) which may then interact locally, or systemically, with antigen presenting cells or initiate a cascade of events resulting in suppression. We present the first direct evidence that UCA, when irradiated with a dose (96 mJ/cm2) of UVB radiation known to suppress the DTH response to herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1) in mice, can induce suppression following epidermal application or s.c. injection of the irradiated substance. This suppression is transferable with nylon wool-passed spleen cells

  14. Poppers: large cancer increase and immune suppression in animal tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-04-16

    A study on mice injected with cancer cells and then exposed to isobutyl nitrite (poppers) revealed that inhalant-treated mice developed tumors more readily and rapidly than control mice. The control mice were also injected with cancer cells, but only breathed air. Related studies found that poppers suppress certain immune functions involved in killing tumor cells. These studies suggest that further research of persons with HIV/AIDS who use poppers is needed to determine if they are at a high risk for developing malignancies.

  15. Melatonin acts through MT1/MT2 receptors to activate hypothalamic Akt and suppress hepatic gluconeogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Juliana A; Kinote, Andrezza; Ignacio-Souza, Letícia M; de Araújo, Thiago M; Razolli, Daniela S; Doneda, Diego L; Paschoal, Lívia B; Lellis-Santos, Camilo; Bertolini, Gisele L; Velloso, Lício A; Bordin, Silvana; Anhê, Gabriel F

    2013-07-15

    Melatonin can contribute to glucose homeostasis either by decreasing gluconeogenesis or by counteracting insulin resistance in distinct models of obesity. However, the precise mechanism through which melatonin controls glucose homeostasis is not completely understood. Male Wistar rats were administered an intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of melatonin and one of following: an icv injection of a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, an icv injection of a melatonin receptor (MT) antagonist, or an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Anesthetized rats were subjected to pyruvate tolerance test to estimate in vivo glucose clearance after pyruvate load and in situ liver perfusion to assess hepatic gluconeogenesis. The hypothalamus was removed to determine Akt phosphorylation. Melatonin injections in the central nervous system suppressed hepatic gluconeogenesis and increased hypothalamic Akt phosphorylation. These effects of melatonin were suppressed either by icv injections of PI3K inhibitors and MT antagonists and by ip injection of a muscarinic receptor antagonist. We conclude that melatonin activates hypothalamus-liver communication that may contribute to circadian adjustments of gluconeogenesis. These data further suggest a physiopathological relationship between the circadian disruptions in metabolism and reduced levels of melatonin found in type 2 diabetes patients.

  16. Momentum Injection in Tokamak Plasmas and Transitions to Reduced Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, F. I.; Highcock, E. G.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Barnes, M.; Cowley, S. C.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of momentum injection on the temperature gradient in tokamak plasmas is studied. A plausible scenario for transitions to reduced transport regimes is proposed. The transition happens when there is sufficient momentum input so that the velocity shear can suppress or reduce the turbulence. However, it is possible to drive too much velocity shear and rekindle the turbulent transport. The optimal level of momentum injection is determined. The reduction in transport is maximized in the regions of low or zero magnetic shear.

  17. Injections of the selective adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 into the nucleus accumbens core attenuate the locomotor suppression induced by haloperidol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiwari, Keita; Madson, Lisa J; Farrar, Andrew M; Mingote, Susana M; Valenta, John P; DiGianvittorio, Michael D; Frank, Lauren E; Correa, Merce; Hockemeyer, Jörg; Müller, Christa; Salamone, John D

    2007-03-28

    There is considerable evidence of interactions between adenosine A2A receptors and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal areas, and antagonists of the A2A receptor have been shown to reverse the motor effects of DA antagonists in animal models. The D2 antagonist haloperidol produces parkinsonism in humans, and also induces motor effects in rats, such as suppression of locomotion. The present experiments were conducted to study the ability of the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 to reverse the locomotor effects of acute or subchronic administration of haloperidol in rats. Systemic (i.p.) injections of MSX-3 (2.5-10.0 mg/kg) were capable of attenuating the suppression of locomotion induced by either acute or repeated (i.e., 14 day) administration of 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol. Bilateral infusions of MSX-3 directly into the nucleus accumbens core (2.5 microg or 5.0 microg in 0.5 microl per side) produced a dose-related increase in locomotor activity in rats treated with 0.5 mg/kg haloperidol either acutely or repeatedly. There were no overall significant effects of MSX-3 infused directly into the dorsomedial nucleus accumbens shell or the ventrolateral neostriatum. These results indicate that antagonism of adenosine A2A receptors can attenuate the locomotor suppression produced by DA antagonism, and that this effect may be at least partially mediated by A2A receptors in the nucleus accumbens core. These studies suggest that adenosine and dopamine systems interact to modulate the locomotor and behavioral activation functions of nucleus accumbens core.

  18. Suppression of beam-excited electron waves by an externally applied RF signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Itatani, Ryohei

    1980-11-01

    Suppression of the beam-excited electron wave in a bounded system is investigated in connection with the beam distribution function. Wave suppression has two different processes depending on whether injected beams are reflected at the other end or not. In the absence of reflected beam electrons, deformation of the beam distribution function is observed in relation to the suppression of the electron wave. However, when beam electrons are reflected, the external wave suppresses the electron wave but distribution function shows no appreciable change. These experimental results show that nonlinear behaviors of beam electrons, namely behaviors of reflected beams, are quite important for wave suppression. By using the method of partial simulation, interaction between two waves in the bounded system including nonlinear motions of beam electrons is studied numerically. Qualitative agreement between experimental and numerical results is obtained. (author)

  19. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  20. Clinical classification of suppressed and low normal basal serum TSH concentrations in euthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, C.; Ziegelitz, D.; Correns, H.J.

    1981-02-01

    By use of highly sensitive and accurate TSH radioimmunoassay it can be shown that beginning with suppressed TSH-levels in serum during increasing TSH-levels TSH response after TRH injection increases concomitantly, i.e. there is positive correlation between basal TSH and TSH response after TRH. TRH mediated TSH-increase shows positive correlation to thyroidal suppressibility with thyroid hormones. The results demonstrate the importance of a highly sensitive and accurate TSH radioimmunoassay for clinical work especially for exclusion of hyperthyroidism or thyroidal autonomy for therapeutics of goiter, prevention of reoccurring goiter and control of thyroidal suppression.

  1. Lumican alleviates hypertrophic scarring by suppressing integrin-FAK signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yuqian; Li, Xueyong; Xu, Xiaoli; He, Zhi; Cui, Lei; Lv, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrophic scarring (HS) is an overcompensation of wound healing that increases the risk of cosmetic disfigurement and functional impairment. No gold standard has been established for the treatment or prevention of HS. Our study aims to elucidate the expression and function of lumican in the pathogenesis of HS as well as the underlying mechanism involved in this procedure. An animal model of HS (rabbit ear) was established, and the Ad-lumican vectors were locally injected. Primary fibroblasts isolated from patients with hypertrophic burn scars were used in vitro. Histological and molecular changes in HS pathogenesis were evaluated. The results showed that lumican is significantly reduced in HS tissues and fibroblasts from HS patients as compared to normal skin or cells. Lumican levels were further suppressed in response to TGF-β stimulation. However, lumican upregulation effectively thinned the scar area and inhibited fibroblast proliferation and the cell cycle. Meanwhile, Ad-lumican administration suppressed the deposition of extracellular matrix, such as collagen and CTGF. Ad-lumican injected animals or fibroblasts presented comparable integrin α 2 β 1 expression while greatly reduced phosphorylation of FAK compared to the negative control. Moreover, Ad-lumican administration largely enhanced the binding of lumican to integrin α 2 β 1 and may thus inhibit the signaling propagation of collagen-integrin α 2 β 1 . Overall, the restoration of lumican levels contributed to suppressing the HS progression by inhibiting collagen-integrin α 2 β 1 -FAK signaling. - Highlights: • Lumican is downregulated during hypertrophic scar formation. • Lumican inhibits fibroblast proliferation. • Lumican inhibits extracellular matrix deposition. • Lumican suppresses collagen-integrin-FAK signaling.

  2. The super collider transverse feedback system for suppression of the emittance growth and beam instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, V.A.

    1993-01-01

    A super collider transverse feedback system designed to suppress injection errors, emittance growth due to external noises, and beam instabilities is considered. It is supposed that the feedback system should consist of two circuits: an injection damper operating just after injection and a super damper. To damp the emittance growth, the superdamper has to operate with the ultimate decrement close to the revolution frequency. The physics of such a feedback system and its main limitations are discussed. 9 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tab

  3. Suppressed serum prolactin in sinoaortic-denervated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexander, N.; Melmed, S.; Morris, M.

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of arterial baroreceptor deafferentation on serum and pituitary prolactin (PRL) and on catecholamines in median eminence (ME) and anterior and posterior pituitaries. Male Wistar rats were sinoaortic denervated (SAD) or sham operated (SO). Three days after surgery serum prolactin, measured by radioimmunoassay, was suppressed in SAD rats, and dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, measured by radioenzymatic or high-performance liquid chromatography electron capture methods, were significantly reduced in ME of SAD rats. Simultaneously, anterior pituitary of SAD rats had significant increases in both catecholamines, whereas posterior pituitary showed no changes. Four hours after surgery serum PRL was also reduced in SAD rats, but no changes in ME catecholamines were found. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate were measured before and after injection of bromocriptine in SAD and SO rats 3 days after surgery. Bromocriptine markedly suppressed serum PRL in both groups and reduced MAP from 144 +/- 10 to 84 +/- 5 and from 116 +/- 2 to 99 +/- 3 in SAD and SO rats, respectively; heart rate was reduced in SAD rats. They conclude that the SAD rat is a model of hypertension with suppressed serum PRL and that interruption of arterial baroreceptor nerves suppresses PRL secretion probably by modulating tuberoinfundibular turnover of catecholamines

  4. Effects of Wall-Normal and Angular Momentum Injections in Airfoil Separation Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munday, Phillip M.; Taira, Kunihiko

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this computational study is to quantify the influence of wall-normal and angular momentum injections in suppressing laminar flow separation over a canonical airfoil. Open-loop control of fully separated, incompressible flow over a NACA 0012 airfoil at $\\alpha = 9^\\circ$ and $Re = 23,000$ is examined with large-eddy simulations. This study independently introduces wall-normal momentum and angular momentum into the separated flow using swirling jets through model boundary conditions. The response of the flow field and the surface vorticity fluxes to various combinations of actuation inputs are examined in detail. It is observed that the addition of angular momentum input to wall-normal momentum injection enhances the suppression of flow separation. Lift enhancement and suppression of separation with the wall-normal and angular momentum inputs are characterized by modifying the standard definition of the coefficient of momentum. The effect of angular momentum is incorporated into the modified coefficient of momentum by introducing a characteristic swirling jet velocity based on the non-dimensional swirl number. With this single modified coefficient of momentum, we are able to categorize each controlled flow into separated, transitional, and attached flows.

  5. Second Ripple Current Suppression by Two Bandpass Filters and Current Sharing Method for Energy Storage Converters in DC Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Ling; Chen, Yandong; Luo, An

    2017-01-01

    With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method by introdu......With the increasing of AC loads injected into DC microgird (MG) through the inverters, the second ripple current (SRC) in the front-end energy storage converter (ESC) and circulating current among the ESCs in DC MG become more and more serious. In this paper, the SRC suppression method...

  6. Light-induced, GTP-binding protein mediated membrane currents of Xenopus oocytes injected with rhodopsin of cephalopods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, H; Seidou, M; Kito, Y

    1991-01-01

    Xenopus oocytes that were injected with rhabdomeric membranes of squid and octopus photoreceptors acquired light sensitivity. The injected oocytes showed a light-induced current having characteristics similar to other G-protein-mediated Cl- currents induced by the activation of other membrane receptors. Pretreatment of the oocytes with pertussis toxin before the injection suppressed the generation of the light-induced current, indicating an ability of cephalopod rhodopsin to cross-react with an endogenous G-protein of Xenopus oocytes.

  7. Electrically Injected Polariton Lasing from a GaAs-Based Microcavity under Magnetic Field

    KAUST Repository

    Bhattacharya, Pallab; Das, Ayan; Jankowski, Marc; Bhowmick, Sishir; Lee, Chi-Sen; Jahangir, Shafat

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of relaxation bottleneck and subsequent polariton lasing is observed in a GaAs-based microcavity under the application of a magnetic field. The threshold injection current density is 0.32 A/cm2 at 7 Tesla.

  8. Xenopus Zic3 controls notochord and organizer development through suppression of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimi, Takahiko J; Hatayama, Minoru; Aruga, Jun

    2012-01-15

    Zic3 controls neuroectodermal differentiation and left-right patterning in Xenopus laevis embryos. Here we demonstrate that Zic3 can suppress Wnt/β-catenin signaling and control development of the notochord and Spemann's organizer. When we overexpressed Zic3 by injecting its RNA into the dorsal marginal zone of 2-cell-stage embryos, the embryos lost mesodermal dorsal midline structures and showed reduced expression of organizer markers (Siamois and Goosecoid) and a notochord marker (Xnot). Co-injection of Siamois RNA partially rescued the reduction of Xnot expression caused by Zic3 overexpression. Because the expression of Siamois in the organizer region is controlled by Wnt/β-catenin signaling, we subsequently examined the functional interaction between Zic3 and Wnt signaling. Co-injection of Xenopus Zic RNAs and β-catenin RNA with a reporter responsive to the Wnt/β-catenin cascade indicated that Zic1, Zic2, Zic3, Zic4, and Zic5 can all suppress β-catenin-mediated transcriptional activation. In addition, co-injection of Zic3 RNA inhibited the secondary axis formation caused by ventral-side injection of β-catenin RNA in Xenopus embryos. Zic3-mediated Wnt/β-catenin signal suppression required the nuclear localization of Zic3, and involved the reduction of β-catenin nuclear transport and enhancement of β-catenin degradation. Furthermore, Zic3 co-precipitated with Tcf1 (a β-catenin co-factor) and XIC (I-mfa domain containing factor required for dorsoanterior development). The findings in this report produce a novel system for fine-tuning of Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus through US guided injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Young; Park, Byeong Ho; Kang, Myong Jin; Cho, Jin Han; Choi, Jong Cheol; Choi, Sun Seob; Nam, Kyung Jin; Hwang, Tae Ho; Jeong, Jin Sook [College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumoral effect of recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) (Thymidine kinase (-)/GM-CSF (+)) that was administered as a US guided intratumoral injection in a rabbit model of hepatic VX2 carcinoma. VX2 carcinoma was implanted in the livers of 12 rabbits. US was performed at every week interval to detect hepatic mass after the implantation of VX2 carcinoma. The accurate tumor size and volume was evaluated with CT when the tumor was detected on US. US guided injection of rVV (10{sup 9} pfu/ml) was preformed in three rabbits, intravenous injection of the same dose of rVV was done in two rabbits and another seven rabbits that were without any treatment were selected as a control group. We evaluated the change of the hepatic tumor size and extrahepatic metastasis on serial CT. Tumor specimens were harvested from rabbits that were killed at 8 weeks after VX2 implantation. These tissues were histoimmuopathologically compared to each other (the virus injection group and the control group). The differences between these groups were statistically assessed with student t-tests. Tumor growth was significantly suppressed in the US guided injection group compared with the intravenous injection group or the control group ({rho} < 0.01). The intravenous injection group showed statistically significant tumor suppression compared to the control group ({rho} < 0.01) until 2 weeks after virus injection. Quantification of the pulmonary metastatic nodules was performed in view of both the number and volume. The average number or volume of the pulmonary metastatic nodules in the US injection group was much smaller than these in the control group. Histopathologically, the tumors of the US guided injection group showed less extensive necrosis than those of the control group. Immunohistochemically, the tumor of the US guided injection group showed more prominent infiltration of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) lymphocytes than did the tumors of the other group

  10. Effect of double air injection on performance characteristics of centrifugal compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Toshiyuki; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Yasui, Ryutaro; Tsujita, Hoshio

    2017-02-01

    In the operation of a centrifugal compressor of turbocharger, instability phenomena such as rotating stall and surge are induced at a lower flow rate close to the maximum pressure ratio. In this study, the compressed air at the exit of centrifugal compressor was re-circulated and injected to the impeller inlet by using two injection nozzles in order to suppress the surge phenomenon. The most effective circumferential position was examined to reduce the flow rate at the surge inception. Moreover, the influences of the injection on the fluctuating property of the flow field before and after the surge inception were investigated by examining the frequency of static pressure fluctuation on the wall surface and visualizing the compressor wall surface by oil-film visualization technique.

  11. Changes in numbers and types of mast cell colony-forming cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice after injection of distilled water: evidence that mast cells suppress differentiation of bone marrow-derived precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanakura, Y.; Kuriu, A.; Waki, N.; Nakano, T.; Asai, H.; Yonezawa, T.; Kitamura, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Two different types of cells in the peritoneal cavity of mice produce mast cell colonies in methylcellulose. Large mast cell colonies are produced by bone marrow-derived precursors resembling lymphoid cells by light microscopy (L-CFU-Mast), whereas medium and small mast cell colonies are produced by morphologically identifiable mast cells (M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast, respectively). In the present study we eradicated peritoneal mast cells by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of distilled water. The regeneration process was investigated to clarify the relationship between L-CFU-Mast, M-CFU-Mast, and S-CFU-Mast. After injection of distilled water, M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast disappeared, but L-CFU-Mast increased, and then M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast appeared, suggesting the presence of a hierarchic relationship. When purified peritoneal mast cells were injected two days after the water injection, the L-CFU-Mast did not increase. In the peritoneal cavity of WBB6F1-+/+ mice that had been lethally irradiated and rescued by bone marrow cells of C57BL/6-bgJ/bgJ (beige, Chediak-Higashi syndrome) mice, L-CFU-Mast were of bgJ/bgJ type, but M-CFU-Mast and S-CFU-Mast were of +/+ type. The injection of distilled water to the radiation chimeras resulted in the development of bgJ/bgJ-type M-CFU-Mast and then S-CFU-Mast. The presence of mast cells appeared to suppress the recruitment of L-CFU-Mast from the bloodstream and to inhibit the differentiation of L-CFU-Mast to M-CFU-Mast

  12. Control of fire blight (Erwinia amylovora on apple trees with trunk-injected plant resistance inducers and antibiotics and assessment of induction of pathogenesis-related protein genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan G. Aćimović

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Management of fire blight is complicated by limitations on use of antibiotics in agriculture, antibiotic resistance development, and limited efficacy of alternative control agents. Even though successful in control, preventive antibiotic sprays also affect non-target bacteria, aiding the selection for resistance which could ultimately be transferred to the pathogen Erwinia amylovora. Trunk injection is a target-precise pesticide delivery method that utilizes tree xylem to distribute injected compounds. Trunk injection could decrease antibiotic usage in the open environment and increase the effectiveness of compounds in fire blight control. In field experiments, after 1-2 apple tree injections of either streptomycin, potassium phosphites (PH or acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM, significant reduction of blossom and shoot blight symptoms was observed compared to water- or non-injected control trees. Overall disease suppression with streptomycin was lower than typically observed following spray applications to flowers. Trunk injection of oxytetracycline resulted in excellent control of shoot blight severity, suggesting that injection is a superior delivery method for this antibiotic. Injection of both ASM and PH resulted in the significant induction of PR-1, PR-2 and PR-8 protein genes in apple leaves indicating induction of systemic acquired resistance (SAR under field conditions. The time separating SAR induction and fire blight symptom suppression indicated that various defensive compounds within the SAR response were synthesized and accumulated in the canopy. ASM and PH suppressed fire blight even after cessation of induced gene expression. With the development of injectable formulations and optimization of doses and injection schedules, the injection of protective compounds could serve as an effective option for fire blight control.

  13. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Prevents the Development of Preeclampsia Through Suppression of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaling; Xu, Jianjuan; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Rong; Liu, Nin; Wu, Yanqun; Yuan, Hua; Che, Haisha

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and its complications have become the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. And the development of PE is still barely predictable and thus challenging to prevent and manage clinically. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of the disease. Our previous study demonstrated that exogenous Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) played a cytoprotective role in vascular endothelial cell by suppressing oxidative stress. In this study, we aim to investigate whether AAT contributes to the development of PE, and to identify the mechanism behind these effects. We found that AAT levels were significantly decreased in placenta tissues from women with PE compared that of healthy women. Notably, we demonstrate that AAT injection is able to relieve the high blood pressure and reduce urine protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in PE mice. In addition, our results showed that AAT injection exhibited an anti-oxidative stress role by significantly reducing PE mediated-upregulation of ROS, MMP9 and MDA, and increasing the levels of SOD, eNOS, and GPx with increased dosage of AAT. Furthermore, we found that AAT injection inactivated PE mediated activation of PAK/STAT1/p38 signaling. These findings were confirmed in human samples. In conclusion, our study suggests that exogenous AAT injection increases the antioxidants and suppresses oxidative stress, and subsequent prevention of PE development through inactivation of STAT1/p38 signaling. Thus, AAT would become a potential strategy for PE therapy.

  14. Alpha-1 antitrypsin prevents the development of preeclampsia through suppression of oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaling eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE and its complications have become the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. And the development of PE is still barely predictable and thus challenging to prevent and manage clinically. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of the disease. Our previous study demonstrated that exogenous Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT played a cytoprotective role in vascular endothelial cell by suppressing oxidative stress. In this study, we aim to investigate whether AAT contributes to the development of PE, and to identify the mechanism behind these effects. We found that AAT levels were significantly decreased in placenta tissues from women with PE compared that of healthy women. Notably, we demonstrate that AAT injection is able to relieve the high blood pressure and reduce urine protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in PE mice. In addition, our results showed that AAT injection exhibited an anti-oxidative stress role by significantly reducing PE mediated-upregulation of ROS, MMP9 and MDA, and increasing the levels of SOD, eNOS and GPx with increased dosage of AAT. Furthermore, we found that AAT injection inactivated PE mediated activation of PAK/STAT1/p38 signaling. These findings were confirmed in human samples. In conclusion, our study suggests that exogenous AAT injection increases the antioxidants and suppresses oxidative stress, and subsequent prevention of PE development through inactivation of STAT1/p38 signaling. Thus, AAT would become a potential strategy for PE therapy.

  15. Fabrication of Al2O3 Nano-Structure Functional Film on a Cellulose Insulation Polymer Surface and Its Space Charge Suppression Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cellulose insulation polymer (paper/pressboard has been widely used in high voltage direct current (HVDC transformers. One of the most challenging issues in the insulation material used for HVDC equipment is the space charge accumulation. Effective ways to suppress the space charge injection/accumulation in insulation material is currently a popular research topic. In this study, an aluminium oxide functional film was deposited on a cellulose insulation pressboard surface using reactive radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering. The sputtered thin film was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The influence of the deposited functional film on the dielectric properties and the space charge injection/accumulation behaviour was investigated. A preliminary exploration of the space charge suppression effect is discussed. SEM/EDS, XPS, and XRD results show that the nano-structured Al2O3 film with amorphous phase was successfully fabricated onto the fibre surface. The cellulose insulation pressboard surface sputtered by Al2O3 film has lower permittivity, conductivity, and dissipation factor values in the lower frequency (<103 Hz region. The oil-impregnated sputtered pressboard presents an apparent space-charge suppression effect. Compared with the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 90 min, the pressboard sputtered with Al2O3 film for 60 min had a better space charge suppression effect. Ultra-small Al2O3 particles (<10 nm grew on the surface of the larger nanoparticles. The nano-structured Al2O3 film sputtered on the fibre surface could act as a functional barrier layer for suppression of the charge injection and accumulation. This study offers a new perspective in favour of the application of insulation pressboard with a nano-structured function surface against space charge injection/accumulation in HVDC equipment.

  16. Designing a Prototype LPG Injection Electronic Control Unit for a Carburetted Gasoline Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barış ERKUŞ

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the originally carburetted gasoline engine was converted to gas-phase liquefied petroleum gas (LPG injection engine by using an after market LPG conversion kit's components except the electronic control unit (ECU. Instead of after market LPG injection ECU, the ECU which was designed considering the effects of  electromagnetic interference (EMI, was used for controlling injection. The designed ECU was tested in terms of EMI while the engine was being run and it was detected that the EMI noises could be suppressed as possible by taken measures. Designed ECU was used in performance tests at different engine conditions and the results obtained with LPG injection were compared with the results obtained with LPG carburetion. According to the performance test results, LPG injection ECU designed in this study could help to achieve low exhaust emissions and high engine performance.  

  17. Stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan with end wall injection and suction; Hekimen fukidashi suidashi ni yoru han'yo jikuryu sofuki no shissoku kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, K.; Kuroda, H.; Obata, S.; Chimura, O. [National Defense Academy, Kanagawa (Japan)

    1999-06-25

    The experimental studies are conducted to reveal the mechanism of stall margin improvement of an axial flow fan by injection or suction from the end wall. In case of injection, the largest improvement is obtained by the injection at about 0. 14 {approx} 0 .21 times axial chord length downstream from leading edge. The reason for large improvement is that stall vortex, shed intermittent separation vortex and tip leakage vortex are dissipated by this injection, and also that this blowing suppresses the separation of boundary layer. In case of suction, the largest improvement is found for the suction from the end wall near leading edge. The amplitude of periodic static pressure after stall inception becomes smaller in comparison with injection cases. These effects are increased with the increase of suction flow rate, because the discharge of the vortex occurs more easily. On the other hand, the suction from the upstream of leading edge reduces the axial velocity near rotor tip, and then it induces stall. Also we tried to visualize the tip region flow, The suppression mechanism is discussed based on the visualization. The suppression of stall is successfully photographed. (author)

  18. Nanoparticles Containing Curcumin Useful for Suppressing Macrophages In Vivo in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie Amano

    Full Text Available To explore a novel method using liposomes to suppress macrophages, we screened food constituents through cell culture assays. Curcumin was one of the strongest compounds exhibiting suppressive effects on macrophages. We subsequently tried various methods to prepare liposomal curcumin, and eventually succeeded in preparing liposomes with sufficient amounts of curcumin to suppress macrophages by incorporating a complex of curcumin and bovine serum albumin. The diameter of the resultant nanoparticles, the liposomes containing curcumin, ranged from 60 to 100 nm. Flow cytometric analyses revealed that after intraperitoneal administration of the liposomes containing curcumin into mice, these were incorporated mainly by macrophages positive for F4/80, CD36, and CD11b antigens. Peritoneal cells prepared from mice injected in vivo with the liposomes containing curcumin apparently decreased interleukin-6-producing activities. Major changes in body weight and survival rates in the mice were not observed after administrating the liposomes containing curcumin. These results indicate that the liposomes containing curcumin are safe and useful for the selective suppression of macrophages in vivo in mice.

  19. Possibility of Cooper-pair formation controlled by multi-terminal spin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Ishitaki, M.; Kimura, T.

    2018-03-01

    A multi-terminal lateral spin valve consisting of three ferromagnetic nanopillars on a Cu/Nb bilayer has been fabricated. We investigated the influence of the spin injection on the superconducting properties at the Cu/Nb interface. The non-local spin valve signal exhibits a clear spin insulation signature due to the superconducting gap of the Nb. The magnitude of the spin signal is found to show the probe configuration dependence. From the careful analysis of the bias current dependence, we found the suppression of the superconductivity due to the exchange interaction between the Cooper pair and accumulated spin plays an important role in the multi-terminal spin injections. We also discuss about the possibility of the Cooper-pair formation due to the spin injection from the two injectors with the anti-parallel alignment.

  20. STAR FORMATION SUPPRESSION DUE TO JET FEEDBACK IN RADIO GALAXIES WITH SHOCKED WARM MOLECULAR GAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Ogle, Patrick M.; Appleton, Philip N.; Alatalo, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We present Herschel observations of 22 radio galaxies, selected for the presence of shocked, warm molecular hydrogen emission. We measured and modeled spectral energy distributions in 33 bands from the ultraviolet to the far-infrared to investigate the impact of jet feedback on star formation activity. These galaxies are massive, early-type galaxies with normal gas-to-dust ratios, covering a range of optical and infrared colors. We find that the star formation rate (SFR) is suppressed by a factor of ∼3–6, depending on how molecular gas mass is estimated. We suggest that this suppression is due to the shocks driven by the radio jets injecting turbulence into the interstellar medium (ISM), which also powers the luminous warm H 2 line emission. Approximately 25% of the sample shows suppression by more than a factor of 10. However, the degree of SFR suppression does not correlate with indicators of jet feedback including jet power, diffuse X-ray emission, or intensity of warm molecular H 2 emission, suggesting that while injected turbulence likely impacts star formation, the process is not purely parameterized by the amount of mechanical energy dissipated into the ISM. Radio galaxies with shocked warm molecular gas cover a wide range in SFR–stellar mass space, indicating that these galaxies are in a variety of evolutionary states, from actively star-forming and gas-rich to quiescent and gas-poor. SFR suppression appears to have the largest impact on the evolution of galaxies that are moderately gas-rich.

  1. VLF wave injections from the ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliwell, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments on wave-particle interactions using VLF whistler-mode waves injected into the magnetosphere from Antartica are described. The injected signals are single-frequency coherent waves whose amplitudes and frequencies may be changed slowly with time, or else two or more coherent wave trains transmitted simultaneously to determine the nature of the response to multifrequency excitation. The waves may be amplified 30 dB or more and may trigger intense emissions having bandwidths that vary from a few to several hundred Hertz. In most cases significant growth and triggering occur only when the driving signal is essentially monochromatic (bandwidth 10 Hz). If two frequencies are transmitted simultaneously the signal at the lower frequency tends to be suppressed by 20 dB or more. These results are interpreted in terms of a feedback interaction between the waves and counter-streaming cyclotron resonant electrons in a region several hundred wavelengths long, centered on the magnetic equator.

  2. Rocuronium Bromide Inhibits Inflammation and Pain by Suppressing Nitric Oxide Production and Enhancing Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Sang Bin; Shin, Mal Soon; Han, Jin Hee; Moon, Sang Woong; Chang, Boksoon; Jeon, Jung Won; Yi, Jae Woo; Chung, Jun Young

    2016-12-01

    Rocuronium bromide is a nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking drug and has been used as an adjunct for relaxation or paralysis of the skeletal muscles, facilitation of endotracheal intubation, and improving surgical conditions during general anesthesia. However, intravenous injection of rocuronium bromide induces injection pain or withdrawal movement. The exact mechanism of rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement is not yet understood. We investigated whether rocuronium bromide treatment is involved in the induction of inflammation and pain in vascular endothelial cells. For this study, calf pulmonary artery endothelial (CPAE) cells were used, and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, Western blot, nitric oxide detection, and prostaglandin E 2 immunoassay were conducted. Rocuronium bromide treatment inhibited endothelial nitric oxide synthase and suppressed nitric oxide production in CPAE cells. Rocuronium bromide activated cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and increased prostaglandin E 2 synthesis in CPAE cells. Rocuronium bromide induced inflammation and pain in CPAE cells. Suppressing nitric oxide production and enhancing prostaglandin E 2 synthesis might be associated with rocuronium bromide-induced injection pain or withdrawal movement.

  3. Efficacy of hyaluronic acid or steroid injections for the treatment of a rat model of rotator cuff injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sasaki, Yu; Kijima, Takehiro; Hashimoto, Eiko; Sasaki, Yasuhito; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Yamazaki, Hironori; Miyagi, Masayuki; Ohtori, Seiji; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated dorsal root ganglia from C3-C7, analyzed gait, and compared the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) which was a marker of inflammatory pain in a rat rotator cuff tear model in which the supraspinatus and infraspinatus tendons were detached; comparisons were made to a sham group in which only the tendons were exposed. Fluorogold was injected into the glenohumeral joint 21 days after surgery in both groups, and saline, steroids, or hyaluronic acid was injected into the glenohumeral joint in the rotator cuff tear group 26 days after surgery. The proportions of CGRP-immunoreactive neurons were higher and the gait parameters were impaired in the rotator cuff tear group compared to in the sham group. However, the CGRP expression was reduced and the gait was improved with steroid or hyaluronic acid injection compared to saline, suggesting that both hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suppressed of inflammation which thought to be provided pain relief. While there were no significant differences, the suppression of CGRP expression and the improved gait after hyaluronic acid and steroid injections suggested that both methods were effective for rat rotator cuff tear model. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. All-optical logic gates and wavelength conversion via the injection locking of a Fabry-Perot semiconductor laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, E.; Pochet, M.; Schmidt, J.; Locke, T.; Naderi, N.; Usechak, N. G.

    2013-03-01

    This work investigates the implementation of all-optical logic gates based on optical injection locking (OIL). All-optical inverting, NOR, and NAND gates are experimentally demonstrated using two distributed feedback (DFB) lasers, a multi-mode Fabry-Perot laser diode, and an optical band-pass filter. The DFB lasers are externally modulated to represent logic inputs into the cavity of the multi-mode Fabry-Perot slave laser. The input DFB (master) lasers' wavelengths are aligned with the longitudinal modes of the Fabry-Perot slave laser and their optical power is used to modulate the injection conditions in the Fabry-Perot slave laser. The optical band-pass filter is used to select a Fabry- Perot mode that is either suppressed or transmitted given the logic state of the injecting master laser signals. When the input signal(s) is (are) in the on state, injection locking, and thus the suppression of the non-injected Fabry-Perot modes, is induced, yielding a dynamic system that can be used to implement photonic logic functions. Additionally, all-optical photonic processing is achieved using the cavity-mode shift produced in the injected slave laser under external optical injection. The inverting logic case can also be used as a wavelength converter — a key component in advanced wavelength-division multiplexing networks. As a result of this experimental investigation, a more comprehensive understanding of the locking parameters involved in injecting multiple lasers into a multi-mode cavity and the logic transition time is achieved. The performance of optical logic computations and wavelength conversion has the potential for ultrafast operation, limited primarily by the photon decay rate in the slave laser.

  5. Suppression of grasshopper sound production by nitric oxide-releasing neurons of the central complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinrich, Anja; Kunst, Michael; Wirmer, Andrea; Holstein, Gay R.

    2008-01-01

    The central complex of acridid grasshoppers integrates sensory information pertinent to reproduction-related acoustic communication. Activation of nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic GMP-signaling by injection of NO donors into the central complex of restrained Chorthippus biguttulus females suppresses muscarine-stimulated sound production. In contrast, sound production is released by aminoguanidine (AG)-mediated inhibition of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the central body, suggesting a basal release of NO that suppresses singing in this situation. Using anti-citrulline immunocytochemistry to detect recent NO production, subtypes of columnar neurons with somata located in the pars intercerebralis and tangential neurons with somata in the ventro-median protocerebrum were distinctly labeled. Their arborizations in the central body upper division overlap with expression patterns for NOS and with the site of injection where NO donors suppress sound production. Systemic application of AG increases the responsiveness of unrestrained females to male calling songs. Identical treatment with the NOS inhibitor that increased male song-stimulated sound production in females induced a marked reduction of citrulline accumulation in central complex columnar and tangential neurons. We conclude that behavioral situations that are unfavorable for sound production (like being restrained) activate NOS-expressing central body neurons to release NO and elevate the behavioral threshold for sound production in female grasshoppers. PMID:18574586

  6. Effect of injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides of GAD isozymes into rat ventromedial hypothalamus on food intake and locomotor activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannai, M; Ichikawa, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    1998-02-16

    In the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) plays a role in regulating feeding and running behaviors. The GABA synthetic enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), consists of two isozymes, GAD65 and GAD67. In the present study, the phosphorothioated antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) of each GAD isozyme were injected bilaterally into the VMH of male rats, and food intake, body weight and locomotor activity were monitored. ODNs were incorporated in the water-absorbent polymer (WAP, 0.2 nmol/microliter) so that ODNs were retained at the injection site. Each antisense ODN of GAD65 or GAD67 tended to reduce food intake on day 1 (day of injection=day 0) though not significantly. An injection combining both antisense ODNs significantly decreased food intake only on day 1, but body weight remained significantly lower than the control for 5 days. This suppression of body weight gain could be attributed to a significant increase in locomotor activity between days 3 and 5. Individual treatment with either ODNs did not change locomotor activity. The increase in daily locomotor activity in the group receiving the combined antisense ODNs occurred mainly during the light phase. Neither vehicle (WAP) nor control ODN affected food intake, body weight and locomotor activity. Histological studies indicated that antisense ODN distributed within 800 micron from the edge of the area where WAP was located 24 h after the injection gradually disappeared within days, but still remained within 300 micron m distance even 7 days after the injection. Antisense ODN was effectively incorporated by all the cell types examined, i.e., neurons, astrocytes and microglias. Further, HPLC analysis revealed that antisense ODNs of GAD isozymes, either alone or combined, decreased the content of GABA by 50% in VMH 24 h after the injection. These results indicate that suppression of GABA synthesis by either of the GAD isozymes is synergistically involved in suppressing food

  7. Tokamak experiments on JIPP T-II with pulsed gas injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, K.; Itoh, S.; Fujita, J.; Kadota, K.; Kawahata, K.

    1978-02-01

    The confinement of tokamak plasma has been investigated in the wide range of electron density average n sub(e) from 1 x 10 13 to 5 x 10 13 cm -3 by using the pulsed gas injection. The gross energy confinement time increases with increase of electron density and reaches 14 msec. The averaged effective ionic charge derived from plasma conductivity = is about 1 to 2 in the regime of small streaming parameter ( = 0.01 -- 0.08). The ratio of ion temperature to electron one is in the range greater than 0.5. This fact means that the ion energy confinement time is greater than the electron-ion energy relaxation time. Excessive injection of cold neutral gas excites m = 2 MHD oscillations. Much more gas injection leads to the remarkable cooling of plasma periphery and disruptive instabilities. These MHD oscillations and disruptive instabilities have been suppressed by the heating of plasma periphery with the second rapid rise of plasma current. (auth.)

  8. MicroRNA-214 Suppresses Gluconeogenesis by Targeting Activating Transcriptional Factor 4*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Junjie; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yajie; Deng, Jiali; Chen, Shanghai; Wang, Chunxia; Guo, Feifan

    2015-01-01

    Although the gluconeogenesis pathway is already a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological functions of miR-214 in gluconeogenesis. The expression of miR-214 was suppressed by glucagon via protein kinase A signaling in primary hepatocytes, and miR-214 was down-regulated in the livers of fasted, high fat diet-induced diabetic and leptin receptor-mutated (db/db) mice. The overexpression of miR-214 in primary hepatocytes suppressed glucose production, and silencing miR-214 reversed this effect. Gluconeogenesis was suppressed in the livers of mice injected with an adenovirus expressing miR-214 (Ad-miR-214). Additionally, Ad-miR-214 alleviated high fat diet-induced elevation of gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we found that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a reported target of miR-214, can reverse the suppressive effect of miR-214 on gluconeogenesis in primary hepatocytes, and this suppressive effect was blocked in liver-specific ATF4 knock-out mice. ATF4 regulated gluconeogenesis via affecting forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) transcriptional activity. Finally, liver-specific miR-214 transgenic mice exhibited suppressed gluconeogenesis and reduced expression of ATF4, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Taken together, our results suggest that the miR-214-ATF4 axis is a novel pathway for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. PMID:25657009

  9. Radiative response on massive noble gas injection for Runaway suppression in disruptive plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    The most direct way to avoid the formation of a relativistic electron beam under the influence of an electric field in a highly conducting plasma, is to increase the electron density to a value, where the retarding collisional force balances the accelerating one. In a disruptive tokamak plasma, rapid cooling induces a high electric field, which could easily violate the force balance and push electrons into the relativistic regime. Such relativistic electrons, the so-called runaways, accumulate many MeV's and can cause substantial damage when they hit the wall. This thesis is based on the principle of rapidly fueling the plasma for holding the force balance even under the influence of high electric fields typical for disruptions. The method of injecting high amounts of noble gas particles into the plasma from a close distance is put into practice in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion test facility. In the framework of this thesis, a multi-channel photometer system based on 144 AXUV detectors in a toroidal stereo measurement setup was built. It kept its promise to provide new insights into the transport mechanisms in a disruptive plasma under the influence of strong radiative interaction dynamics between injected matter and the hot plasma.

  10. Clinical correlation to differences in ranibizumab and aflibercept vascular endothelial growth factor suppression times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauser, Sascha; Muether, Philipp S

    2016-11-01

    To determine clinical correlations to intraocular vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) suppression times (VSTs) on the treatment of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) with ranibizumab (Lucentis) or aflibercept (Eylea). Seven of 89 treatment-naïve nAMD eyes showed persistent choroidal neovascular membrane (CNV) activity throughout a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT)-driven pro re nata (PRN) regimen of intravitreal ranibizumab injections over 28±4 months. The treatment was switched to PRN aflibercept injections and patients were followed for another 15±2 months. A total of 160 aqueous humour specimens were collected before the intravitreal injections, and their VEGF-A concentrations were assayed by Luminex multiplex bead analysis (Luminex, Austin, Texas, USA). Intraocular VEGF-A concentrations were correlated to CNV activity shown by SD-OCT. The mean duration of suppression of VEGF-A concentrations in aqueous humour below the lower limit of quantification of our assay was 34±5 (26-69) days for ranibizumab and 67±14 (49-89) days for aflibercept (p<0.001). The percentual reduction of central retinal volume (CRV) 6 weeks after injection was higher for aflibercept compared with ranibizumab (p=0.009). The time point of clinical re-activity occurred about 50% earlier than the respective VST for each ranibizumab and aflibercept. The VST under aflibercept treatment exceeded that under ranibizumab treatment by a factor of 2. This difference correlated with differential clinical CRV reduction 6 weeks after the respective injection. For both medications, clinical activity was found at a time point as early as 50% of the individual VST. NCT01213667, post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  11. Performance of CO2 enrich CNG in direct injection engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmansyah, W. B.; Ayandotun, E. Z.; Zainal, A.; Aziz, A. R. A.; Heika, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    This paper investigates the potential of utilizing the undeveloped natural gas fields in Malaysia with high carbon dioxide (CO2) content ranging from 28% to 87%. For this experiment, various CO2 proportions by volume were added to pure natural gas as a way of simulating raw natural gas compositions in these fields. The experimental tests were carried out using a 4-stroke single cylinder spark ignition (SI) direct injection (DI) compressed natural gas (CNG) engine. The tests were carried out at 180° and 300° before top dead centre (BTDC) injection timing at 3000 rpm, to establish the effects on the engine performance. The results show that CO2 is suppressing the combustion of CNG while on the other hand CNG combustion is causing CO2 dissociation shown by decreasing CO2 emission with the increase in CO2 content. Results for 180° BTDC injection timing shows higher performance compared to 300° BTDC because of two possible reasons, higher volumetric efficiency and higher stratification level. The results also showed the possibility of increasing the CO2 content by injection strategy.

  12. Mechanism of suppressive effect of low dose radiation on cancer cell dissemination in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Haiqing; Li Xiuyi; Chen Yubing; Zhang Yingchun; Liu Shuzheng

    1997-01-01

    Influence of low dose radiation on immunity in C57 BL/6 mice injected with cancer cells was studied. In mice given 75 mGy WBI 24 h before injection of Lewis lung carcinoma cells or B 16 melanoma cells, the percentage of S-phase thymocytes and CD 3+ thymocytes, the splenic NK cell activity, IL-2 secretion and γIFN secretion were found to be potentiated 2∼8 day after irradiation in comparison with the sham-irradiation mice. The results suggest that low dose radiation might suppress cancer cell dissemination via the enhancement of immune reactivity

  13. Pharmacological inhibition of eicosanoid synthesis and hyperalgesia in yeast-injected rat paws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opas, E.E.; Dallob, A.; Herold, E.; Luell, S.; Humes, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Brewer's yeast caused an inflammation characterized by edema and hyperalgesia when injected into the hindpaw of a rat. These events were temporally distinct and each was associated with increases of specific arachidonic and oxygenation products. As determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) on whole paw lipid extracts, the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) products, leukotrienes C 4 and D 4 and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraendic acid (5-HETE) were synthesized concurrently with the onset of edema (maximal at 15 minutes after yeast injection). The hyperalgesic phase of the inflammation (3-4 hr after yeast injection) was associated with increased tissue levels of the cyclooxygenase (CO) products, prostaglandin E 2 and thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) as well as increases in levels of the 5-LO products, leukotriene B 4 (LTB 4 ) and 5-HETE. Pharmacological agents modulated the synthesis of eicosanoids and suppressed the hyperalgesic response

  14. Investigation of Self-injection Locked Visible Laser Diodes for High Bit-rate Visible Light Communication

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Md. Hosne Mobarok; Shemis, Mohamed; Shen, Chao; Oubei, Hassan M.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Khan, Mohammed Zahed Mustafa

    2018-01-01

    -mode-suppression-ratio was considerably increased in all the cases, reaching as high as ~20 dB in self-injection locked blue laser diode, thus enabling a close to single mode operation. This work paves the way for attaining high speed optical wireless communications by overcoming

  15. Effect of Microjet Injection on Supersonic Jet Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.; Podboy, G. G.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of microjet (jet) injection on the noise from supersonic jets is investigated. Three convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles and one convergent nozzle, all having the same exit diameters, are used in the study. The jets are injected perpendicular to the primary jet close to the nozzle lip from six equally-spaced ports having a jet-to-primary-jet diameter ratio of 0.0054. Effects in the over-expanded, fully expanded as well as underexpanded flow regimes are explored. Relative to the effect on subsonic jets, larger reductions in the overall sound pressure level (OASPL) are achieved in most supersonic conditions. The largest reductions are typically associated with suppression of screech and transonic tones. For a shock-free, fully expanded case, the OASPL reductions achieved are comparable to that in the subsonic case; the same correlation, found for subsonic jet noise reduction at shallow observation angle, applies.

  16. Epigenetic suppression of potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 expression in inflammatory pain induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C-R; Cheng, J-K; Wu, C-H; Chen, K-H; Liu, C-K

    2017-02-01

    Multiple mechanisms contribute to the stimulus-evoked pain hypersensitivity that may be experienced after peripheral inflammation. Persistent pathological stimuli in many pain conditions affect the expression of certain genes through epigenetic alternations. The main purpose of our study was to investigate the role of epigenetic modification on potassium-chloride co-transporter 2 (KCC2) gene expression in the persistence of inflammatory pain. Persistent inflammatory pain was induced through the injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) in the left hind paw of rats. Acetyl-histone H3 and H4 level was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation in the spinal dorsal horn. Pain behaviour and inhibitory synaptic function of spinal cord were determined before and after CFA injection. KCC2 expression was determined by real time RT-PCR and Western blot. Intrathecal KCC2 siRNA (2 μg per 10 μL per rat) or HDAC inhibitor (10 μg per 10 μL per rat) was injected once daily for 3 days before CFA injection. Persistent inflammatory pain epigenetically suppressed KCC2 expression through histone deacetylase (HDAC)-mediated histone hypoacetylation, resulting in decreased inhibitory signalling efficacy. KCC2 knock-down caused by intrathecal administration of KCC2 siRNA in naïve rats reduced KCC2 expression in the spinal cord, leading to sensitized pain behaviours and impaired inhibitory synaptic transmission in their spinal cords. Moreover, intrathecal HDAC inhibitor injection in CFA rats increased KCC2 expression, partially restoring the spinal inhibitory synaptic transmission and relieving the sensitized pain behaviour. These findings suggest that the transcription of spinal KCC2 is regulated by histone acetylation epigenetically following CFA. Persistent pain suppresses KCC2 expression through HDAC-mediated histone hypoacetylation and consequently impairs the inhibitory function of inhibitory interneurons. Drugs such as HDAC inhibitors that suppress the influences of

  17. Effects of lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle on conditioned suppression to a CS and to a contextual background stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, E; Schugens, M M; Gray, J A

    1989-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine whether the dorsal noradrenergic bundle (DB) plays a role in conditioning to context. Rats received either bilateral lesions of the DB by local injection of 6-hydroxydopamine, vehicle injections only, or sham operations. All animals were then trained to barpress for food on a variable interval (VI) schedule. Two 5-min intrusion periods were superimposed on the VI baseline during each session. An 'envelope' stimulus (flashing light) was on throughout each intrusion period. In addition, embedded in the two intrusion periods of each session, there occurred 8 presentations of a 'punctate' conditioned stimulus (CS) (a 15-s clicker), and 8 presentations of a 0.5-s footshock. Within each surgical condition rats were randomly allocated to one of three conditioning groups, receiving 100%, 50% or 0% temporal association between CS and shock. Conditioning to the punctate CS and to the context provided by the envelope stimulus was assessed by the degree of suppression of the barpress response relative to the VI baseline. Responding was most suppressed in the punctate CS in the 100 and 50% conditions, and most suppressed in the envelope stimulus in the 0% condition. DB lesions released response suppression to the punctate CS, had no effect on suppression to the envelope stimulus, and reduced sensitivity to CS-shock probability as measured by response suppression during the punctate CS. These results confirm previous reports that DB lesions alleviate response suppression to shock-associated cues, identify some of the parameters that affect this phenomenon, but fail to support a role for the DB in contextual conditioning.

  18. Stability of optically injected two-state quantum-dot lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinecke, Stefan; Lingnau, Benjamin; Roehm, Andre; Luedge, Kathy [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin (Germany)

    2017-12-15

    Simultaneous two-state lasing is a unique property of semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) lasers. This not only changes steady-state characteristics of the laser device but also its dynamic response to perturbations. In this paper we investigate the dynamic stability of QD lasers in an external optical injection setup. Compared to conventional single-state laser devices, we find a strong suppression of dynamical instabilities in two-state lasers. Furthermore, depending on the frequency and intensity of the injected light, pronounced areas of bistability between both lasing frequencies appear, which can be employed for fast optical switching in all-optical photonic computing applications. These results emphasize the suitability of QD semiconductor lasers in future integrated optoelectronic systems where a high level of stability is required. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  19. Stability of optically injected two-state quantum-dot lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meinecke, Stefan; Lingnau, Benjamin; Roehm, Andre; Luedge, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous two-state lasing is a unique property of semiconductor quantum-dot (QD) lasers. This not only changes steady-state characteristics of the laser device but also its dynamic response to perturbations. In this paper we investigate the dynamic stability of QD lasers in an external optical injection setup. Compared to conventional single-state laser devices, we find a strong suppression of dynamical instabilities in two-state lasers. Furthermore, depending on the frequency and intensity of the injected light, pronounced areas of bistability between both lasing frequencies appear, which can be employed for fast optical switching in all-optical photonic computing applications. These results emphasize the suitability of QD semiconductor lasers in future integrated optoelectronic systems where a high level of stability is required. (copyright 2017 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  20. Visceral hyperalgesia induced by forebrain-specific suppression of native Kv7/KCNQ/M-current in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bian Xiling

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysfunction of brain-gut interaction is thought to underlie visceral hypersensitivity which causes unexplained abdominal pain syndromes. However, the mechanism by which alteration of brain function in the brain-gut axis influences the perception of visceral pain remains largely elusive. In this study we investigated whether altered brain activity can generate visceral hyperalgesia. Results Using a forebrain specific αCaMKII promoter, we established a line of transgenic (Tg mice expressing a dominant-negative pore mutant of the Kv7.2/KCNQ2 channel which suppresses native KCNQ/M-current and enhances forebrain neuronal excitability. Brain slice recording of hippocampal pyramidal neurons from these Tg mice confirmed the presence of hyperexcitable properties with increased firing. Behavioral evaluation of Tg mice exhibited increased sensitivity to visceral pain induced by intraperitoneal (i.p. injection of either acetic acid or magnesium sulfate, and intracolon capsaicin stimulation, but not cutaneous sensation for thermal or inflammatory pain. Immunohistological staining showed increased c-Fos expression in the somatosensory SII cortex and insular cortex of Tg mice that were injected intraperitoneally with acetic acid. To mimic the effect of cortical hyperexcitability on visceral hyperalgesia, we injected KCNQ/M channel blocker XE991 into the lateral ventricle of wild type (WT mice. Intracerebroventricular injection of XE991 resulted in increased writhes of WT mice induced by acetic acid, and this effect was reversed by co-injection of the channel opener retigabine. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that forebrain hyperexcitability confers visceral hyperalgesia, and suppression of central hyperexcitability by activation of KCNQ/M-channel function may provide a therapeutic potential for treatment of abdominal pain syndromes.

  1. Diesel/CNG Mixture Autoignition Control Using Fuel Composition and Injection Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firmansyah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Combustion phasing is the main obstacle to the development of controlled auto-ignition based (CAI engines to achieve low emissions and low fuel consumption operation. Fuel combinations with substantial differences in reactivity, such as diesel/compressed natural gas (CNG, show desirable combustion outputs and demonstrate great possibility in controlling the combustion. This paper discusses a control method for diesel/CNG mixture combustion with a variation of fuel composition and fuel stratification levels. The experiments were carried out in a constant volume combustion chamber with both fuels directly injected into the chamber. The mixture composition was varied from 0 to 100% CNG/diesel at lambda 1 while the fuel stratification level was controlled by the injection phasing between the two fuels, with gaps between injections ranging from 0 to 20 ms. The results demonstrated the suppressing effect of CNG on the diesel combustion, especially at the early combustion stages. However, CNG significantly enhanced the combustion performance of the diesel in the later stages. Injection gaps, on the other hand, showed particular behavior depending on mixture composition. Injection gaps show less effect on combustion phasing but a significant effect on the combustion output for higher diesel percentage (≥70%, while it is contradictive for lower diesel percentage (<70%.

  2. Fire Source Accessibility of Water Mist Fire Suppression Improvement through Flow Method Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Kim, Yun Jung; Park, Mun Hee [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, nuclear power plants set CO{sub 2} fire suppression system. However it is hard to establish and to maintain and it also has difficulties performing function test. Therefore, it needs to develop a new fire suppression system to replace the existing CO{sub 2} fire suppression systems in nuclear power plant. In fact, already, there exist alternatives - gas fire suppression system or clean fire extinguishing agent, but it is hard to apply because it requires a highly complicated plan. However, water mist fire suppression system which has both water system and gas system uses small amount of water and droplet, so it is excellent at oxygen displacement and more suitable for nuclear power plant because it can avoid second damage caused by fire fighting water. This paper explains about enclosure effect of water mist fire suppression. And it suggests a study direction about water mist fire source approach improvement and enclosure effect improvement, using flow method control of ventilation system. Water mist fire suppression can be influenced by various variable. And flow and direction of ventilation system are important variable. Expectations of the plan for more fire source ventilation system is as in the following. It enhances enclosure effects of water mists, so it improves extinguish performance. Also the same effect as a inert gas injection causes can be achieved. Lastly, it is considered that combustible accessibility of water mists will increase because of descending air currents.

  3. MicroRNA-214 suppresses gluconeogenesis by targeting activating transcriptional factor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Jin; Yu, Junjie; Liu, Bin; Guo, Yajie; Deng, Jiali; Chen, Shanghai; Wang, Chunxia; Guo, Feifan

    2015-03-27

    Although the gluconeogenesis pathway is already a target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, the potential role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in gluconeogenesis remains unclear. Here, we investigated the physiological functions of miR-214 in gluconeogenesis. The expression of miR-214 was suppressed by glucagon via protein kinase A signaling in primary hepatocytes, and miR-214 was down-regulated in the livers of fasted, high fat diet-induced diabetic and leptin receptor-mutated (db/db) mice. The overexpression of miR-214 in primary hepatocytes suppressed glucose production, and silencing miR-214 reversed this effect. Gluconeogenesis was suppressed in the livers of mice injected with an adenovirus expressing miR-214 (Ad-miR-214). Additionally, Ad-miR-214 alleviated high fat diet-induced elevation of gluconeogenesis and hyperglycemia. Furthermore, we found that activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), a reported target of miR-214, can reverse the suppressive effect of miR-214 on gluconeogenesis in primary hepatocytes, and this suppressive effect was blocked in liver-specific ATF4 knock-out mice. ATF4 regulated gluconeogenesis via affecting forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) transcriptional activity. Finally, liver-specific miR-214 transgenic mice exhibited suppressed gluconeogenesis and reduced expression of ATF4, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and glucose-6-phosphatase in liver. Taken together, our results suggest that the miR-214-ATF4 axis is a novel pathway for the regulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. BWR MARK I pressure suppression pool mixing and stratification analysis using GOTHIC lumped parameter modeling methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Ozkan Emre; George, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    As a part of the GOTHIC (GOTHIC incorporates technology developed for the electric power industry under the sponsorship of EPRI.) Fukushima Technical Evaluation project (EPRI, 2014a, b, 2015), GOTHIC (EPRI, 2014c) has been benchmarked against test data for pool stratification (EPRI, 2014a, b, Ozdemir and George, 2013). These tests confirmed GOTHIC’s ability to simulate pool mixing and stratification under a variety of anticipated suppression pool operating conditions. The multidimensional modeling requires long simulation times for events that may occur over a period of hours or days. For these scenarios a lumped model of the pressure suppression chamber is desirable to maintain reasonable simulation times. However, a lumped model for the pool is not able to predict the effects of pool stratification that can influence the overall containment response. The main objective of this work is on the development of a correlation that can be used to estimate pool mixing and stratification effects in a lumped modeling approach. A simplified lumped GOTHIC model that includes a two zone model for the suppression pool with controlled circulation between the upper and lower zones was constructed. A pump and associated flow connections are included to provide mixing between the upper and lower pool volumes. Using numerically generated data from a multidimensional GOTHIC model for the suppression pool, a correlation was developed for the mixing rate between the upper and lower pool volumes in a two-zone, lumped model. The mixing rate depends on the pool subcooling, the steam injection rate and the injection depth

  5. SBWR PCCS vent phenomena and suppression pool mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, P. [Thermal-Hydraulics Lab., Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Andreani, M. [Nuclear Engineering Lab., Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The most important phenomena influencing the effectiveness of the pressure suppression capability of the water pool within the Wetwell compartment of the SBWR Containment, during the period of Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) venting, have been critically reviewed. In addition, calculations have been carried-out to determine the condensation of the vented steam and the distribution of the energy deposited in the liquid pool. It has been found that a large contribution to the vapour suppression is due to condensation inside the vent pipe. The condensation rate of the steam inside the bubbles, produced at the vent exit, during their rise to the surface, may however be rather low, because of the large size bubbles. This can lead to vapour channelling to the Wetwell gas space. The above comments are likely to be ameliorated if the vent exit is a distributed source or sparger. Due to the large water flow rates within the {open_quotes}bubbly two-phase plume{close_quotes} generated by the gas injection, the water in the pool above the vent exit is likely to be heated nearly isothermally (perfect mixing). The effect of the suppression pool walls would be to enhance the recirculation and, consequently to promote mixing. The large size of the bubbles therein and of the walls on pool mixing are the most severe difficulties in extrapolating the results from scaled experiments to prototypical conditions.

  6. Bacterial effector HopF2 interacts with AvrPto and suppresses Arabidopsis innate immunity at the plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant pathogenic bacteria inject a cocktail of effector proteins into host plant cells to modulate the host immune response, thereby promoting pathogenicity. How or whether these effectors work cooperatively is largely unknown. The Pseudomonas syringae DC3000 effector HopF2 suppresses the host plan...

  7. Acute hypothalamic suppression significantly affects trabecular bone but not cortical bone following recovery and ovariectomy surgery in a rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa R. Yingling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Osteoporosis is “a pediatric disease with geriatric consequences.” Bone morphology and tissue quality co-adapt during ontogeny for sufficient bone stiffness. Altered bone morphology from hypothalamic amenorrhea, a risk factor for low bone mass in women, may affect bone strength later in life. Our purpose was to determine if altered morphology following hypothalamic suppression during development affects cortical bone strength and trabecular bone volume (BV/TV at maturity.Methods. Female rats (25 days old were assigned to a control (C group (n = 45 that received saline injections (.2 cc or an experimental group (GnRH-a (n = 45 that received gonadotropin releasing hormone antagonist injections (.24 mg per dose for 25 days. Fifteen animals from each group were sacrificed immediately after the injection protocol at Day 50 (C, GnRH-a. The remaining animals recovered for 135 days and a subset of each group was sacrificed at Day 185 ((C-R (n = 15 and (G-R (n = 15. The remaining animals had an ovariectomy surgery (OVX at 185 days of age and were sacrificed 40 days later (C-OVX (n = 15 and (G-OVX (n = 15. After sacrifice femurs were mechanically tested and scanned using micro CT. Serum C-terminal telopeptides (CTX and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 were measured. Two-way ANOVA (2 groups (GnRH-a and Control X 3 time points (Injection Protocol, Recovery, post-OVX was computed.Results. GnRH-a injections suppressed uterine weights (72% and increased CTX levels by 59%. Bone stiffness was greater in the GnRH-a groups compared to C. Ash content and cortical bone area were similar between groups at all time points. Polar moment of inertia, a measure of bone architecture, was 15% larger in the GnRH-a group and remained larger than C (19% following recovery. Both the polar moment of inertia and cortical area increased linearly with the increases in body weight. Following the injection protocol, trabecular BV/TV was 31% lower in the Gn

  8. Activation of glucocorticoid receptors in Müller glia is protective to retinal neurons and suppresses microglial reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallina, Donika; Zelinka, Christopher Paul; Cebulla, Colleen M; Fischer, Andy J

    2015-11-01

    Reactive microglia and macrophages are prevalent in damaged retinas. Glucocorticoid signaling is known to suppress inflammation and the reactivity of microglia and macrophages. In the vertebrate retina, the glucocorticoid receptor (GCR) is known to be activated and localized to the nuclei of Müller glia (Gallina et al., 2014). Accordingly, we investigated how signaling through GCR influences the survival of neurons using the chick retina in vivo as a model system. We applied intraocular injections of GCR agonist or antagonist, assessed microglial reactivity, and the survival of retinal neurons following different damage paradigms. Microglial reactivity was increased in retinas from eyes that were injected with vehicle, and this reactivity was decreased by GCR-agonist dexamethasone (Dex) and increased by GCR-antagonist RU486. We found that activation of GCR suppresses the reactivity of microglia and inhibited the loss of retinal neurons resulting from excitotoxicity. We provide evidence that the protection-promoting effects of Dex were maintained when the microglia were selectively ablated. Similarly, intraocular injections of Dex protected ganglion cells from colchicine-treatment and protected photoreceptors from damage caused by retinal detachment. We conclude that activation of GCR promotes the survival of ganglion cells in colchicine-damaged retinas, promotes the survival of amacrine and bipolar cells in excitotoxin-damaged retinas, and promotes the survival of photoreceptors in detached retinas. We propose that suppression of microglial reactivity is secondary to activation of GCR in Müller glia, and this mode of signaling is an effective means to lessen the damage and vision loss resulting from different types of retinal damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Bee venom suppresses methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Young Bae; Li, Jing; Kook, Ji Ae; Kim, Tae Wan; Jeong, Young Chan; Son, Ji Seon; Lee, Hyejung; Kim, Kee Won; Lee, Jang Hern

    2010-02-01

    Although acupuncture is most commonly used for its analgesic effect, it has also been used to treat various drug addictions including cocaine and morphine in humans. This study was designed to investigate the effect of bee venom injection on methamphetamine-induced addictive behaviors including conditioned place preference and hyperlocomotion in mice. Methamphetamine (1 mg/kg) was subcutaneously treated on days 1, 3 and 5 and the acquisition of addictive behaviors was assessed on day 7. After confirming extinction of addictive behaviors on day 17, addictive behaviors reinstated by priming dose of methamphetamine (0.1 mg/kg) was evaluated on day 18. Bee venom (20 microl of 1 mg/ml in saline) was injected to the acupuncture point ST36 on days 1, 3 and 5. Repeated bee venom injections completely blocked development of methamphetamine-induced acquisition and subsequent reinstatement. Single bee venom acupuncture 30 minutes before acquisition and reinstatement test completely inhibited methamphetamine-induced acquisition and reinstatement. Repeated bee venom acupunctures from day 8 to day 12 after methamphetamine-induced acquisition partially but significantly suppressed reinstatement. These findings suggest that bee venom acupuncture has a preventive and therapeutic effect on methamphetamine-induced addiction.

  10. Induction of the immune response suppression in mice inoculated with Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdez, J C; Mesón, D E; Sirena, A; de Petrino, S F; Eugenia, M; de Jorrat, B B; de Valdex, M G

    1986-03-01

    There is a controversy in respect to the immunological response (humoral or cellular) concerning the defense against Candida albicans. Candidosis would induce sub-populations of suppressor cells in the host cell-immune response. This report tries to show the effect of different doses of C. albicans (alive or heat-killed) on the expression of cell-mediated and humoral immunity. The effect upon cell immunity was determined by inoculating different lots of singeneic mice, doses of varied concentration of C. albicans and checking for delayed-type hipersensitivity (D.T.H.). D.T.H. was also controlled in syngeneic normal mice which had previously been injected with inoculated mice spleen cells. Humoral immunity was assayed by measuring the induced blastogenesis by Pokeweed Mitogen on spleen mononuclear cells with different doses of C. albicans. Results obtained show that the different doses gave origin to: Suppression of humoral and cell response (10(8) alive); Suppression of only humoral response (10(6) alive); Suppression of cell response and increase of humoral response (10(9) dead); Increase of both responses (10(8) dead).

  11. Dexamethasone-suppression adrenal scintigraphy in hyperandrogenism: concise communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gross, M.D.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.P.; Woodbury, M.C.; Schteingart, D.E.; Beierwaltes, W.H.

    1981-01-01

    To assess the contribution of adrenal-derived androgens in women with hirsutism, adrenal scintigrams under dexamethasone suppression (DS) were performed on 35 women with increasing facial or body hair and irregular or absent menses. Based upon the DS regimen chosen (8 mg/d for 2 days or 4 md/d for 7 days before the injection of 6..beta..-(/sup 131/I)iodomethylnorcholesterol), three imaging patterns were identified. The first was the absence of uptake before 3 days (8-mg DS) or before 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This imaging pattern was seen in 17 of the 35 patients studied and was considered normal. The second pattern was bilateral uptake earlier than 3 days (8-mg DS regimen) or 5 days (4-mg DS) after injection. This was seen in 13 of the 35 patients and was interpreted as bilateral early visualization. Adrenal-vein catheterization performed on six patients with this pattern showed increased adrenal-vein testosterone. The third pattern, observed in five patients, was unilateral early visualization, which in four cases investigated to date was the result of an adrenocortical adenoma. This study confirms the adrenal cortex as a source of androgens in women with hirsutism and hyperandrogenism and demonstrates that DS adrenal scintigraphy can be utilized to identify those women in whom adrenal-derived androgens contribute to their hyperandrogenism.

  12. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Safe injection procedures regarding final waste disposal were sufficiently adopted, while measures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene, as well as injection practices were inadequately carried out. Lack of job aid posters that promote safe injection and safe disposal of ...

  13. LPS infusion suppresses serum FGF21 levels in healthy adult volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Esben Stistrup; Rittig, Nikolaj; Bach, Ermina

    2017-01-01

    circulating levels of FGF21 after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infusion. DESIGN: Two randomized, single blinded, placebo-controlled crossover trials were used. SETTING: The studies were performed at a university hospital clinical research center. PATIENTS AND INTERVENTIONS: Study 1 (LPS bolus): Eight young......, healthy, lean males were investigated two times: 1) after isotonic saline injection, and 2) after LPS injection (bolus of 1 ng/kg). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Study 2 (continuous LPS infusion): Eight, healthy males were investigated two times: 1) during continuously isotonic saline infusion, and 2......) during continuously LPS infusion (0.06 ng/kg/h). Each study day lasted 4 hours. Circulating FGF21 levels were quantified every second hour by an immunoassay. RESULTS: A LPS bolus resulted in a late suppression (t = 240 minutes) of serum FGF21 (P=0.035). Continuous LPS infusion revealed no significant...

  14. Optical 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmission at 4 Gbit/s by directly modulating a coherently injection-locked colorless laser diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Yu-Chieh; Li, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Huai-Yung; Peng, Peng-Chun; Lu, Hai-Han; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2012-08-27

    Coherently injection-locked and directly modulated weak-resonant-cavity laser diode (WRC-FPLD) for back-to-back optical 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (QAM) and 52-subcarrier orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission with maximum bit rate up to 4 Gbit/s at carrier frequency of 2.5 GHz is demonstrated. The WRC-FPLD transmitter source is a specific design with very weak-resonant longitudinal modes to preserve its broadband gain spectral characteristics for serving as a colorless WDM-PON transmitter. Under coherent injection-locking, the relative-intensity noise (RIN) of the injection-locked WRC-FPLD can be suppressed to ?105 dBc/Hz and the error vector magnitude of the received optical OFDM data is greatly reduced with the amplitude error suppressed down 5.5%. Such a coherently injection-locked single-mode WRC-FPLD can perform both the back-to-back and the 25-km-SMF 16-QAM-52-OFDM transmissions with a symbol rate of 20-MSa/s in each OFDM subcarrier. After coherent injection locking, the BER of the back-to-back transmitted 16-QAM-52-OFDM data is reduced to 2.5 × 10(-5) at receiving power of ?10 dBm. After propagating along a 25-km-long SMF, a receiving power sensitivity of ?7.5 dBm is required to obtain a lowest BER of 2.5 × 10(-5), and a power penalty of 2.7 dB is observed when comparing with the back-to-back transmission.

  15. Intravitreal Infliximab Injection to Treat Experimental Endophthalmitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondas, Osman; Ates, Orhan; Keles, Sadullah; Yildirim, Kenan; Baykal, Orhan; Karamese, Selina Aksak; Karamese, Murat; Uslu, Hakan; Yildirim, Mustafa; Naldan, Muhammet Emin; Ates, Irem

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the use of an intravitreal injection of infliximab and of dexamethasone combined with vancomycin to treat experimental endophthalmitis induced by Staphylococcus epidermidis. The study was conducted between March 25 and April 13, 2012. Twenty-five six-month-old healthy rabbits were used, each weighing 2.5-3 kg. The rabbits were randomized into five groups with five animals per group. Endophthalmitis was induced by 0.1 mL (103 colony-forming units) S. epidermidis in all groups. In group 1, injection was not implemented after the occurrence of endophthalmitis. In groups 2, 3, and 4, the following intravitreal injections were given 24 h after the occurrence of endophthalmitis: group 2, 0.1 mg/0.1 mL vancomycin; group 3, 1 mg/0.1 mL vancomycin and 1 mg/0.1 mL dexamethasone; and group 4, 1 mg/0.1 mL vancomycin and 2 mg/0.1 mL infliximab. Group 5 was the control/uninfected group. The rabbits were clinically assessed each day for seven days. On day 9, a histopathologic evaluation was performed after enucleation. After a clinical evaluation, no statistically significant difference was found between the vancomycin+infliximab and vancomycin+dexamethasone groups (p>0.05). The difference was significant when both groups were compared with the vancomycin group (p0.05). An intravitreal injection of infliximab and of dexamethasone combined with vancomycin have similar clinical and histopathologic effects. To supplement the antibiotic treatment of endophthalmitis, infliximab in a safe dose range can be used as an alternative to dexamethasone to suppress inflammation and prevent ocular damage.

  16. Long-term Mortality in HIV-Positive Individuals Virally Suppressed for >3 Years With Incomplete CD4 Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engsig, Frederik N; Zangerle, Robert; Katsarou, Olga

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals initiating combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) with low CD4 counts achieve viral suppression but not CD4 cell recovery. We aimed to identify (1) risk factors for failure to achieve CD4 count >200 cells/µL after 3 years...... of the suppressed period. Logistic regression was used to identify risk factors for incomplete CD4 recovery (≤200 cells/µL) and Cox regression to identify associations with mortality. RESULTS: Of 5550 eligible individuals, 835 (15%) did not reach a CD4 count >200 cells/µL after 3 years of suppression. Increasing...... age, lower initial CD4 count, male heterosexual and injection drug use transmission, cART initiation after 1998, and longer time from initiation of cART to start of the virally suppressed period were risk factors for not achieving a CD4 count >200 cells/µL. Individuals with CD4 ≤200 cells/µL after 3...

  17. Synovial response to intraarticular injections of hyaluronate in frozen shoulder. A quantitative assessment with dynamic magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Kazuya; Mashitori, Hirotaka; Ohno, Wataru; Hamada, Jun'ichiro; Sakai, Hiroya; Saotome, Koichi

    2004-01-01

    To clarify the response of frozen shoulder (FS) to intraarticular injections of high-molecular-weight sodium hyaluronate (HA), a mixture of 2.5 ml of HA and 1.5 ml of 1% lidocaine was injected into the glenohumeral joint of 11 patients with FS, 8 of whom received five weekly injections. The patients were assessed using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association shoulder score (JOA score) before the first injection, 1 week after the first injection, and 1 week after the final injection. Following each clinical evaluation, the patients underwent dynamic magnetic resonance imaging enhanced with Gd-DTPA, and the coefficient of enhancement (CE) in the glenohumeral synovium was calculated, with the examiners blinded to the clinical information. The JOA score tended to be greater and the CE smaller after injection than before injection. The changes in the CE following both single and repeated injections were negatively correlated with changes in the JOA score. Thus, clinical improvement in patients with FS was associated with a decrease in the CE. Because the CE depends on the degree of synovitis, the therapeutic effect of intraarticular HA injection for FS results, at least in part, from suppression of synovitis in the glenohumeral joint through an antiinflammatory effect. (author)

  18. Impact of injecting drug use on response to highly active antiretroviral treatment in HIV-1-infected patients: a nationwide population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Vang; Omland, Lars; Gerstoft, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients infected through injecting drug use (injecting drug users, IDUs) compared to patients infected via other routes (non-IDUs). We conducted...... for non-IDUs, and IDUs initiated HAART later than non-IDUs. In conclusion, more than half of the HIV-infected patients in Denmark infected through injecting drug use gained full viral suppression after initiating HAART. Absolute CD4(+) cell count was lower and mortality higher among IDUs than non-IDUs....

  19. Harmonics Suppression for Single-Phase Grid-Connected Photovoltaic Systems in Different Operation Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Zhou, Keliang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    -connected PV inverters may be severely affected in different operation modes. In this paper, a detailed analysis is conducted to reveal the relationship between the harmonics level with the power factor and the current level in the PV systems. A current control solution which employs an Internal Model...... Principle (IMP) is proposed to suppress the harmonic currents injected into the grid. Experiments are carried out to verify the analysis and the performance of the proposed control method. It is demonstrated that the proposed method presents an effective solution to harmonics suppression for single......-phase grid-connected PV systems in different operation modes. Especially, it can remove higher order harmonics effectively leading to a better power quality compared to the Proportional plus Multi-Resonant Controller, and it has less computational burden....

  20. Whisker motor cortex reorganization after superior colliculus output suppression in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, Carlo; Maggiolini, Emma; Franchi, Gianfranco

    2013-10-01

    The effect of unilateral superior colliculus (SC) output suppression on the ipsilateral whisker motor cortex (WMC) was studied at different time points after tetrodotoxin and quinolinic acid injections, in adult rats. The WMC output was assessed by mapping the movement evoked by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) and by recording the ICMS-evoked electromyographic (EMG) responses from contralateral whisker muscles. At 1 h after SC injections, the WMC showed: (i) a strong decrease in contralateral whisker sites, (ii) a strong increase in ipsilateral whisker sites and in ineffective sites, and (iii) a strong increase in threshold current values. At 6 h after injections, the WMC size had shrunk to 60% of the control value and forelimb representation had expanded into the lateral part of the normal WMC. Thereafter, the size of the WMC recovered, returning to nearly normal 12 h later (94% of control) and persisted unchanged over time (1-3 weeks). The ICMS-evoked EMG response area decreased at 1 h after SC lesion and had recovered its baseline value 12 h later. Conversely, the latency of ICMS-evoked EMG responses had increased by 1 h and continued to increase for as long as 3 weeks following the lesion. These findings provide physiological evidence that SC output suppression persistently withdrew the direct excitatory drive from whisker motoneurons and induced changes in the WMC. We suggest that the changes in the WMC are a form of reversible short-term reorganization that is induced by SC lesion. The persistent latency increase in the ICMS-evoked EMG response suggested that the recovery of basic WMC excitability did not take place with the recovery of normal explorative behaviour. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Effect of gadolinium injection on diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) imaging of breast lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moschetta, Marco; Telegrafo, Michele; Rella, Leonarda; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion-weighted imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) provides both qualitative and quantitative imaging of breast lesions and are usually performed before contrast material injection (CMI). This study aims to assess whether the administration of gadolinium significantly affects DWIBS imaging. 200 patients were prospectively evaluated by MRI with STIR, TSE-T2, pre-CMI DWIBS, contrast enhanced THRIVE-T1 and post-CMI DWIBS sequences. Pre and post-CMI DWIBS were analyzed searching for the presence of breast lesions and calculating the ADC value. ADC values of ≤1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s were considered suspicious for malignancy. This analysis was then compared with the histological findings. Sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic accuracy (DA), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative (NPV) were calculated for both sequences and represented by ROC analysis. Pre and post-CMI ADC values were compared by using the paired t test. In 150/200 (59%) patients, pre and post-CMI DWIBS indicated the presence of breast lesions, 53 (35%) with ADC values of >1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s and 97 (65%) with ADC≤1.44×10(-3) mm(2)/s. Pre-CMI and post-DWIBS sequences obtained the same sensitivity, specificity, DA, PPV and NPV values of 97%, 83%, 89%, 79% and 98%. The mean ADC value of benign lesions was 1.831±0.18×10(-3) mm(2)/s before and 1.828±0.18×10(-3) mm(2)/s after CMI. The mean ADC value of the malignant lesions was 1.146±0.16×10(-3) mm(2)/s before and 1.144±0.16×10(-3) mm(2)/s after CMI. No significant difference was found between pre and post CMI ADC values (p>0.05). DWIBS imaging is not influenced by CMI. Breast MR protocol could be modified by placing DWIBS after dynamic contrast enhanced sequences in order to maximize patient cooperation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Suppression pool dynamics. Annual report, 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Chiou, H.H.; Lee, B.K.C.; Dhir, V.K.; Liu, C.Y.; Catton, I.

    1978-02-01

    The work performed at UCLA to study the transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena induced by the motion of submerged air and steam bubbles in a boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression pool, following a loss-of-coolant accident is described. The air transients, which include vent clearing, bubble growth, and pool swelling, were investigated by a series of air-water tests. These tests were performed in a cylindrical plexiglas test chamber. Gas was injected downward through different-diameter pipes, placed in the middle of the test chamber, which was filled with water at room temperature

  3. 1-methylmalate from camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) suppressed D-galactosamine-induced liver injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akachi, Toshiyuki; Shiina, Yasuyuki; Kawaguchi, Takumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Morita, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Kimio

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the protective effects of fruit juices against D-galactosamine (GalN)-induced liver injury, lyophilized fruit juices (total 12 kinds) were fed to rats for 7 d, and then we evoked liver injury by injecting GalN. The juice of camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia) significantly suppressed GalN-induced liver injury when the magnitude of liver injury was assessed by plasma alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, although some other juices (acerola, dragon fruit, shekwasha, and star fruit) also tended to have suppressive effects. An active compound was isolated from camu-camu juice by solvent fractionation and silica gel column chromatography. The structure was determined to be 1-methylmalate. On the other hand, malate, 1,4-dimethylmalate, citrate, and tartrate had no significant effect on GalN-induced liver injury. It is suggested that 1-methylmalate might be a rather specific compound among organic acids and their derivatives in fruit juices in suppressing GalN-induced liver injury.

  4. Benzo[a]pyrene-induced immunotoxicity in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes): relationship between lymphoid CYP1A activity and humoral immune suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, E.A.; Li, Y.; Zelikoff, J.T.

    2004-01-01

    Exposure to the environmental contaminant benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) results in suppression of immune function in both mammalian and fish species. This laboratory has previously demonstrated that a single intraperitoneal (IP) injection of BaP reduced lymphocyte proliferation, phagocyte-mediated superoxide generation, and antibody-forming cell (AFC) numbers in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The objective of the current study was to determine the role of BaP metabolism in the observed immunosuppression. Results from rodent studies have suggested that BaP elicits its immunotoxic effects via upregulation of cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) and the subsequent production of immunosuppressive BaP metabolites. In this study, exposure of medaka to 200 μg BaP/g BW significantly induced CYP1A expression or activity within lymphoid tissue 48 h post-IP injection; induction was observed specifically within distinct subpopulations of kidney mononuclear cells. Concurrent injection of fish with BaP and the CYP1A1 inhibitors α-naphthoflavone (ANF) or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) resulted in inhibition of renal EROD activity and amelioration of BaP-induced suppression of medaka AFC numbers. Results of this study suggest that (1) BaP-induced suppression of medaka humoral immunity relies upon the CYP1A-catalyzed production of immunotoxic BaP metabolites and (2) BaP metabolites may be created in situ, directly by specific cells within kidney lymphoid tissue. Thus, apparently, mechanisms involved in BaP-induced immunosuppression have been phylogenetically conserved from fish to mammals

  5. Expression of immune-response genes in lepidopteran host is suppressed by venom from an endoparasitoid, Pteromalus puparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Qi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationships between parasitoids and their insect hosts have attracted attention at two levels. First, the basic biology of host-parasitoid interactions is of fundamental interest. Second, parasitoids are widely used as biological control agents in sustainable agricultural programs. Females of the gregarious endoparasitoid Pteromalus puparum (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae inject venom along with eggs into their hosts. P. puparum does not inject polydnaviruses during oviposition. For this reason, P. puparum and its pupal host, the small white butterfly Pieris rapae (Lepidoptera: Pieridae, comprise an excellent model system for studying the influence of an endoparasitoid venom on the biology of the pupal host. P. puparum venom suppresses the immunity of its host, although the suppressive mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that P. puparum venom influences host gene expression in the two main immunity-conferring tissues, hemocytes and fat body. Results At 1 h post-venom injection, we recorded significant decreases in transcript levels of 217 EST clones (revealing 113 genes identified in silico, including 62 unknown contigs derived from forward subtractive libraries of host hemocytes and in transcript levels of 288 EST clones (221 genes identified in silico, including 123 unknown contigs from libraries of host fat body. These genes are related to insect immune response, cytoskeleton, cell cycle and apoptosis, metabolism, transport, stress response and transcriptional and translational regulation. We verified the reliability of the suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH data with semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis of a set of randomly selected genes. This analysis showed that most of the selected genes were down-regulated after venom injection. Conclusions Our findings support our hypothesis that P. puparum venom influences gene expression in host hemocytes and fat body. Specifically

  6. Solitary pulse-on-demand production by optical injection locking of passively Q-switched InGaN diode laser near lasing threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, X., E-mail: xi.zeng@csem.ch, E-mail: dmitri.boiko@csem.ch; Stadelmann, T.; Grossmann, S.; Hoogerwerf, A. C.; Boïko, D. L., E-mail: xi.zeng@csem.ch, E-mail: dmitri.boiko@csem.ch [Centre Suisse d' Electronique et de Microtechnique SA (CSEM), CH-2002 Neuchâtel (Switzerland); Sulmoni, L.; Lamy, J.-M.; Grandjean, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (ICMP), École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2015-02-16

    In this letter, we investigate the behavior of a Q-switched InGaN multi-section laser diode (MSLD) under optical injection from a continuous wave external cavity diode laser. We obtain solitary optical pulse generation when the slave MSLD is driven near free running threshold, and the peak output power is significantly enhanced with respect to free running configuration. When the slave laser is driven well above threshold, optical injection reduces the peak power. Using standard semiconductor laser rate equation model, we find that both power enhancement and suppression effects are the result of partial bleaching of the saturable absorber by externally injected photons.

  7. Suppression of plasma turbulence during optimised shear configurations in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, G.D.; Borba, D.N.; Alper, B.

    1999-08-01

    Density turbulence suppression is observed in the internal transport barrier (ITB) region of JET discharges with optimised magnetic shear. The suppression occurs in two stages. First, low frequency turbulence is reduced across the plasma core by a toroidal velocity shear generated by intense auxiliary heating. Then when the ITB forms, high frequency turbulence is reduced locally within the steep pressure gradient region of the ITB, consistent with the effects of enhanced E x B poloidal shear. The turbulence suppression is correlated with reduced plasma transport and improved fusion performance. Much effort has been spent in recent years in developing alternative scenarios for operating tokamak fusion reactors. One particular scenario involves reversing or reducing the central magnetic shear to form an internal transport barrier (ITB). The result is reduced plasma core energy transport and enhanced fusion performance. It is believed that ITBs may be formed through a combination of E x B velocity shear and magnetic shear stabilisation of plasma turbulence and instabilities. In this Letter we present results from JET optimised shear discharges showing that turbulence suppression during ITB formation occurs in two stages. First low frequency turbulence is reduced across the plasma core, coinciding with a region of strong toroidal velocity shear; then high frequency turbulence is locally suppressed around the ITB region, consistent with enhanced pressure gradient driven E x B poloidal shear. The measurements were made using a system of X-mode reflectometers consisting of two, dual-channel toroidal correlation reflectometers at 75 GHz (covering plasma outboard edge) and 105 GHz (core and inboard edge), and a 92-96 GHz swept frequency radial correlation reflectometer (plasma core). Reflectometry is a powerful tool for measuring density fluctuations. The highly localised reflection of the microwave beam gives excellent spatial localisation. Measurements can be made

  8. Code Development of Radioactive Aerosol Scrubbing in Pool-Injection Zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Hyun Joung; Ha, Kwang Soon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Dong Soon [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the injection zone. The developed code has been verified using the experimental results and evaluated parametrically on the input variables. In injection zone, the initial steam condensation was most effective mechanism for the aerosol removal, and the steam fraction and pool temperature were highly affected on the decontamination factor by initial steam condensation. The aerosol scrubbing code will be updated to evaluate the decontamination factor at rise zone and finally whole pool scrubber phenomena. If a severe accident occurs in a nuclear power plant (NPP), the aerosol and gaseous fission products might be produced in the reactor vessel, and then released to the environment after the containment failure. FCVS (Filtered Containment Venting System) is one of the severe accident mitigation systems for retaining the containment integrity by discharging the high-temperature and high-pressure fission products to the environment after passing through the filtration system. In general, the FCVS is categorized into two types, wet and dry types. The scrubbing pool could play an important role in the wet type FCVS because a large amount of aerosol is captured in the water pool. The pool scrubbing phenomena have been modelled and embedded in several computer codes, such as SPARC (Suppression Pool Aerosol Removal Code), BUSCA (BUbble Scrubbing Algorithm) and SUPRA (Suppression Pool Retention Analysis). These codes aim at simulating the pool scrubbing process and estimating the decontamination factors (DFs) of the radioactive aerosol and iodine gas in the water pool, which is defined as the ratio of initial mass of the specific radioactive material to final massy after passing through the water pool. The pool scrubbing models were reviewed and an aerosol scrubbing code has been prepared to calculate decontamination factor through the injection

  9. Incidence of enhancement of the optic nerve/sheath complex in fat-suppression orbit MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ho Kyu; Yoon, Kwon Ha; Choi, Choong Gon; Suh, Dae Chul [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-04-15

    To elucidate the incidence of Gd-DTPA enhancement of the optic nerve/sheath complex (ONC) in patients with various ophthalmopathies using fat-suppression MRI. Orbit MRI with fat-suppression technique (ChemSat) was performed in 58 patients with normal and various orbital lesions. The fat-suppression MR was done with and without Gd-DTPA injection in all cases. MR findings were reviewed retrospectively in a blind fashion with respect to presence or absence of contrast enhancement of the ONC. Contrast enhancement of the ONC was seen in 86% (6/7) of cavernous sinus lesions, 80% (8/10) of intraconal lesions excluding the ONC, 57% (16/28) of ONC lesions, 38% (3/8) of ocular lesions, and 2% (1/55) of normal orbits. The ONC enhancement was the most common in optic nerve/sheath tumors (10/10), and pseudotumors (6/6), cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous malformations (3/3) and cavernous sinus thrombosis (2/2), and less frequently seen in optic neuritis (3/14). Enhancement of the ONC may be seen in lesions of the cavernous sinus and orbit other than optic nerve/sheath lesion.

  10. Suppression of experimental tractional retinal detachment by low-dose radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meredith, T.A.; Ficker, L.; Stevens, R.; Olkowski, Z.; Anderson, M.; Hartmann, J.; Crocker, I.

    1988-01-01

    We used a standardized model of traction retinal detachment (TRD) created by cellular membranes in the rabbit to test the effects of low-dose radiation therapy in suppressing TRD. The vitreous and lens were removed from pigmented rabbits, and homologous conjunctival fibroblasts were grown in cell culture. After resolution of postoperative inflammation, 50,000 fibroblasts in 0.1 mL of culture fluid were injected into the vitreous cavity. Ten eyes were maintained as controls. Nineteen eyes received 6 Gy (600 rad) of x-ray irradiation one to three hours after cellular injection. Eyes were monitored weekly for three weeks with indirect ophthalmoscopy. Seven (70%) of ten control eyes developed TRD at one week; no additional TRDs were noted at weeks 2 and 3. Significantly smaller numbers of irradiated eyes developed TRD: at week 1, two (11%) of 19; at week 2, five (28%) of 18; and at week 3, five (29%) of 17

  11. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  12. Promotion or suppression of experimental metastasis of B16 melanoma cells after oral administration of lapachol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Masayo; Murakami, Manabu; Takegami, Tsutomu; Ota, Takahide

    2008-01-01

    Lapachol [2-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)-1,4-naphthoquinone] is a vitamin K antagonist with antitumor activity. The effect of lapachol on the experimental metastasis of murine B16BL6 melanoma cells was examined. A single oral administration of a high toxic dose of lapachol (80-100 mg/kg) 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells drastically promoted metastasis. This promotion of metastasis was also observed in T-cell-deficient mice and NK-suppressed mice. In vitro treatment of B16BL6 cells with lapachol promoted metastasis only slightly, indicating that lapachol promotes metastasis primarily by affecting host factors other than T cells and NK cells. A single oral administration of warfarin, the most commonly used vitamin K antagonist, 6 h before iv injection of tumor cells also drastically promoted the metastasis of B16BL6 cells. The promotion of metastasis by lapachol and warfarin was almost completely suppressed by preadministration of vitamin K3, indicating that the promotion of metastasis by lapachol was derived from vitamin K antagonism. Six hours after oral administration of lapachol or warfarin, the protein C level was reduced maximally, without elongation of prothrombin time. These observations suggest that a high toxic dose of lapachol promotes metastasis by inducing a hypercoagulable state as a result of vitamin K-dependent pathway inhibition. On the other hand, serial oral administration of low non-toxic doses of lapachol (5-20 mg/kg) weakly but significantly suppressed metastasis by an unknown mechanism, suggesting the possible use of lapachol as an anti-metastatic agent

  13. Double-pass tapered amplifier diode laser with an output power of 1 W for an injection power of only 200 μW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolpasi, V; von Klitzing, W

    2010-11-01

    A 1 W tapered amplifier requiring only 200 μW of injection power at 780 nm is presented in this paper. This is achieved by injecting the seeding light into the amplifier from its tapered side and feeding the amplified light back into the small side. The amplified spontaneous emission of the tapered amplifier is suppressed by 75 dB. The double-passed tapered laser, presented here, is extremely stable and reliable. The output beam remains well coupled to the optical fiber for a timescale of months, whereas the injection of the seed light did not require realignment for over a year of daily operation.

  14. The Aversive Agent Lithium Chloride Suppresses Phasic Dopamine Release Through Central GLP-1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Chartoff, Elena H; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2016-02-01

    Unconditioned rewarding stimuli evoke phasic increases in dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) while discrete aversive stimuli elicit pauses in dopamine neuron firing and reductions in NAc dopamine concentration. The unconditioned effects of more prolonged aversive states on dopamine release dynamics are not well understood and are investigated here using the malaise-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl). We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic increases in NAc dopamine resulting from electrical stimulation of dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Systemic LiCl injection reduced electrically evoked dopamine release in the NAc of both anesthetized and awake rats. As some behavioral effects of LiCl appear to be mediated through glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation, we hypothesized that the suppression of phasic dopamine by LiCl is GLP-1R dependent. Indeed, peripheral pretreatment with the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) potently attenuated the LiCl-induced suppression of dopamine. Pretreatment with Ex-9 did not, however, affect the suppression of phasic dopamine release by the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, supporting a selective effect of GLP-1R stimulation in LiCl-induced dopamine suppression. By delivering Ex-9 to either the lateral or fourth ventricle, we highlight a population of central GLP-1 receptors rostral to the hindbrain that are involved in the LiCl-mediated suppression of NAc dopamine release.

  15. Utilizing Schottky barriers to suppress short-channel effects in organic transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Anton F.; Zojer, Karin

    2017-10-01

    Transistors with short channel lengths exhibit profound deviations from the ideally expected behavior. One of the undesired short-channel effects is an enlarged OFF current that is associated with a premature turn on of the transistor. We present an efficient approach to suppress the OFF current, defined as the current at zero gate source bias, in short-channel organic transistors. We employ two-dimensional device simulations based on the drift-diffusion model to demonstrate that intentionally incorporating a Schottky barrier for injection enhances the ON-OFF ratio in both staggered and coplanar transistor architectures. The Schottky barrier is identified to directly counteract the origin of enlarged OFF currents: Short channels promote a drain-induced barrier lowering. The latter permits unhindered injection of charges even at reverse gate-source bias. An additional Schottky barrier hampers injection for such points of operations. We explain how it is possible to find the Schottky barrier of the smallest height necessary to exactly compensate for the premature turn on. This approach offers a substantial enhancement of the ON-OFF ratio. We show that this roots in the fact that such optimal barrier heights offer an excellent compromise between an OFF current diminished by orders of magnitude and an only slightly reduced ON current.

  16. Non-injection Drug Use and Injection Initiation Assistance among People Who Inject Drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hamida, Amen; Rafful, Claudia; Jain, Sonia; Sun, Shelly; Gonzalez-Zuniga, Patricia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Werb, Dan

    2018-02-01

    Although most people who inject drugs (PWID) report receiving assistance during injection initiation events, little research has focused on risk factors among PWID for providing injection initiation assistance. We therefore sought to determine the influence of non-injection drug use among PWID on their risk to initiate others. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models on longitudinal data among a prospective cohort of PWID in Tijuana, Mexico (Proyecto El Cuete IV), while controlling for potential confounders. At baseline, 534 participants provided data on injection initiation assistance. Overall, 14% reported ever initiating others, with 4% reporting this behavior recently (i.e., in the past 6 months). In a multivariable GEE model, recent non-injection drug use was independently associated with providing injection initiation assistance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.39-4.20). Further, in subanalyses examining specific drug types, recent non-injection use of cocaine (AOR = 9.31, 95% CI = 3.98-21.78), heroin (AOR = 4.00, 95% CI = 1.88-8.54), and methamphetamine (AOR = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.16-3.55) were all significantly associated with reporting providing injection initiation assistance. Our findings may have important implications for the development of interventional approaches to reduce injection initiation and related harms. Further research is needed to validate findings and inform future approaches to preventing entry into drug injecting.

  17. Treatment of surgical brain injury by immune tolerance induced by intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of brain antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weijian; Liu, Yong; Liu, Baolong; Tan, Huajun; Lu, Hao; Wang, Hong; Yan, Hua

    2016-08-24

    Surgical brain injury (SBI) defines complications induced by intracranial surgery, such as cerebral edema and other secondary injuries. In our study, intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injection of allogeneic myelin basic protein (MBP) or autogeneic brain cell suspensions were administered to a standard SBI model. Serum pro-inflammatory IL-2, anti-inflammatory IL-4 concentrations and the CD4(+)T/CD8(+)T ratio were measured at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after surgery to verify the establishment of immune tolerance. Furthermore, we confirmed neuroprotective effects by evaluating neurological scores at 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21 d after SBI. Anti-Fas ligand (FasL) immunohistochemistry and TUNEL assays of brain sections were tested at 21 d after surgery. Intrathymic injections of MBP or autogeneic brain cell suspensions functioned by both suppressing secondary inflammatory reactions and improving prognoses, whereas hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions exerted a better effect than MBP. Intrathymic and hepatic portal vein injections of MBP had equal effects on reducing secondary inflammation and improving prognoses. Otherwise, hepatic portal vein injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions had better outcomes than intrathymic injections of autogeneic brain cell suspensions. Moreover, the benefit of injecting antigens into the thymus was outweighed by hepatic portal vein injections.

  18. Injection, injectivity and injectability in geothermal operations: problems and possible solutions. Phase I. Definition of the problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetter, O.J.; Crichlow, H.B.

    1979-02-14

    The following topics are covered: thermodynamic instability of brine, injectivity loss during regular production and injection operations, injectivity loss caused by measures other than regular operations, heat mining and associated reservoir problems in reinjection, pressure maintenance through imported make-up water, suggested solutions to injection problems, and suggested solutions to injection problems: remedial and stimulation measures. (MHR)

  19. Intervention effect and dose-dependent response of tanreqing injection on airway inflammation in lipopolysaccharide-induced rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Shoujin; Zhong, Yunqing; Yang, Kun; Xiong, Xiaoling; Mao, Bing

    2013-08-01

    To assess the effect of Tanreqing injection on airway inflammation in rats. A rat model of airway inflammation was generated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Tanreqing injection was given by intratracheal instillation, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) from the right lung was collected. BALF total cell and neutrophil counts were then determined. In addition, BALF levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-13, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoat-tractant-1, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were measured using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The middle lobe of the right lung was stained with hematoxylin-eosin and histological changes examined. LPS increased airway inflammation, decreased BALF inflammatory cell count, inflammatory cytokine levels, and suppressed leukocyte influx of the lung. The LPS-induced airway inflammation peaked at 24 h, decreased beginning at 48 h, and had decreased markedly by 96 h. Tanreqing injection contains anti-inflammatory properties, and inhibits airway inflammation in a dose-dependent manner.

  20. Frequency-dependent Alfvén-wave Propagation in the Solar Wind: Onset and Suppression of Parametric Decay Instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Munehito; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2018-06-01

    Using numerical simulations we investigate the onset and suppression of parametric decay instability (PDI) in the solar wind, focusing on the suppression effect by the wind acceleration and expansion. Wave propagation and dissipation from the coronal base to 1 au is solved numerically in a self-consistent manner; we take into account the feedback of wave energy and pressure in the background. Monochromatic waves with various injection frequencies, f 0, are injected to discuss the suppression of PDI, while broadband waves are applied to compare the numerical results with observation. We find that high-frequency ({f}0≳ {10}-3 {Hz}) Alfvén waves are subject to PDI. Meanwhile, the maximum growth rate of the PDI of low-frequency ({f}0≲ {10}-4 {Hz}) Alfvén waves becomes negative due to acceleration and expansion effects. Medium-frequency ({f}0≈ {10}-3.5 {Hz}) Alfvén waves have a positive growth rate but do not show the signature of PDI up to 1 au because the growth rate is too small. The medium-frequency waves experience neither PDI nor reflection so they propagate through the solar wind most efficiently. The solar wind is shown to possess a frequency-filtering mechanism with respect to Alfvén waves. The simulations with broadband waves indicate that the observed trend of the density fluctuation is well explained by the evolution of PDI while the observed cross-helicity evolution is in agreement with low-frequency wave propagation.

  1. Control of Citrus Huanglongbing via Trunk Injection of Plant Defense Activators and Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Jiang, J; Wang, N

    2018-02-01

    Citrus huanglongbing (HLB) or greening is a devastating disease of citrus worldwide and no effective control measure is currently available. Plant defense activators environmentally friendly compounds capable of inducing resistance against many plant pathogens. Earlier studies showed that foliar spray of plant defense inducers could slow down HLB disease progress. In this study, eight plant defense activators and three antibiotics were evaluated in three field trials for their effect to control HLB by trunk injection of young and mature sweet orange trees. Results showed that four trunk injections of several activators, including salicylic acid, oxalic acid, acibenzolar-S-methyl, and potassium phosphate, provided significant control of HLB by suppressing 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' titer and disease progress. Trunk injection of penicillin, streptomycin, and oxytetracycline hydrochloride resulted in excellent control of HLB. In general, antibiotics were more effective in reduction of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' titer and HLB symptom expressions than plant defense activators. These treatments also resulted in increased yield and better fruit quality. Injection of both salicylic acid and acibenzolar-S-methyl led to significant induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes PR-1 and PR-2 genes. Meanwhile, injection of either potassium phosphate or oxalic acid resulted in significant induction of PR-2 or PR-15 gene expression, respectively. These results suggested that HLB diseased trees remained inducible for systemic acquired resistance under field conditions. In summary, this study presents information regarding controlling HLB via trunk injection of plant defense activators and antibiotics, which helps citrus growers in decision making regarding developing an effective HLB management program.

  2. A bacterial cysteine protease effector protein interferes with photosynthesis to suppress plant innate immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Herva, José J; González-Melendi, Pablo; Cuartas-Lanza, Raquel; Antúnez-Lamas, María; Río-Alvarez, Isabel; Li, Ziduo; López-Torrejón, Gema; Díaz, Isabel; Del Pozo, Juan C; Chakravarthy, Suma; Collmer, Alan; Rodríguez-Palenzuela, Pablo; López-Solanilla, Emilia

    2012-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 suppresses plant innate immunity with effector proteins injected by a type III secretion system (T3SS). The cysteine protease effector HopN1, which reduces the ability of DC3000 to elicit programmed cell death in non-host tobacco, was found to also suppress the production of defence-associated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and callose when delivered by Pseudomonas fluorescens heterologously expressing a P. syringae T3SS. Purified His(6) -tagged HopN1 was used to identify tomato PsbQ, a member of the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII), as an interacting protein. HopN1 localized to chloroplasts and both degraded PsbQ and inhibited PSII activity in chloroplast preparations, whereas a HopN1(D299A) non-catalytic mutant lost these abilities. Gene silencing of NtPsbQ in tobacco compromised ROS production and programmed cell death by DC3000. Our data reveal PsbQ as a contributor to plant immunity responses and a target for pathogen suppression. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Prompt triggering of edge localized modes through lithium granule injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsford, Robert; Sun, Z.; Hu, J. S.; Xu, W.; Zuo, G. Z.; Gong, X. Z.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Huang, M.; Maingi, R.; Diallo, A.; Tritz, K.; the EAST Team

    2017-10-01

    We report successful triggering of edge localized mode (ELMs) in EAST with Lithium (Li) micropellets, and the observed dependence of ELM triggering efficiency on granule size. ELM control is essential for successful ITER operation throughout the entire campaign, relying on magnetic perturbations for ELM suppression and ELM frequency enhancement via pellet injection. To separate the task of fueling from ELM pacing, we initiate the prompt generation of ELMs via impurity granule injection. Lithium granules ranging in size from 200 - 1000 microns are mechanically injected into upper-single null EAST long pulse H-mode discharges. The injections are monitored for their effect on high Z impurity accumulation and to assess the pressure perturbation required for reliable ELM triggering. We have determined that granules of diameter larger than 600 microns (corresponding to 5.2 x 1018 Li atoms) are successful at triggering ELMs more than 90% of the time. The triggering efficiency drops precipitously to less than 40% as the granule size is reduced to 400 microns (1.5 x 1018 Li atoms), indicating a triggering threshold has been crossed. Using this information an optimal impurity granule size which will regularly trigger a prompt ELM in these EAST discharges is determined. Coupling these results with alternate discharge scenarios on EAST and similar experiments performed on DIII-D provides the possibility of extrapolation to future devices.

  4. Use of 123I in early radioiodide uptake and its suppression in children and adolescents with hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.N.P.; Mpanias, P.D.; Wimmer, R.J.; Greenfield, M.A.; Kaplan, S.A.

    1978-01-01

    Absolute activity measurement of I-123 by coincidence counting was used to study the early thyroidal iodide uptake in 20 hyperthyroid children. Patients were pretreated either with methimazole or propylthiouracil before injection of Na 123 I. The usual method of analysis of the early uptake was modified to account for a rapidly equilibrating compartment, to give thyroidal iodide trapping rate constant (K 1 ) and absolute iodide uptake (AIU). The suppressibility of the early uptake by triiodothyronine [T 3 ) was evaluated in some patients. The upper limit of normal for K 1 was 0.03 min -1 and for AIU was 0.04 μg/min. In the hyperthyroid subjects, K 1 and AIU were in the hyperthyroid range before and after T 3 suppression. For patients with suppressible uptake, remission from hyperthyroidism was maintained for 6 mo to 2 1 / 2 yr. Only two patients with nonsuppressible uptake achieved remission from hyperthyroidism, perhaps because of coexistence of thyroiditis

  5. Testosterone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection works by supplying synthetic testosterone to replace the testosterone that is normally ... as a pellet to be injected under the skin.Testosterone injection may control your symptoms but will ...

  6. Local Injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide: A Forgotten Aetiology of Cushing’s Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhumthammarat, Weera; Putthapiban, Prapaipan

    2017-01-01

    Many different non systemic corticosteroid administrations can cause iatrogenic Cushing’s Syndrome (CS). We herein report a case series of iatrogenic CS from keloid scars treatment and aesthetic regimen called mesotherapy. Our first patient developed CS after having exceeded recommended dose of intralesional injection of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TAC). Second case presented with CS followed by unidentified mesotherapy treatment for local fat reduction. Subcutaneous injections of dexamethasone were found to be the part of mesotherapy regimen in one case. Physicians should be insightful in prescribing TAC especially in those patients who have high predisposing factors for developing CS. In the same way, off-label mesotherapy combine with corticosteroid can lead to iatrogenic CS and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal (HPA) axis suppression. Currently, there are no standard guidelines for mesotherapy treatment. Therefore, further clinical trials on dosage, duration and effective combination of mesotherapy regimens are needed to increase safety uses. PMID:28764237

  7. Radon inhalation suppresses nephropathy in streptozotocin-induced type-1 diabetic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiyama, Yuichi; Kataoka, Takahiro; Yamato, Keiko; Etani, Reo; Taguchi, Takehito; Yamaoka, Kiyonori

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effects of radon inhalation against nephropathy in C57BL/6J mice with type-1 diabetes induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg weight, given five times). Four weeks after diabetes induction, the diabetic mice were continuously treated with inhaled radon-222 of 2000 Bq/m3 or air only (sham) for four weeks. The results showed that radon inhalation did not affect type-1 diabetic symptoms such as body weight loss, hyperglycemia, and hypoinsulinemia. However, diabetic mice treated with radon showed lower urinary albumin excretion and fibrotic change in renal glomeruli compared with diabetic mice not treated with radon. Furthermore, renal superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione content were significantly higher in diabetic mice treated with radon than in diabetic mice not treated with radon. These findings suggested that radon inhalation enhanced renal antioxidants activities, resulting in the suppression of diabetic nephropathy. This study may contribute to the development of a novel approach in the treatment of nephropathy for diabetic patients. (author)

  8. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  9. Generalization of conditioned suppression during salicylate-induced phantom auditory perception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, J F; Jastreboff, P J

    1991-01-01

    Tonal frequency generalization was examined in a total of 114 pigmented male rats, 60 of which were tested under the influence of salicylate-induced phantom auditory perception, introduced before or after lick suppression training. Thirty control subjects received saline injections, and the remaining 24 subjects served as noninjected controls of tonal background effects on generalization. Rats were continuously exposed to background noise alone or with a superimposed tone. Offset of background noise alone (Experiment I), or combined with onset or continuation of the tone (Experiments II and III) served as the conditioned stimulus (CS). In Experiment I, tone presentations were introduced only after suppression training. Depending on the time of salicylate introduction, a strong and differential influence on generalization gradients was observed, which is consistent with subjects' detection of salicylate-induced, high-pitched sound. Moreover, when either 12- or 3 kHz tones were introduced before or after Pavlovian training to mimic salicylate effects in 24 rats, the distortions in generalization gradients resembled trends obtained from respective salicylate injected groups. Experiments II and III were aimed at evaluating the masking effect of salicylate-induced phantom auditory perception on external sounds, with a 5- or a 10-kHz tone imposed continuously on the noise or presented only during the CS. Tests of tonal generalization to frequencies ranging from 4- to 11- kHz showed that in this experimental context salicylate-induced perception did not interfere with the dominant influence of external tones, a result that further strengthens the conclusion of Experiment I.

  10. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine H; Hindriks, Inge; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Knipppenberg, A.

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in

  11. Two-frequency operation of a hybrid TEA CO2 laser and its application to two-frequency pulse injection locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Koichi; Ohno, Hirotaka; Fujii, Takaharu; Tsukishima, Takashige.

    1990-10-01

    Simultaneous two-frequency oscillation of a hybrid TEA CO 2 laser is exhibited when the cw section is operated in a 'below threshold' state. The output of the hybrid laser thus obtained is injected into a main TEA CO 2 laser to obtain a power-modulated, long-pulse output with a well suppressed gain-switched spike. (author)

  12. Correlates of HIV-1 viral suppression in a cohort of HIV-positive drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy in Hanoi, Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Michael R; La, Hanh; Nguyen, Hien Duc; Sheehan, Heidi; Lien, Trinh Thi Minh; Van Dang, Duong; Hellinger, James; Wanke, Christine; Tang, Alice M

    2009-01-01

    Summary Injection drug users bear the burden of HIV in Vietnam and are a focus of national treatment programs. To date, determinants of successful therapy in this population are unknown. Substance use and clinical correlates of viral suppression were studied in 100 HIV-1 infected drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months in Hanoi, Vietnam. Mean age of the cohort was 29.9 + 4.9 years; all were men. A majority of patients (73%) achieved viral suppression (HIV-RNA 95% adherence (p<0.01) and current use of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (p<0.01); current or ever diagnosed with tuberculosis was associated with viral non-suppression (p=0.006). Tobacco use was prevalent (84%), and surprisingly 48% of patients reported active drug use; neither was associated with viral non-suppression. This is the first study to document successful ART treatment in a population of Vietnamese drug users; rates of viral suppression are comparable to other international populations. The 28% of patients without HIV-1 suppression highlights the need for adherence promotion, risk reduction programs, and population based surveillance strategies for assessing the emergence of HIV drug resistance in settings where access to viral load and drug resistance testing is limited. PMID:19451329

  13. Development of High Efficiency and Low Emission Low Temperature Combustion Diesel Engine with Direct EGR Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, R. J.; Kumaran, P.; Yusoff, M. Z.

    2016-03-01

    Focus on energy and environmental sustainability policy has put automotive research & development directed to developing high efficiency and low pollutant power train. Diffused flame controlled diesel combustion has reach its limitation and has driven R&D to explore other modes of combustions. Known effective mode of combustion to reduce emission are Low temperature combustion (LTC) and homogeneous charge combustion ignition by suppressing Nitrogen Oxide(NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) formation. The key control to meet this requirement are chemical composition and distribution of fuel and gas during a combustion process. Most research to accomplish this goal is done by manipulating injected mass flow rate and varying indirect EGR through intake manifold. This research paper shows viable alternative direct combustion control via co-axial direct EGR injection with fuel injection process. A simulation study with OpenFOAM is conducted by varying EGR injection velocity and direct EGR injector diameter performed with under two conditions with non-combustion and combustion. n-heptane (C7H16) is used as surrogate fuel together with 57 species 290 semi-detailed chemical kinetic model developed by Chalmers University is used for combustion simulation. Simulation result indicates viability of co-axial EGR injection as a method for low temperature combustion control.

  14. THE POPULATION IMPACT OF ELIMINATING HOMELESSNESS ON HIV VIRAL SUPPRESSION AMONG PEOPLE WHO USE DRUGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Brandon D.L.; Elston, Beth; Dobrer, Sabina; Parashar, Surita; Hogg, Robert S.; Montaner, Julio S.G.; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Milloy, M-J

    2015-01-01

    Objective We sought to estimate the change in viral suppression prevalence if homelessness were eliminated from a population of HIV-infected people who use drugs (PWUD). Design Community-recruited prospective cohort of HIV-infected PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Behavioral information was collected at baseline and linked to a province-wide HIV/AIDS treatment database. The primary outcome was viral suppression (<50 copies/mL) measured during subsequent routine clinical care. Methods We employed an imputation-based marginal modelling approach. First, we used modified Poisson regression to obtain effect estimates (adjusting for sociodemographics, substance use, addiction treatment, and other confounders). Then, we imputed an outcome probability for each individual while manipulating the exposure (homelessness). Population viral suppression prevalence under realized and “housed” scenarios were obtained by averaging these probabilities across the population. Bootstrapping was conducted to calculate 95% confidence limits. Results Of 706 individuals interviewed between January 2005 and December 2015, the majority was male (66.0%), of Caucasian race/ethnicity (55.1%), and had a history of injection (93.6%). At first study visit, 223 (31.6%) reported recent homelessness, and 37.8% were subsequently identified as virally suppressed. Adjusted marginal models estimated a 15.1% relative increase (95%CI: 9.0%, 21.7%) in viral suppression in the entire population—to 43.5% (95%CI: 39.4%, 48.2%)—if all homeless individuals were housed. Among those homeless, eliminating this exposure would increase viral suppression from 22.0% to 40.1% (95%CI: 35.1%, 46.1%), an 82.3% relative increase. Conclusions Interventions to house homeless, HIV-positive individuals who use drugs could significantly increase population viral suppression. Such interventions should be implemented as a part of renewed HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment efforts. PMID:26636924

  15. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... sures regarding disposable injection equipment, waste containers, hand hygiene ... injection practices lead to high prevalence of NSSIs in operating rooms. .... guidelines, the availability of training courses to HCWs, and provi-.

  16. Rituximab selectively suppresses specific islet antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liping; Herold, Kevan; Krause-Steinrauf, Heidi; McGee, Paula L; Bundy, Brian; Pugliese, Alberto; Krischer, Jeff; Eisenbarth, George S

    2011-10-01

    The TrialNet Study Group evaluated rituximab, a B-cell-depleting monoclonal antibody, for its effect in new-onset patients with type 1A diabetes. Rituximab decreased the loss of C-peptide over the first year of follow-up and markedly depleted B lymphocytes for 6 months after administration. This article analyzes the specific effect of rituximab on multiple islet autoantibodies. A total of 87 patients between the ages of 8 and 40 years received either rituximab or a placebo infusion weekly for four doses close to the onset of diabetes. Autoantibodies to insulin (IAAs), GAD65 (GADAs), insulinoma-associated protein 2 (IA2As), and ZnT8 (ZnT8As) were measured with radioimmunoassays. The primary outcome for this autoantibody analysis was the mean level of autoantibodies during follow-up. Rituximab markedly suppressed IAAs compared with the placebo injection but had a much smaller effect on GADAs, IA2As, and ZnT8As. A total of 40% (19 of 48) of rituximab-treated patients who were IAA positive became IAA negative versus 0 of 29 placebo-treated patients (P 1 year in insulin-treated patients. For the patients receiving insulin for >2 weeks prior to rituximab administration, we cannot assess whether rituximab not only blocks the acquisition of insulin antibodies induced by insulin administration and/or also suppresses preformed insulin autoantibodies. Studies in prediabetic non-insulin-treated patients will likely be needed to evaluate the specific effects of rituximab on levels of IAAs.

  17. Suppression Pools: paradigm of the thermalhydraulic effect on severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Lopez del Pra, C.

    2016-01-01

    Influence of thermal-hydrualic phenomena on severe accident unforlding is beyond question. The present paper supports this statement on two key aspects of a severe accident: preservation of containment integrity and transport of fission products once released from fuel. To illustrate them, the attention is focused on suppression pools performance and, particularly, on some recent findings stemming from authors research of Fukushima scenarios. Gas behvaior at the injection point and its later evolution, potential axial and/or azimuthal stratification of the aqueous body or water saturation state, are some of the processes tha more strongly affect the role of pools as a mass and energy sink. They are described and discussed in detail. (Author)

  18. Hydrazinonicotinamide prolongs quantum dot circulation and reduces reticuloendothelial system clearance by suppressing opsonization and phagocyte engulfment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyung-Ho; Park, Jin Won; Paik, Jin-Young; Lee, Eun Jeong; Choe, Yearn Seong; Lee, Kyung-Han

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of hydrazinonicotinamide (HYNIC)—a bifunctional crosslinker widely used to 99mTc radiolabel protein and nanoparticles for imaging studies—on quantum dot opsonization, macrophage engulfment and in vivo kinetics. In streptavidin-coated quantum dots (SA-QDots), conjugation with HYNIC increased the net negative charge without affecting the zeta potential. Confocal microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting showed HYNIC attachment to suppress SA-QDot engulfment by macrophages. Furthermore, HYNIC conjugation suppressed surface opsonization by serum protein including IgG. When intravenously injected into mice, HYNIC conjugation significantly prolonged the circulation of SA-QDots and reduced their hepatosplenic uptake. Diminished reticuloendothelial system clearance of SA-QDots and aminoPEG-QDots by HYNIC conjugation was also demonstrated by in vivo and ex vivo optical imaging. The effects of HYNIC on the opsonization, phagocytosis and in vivo kinetics of quantum dots were reversed by removal of the hydrazine component from HYNIC. Thus, surface functionalization with HYNIC can improve the in vivo kinetics of quantum dots by reducing phagocytosis via suppression of surface opsonization.

  19. Generation of flat wideband chaos with suppressed time delay signature by using optical time lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Ning; Wang, Chao; Xue, Chenpeng; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun

    2017-06-26

    We propose a flat wideband chaos generation scheme that shows excellent time delay signature suppression effect, by injecting the chaotic output of general external cavity semiconductor laser into an optical time lens module composed of a phase modulator and two dispersive units. The numerical results demonstrate that by properly setting the parameters of the driving signal of phase modulator and the accumulated dispersion of dispersive units, the relaxation oscillation in chaos can be eliminated, wideband chaos generation with an efficient bandwidth up to several tens of GHz can be achieved, and the RF spectrum of generated chaotic signal is nearly as flat as uniform distribution. Moreover, the periodicity of chaos induced by the external cavity modes can be simultaneously destructed by the optical time lens module, based on this the time delay signature can be completely suppressed.

  20. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaddonfard, Esmaeal; Tamaddonfard, Sina; Pourbaba, Salar

    2015-01-01

    Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of capsaicin (1.5 µg/20 µl) into the right vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing/grooming was recorded for a period of 20 min. Locomotor activity was measured using an open-field test. Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10 and 40 µg/rat) and morphine (10 and 40 µg/rat) and their co-administration (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each) suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The analgesic effect induced by 10 µg/rat of morphine, but not crocin (10 µg/rat), was prevented by 20 µg/rat of naloxone pretreatment. The above-mentioned chemical compounds did not affect locomotor activity. The results of this study showed that the injection of crocin into the cerebral fourth ventricle attenuates capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of crocin was not attributed to the central opioid receptors.

  1. Effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin on capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeal Tamaddonfard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Crocin, a constituent of saffron and yellow gardenia, possesses anti-nociceptive effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin in a rat model of orofacial pain. The contribution of opioid system was assessed using intra-fourth ventricle injection of naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist. Materials and Methods: A guide cannula was implanted into the fourth ventricle of brain in anesthetized rats. Orofacial pain was induced by subcutaneous (s.c. injection of capsaicin (1.5 µg/20 µl into the right vibrissa pad. The time spent face rubbing/grooming was recorded for a period of 20 min. Locomotor activity was measured using an open-field test. Results: Intra-fourth ventricle injection of crocin (10 and 40 µg/rat and morphine (10 and 40 µg/rat and their co-administration (2.5 and 10 µg/rat of each suppressed capsaicin-induced orofacial pain. The analgesic effect induced by 10 µg/rat of morphine, but not crocin (10 µg/rat, was prevented by 20 µg/rat of naloxone pretreatment. The above-mentioned chemical compounds did not affect locomotor activity. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the injection of crocin into the cerebral fourth ventricle attenuates capsaicin-induced orofacial pain in rats. The anti-nociceptive effect of crocin was not attributed to the central opioid receptors.

  2. High density lipoproteins improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat diet-fed mice by suppressing hepatic inflammation[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Kristine C.; Li, Xiao Hong; Whitworth, Phillippa T.; Kasz, Robert; Tan, Joanne T.; McLennan, Susan V.; Celermajer, David S.; Barter, Philip J.; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Heather, Alison K.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-induced liver inflammation can drive insulin resistance. HDL has anti-inflammatory properties, so we hypothesized that low levels of HDL would perpetuate inflammatory responses in the liver and that HDL treatment would suppress liver inflammation and insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of lipid-free apoAI on hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in mice. We also investigated apoAI as a component of reconstituted HDLs (rHDLs) in hepatocytes to confirm results we observed in vivo. To test our hypothesis, C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks and administered either saline or lipid-free apoAI. Injections of lipid-free apoAI twice a week for 2 or 4 weeks with lipid-free apoAI resulted in: i) improved insulin sensitivity associated with decreased systemic and hepatic inflammation; ii) suppression of hepatic mRNA expression for key transcriptional regulators of lipogenic gene expression; and iii) suppression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation. Human hepatoma HuH-7 cells exposed to rHDLs showed suppressed TNFα-induced NF-κB activation, correlating with decreased NF-κB target gene expression. We conclude that apoAI suppresses liver inflammation in HFD mice and improves insulin resistance via a mechanism that involves a downregulation of NF-κB activation. PMID:24347528

  3. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  4. Acupuncture Injection Combined with Electrokinetic Injection for Polydimethylsiloxane Microfluidic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Won Ha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported acupuncture sample injection that leads to reproducible injection of nL-scale sample segments into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannel for microchip capillary electrophoresis. The advantages of the acupuncture injection in microchip capillary electrophoresis include capability of minimizing sample loss and voltage control hardware and capability of introducing sample plugs into any desired position of a microchannel. However, the challenge in the previous study was to achieve reproducible, pL-scale sample injections into PDMS microchannels. In the present study, we introduce an acupuncture injection technique combined with electrokinetic injection (AICEI technique to inject pL-scale sample segments for microchip capillary electrophoresis. We carried out the capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE separation of FITC and fluorescein, and the mixture of 10 μM FITC and 10 μM fluorescein was separated completely by using the AICEI method.

  5. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  6. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  7. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes (18G, 20G, 21G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed.

  8. "Injection first": a unique group of injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Meghan D; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Lozada, Remedios M; Gallardo, Manuel; Vera, Alicia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2012-01-01

    Using baseline data from a study of injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana, Mexico (N = 1,052), we identified social and behavioral factors associated with injecting at the same age or earlier than other administration routes of illicit drug use (eg, "injection first") and examined whether this IDU subgroup had riskier drug using and sexual behaviors than other IDUs. Twelve-percent "injected first." Characteristics independently associated with a higher odds of "injection first" included being younger at first injection, injecting heroin as their first drug, being alone at the first injection episode, and having a sexual debut at the same age or earlier as when they initiated drug use; family members' illicit drug use was associated with lower odds of injecting first. When adjusting for age at first injection and number of years injecting, "injection first" IDUs had lower odds of ever overdosing, and ever trading sex. On the other hand, they were less likely to have ever been enrolled in drug treatment, and more commonly obtained their syringes from potentially unsafe sources. In conclusion, a sizable proportion of IDUs in Tijuana injected as their first drug using experience, although evidence that this was a riskier subgroup of IDUs was inconclusive.  Copyright © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  9. Beam loss caused by edge focusing of injection bump magnets and its mitigation in the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Hotchi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 3-GeV rapid cycling synchrotron of the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex, transverse injection painting is utilized not only to suppress space-charge induced beam loss in the low energy region but also to mitigate foil scattering beam loss during charge-exchange injection. The space-charge induced beam loss is well minimized by the combination of modest transverse painting and full longitudinal painting. But, for sufficiently mitigating the foil scattering part of beam loss, the transverse painting area has to be further expanded. However, such a wide-ranging transverse painting had not been realized until recently due to beta function beating caused by edge focusing of pulsed injection bump magnets during injection. This beta function beating additionally excites random betatron resonances through a distortion of the lattice superperiodicity, and its resultant deterioration of the betatron motion stability causes significant extra beam loss when expanding the transverse painting area. To solve this issue, we newly installed pulse-type quadrupole correctors to compensate the beta function beating. This paper presents recent experimental results on this correction scheme for suppressing the extra beam loss, while discussing the beam loss and its mitigation mechanisms with the corresponding numerical simulations.

  10. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  11. Suppression of carcinogenesis in mice by adaptive responses to low dose rate irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Kazuo; Iwasaki, Toshiyasu; Hoshi, Yuko; Nomura, Takaharu; Ina, Yasuhiro; Tanooka, Hiroshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Low Dose Radiation Research Center, Komae, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Effects of prolonged low-dose-rate irradiation on the process of carcinogenesis were examined in mice treated with chemical carcinogen or irradiated with high doses of X-rays. Female ICR mice, 5 week-old, 35 in each group, were exposed to gamma-rays from a {sup 137}Cs source in the long-term low dose rate irradiation facility at CRIEPI. The dose rate was 2.6 mGy/hr (A), 0.96 mGy/hr (B), or 0.30 mGy/hr (C). Thirty-five days later, the mice were injected into the groin with 0.5 mg of methylcholanthrene (MC) dissolved in olive oil and irradiation was continued. Cumulative tumor incidences after 216 days following MC injection were 89% in group A, 76% in group B, and 94% in group C. That in non-irradiated control group was 94%. The difference in the tumor incidence between the control and position B was statistically significant, indicating the suppressive effect of the low dose rate irradiation on the process of MC-induced carcinogenesis with an optimum dose rate around 1 mGy/hr. In B6C3F1 mice, although the suppression of tumor incidence was not observed, there was a significant delay in tumor appearance in the irradiated mice between 100-150 days after MC injection. A group of 20 female C57BL/6N mice, 5 weeks old, were exposed to gamma-rays at 0.95 mGy/hr for 5 weeks. Then, they were exposed weekly to 1.8 Gy whole body X-irradiation (300 kVp) for consecutive 4 weeks to induce thymic lymphoma. Another group received only the fractionated irradiation. The first mouse died from thymic lymphoma appeared 89 days after the last irradiation in the group received only the fractionated irradiation, while 110 days in the group combined with the low dose rate irradiation. (author)

  12. The efficacy of multiple versus single hyaluronic acid injections: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concoff, Andrew; Sancheti, Parag; Niazi, Faizan; Shaw, Peter; Rosen, Jeffrey

    2017-12-21

    Intra-articular hyaluronic acid (IA-HA) is a common therapy used to treat knee pain and suppress knee inflammation in knee osteoarthritis (OA), typically prescribed in regimens ranging from a single injection to 5 weekly injections given once weekly. We conducted a systematic review to determine the efficacy of IA-HA, with subgroup analyses to explore the differences in knee pain and adverse events (AEs) across different dosing regimens. We conducted a systematic search of the literature to identify studies evaluating IA-HA for the management of knee OA compared to IA-saline. Primary outcome measure was the mean knee pain score at 13 Weeks (3 months) or 26 weeks (6 months). Secondary outcome was the number of treatment-related AEs and treatment-related serious adverse events (SAEs). We evaluated differences in levels of pain and AEs/SAEs between dosing regimens compared to IA-Saline. Thirty articles were included. Overall, IA-HA injections were associated with less knee pain compared to IA-Saline injections for all dosing regimens. 2-4 injections of IA-HA vs. IA-Saline produced the largest effect size at both 3-months and 6-months (Standard mean difference [SMD] = -0.76; -0.98 to -0.53, 95% CI, P injection studies yielded a non-significant treatment effect at 3 and 6 months, while ≥5 5 injections demonstrated a significant improvement in pain only at 6 months. Five or more injections of IA-HA were associated with a higher risk of treatment-related AEs compared to IA-Saline (Risk ratio [RR] = 1.67; 1.09 to 2.56 95% CI, p = 0.02), which was a result not seen within the 1 and 2-4 injection subgroups. Overall, 2-4 and ≥5 injection regimens provided pain relief over IA-Saline, while single injection did not. Intra-articular injections of HA used in a 2-4 injection treatment regimen provided the greatest benefit when compared to IA-Saline with respect to pain improvement in patients with knee OA, and was generally deemed safe with few to no

  13. Safe injection procedures, injection practices, and needlestick ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nermine Mohamed Tawfik Foda

    2017-01-10

    Jan 10, 2017 ... Background: Of the estimated 384,000 needle-stick injuries occurring in hospitals each year, 23% occur in surgical settings. This study was conducted to assess safe injection procedures, injection practices, and circumstances contributing to needlestick and sharps injures (NSSIs) in operating rooms.

  14. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  15. Human monoclonal antibodies against glucagon receptor improve glucose homeostasis by suppression of hepatic glucose output in diet-induced obese mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wook-Dong Kim

    Full Text Available AIM: Glucagon is an essential regulator of hepatic glucose production (HGP, which provides an alternative therapeutic target for managing type 2 diabetes with glucagon antagonists. We studied the effect of a novel human monoclonal antibody against glucagon receptor (GCGR, NPB112, on glucose homeostasis in diet-induced obese (DIO mice. METHODS: The glucose-lowering efficacy and safety of NPB112 were investigated in DIO mice with human GCGR for 11 weeks, and a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp study was conducted to measure HGP. RESULTS: Single intraperitoneal injection of NPB112 with 5 mg/kg effectively decreased blood glucose levels in DIO mice for 5 days. A significant reduction in blood glucose was observed in DIO mice treated with NPB112 at a dose ≥5 mg/kg for 6 weeks, and its glucose-lowering effect was dose-dependent. Long-term administration of NPB112 also caused a mild 29% elevation in glucagon level, which was returned to the normal range after discontinuation of treatment. The clamp study showed that DIO mice injected with NPB112 at 5 mg/kg were more insulin sensitive than control mice, indicating amelioration of insulin resistance by treatment with NPB112. DIO mice treated with NPB112 showed a significant improvement in the ability of insulin to suppress HGP, showing a 33% suppression (from 8.3 mg/kg/min to 5.6 mg/kg/min compared to the 2% suppression (from 9.8 mg/kg/min to 9.6 mg/kg/min in control mice. In addition, no hypoglycemia or adverse effect was observed during the treatment. CONCLUSIONS: A novel human monoclonal GCGR antibody, NPB112, effectively lowered the glucose level in diabetic animal models with mild and reversible hyperglucagonemia. Suppression of excess HGP with NPB112 may be a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effect of pointed and diffused air injection on premixed flame confined in a Rijke tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilaj N. Deshmukh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The coupling between pressure fluctuations and unsteady heat release in a combustion systems results in acoustic oscillations inside the combustion system. These acoustic oscillations, when grow sufficiently, may cause serious structural damage thereby reducing the lifespan of jet engines, gas turbines, and industrial burners. The aim of the first part of study is to define acoustically stable and unstable regions. The second part is focused on studying the effect of change in pressure field near the flame on the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations of instability. This study is carried out for three-burner positions and equivalence ratio of 0.7 by varying heat supply and total flow rate. The results show two acoustically unstable regions for 0.1 and 0.2 burner positions and only one acoustically unstable region for 0.25 burner position. The effect of pointed injection and diffused injection over a premixed flame on the sound pressure level was studied. The results show for burner position of x/L = 0.2 there is 25 dB suppression is possible using pointed injection at higher total flow rate. The experiment of diffused injection shows sound amplification more than 12 dB was observed.

  17. [Basic Studies on Locoregional Injection of a Newly Designed Chitin Sol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takehiro; Sugitachi, Akio; Kume, Kouhei; Segawa, Takenori; Nishinari, Yutaka; Ishida, Kaoru; Noda, Hironobu; Nishizuka, Satoshi; Kimura, Yusuke; Koeda, Keisuke; Sasaki, Akira

    2015-11-01

    Systemic chemotherapy in advanced cancer cases often provokes serious adverse events. We aimed to examine the fundamental properties and efficacy of a novel chitin sol, an anti-cancer agent with minor side effects designed to avoid the adverse effects of chemotherapy and enhance the QOL and ADL of patients. DAC-70 was used to create the novel agent termed DAC-70 sol. The anti-proliferative activity was assayed by the WST method using different types of cell lines. The anti-cancer efficacy of the novel agent was examined using cancer-bearing mice. DAC-70 sol was easily injectable through a 21-G needle. The sol suppressed proliferation of the cells in vitro. Intra-tumor injection of DAC-70 sol inhibited the rapid growth of solid tumors in the mice. CDDP-loaded DAC-70 sol, CDDP/DAC-70 sol, successfully controlled malignant ascites in the mice (psol and CDDP/DAC-70 sol is clinically useful as novel cancer chemotherapy for advanced cases. This warrants further clinical studies in cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Matrine pretreatment improves cardiac function in rats with diabetic cardiomyopathy via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-wei; Wang, Jun-kui; Qiu, Chuan; Guan, Gong-chang; Liu, Xin-hong; Li, Shang-jian; Deng, Zheng-rong

    2015-03-01

    Matrine is an alkaloid from Sophora alopecuroides L, which has shown a variety of pharmacological activities and potential therapeutic value in cardiovascular diseases. In this study we examined the protective effects of matrine against diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) in rats. Male SD rats were injected with streptozotocin (STZ) to induce DCM. One group of DCM rats was pretreated with matrine (200 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), po) for 10 consecutive days before STZ injection. Left ventricular function was evaluated using invasive hemodynamic examination, and myocardiac apoptosis was assessed. Primary rat myocytes were used for in vitro experiments. Intracellular ROS generation, MDA content and GPx activity were determined. Real-time PCR and Western blotting were performed to detect the expression of relevant mRNAs and proteins. DCM rats exhibited abnormally elevated non-fasting blood glucose levels at 4 weeks after STZ injection, and LV function impairment at 16 weeks. The cardiac tissues of DCM rats showed markedly increased apoptosis, excessive ROS production, and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling. Pretreatment with matrine significantly decreased non-fasting blood glucose levels and improved LV function in DCM rats, which were associated with reducing apoptosis and ROS production, and suppressing TLR-4/MyD-88/caspase-8/caspase-3 signaling in cardiac tissues. Incubation in a high-glucose medium induced oxidative stress and activation of TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling in cultured myocytes in vitro, which were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine. Excessive ROS production in DCM activates the TLR-4/MyD-88 signaling, resulting in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, whereas pretreatment with matrine improves cardiac function via suppressing ROS/TLR-4 signaling pathway.

  19. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviates short-term memory impairment by enhancing cell proliferation and suppressing apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Hoon; Sung, Yun-Hee; Lee, Hee-Hyuk; Ko, Il-Gyu; Kim, Sung-Eun; Shin, Mal-Soon; Kim, Bo-Kyun

    2014-08-01

    During pregnancy, diabetes mellitus exerts detrimental effects on the development of the fetus, especially the central nervous system. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of postnatal treadmill exercise on short-term memory in relation with cell proliferation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rat pups born to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic maternal rats. Adult female rats were mated with male rats for 24 h. Two weeks after mating, the pregnant female rats were divided into two groups: control group and STZ injection group. The pregnant rats in the STZ injection group were administered 40 mg/kg of STZ intraperitoneally. After birth, the rat pups were divided into the following four groups: control group, control with postnatal exercise group, maternal STZ-injection group, and maternal STZ-injection with postnatal exercise group. The rat pups in the postnatal exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day, 5 times per week for 2 weeks beginning 4 weeks after birth. The rat pups born to diabetic rats were shown to have short-term memory impairment with suppressed cell proliferation and increased apoptosis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Postnatal treadmill exercise alleviated short-term memory impairment by increased cell proliferation and suppressed apoptosis in the rat pups born to diabetic rats. These findings indicate that postnatal treadmill exercise may be used as a valuable strategy to ameliorate neurodevelopmental problems in children born to diabetics.

  20. The effect of chromatic decoherence on transverse injection oscillation damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.P.

    1993-01-01

    In order to eliminate or reduce transverse emittance growth during transfers between accelerators, transverse damper systems are used to eliminate residual dipole oscillations before phase space dilution takes place. In transfers where the target accelerator has high chromaticity or the beam has a large momentum spread, phase space dilution due to chromatic decoherence can take place on a scale short compared to the damping time of the transverse injection oscillation damper. The effect of the damper on the beam phase space is not clear while the coherent oscillation is suppressed by this decoherence. The purpose of this paper is to quantify the effectiveness of dampers at eliminating emittance blowup at transfers in the presence of chromatic decoherence

  1. CAPE suppresses migration and invasion of prostate cancer cells via activation of non-canonical Wnt signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Jen-Chih; Lin, Ching-Yu; Su, Liang-Chen; Fu, Hsiao-Hui; Yang, Shiaw-Der; Chuu, Chih-Pin

    2016-06-21

    Prostate cancer (PCa) was the fifth most common cancer overall in the world. More than 80% of patients died from PCa developed bone metastases. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a main bioactive component of honeybee hive propolis. Transwell and wound healing assays demonstrated that CAPE treatment suppressed the migration and invasion of PC-3 and DU-145 PCa cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blotting indicated that CAPE treatment reduced the abundance and activity of MMP-9 and MMP-2. Analysis using Micro-Western Array (MWA), a high-throughput antibody-based proteomics platform with 264 antibodies detecting signaling proteins involved in important pathways indicated that CAPE treatment induced receptor tyrosine kinase-like orphan receptor 2 (ROR2) in non-canonical Wnt signaling pathway but suppressed abundance of β-catenin, NF-κB activity, PI3K-Akt signaling, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Overexpression or knockdown of ROR2 suppressed or enhanced cell migration of PC-3 cells, respectively. TCF-LEF promoter binding assay revealed that CAPE treatment reduced canonical Wnt signaling. Intraperitoneal injection of CAPE reduced the metastasis of PC-3 xenografts in tail vein injection nude mice model. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that CAPE treatment increased abundance of ROR2 and Wnt5a but decreased protein expression of Ki67, Frizzle 4, NF-κB p65, MMP-9, Snail, β-catenin, and phosphorylation of IκBα. Clinical evidences suggested that genes affected by CAPE treatment (CTNNB1, RELA, FZD5, DVL3, MAPK9, SNAl1, ROR2, SMAD4, NFKBIA, DUSP6, and PLCB3) correlate with the aggressiveness of PCa. Our study suggested that CAPE may be a potential therapeutic agent for patients with advanced PCa.

  2. Interleukin 1α inhibits prostaglandin E2 release to suppress pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone but not follicle-stimulating hormone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, V.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Karara, A.; Gonzalez, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    Interleukin 1α (IL-1α), a powerful endogenous pyrogen released from monocytes and macrophages by bacterial endotoxin, stimulates corticotropin, prolactin, and somatotropin release and inhibits thyrotropin release by hypothalamic action. The authors injected recombinant human IL-1α into the third cerebral ventricle, to study its effect on the pulsatile release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in conscious, freely moving, ovariectomized rats. Intraventricular injection of 0.25 pmol of IL-1α caused an almost immediate reduction of plasma LH concentration. To determine the mechanism of the suppression of LH release, mediobasal hypothalamic fragments were incubated in vitro with IL-1α (10 pM) and the release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) and prostaglandin E 2 into the medium was measured by RIA in the presence or absence of nonrepinephrine. 1α reduced basal LHRH release and blocked LHRH release induced by nonrepinephrine. In conclusion, IL-1α suppresses LH but not FSH release by an almost complete cessation of pulsatile release of LH in the castrated rat. The mechanism of this effect appears to be by inhibition of prostaglandin E 2 -mediated release of LHRH

  3. Aqueous Boric acid injection facility of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Tsuyoshi; Iwami, Masao.

    1996-01-01

    If a rupture should be caused in a secondary system of a PWR type reactor, pressure of a primary coolant recycling system is lowered, and a back flow check valve is opened in response to the lowering of the pressure. Then, low temperature aqueous boric acid in the lower portion of a pressurized tank is flown into the primary coolant recycling system based on the pressure difference, and the aqueous boric acid reaches the reactor core together with coolants to suppress reactivity. If the injection is continued, high temperature aqueous boric acid in the upper portion boils under a reduced pressure, further urges the low temperature aqueous boric acid in the lower portion by the steam pressure and injects the same to the primary system. The aqueous boric acid stream from the pressurized tank flowing by self evaporation of the high temperature aqueous boric acid itself is rectified by a rectifying device to prevent occurrence of vortex flow, and the steam is injected in a state of uniform stream. When the pressure in the pressurized tank is lowered, a bypass valve is opened to introduce the high pressure fluid of primary system into the pressurized tank to keep the pressure to a predetermined value. When the pressure in the pressurized tank is elevated to higher than the pressure of the primary system, a back flow check valve is opened, and high pressure aqueous boric acid is flown out of the pressurized tank to keep the pressure to a predetermined value. (N.H.)

  4. Efficacy of Silk Channel Injections with Insecticides for Management of Lepidoptera Pests of Sweet Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A N; Gadal, L; Ni, X

    2015-08-01

    The primary Lepidoptera pests of sweet corn (Zea mays L. convar. saccharata) in Georgia are the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), and the fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith). Management of these pests typically requires multiple insecticide applications from first silking until harvest, with commercial growers frequently spraying daily. This level of insecticide use presents problems for small growers, particularly for "pick-your-own" operations. Injection of oil into the corn ear silk channel 5-8 days after silking initiation has been used to suppress damage by these insects. Initial work with this technique in Georgia provided poor results. Subsequently, a series of experiments was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of silk channel injections as an application methodology for insecticides. A single application of synthetic insecticide, at greatly reduced per acre rates compared with common foliar applications, provided excellent control of Lepidoptera insects attacking the ear tip and suppressed damage by sap beetles (Nitidulidae). While this methodology is labor-intensive, it requires a single application of insecticide at reduced rates applied ∼2 wk prior to harvest, compared with potential daily applications at full rates up to the day of harvest with foliar insecticide applications. This methodology is not likely to eliminate the need for foliar applications because of other insect pests which do not enter through the silk channel or are not affected by the specific selective insecticide used in the silk channel injection, but would greatly reduce the number of applications required. This methodology may prove particularly useful for small acreage growers. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafful, Claudia; Wagner, Karla D; Werb, Dan; González-Zúñiga, Patricia E; Verdugo, Silvia; Rangel, Gudelia; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2015-11-01

    Injecting drugs in the neck has been related to adverse health conditions such as jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, aneurysm, haematomas, airway obstruction, vocal cord paralysis and wound botulism, among others. We identified prevalence and correlates of neck injection among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tijuana, Mexico. Beginning in 2011, PWID aged ≥18 years who injected drugs within the last month were recruited into a prospective cohort. At baseline and semi-annually, PWID completed interviewer-administered surveys soliciting data on drug-injecting practices. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of injecting in the neck as the most frequent injection site at a single visit. Of 380 PWID, 35.3% injected in the neck at least once in the past 6 months, among whom 71.6% reported it as their most common injection site, the most common injecting site after the arms (47%). Controlling for age, years injecting and injecting frequency, injecting heroin and methamphetamine two or more times per day and having sought injection assistance were associated with injecting in the neck [adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 2.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.27-3.53 and AOR: 2.65; 95% CI: 1.52-4.53 respectively]. Injecting in the neck was very common among PWID in Tijuana and was associated with polydrug use and seeking injection assistance. Tailoring harm reduction education interventions for individuals who provide injection assistance ('hit doctors') may allow for the dissemination of safe injecting knowledge to reduce injection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  6. Suppression law of quantum states in a 3D photonic fast Fourier transform chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crespi, Andrea; Osellame, Roberto; Ramponi, Roberta; Bentivegna, Marco; Flamini, Fulvio; Spagnolo, Nicolò; Viggianiello, Niko; Innocenti, Luca; Mataloni, Paolo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The identification of phenomena able to pinpoint quantum interference is attracting large interest. Indeed, a generalization of the Hong–Ou–Mandel effect valid for any number of photons and optical modes would represent an important leap ahead both from a fundamental perspective and for practical applications, such as certification of photonic quantum devices, whose computational speedup is expected to depend critically on multi-particle interference. Quantum distinctive features have been predicted for many particles injected into multimode interferometers implementing the Fourier transform over the optical modes. Here we develop a scalable approach for the implementation of the fast Fourier transform algorithm using three-dimensional photonic integrated interferometers, fabricated via femtosecond laser writing technique. We observe the suppression law for a large number of output states with four- and eight-mode optical circuits: the experimental results demonstrate genuine quantum interference between the injected photons, thus offering a powerful tool for diagnostic of photonic platforms. PMID:26843135

  7. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  8. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  9. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection following a primary intraosseous injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Joanne; Nusstein, John; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Beck, Mike

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, single-blinded study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 minutes after a primary intraosseous injection. Using a crossover design, 55 subjects randomly received a primary X-tip intraosseous injection (Dentsply Inc, York, PA) of 1.4 mL of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine (using the Wand; Milestone Scientific, Deerfield, IL) and a repeated intraosseous or mock injection at 30 minutes in two appointments. The first molar and adjacent teeth were pulp tested every 2 minutes for a total of 120 minutes. Success was defined as obtaining two consecutive 80 readings with the electric pulp tester. Success of the initial intraosseous injection was 100% for the first molar. The repeated intraosseous injection mimicked the initial intraosseous injection in terms of pulpal anesthesia and statistically provided another 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia. In conclusion, using the methodology presented, repeating the intraosseous injection 30 minutes after an initial intraosseous injection will provide an additional 15 minutes of pulpal anesthesia.

  10. Pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic studies for horizontal vent exit of Indian PHWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, N.; Bajaj, S.S.; Saha, P.

    1994-01-01

    The standard Indian PHWR incorporates a pressure suppression type of containment system with a suppression pool.The design of KAPS (Kakrapar Atomic Power Station) suppression pool system adopts a modified system of downcomers having horizontal vents as compared to vertical vents of NAPS (Narora Atomic Power Station). Hydrodynamic studies for vertical vents have been reported earlier. This paper presents hydrodynamic studies for horizontal type vent system during LOCA. These studies include the phenomenon of vent clearing (where the water slug standing in downcomer initially is injected to wetwell due to rapid pressurization of drywell) followed by pool swell (elevation of pool water due to formation of bubbles due to air mass entering pool at the exit of horizontal vents from drywell). The analysis performed for vent clearing and pool swell is based on rigorous thermal hydraulic calculation consisting of conservation of air-steam mixture mass, momentum and thermal energy and mass of air. Horizontal vent of downcomer is modelled in such a way that during steam-air flow, variation of flow area due to oscillating water surface in downcomer could be considered. Calculation predicts that the vent gets cleared in about 1.0 second and the corresponding downward slug velocity in the downcomer is 4.61 m/sec. The maximum pool swell for a conservative lateral expansion is calculated to be 0.56 m. (author). 3 refs., 12 figs

  11. Selective suppression of antibody production with the aid of radiolabelled birch pollen allergen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipp, G.; Biro, G.; Hartung, W.D.; Lehmann, G.

    1981-01-01

    In accordance with the clonal selection theory we intended to prevent the development of artificially induced birch pollen allergy in rabbits with the aid of of the radiolabelled pollen allergen (75-1000 μCi 125 I-pollen/animal) intravenously administered prior to pollen sensitization. The birch pollen allergen, in accordance with Burnet's working hypothesis, reacts only with a genetically determining B cell subpopulation. The fixation of the radiolabelled birch pollen allergen to the receptors of the competent B cell clone causes the lesion of the latter. Compared with the control group, this group of rabbits showed an extensive suppression of anaphylactic reagin-like PCA-antibodies, and haemagglutinating antibodies in the blood as well as in nasal secretion. In addition, we tried to influence the already ongoing synthesis of the antibodies with the aid of a subsequent intravenously administered radiolabelled birch pollen allergen (750-1000μCi 125 I-pollen/animal). An intensive suppression of the synthesis of antibodies could also be proved in this case. The simultaneous immunization of the control rabbits with birch pollen and egg albumin resulted in the production of antibodies against both antigens, as expected. The hot-labelled birch pollen antigen intravenously injected before or after immunization with egg albumin and birch pollen led selectively to suppression of anti-birch-pollen PCA antibodies. The synthesis of anti-egg albumin PCA antibodies was unaffected. (author)

  12. Colistimethate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Injection Laryngoplasty Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Haldun Oðuz

    2013-01-01

    Injection laryngoplasty is one of the treatment options for voice problems. In the recent years, more safe and more biocompatible injection materials are available on the market. Long and short term injection materials are discussed in this review.

  14. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  15. Injection Tests

    CERN Document Server

    Kain, V

    2009-01-01

    The success of the start-up of the LHC on 10th of September was in part due to the preparation without beam and injection tests in 2008. The injection tests allowed debugging and improvement in appropriate portions to allow safe, efficient and state-of-the-art commissioning later on. The usefulness of such an approach for a successful start-up becomes obvious when looking at the problems we encountered before and during the injection tests and could solve during this period. The outline of the preparation and highlights of the different injection tests will be presented and the excellent performance of many tools discussed. A list of shortcomings will follow, leading to some planning for the preparation of the run in 2009.

  16. Microjet Injection Strategies for Mitigating Dynamics in a Lean Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustor

    KAUST Repository

    LaBry, Zachary; Shanbhogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Combustion dynamics remain a challenge in the development of low-emission, air-breathing combustors for power generation and aircraft propulsion. In this paper, we presenta parametric study on the use of microjet injectors for suppressing or mitigating the combustion dynamics that energize the thermoacoustic instability in a swirl-stabilized, premixed combustor. Microjet injectors consist of small inlet ports intended to inject flow with high momentum at relatively low mass flow rates into the flame-anchoring region. The microjets were configured to inject flow either axially, into the outer recirculation zone, or radially into the inner recirculation zone. Additionally, different injectors were tested with different relative senses of swirl (signs of angular momentum)with respect to the main flow: co-swirling, not swirling, or counter-swirling. We observed that injecting air or premixed fuel/air into the inner recirculation zone via counter-swirling radial microjets, we were able to reduce the overall sound pressure level in the combustor by over 20 dB in the lean end of the operating range. Other injector configurations were not observed to positively influence the combust or stability. Detailed PIV measurements are used to examine possible mechanisms of how the microjets impact the combustion dynamics, and the technology implications of our experiments are discussed.

  17. Microjet Injection Strategies for Mitigating Dynamics in a Lean Premixed Swirl-Stabilized Combustor

    KAUST Repository

    LaBry, Zachary

    2011-01-04

    Combustion dynamics remain a challenge in the development of low-emission, air-breathing combustors for power generation and aircraft propulsion. In this paper, we presenta parametric study on the use of microjet injectors for suppressing or mitigating the combustion dynamics that energize the thermoacoustic instability in a swirl-stabilized, premixed combustor. Microjet injectors consist of small inlet ports intended to inject flow with high momentum at relatively low mass flow rates into the flame-anchoring region. The microjets were configured to inject flow either axially, into the outer recirculation zone, or radially into the inner recirculation zone. Additionally, different injectors were tested with different relative senses of swirl (signs of angular momentum)with respect to the main flow: co-swirling, not swirling, or counter-swirling. We observed that injecting air or premixed fuel/air into the inner recirculation zone via counter-swirling radial microjets, we were able to reduce the overall sound pressure level in the combustor by over 20 dB in the lean end of the operating range. Other injector configurations were not observed to positively influence the combust or stability. Detailed PIV measurements are used to examine possible mechanisms of how the microjets impact the combustion dynamics, and the technology implications of our experiments are discussed.

  18. Suppression of a thymus dependent humoral response in mice by Concanavalin A in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, H.S.; Ekstedt, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Mice treated with Concanavalin A prior to immunization with sheep erthyrocytes exhibit a markedly reduced plaque forming spleen cell response. This immunosuppressive effect could be reversed by using higher doses of antigen or priming the animals with nonimmunizing doses of antigen prior to Concanavalin A injection designed to either by-pass or enhance thymus derived lymphocyte functions. It was also demonstrated that Concanavalin A in vivo activated the thymus derived lymphocyte subpopulation in the spleen, and this activation was dose dependent and correlated with the immunosuppression observed. Animals injected with Concanavalin A at various times prior to whole body lethal irradiation would not support the plaque forming cell response of adoptively transferred normal syngeneic spleen cells. This effect was shown to be time and dose of Concanavalin A dependent. It was also shown that the route of injection of Concanavalin A prior to irradiation determined the results observed, in that the intravenous route resulted in the suppression of transferred cells, while the intraperitoneal route showed no effect. It is suggested that Concanavalin A induced immunosuppression of the humoral, thymus dependent immune response in mice results for the activation of a subpopulation of thymus derived suppressors cells, and that the effect is short lived, radiation resistant, and dose of Concanavalin A and antigen dependent

  19. Meropenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  20. Chloramphenicol Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  1. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Granisetron Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granisetron immediate-release injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy and to ... nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Granisetron extended-release (long-acting) injection is used with ...

  3. Edaravone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaravone injection is used to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, Lou Gehrig's disease; a condition in which ... die, causing the muscles to shrink and weaken). Edaravone injection is in a class of medications called ...

  4. Defibrotide Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defibrotide injection is used to treat adults and children with hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD; blocked blood ... the body and then returned to the body). Defibrotide injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Nalbuphine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... injection is in a class of medications called opioid agonist-antagonists. It works by changing the way ... suddenly stop using nalbuphine injection, you may experience withdrawal symptoms including restlessness; teary eyes; runny nose; yawning; ...

  6. Design of an Inductive Adder for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woog, D.; Barnes, M. J.; Ducimetière, L.; Holma, J.; Kramer, T.

    2017-07-01

    The injection system for a 100 TeV centre-of-mass collider is an important part of the Future Circular Collider (FCC) study. Due to issues with conventional kicker systems, such as self-triggering and long term availability of thyratrons and limitations of HV-cables, innovative design changes are planned for the FCC injection kicker pulse generator. An inductive adder (IA) based on semiconductor (SC) switches is a promising technology for kicker systems. Its modular design, and the possibility of an active ripple suppression are significant advantages. Since the IA is a complex device, with multiple components whose characteristics are important, a detailed design study and construction of a prototype is necessary. This paper summarizes the system requirements and constraints, and describes the main components and design challenges of the prototype IA. It outlines the results from simulations and measurements on different magnetic core materials as well as on SC switches. The paper concludes on the design choices and progress for the prototype to be built at CERN.

  7. Effect of subcutaneous injection of a long-acting analogue of somatostatin (SMS 201-995) on plasma thyroid-stimulating hormone in normal human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, S.; Tanaka, K.; Kumagae, M.; Takeda, F.; Morio, K.; Kogure, M.; Hasegawa, M.; Horiuchi, T.; Watabe, T.; Miyabe, S.

    1988-01-01

    SMS 201-995 (SMS), a synthetic analogue of somatostatin (SRIF) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of the hypersecretion of hormones such as in acromegaly. However, little is known about the effects of SMS on the secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in normal subjects. In this study, plasma TSH was determined with a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay, in addition to the concentration of SMS in plasma and urine with a radioimmunoassay, following subcutaneous injection of 25, 50, 100 ..mu..g of SMS or a placebo to normal male subjects, at 0900 h after an overnight fast. The plasma concentrations of SMS were dose-responsive and the peak levels were 1.61 +/- 0.09, 4.91 +/- 0.30 and 8.52 +/- 1.18 ng/ml, which were observed at 30, 15 and 45 min after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, respectively. Mean plasma disappearance half-time of SMS was estimated to be 110 +/- 3 min. Plasma TSH was suppressed in a dose dependent manner and the suppression lasted for at least 8 hours. At 8 hours after the injection of 25, 50, and 100 ..mu..g of SMS, the plasma TSH levels were 43.8 +/- 19.4, 33.9 +/- 9.4 and 24.9 +/- 3.2%, respectively, of the basal values.

  8. Suppression of choriocarcinoma invasion and metastasis following blockade of BDNF/TrkB signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Nanami; Okamoto, Naoki; Manabe, Motomu

    2013-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) acts through its cognate receptor tyrosine kinase-B (TrkB) to regulate diverse physiological functions in reproductive and other tissues. In normal and malignant trophoblastic cells, the BDNF/TrkB signaling promotes cell growth. Due to the highly malignant nature of choriocarcinoma, we investigated possible involvement of this system in choriocarcinoma cell invasion and metastasis. We demonstrated that treatment of cultured choriocarcinoma cells, known to express both BDNF and TrkB, with a soluble TrkB ectodomain or a Trk receptor inhibitor K252a suppressed cell invasion accompanied with decreased expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2, a cell invasion marker. In vivo studies using a tumor xenograft model in athymic nude mice further showed inhibition of cell invasion from tumors to surrounding tissues following the suppression of endogenous TrkB signaling. For an in vivo model of choriocarcinoma metastasis, we performed intravenous injections of JAR cells expressing firefly luciferase into severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Treatment with K252a inhibited metastasis of tumors to distant organs. In vivo K252a treatment also suppressed metastatic tumor growth as reflected by decreased cell proliferation and increased apoptosis and caspases-3/7 activities, together with reduced tissue levels of a tumor marker, human chorionic gonadotropin-β. In vivo suppression of TrkB signaling also led to decreased expression of angiogenic markers in metastatic tumor, including cluster of differentiation 31 and vascular endothelial growth factor A. Our findings suggested essential autocrine/paracrine roles of the BDNF/TrkB signaling system in choriocarcinoma invasion and metastasis. Inhibition of this signaling could serve as the basis to develop a novel therapy for patients with choriocarcinoma

  9. Piezoelectric Injection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, R.; Lubitz, K.

    The origin of direct injection can be doubtlessly attributed to Rudolf Diesel who used air assisted injection for fuel atomisation in his first self-ignition engine. Although it became apparent already at that time that direct injection leads to reduced specific fuel consumption compared to other methods of fuel injection, it was not used in passenger cars for the moment because of its disadvantageous noise generation as the requirements with regard to comfort were seen as more important than a reduced specific consumption.

  10. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Rajan, Vik; Lin, Eugene; Hu, Zhaoyong; Han, H. Q.; Zhou, Xiaolan; Song, Yanping; Min, Hosung; Wang, Xiaonan; Du, Jie; Mitch, William E.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and several other catabolic conditions are characterized by increased circulating inflammatory cytokines, defects in IGF-1 signaling, abnormal muscle protein metabolism, and progressive muscle atrophy. In these conditions, no reliable treatments successfully block the development of muscle atrophy. In mice with CKD, we found a 2- to 3-fold increase in myostatin expression in muscle. Its pharmacological inhibition by subcutaneous injections of an anti-myostatin peptibody into CKD mice (IC50 ∼1.2 nM) reversed the loss of body weight (≈5–7% increase in body mass) and muscle mass (∼10% increase in muscle mass) and suppressed circulating inflammatory cytokines vs. results from CKD mice injected with PBS. Pharmacological myostatin inhibition also decreased the rate of protein degradation (16.38±1.29%; Pmyostatin expression via a NF-κB-dependent pathway, whereas muscle cells exposed to myostatin stimulated IL-6 production via p38 MAPK and MEK1 pathways. Because IL-6 stimulates muscle protein breakdown, we conclude that CKD increases myostatin through cytokine-activated pathways, leading to muscle atrophy. Myostatin antagonism might become a therapeutic strategy for improving muscle growth in CKD and other conditions with similar characteristics.—Zhang, L., Rajan, V., Lin, E., Hu, Z., Han, H.Q., Zhou, X., Song, Y., Min, H., Wang, X., Du, J., Mitch, W. E. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin suppresses systemic inflammation and muscle atrophy in mice with chronic kidney disease. PMID:21282204

  11. Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehnke, Frank, E-mail: mehnke@physik.tu-berlin.de; Kuhn, Christian; Stellmach, Joachim; Rothe, Mark-Antonius; Reich, Christoph; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Pristovsek, Markus; Wernicke, Tim [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Kolbe, Tim; Lobo-Ploch, Neysha; Rass, Jens [Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kneissl, Michael [Technische Universität Berlin, Institut für Festkörperphysik, Hardenbergstr. 36, EW 6-1, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Ferdinand-Braun-Institut, Leibniz-Institut für Höchstfrequenztechnik, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 4, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-05-21

    The effects of the heterostructure design on the injection efficiency and external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet (UV)-B light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated. It was found that the functionality of the Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N:Mg electron blocking layer is strongly influenced by its aluminum mole fraction x and its magnesium doping profile. By comparing LED electroluminescence, quantum well photoluminescence, and simulations of LED heterostructure, we were able to differentiate the contributions of injection efficiency and internal quantum efficiency to the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs. For the optimized heterostructure using an Al{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}N:Mg electron blocking layer with a Mg to group III ratio of 4% in the gas phase the electron leakage currents are suppressed without blocking the injection of holes into the multiple quantum well active region. Flip chip mounted LED chips have been processed achieving a maximum output power of 3.5 mW at 290 mA and a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.54% at 30 mA.

  12. Preparation and evaluation of a phospholipid-based injectable gel for the long term delivery of leuprolide acetaterrh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Danhong; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong; Ding, Rui; Fu, Yao

    2016-07-01

    A phospholipid-based injectable gel was developed for the sustained delivery of leuprolide acetate (LA). The gel system was prepared using biocompatible materials (SPME), including soya phosphatidyl choline (SPC), medium chain triglyceride (MCT) and ethanol. The system displayed a sol state with low viscosity in vitro and underwent in situ gelation in vivo after subcutaneous injection. An in vitro release study was performed using a dialysis setup with different release media containing different percentages of ethanol. The stability of LA in the SPME system was investigated under different temperatures and in the presence of various antioxidants. In vivo studies in male rats were performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic profiles and pharmacodynamic efficacy. A sustained release of LA for 28 days was observed without obvious initial burst in vivo. The pharmacodynamic study showed that once-a-month injection of LA-loaded SPME (SPME-LA) led to comparable suppression effects on the serum testosterone level as observed in LA solution except for the onset time. These findings demonstrate excellent potential for this novel SPME system as a sustained release delivery system for LA.

  13. Effect of heterostructure design on carrier injection and emission characteristics of 295 nm light emitting diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehnke, Frank; Kuhn, Christian; Stellmach, Joachim; Rothe, Mark-Antonius; Reich, Christoph; Ledentsov, Nikolay; Pristovsek, Markus; Wernicke, Tim; Kolbe, Tim; Lobo-Ploch, Neysha; Rass, Jens; Kneissl, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The effects of the heterostructure design on the injection efficiency and external quantum efficiency of ultraviolet (UV)-B light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been investigated. It was found that the functionality of the Al x Ga 1−x N:Mg electron blocking layer is strongly influenced by its aluminum mole fraction x and its magnesium doping profile. By comparing LED electroluminescence, quantum well photoluminescence, and simulations of LED heterostructure, we were able to differentiate the contributions of injection efficiency and internal quantum efficiency to the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs. For the optimized heterostructure using an Al 0.7 Ga 0.3 N:Mg electron blocking layer with a Mg to group III ratio of 4% in the gas phase the electron leakage currents are suppressed without blocking the injection of holes into the multiple quantum well active region. Flip chip mounted LED chips have been processed achieving a maximum output power of 3.5 mW at 290 mA and a peak external quantum efficiency of 0.54% at 30 mA

  14. Role of substance use in HIV care cascade outcomes among people who inject drugs in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrisov, Bulat; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Blokhina, Elena; Gnatienko, Natalia; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Bryant, Kendall J; Lioznov, Dmitry; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-12-04

    Engaging people who drink alcohol or inject drugs in HIV care can be challenging, particularly in Eastern Europe. Healthcare facilities in Russia are organized by specialty; therefore linking patients from addiction care to HIV hospitals has been difficult. The HIV care cascade outlines stages of HIV care (e.g., linkage to care, prescribed antiretroviral therapy [ART], and achieving HIV viral suppression). We hypothesized that unhealthy alcohol use, injection drug use, and opioid craving are associated with unfavorable HIV care cascade outcomes. We analyzed data from a cohort (n = 249) of HIV-positive Russians who have been in addiction hospital treatment in the past year and had a lifetime history of injection drug use (IDU). We evaluated the association between unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT score > 7 [both hazardous drinking and dependence]), past-month injection drug use (IDU), and opioid craving (visual analogue scale from 1 to 100) with HIV care cascade outcomes. The primary outcome was linkage to HIV care within 12 months. Other outcomes were prescription of ART (secondary) and achievement of undetectable HIV viral load (HVL < 500 copies/mL) within 12 months (exploratory); the latter was analyzed on a subset in which HVL was measured (n = 48). We assessed outcomes via medical record review (linkage, ART) and serum tests (HVL). To examine the primary outcome, we used multiple logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Among 249 study participants, unhealthy alcohol use (n = 148 [59%]) and past-month IDU (n = 130 [52%]) were common. The mean opioid craving score was 49 (SD: 38). We were unable to detect significant associations between the independent variables (i.e., unhealthy alcohol use, IDU and opioid craving) and any HIV care cascade outcomes in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In this cohort of HIV-positive Russians with a history of IDU, individual substance use factors were not significantly associated with achieving

  15. A comparison of molding procedures - Contact, injection and vacuum injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathiard, G.

    1980-06-01

    The technical and economic aspects of the contact, injection and vacuum injection molding of reinforced plastic components are compared for the example of a tractor roof with a gel-coated surface. Consideration is given to the possibility of reinforcement, number of smooth faces, condition of the gel-coated surface, reliability, and labor and workplace requirements of the three processes, and advantages of molding between the mold and a countermold in smooth faces, reliability, labor requirements, working surface and industrial hygiene are pointed out. The times and labor requirements of each step in the molding cycles are examined, and material requirements and yields, investment costs, amortization and product cost prices of the processes are compared. It is concluded that, for the specific component examined, the processes of vacuum injection and injection molding appear very interesting, with injection molding processes resulting in lower cost prices than contact molding for any production volume.

  16. Prevalence of injections and knowledge of safe injections among rural residents in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y W; Yan, J; Zhang, G P; Gao, Z L; Jian, H X

    2007-08-01

    Abuse of the injection services, namely unnecessary injections and unsafe injections, exists extensively in developing countries. Unsafe injection practices contribute to the transmission of blood-borne pathogens. The aims of this study were to survey the prevalence of injections and knowledge of injection safety among the rural residents in Jingzhou district, Hubei, China and to provide scientific data for developing a health educational programme. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted in 12 villages, which were selected from the Jingzhou district by the random sampling method. 50 rural residents were interviewed per village using a questionnaire. Among the 595 residents studied, 192 had received at least one injection in the past three months, with an injection prevalence of 32.3 percent and an average of 0.93 injections. 90.3 percent of the rural residents knew that unsafe injections could transmit the following blood-borne pathogens: human immunodeficiency virus (74.4 percent), hepatitis B virus (55.8 percent) and hepatitis C virus (22.9 percent). Logistic regression analysis showed that the residents' age, educational level and residential area were important factors in influencing their knowledge about injection safety. The results indicated that the injection prevalence was high among rural residents in the study area, and their knowledge regarding injection safety should be further improved.

  17. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  18. The absorption and uptake of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone through vaginal subcutaneous injections - a pharmacokinetic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chao-Chin; Kuo, Hsin-Chih; Hsu, Chao-Tien; Gu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) has been routinely used for ovulation induction. Because of rapid clearance of the hormone, FSH is commonly administered by daily intramuscular or subcutaneous injections in in-vitro fertilization (IVF). To reduce the number of visits to the clinic, an intermittent vaginal injection of rhFSH every 3 days employing the concepts of mesotherapy and uterine first-pass effect was invented and has successfully been applied in women receiving IVF treatment. This study was designed to monitor the pharmacokinetic pattern of rhFSH administered vaginally. Methods Twelve healthy women with regular ovulatory cycles were recruited. All volunteers received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist to suppress pituitary function and were assigned to receive single dose recombinant human FSH (rhFSH, Puregon 300) either using conventional abdominal subcutaneous injection or vaginal subcutaneous injection in a randomized cross-over study. Serum samples were collected at pre- scheduled time intervals after injections of rhFSH to determine immunoreactive FSH levels. Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) and time of maximal plasma concentrations (tmax)] and extent [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and clearance] of absorption of rhFSH were compared. Results Vaginal injection of rhFSH was well tolerated and no drug-related adverse reaction was noted. Our analysis revealed that tmax was significantly earlier (mean 6.67 versus 13.33 hours) and Cmax was significantly higher (mean 17.77 versus 13.96 IU/L) in vaginal versus abdominal injections. The AUC0-∞ was 1640 versus 1134 IU·hour/L in vaginal and abdominal injections, respectively. Smaller plasma elimination rate constant (0.011 versus 0.016 hour-1), longer mean residence time (106.58 versus 70.47 hours), and slower total body clearance (292.2 versus 400.1 mL/hour) were also found in vaginal injection. Conclusion The vaginal

  19. The absorption and uptake of recombinant human follicle-stimulating hormone through vaginal subcutaneous injections - a pharmacokinetic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo Hsin-Chih

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH has been routinely used for ovulation induction. Because of rapid clearance of the hormone, FSH is commonly administered by daily intramuscular or subcutaneous injections in in-vitro fertilization (IVF. To reduce the number of visits to the clinic, an intermittent vaginal injection of rhFSH every 3 days employing the concepts of mesotherapy and uterine first-pass effect was invented and has successfully been applied in women receiving IVF treatment. This study was designed to monitor the pharmacokinetic pattern of rhFSH administered vaginally. Methods Twelve healthy women with regular ovulatory cycles were recruited. All volunteers received gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist to suppress pituitary function and were assigned to receive single dose recombinant human FSH (rhFSH, Puregon 300 either using conventional abdominal subcutaneous injection or vaginal subcutaneous injection in a randomized cross-over study. Serum samples were collected at pre- scheduled time intervals after injections of rhFSH to determine immunoreactive FSH levels. Pharmacokinetic parameters characterizing rate [maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax and time of maximal plasma concentrations (tmax] and extent [area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC and clearance] of absorption of rhFSH were compared. Results Vaginal injection of rhFSH was well tolerated and no drug-related adverse reaction was noted. Our analysis revealed that tmax was significantly earlier (mean 6.67 versus 13.33 hours and Cmax was significantly higher (mean 17.77 versus 13.96 IU/L in vaginal versus abdominal injections. The AUC0-∞ was 1640 versus 1134 IU·hour/L in vaginal and abdominal injections, respectively. Smaller plasma elimination rate constant (0.011 versus 0.016 hour-1, longer mean residence time (106.58 versus 70.47 hours, and slower total body clearance (292.2 versus 400.1 mL/hour were also found in vaginal injection

  20. CT-guided cervical nerve root injections: comparing the immediate post-injection anesthetic-related effects of the transforaminal injection with a new indirect technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, Reto; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Peterson, Cynthia K.; Zanetti, Marco; Hodler, Juerg

    2011-01-01

    To describe an ''indirect'' cervical nerve root injection technique with a dorsal approach that should carry less inherent risk than the ''direct'' cervical transforaminal injection approach, and to compare the immediate post-injection results of the two procedures. The indirect and direct cervical nerve root injection procedures are described in detail. Fifty-three consecutive patients receiving the indirect nerve root injections during 2009-2010 were age- and gender-matched to 53 patients who underwent direct transforaminal nerve root injections performed in 2006. Pain level data were collected immediately before and 20-30 min after each procedure. The percentages of pain change in the two groups were compared using the unpaired Student's t test. Fifty-two men (mean age 49) and 54 women (mean age 55) were included. The mean percentage of pain reduction for patients receiving indirect nerve root injections was 38.4% and for those undergoing the direct nerve root injections approach it was 43.2%. This was not significantly different (P = 0.455). No immediate or late adverse effects were reported after either injection procedure. The indirect cervical nerve root injection procedure is a potentially safer alternative to direct cervical transforaminal nerve root injections. The short-term pain reduction is similar using the two injection methods. (orig.)

  1. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  2. Discriminative stimulus properties and brain distribution of phencyclidine in rats following administration by injection and smoke inhalation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wessinger, W.D.; Martin, B.R.; Balster, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Four male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to discriminate IP injections of 3.0 mg/kg phencyclidine (PCP) from saline under a 2-lever fixed-ratio 32 schedule of food presentation. After reliable discriminative control of lever choice was established, other doses of injected PCP were tested resulting in dose-dependent increases in PCP-lever selection and dose-dependent decreases in rates of responding. When doses of PCP were administered by exposure to smoke from cigarettes containing PCP, a dose-dependent increase in PCP-lever responding was also observed. delta 9-Tetrahydrocannabinol administered via smoke exposure, up to doses which markedly suppressed response rates, did not result in PCP-appropriate responding, demonstrating the specificity of the PCP stimulus by the inhalation route. Brain levels and distribution of 3 H-PCP were determined in rats administered doses calculated to result in 50% generalization by the IP injection or smoke inhalation routes. By both routes of administration roughly equivalent brain levels were attained and the distribution was relatively even across the seven brain areas analyzed. These results demonstrate the validity of using the injection route of administration when studying PCP experimentally, in spite of the fact that PCP is abused primarily by smoking

  3. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  4. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-04-11

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. MSCs were derived from negative HLA cross-match donors. Donor bone marrow was harvested 5 weeks prior to KT. At the time of transplantation, 1 x 106 cell/kg of donor MSC was directly injected into the bone marrow of the recipient's right iliac bone. Patients' clinical outcomes, presence of mixed chimerism by short tandem repeat polymerase chain reaction, analysis of plasma FoxP3 mRNA and cytokine level, and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR) were performed. Seven patients enrolled in this study and received donor MSC injections simultaneously with LDKT. The median age of recipients was 36 years (32 ~ 48). The number of HLA mismatches was 3 or less in 5 and more than 3 in 2. No local complications or adverse events such as hypersensitivity occurred during or after the injection of donor MSC. There was no graft failure, but the biopsy-proven acute rejections were observed in 3 recipients during the follow-up period controlled well with steroid pulse therapy (SPT). The last serum creatinine was a median of 1.23 mg/dL (0.83 ~ 2.07). Mixed chimerism was not detected in the peripheral blood of the recipients at 1 and 8 week of post-transplantation. Donor-specific lymphocyte or T cell proliferation and Treg priming responses were observed in some patients. Plasma level of IL-10, a known mediator of MSC-induced immune suppression, increased in the patients with Treg induction. Donor MSC injection into the iliac bone at the time of KT was feasible and safe. A possible correlation was observed between the induction of inhibitory

  5. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Curcumin protects dopaminergic neurons against inflammation-mediated damage and improves motor dysfunction induced by single intranigral lipopolysaccharide injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Neha; Sharma, Sheetal; Nehru, Bimla

    2017-06-01

    Various studies have indicated a lower incidence and prevalence of neurological conditions in people consuming curcumin. The ability of curcumin to target multiple cascades, simultaneously, could be held responsible for its neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the potential of curcumin in minimizing microglia-mediated damage in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced model of PD. Altered microglial functions and increased inflammatory profile of the CNS have severe behavioral consequences. In the current investigation, a single injection of LPS (5 ug/5 µl PBS) was injected into the substantia nigra (SN) of rats, and curcumin [40 mg/kg b.wt (i.p.)] was administered daily for a period of 21 days. LPS triggered an inflammatory response characterized by glial activation [Iba-1 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)] and pro-inflammatory cytokine production (TNF-α and IL-1β) leading to extensive dopaminergic loss and behavioral abnormality in rats. The behavioral observations, biochemical markers, quantification of dopamine and its metabolites (DOPAC and HVA) using HPLC followed by IHC of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) were evaluated after 21 days of LPS injection. Curcumin supplementation prevented dopaminergic degeneration in LPS-treated animals by normalizing the altered levels of biomarkers. Also, a significant improvement in TH levels as well as behavioral parameters (actophotometer, rotarod, beam walking and grid walking tests) were seen in LPS injected rats. Curcumin shielded the dopaminergic neurons against LPS-induced inflammatory response, which was associated with suppression of glial activation (microglia and astrocytes) and transcription factor NF-κB as depicted from RT-PCR and EMSA assay. Curcumin also suppressed microglial NADPH oxidase activation as observed from NADPH oxidase activity. The results suggested that one of the important mechanisms by which curcumin mediates its protective effects in the LPS-induced PD

  7. Effects of upper plenum injection on thermo-hydrodynamic behavior under refill and reflood phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Sobajima, Makoto; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Ohnuki, Akira; Osakabe, Masahiro

    1984-12-01

    In order to investigate the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in core under simultaneous ECC water injection into the upper plenum and the intact cold leg during the refill and reflood phases of a PWR-LOCA, Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 were performed by using Slab Core Test Facility (SCTF) with the injection of saturated and 67K subcooled water into the upper plenum, respectively, under the same cold leg injection condition. The following major findings were obtained by examining these test results. (1) Although the core was cooled by the fall back water from the upper plenum into the core during the period of high injection rate into the upper plenum, the core was cooled mainly by the bottom flooding after the BOCREC (Bottom of core recovery). (2) The possible fall back flow rate estimated with a CCFL correlation rapidly decreased after the BOCREC because of the increase of steam generation rate in core. (3) Continuous fall back of subcooled water was not observed even under the condition with large upper plenum injection rate of subcooled water and with steam outflow through the lower plenum into the downcomer. The fall back was intermittently limited by the rapid increase of upward steam flow which was generated in the core due to the evaporation of the fall back water. (4) The rising of liquid level in the lower plenum was suppressed by the pressurization in core due to the evaporation of fall back water before the BOCREC and therefore the beginning of bottom reflood was delayed. Some selected data from Tests S1-SH3 and S1-SH4 are also included in this report. (author)

  8. Optimization of injection law for direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feola, M.; Bella, G.; Pelloni, P.; Casoli, P.; Toderi, G.; Cantore, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes how different timing and shape of the injection law can influence pollutant emission of a direct injection diesel engine. The study was carried out making use of a multizone thermodynamic model as regards the closed valve phase, and a filling-emptying one as regards the open valve phase. After being calibrated by comparison with experimental data, the abovementioned model was used for injection law optimization as regards minimum pollutant concentration (NO x and soot) in the exhaust gases with the smallest engine performance reduction possible

  9. Suppression of gastric cancer dissemination by ephrin-B1-derived peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masamitsu; Kamata, Reiko; Yanagihara, Kazuyoshi; Sakai, Ryuichi

    2010-01-01

    Interaction of the Eph family of receptor protein tyrosine kinases and their ligands, ephrin family members, induces bidirectional signaling through cell-cell contacts. High expression of B-type ephrin is associated with high invasion potential of tumors, and we previously observed that signaling through the C-terminus of ephrin-B1 mediates the migration and invasion of cells, and is involved in the promotion of carcinomatous peritonitis in vivo. Here we show that the intracellular introduction of a synthetic peptide derived from ephrin-B1 C-terminus blocks ephrin-B1 mediated signaling in scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Treatment of cancer cells with a fusion peptide consisting of HIV-TAT and amino acids 331-346 of ephrin-B1 (PTD-EFNB1-C) suppressed the activation of RhoA, mediated by the association of ephrin-B1 with an adaptor protein Dishevelled, and also inhibited extracellular secretion of metalloproteinase. Moreover, injection of PTD-EFNB1-C peptide into the peritoneal cavity of nude mice suppressed carcinomatous peritonitis of intraperitoneally transplanted scirrhous gastric cancer cells. These results indicate the possible application of ephrin-B1 C-terminal peptide to develop novel protein therapy for scirrhous gastric carcinoma, especially in the stage of tumor progression, including peritoneal dissemination.

  10. Serratia marcescens Suppresses Host Cellular Immunity via the Production of an Adhesion-inhibitory Factor against Immunosurveillance Cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Injection of a culture supernatant of Serratia marcescens into the bloodstream of the silkworm Bombyx mori increased the number of freely circulating immunosurveillance cells (hemocytes). Using a bioassay with live silkworms, serralysin metalloprotease was purified from the culture supernatant and identified as the factor responsible for this activity. Serralysin inhibited the in vitro attachment of both silkworm hemocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. Incubation of silkworm hemocytes or murine macrophages with serralysin resulted in degradation of the cellular immune factor BmSPH-1 or calreticulin, respectively. Furthermore, serralysin suppressed in vitro phagocytosis of bacteria by hemocytes and in vivo bacterial clearance in silkworms. Disruption of the ser gene in S. marcescens attenuated its host killing ability in silkworms and mice. These findings suggest that serralysin metalloprotease secreted by S. marcescens suppresses cellular immunity by decreasing the adhesive properties of immunosurveillance cells, thereby contributing to bacterial pathogenesis. PMID:24398686

  11. Serratia marcescens suppresses host cellular immunity via the production of an adhesion-inhibitory factor against immunosurveillance cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kenichi; Adachi, Tatsuo; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa

    2014-02-28

    Injection of a culture supernatant of Serratia marcescens into the bloodstream of the silkworm Bombyx mori increased the number of freely circulating immunosurveillance cells (hemocytes). Using a bioassay with live silkworms, serralysin metalloprotease was purified from the culture supernatant and identified as the factor responsible for this activity. Serralysin inhibited the in vitro attachment of both silkworm hemocytes and murine peritoneal macrophages. Incubation of silkworm hemocytes or murine macrophages with serralysin resulted in degradation of the cellular immune factor BmSPH-1 or calreticulin, respectively. Furthermore, serralysin suppressed in vitro phagocytosis of bacteria by hemocytes and in vivo bacterial clearance in silkworms. Disruption of the ser gene in S. marcescens attenuated its host killing ability in silkworms and mice. These findings suggest that serralysin metalloprotease secreted by S. marcescens suppresses cellular immunity by decreasing the adhesive properties of immunosurveillance cells, thereby contributing to bacterial pathogenesis.

  12. Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Maria

    This thesis is about visualization and characterization of the tissue-device interaction during subcutaneous injection. The tissue pressure build-up during subcutaneous injections was measured in humans. The insulin pen FlexTouchr (Novo Nordisk A/S) was used for the measurements and the pressure ...

  13. Hydromorphone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... anyone else to use your medication. Store hydromorphone injection in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Keep track of how much medication is left so ... with hydromorphone injection may increase the risk that you will develop ...

  14. Ketorolac Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an older adult, you should know that ketorolac injection is not as safe as other medications that can be used to treat your condition. Your doctor may choose to prescribe a different medication ... to ketorolac injection.Your doctor or pharmacist will give you the ...

  15. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections: where does the injectate go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maida, Eugene; Presley, James C; Murthy, Naveen; Pawlina, Wojciech; Smith, Jay

    2013-08-01

    To determine the distribution of sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in an unembalmed cadaveric model. A single experienced operator completed 10 sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections in 10 unembalmed cadaveric specimens (5 right and 5 left) obtained from 6 donors (2 male and 4 female) aged 49 to 95 years (mean, 77.5 years) with a mean body mass index of 23.2 kg/m(2) (range, 18.4-26.3 kg/m(2)). A 12-3-MHz linear array transducer was used to direct a 22-gauge, 38-mm stainless steel needle deep to the plantar fascia at the anterior aspect of the calcaneus using an in-plane, medial-to-lateral approach. In each case, 1.5 mL of 50% diluted colored latex was injected deep to the plantar fascia. After a minimum of 72 hours, study coinvestigators dissected each specimen to assess injectate placement. All 10 injections accurately placed latex adjacent to the deep side of the plantar fascia at the anterior calcaneus. However, the flexor digitorum brevis (FDB) origin from the plantar fascia variably limited direct latex contact with the plantar fascia, and small amounts of latex interdigitated with the FDB origin in 90% (9 of 10). In all 10 specimens, latex also covered the traversing first branch of the lateral plantar nerve (FBLPN, ie, Baxter nerve) between the FDB and quadratus plantae muscles. No latex was found in the plantar fat pad or plantar fascia in any specimen. Sonographically guided deep plantar fascia injections reliably deliver latex deep to the plantar fascia while avoiding intrafascial injection. However, the extent of direct plantar fascia contact is variable due to the intervening FDB. On the contrary, the traversing FBLPN is reliably covered by the injection. Deep plantar fascia injections may have a role in the management of refractory plantar fasciitis, particularly following failed superficial perifascial or intrafascial injections, in cases of preferential deep plantar fascia involvement, or when entrapment

  16. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  17. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  18. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  19. Peripheral and central mediators of lipopolysaccharide induced suppression of defensive rage behavior in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, S; Bhatt, R S; Zalcman, S S; Siegel, A

    2009-11-10

    Based upon recent findings in our laboratory that cytokines microinjected into the medial hypothalamus or periaqueductal gray (PAG) powerfully modulate defensive rage behavior in cat, the present study determined the effects of peripherally released cytokines following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge upon defensive rage. The study involved initial identification of the effects of peripheral administration of LPS upon defensive rage by electrical stimulation from PAG and subsequent determination of the peripheral and central mechanisms governing this process. The results revealed significant elevation in response latencies for defensive rage from 60 to 300 min, post LPS injection, with no detectable signs of sickness behavior present at 60 min. In contrast, head turning behavior elicited by stimulation of adjoining midbrain sites was not affected by LPS administration, suggesting a specificity of the effects of LPS upon defensive rage. Direct administration of LPS into the medial hypothalamus had no effect on defensive rage, suggesting that the effects of LPS were mediated by peripheral cytokines rather than by any direct actions upon hypothalamic neurons. Complete blockade of the suppressive effects of LPS by peripheral pretreatment with an Anti-tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) antibody but not with an anti- interleukin-1 (IL-1) antibody demonstrated that the effects of LPS were mediated through TNF-alpha rather than through an IL-1 mechanism. A determination of the central mechanisms governing LPS suppression revealed that pretreatment of the medial hypothalamus with PGE(2) or 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists each completely blocked the suppressive effects of LPS, while microinjections of a TNF-alpha antibody into the medial hypothalamus were ineffective. Microinjections of -Iodo-N-[2-[4-(methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-N-(2-pyridinyl) benzamide monohydrochloride (p-MPPI) into lateral hypothalamus (to test for anatomical specificity) had no effect upon

  20. [Suppression of cycling activity in sheep using parenteral progestagen treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janett, F; Camponovo, L; Lanker, U; Hässig, M; Thun, R

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two synthetic progestagen preparations Chlormadinone acetate (CAP, Chronosyn, Veterinaria AG Zürich) and Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, Nadigest, G Streuli & Co. Uznach) on cycling activity and fertility in sheep. A flock of 28 non pregnant white alpine sheep was randomly divided into three groups, A (n = 10), B (n = 9) and C (n = 9). During a period of 4 weeks the cycling activity was confirmed by blood progesterone analysis. Thereafter, the animals of group A were treated with 50 mg CAP, those of group B with 140 mg MPA and those of group C with physiological saline solution. All injections were given intramuscularly. Suppression of endogenous progesterone secretion lasted from 28 to 49 days (mean = 39 days) in group A and from 42 to 70 days (mean = 50 days) in group B. The synchronization effect of both preparations was unsatisfactory as the occurrence of first estrus was distributed over a period of 3 weeks in group A and 4 weeks in group B. These findings could also be confirmed by the lambing period which lasted 52 days in group A and 36 days in group B. Control animals lambed within 9 days due to the synchronizing effect of the ram. The first fertile estrus was observed 36 days (group A) and 45 days (group B) after the treatment. In group A all 10 animals and in groups B and C 8 of 9 ewes each became pregnant. Parenteral progestagen application with CAP and MPA is a simple, safe and reversible method of estrus suppression in the sheep. The minimal suppressive duration of 4 (CAP) and 5 weeks (MPA) is not sufficient when a period of 3 months (alpine pasture period) is desired.

  1. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Liu; Weilun, Zhang; Minghong, Jiang; Yaxi, Zhang; Shilian, Liu; Yanxin, Liu; Dexian, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy

  2. Paclitaxel Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    (pak'' li tax' el)Paclitaxel injection must be given in a hospital or medical facility under the supervision of a doctor who is experienced in giving chemotherapy medications for cancer.Paclitaxel injection may cause a large decrease in the number of white blood cells (a type of blood cell ...

  3. Experimental investigation of void distribution in Suppression Pool during the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident using air–water two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassame, Somboon; Griffiths, Matthew; Yang, Jun; Lee, Doo Yong; Ju, Peng; Choi, Sung Won; Hibiki, Takashi; Ishii, Mamoru

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Basic understanding of the venting phenomena in the SP during a LOCA was obtained. • A series of experiment is carried out using the PUMA-E test facility. • Two phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. • The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. - Abstract: During the initial blowdown period of a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the non-condensable gas initially contained in the BWR containment is discharged to the pressure suppression chamber through the blowdown pipes. The performance of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) can be degraded due to the released gas ingestion into the suction intakes of the ECCS pumps. The understanding of the relevant phenomena in the pressure suppression chamber is important in analyzing potential gas intrusion into the suction intakes of ECCS pumps. To obtain the basic understanding of the relevant phenomena and the generic data of void distribution in the pressure suppression chamber during the initial blowdown period of a LOCA, tests with various blowdown conditions were conducted using the existing Suppression Pool (SP) tank of the integral test facility, called Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly for ESBWR applications (PUMA-E) facility, a scaled downcomer pipe installed in the PUMA-E SP, and air discharge pipe system. Two different diameter sizes of air injection pipe (0.076 and 0.102 m), a range of air volumetric flux (7.9–24.7 m/s), initial void conditions in an air injection pipe (fully void, partially void, and fully filled with water) and different air velocity ramp rates (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 s) are used to investigate the impact of the blowdown conditions to the void distribution in the SP. Two distinct phases of experiments, namely, an initial and a quasi-steady phase were observed. The maximum void penetration depth was experienced during the initial phase. The quasi-steady phase provided less void

  4. Stable, tunable, quasimonoenergetic electron beams produced in a laser wakefield near the threshold for self-injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Banerjee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Stable operation of a laser-plasma accelerator near the threshold for electron self-injection in the blowout regime has been demonstrated with 25–60 TW, 30 fs laser pulses focused into a 3–4 millimeter length gas jet. Nearly Gaussian shape and high nanosecond contrast of the focused pulse appear to be critically important for controllable, tunable generation of 250–430 MeV electron bunches with a low-energy spread, ∼10  pC charge, a few-mrad divergence and pointing stability, and a vanishingly small low-energy background. The physical nature of the near-threshold behavior is examined using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Simulations indicate that properly locating the nonlinear focus of the laser pulse within the plasma suppresses continuous injection, thus reducing the low-energy tail of the electron beam.

  5. A Patient Friendly Corifollitropin Alfa Protocol without Routine Pituitary Suppression in Normal Responders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huai-Ling; Lai, Hsing-Hua; Chuang, Tzu-Hsuan; Shih, Yu-Wei; Huang, Shih-Chieh; Lee, Meng-Ju; Chen, Shee-Uan

    2016-01-01

    The release of corifollitropin alfa simplifies daily injections of short-acting recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH), and its widely-used protocol involves short-acting gonadotropins supplements and a fixed GnRH antagonist regimen, largely based on follicle size. In this study, the feasibility of corifollitropin alfa without routine pituitary suppression was evaluated. A total of 288 patients were stimulated by corifollitropin alfa on cycle day 3 following with routine serum hormone monitoring and follicle scanning every other day after 5 days of initial stimulation, and a GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg) was only used prophylactically when the luteinizing hormone (LH) was ≧ 6 IU/L (over half of the definitive LH surge). The incidence of premature LH surge (≧ 10 IU/L) was 2.4% (7/288) before the timely injection of a single GnRH antagonist, and the elevated LH level was dropped down from 11.9 IU/L to 2.2 IU/L after the suppression. Two hundred fifty-one patients did not need any antagonist (87.2% [251/288]) throughout the whole stimulation. No adverse effects were observed regarding oocyte competency (fertilization rate: 78%; blastocyst formation rate: 64%). The live birth rate per OPU cycle after the first cryotransfer was 56.3% (161/286), and the cumulative live birth rate per OPU cycle after cyrotransfers was 69.6% (199/286). Of patients who did and did not receive GnRH antagonist during stimulation, no significant difference existed in the cumulative live birth rates (78.4% vs. 68.3%, p = 0.25). The results demonstrated that the routine GnRH antagonist administration is not required in the corifollitropin-alfa cycles using a flexible and hormone-depended antagonist regimen, while the clinical outcome is not compromised. This finding reveals that the use of a GnRH antagonist only occasionally may be needed.

  6. A Patient Friendly Corifollitropin Alfa Protocol without Routine Pituitary Suppression in Normal Responders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Ling Wang

    Full Text Available The release of corifollitropin alfa simplifies daily injections of short-acting recombinant follicular stimulating hormone (rFSH, and its widely-used protocol involves short-acting gonadotropins supplements and a fixed GnRH antagonist regimen, largely based on follicle size. In this study, the feasibility of corifollitropin alfa without routine pituitary suppression was evaluated. A total of 288 patients were stimulated by corifollitropin alfa on cycle day 3 following with routine serum hormone monitoring and follicle scanning every other day after 5 days of initial stimulation, and a GnRH antagonist (0.25 mg was only used prophylactically when the luteinizing hormone (LH was ≧ 6 IU/L (over half of the definitive LH surge. The incidence of premature LH surge (≧ 10 IU/L was 2.4% (7/288 before the timely injection of a single GnRH antagonist, and the elevated LH level was dropped down from 11.9 IU/L to 2.2 IU/L after the suppression. Two hundred fifty-one patients did not need any antagonist (87.2% [251/288] throughout the whole stimulation. No adverse effects were observed regarding oocyte competency (fertilization rate: 78%; blastocyst formation rate: 64%. The live birth rate per OPU cycle after the first cryotransfer was 56.3% (161/286, and the cumulative live birth rate per OPU cycle after cyrotransfers was 69.6% (199/286. Of patients who did and did not receive GnRH antagonist during stimulation, no significant difference existed in the cumulative live birth rates (78.4% vs. 68.3%, p = 0.25. The results demonstrated that the routine GnRH antagonist administration is not required in the corifollitropin-alfa cycles using a flexible and hormone-depended antagonist regimen, while the clinical outcome is not compromised. This finding reveals that the use of a GnRH antagonist only occasionally may be needed.

  7. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  8. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  9. In-Situ Photoexcitation-Induced Suppression of Point Defect Generation in Ion Implanted Silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, C.R.; Rozgonyi, G.A.; Yarykin, N.; Zuhr, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The formation of vacancy-related defects in n-type silicon has been studied immediately after implantation of He, Si, or Ge ions at 85 K using in-situ DLTS. A-center concentrations in He-implanted samples reach a maximum immediately after implantation, whereas, with Si or Ge ion implanted samples they continuously increase during subsequent anneals. It is proposed that defect clusters, which emit vacancies during anneals, are generated in the collision cascades of Si or Ge ions. An illumination-induced suppression of A-center formation is seen immediately after implantation of He ions at 85 K. This effect is also observed with Si or Ge ions, but only after annealing. The suppression of vacancy complex formation via photoexcitation is believed to occur due to an enhanced recombination of defects during ion implantation, and results in reduced number of vacancies remaining in the defect clusters. In p-type silicon, a reduction in K-center formation and an enhanced migration of defects are concurrently observed in the illuminated sample implanted with Si ions. These observations are consistent with a model where the injection of excess carriers modifies the defect charge state and impacts their diffusion

  10. Compressed air injection technique to standardize block injection pressures : [La technique d'injection d'air comprimé pour normaliser les pressions d'injection d'un blocage nerveux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Li, Lisa X Y; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2006-11-01

    Presently, no standardized technique exists to monitor injection pressures during peripheral nerve blocks. Our objective was to determine if a compressed air injection technique, using an in vitro model based on Boyle's law and typical regional anesthesia equipment, could consistently maintain injection pressures below a 1293 mmHg level associated with clinically significant nerve injury. Injection pressures for 20 and 30 mL syringes with various needle sizes ( 18G, 20G, 21 G, 22G, and 24G) were measured in a closed system. A set volume of air was aspirated into a saline-filled syringe and then compressed and maintained at various percentages while pressure was measured. The needle was inserted into the injection port of a pressure sensor, which had attached extension tubing with an injection plug clamped "off". Using linear regression with all data points, the pressure value and 99% confidence interval (CI) at 50% air compression was estimated. The linearity of Boyle's law was demonstrated with a high correlation, r = 0.99, and a slope of 0.984 (99% CI: 0.967-1.001). The net pressure generated at 50% compression was estimated as 744.8 mmHg, with the 99% CI between 729.6 and 760.0 mmHg. The various syringe/needle combinations had similar results. By creating and maintaining syringe air compression at 50% or less, injection pressures will be substantially below the 1293 mmHg threshold considered to be an associated risk factor for clinically significant nerve injury. This technique may allow simple, real-time and objective monitoring during local anesthetic injections while inherently reducing injection speed. Présentement, aucune technique normalisée ne permet de vérifier les pressions d'injection pendant les blocages nerveux périphériques. Nous voulions vérifier si une technique d'injection d'air comprimé, utilisant un modèle in vitro fondé sur la loi de Boyle et du matériel propre à l'anesthésie régionale, pouvait maintenir avec régularité les

  11. Intra-osseous injection of donor mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) into the bone marrow in living donor kidney transplantation; a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyunah; Park, Jae Berm; Lee, Sanghoon; Baek, Soyoung; Kim, HyunSoo; Kim, Sung Joo

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multi-potent non-hematopoietic progenitor cells possessing an immune-regulatory function, with suppression of proliferation of activated lymphocytes. In this study, adult living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) recipients were given MSCs derived from the donor bone marrow to evaluate the safety and the feasibility of immunological changes related to the intra-osseous injection of MSC into the bone marrow. Methods MSCs were derived from negative ...

  12. Comparative study of diode-pumping self-injection and injection-locking Tm:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C T; Chen, F; Ju, Y L; Wang, Y Z

    2013-01-01

    A comparative study of the laser characteristics of self-injection and injection-locking Tm:YAG lasers is given in this paper. At a pump energy of 145 mJ and Q-switched repetition rate of 100 Hz, an output energy of 2.39 mJ was obtained for an injection-locking Tm:YAG laser, with a pulse width of 403.2 ns and a pulse building-up time of 2.12 μs. Under the same conditions, the output energy, pulse width and pulse build-up time for a self-injection Tm:YAG laser were 2.21 mJ, 407.0 ns and 3.95 μs, respectively. The threshold of the Q-switched injection-locking Tm:YAG laser was much lower than that of the self-injection laser, and the pulse width was narrower and the pulse build-up time shorter. Additionally, the output spectrum was much purer for the injection-locking laser. (paper)

  13. Calculation method of water injection forward modeling and inversion process in oilfield water injection network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Liu, Wei

    2018-04-01

    A forward modeling and inversion algorithm is adopted in order to determine the water injection plan in the oilfield water injection network. The main idea of the algorithm is shown as follows: firstly, the oilfield water injection network is inversely calculated. The pumping station demand flow is calculated. Then, forward modeling calculation is carried out for judging whether all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation or not. If all water injection wells meet the requirements of injection allocation, calculation is stopped, otherwise the demand injection allocation flow rate of certain step size is reduced aiming at water injection wells which do not meet requirements, and next iterative operation is started. It is not necessary to list the algorithm into water injection network system algorithm, which can be realized easily. Iterative method is used, which is suitable for computer programming. Experimental result shows that the algorithm is fast and accurate.

  14. Suppression of in vitro cell-mediated lympholysis generation by alloactivated lymphocytes. Examination of radioresistant suppressive activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orosz, C.G.; Ferguson, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the radioresistant (1000 rads) suppression of CML generation mediated by alloactivated murine splenocytes. Suppressive cells were generated in MLCs by stimulation of (A X 6R)F1 splenocytes with irradiated C57BL/10 splenocytes. Suppressive cells could lyse targets bearing H-2b alloantigens, but would not lyse parental B10.T(6R) or B10.A targets. Suppressive activity was detected by including the alloactivated (A X 6R)F1 cells in B10.T(6R) anti-B10.A(1R) MLCs. Relative to the suppressive (A X 6R)F1 cells, the B10.A(1R) lymphocytes display both parental and suppressor-inducing alloantigens. In the absence of a suppressive population, B10.A(1R) stimulators cause B10.T(6R) splenocytes to generate cytolytic activity specific for both H-2Db (suppressor-inducing) and H-2Kk (suppressor-borne) target determinants. The irradiated, alloactivated (A X 6R)F1 cells decrease the H-2Db-specific CML generated in this system, thus mediating apparent antigen-specific suppression. However, cytolytic activity concomitantly generated in the same culture against the unrelated H-2Kk target determinants is similarly reduced by the (A X 6R)F1 cells. Thus, radioresistant suppression by alloactivated splenocytes is not necessarily antigen-specific. The irradiated (A X 6R)F1 cells would not suppress the generation of H-2Kk-specific CTL in B10.T(6R) anti-B10.A MLCs. Hence, the irradiated (A X 6R)F1 cells can impede CML generation against third-party alloantigens if, and only if, those alloantigens are coexpressed with suppressor-inducing alloantigens on the stimulator cells in suppressed MLCs. Similar results were also obtained using a different histoincompatible lymphocyte combination

  15. Helminth Products Potently Modulate Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis by Downregulating Neuroinflammation and Promoting a Suppressive Microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto N. Peón

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A negative correlation between the geographical distribution of autoimmune diseases and helminth infections has been largely associated in the last few years with a possible role for such type of parasites in the regulation of inflammatory diseases, suggesting new pathways for drug development. However, few helminth-derived immunomodulators have been tested in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model of the human disease multiple sclerosis (MS. The immunomodulatory activities of Taenia crassiceps excreted/secreted products (TcES that may suppress EAE development were sought for. Interestingly, it was discovered that TcES was able to suppress EAE development with more potency than dexamethasone; moreover, TcES treatment was still effective even when inoculated at later stages after the onset of EAE. Importantly, the TcES treatment was able to induce a range of Th2-type cytokines, while suppressing Th1 and Th17 responses. Both the polyclonal and the antigen-specific proliferative responses of lymphocytes were also inhibited in EAE-ill mice receiving TcES in association with a potent recruitment of suppressor cell populations. Peritoneal inoculation of TcES was able to direct the normal inflammatory cell traffic to the site of injection, thus modulating CNS infiltration, which may work along with Th2 immune polarization and lymphocyte activation impairment to downregulate EAE development.

  16. Insecticidal activity of the metalloprotease AprA occurs through suppression of host cellular and humoral immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Ah; Jang, Seong Han; Kim, Byung Hyun; Shibata, Toshio; Yoo, Jinwook; Jung, Yunjin; Kawabata, Shun-Ichiro; Lee, Bok Luel

    2018-04-01

    The biochemical characterization of virulence factors from entomopathogenic bacteria is important to understand entomopathogen-insect molecular interactions. Pseudomonas entomophila is a typical entomopathogenic bacterium that harbors virulence factors against several insects. However, the molecular actions of these factors against host innate immune responses are not clearly elucidated. In this study, we observed that bean bugs (Riptortus pedestris) that were injected with P. entomophila were highly susceptible to this bacterium. To determine how P. entomophila counteracts the host innate immunity to survive within the insect, we purified a highly enriched protein with potential host insect-killing activity from the culture supernatant of P. entomophila. Then, a 45-kDa protein was purified to homogeneity and identified as AprA which is an alkaline zinc metalloprotease of the genus Pseudomonas by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Purified AprA showed a pronounced killing effect against host insects and suppressed both host cellular and humoral innate immunity. Furthermore, to show that AprA is an important insecticidal protein of P. entomophila, we used an aprA-deficient P. entomophila mutant strain (ΔaprA). When ΔaprA mutant cells were injected to host insects, this mutant exhibited extremely attenuated virulence. In addition, the cytotoxicity against host hemocytes and the antimicrobial peptide-degrading ability of the ΔaprA mutant were greatly decreased. These findings suggest that AprA functions as an important insecticidal protein of P. entomophila via suppression of host cellular and humoral innate immune responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Injecting Complications and the Role of the Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries participated in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The first results of this survey are published elsewhere in this issue. Herein we report that the most common complication of injecting insulin is lipohypertrophy (LH), which was self-reported by 29.0% of patients and found by physical examination in 30.8% by health care professionals (HCPs). Patients with LH consumed a mean of 10.1 IU more insulin daily than patients without LH. Glycated hemoglobin levels averaged 0.55% higher in patients with vs without LH. Lipohypertrophy was associated with higher rates of unexplained hypoglycemia and glycemic variability as well as more frequent diabetic ketoacidosis, incorrect rotation of injection sites, use of smaller injection zones, longer duration of insulin use, and reuse of pen needles (each P<.05). Routine inspection of injection sites by the HCP was associated with lower glycated hemoglobin levels, less LH, and more correct injection site rotation. Patients were also more likely to rotate correctly if they received injection instructions from their HCP in the past 6 months. Fewer than 40% of patients claimed to have gotten such instructions in the past 6 months, and 10% said that they have never received training on how to inject correctly despite injecting for a mean of nearly 9 years. Use of these data should stimulate renewed commitment to optimizing insulin injection practices. Copyright © 2016 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. 3-bromopyruvate and sodium citrate target glycolysis, suppress survivin, and induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells and inhibit gastric orthotopic transplantation tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-An; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Guo, Xing-Yu; Xian, Shu-Lin; Lu, Yun-Fei

    2016-03-01

    Glycolysis is the primary method utilized by cancer cells to produce the energy (adenosine triphosphate, ATP) required for cell proliferation. Therefore, inhibition of glycolysis may inhibit tumor growth. We previously found that both 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit glycolysis in vitro; however, the underlying inhibitory mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we used a human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) and an orthotopic transplantation tumor model in nude mice to explore the specific mechanisms of 3-BrPA and SCT. We found that both 3-BrPA and SCT effectively suppressed cancer cell proliferation, arrested the cell cycle, induced apoptosis, and decreased the production of lactate and ATP. 3-BrPA significantly reduced the glycolytic enzyme hexokinase activity, while SCT selectively inhibited phosphofructokinase-1 activity. Furthermore, 3-BrPA and SCT upregulated the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, cytochrome c, and cleaved caspase-3) and downregulated the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins (Bcl-2 and survivin). Finally, our animal model of gastric cancer indicated that intraperitoneal injection of 3-BrPA and SCT suppressed orthotopic transplantation tumor growth and induced tumor apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that 3-BrPA and SCT selectively suppress glycolytic enzymes, decrease ATP production, induce mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, downregulate survivin, and inhibit tumor growth. Moreover, an intraperitoneal injection is an effective form of administration of 3-BrPA and SCT.

  19. Tomatidine Attenuates Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation by Suppressing Th2 Cytokines in a Mouse Model of Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Ying Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomatidine is isolated from the fruits of tomato plants and found to have anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages. In the present study, we investigated whether tomatidine suppresses airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and eosinophil infiltration in asthmatic mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with ovalbumin and treated with tomatidine by intraperitoneal injection. Airway resistance was measured by intubation analysis as an indication of airway responsiveness, and histological studies were performed to evaluate eosinophil infiltration in lung tissue. Tomatidine reduced AHR and decreased eosinophil infiltration in the lungs of asthmatic mice. Tomatidine suppressed Th2 cytokine production in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tomatidine also blocked the expression of inflammatory and Th2 cytokine genes in lung tissue. In vitro, tomatidine inhibited proinflammatory cytokines and CCL11 production in inflammatory BEAS-2B bronchial epithelial cells. These results indicate that tomatidine contributes to the amelioration of AHR and eosinophil infiltration by blocking the inflammatory response and Th2 cell activity in asthmatic mice.

  20. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G procaine injection is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used to ... early in the treatment of certain serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of ...

  1. Why expressive suppression does not pay? Cognitive costs of negative emotion suppression: The mediating role of subjective tense-arousal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczygieł Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to contribute to a broader understanding of the cognitive consequences of expressive suppression. Specifically, we examined whether the deteriorating effect of expressive suppression on cognitive functioning is caused by tense arousal enhanced by suppression. Two experiments were performed in order to test this prediction. In both studies we tested the effect of expressive suppression on working memory, as measured with a backwards digit-span task (Study 1, N = 43 and anagram problem-solving task (Study 2, N = 60. In addition, in Study 2 we tested whether expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression. Both studies were conducted in a similar design: Participants watched a film clip which evoked negative emotions (i.e. disgust in Study 1 and a combination of sadness and anxiety in Study 2 under the instruction to suppress those negative emotions or (in the control condition to simply watch the film. The results of these experiments lead to three conclusions. First, the results reveal that expressive suppression degrades memory of the events that emerged during the period of expressive suppression and leads to poorer performance on working memory tasks, as measured with a backwards digit-span task and anagram problem-solving task. Second, the results indicate that expressive suppression leads to a significant increase in subjective tense arousal. Third, the results support our prediction that expressive suppression decreases cognitive performance through its effects on subjective tense arousal. The results of the Study 1 show that tense arousal activated during expressive suppression of disgust fully mediates the negative effect of suppression on working memory as measured with a backwards digit-span task. The results of Study 2 reveal that subjective tense arousal elicited while suppressing sadness and anxiety mediates both the effect of suppression on

  2. Two-Year Outcomes of a Treat-and-Extend Regimen Using Intravitreal Aflibercept Injections for Typical Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Arisa; Matsumoto, Hidetaka; Morimoto, Masahiro; Mimura, Kensuke; Akiyama, Hideo

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a treat-and-extend (TAE) regimen using intravitreal injection of aflibercept (IVA) for typical age-related macular degeneration (tAMD). We retrospectively studied 61 treatment-naïve eyes with tAMD. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT), central choroidal thickness (CCT), number of injections, and complications during 2 years were evaluated. BCVA significantly improved by on average 0.13 logMAR units, and CMT and CCT significantly decreased after 2 years. The number of injections was on average 13.6. In the second year, eyes with classic choroidal neovascularization (CNV) needed significantly fewer treatments than eyes with occult CNV. Fourteen eyes, which developed subfoveal fibrosis, showed significantly poorer BCVA after 2 years. Subfoveal fibrosis was significantly common in classic CNV. A TAE regimen using IVA for tAMD might be effective for improving BCVA and exudative changes. The exudation may be suppressed with fewer treatments in classic CNV compared to occult CNV. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of a phospholipid-based injectable gel for the long term delivery of leuprolide acetaterrh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danhong Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A phospholipid-based injectable gel was developed for the sustained delivery of leuprolide acetate (LA. The gel system was prepared using biocompatible materials (SPME, including soya phosphatidyl choline (SPC, medium chain triglyceride (MCT and ethanol. The system displayed a sol state with low viscosity in vitro and underwent in situ gelation in vivo after subcutaneous injection. An in vitro release study was performed using a dialysis setup with different release media containing different percentages of ethanol. The stability of LA in the SPME system was investigated under different temperatures and in the presence of various antioxidants. In vivo studies in male rats were performed to elucidate the pharmacokinetic profiles and pharmacodynamic efficacy. A sustained release of LA for 28 days was observed without obvious initial burst in vivo. The pharmacodynamic study showed that once-a-month injection of LA-loaded SPME (SPME-LA led to comparable suppression effects on the serum testosterone level as observed in LA solution except for the onset time. These findings demonstrate excellent potential for this novel SPME system as a sustained release delivery system for LA.

  4. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.; Harding, J.; Kingsly, A.; Bradley, M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  5. Therapeutic hip injections: Is the injection volume important?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, R., E-mail: russell.young@gwh.nhs.uk [Department of Radiology, Great Western Hospital, Swindon (United Kingdom); Harding, J. [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Coventry, Coventry (United Kingdom); Kingsly, A. [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Bristol Institue of Technology, University of the West of England, Bristol (United Kingdom); Bradley, M. [Department of Radiology, Southmead Hospital, Bristol (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-15

    Aim: To assess whether an increased volume of local anaesthetic injection given with intra-articular steroids improves symptom relief in osteoarthritis of the hip. Materials and methods: One hundred and ten patients with hip osteoarthritis were randomized into two groups (A and B). All patients were given 40 mg triamcinolone and 2 ml bupivicaine, and patients from group B were also given 6 ml of sterile water for injection. Change in WOMAC (Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index Version 3.1) scores from baseline to 3 months were calculated and assessed for clinical and statistical significance. The patients were assessed for pain at 2 weekly intervals using the Oxford pain chart. Results: Patients from group B showed some reduction in stiffness (7%) and improved function (3%) compared with group A, and there were more clinical responders in these two categories. However, there was no significant statistical or clinical difference in WOMAC scores between the two groups at 3 months. There was also no statistical difference in pain symptoms between the two groups during the study period, measured at 2 weekly intervals. One hundred and two patients reached the study endpoint; eight patients who had bilateral hip injections were subsequently included in the analysis, and these patients did not alter the findings significantly. Conclusions: Published total injection volumes used for treating osteoarthritis of the hip with intra-articular steroids vary from 3 to 12 ml. The present study has shown that there is no detriment to using a larger volume of injectate, and recommends that practitioners use total volumes between 3 and 9 ml.

  6. 78 FR 23246 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9804-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; BASF... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste [[Page 23247...

  7. Efficient Spin Injection into Semiconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahid, M.A.I.

    2010-06-01

    Spintronic research has made tremendous progress nowadays for making future devices obtain extra advantages of low power, and faster and higher scalability compared to present electronic devices. A spintronic device is based on the transport of an electron's spin instead of charge. Efficient spin injection is one of the very important requirements for future spintronic devices. However, the effective spin injection is an exceedingly difficult task. In this paper, the importance of spin injection, basics of spin current and the essential requirements of spin injection are illustrated. The experimental technique of electrical spin injection into semiconductor is also discussed based on the experimental experience. The electrical spin injection can easily be implemented for spin injection into any semiconductor. (author)

  8. 77 FR 26755 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-07

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9669-6] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Diamond... reissuance of an exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste...

  9. 76 FR 55908 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9461-5] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Great Lakes... of an exemption to the land disposal restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste...

  10. 76 FR 36129 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9321-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ExxonMobil... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  11. 78 FR 42776 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL9834-8] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Blanchard Refining... disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and...

  12. 77 FR 52717 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9724-1] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Cornerstone... exemption to the land disposal Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the...

  13. SUPPRESSION OF STAR FORMATION IN NGC 1266

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Lanz, Lauranne; Bitsakis, Theodoros; Appleton, Philip N.; Ogle, Patrick M. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Lacy, Mark; Lonsdale, Carol J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Nyland, Kristina; Meier, David S. [Physics Department, New Mexico Tech, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); Cales, Sabrina L. [Department of Astronomy, Faculty of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción (Chile); Chang, Philip [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Davis, Timothy A.; De Zeeuw, P. T. [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Martín, Sergio, E-mail: kalatalo@ipac.caltech.edu [Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique, 300 Rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Hères (France)

    2015-01-01

    NGC 1266 is a nearby lenticular galaxy that harbors a massive outflow of molecular gas powered by the mechanical energy of an active galactic nucleus (AGN). It has been speculated that such outflows hinder star formation (SF) in their host galaxies, providing a form of feedback to the process of galaxy formation. Previous studies, however, indicated that only jets from extremely rare, high-power quasars or radio galaxies could impart significant feedback on their hosts. Here we present detailed observations of the gas and dust continuum of NGC 1266 at millimeter wavelengths. Our observations show that molecular gas is being driven out of the nuclear region at M-dot {sub out}≈110 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup –1}, of which the vast majority cannot escape the nucleus. Only 2 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} is actually capable of escaping the galaxy. Most of the molecular gas that remains is very inefficient at forming stars. The far-infrared emission is dominated by an ultra-compact (≲ 50 pc) source that could either be powered by an AGN or by an ultra-compact starburst. The ratio of the SF surface density (Σ{sub SFR}) to the gas surface density (Σ{sub H{sub 2}}) indicates that SF is suppressed by a factor of ≈50 compared to normal star-forming galaxies if all gas is forming stars, and ≈150 for the outskirt (98%) dense molecular gas if the central region is powered by an ultra-compact starburst. The AGN-driven bulk outflow could account for this extreme suppression by hindering the fragmentation and gravitational collapse necessary to form stars through a process of turbulent injection. This result suggests that even relatively common, low-power AGNs are able to alter the evolution of their host galaxies as their black holes grow onto the M-σ relation.

  14. 76 FR 42125 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9440-3] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; ConocoPhillips... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  15. 78 FR 76294 - Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9904-21-OW] Underground Injection Control Program; Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection; Mosaic... Restrictions, under the 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act...

  16. 75 FR 60457 - Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-30

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9208-4] Underground Injection Control Program Hazardous Waste Injection Restrictions; Petition for Exemption--Class I Hazardous Waste Injection Dow Chemical Company (DOW... 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act have been...

  17. Transient voltage control of a DFIG-based wind power plant for suppressing overvoltage using a reactive current reduction loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geon Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a transient voltage control scheme of a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG-based wind power plant (WPP using a reactive current reduction loop to suppress the overvoltage at a point of interconnection (POI and DFIG terminal after a fault clearance. The change of terminal voltage of a DFIG is monitored at every predefined time period to detect the fault clearance. If the voltage change exceeds a set value, then the reactive current reduction loop reduces the reactive current reference in the DFIG controller using the step function. The reactive current injection of DFIGs in a WPP is rapidly reduced, and a WPP can rapidly suppress the overvoltage at a fault clearance because the reactive current reference is reduced. Using an electromagnetic transients program–released version (EMTP–RV simulator, the performance of the proposed scheme was validated for a model system comprising 20 units of a 5-MW DFIG considering various scenarios, such as fault and wind conditions. Test results show that the proposed scheme enables a WPP to suppress the overvoltage at the POI and DFIG terminal within a short time under grid fault conditions.

  18. Hyaluronic Acid Suppresses the Expression of Metalloproteinases in Osteoarthritic Cartilage Stimulated Simultaneously by Interleukin 1β and Mechanical Load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Pohlig

    Full Text Available In patients with osteoarthritis (OA, intraarticular injection of hyaluronic acid (HA frequently results in reduced pain and improved function for prolonged periods of time, i.e. more than 6 months. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not fully understood. Our underlying hypothesis is that HA modifies the enzymatic breakdown of joint tissues.To test this hypothesis, we examined osteochondral cylinders from 12 OA patients. In a bioreactor, these samples were stimulated by interleukin 1β (Il1ß (2 ng/ml plus mechanical load (2.0 Mpa at 0.5 Hz horizontal and 0.1 Hz vertical rotation, thus the experimental setup recapitulated both catabolic and anabolic clues of the OA joint.Upon addition of HA at either 1 or 3 mg/ml, we observed a significant suppression of expression of metalloproteinase (MMP-13. A more detailed analysis based on the Kellgren and Lawrence (K&L OA grade, showed a much greater degree of suppression of MMP-13 expression in grade IV as compared to grade II OA. In contrast to the observed MMP-13 suppression, treatment with HA resulted in a suppression of MMP-1 expression only at 1 mg/ml HA, while MMP-2 expression was not significantly affected by either HA concentration.Together, these data suggest that under concurrent catabolic and anabolic stimulation, HA exhibits a pronounced suppressive effect on MMP-13. In the long-run these findings may benefit the development of treatment strategies aimed at blocking tissue degradation in OA patients.

  19. Water quality considerations resulting in the impaired injectivity of water injection and disposal wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennion, D.B.; Thomas, F.B.; Imer, D.; Ma, T.

    2000-01-01

    An environmentally responsible way to improve hydrocarbon recovery is to maintain pressure by water injection. This is a desirable method because unwanted produced water from oil and gas wells can be re-injected into producing or disposal formations. The success of the operation, however, depends on injecting the necessary volume of water economically, below the fracture gradient pressure of the formation. Well placement, geometry and inherent formation quality and relative permeability characteristics are some of the many other factors which influence the success of any injection project. Poor injection or poor quality of disposal water can also compromise the injectivity for even high quality sandstone or carbonate formations. This would necessitate costly workovers and recompletions. This paper presented some leading edge diagnostic techniques and evaluation methods to determine the quality of injected water. The same techniques could be used to better understand the effect of potential contaminants such as suspended solids, corrosion products, skim/carryover oil and grease, scales, precipitates, emulsions, oil wet hydrocarbon agglomerates and many other conditions which cause injectivity degradation. 14 refs., 1 tab., 15 figs

  20. Physics of the current injection process during localized helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Edward Thomas

    An impedance model has been developed for the arc-plasma cathode electron current source used in localized helicity injection tokamak startup. According to this model, a potential double layer (DL) is established between the high-density arc plasma (narc ˜ 1021 m-3) in the electron source, and the less-dense external tokamak edge plasma (nedge ˜ 10 18 m-3) into which current is injected. The DL launches an electron beam at the applied voltage with cross-sectional area close to that of the source aperture: Ainj ≈ 2 cm 2. The injected current, Iinj, increases with applied voltage, Vinj, according to the standard DL scaling, Iinj ˜ V(3/2/ inj), until the more restrictive of two limits to beam density nb arises, producing Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj), a scaling with beam drift velocity. For low external tokamak edge density nedge, space-charge neutralization of the intense electron beam restricts the injected beam density to nb ˜ nedge. At high Jinj and sufficient edge density, the injected current is limited by expansion of the DL sheath, which leads to nb ˜ narc. Measurements of narc, Iinj , nedge, Vinj, support these predicted scalings, and suggest narc as a viable control actuator for the source impedance. Magnetic probe signals ≈ 300 degrees toroidally from the injection location are consistent with expectations for a gyrating, coherent electron beam with a compact areal cross-section. Technological development of the source has allowed an extension of the favorable Iinj ˜ V(1/2/inj) to higher power without electrical breakdown.

  1. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age. PMID:18488884

  2. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: response to botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannito, Michael P; Kahane, Joel C; Chorna, Lesya

    2008-01-01

    Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age.

  3. Charge injection engineering of ambipolar field-effect transistors for high-performance organic complementary circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeg, Kang-Jun; Kim, Juhwan; Khim, Dongyoon; Caironi, Mario; Kim, Dong-Yu; You, In-Kyu; Quinn, Jordan R; Facchetti, Antonio; Noh, Yong-Young

    2011-08-01

    Ambipolar π-conjugated polymers may provide inexpensive large-area manufacturing of complementary integrated circuits (CICs) without requiring micro-patterning of the individual p- and n-channel semiconductors. However, current-generation ambipolar semiconductor-based CICs suffer from higher static power consumption, low operation frequencies, and degraded noise margins compared to complementary logics based on unipolar p- and n-channel organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). Here, we demonstrate a simple methodology to control charge injection and transport in ambipolar OFETs via engineering of the electrical contacts. Solution-processed caesium (Cs) salts, as electron-injection and hole-blocking layers at the interface between semiconductors and charge injection electrodes, significantly decrease the gold (Au) work function (∼4.1 eV) compared to that of a pristine Au electrode (∼4.7 eV). By controlling the electrode surface chemistry, excellent p-channel (hole mobility ∼0.1-0.6 cm(2)/(Vs)) and n-channel (electron mobility ∼0.1-0.3 cm(2)/(Vs)) OFET characteristics with the same semiconductor are demonstrated. Most importantly, in these OFETs the counterpart charge carrier currents are highly suppressed for depletion mode operation (I(off) 0.1-0.2 mA). Thus, high-performance, truly complementary inverters (high gain >50 and high noise margin >75% of ideal value) and ring oscillators (oscillation frequency ∼12 kHz) based on a solution-processed ambipolar polymer are demonstrated.

  4. Suppression of metabolic activity caused by infantile strabismus and strabismic amblyopia in striate visual cortex of macaque monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Agnes M F; Burkhalter, Andreas; Tychsen, Lawrence

    2005-02-01

    Suppression is a major sensorial abnormality in humans and monkeys with infantile strabismus. We previously reported evidence of metabolic suppression in the visual cortex of strabismic macaques, using the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome oxidase as an anatomic label. The purpose of this study was to further elucidate alterations in cortical metabolic activity, with or without amblyopia. Six macaque monkeys were used in the experiments (four strabismic and two control). Three of the strabismic monkeys had naturally occurring, infantile strabismus (two esotropic, one exotropic). The fourth strabismic monkey had infantile microesotropia induced by alternating monocular occlusion in the first months of life. Ocular motor behaviors and visual acuity were tested after infancy in each animal, and development of stereopsis was recorded during infancy in one strabismic and one control monkey. Ocular dominance columns (ODCs) of the striate visual cortex (area V1) were labeled using cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry alone, or CO in conjunction with an anterograde tracer ([H 3 ]proline or WGA-HRP) injected into one eye. Each of the strabismic monkeys showed inequalities of metabolic activity in ODCs of opposite ocularity, visible as rows of lighter CO staining, corresponding to ODCs of lower metabolic activity, alternating with rows of darker CO staining, corresponding to ODCs of higher metabolic activity. In monkeys who had infantile strabismus and unilateral amblyopia, lower metabolic activity was found in (suppressed) ODCs driven by the nondominant eye in each hemisphere. In monkeys who had infantile esotropia and alternating fixation (no amblyopia), metabolic activity was lower in ODCs driven by the ipsilateral eye in each hemisphere. The suppression included a monocular core zone at the center of ODCs and binocular border zones at the boundaries of ODCs. This suppression was not evident in the monocular lamina of the LGN, indicating an intracortical rather than

  5. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  6. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. Validation of the model for ELM suppression with 3D magnetic fields using low torque ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, R. A.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Orlov, D. M.; Ferraro, N. M.; Grierson, B. A.; Knölker, M.; Lyons, B. C.; McKee, G. R.; Osborne, T. H.; Rhodes, T. L.; Meneghini, O.; Smith, S.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hanson, J. M.; La Haye, R. J.; Luce, T. C.; Mordijck, S.; Solomon, W. M.; Turco, F.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.; DIII-D Team

    2017-10-01

    Experiments have been executed in the DIII-D tokamak to extend suppression of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) with Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs) to ITER-relevant levels of beam torque. The results support the hypothesis for RMP ELM suppression based on transition from an ideal screened response to a tearing response at a resonant surface that prevents expansion of the pedestal to an unstable width [Snyder et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 103016 (2011) and Wade et al., Nucl. Fusion 55, 023002 (2015)]. In ITER baseline plasmas with I/aB = 1.4 and pedestal ν * ˜ 0.15, ELMs are readily suppressed with co- I p neutral beam injection. However, reducing the beam torque from 5 Nm to ≤ 3.5 Nm results in loss of ELM suppression and a shift in the zero-crossing of the electron perpendicular rotation ω ⊥ e ˜ 0 deeper into the plasma. The change in radius of ω ⊥ e ˜ 0 is due primarily to changes to the electron diamagnetic rotation frequency ωe * . Linear plasma response modeling with the resistive MHD code m3d-c1 indicates that the tearing response location tracks the inward shift in ω ⊥ e ˜ 0. At pedestal ν * ˜ 1, ELM suppression is also lost when the beam torque is reduced, but the ω ⊥ e change is dominated by collapse of the toroidal rotation v T . The hypothesis predicts that it should be possible to obtain ELM suppression at reduced beam torque by also reducing the height and width of the ωe * profile. This prediction has been confirmed experimentally with RMP ELM suppression at 0 Nm of beam torque and plasma normalized pressure β N ˜ 0.7. This opens the possibility of accessing ELM suppression in low torque ITER baseline plasmas by establishing suppression at low beta and then increasing beta while relying on the strong RMP-island coupling to maintain suppression.

  8. Hepatic Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase 3 Enzyme Suppressed by Type 1 Allergy-Produced Nitric Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Tadatoshi; Bando, Toru; Komada, Akira; Nojiri, Yukie; Okada, Yuna; Ueda, Yukari; Sakurai, Eiichi

    2017-11-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMOs) are major mammalian non-cytochrome P450 oxidative enzymes. T helper 2 cell-activated allergic diseases produce excess levels of nitric oxide (NO) that modify the functions of proteins. However, it remains unclear whether allergy-induced NO affects the pharmacokinetics of drugs metabolized by FMOs. This study investigated alterations of hepatic microsomal FMO1 and FMO3 activities in type 1 allergic mice and further examined the interaction of FMO1 and FMO3 with allergy-induced NO. Imipramine (IMP; FMO1 substrate) N- oxidation activity was not altered in allergic mice with high serum NO and immunoglobulin E levels. At 7 days after primary sensitization (PS7) or secondary sensitization (SS7), benzydamine (BDZ; FMO1 and FMO3 substrate) N- oxygenation was significantly decreased to 70% of individual controls. The expression levels of FMO1 and FMO3 proteins were not significantly changed in the sensitized mice. Hepatic inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA level increased 5-fold and 15-fold in PS7 and SS7 mice, respectively, and hepatic tumor necrosis factor- α levels were greatly enhanced. When a selective iNOS inhibitor was injected into allergic mice, serum NO levels and BDZ N- oxygenation activity returned to control levels. NO directly suppressed BDZ N- oxygenation, which was probably related to FMO3-dependent metabolism in comparison with IMP N- oxidation. In hepatic microsomes from PS7 and SS7 mice, the suppression of BDZ N- oxygenation was restored by ascorbate. Therefore, type 1 allergic mice had differentially suppressed FMO3-dependent BDZ N- oxygenation. The suppression of FMO3 metabolism related to reversible S- nitrosyl modifications of iNOS-derived NO. NO is expected to alter FMO3-metabolic capacity-limited drug pharmacokinetics in humans. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. UV-visible digital imaging of split injection in a Gasoline Direct Injection engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merola Simona Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever tighter limits on pollutant emissions and the need to improve energy conversion efficiency have made the application of gasoline direct injection (GDI feasible for a much wider scale of spark ignition engines. Changing the way fuel is delivered to the engine has thus provided increased flexibility but also challenges, such as higher particulate emissions. Therefore, alternative injection control strategies need to be investigated in order to obtain optimum performance and reduced environmental impact. In this study, experiments were carried out on a single-cylinder GDI optical engine fuelled with commercial gasoline in lean-burn conditions. The single-cylinder was equipped with the head of a commercial turbocharged engine with similar geometrical specifications (bore, stroke, compression ratio and wall guided fuel injection. Optical accessibility was ensured through a conventional elongated hollow Bowditch piston and an optical crown, accommodating a fused-silica window. Experimental tests were performed at fixed engine speed and injection pressure, whereas the injection timing and the number of injections were adjusted to investigate their influence on combustion and emissions. UV-visible digital imaging was applied in order to follow the combustion process, from ignition to the late combustion phase. All the optical data were correlated with thermodynamic analysis and measurements of exhaust emissions. Split injection strategies (i.e. two injections per cycle with respect to single injection increased combustion efficiency and stability thanks to an improvement of fuel air mixing. As a consequence, significant reduction in soot formation and exhaust emission with acceptable penalty in terms of HC and NOx were measured.

  10. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  11. Antigen injection (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leprosy is caused by the organism Mycobacterium leprae . The leprosy test involves injection of an antigen just under ... if your body has a current or recent leprosy infection. The injection site is labeled and examined ...

  12. Injection of tennis elbow: Hit and miss? A cadaveric study of injection accuracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijsers, Renee; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Koenraadt, Koen L. M.; Bleys, Ronald L. A. W.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Eygendaal, Denise; van Riet, Roger; Middernacht, Bart; Defoort, Saartje; Wagener, Marc; Harake, Ramzi; Ciornohac, Jean-Florin; Montarnal, Robert; van Benthem, Yasmin; Cattaneo, Stefano; Faber, Dirk; Galatz, Leesa; Birkisson, Illugi; van der Hoeven, Henk; Witjes, Suzanne; Heeren, M.; Ahmed, El-Gammal; Husif, N. N.; Beumer, Annechien; The, Bertram

    2017-01-01

    Different injection therapies are used in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis (LE). Usually, the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB) tendon is affected. Therefore, an injection should be aimed at the origin of this tendon. This study demonstrates the accuracy of manual injections in the

  13. Iron Dextran Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  14. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  15. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  16. Injection and lessons for 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, C.; Barnes, M.J.; Bartmann, W.; Cornelis, K.; Drosdal, L.N.; Goddard, B.; Kain, V.; Meddahi, M.; Mertens, V.; Uythoven, J.

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and one nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the Transfer Line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking de-bunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by- shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular re-steering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches. (authors)

  17. Injection and lessons for 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bracco, C; Bartmann, W; Cornelis, K; Drosdal, L N; Goddard, B; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Mertens, V; Uythoven, J

    2012-01-01

    Injection of 144 bunches into the LHC became fully operational during the 2011 run and a nominal injection of 288 bunches was accomplished during MD time. Several mitigation solutions were put in place to minimise losses from the transfer line (TL) collimators and losses from kicking debunched beam during injection. Nevertheless, shot-by-shot and bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations, as well as long terms drifts, were observed and required a regular resteering of the TL implying a non negligible amount of time spent for injection setup. Likely sources of instability have been identified (i.e. MKE and MSE ripples) and possible cures to optimise 2012 operation are presented. Well defined references for TL steering will be defined in a more rigorous way in order to allow a more straightforward and faster injection setup. Encountered and potential issues of the injection system, in particular the injection kickers MKI, are discussed also in view of injections with a higher number of bunches.

  18. Surgical versus injection treatment for injection-confirmed chronic sacroiliac joint pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, William Ryan; Lawrence, Brandon D.; Raich, Annie L.; Skelly, Andrea C.; Brodke, Darrel S.

    2012-01-01

    Study design: Systematic review. Study rationale: Chronic sacroiliac joint pain (CSJP) is a common clinical entity with highly controversial treatment options. A recent systematic review compared surgery with denervation, but the current systematic review compares outcomes of surgical intervention with therapeutic injection for the treatment of CSJP and serves as the next step for evaluating current evidence on the comparative effectiveness of treatments for non-traumatic sacroiliac joint pain. Objective or clinical question: In adult patients with injection-confirmed CSJP, does surgical treatment lead to better outcomes and fewer complications than injection therapy? Methods: A systematic review of the English-language literature was undertaken for articles published between 1970 and June 2012. Electronic databases and reference lists of key articles were searched to identify studies evaluating surgery or injection treatment for injection-confirmed CSJP. Studies involving traumatic onset or non-injection–confirmed CSJP were excluded. Two independent reviewers assessed the level of evidence quality using the grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation (GRADE) system, and disagreements were resolved by consensus. Results: We identified twelve articles (seven surgical and five injection treatment) meeting our inclusion criteria. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 40% improvement in pain as measured by Visual Analog Scale or Numeric rating Scale score. Regardless of the type of treatment, most studies reported over 20% improvement in functionality. Most complications were reported in the surgical studies. Conclusion: Surgical fusion and therapeutic injections can likely provide pain relief, improve quality of life, and improve work status. The comparative effectiveness of these interventions cannot be evaluated with the current literature. PMID:23526911

  19. Injection Technique and Pen Needle Design Affect Leakage From Skin After Subcutaneous Injections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Præstmark, Kezia Ann; Stallknecht, Bente; Jensen, Morten Lind

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: After a subcutaneous injection fluid might leak out of the skin, commonly referred to as leakage or backflow. The objective was to examine the influence of needle design and injection technique on leakage after injections in the subcutaneous tissue of humans and pigs. METHOD: Leakage ...

  20. Adeno-associated virus-mediated doxycycline-regulatable TRAIL expression suppresses growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Liu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL functions as a cytokine to selectively kill various cancer cells without toxicity to most normal cells. Numerous studies have demonstrated the potential use of recombinant soluble TRAIL as a cancer therapeutic agent. We have showed previous administration of a recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV vector expressing soluble TRAIL results in an efficient suppression of human tumor growth in nude mice. In the present study, we introduced Tet-On gene expression system into the rAAV vector to control the soluble TRAIL expression and evaluate the efficiency of the system in cancer gene therapy. Methods Controllability of the Tet-On system was determined by luciferase activity assay, and Western blotting and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The breast cancer xenograft animal model was established and recombinant virus was administrated through tail vein injection to evaluate the tumoricidal activity. Results The expression of soluble TRAIL could be strictly controlled by the Tet-On system in both normal and cancer cells. Transduction of human cancer cell lines with rAAV-TRE-TRAIL&rAAV-Tet-On under the presence of inducer doxycycline resulted in a considerable cell death by apoptosis. Intravenous injection of the recombinant virus efficiently suppressed the growth of human breast carcinoma in nude mice when activated by doxycycline. Conclusion These data suggest that rAAV-mediated soluble TRAIL expression under the control of the Tet-On system is a promising strategy for breast cancer therapy.

  1. Acupuncture suppresses reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by a complex cue in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bong Hyo; Lim, Sung Chul; Jeon, Hyeon Jeong; Kim, Jae Su; Lee, Yun Kyu; Lee, Hyun Jong; In, Sunghyun; Kim, Hee Young; Yoon, Seong Shoon; Yang, Chae Ha

    2013-08-26

    Morphine causes physical and psychological dependence for individuals after repeated-use. Above all, our previous study showed that acupuncture attenuated reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by pharmacological cue. In this study, we investigated whether acupuncture could suppress the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior induced by the combination of environmental and pharmacological cues and the possible neuronal involvement. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer morphine (1.0 mg/kg) for 3 weeks. Following the withdrawal phase (7 days), the effects of acupuncture on reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior were investigated. For the investigation of neuronal involvement, the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline and the GABAB receptor antagonist SCH 50911 were pre-treated. Morphine-seeking behavior induced by combination of re-exposure to the operant chamber and morphine injection was suppressed perfectly by acupuncture at SI5, but not at the control acupoint LI5 and this effect was blocked by pre-treatment with the GABA receptor antagonists. This study suggests that acupuncture at SI5 can be considered as a predominant therapy for the reinstatement of morphine-seeking behavior in humans. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  3. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  4. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.)

  5. Multi-shot type pellet injection device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onozuka, Masaki; Uchikawa, Takashi; Kuribayashi, Shitomi.

    1988-07-27

    Purpose: To inject pellets at high speed without melting or sublimating not-injected pellets even at a long pellet injection interval. Constitution: In the conventional multi-shot pellet injection device, the pellet injection interval is set depending on the plasma retention time. However, as the pellet injection interval is increased, not-injected pellets are melted or sublimated due to the introduced heat of acceleration gases supplied from an acceleration gas introduction pipe to give an effect on the dimensional shape of the pellets. In view of the above, a plurality of pellet forming and injection portions each comprising a carrier, an injection pipe and a holder are disposed independently of each other and pellets are formed and injected independently to thereby prevent the thermal effects of the acceleration gases. (Kamimura, M.).

  6. Syringe injectable electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  7. Cavitation control on a 2D hydrofoil through a continuous tangential injection of liquid: Experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timoshevskiy, M. V.; Zapryagaev, I. I.; Pervunin, K. S.; Markovich, D. M.

    2016-10-01

    In the paper, the possibility of active control of a cavitating flow over a 2D hydrofoil that replicates a scaled-down model of high-pressure hydroturbine guide vane (GV) was tested. The flow manipulation was implemented by a continuous tangential liquid injection at different flow rates through a spanwise slot in the foil surface. In experiments, the hydrofoil was placed in the test channel at the attack angle of 9°. Different cavitation conditions were reached by varying the cavitation number and injection velocity. In order to study time dynamics and spatial patterns of partial cavities, high-speed imaging was employed. A PIV method was used to measure the mean and fluctuating velocity fields over the hydrofoil. Hydroacoustic measurements were carried out by means of a pressure transducer to identify spectral characteristics of the cavitating flow. It was found that the present control technique is able to modify the partial cavity pattern (or even totally suppress cavitation) in case of stable sheet cavitation and change the amplitude of pressure pulsations at unsteady regimes. The injection technique makes it also possible to significantly influence the spatial distributions of the mean velocity and its turbulent fluctuations over the GV section for non-cavitating flow and sheet cavitation.

  8. Environmental mitigation for SCC initiation of BWR core internals by hydrogen injection during start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozaki, K.; Abe, A.; Nagata, N.; Takiguchi, H.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen injection into the reactor water has been applied to many BWR power stations. Since hydrogen injected accelerates recombination of oxidant generated by water radiolysis, oxidant concentration, such as dissolved oxygen concentration in reactor water can be reduced. As the result of the reduction of oxidant concentration, Electrochemical Corrosion Potential (ECP) at the surface of structural material can be lowered. Lowered ECP moderates Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) sensitivity of structural materials, such as stainless steels. As usual, hydrogen injection system begins to work after the plant start-up is finished, when the condition of normal operation is established. Accordingly, Hydrogen Water Chemistry (HWC) does not cover all the period of plant operation. As far as SCC crack growth is considered, loss of HWC during plant start-up does not result in significant crack growth, because of duration of plant start-up is much shorter than that of plant normal operation, when HWC condition is being satisfied. However, the reactor water environment and load conditions during a plant start-up may contribute to the initiation of SCC. It is estimated that the core internals are subjected to the strain rate that may cause susceptibility to SCC initiation during start-up. Dissolved oxygen (DO) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) has a peak, and ECP is in high levels during start-up. Therefore it is beneficial to perform hydrogen injection during start-up as well in order to suppress SCC initiation. We call it HWC During Start-up (HDS) here. (orig.)

  9. The role of lipopolysaccharide injected systemically in the reactivation of collagen-induced arthritis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Shin; Ohsawa, Motoyasu

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the role of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the reactivation of autoimmune disease by using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice in which autoimmunity to the joint cartilage component type II collagen (CII) was involved.CIA was induced by immunization with CII emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant at the base of the tail (day 0) followed by a booster injection on day 21. Varying doses of LPS from E. coli were i.p. injected on day 50.Arthritis began to develop on day 25 after immunization with CII and reached a peak on day 35. Thereafter, arthritis subsided gradually but moderate joint inflammation was still observed on day 50. An i.p. injection of LPS on day 50 markedly reactivated arthritis on a dose-related fashion. Histologically, on day 55, there were marked oedema of synovium which had proliferated by the day of LPS injection, new formation of fibrin, and intense infiltration of neutrophils accompanied with a large number of mononuclear cells. The reactivation of CIA by LPS was associated with increases in anti-CII IgG and IgG2a antibodies as well as various cytokines including IL-12, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and TNF-α. LPS from S. enteritidis, S. typhimurium, and K. neumoniae and its component, lipid A from E. coli also reactivated the disease. Polymyxin B sulphate suppressed LPS- or lipid A-induced reactivation of CIA.These results suggest that LPS may play an important role in the reactivation of autoimmune joint inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis in humans. PMID:10742285

  10. Physics based simulation of seismicity induced in the vicinity of a high-pressure fluid injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, J.; NicBhloscaidh, M.; Murphy, S.; O'Brien, G. S.; Bean, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    rotated far from the ambient stress field; the ';structural keel' provided by the geology suppresses induction since the fluid induced stress levels are much smaller than the breaking strain of the host rocks. In addition, we observe a systematic increase in observed biggest magnitude event with time during any injection indicating that in none of our simulations is the maximum magnitude event observed; mmax is in fact not estimable from any of our simulations and is unlikely to be observed in any given injection scenario.

  11. Tailoring the laser pulse shape to improve the quality of the self-injected electron beam in laser wakefield acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, Ajay K.; Samant, Sushil A.; Krishnagopal, S.

    2013-01-01

    In laser wakefield acceleration, tailoring the shape of the laser pulse is one way of influencing the laser-plasma interaction and, therefore, of improving the quality of the self-injected electron beam in the bubble regime. Using three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution dynamics of the laser pulse and the quality of the self-injected beam, for a Gaussian pulse, a positive skew pulse (i.e., one with sharp rise and slow fall), and a negative skew pulse (i.e., one with a slow rise and sharp fall) are studied. It is observed that with a negative skew laser pulse there is a substantial improvement in the emittance (by around a factor of two), and a modest improvement in the energy-spread, compared to Gaussian as well as positive skew pulses. However, the injected charge is less in the negative skew pulse compared to the other two. It is also found that there is an optimal propagation distance that gives the best beam quality; beyond this distance, though the energy increases, the beam quality deteriorates, but this deterioration is least for the negative skew pulse. Thus, the negative skew pulse gives an improvement in terms of beam quality (emittance and energy spread) over what one can get with a Gaussian or positive skew pulse. In part, this is because of the lesser injected charge, and the strong suppression of continuous injection for the negative skew pulse.

  12. Comparative Metatranscriptomics of Wheat Rhizosphere Microbiomes in Disease Suppressive and Non-suppressive Soils for Rhizoctonia solani AG8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Hayden

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The soilborne fungus Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group (AG 8 is a major pathogen of grain crops resulting in substantial production losses. In the absence of resistant cultivars of wheat or barley, a sustainable and enduring method for disease control may lie in the enhancement of biological disease suppression. Evidence of effective biological control of R. solani AG8 through disease suppression has been well documented at our study site in Avon, South Australia. A comparative metatranscriptomic approach was applied to assess the taxonomic and functional characteristics of the rhizosphere microbiome of wheat plants grown in adjacent fields which are suppressive and non-suppressive to the plant pathogen R. solani AG8. Analysis of 12 rhizosphere metatranscriptomes (six per field was undertaken using two bioinformatic approaches involving unassembled and assembled reads. Differential expression analysis showed the dominant taxa in the rhizosphere based on mRNA annotation were Arthrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. for non-suppressive samples and Stenotrophomonas spp. and Buttiauxella spp. for the suppressive samples. The assembled metatranscriptome analysis identified more differentially expressed genes than the unassembled analysis in the comparison of suppressive and non-suppressive samples. Suppressive samples showed greater expression of a polyketide cyclase, a terpenoid biosynthesis backbone gene (dxs and many cold shock proteins (csp. Non-suppressive samples were characterised by greater expression of antibiotic genes such as non-heme chloroperoxidase (cpo which is involved in pyrrolnitrin synthesis, and phenazine biosynthesis family protein F (phzF and its transcriptional activator protein (phzR. A large number of genes involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species (ROS and superoxide radicals (sod, cat, ahp, bcp, gpx1, trx were also expressed in the non-suppressive rhizosphere samples most likely in response to the infection of wheat

  13. Cost-Utility of a Single-Injection Combined Corticosteroid-Hyaluronic Acid Formulation vs a 2-Injection Regimen of Sequential Corticosteroid and Hyaluronic Acid Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzile, Etienne L; Deakon, Robert T; Vannabouathong, Christopher; Bhandari, Mohit; Lamontagne, Martin; McCormack, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Research has shown early and sustained relief with a combination therapy of a corticosteroid (CS) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This can be administered via a single injection containing both products or as separate injections. The former may be more expensive when considering only product cost, but the latter incurs the additional costs and time of a second procedure. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-utility of the single injection with the 2-injection regimen. The results of this analysis revealed that the single-injection formulation of a CS and HA may be cost-effective, assuming a willingness-to-pay of $50 000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, for symptomatic relief of OA symptoms. This treatment may also be more desirable to patients who find injections to be inconvenient or unpleasant.

  14. In-Flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... An assessment is made of the model output versus some aircraft measurement data, fire suppressant boiling point criterion, as well as the history of altitude/temperature at which fire suppressants have been deployed...

  15. Antidepressant effects of exercise are produced via suppression of hypocretin/orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Kim, Ji-Eun; Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Jung-Eun; Choi, Juli; Kim, Hannah; Lee, Eun-Hwa; Kim, Seung-Woo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong; Kang, Hyun-Sik; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2015-07-01

    Physical exercise is considered beneficial in the treatment of depression, but the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism regulating antidepressant effects of exercise by focusing on the role of the amygdala using a well-defined animal model of depression. C57BL/6 mice treated with repeated restraint showed depression-like behaviors, which was counteracted by post-stress treatment with physical exercise. The two neuropeptides hypocretin/orexin (Hcrt/Orx) and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) were transcriptionally upregulated in the BLA after repeated stress, and their enhanced expression was downregulated by treatment with exercise, mirroring stress-induced depression-like behaviors and their reversal by exercise. Stereotaxic injection of either Hcrt/Orx peptide or MCH peptide within the BLA commonly increased phospho-CaMKIIα level and produced depression-like behaviors, mimicking the neural states in the BLA of mice subjected to repeated stress. In contrast, siRNA-mediated suppression of Hcrt/Orx or MCH in the BLA blocked stress-induced depression-like behaviors. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated inhibition of CaMKIIα in the BLA also counteracted stress-induced depression-like behaviors. Local injection of Hcrt/Orx peptide or MCH peptide within the BLA in exercise-treated animals blocked antidepressant-like effects of exercise. Together these results suggest that exercise produces antidepressant effects via suppression of Hcrt/Orx and MCH neural systems in the BLA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma confinement modification and convective transport suppression in the scrape-off layer using additional gas puffing in the STOR-M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval, M; Hubeny, M; Ding, Y; Onchi, T; Liu, Y; Hthu, K; Elgriw, S; Xiao, C; Hirose, A

    2013-01-01

    The influence of short gas puffing (GP) pulses on the scrape-off layer (SOL) transport is studied. Similar responses of ion saturation current and floating potential measured near the GP injection valve and in the 90° toroidally separated cross-section suggest that the GP influence on the SOL region should be global. A drop in plasma temperature and a decrease in the rotational velocity of the plasma are observed in the SOL region immediately after the GP pulse; however, an unexpected increase in electron and ion temperatures is observed in the second stage of the plasma response. The decrease in floating potential fluctuations indicates that the turbulent transport is dumped immediately after the GP pulse. The GP-induced modification of turbulence properties in the SOL points to a convective transport suppression in the STOR-M tokamak. A substantial decrease in the skewness and kurtosis of ion saturation current fluctuations is observed in the SOL region resulting in the probability distribution function (PDF) getting closer to the Gaussian distribution. The plasma potential reduction, the change in plasma rotation and the suppression of turbulent transport in the SOL region indicate that the plasma confinement is modified after the GP injection. Some features of the H-mode-like confinement in the plasma bulk also accompany the SOL observations after application of the additional sharp GP pulse. (paper)

  17. Acrolein exposure suppresses antigen-induced pulmonary inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Adverse health effects of tobacco smoke arise partly from its influence on innate and adaptive immune responses, leading to impaired innate immunity and host defense. The impact of smoking on allergic asthma remains unclear, with various reports demonstrating that cigarette smoke enhances asthma development but can also suppress allergic airway inflammation. Based on our previous findings that immunosuppressive effects of smoking may be largely attributed to one of its main reactive electrophiles, acrolein, we explored the impact of acrolein exposure in a mouse model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic asthma. Methods C57BL/6 mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) by intraperitoneal injection with the adjuvant aluminum hydroxide on days 0 and 7, and challenged with aerosolized OVA on days 14–16. In some cases, mice were also exposed to 5 ppm acrolein vapor for 6 hrs/day on days 14–17. Lung tissues or brochoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were collected either 6 hrs after a single initial OVA challenge and/or acrolein exposure on day 14 or 48 hrs after the last OVA challenge, on day 18. Inflammatory cells and Th1/Th2 cytokine levels were measured in BALF, and lung tissue samples were collected for analysis of mucus and Th1/Th2 cytokine expression, determination of protein alkylation, cellular thiol status and transcription factor activity. Results Exposure to acrolein following OVA challenge of OVA-sensitized mice resulted in markedly attenuated allergic airway inflammation, demonstrated by decreased inflammatory cell infiltrates, mucus hyperplasia and Th2 cytokines. Acrolein exposure rapidly depleted lung tissue glutathione (GSH) levels, and induced activation of the Nrf2 pathway, indicated by accumulation of Nrf2, increased alkylation of Keap1, and induction of Nrf2-target genes such as HO-1. Additionally, analysis of inflammatory signaling pathways showed suppressed activation of NF-κB and marginally reduced activation of JNK in acrolein

  18. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  19. Performance and emission characteristics of turpentine-diesel dual fuel engine and knock suppression using water diluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karthikeyan, R. [Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Tamil Nadu (India); Mahalakshmi, N.V. [College of Engineering Guindy, Tamil Nadu (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2007-08-15

    In the present work, a normal diesel engine was modified to work in a dual fuel (DF) mode with turpentine and diesel as primary and pilot fuels, respectively. The resulting homogeneous mixture was compressed to a temperature below the self-ignition point. The pilot fuel was injected through the standard injection system and initiated the combustion in the primary-fuel air mixture. The primary fuel (turpentine) has supplied most of the heat energy. Usually, in all DF engines, low-cetane fuels are preferred as a primary fuel. Therefore, at higher loads these fuels start knocking and deteriorating in performances. Usually, DF operators suppress the knock by adding more pilot-fuel quantity. But in the present work, a minimum pilot-fuel quantity was maintained constant throughout the test and a required quantity of diluent (water) was added into the combustion at the time of knocking. The advantages of this method of knock suppression are restoration of performance at full load, maintenance of the same pilot quantity through the load range and reduction in the fuel consumption at full load. From the results, it was found that all performance and emission parameters of turpentine, except volumetric efficiency, are better than those of diesel fuel. The emissions like CO, UBHC are higher than those of the diesel baseline (DBL) and around 40-45% reduction of smoke was observed at 100% of full load. The major pollutant of diesel engine, NO{sub x}, was found to be equal to that of DBL. From the above experiment, it was proved that approximately 80% replacement of diesel with turpentine is quite possible. (author)

  20. Suppress to feel and remember less: Neural correlates of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumi, Yuta; Dolcos, Sanda

    2018-02-09

    Available evidence suggests that emotion regulation can modulate both immediate (emotional experience) and long-term (episodic memory) effects of emotion, and that both explicit and implicit forms may be effective. However, neural mechanisms by which explicit and implicit emotional suppression affect these phenomena remain unclear, particularly regarding their effects on memory. In this study, participants rated the emotional content of negative and neutral images, following explicit (verbal instructions) or implicit (priming) induction of emotional suppression goals, during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants' memory for the images was tested one week later. Behaviorally, explicit suppression reduced emotional ratings of negative images, whereas both explicit and implicit suppression reduced subsequent memory. At the neural level, the engagement of explicit suppression was uniquely associated with decreased activity in the amygdala (AMY), during emotional ratings, and in the AMY and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), during successful encoding. Although both explicit and implicit suppression diminished functional connectivity between these regions and the hippocampus (HC) linked to successful encoding, explicit suppression was uniquely associated with interference with AMY-HC interactions, which no longer predicted subsequent memory for the explicitly-suppressed items. Overall, these findings advance our understanding of the common and dissociable mechanisms of explicit and implicit emotional suppression on perception and memory, and suggest their impact on both bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion-cognition interactions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of pressure wave in common rail fuel injection system of high-speed direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Herfatmanesh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The latest generation of high-pressure common rail equipment now provides diesel engines possibility to apply as many as eight separate injection pulses within the engine cycle for reducing emissions and for smoothing combustion. With these complicated injection arrangements, optimizations of operating parameters for various driving conditions are considerably difficult, particularly when integrating fuel injection parameters with other operating parameters such as exhaust gas recirculation rate and boost pressure together for evaluating calibration results. Understanding the detailed effects of fuel injection parameters upon combustion characteristics and emission formation is therefore particularly critical. In this article, the results and discussion of experimental investigations on a high-speed direct injection light-duty diesel engine test bed are presented for evaluating and analyzing the effects of main adjustable parameters of the fuel injection system on all regulated emission gases and torque performance. Main injection timing, rail pressure, pilot amount, and particularly pilot timing have been examined. The results show that optimization of each of those adjustable parameters is beneficial for emission reduction and torque improvement under different operating conditions. By exploring the variation in the interval between the pilot injection and the main injection, it is found that the pressure wave in the common rail has a significant influence on the subsequent injection. This suggests that special attentions must be paid for adjusting pilot timing or any injection interval when multi-injection is used. With analyzing the fuel amount oscillation of the subsequent injections to pilot separation, it demonstrates that the frequency of regular oscillations of the actual fuel amount or the injection pulse width with the variation in pilot separation is always the same for a specified fuel injection system, regardless of engine speed

  2. Syringe-injectable electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  3. Heat and fluid flow in accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3. Behaviour of high pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) based on thermodynamic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Shigenao

    2014-01-01

    In order to clarify the process of Accident of Fukushima Nuclear Plants, an accident scenario of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 is analyzed from the data open to the public. Phase equilibrium process model was introduced in which the vapor and water are at saturation point in the vessels. The present accident scenario assumes that the high pressure coolant injection system (HPCI) did not worked properly, but the steam in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) leaked through the turbine of HPCI to the suppression chamber since 12/3/2011 12:35. It is assumed that the Tsunami flooded the torus room where the suppression chamber was placed. Proposed accident scenario agrees with the data of the plant parameters obtained just after the accident. It is estimated that the water injection by HPIC was stopped since around at 13/3 19:00 and the water level in RPV decreased since then. It is estimated that the RPV broke at 14/3 8:55 and water could injected from fire engines due to the depression due to the rupture of RPV. There was little water left in RPV at the time of the rupture. If the present scenario is correct, the behavior that operators in the plant stopped HPCI at 13/3 2:42 did not affect seriously on the RPV rupture. If HPCI was working properly until the operators stopped it, the plant parameters obtained in the accident cannot be explained. (author)

  4. Spin Injection from Ferromagnetic Metal Directly into Non-Magnetic Semiconductor under Different Injection Currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning, Deng; Lei, Zhang; Shu-Chao, Zhang; Pei-Yi, Chen; Jian-Shi, Tang

    2010-01-01

    For ferromagnetic metal (FM)/semiconductor (SC) structure with ohmic contact, the effect of carrier polarization in the semiconductor combined with drift part of injection current on current polarization is investigated. Based on the general model we established here, spin injection efficiency under different injection current levels is calculated. Under a reasonable high injection current, current polarization in the semiconductor is actually much larger than that predicted by the conductivity mismatch model because the effect of carrier polarization is enhanced by the increasing drift current. An appreciable current polarization of 1% could be achieved for the FM/SC structure via ohmic contact, which means that efficient spin injection from FM into SC via ohmic contact is possible. The reported dependence of current polarization on temperature is verified quantitatively. To achieve even larger spin injection efficiency, a gradient doping semiconductor is suggested to enhance the drift current effect

  5. Towards spin injection into silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, S.P.

    2007-08-15

    Si has been studied for the purpose of spin injection extensively in this thesis. Three different concepts for spin injection into Si have been addressed: (1) spin injection through a ferromagnet-Si Schottky contact, (2) spin injection using MgO tunnel barriers in between the ferromagnet and Si, and (3) spin injection from Mn-doped Si (DMS) as spin aligner. (1) FM-Si Schottky contact for spin injection: To be able to improve the interface qualities one needs to understand the atomic processes involved in the formation of silicide phases. In order to obtain more detailed insight into the formation of such phases the initial stages of growth of Co and Fe were studied in situ by HRBS with monolayer depth resolution.(2) MgO tunnel barrier for spin injection into Si: The fabrication and characterization of ultra-thin crystalline MgO tunnel barriers on Si (100) was presented. (3) Mn doped Si for spin injection: Si-based diluted magnetic semiconductor samples were prepared by doping Si with Mn by two different methods i) by Mn ion implantation and ii) by in-diffusion of Mn atoms (solid state growth). (orig.)

  6. Reduced injection pressures using a compressed air injection technique (CAIT): an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Ban C H; Knezevich, Mark P; Pillay, Jennifer J

    2008-01-01

    High injection pressures have been associated with intraneural injection and persistent neurological injury in animals. Our objective was to test whether a reported simple compressed air injection technique (CAIT) would limit the generation of injection pressures to below a suggested 1,034 mm Hg limit in an in vitro model. After ethics board approval, 30 consenting anesthesiologists injected saline into a semiclosed system. Injection pressures using 30 mL syringes connected to a 22 gauge needle and containing 20 mL of saline were measured for 60 seconds using: (1) a typical "syringe feel" method, and (2) CAIT, thereby drawing 10 mL of air above the saline and compressing this to 5 mL prior to and during injections. All anesthesiologists performed the syringe feel method before introduction and demonstration of CAIT. Using CAIT, no anesthesiologist generated pressures above 1,034 mm Hg, while 29 of 30 produced pressures above this limit at some time using the syringe feel method. The mean pressure using CAIT was lower (636 +/- 71 vs. 1378 +/- 194 mm Hg, P = .025), and the syringe feel method resulted in higher peak pressures (1,875 +/- 206 vs. 715 +/- 104 mm Hg, P = .000). This study demonstrated that CAIT can effectively keep injection pressures under 1,034 mm Hg in this in vitro model. Animal and clinical studies will be needed to determine whether CAIT will allow objective, real-time pressure monitoring. If high pressure injections are proven to contribute to nerve injury in humans, this technique may have the potential to improve the safety of peripheral nerve blocks.

  7. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification

  8. Photoelectric characteristics of an inverse U-shape buried doping design for crosstalk suppression in pinned photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Chen; Zhang Bing; Li Xin; Wu Longsheng; Wang Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    A design of an inverse U-shape buried doping in a pinned photodiode (PPD) of CMOS image sensors is proposed for electrical crosstalk suppression between adjacent pixels. The architecture achieves no extra fill factor consumption, and proper built-in electric fields can be established according to the doping gradient created by the injections of the extremely low P-type doping buried regions in the epitaxial layer, causing the excess electrons to easily drift back to the photosensitive area rarely with a diffusion probability; the overall junction capacitance and photosensitive area extensions for a full well capacity (FWC) and internal quantum efficiency (IQE) improving are achieved by the injection of a buried N-type doping. By considering the image lag issue, the process parameters of all the injections have been precisely optimized. Optical simulation results based on the finite difference time domain method show that compared to the conventional PPD, the electrical crosstalk rate of the proposed architecture can be decreased by 60%–80% at an incident wavelength beyond 450 nm, IQE can be clearly improved at an incident wavelength between 400 and 600 nm, and the FWC can be enhanced by 107.5%. Furthermore, the image lag performance is sustained to a perfect low level. The present study provides important guidance on the design of ultra high resolution image sensors. (semiconductor devices)

  9. Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma cell apoptosis through suppressing cellular signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Guangwen; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Wenhao; Xu, Chan; Hong, Zongguo; Mei, Zhinan; Yang, Xinzhou

    2014-01-01

    Kurarinol is a flavonoid isolated from roots of the medical plant Sophora flavescens. However, its cytotoxic activity against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells and toxic effects on mammalians remain largely unexplored. Here, the pro-apoptotic activities of kurarinol on HCC cells and its toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice were evaluated. The molecular mechanisms underlying kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis were also investigated. We found that kurarinol dose-dependently provoked HepG2, Huh-7 and H22 HCC cell apoptosis. In addition, kurarinol gave rise to a considerable decrease in the transcriptional activity of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in HCC cells. Suppression of STAT3 signaling is involved in kurarinol-induced HCC cell apoptosis. In vivo studies showed that kurarinol injection substantially induced transplanted H22 cell apoptosis with low toxic impacts on tumor-bearing mice. Similarly, the transcriptional activity of STAT3 in transplanted tumor tissues was significantly suppressed after kurarinol treatment. Collectively, our current research demonstrated that kurarinol has the capacity of inducing HCC cell apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo with undetectable toxic impacts on the host. Suppressing STAT3 signaling is implicated in kurarinol-mediated HCC cell apoptosis. - Highlights: • Kurarinol induces hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell apoptosis. • Kurarinol induces HCC cell apoptosis via inhibiting STAT3. • Kurarinol exhibits low toxic effects on tumor-bearing animals

  10. Financial methods for waterflooding injectate design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneman, Helmuth J.; Brady, Patrick V.

    2017-08-08

    A method of selecting an injectate for recovering liquid hydrocarbons from a reservoir includes designing a plurality of injectates, calculating a net present value of each injectate, and selecting a candidate injectate based on the net present value. For example, the candidate injectate may be selected to maximize the net present value of a waterflooding operation.

  11. Influence of fuel injection pressures on Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester fuelled direct injection diesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanthagopal, K.; Ashok, B.; Karuppa Raj, R. Thundil

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Effect of injection pressure of Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel is investigated. • Engine characteristics of 100% Calophyllum inophyllum biodiesel has been performed. • Calophyllum inophyllum is a non-edible source for biodiesel production. • Increase in injection pressure of biodiesel, improves the fuel economy. • Incylinder pressure characteristics of biodiesel follows similar trend as of diesel. - Abstract: The trend of using biodiesels in compression ignition engines have been the focus in recent decades due to the promising environmental factors and depletion of fossil fuel reserves. This work presents the effect of Calophyllum inophyllum methyl ester on diesel engine performance, emission and combustion characteristics at different injection pressures. Experimental investigations with varying injection pressures of 200 bar, 220 bar and 240 bar have been carried out to analyse the parameters like brake thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, heat release rate and engine emissions of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with 100% biodiesel and compared with neat diesel. The experimental results revealed that brake specific fuel consumption of C. inophyllum methyl ester fuelled engine has been reduced to a great extent with higher injection pressure. Significant reduction in emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and smoke opacity have been observed during fuel injection of biodiesel at 220 bar compared to other fuel injection pressures. However oxides of nitrogen increased with increase in injection pressures of C. inophyllum methyl ester and are always higher than that of neat diesel. In addition the combustion characteristics of biodiesel at all injection pressures followed a similar trend to that of conventional diesel.

  12. Effect of power oscillations on suppression pool heating during ATWS [Anticipated Transients Without Scram] conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Nine selected Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) have been simulated on the BNL Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA), to determine how power and flow oscillations, similar to those that did or could have occurred at the LaSalle-2 boiling Water Reactor (BWR), could affect the rate of Pressure Suppression Pool heating. It has been determined that the pool can reach its temperature limit of 80 degree C in 4.3 min. after Turbine Trip without Bypass, if the feedwater pumps are not tripped. The pool will not reach its limit, if Boron is injected, even when oscillations are encountered. Simultaneous turbine and recirculation pump trips, introduced under stable conditions, can lead to instability. 2 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs

  13. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  14. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  15. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  16. INJECTING EQUPMENT SHARING AND PERCEPTION OF HIV AND HEPATITIS RISK AMONG INJECTING DRUG USERS IN BUDAPEST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Neaigus, Alan; Ujhelyi, Eszter

    2008-01-01

    In Central European states, rates of HIV among IDUs have been low although HCV infection is widespread. The goal of our study was to assess HIV infection, risk perceptions and injecting equipment sharing among injection drug users in Budapest, Hungary. Altogether 150 IDUs were interviewed (121 structured between 1999-2000 and 29 ethnographic between 2003-2004). The majority of them injected heroin (52% and 79%) and many injected amphetamines (51% and 35%). One person tested positive for HIV. Two thirds (68% of 121) shared injecting equipment (syringes, cookers and filters). Some participants said they shared syringes because they were not carrying them for fear of police harassment, and that they reused filters as a backup drug supply. In multivariate analysis, sharing of injecting equipment was associated with higher perceived susceptibility to HIV/AIDS, lower self-efficacy for sterile equipment use, higher motivation to comply with peer pressure to use dirty injecting equipment, and with having a criminal record. The high levels of injecting risk behaviors found in this study are a cause for serious concern. HIV prevention interventions need to address not only sharing syringes but also sharing and reusing other injecting equipment and drug filters. PMID:17129858

  17. Mechanism of swelling suppression in phosphorous-modified Fe-Ni-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.H.; Mansur, L.K.

    1986-01-01

    Five simple alloys were ion irradiated at 948 0 K in an experiment designed to investigate the mechanism of swelling suppression associated with phosphorous additions. One of the alloys was the simple ternary Fe-15Ni-13Cr, another had 0.05% P added and the other three had further additions of the phosphide precipitate-forming elements Ti and/or Si. Ion irradiations were carried out with heavy ions only (Ni or Fe) or with heavy ions followed by dual heavy ions and helium. The ternary with and without P swelled readily early in dose with or without helium. The other three alloys only showed swelling in the presence of helium and exhibited a long delay in dose prior to the onset of swelling. These displayed fine distributions of Fe 2 P type phosphide precipitates enhanced by irradiation. The phosphide particles gave rise to very high concentrations of stable helium filled cavities at the precipitate matrix interfaces. The results were analyzed in terms of the theory of cavity swelling. The accumulation of the critical number of gas atoms in an individual cavity is required in the theory for point defect driven swelling to begin. It is concluded that the primary mechanism leading to swelling suppression is therefore the dilution of injected helium over a very large number of cavities. It is suggested that this mechanism may offer a key for alloy design for swelling resistance in high helium environments

  18. SQL injection detection system

    OpenAIRE

    Vargonas, Vytautas

    2017-01-01

    SQL injection detection system Programmers do not always ensure security of developed systems. That is why it is important to look for solutions outside being reliant on developers. In this work SQL injection detection system is proposed. The system analyzes HTTP request parameters and detects intrusions. It is based on unsupervised machine learning. Trained by regular request data system detects outlier user parameters. Since training is not reliant on previous knowledge of SQL injections, t...

  19. Study of nozzle deposit formation mechanism for direct injection gasoline engines; Chokufun gasoline engine yo nozzle no deposit seisei kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, M; Saito, A [Toyota Central Research and Development Labs., Inc., Aichi (Japan); Matsushita, S [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Shibata, H [Nippon Soken, Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Niwa, Y [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Nozzles in fuel injectors for direct injection gasoline engines are exposed to high temperature combustion gases and soot. In such a rigorous environment, it is a fear that fuel flow rate changes in injectors by deposit formation on nozzles. Fundamental factors of nozzle deposit formation were investigated through injector bench tests and engine dynamometer tests. Deposit formation processes were observed by SEM through engine dynamometer tests. The investigation results reveal nozzle deposit formation mechanism and how to suppress the deposit. 4 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  1. Injecting drug use: Gendered risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnow, Renee; Winstock, Adam R; Maier, Larissa J; Levy, Jay; Ferris, Jason

    2018-06-01

    Research demonstrates gender related differences in drug-use practices and risk behaviours. Females' structural vulnerability stemming from traditional gender roles and gender-power relations may enhance their propensity to experience injecting related risk. In this paper we explore gender differences in injection practices at the initiation event, during the first year of injecting and in the most recent 12-month period, to inform more effective harm reduction strategies. Data used in this study were drawn from the Global Drug Survey 2015. The study employs chi-square and logistic regression to assess gender differences in injection behaviours in a sample of current injectors residing in six global regions: North-West Europe; Southern Eastern Europe; North America. South America and Oceania. Females were more likely than males to report being injected by an intimate partner at initiation (OR = 4.4, 95%CI: 2.2-8.8), during the first year of injecting (OR = 4.8, 95% CI: 2.4-9.3) and in the most recent 12-month period (OR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.0-6.2). Females reported greater difficulties accessing sterile equipment (X 2 (2,N = 453) = 8.2, p = 0.02) and were more likely to share injecting equipment than males (X 2 (1,N = 463) = 3.9, p = 0.05). Our findings highlight females' continued dependence on their intimate partner to administer the injection into the first year of their injecting career. Females remained more likely than males to rely on intimate partners for injection during the most recent 12-month period. Females report greater difficulties in sourcing sterile equipment and are more likely to share injecting equipment. We suggest that these findings reflect the broader social structure in which females are disempowered through traditional gender roles and the lack of gender appropriate harm reduction services. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Theory of ion Bernstein wave induced shear suppression of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craddock, G. G.; Diamond, P. H.; Ono, M.; Biglari, H.

    1994-06-01

    The theory of radio frequency induced ion Bernstein wave- (IBW) driven shear flow in the edge is examined, with the goal of application of shear suppression of fluctuations. This work is motivated by the observed confinement improvement on IBW heated tokamaks [Phys. Fluids B 5, 241 (1993)], and by previous low-frequency work on RF-driven shear flows [Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1535 (1991)]. It is found that the poloidal shear flow is driven electrostatically by both Reynolds stress and a direct ion momentum source, analogous to the concepts of helicity injection and electron momentum input in current drive, respectively. Flow drive by the former does not necessarily require momentum input to the plasma to induce a shear flow. For IBW, the direct ion momentum can be represented by direct electron momentum input, and a charge separation induced stress that imparts little momentum to the plasma. The derived Er profile due to IBW predominantly points inward, with little possibility of direction change, unlike low-frequency Alfvénic RF drive. The profile scale is set by the edge density gradient and electron dissipation. Due to the electrostatic nature of ion Bernstein waves, the poloidal flow contribution dominates in Er. Finally, the necessary edge power absorbed for shear suppression on Princeton Beta Experiment-Modified (PBX-M) [9th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Charleston, SC, 1991 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1991), p. 129] is estimated to be 100 kW distributed over 5 cm.

  3. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  4. Assessment of injection bolus in first-pass radionuclide angiography. Evaluation of injection site and needle size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonami, Syuichi; Inagaki, Syoichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Sugishita, Kouki; Yoshita, Hisashi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Kuranishi, Makoto

    1996-01-01

    First-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) using a multi-crystal gamma camera can correctly provide many quantitative and qualitative indices of left ventricular function as well as anatomic information. A compact injection bolus of radiotracer is, however, essential to the first-pass study since the temporal separation of cardiac chambers is required for the first-pass acquisition. To examine which factors affect the quality of an injection bolus, 327 patients who had FPRNA in the anterior projection were randomized for injection site of radiotracer (right or left external jugular veins, and right antecubital vein) and needle size (19- or 21-gauge). The injected bolus was assessed from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the bolus time-activity curve in the superior vena cava. As to injection site using a 19-gauge needle, an attemption through right external jugular vein (EJV) revealed the shortest FWHM of an injection bolus, followed by left EJV and right antecubital vein (AV). In right EJV 91% of injected bolus FWHM was less than 1.5 sec, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) than those of the other sites (left EJV: 70%. right AV: 65%). Approximately 7% of injection from left EJV and right AV, showed a split bolus of radiotracer. However, no split bolus was observed from right EJV. There was no significant difference in FWHM of an injection bolus between 19- and 21-gauge needle from EJV. Our present study demonstrated that the quality of an injection bolus from left EJV and AV was affected by RVEF in a case of low right ventricular function. In conclusion, right EJV is the first choice of injection site to obtain a compact bolus of radiotracer for the first-pass cardiac study. A 21-gauge needle can also be inserted from the external jugular vein to perform a good bolus injection. (author)

  5. Effects of injection angles on combustion processes using multiple injection strategies in an HSDI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiegang Fang; Robert E. Coverdill; Chia-fon F. Lee; Robert A. White [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2008-11-15

    Effects of injection angles and injection pressure on the combustion processes employing multiple injection strategies in a high-speed direct-injection (HSDI) diesel engine are presented in this work. Whole-cycle combustion and liquid spray evolution processes were visualized using a high-speed video camera. NOx emissions were measured in the exhaust pipe. Different heat release patterns are seen for two different injectors with a 70-degree tip and a 150-degree tip. No evidence of fuel-wall impingement is found for the first injection of the 150-degree tip, but for the 70-degree tip, some fuel impinges on the bowl wall and a fuel film is formed. For the second injection, a large amount of fuel deposition is observed for the 70-degree tip. Weak flame is seen for the first injection of the 150-degree tip while two sorts of flames are seen for the first injection of the 70-degree tip including an early weak flame and a late luminous film combustion flame. Ignition occurs near the spray tip in the vicinity of the bowl wall for the second injection events of the 150-degree tip, however, it is near the injector tip in the central region of the bowl for the 70-degree tip. The flame is more homogeneous for the 150-degree tip with higher injection pressure with little soot formation similar to a premixed-charge-compression-ignition (PCCI) combustion. For other cases, liquid fuel is injected into flames showing diffusion flame combustion. More soot luminosity is seen for the 70-degree tip due to significant fuel film deposition on the piston wall with fuel film combustion for both injection events. Lower NOx emissions were obtained for the narrow-angle injector due to the rich air-fuel mixture near the bowl wall during the combustion process. 30 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Assessment of injection bolus in first-pass radionuclide angiography. Evaluation of injection site and needle size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonami, Syuichi; Inagaki, Syoichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Sugishita, Kouki; Yoshita, Hisashi; Nakamura, Mamoru; Kuranishi, Makoto [Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1996-09-01

    First-pass radionuclide angiography (FPRNA) using a multi-crystal gamma camera can correctly provide many quantitative and qualitative indices of left ventricular function as well as anatomic information. A compact injection bolus of radiotracer is, however, essential to the first-pass study since the temporal separation of cardiac chambers is required for the first-pass acquisition. To examine which factors affect the quality of an injection bolus, 327 patients who had FPRNA in the anterior projection were randomized for injection site of radiotracer (right or left external jugular veins, and right antecubital vein) and needle size (19- or 21-gauge). The injected bolus was assessed from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the bolus time-activity curve in the superior vena cava. As to injection site using a 19-gauge needle, an attemption through right external jugular vein (EJV) revealed the shortest FWHM of an injection bolus, followed by left EJV and right antecubital vein (AV). In right EJV 91% of injected bolus FWHM was less than 1.5 sec, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) than those of the other sites (left EJV: 70%. right AV: 65%). Approximately 7% of injection from left EJV and right AV, showed a split bolus of radiotracer. However, no split bolus was observed from right EJV. There was no significant difference in FWHM of an injection bolus between 19- and 21-gauge needle from EJV. Our present study demonstrated that the quality of an injection bolus from left EJV and AV was affected by RVEF in a case of low right ventricular function. In conclusion, right EJV is the first choice of injection site to obtain a compact bolus of radiotracer for the first-pass cardiac study. A 21-gauge needle can also be inserted from the external jugular vein to perform a good bolus injection. (author)

  7. Influence of ovarian hormones on cortical spreading depression and its suppression by L-kynurenine in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Chauvel

    Full Text Available Migraine is sexually dimorphic and associated in 20-30% of patients with an aura most likely caused by cortical spreading depression (CSD. We have previously shown that systemic L-kynurenine (L-KYN, the precursor of kynurenic acid, suppresses CSD and that this effect depends on the stage of the estrous cycle in female rats. The objectives here are to determine the influence of ovarian hormones on KCl-induced CSD and its suppression after L-KYN by directly modulating estradiol or progesterone levels in ovariectomized rats. Adult female rats were ovariectomized and subcutaneously implanted with silastic capsules filled with progesterone or 17β-estradiol mixed with cholesterol, with cholesterol only or left empty. Two weeks after the ovariectomy/capsule implantation, the animals received an i.p. injection of L-KYN (300 mg/kg or NaCl as control. Thirty minutes later CSDs were elicited by applying KCl over the occipital cortex and recorded by DC electrocorticogram for 1 hour. The results show that both estradiol and progesterone increase CSD frequency after ovariectomy. The suppressive effect of L-KYN on CSD frequency, previously reported in normal cycling females, is not found anymore after ovariectomy, but reappears after progesterone replacement therapy. Taken together, these results emphasize the complex role of sex hormones on cortical excitability. The CSD increase by estradiol and, more surprisingly, progesterone may explain why clinically migraine with aura appears or worsens during pregnancy or with combined hormonal treatments.

  8. Evaluation of percutaneous ethanol injections in benign thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Camila Luhm Silva; Fighera, Tayane Muniz; Miasaki, Fabiola; Mesa Junior, Cleo Otaviano; Paz Filho, Gilberto Jorge da; Graf, Hans; Carvalho, Gisah Amaral de

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in the treatment of benign thyroid nodules. We evaluated 120 patients with benign thyroid nodules. Patients underwent evaluation of serum TSH and free T4, cervical ultrasound, and thyroid scintigraphy (in those with suppressed TSH levels). The application of sterile ethanol 99% was guided by ultrasound, with the injected volume amounting to one-third of the nodule volume. Response was considered complete (reduction of 90%); partial (reduction between 50 and 90%); or none (reduction of nodules were evaluated for normalization of TSH levels. Among the nodules studied, 30.8% were solid, 56.7% were mixed, 12.5% were cystic, and 21.6% were hyperfunctioning. The initial volume of the treated nodules ranged from 0.9 to 74.8 mL (mean 13.1 ± 12.4 mL). We performed 1-8 sessions of PEI, applying an average of 6.2 mL of ethanol for patient. After 2 years of follow-up, 17% of patients achieved a complete response (94% reduction); 53%, a partial response (70% reduction); and 30%, no response. A reduction in the volume of autonomous nodules was noted in 70% of cases, and 54% had a normalized value of TSH. The main side effect is local pain, lasting less than 24 hours in most cases. This study showed that PEI is a safe and effective procedure for treatment of benign, solid or mixed thyroid nodules. Most cases resulted in significant reduction in nodule volume, with normalization of thyroid function.

  9. Impact of physical properties of biodiesel on the injection process in a common-rail direct injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudy, Frederic; Seers, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the influence of biodiesel fuel properties on the injection mass flow rate of a diesel common-rail injection system. Simulations are first performed with ISO 4113 diesel fuel on a four-cylinder common-rail system to evaluate a single and triple injection strategies. For each injection strategy, the impact of modifying a single fuel property at a time is evaluated so as to quantify its influence on the injection process. The results show that fuel density is the main property that affects the injection process, such as total mass injected and pressure wave in the common-rail system. The fuel's viscosity and bulk modulus also influence, but to a lessen degree, the mass flow rate of the injector notably during multiple injection strategies as individual properties change the fuel's dampening property and friction coefficient.

  10. Observing Exoplanets with High-dispersion Coronagraphy. II. Demonstration of an Active Single-mode Fiber Injection Unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mawet, D.; Ruane, G.; Xuan, W.; Echeverri, D.; Klimovich, N.; Randolph, M.; Fucik, J.; Wang, J.; Dekany, R.; Delorme, J.-R. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Wallace, J. K.; Vasisht, G.; Mennesson, B.; Choquet, E.; Serabyn, E., E-mail: dmawet@astro.caltech.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2017-04-01

    High-dispersion coronagraphy (HDC) optimally combines high-contrast imaging techniques such as adaptive optics/wavefront control plus coronagraphy to high spectral resolution spectroscopy. HDC is a critical pathway toward fully characterizing exoplanet atmospheres across a broad range of masses from giant gaseous planets down to Earth-like planets. In addition to determining the molecular composition of exoplanet atmospheres, HDC also enables Doppler mapping of atmosphere inhomogeneities (temperature, clouds, wind), as well as precise measurements of exoplanet rotational velocities. Here, we demonstrate an innovative concept for injecting the directly imaged planet light into a single-mode fiber, linking a high-contrast adaptively corrected coronagraph to a high-resolution spectrograph (diffraction-limited or not). Our laboratory demonstration includes three key milestones: close-to-theoretical injection efficiency, accurate pointing and tracking, and on-fiber coherent modulation and speckle nulling of spurious starlight signal coupling into the fiber. Using the extreme modal selectivity of single-mode fibers, we also demonstrated speckle suppression gains that outperform conventional image-based speckle nulling by at least two orders of magnitude.

  11. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  12. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  13. Injection and extraction for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heikkinen, P.

    1994-01-01

    External ion sources for cyclotrons are needed for polarised and heavy ions. This calls for injection systems, either radial or axial. Radial injection is also needed when a cyclotron works as a booster after another cyclotron or a linear accelerator (usually tandem). Requirements for injection differ from separated sector cyclotrons where there is plenty of room to house inflectors and/or strippers, to superconducting cyclotrons where the space is limited by a small magnet gap, and high magnetic field puts other limitations to the inflectors. Several extraction schemes are used in cyclotrons. Stripping injection is used for H - and also for heavy ions where the q/m ratio is usually doubled. For other cases, electric and magnetic deflection has to be used. To increase the turn separation before the first deflector, both resonant and non-resonant schemes are used. In this lecture, external injection systems are surveyed and some rules to thumb for injection parameters are given. Extraction schemes are also reviewed. (orig.)

  14. GnRH antagonist, cetrorelix, for pituitary suppression in modern, patient-friendly assisted reproductive technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tur-Kaspa, Ilan; Ezcurra, Diego

    2009-10-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues are used routinely to prevent a premature luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatments. In contrast to GnRH agonists, antagonists produce rapid and reversible suppression of LH with no initial flare effect. To review the role of cetrorelix, the first GnRH antagonist approved for the prevention of premature LH surges during controlled ovarian stimulation in modern ART. A review of published literature on cetrorelix. Both multiple- and single-dose cetrorelix protocols were shown to be at least as effective as long GnRH agonist regimens for pituitary suppression in Phase II/III clinical trials. Furthermore, cetrorelix co-treatment resulted in similar live birth rates but a shorter duration of gonadotropin stimulation, a lower total gonadotropin dose requirement and lower incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome compared with long agonist regimens. A single-dose cetrorelix protocol further decreased the number of injections required. Preliminary studies have also produced promising data on the use of cetrorelix in modified ART protocols, such as frozen embryo transfer and donor oocyte recipient cycles. Cetrorelix offers a potential therapeutic alternative to GnRH agonists during controlled ovarian stimulation and has become an integral part of modern, patient-friendly reproductive medicine.

  15. Predictors of sharing injection equipment by HIV-seropositive injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, Carl A; Buchanan, Amy S; Metsch, Lisa R; Knight, Kelly; Latka, Mary H; Mizuno, Yuko; Knowlton, Amy R

    2008-12-01

    Among HIV-positive injection drug users (IDUs), we examined baseline predictors of lending needles and syringes and sharing cookers, cotton, and rinse water in the prior 3 months at follow-up. Participants were enrolled in Intervention for Seropositive Injectors-Research and Evaluation, a secondary prevention intervention for sexually active HIV-positive IDUs in 4 US cities during 2001-2005. The analyses involved 357 participants who reported injecting drugs in the prior 6 months at either the 6- or 12-month follow-up visit. About half (49%) reported at least 1 sharing episode. In adjusted analyses, peer norms supporting safer injection practices and having primary HIV medical care visits in the prior 6 months were associated with reporting no sharing of injection equipment. Higher levels of psychological distress were associated with a greater likelihood of reporting drug paraphernalia sharing. These findings suggest that intervention approaches for reducing HIV-seropositive IDUs' transmission of blood-borne infections should include peer-focused interventions to alter norms of drug paraphernalia sharing and promoting primary HIV care and mental health services.

  16. The energetic ion substorm injection boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, R.E.; Sibeck, D.G.; McEntire, R.W.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    The substorm injection boundary model has enjoyed considerable success in explaining plasma signatures in the near-geosynchronous region. However, the injection boundary has remained primarily a phenomenological model. In this paper the authors examine 167 dispersionless energetic ion injections which were observed by AMPTE CCE. The radial and local time distribution of the events as a function of Kp is qualitatively similar to that envisioned in the injection boundary model of Mauk and McIlwain (1974). They argue that particles observed during dispersionless injections are locally energized during the disruption of the cross-tail current sheet. Therefore they identify the injection boundary, as derived from the spatial distribution of dispersionless injections, with the earthward edge of the region of the magnetotail which undergoes current sheet disruption during the substorm expansion phase. The authors show that this qualitative model for the generation of the injection boundary can provide an explanation for the dispersionless nature, the double spiral shape, and the Kp dependence of the boundary

  17. In vivo effects of synthetic cannabinoids JWH-018 and JWH-073 and phytocannabinoid Δ9-THC in mice: inhalation versus intraperitoneal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshell, R; Kearney-Ramos, T; Brents, L K; Hyatt, W S; Tai, S; Prather, P L; Fantegrossi, W E

    2014-09-01

    Human users of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) JWH-018 and JWH-073 typically smoke these drugs, but preclinical studies usually rely on injection for drug delivery. We used the cannabinoid tetrad and drug discrimination to compare in vivo effects of inhaled drugs with injected doses of these two SCBs, as well as with the phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). Mice inhaled various doses of Δ(9)-THC, JWH-018 or JWH-073, or were injected intraperitoneally (IP) with these same compounds. Rectal temperature, tail flick latency in response to radiant heat, horizontal bar catalepsy, and suppression of locomotor activity were assessed in each animal. In separate studies, mice were trained to discriminate Δ(9)-THC (IP) from saline, and tests were performed with inhaled or injected doses of the SCBs. Both SCBs elicited Δ(9)-THC-like effects across both routes of administration, and effects following inhalation were attenuated by pretreatment with the CB1 antagonist/inverse agonist rimonabant. No cataleptic effects were observed following inhalation, but all compounds induced catalepsy following injection. Injected JWH-018 and JWH-073 fully substituted for Δ(9)-THC, but substitution was partial (JWH-073) or required relatively higher doses (JWH-018) when drugs were inhaled. These studies demonstrate that the SCBs JWH-018 and JWH-073 elicit dose-dependent, CB1 receptor-mediated Δ(9)-THC-like effects in mice when delivered via inhalation or via injection. Across these routes of administration, differences in cataleptic effects and, perhaps, discriminative stimulus effects, may implicate the involvement of active metabolites of these compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Complete suppression of in vivo growth of human leukemia cells by specific immunotoxins: nude mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, H.; Seon, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    In this study, immunotoxins containing monoclonal anti-human T-cell leukemia antibodies are shown to be capable of completely suppressing the tumor growth of human T-cell leukemia cells in vivo without any overt undersirable toxicity. These immunotoxins were prepared by conjugating ricin A chain (RA) with our monoclonal antibodies, SN1 and SN2, directed specifically to the human T-cell leukemia cell surface antigens TALLA and GP37, respectively. The authors have shown that these monoclonal antibodies are highly specific for human T-cell leukemia cells and do not react with various normal cells including normal T and B cells, thymocytes, and bone marrow cells. Ascitic and solid human T-cell leukemia cell tumors were generated in nude mice. The ascitic tumor was generated by transplanting Ichikawa cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell) i.p. into nude mice, whereas the solid tumor was generated by transplanting s.c. MOLT-4 cells (a human T-cell leukemia cell line) and x-irradiated human fibrosarcoma cells into x-irradiated nude mice. To investigate the efficacy of specific immunotoxins in suppression the in vivo growth of the ascitic tumor, they divided 40 nude mice that were injected with Ichikawa cells into four groups. None of the mice in group 4 that were treated with SN1-RA and SN2-RA showed any signs of a tumor or undesirable toxic effects for the 20 weeks that they were followed after the transplantation. Treatment with SN1-RA plus SN2-RA completely suppressed solid tumor growth in 4 of 10 nude mice carrying solid tumors and partially suppressed the tumor growth in the remaining 6 nude mice. These results strongly suggest that SN1-RA and SN2-RA may be useful for clinical treatment

  19. Radial oil injection applied to main engine bearings: evaluation of injection control rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estupiñan, EA; Santos, Ilmar

    2012-01-01

    , the dynamic behaviour of the main bearing of a medium-size engine is theoretically analysed when the engine operates with controllable radial oil injection and four different injection control rules. The theoretical investigation is based on a single-cylinder combustion engine model. The performance......The performance of main bearings in a combustion engine affects key functions such as durability, noise and vibration. Thus, with the aim of reducing friction losses and vibrations between the crankshaft and the bearings, the work reported here evaluates different strategies for applying...... controllable radial oil injection to main crankshaft journal bearings. In an actively lubricated bearing, conventional hydrodynamic lubrication is combined with controllable hydrostatic lubrication, where the oil injection pressures can be modified depending on the operational conditions. In this study...

  20. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2014-01-01

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  1. Injection moulding antireflective nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Alexander Bruun; Clausen, Jeppe Sandvik; Mortensen, N. Asger

    We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used in an inject......We present a method for injection moulding antireflective nanostructures on large areas, for high volume production. Nanostructured black silicon masters were fabricated by mask-less reactive ion etching, and electroplated with nickel. The nickel shim was antistiction coated and used...

  2. Enhanced Injection Molding Simulation of Advanced Injection Molds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Zink

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The most time-consuming phase of the injection molding cycle is cooling. Cooling efficiency can be enhanced with the application of conformal cooling systems or high thermal conductivity copper molds. The conformal cooling channels are placed along the geometry of the injection-molded product, and thus they can extract more heat and heat removal is more uniform than in the case of conventional cooling systems. In the case of copper mold inserts, cooling channels are made by drilling and heat removal is facilitated by the high thermal conductivity coefficient of copper, which is several times that of steel. Designing optimal cooling systems is a complex process; a proper design requires injection molding simulations, but the accuracy of calculations depends on how precise the input parameters and boundary conditions are. In this study, three cooling circuit designs and three mold materials (Ampcoloy 940, 1.2311 (P20 steel, and MS1 steel were used and compared using numerical methods. The effect of different mold designs and materials on cooling efficiency were examined using calculated and measured results. The simulation model was adjusted to the measurement results by considering the joint gap between the mold inserts.

  3. Regional Extent of Peripheral Suppression in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Clavagnier, Simon; Bobier, William R; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we have mapped amblyopic eye suppression within the central 20° of the visual field and observed a gradient of suppression that is strongest in central vision and weakens with increasing eccentricity. In this study, using a large dichoptic display, we extend our novel suppression mapping approach further into the periphery (from 20°-60°) to assess whether suppression continues to decline with eccentricity or plateaus. Sixteen participants with amblyopia (10 with strabismus, 6 with anisometropia without strabismus; mean age: 37.9 ± 11 years) and six normal observers (mean age: 28.3 ± 5 years) took part. The visual stimulus (60° diameter), viewed from 57 cm, was composed of four concentric annuli (5° radius) with alternate contrast polarities starting from an eccentricity of 10°. Each annulus was divided into eight sectors subtending 45° of visual angle. Participants adjusted the contrast of a single sector presented to the fellow eye to match the perceived contrast of the remaining stimulus elements that were presented to the amblyopic eye. A matching contrast that was lower in the fellow eye than the amblyopic eye indicated suppression. Patients with strabismus exhibited significantly stronger interocular suppression than controls across all eccentricities (P = 0.01). Patients with anisometropia did not differ from controls (P = 0.58). Suppression varied significantly with eccentricity (P = 0.005) but this effect did not differ between patient groups (P = 0.217). In amblyopia, suppression is present beyond the central 10° in patients with strabismus. Suppression becomes weaker at greater eccentricities and this may enable peripheral fusion that could be used by binocular treatment methods.

  4. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  5. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  6. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol differentially suppresses cisplatin-induced emesis and indices of motor function via cannabinoid CB(1) receptors in the least shrew.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmani, N A

    2001-01-01

    We have recently shown that the cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, SR 141716A, produces emesis in the least shrew (Cryptotis parva) in a dose- and route-dependent manner. This effect was blocked by delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Delta(9)-THC). The present study investigates the cannabinoid receptor mechanisms by which Delta(9)-THC produces its antiemetic effects against cisplatin (20 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced emesis as well as its cannabimimetic activity profile (motor reduction) in the least shrew. Intraperitoneal administration of Delta(9)-THC (1, 2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced both the percentage of animals vomiting (ID(50)=1.8+/-1.6 mg/kg) and the frequency of vomits (ID(50)=0.36+/-1.18 mg/kg) in a potent manner. The lowest significantly effective antiemetic dose of Delta(9)-THC for the latter emesis parameters was 2.5 mg/kg. Although Delta(9)-THC reduced the frequency of vomits up to 98%, it failed to completely protect all tested shrews from vomiting (80% protection). The cannabinoid CB(1) antagonist (SR 141716A) and not the CB(2) antagonist (SR 144528), reversed the antiemetic effects of Delta(9)-THC in a dose-dependent fashion. Delta(9)-THC (1, 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, ip) suppressed locomotor parameters (spontaneous locomotor activity, duration of movement and rearing frequency) in a biphasic manner and only the 20-mg/kg dose simultaneously suppressed the triad of locomotor parameters to a significant degree. Subcutaneous (1-10 mg/kg) and intraperitoneal (0.05-40 mg/kg) injection of some doses of SR 141716A caused significant reductions in one or more components of the triad of locomotor parameters but these reductions were not dose dependent. Subcutaneous injection of SR 141716A (0.2, 1, 5 and 10 mg/kg) reversed the motor suppressant effects of a 20-mg/kg dose of Delta(9)-THC (ip) in a dose-dependent manner. Relative to its motor suppressant effects, Delta(9)-THC is a more potent antiemetic agent. Both effects are probably mediated via CB(1

  7. SQL Injection Attacks and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Clarke, Justin

    2012-01-01

    SQL Injection Attacks and Defense, First Edition: Winner of the Best Book Bejtlich Read Award "SQL injection is probably the number one problem for any server-side application, and this book unequaled in its coverage." -Richard Bejtlich, Tao Security blog SQL injection represents one of the most dangerous and well-known, yet misunderstood, security vulnerabilities on the Internet, largely because there is no central repository of information available for penetration testers, IT security consultants and practitioners, and web/software developers to turn to for help. SQL Injection Att

  8. Oxygen injection facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ota, Masamoto; Hirose, Yuki

    1998-01-01

    A compressor introduces air as a starting material and sends it to a dust removing device, a dehumidifying device and an adsorption/separation system disposed downstream. The facility of the present invention is disposed in the vicinity of an injection point and installed in a turbine building of a BWR type reactor having a pipeline of a feedwater system to be injected. The adsorbing/separation system comprises an adsorbing vessel and an automatic valve, and the adsorbing vessel is filled with an adsorbent for selectively adsorbing nitrogen. Zeolite is used as the adsorbent. Nitrogen in the air passing through the adsorbing vessel is adsorbed and removed under a pressurized condition, and a highly concentrated oxygen gas is formed. The direction of the steam of the adsorbed nitrogen is changed by an opening/closing switching operation of an automatic valve and released to the atmosphere (the pressure is released). Generated oxygen gas is stored under pressure in a tank, and injected to the pipeline of the feedwater system by an oxygen injection conduit by way of a flow rate control valve. In the adsorbing vessel, steps of adsorption, separation and storage under pressure are repeated successively. (I.N.)

  9. Sequential injection lab-on-valve: the third generation of flow injection analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jianhua; Hansen, Elo Harald

    2003-01-01

    Termed the third generation of flow injection analysis, sequential injection (SI)-lab-on-valve (LOV) has specific advantages and allows novel, unique applications - not least as a versatile front end to a variety of detection techniques. This review presents snd discusses progress to date of the ...

  10. Zinc injection on the EDF fleet monitoring the injection on 12 units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Meur, Gaelle Harmand; Anne-Marie; Stutzmann, Agnes; Taunier, Stephane; Benfarah, Moez; Bretelle, Jean-Luc; Alain, Rocher; Claeys, Myriam; Bonne, Sebastien

    2012-09-01

    After a first implementation of zinc injection at Bugey 2 and Bugey 4, EDF decided to extend the program to other units of its fleet. 14 more reactors from the French fleet of 58 were chosen in order to - Reduce the radiation sources for curative or preventive (after SGR) reasons - Mitigate stress corrosion cracking on nickel alloys and reduce the rate of generalized corrosion - Prevent the risk of CIPS, mainly after a fuel management change. Zinc injection started on 9 new units in 2011, 1 unit in 2012 and will be extended to 4 other units before the end of 2013. To monitor the injection, EDF has defined a complete program concerning chemistry, radiation protection (dose rate and deposited activities measurements), materials (statistical analysis of SG tube cracks), fuel (oxide measurements) and waste (radiochemical characterization of filters). Reference units were chosen for each field because of the size of the fleet. This paper will detail the different monitoring programs on the EDF plants injecting zinc. (authors)

  11. Improved energy confinement with neon injection in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, G.M.; Jackson, G.L.; West, W.P. Groebner, R.J.; Schaffer, M.J.; Allen, S.L.; Whyte, D.G.

    1997-06-01

    In this paper the authors will report the first direct measurements of the fully stripped neon 10 + density profile in a plasma with enhanced energy confinement due to neon injection. This is made with a calibrated charge exchange recombination (CER) system. It is found that the neon 10 + density is peaked like the electron density with a slightly higher concentration towards the edge. The good news is that the neon 10 + fraction is less than 1% (normalized to the electron density). The radial electric field can also be computed from the CER measurements on DIII-D. The shear in the E x B velocity is found to exceed the maximum growth rate of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) mode over part of the profile, a condition for the suppression of turbulent transport. This agrees with the reduced power balance thermal diffusivities near the magnetic axis

  12. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  13. Myofibroblast Expression in Skin Wounds Is Enhanced by Collagen III Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Al-Qattan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally speaking, the excessive expression of myofibroblasts is associated with excessive collagen production. One exception is seen in patients and animal models of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type IV in which the COL3A1 gene mutation results in reduced collagen III but with concurrent increased myofibroblast expression. This paradox has not been examined with the use of external drugs/modalities to prevent hypertrophic scars. In this paper, we injected the rabbit ear wound model of hypertrophic scarring with two doses of a protein called nAG, which is known to reduce collagen expression and to suppress hypertrophic scarring in that animal model. The higher nAG dose was associated with significantly less collagen III expression and concurrent higher degree of myofibroblast expression. We concluded that collagen III content of the extracellular matrix may have a direct or an indirect effect on myofibroblast differentiation. However, further research is required to investigate the pathogenesis of this paradoxical phenomenon.

  14. Therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chao; Zhu, Yanrong; Weng, Yan; Wang, Shiquan; Guan, Yue; Wei, Guo; Yin, Ying; Xi, Miaomaio; Wen, Aidong

    2014-01-01

    Breviscapine injection is a Chinese herbal medicine standardized product extracted from Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand.-Mazz. It has been widely used for treating cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the therapeutic time window and the action mechanism of breviscapine are still unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic time window and underlying therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine injection against cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h followed by 24h of reperfusion. Experiment part 1 was used to investigate the therapeutic time window of breviscapine. Rats were injected intravenously with 50mg/kg breviscapine at different time-points of reperfusion. After 24h of reperfusion, neurologic score, infarct volume, brain water content and serum level of neuron specific enolase (NSE) were measured in a masked fashion. Part 2 was used to explore the therapeutic mechanism of breviscapine. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), 8-hydroxyl-2'- deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and the antioxidant capacity of ischemia cortex were measured by ELISA and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay, respectively. Immunofluorescence and western blot analysis were used to analyze the expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Part 1: breviscapine injection significantly ameliorated neurologic deficit, reduced infarct volume and water content, and suppressed the levels of NSE in a time-dependent manner. Part 2: breviscapine inhibited the increased levels of 4-HNE and 8-OHdG, and enhanced the antioxidant capacity of cortex tissue. Moreover, breviscapine obviously raised the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1 proteins after 24h of reperfusion. The therapeutic time window of breviscapine injection for cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury seemed to be within 5h after reperfusion. By up-regulating the expression of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway

  15. The effect of intralesional steroid injections on the volume and blood flow in periocular capillary haemangiomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verity, David H; Rose, Geoffrey E; Restori, M

    2008-01-01

    To examine the effect of steroid therapy on the volume estimates and blood flow characteristics of childhood periorbital capillary haemangiomas. Children at risk of amblyopia due to periorbital haemangiomas were treated with intralesional steroid injections (between 1 and 4 courses) and serial assessment of the volume and blood-flow characteristics of the lesions measured using colour Doppler ultrasonography. The characteristics of the haemangiomas in these children were compared with a cohort of untreated cases. Eight of nine treated children were female, this proportion being significantly different from the equal sex distribution of an untreated cohort (p suppression persisting for several months (between 5 and 20) before the lesion later displays the cyclic fluctuations in volume and flow seen with untreated lesions. All treated haemangiomas had some residual vascular anomaly, detectable on ultrasonography, at last follow-up--this being despite absence of clinical signs in most cases. Periorbital capillary haemangiomas requiring steroid therapy for risk of amblyopia were significantly commoner in females, were larger lesions and presented at an earlier age. Intralesional steroids appear to cause a reduction of blood flow, with a transient reduction in volume and a suppression of the natural cyclic variation seen without treatment. The changes after a course of steroid therapy appear to last for between 5 and 20 months, this period of suppression of the lesion probably being particularly useful during infancy and early childhood when the child is at greatest risk of amblyopia.

  16. Promoting Safe Injection Practices : The Challenge Ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V K Srivastava

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Injections are one of the most common health care procedures in the world. Global estimates range between 12 billion-16 billion injections each year’. Most of the injections (90 to 95% are given for therapeutic purposes and only 5 to 10% are given for immunization. It is estimated that worldwide every year a billion injections are given to women and children for immunization. Up to half of these injections are currently thought to be unsafe. Due to the sheer burden of injections and the coresponding magnitude of unsafe injections, the proportion of blood borne pathogen transmission is much larger than is due to unsafe blood transfusion. Unsafe injections are responsible for million cases of Hepatitis B and C and an estimated one-quarter of a million cases of HIV annually. Worldwide 8 to 16 million hepatitis B, 2.3 - 4.7 million hepatitis C and 80,000 - 1,60,000 HIV infections are estimated to occur yearly form reuse of syringes and needles without adequate sterilization2. In the less developed countries, the unsafe injection practices account for an estimated $ 535 million in health care costs and result in nearly 1.3 million deaths a year. In a developing country like India where unnecessary injections are common, the total bur­den of injections is estimated to be 3.7 billion injections per year3. Certain studies that have been carried out in India,along with anecdotal evidence point towards a large numbe- of unnecessary, inappropriate, unsafe injections and inadequate sharps waste management4 5. A high proportion of injections given in India for immunization are unsafe due to reuse of needles/ syringes. The popularity of curative injections remains high due to various factors influencing the behaviour of prescribers / injection givers as well as clients.

  17. Cross-border drug injection relationships among injection drug users in Tijuana, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Karla D.; Pollini, Robin A.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Ojeda, Victoria D.; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Vera, Alicia; Volkmann, Tyson A.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background International borders are unique social and environmental contexts characterized by high levels of mobility. Among drug users, mobility increases risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in part through its effects on the social environment. However, the social dynamics of drug users living in border regions are understudied. Methods 1056 injection drug users (IDUs) residing in Tijuana, Mexico were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS) from 2006 to 2007, and underwent surveys and testing for HIV, syphilis, and tuberculosis (TB). Using logistic regression on baseline data, we identified correlates of having ever injected drugs with someone from the US. Results Almost half (48%) reported ever injecting drugs with someone from the US. In RDS-adjusted logistic regression, factors independently associated with having ever injected with someone from the US included: having greater than middle school education (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.91; 95% Confidence Interval [C.I.] 1.52, 5.91), speaking English (AOR 3.24, 95% C.I. 1.96, 5.36), age (AOR 1.10 per year; 95% C.I. 1.07, 1.14), age at initiation of injection drug use (AOR 0.90 per year; 95% C.I. 0.86, 0.94), homelessness (AOR 2.61; 95% C.I. 1.27, 5.39), and having ever been incarcerated (AOR 11.82; 95% C.I., 5.22, 26.77). No associations with HIV, syphilis, TB, drug use, or injection risk behavior were detected. Conclusion Findings suggest that IDU networks in Mexico and the US may transcend international borders, with implications for cross-border transmission of infectious disease. Binational programs and policies need to consider the structure and geographic distribution of drug using networks. PMID:20889270

  18. The regional extent of suppression: strabismics versus nonstrabismics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju Jacob; Clavagnier, Simon R; Bobier, William; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2013-10-09

    Evidence is accumulating that suppression may be the cause of amblyopia rather than a secondary consequence of mismatched retinal images. For example, treatment interventions that target suppression may lead to better binocular and monocular outcomes. Furthermore, it has recently been demonstrated that the measurement of suppression may have prognostic value for patching therapy. For these reasons, the measurement of suppression in the clinic needs to be improved beyond the methods that are currently available, which provide a binary outcome. We describe a novel quantitative method for measuring the regional extent of suppression that is suitable for clinical use. The method involves a dichoptic perceptual matching procedure at multiple visual field locations. We compare a group of normal controls (mean age: 28 ± 5 years); a group with strabismic amblyopia (four with microesotropia, five with esotropia, and one with exotropia; mean age: 35 ± 10 years); and a group with nonstrabismic anisometropic amblyopia (mean age: 33 ± 12 years). The extent and magnitude of suppression was similar for observers with strabismic and nonstrabismic amblyopia. Suppression was strongest within the central field and extended throughout the 20° field that we measured. Suppression extends throughout the central visual field in both strabismic and anisometropic forms of amblyopia. The strongest suppression occurs within the region of the visual field corresponding to the fovea of the fixing eye.

  19. Suppression of Retinal Neovascularization in vivo by Inhibition of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Using Soluble VEGF-Receptor Chimeric Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Lloyd Paul; Pierce, Eric A.; Foley, Eliot D.; Takagi, Hitoshi; Chen, Helen; Riddle, Lavon; Ferrara, Napoleone; King, George L.; Smith, Lois E. H.

    1995-11-01

    The majority of severe visual loss in the United States results from complications associated with retinal neovascularization in patients with ischemic ocular diseases such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, and retinopathy of prematurity. Intraocular expression of the angiogenic protein vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is closely correlated with neovascularization in these human disorders and with ischemia-induced retinal neovascularization in mice. In this study, we evaluated whether in vivo inhibition of VEGF action could suppress retinal neovascularization in a murine model of ischemic retinopathy. VEGF-neutralizing chimeric proteins were constructed by joining the extracellular domain of either human (Flt) or mouse (Flk) high-affinity VEGF receptors with IgG. Control chimeric proteins that did not bind VEGF were also used. VEGF-receptor chimeric proteins eliminated in vitro retinal endothelial cell growth stimulation by either VEGF (P hypoxic conditioned medium (P < 0.005) without affecting growth under nonstimulated conditions. Control proteins had no effect. To assess in vivo response, animals with bilateral retinal ischemia received intravitreal injections of VEGF antagonist in one eye and control protein in the contralateral eye. Retinal neovascularization was quantitated histologically by a masked protocol. Retinal neovascularization in the eye injected with human Flt or murine Flk chimeric protein was reduced in 100% (25/25; P < 0.0001) and 95% (21/22; P < 0.0001) of animals, respectively, compared to the control treated eye. This response was evident after only a single intravitreal injection and was dose dependent with suppression of neovascularization noted after total delivery of 200 ng of protein (P < 0.002). Reduction of histologically evident neovascular nuclei per 6-um section averaged 47% ± 4% (P < 0.001) and 37% ± 2% (P < 0.001) for Flt and Flk chimeric proteins with maximal inhibitory effects of 77% and 66

  20. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  1. "Vivo para consumirla y la consumo para vivir" ["I live to inject and inject to live"]: high-risk injection behaviors in Tijuana, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathdee, Steffanie A; Fraga, Wendy Davila; Case, Patricia; Firestone, Michelle; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Perez, Saida Gracia; Magis, Carlos; Fraga, Miguel Angel

    2005-09-01

    Injection drug use is a growing problem on the US-Mexico border, where Tijuana is situated. We studied the context of injection drug use among injection drug users (IDUs) in Tijuana to help guide future research and interventions. Guided in-depth interviews were conducted with 10 male and 10 female current IDUs in Tijuana. Topics included types of drug used, injection settings, access to sterile needles, and environmental influences. Interviews were taped, transcribed verbatim, and translated. Content analysis was conducted to identify themes. Of the 20 IDUs, median age and age at first injection were 30 and 18. Most reported injecting at least daily: heroin ("carga", "chiva", "negra"), methamphetamine ("crico", "cri-cri"), or both drugs combined. In sharp contrast to Western US cities, almost all regularly attended shooting galleries ("yongos" or "picaderos") because of the difficulties obtaining syringes and police oppression. Almost all shared needles/paraphernalia ["cuete" (syringe), "cacharros" (cookers), cotton from sweaters/socks (filters)]. Some reported obtaining syringes from the United States. Key themes included (1) pharmacies refusing to sell or charging higher prices to IDUs, (2) ample availability of used/rented syringes from "picaderos" (e.g., charging approximately 5 pesos or "10 drops" of drug), and (3) poor HIV/AIDS knowledge, such as beliefs that exposing syringes to air "kills germs." This qualitative study suggests that IDUs in Tijuana are at high risk of HIV and other blood-borne infections. Interventions are urgently needed to expand access to sterile injection equipment and offset the potential for a widespread HIV epidemic.

  2. Effect of the Ethanol Injection Moment During Compression Stroke on the Combustion of Ethanol - Diesel Dual Direct Injection Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Zhou, Liying; Huang, Haomin; Xu, Mingfei; Guo, Mei; Chen, Xin

    2018-01-01

    A set of GDI system is installed on a F188 single-cylinder, air-cooled and direct injection diesel engine, which is used for ethanol injection, with the injection time controlled by the crank angle signal collected by AVL angle encoder. The injection of ethanol amounts to half of the thermal equivalent of an original diesel fuel. A 3D combustion model is established for the ethanol - diesel dual direct injection engine. Diesel was injected from the original fuel injection system, with a fuel supply advance angle of 20°CA. The ethanol was injected into the cylinder during compression process. Diesel injection began after the completion of ethanol injection. Ethanol injection starting point of 240°CA, 260°CA, 280°CA, 300°CA and 319.4°CA were simulated and analyzed. Due to the different timing of ethanol injection, the ignition of the ethanol mixture when diesel fires, results in non-uniform ignition distribution and flame propagation rate, since the distribution and concentration gradients of the ethanol mixture in the cylinder are different, thus affecting the combustion process. The results show that, when ethanol is injected at 319.4°CA, the combustion heat release rate and the pressure rise rate during the initial stage are the highest. Also, the maximum combustion pressure, with a relatively advance phase, is the highest. In case of later initial ethanol injection, the average temperature in the cylinder during the initial combustion period will have a faster rise. In case of initial injection at 319.4°CA, the average temperature in the cylinder is the highest, followed by 240°CA ethanol injection. In the post-combustion stage, the earlier ethanol injection will result in higher average temperature in the cylinder and more complete fuel combustion. The injection of ethanol at 319.4°CA produces earlier and highest NOX emissions.

  3. Injection related anxiety in insulin-treated diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambanini, A; Newson, R B; Maisey, M; Feher, M D

    1999-12-01

    The presence of injection related anxiety and phobia may influence compliance, glycaemic control and quality of life in patients with insulin-treated diabetes. Unselected consecutive, insulin-treated patients attending a diabetes clinic for follow-up, completed a standardised questionnaire providing an injection anxiety score (IAS) and general anxiety score (GAS). A total of 115 insulin-treated (80 Type 1 and 35 Type 2) diabetic patients completed the questionnaire. Injections had been avoided secondary to anxiety in 14% of cases and 42% expressed concern at having to inject more frequently. An IAS > or = 3 was seen in 28% of patients and of these, 66% injected insulin one to two times/day, 45% had avoided injections, and 70% would be bothered by more frequent injections. A significant correlation between IAS and GAS was seen (Kendall's tau-a 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.41, P < 0.001). GAS was significantly associated with both previous injection avoidance and expressed concern at increased injection frequency. No significant correlation was seen with HbA1c and injection or general anxiety scores. Symptoms relating to insulin injection anxiety and phobia have a high prevalence in an unselected group of diabetic patients requiring insulin injections and are associated with higher levels of general anxiety.

  4. CT guided diagnostic foot injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saifuddin, A.; Abdus-Samee, M.; Mann, C.; Singh, D.; Angel, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To describe a CT technique for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic injections in the hind- and mid-foot. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Over a period of 50 months, 28 individuals were referred for diagnostic and therapeutic hind- and mid-foot injections before possible arthrodesis. A CT technique was developed that allowed entry into the various joints using a vertical approach. Numbers of joints injected were as follows: posterior subtalar, 21; talonavicular, 4; calcaneonavicular, calcaneocuboid, navicular-cuneiform and 5th metatarsocuboid joints, 1 each. RESULTS: All injections but one were technically successful. Significant relief of symptoms was noted by 16 participants, whereas for 9 there was no improvement and for 3 a partial response was achieved. CONCLUSION: CT is a simple and safe alternative to fluoroscopy for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic foot injections, and may be the technique of choice in cases of disordered anatomy

  5. Self-injection is a success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonna Gintberg; Høi, Henriette Brahe

    these people have so far received injections from their own doctor. Many of the 29 feel healthy, are on the labor market and live a normal life. Therefore, it may be a recurring nuisance having to consult their physician monthly to get the injection. On this background, it is believed that self......-injection will increase the individual's quality of life. For that reason this project on quality assurance of the 29 citizens current quality of life, if they want training for self-administration in our hospital unit, and follow-up contact about how self-injections are going on. Method for data generation: Data...... out qualitative interviews Transcription of interview material Follow-up telephone interviews Analysis (Steiner Kvale's three operational levels) Significant findings: Causes of training for self-administration is desired. Family doctor injects quickly – which gives bruising, and may bleed profusely...

  6. Delayed flumazenil injection after endoscopic sedation increases patient satisfaction compared with immediate flumazenil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Jung; Bang, Byoung Wook; Kim, Hyung Gil; Kwon, Kye Sook; Shin, Yong Woon; Jeong, Seok; Lee, Don Haeng; Park, Shin Goo

    2014-01-01

    Flumazenil was administered after the completion of endoscopy under sedation to reduce recovery time and increase patient safety. We evaluated patient satisfaction after endoscopy under sedation according to the timing of a postprocedural flumazenil injection. In total, 200 subjects undergoing concurrent colonoscopy and upper endoscopy while sedated with midazolam and meperidine were enrolled in our investigation. We randomly administered 0.3 mg of flumazenil either immediately or 15 minutes after the endoscopic procedure. A postprocedural questionnaire and next day telephone interview were conducted to assess patient satisfaction. Flumazenil injection timing did not affect the time spent in the recovery room when comparing the two groups of patients. However, the subjects in the 15 minutes injection group were more satisfied with undergoing endoscopy under sedation than the patients in the immediate injection group according to the postprocedural survey (p=0.019). However, no difference in overall satisfaction, memory, or willingness to undergo a future endoscopy was observed between the two groups when the telephone survey was conducted on the following day. This study demonstrated that a delayed flumazenil injection after endoscopic sedation increased patient satisfaction without prolonging recovery time, even though the benefit of the delayed flumazenil injection did not persist into the following day.

  7. To study the effect of injection dexmedetomidine for prevention of pain due to propofol injection and to compare it with injection lignocaine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Sapate

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pain due to injection propofol is a common problem. Different methods are used to decrease the pain but with limited success. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of injection dexmedetomidine 0.2 mcg/kg for prevention of pain due to propofol injection and compare it with injection lignocaine 0.2 mg/kg. METHOD: After taking permission of the Institutional Ethical Committee, written informed consent was obtained from all patients, in a randomized prospective study. 60 American Society of Anesthesiology I and II patients of age range 20-60 years of either sex posted for elective surgeries under general anaesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups. Group I (dexmedetomidine group: Inj. dexmedetomidine 0.2 mcg/kg diluted in 5 mL normal saline and Group II (lignocaine group: Inj. lignocaine 0.2 mg/kg diluted in 5 mL normal saline. IV line was secured with 20 G cannula and venous occlusion was applied to forearm using a pneumatic tourniquet and inflated to 70 mm Hg for 1 min. Study drug was injected, tourniquet released and then 25% of the calculated dose of propofol was given intravenously over 10 s. After 10 s of injection, severity of pain was evaluated using McCrirrick and Hunter scale and then remaining propofol and neuromuscular blocking agent was given. Endotracheal intubation was done and anaesthesia was maintained on O2, N2O and isoflurane on intermittent positive pressure ventilation with Bain's circuit and inj. vecuronium was used as muscle relaxant. RESULTS: Demographic data showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. There was no statistically significant difference between 2 groups in respect to inj. propofol pain. No adverse effects like oedema, pain, wheal response at the site of injection were observed in the two groups.

  8. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  9. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-01-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations

  10. Spirulina maxima Extract Ameliorates Learning and Memory Impairments via Inhibiting GSK-3β Phosphorylation Induced by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Amyloid-β 1-42 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eun-Jeong; Kim, Kui-Jin; Song, Ji-Hyeon; Choi, Jia; Lee, Hyeon Yong; Kang, Do-Hyung; Heo, Ho Jin; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-11-13

    Spirulina maxima , a microalga containing high levels of protein and many polyphenols, including chlorophyll a and C-phycocyanin, has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory therapeutic effects. However, the mechanisms where by Spirulina maxima ameliorates cognitive disorders induced by amyloid-β 1-42 (Aβ 1-42 ) are not fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether a 70% ethanol extract of Spirulina maxima (SM70EE) ameliorated cognitive impairments induced by an intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice. SM70EE increased the step-through latency time in the passive avoidance test and decreased the escape latency time in the Morris water maze test in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE reduced hippocampal Aβ 1-42 levels and inhibited amyloid precursor protein processing-associated factors in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase activity was suppressed by SM70EE in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. Hippocampal glutathione levels were examined to determine the effects of SM70EE on oxidative stress in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE increased the levels of glutathione and its associated factors that were reduced in Aβ 1-42 -injected mice. SM70EE also promoted activation of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/serine/threonine protein kinase signaling pathway and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3β phosphorylation. These findings suggested that SM70EE ameliorated Aβ 1-42 -induced cognitive impairments by inhibiting the increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β caused by intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ 1-42 in mice.

  11. Premixed direct injection disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  12. Usefulness of combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images in optic neurits : Comparison with fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye Yeon; Son, Seok Hyun; Eun, Choong Ki; Han, Sang Suk

    2001-01-01

    To compare the usefulness of combined fat- and fluid-suppressed selective partial inversion recovery-fluid attenuated inversion recovery(SPIR-FLAIR) images in the detection of high signal intensity of the optic nerve in optic neuritis with that of fat-suppressed selective partial inversion recovery(SPIR) or short inversion time inversion recovery(STIR) images. Two radiologists independently analyzed randomly mixed MR images of 16 lesions in 14 patients (M:F=7:7; mean age, 40 years) in whom optic neuritis had been clinically diagnosed. All subjects underwent both SPIR-FLAIR and fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR imaging, in a blind fashion. In order to evaluate the optic nerve, coronal images perpendicular to its long axis were obtained. The detection rate of high signal intensity of the optic nerve, the radiologists preferred imaging sequences, and intersubject consistency of detection were evaluated. 'High signal intensity' was defined as the subjective visual evaluation of increased signal intensity compared with that of the contralateral optic nerve or that of white matter. The mean detection rate of high signal intensity of the optic nerve was 90% for combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images, and 59% for fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. In all cases in which the signal intensity observed on SPIR-FLAIR images was normal, that on fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images was also normal. The radiologists preferred the contrast properties of SPIR-FLAIR to those of fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. In the diagnosis of optic neuritis using MRI, combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR images were more useful for the detection of high signal intensity of the optic nerve than fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR images. For the evaluation of optic neuritis, combined fat- and fluid-suppressed SPIR-FLAIR imaging is superior to fat-suppressed SPIR or STIR imaging

  13. In vitro effect of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol to stimulate somatostatin release and block that of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone by suppression of the release of prostaglandin E2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rettori, V.; Aguila, M.C.; McCann, S.M.; Gimeno, M.F.; Franchi, A.M.

    1990-01-01

    Previous in vivo studies have shown that Δ 9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal active ingredient in marijuana, can suppress both luteinizing hormone (LH) and growth hormone (GH) secretion after its injection into the third ventricle of conscious male rats. The present studies were deigned to determine the mechanism of these effects. Various doses of THC were incubated with either stalk median eminence fragments (MEs) or mediobasal hypothalamic (MBH) fragments in vitro. Although THC (10 nM) did not alter basal release of LH-releasing hormone (LHRH) from MEs in vitro, it completely blocked the stimulatory action of dopamine or nonrepinephrine on LHRH release. The effective doses to block LHRH release were associated with a blockade of synthesis and release of prostaglandin E 2 (PGE 2 ) from MBH in vitro. In contrast to the suppressive effect of THC on LHRH release, somatostatin release from MEs was enhanced in a dose-related manner with a minimal effective dose of 1 nM. Since PGE 2 suppresses somatostatin release, this enhancement may also be related to the suppressive effect of THC on PGE 2 synthesis and release. The authors speculate that these actions are mediated by the recently discovered THC receptors in the tissue. The results indicate that the suppressive effect of THC on LH release is mediated by a blockade of LHRH release, whereas the suppressive effect of the compound on growth hormone release is mediated, at least in part, by a stimulation of somatostatin release

  14. Exploring Genetic Suppression Interactions on a Global Scale

    OpenAIRE

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Pons, Carles; Mellor, Joseph C.; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N.; Friesen, Helena; Koschwanez, John; Ušaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Pechlaner, Maria; Takar, Mehmet; Ušaj, Matej; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Andrusiak, Kerry; Bansal, Pritpal; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Boone, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Genetic suppression occurs when the phenotypic defects caused by a mutation in a particular gene are rescued by a mutation in a second gene. To explore the principles of genetic suppression, we examined both literature-curated and unbiased experimental data, involving systematic genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing, to generate a large-scale suppression network among yeast genes. Most suppression pairs identified novel relationships among functionally related genes, providing new insig...

  15. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  16. Increasing energy efficiency of a gasoline direct injection engine through optimal synchronization of single or double injection strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, Michela; Sorge, Ugo; Allocca, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Advantages of split injection in a GDI engine are studied through numerical simulation. ► At high load and speed, rich conditions, split injection does not improve engine performance. ► At moderate load and speed, lean conditions, double injection improves charge stratification. ► Optimal double injection increases work, reduces HC and increases NO. - Abstract: The greatest fuel efficiency advantages of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines are achieved under the so-called mixed mode boosting, where mixture characteristics are properly adapted to the specific working condition. In particular, in the medium range of load and speed, overall lean mixtures are suitable of being used in the so-called direct injection stratified charge operation. Present paper reports the results of numerical optimization analyses aimed at increasing the energetic efficiency of a GDI engine equipped with a high pressure multi-hole injector under both single and double injection events. In moderate-load moderate-speed lean conditions, the single or double injection synchronization in the working cycle is effected through a procedure that couples a 3D numerical model of the in-cylinder processes with an optimization tool. The choice of both the start of the injection events and the time of spark advance is realized to maximize the engine work. The optimal double injection solution is shown to increase the engine energy efficiency with respect to the case injection is realized in one shot, thus confirming that split injections improve the quality of the charge stratification under lean operation. The effect on the major pollutants is also discussed.

  17. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  18. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  19. 77 FR 71006 - Sodium Nitrite Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection Drug Products Labeled for the Treatment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... poisoning and unapproved injectable drug products containing sodium thiosulfate labeled for the treatment of... for the treatment of cyanide poisoning are new drugs that require approved new drug applications (NDAs... Injection and Sodium Thiosulfate Injection drug product, labeled for treatment of acute cyanide poisoning...

  20. Associations between injection risk and community disadvantage among suburban injection drug users in southwestern Connecticut, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Robert; Barbour, Russell; Palacios, Wilson R; Nichols, Lisa G; Grau, Lauretta E

    2014-03-01

    Increases in drug abuse, injection, and opioid overdoses in suburban communities led us to study injectors residing in suburban communities in southwestern Connecticut, US. We sought to understand the influence of residence on risk and injection-associated diseases. Injectors were recruited by respondent-driven sampling and interviewed about sociodemographics, somatic and mental health, injection risk, and interactions with healthcare, harm reduction, substance abuse treatment, and criminal justice systems. HIV, hepatitis B and C (HBV and HCV) serological testing was also conducted. Our sample was consistent in geographic distribution and age to the general population and to the patterns of heroin-associated overdose deaths in the suburban towns. High rates of interaction with drug abuse treatment and criminal justice systems contrasted with scant use of harm reduction services. The only factors associated with both dependent variables-residence in less disadvantaged census tracts and more injection risk-were younger age and injecting in one's own residence. This contrasts with the common association among urban injectors of injection-associated risk behaviors and residence in disadvantaged communities. Poor social support and moderate/severe depression were associated with risky injection practices (but not residence in specific classes of census tracts), suggesting that a region-wide dual diagnosis approach to the expansion of harm reduction services could be effective at reducing the negative consequences of injection drug use.

  1. Dimethyl Ether Injection Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorenson, Spencer C.; Glensvig, Michael; Abata, Duane L.

    1998-01-01

    A series of preliminary investigations has been performed in order to investigate the behavior of DME in a diesel injection environment. These studies have in-cluded visual observations of the spray penetration and angles for high pressure injection into Nitrogen using conventional jerk pump inje...

  2. A comparative quantitative analysis of the IDEAL (iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least-squares estimation) and the CHESS (chemical shift selection suppression) techniques in 3.0 T L-spine MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eng-Chan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Min-Hye; Kim, Ki-Hong; Choi, Cheon-Woong; Seok, Jong-min; Na, Kil-Ju; Han, Man-Seok

    2013-03-01

    This study was conducted on 20 patients who had undergone pedicle screw fixation between March and December 2010 to quantitatively compare a conventional fat suppression technique, CHESS (chemical shift selection suppression), and a new technique, IDEAL (iterative decomposition of water and fat with echo asymmetry and least squares estimation). The general efficacy and usefulness of the IDEAL technique was also evaluated. Fat-suppressed transverse-relaxation-weighed images and longitudinal-relaxation-weighted images were obtained before and after contrast injection by using these two techniques with a 1.5T MR (magnetic resonance) scanner. The obtained images were analyzed for image distortion, susceptibility artifacts and homogenous fat removal in the target region. The results showed that the image distortion due to the susceptibility artifacts caused by implanted metal was lower in the images obtained using the IDEAL technique compared to those obtained using the CHESS technique. The results of a qualitative analysis also showed that compared to the CHESS technique, fewer susceptibility artifacts and more homogenous fat removal were found in the images obtained using the IDEAL technique in a comparative image evaluation of the axial plane images before and after contrast injection. In summary, compared to the CHESS technique, the IDEAL technique showed a lower occurrence of susceptibility artifacts caused by metal and lower image distortion. In addition, more homogenous fat removal was shown in the IDEAL technique.

  3. Curcumin protects against collagen-induced arthritis via suppression of BAFF production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gang; Xu, Zhizhen; Huang, Yan; Duan, Xiaojun; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Yan; Fan, Jishan; He, Fengtian

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the anti-Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) effect of curcumin is associated with the regulation of B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) production. Collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) was induced in DBA/1 J mice by immunization with bovine type II collagen. To investigate the anti-arthritic effect of curcumin in the CIA model, mice were injected intraperitoneally with curcumin (50 mg/kg) on every other day either from day 1 or from day 28 after the first immunization. The clinical severity of arthritis was monitored. BAFF, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interferon-γ (IFNγ) production in serum were measured. Furthermore, the effect of curcumin on IFNγ-induced BAFF expression and transcriptional activation in B lymphocytes was determined by qPCR, Western Blot, and luciferase assay. Finally, IFNγ related signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling in B lymphocytes were studied using Western Blot. Curcumin dramatically attenuated the progression and severity of CIA in DBA/1 J mice, accompanied with decrease of BAFF production in serum and spleen cells as well as decrease of serum IFNγ and IL-6. Treatment of B lymphocytes with curcumin suppressed IFNγ-induced BAFF expression, STAT1 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation, suggesting that curcumin may repress IFNγ-induced BAFF expression via negatively interfering with STAT1 signaling. The results of the present study suggest that suppression of BAFF production may be a novel mechanism by which curcumin improves RA.

  4. Thought Suppression Research Methods: Paradigms, Theories, Methodological Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niczyporuk Aneta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is hard to provide an unequivocal answer to the question of whether or not thought suppression is effective. Two thought suppression paradigms - the “white bear” paradigm and the think/no-think paradigm - give mixed results. Generally, “white bear” experiments indicate that thought suppression is counterproductive, while experiments in the think/no-think paradigm suggest that it is possible to effectively suppress a thought. There are also alternative methods used to study thought suppression, for instance the directed forgetting paradigm or the Stroop task. In the article, I describe the research methods used to explore thought suppression efficacy. I focus on the “white bear” and the think/no-think paradigms and discuss theories proposed to explain the results obtained. I also consider the internal and external validity of the methods used.

  5. Vocal aging and adductor spasmodic dysphonia: Response to botulinum toxin injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Cannito

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Michael P Cannito, Joel C Kahane, Lesya ChornaSchool of Audiology and Speech-Language Pathology, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USAAbstract: Aging of the larynx is characterized by involutional changes which alter its biomechanical and neural properties and create a biological environment that is different from younger counterparts. Illustrative anatomical examples are presented. This natural, non-disease process appears to set conditions which may influence the effectiveness of botulinum toxin injection and our expectations for its success. Adductor spasmodic dysphonia, a type of laryngeal dystonia, is typically treated using botulinum toxin injections of the vocal folds in order to suppress adductory muscle spasms which are disruptive to production of speech and voice. A few studies have suggested diminished response to treatment in older patients with adductor spasmodic dysphonia. This retrospective study provides a reanalysis of existing pre-to-post treatment data as function of age. Perceptual judgments of speech produced by 42 patients with ADSD were made by two panels of professional listeners with expertise in voice or fluency of speech. Results demonstrate a markedly reduced positive response to botulinum toxin treatment in the older patients. Perceptual findings are further elucidated by means of acoustic spectrography. Literature on vocal aging is reviewed to provide a specific set of biological mechanisms that best account for the observed interaction of botulinum toxin treatment with advancing age.Keywords: vocal aging, adductor spasmodic dysphonia, botulinum toxin, voice quality, speech fluency

  6. The effect of zinc injection into PWR primary coolant on the reduction of radiation buildup and corrosion control. The solubilities of zinc, nickel and cobalt spinel oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyajima, Kaori; Hirano, Hideo

    1999-01-01

    The use of zinc injection into PWR primary coolant to reduce radiation buildup has been widely studied, and te reduction effect has been experimentally confirmed. However, some items, such as the optimal concentration of zinc required to reduce radiation buildup, the corrosion control effect of zinc injection, and the influence of zinc injection on the integrity of fuel cladding, have not been clarified yet. In particular, the corrosion suppression effect of zinc remains unconfirmed. Therefore, it is necessary to measure and calculate the solubilities of zinc and nickel spinel oxides, which are formed on the surface of Ni-based alloys in PWR primary systems. In this study, in order to assess the effectiveness of zinc injection in the reduction of radiation buildup and the corrosion control of Ni-based alloy, the potential-pH diagrams for Zn-Cr-H 2 O, Ni-Cr-H 2 O, and Co-Cr-H 2 O systems at 300degC were constructed and the solubilities of Zn-Cr, Ni-Cr, and Co-Cr spinel oxides were calculated. It is concluded that under pH conditions for which NiCr 2 O 4 is stable, zinc injection is effective in corrosion control as well as in reducing radiation buildup. (author)

  7. Hydrogen injection device in BWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Jun-ichi; Kubo, Koji.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To reduce the increasing ratio of main steam system dose rate due to N-16 activity due to excess hydrogen injection in the hydrogen injection operation of BWR type reactors. Constitution: There are provided a hydrogen injection mechanism for injecting hydrogen into primary coolants of a BWR type reactor, and a chemical injection device for injecting chemicals such as methanol, which makes nitrogen radioisotopes resulted in the reactor water upon hydrogen injection non-volatile, into the pressure vessel separately from hydrogen. Injected hydrogen and the chemicals are not reacted in the feedwater system, but the reaction proceeds due to the presence of radioactive rays after the injection into the pressure vessel. Then, hydrogen causes re-combination in the downcomer portion to reduce the dissolved oxygen concentration. Meanwhile, about 70 % of the chemicals is supplied by means of a jet pump directly to the reactor core, thereby converting the chemical form of N-16 in the reactor core more oxidative (non-volatile). (Kawakami, Y.)

  8. Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome in patients with schizophrenia treated with olanzapine long-acting injection, I: analysis of cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaniak Victoria J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An advance in the treatment of schizophrenia is the development of long-acting intramuscular formulations of antipsychotics, such as olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI. During clinical trials, a post-injection syndrome characterized by signs of delirium and/or excessive sedation was identified in a small percentage of patients following injection with olanzapine LAI. Methods Safety data from all completed and ongoing trials of olanzapine LAI were reviewed for possible cases of this post-injection syndrome. Descriptive analyses were conducted to characterize incidence, clinical presentation, and outcome. Regression analyses were conducted to assess possible risk factors. Results Based on approximately 45,000 olanzapine LAI injections given to 2054 patients in clinical trials through 14 October 2008, post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome occurred in approximately 0.07% of injections or 1.4% of patients (30 cases in 29 patients. Symptomatology was consistent with olanzapine overdose (e.g., sedation, confusion, slurred speech, altered gait, or unconsciousness. However, no clinically significant decreases in vital signs were observed. Symptom onset ranged from immediate to 3 to 5 hours post injection, with a median onset time of 25 minutes post injection. All patients recovered within 1.5 to 72 hours, and the majority continued to receive further olanzapine LAI injections following the event. No clear risk factors were identified. Conclusions Post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome can be readily identified based on symptom presentation, progression, and temporal relationship to the injection, and is consistent with olanzapine overdose following probable accidental intravascular injection of a portion of the olanzapine LAI dose. Although there is no specific antidote for olanzapine overdose, patients can be treated symptomatically as needed. Special precautions include use of proper injection technique and a post-injection

  9. Policing behaviors, safe injection self-efficacy, and intervening on injection risks: Moderated mediation results from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Patterson, Thomas L; Abramovitz, Daniela; Vera, Alicia; Martinez, Gustavo; Staines, Hugo; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2016-01-01

    We aim to use conditional or moderated mediation to simultaneously test how and for whom an injection risk intervention was efficacious at reducing receptive needle sharing among female sex workers who inject drugs (FSWs-IDUs) in Mexico. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial. A total of 300 FSW-IDUs participated in Mujer Mas Segura in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and were randomized to an interactive injection risk intervention or a didactic injection risk intervention. We measured safe injection self-efficacy as the hypothesized mediator and policing behaviors (being arrested and syringe confiscation) as hypothesized moderators. In total, 213 women provided complete data for the current analyses. Conditional (moderated) mediation showed that the intervention affected receptive needle sharing through safe injection self-efficacy among women who experienced syringe confiscation. On average, police syringe confiscation was associated with lower safe injection self-efficacy (p = .04). Among those who experienced syringe confiscation, those who received the interactive (vs. didactic) intervention reported higher self-efficacy, which in turn predicted lower receptive needle sharing (p = .04). Whereas syringe confiscation by the police negatively affected safe injection self-efficacy and ultimately injection risk behavior, our interactive intervention helped to "buffer" this negative impact of police behavior on risky injection practices. The theory-based, active skills building elements included in the interactive condition, which were absent from the didactic condition, helped participants' self-efficacy for safer injection in the face of syringe confiscation. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of the visual short-term memory (VSTM) system have become an increasingly popular field of study. One line of inquiry has focused on the way attention selects objects for encoding into VSTM. Using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 Psychological...... a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  11. Harmonic Injection-Based Power Fluctuation Control of Three-Phase PV Systems under Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Cheng Zhou

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Unbalanced voltage will inevitably cause power and DC voltage fluctuations in a three-phase PV system. The deterioration of power quality will do great harm to the PV panels and the loads, so it is necessary to suppress the power fluctuations. This paper further explores the coefficients control strategy of PV converters under unbalanced voltage conditions, aiming to suppress power fluctuations by controlling the injection of some specific orders of current harmonics into the grid. In order to achieve this, the current reference of the PV inverter has been changed by bringing in two control coefficients, and the expression of each order of the current harmonics has been deduced. Based on the standards of PV systems, the regions from which the coefficients can be selected are determined. Then, by tuning these coefficients in the feasible regions, the output parameters (power fluctuation, current THD and odd harmonics can be controlled precisely. The model of this method is built and simulated in PSCAD/EMTDC, and as a result, it is shown that the power fluctuations can be restricted according to different power quality requirements.

  12. WGA-Alexa transsynaptic labeling in the phrenic motor system of adult rats: Intrapleural injection versus intradiaphragmatic injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttry, Janelle L; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2015-02-15

    Intrapleural injection of CTB-Alexa 488, a retrograde tracer, provides an alternative labeling technique to the surgically invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injection. However, CTB-Alexa 488 is incapable of crossing synapses restricting the tracer to the phrenic nuclei and the intercostal motor nuclei in the spinal cord. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa 488, a transsynaptic tracer, provides a method to label the respiratory motor pathway in both the spinal cord and medulla. Intradiaphragmatic injection of WGA-Alexa 594 and vagal nerve injections of True blue were used to confirm the phrenic nuclei and to differentiate between the rVRG and the NA in the medulla. Following intrapleural injection, WGA-Alexa 488 was retrogradely transported to the phrenic nuclei and to the intercostal motor nuclei. Subsequently WGA-Alexa 488 was transsynaptically transported from the phrenic motoneurons to the pre-motor neurons in the rVRG that provide the descending drive to the phrenic neurons during inspiration. In addition WGA-Alexa 488 was identified in select cells of the NA confirmed by a dual label of both WGA-Alexa 488 and True blue. WGA-Alexa 488 demonstrates retrograde transsynaptic labeling following intrapleural injection whereas the previous method of injecting CTB-Alexa 488 only demonstrates retrograde labeling. Intrapleural injection of WGA-Alexa fluor conjugates is an effective method to transsynaptically label the phrenic motor system providing an alternative for the invasive laparotomy required for intradiaphragmatic injections. Furthermore, the study provides the first anatomical evidence of a direct synaptic relationship between rVRG and select NA cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Electron injection in microtron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axinescu, S.

    1977-01-01

    A review of the methods of injecting electrons in the microtron is presented. A special attention is paid to efficient injection systems developed by Wernholm and Kapitza. A comparison of advantages and disadvantages of both systems is made in relation to the purpose of the microtron. (author)

  14. Rapid assessment of injection practices in Cambodia, 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldstein Susan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection overuse and unsafe injection practices facilitate transmission of bloodborne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Anecdotal reports of unsafe and unnecessary therapeutic injections and the high prevalence of HBV (8.0%, HCV (6.5%, and HIV (2.6% infection in Cambodia have raised concern over injection safety. To estimate the magnitude and patterns of such practices, a rapid assessment of injection practices was conducted. Methods We surveyed a random sample of the general population in Takeo Province and convenience samples of prescribers and injection providers in Takeo Province and Phnom Penh city regarding injection-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Injection providers were observed administering injections. Data were collected using standardized methods adapted from the World Health Organization safe injection assessment guidelines. Results Among the general population sample (n = 500, the overall injection rate was 5.9 injections per person-year, with 40% of participants reporting receipt of ≥ 1 injection during the previous 6 months. Therapeutic injections, intravenous infusions, and immunizations accounted for 74%, 16% and 10% of injections, respectively. The majority (>85% of injections were received in the private sector. All participants who recalled their last injection reported the injection was administered with a newly opened disposable syringe and needle. Prescribers (n = 60 reported that 47% of the total prescriptions they wrote included a therapeutic injection or infusion. Among injection providers (n = 60, 58% recapped the syringe after use and 13% did not dispose of the used needle and syringe appropriately. Over half (53% of the providers reported a needlestick injury during the previous 12 months. Ninety percent of prescribers and injection providers were aware HBV, HCV, and HIV were transmitted through unsafe

  15. Electron beam injection during active experiments. 1. Electromagnetic wave emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winglee, R.M.; Kellogg, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    During the active injection of an electron beam, a broad spectrum of waves is generated. In this paper examples of spectra from the recent Echo 7 experiment are presented. These results show that the characteristics of the emissions can change substantially with altitude. Two-dimensional (three velocity) relativistic electromagnetic particle simulations are used to investigate the changes in the plasma conditions required to account for the observed spectral variations. It is shown that many of these variations can be accounted for by assuming that the ratio of the electron plasma frequency ω pe to cyclotron frequency Ω e is less than unity at the lower altitudes of about 200 km and near or above unity at apogee of about 300 km. In the former case, whistlers with a cutoff at ω pe , lower hybrid and plasma waves are driven by the parallel beam energy while electromagnetic fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode and electrostatic upper hybrid waves are driven by the perpendicular beam energy through the master instability. E x B drifts driven by perpendicular electric fields associated with the beam-plasma interaction can also be important in generating maser emission, particularly for field-aligned injection where there is no intrinsic perpendicular beam energy. The power in the electrostatic waves is a few percent of the beam energy and that in the electromagnetic waves a few tenths of a percent. In the latter case, where ω pe /Ω e increases above unity, emission in the fundamental z mode and second harmonic x mode become suppressed

  16. MRI of spondylodiscities: contribution of gadolinium-DTPA and fat suppression sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cova, M.A.; Dalla Palma, L.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.; Ricci, C.

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-six patients with a clinical diagnosis of spondylodiscitis were examined with non-contrast and contrast-enhanced MRI in order to define the contribution of gadolinium-DTPA (Gd-DTPA) and different pulse sequences, including a fat suppression sequence (SPIR). Spin echo (SE) T1-weighted images before and after Gd-DTPA injection and SE T2-weighted images were obtained in all patients. Twelve patients were also examined using the SPIR sequence following Gd-DTPA injection. Signal intensity and morphological features of the disc and vertebral lesions were then evaluated. The SE T1-weighted sequence with Gd-DTPA was very effective in showing the pathological changes at the level of the disc as an area of low signal intensity surrounded by a peripheral rim of enhancement in 24 of 26 cases (92%). This feature was not visible on non-enhanced images. As regards contiguous vertebral lesions this sequence was less informative, since in 8 of 26 cases (31%) the vertebral lesions became isointense and therefore not detectable. In 12 cases there was extension into the surrounding structures (spinal canal and/or paravertebral tissues). An enhanced SE T1-weighted sequence provided good anatomical definition of the extension of the infection in the spinal canal in all cases with this type of involvement (7 of 12). Regarding the 7 cases with paravertebral extension, no extension was visible in 1 case due to the reduced contrast with the surrounding fat following Gd-DTPA injection. The enhanced SPIR sequence was very effective, particularly in detecting the lesions in the vertebral bodies, avoiding the limitation of the enhanced SE T1-weighted sequence. The SPIR sequence was also effective in showing the extension within the spinal canal and the paravertebral fat. On the basis of our results the combination of a SE T1-weighted sequence without contrast and SPIR sequence with Gd-DTPA seems to be the best approach in cases of spondylodiscitis. (orig.)

  17. The PEP injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Avery, R.T.; Peterson, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    A system to transport 10-to-15-GeV electron and positron beams from the Stanford Linear Accelerator and to inject them into the PEP storage ring under a wide variety of lattice configurations has been designed. Optically, the transport line consists of three 360/degree/ phase-shift sections of FODO lattice, with bending magnets interspersed in such a way as to provide achromaticity, convenience in energy and emittance definition, and independent tuning of the various optical parameters for matching into the ring. The last 360/degree/ of phase shift has 88 milliradians of bend in a vertical plane and deposits the beam at the injection septum via a Lambertson magnet. Injection is accomplished by launching the beam with several centimeters of radial betatron amplitude in a fast bump provided by a triad of pulsed kicker magnets. Radiation damping reduces the collective amplitude quickly enough to allow injection at a high repetition rate

  18. Experimental study on thermal-hydraulic behaviors of a pressure balanced coolant injection system for a passive safety light water reactor JPSR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Takashi; Watanabe, Hironori; Araya, Fumimasa; Nakajima, Katsutoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Iwamura, Takamichi; Murao, Yoshio

    1998-02-01

    A conceptual design study of a passive safety light water reactor JPSR has been performed at Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute JAERI. A pressure balanced coolant injection experiment has been carried out, with an objective to understand thermal-hydraulic characteristics of a passive coolant injection system which has been considered to be adopted to JPSR. This report summarizes experimental results and data recorded in experiment run performed in FY. 1993 and 1994. Preliminary experiments previously performed are also briefly described. As the results of the experiment, it was found that an initiation of coolant injection was delayed with increase in a subcooling in the pressure balance line. By inserting a separation device which divides the inside of core make-up tank (CMT) into several small compartments, a diffusion of a high temperature region formed just under the water surface was restrained and then a steam condensation was suppressed. A time interval from an uncovery of the pressure balance line to the initiation of the coolant injection was not related by a linear function with a discharge flow rate simulating a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) condition. The coolant was injected intermittently by actuation of a trial fabricated passive valve actuated by pressure difference for the present experiment. It was also found that the trial passive valve had difficulties in setting an actuation set point and vibrations noises and some fraction of the coolant was remained in CMT without effective use. A modification was proposed for resolving these problems by introducing an anti-closing mechanism. (author)

  19. Two injection digital block versus single subcutaneous palmar injection block for finger lacerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okur, O M; Şener, A; Kavakli, H Ş; Çelik, G K; Doğan, N Ö; Içme, F; Günaydin, G P

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to compare two digital nerve block techniques in patients due to traumatic digital lacerations. This was a randomized-controlled study designed prospectively in the emergency department of a university-based training and research hospital. Randomization was achieved by sealed envelopes. Half of the patients were randomised to traditional (two-injection) digital nerve block technique while single-injection digital nerve block technique was applied to the other half. Score of pain due to anesthetic infiltration and suturing, onset time of total anesthesia, need for an additional rescue injection were the parameters evaluated with both groups. Epinephrin added lidocaine hydrochloride preparation was used for the anesthetic application. Visual analog scale was used for the evaluation of pain scores. Outcomes were compared by using Mann-Whitney U test and Student t-test. Fifty emergency department patients ≥18 years requiring digital nerve block were enrolled in the study. Mean age of the patients was 33 (min-max: 19-86) and 39 (78 %) were male. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in terms of our main parameters; anesthesia pain score, suturing pain score, onset time of total anesthesia and rescue injection need. Single injection volar digital nerve block technique is a suitable alternative for digital anesthesias in emergency departments.

  20. Effects of turbulence enhancement on combustion process using a double injection strategy in direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Taehoon; Song, Jingeun; Park, Sungwook

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Using double injection strategy, turbulent kinetic energy can be improved with slight decrease in mixture homogeneity. • Retarded first injection timing reduces vapor fuel loss to intake port. • Double injection increases tumble intensity. • High turbulent intensity caused by double injection increases flame propagation speed. - Abstract: Direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) gasoline engines have been spotlighted due to their high thermal efficiency. Increase in the compression ratio that result from the heat absorption effect of fuel vaporization induces higher thermal efficiency than found in port fuel injection (PFI) engines. Since fuel is injected at the cylinder directly, various fuel injection strategies can be used. In this study, turbulent intensity was improved by a double injection strategy while maintaining mixture homogeneity. To analyze the turbulence enhancement effects using the double injection strategy, a side fuel injected, homogeneous-charge-type DISI gasoline engine with a multi-hole-type injector was utilized. The spray model was evaluated using experimental data for various injection pressures and the combustion model was evaluated for varied ignition timing. First and second injection timing was swept by 20 degree interval. The turbulent kinetic energy and mixture inhomogeneity index were mapped. First injection at the middle of the intake stroke and second injection early in the compression stroke showed improved turbulent characteristics that did not significantly decrease with mixture homogeneity. A double injection case that showed improved turbulent intensity while maintaining an adequate level of mixture homogeneity and another double injection case that showed significantly improved turbulent intensity with a remarkable decrease in mixture homogeneity were considered for combustion simulation. We found that the improved turbulent intensity increased the flame propagation speed. Also, the mixture homogeneity

  1. Survey of Botulinum Toxin Injections in Anticoagulated Patients: Korean Physiatrists' Preference in Controlling Anticoagulation Profile Prior to Intramuscular Injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongjun; Park, Geun-Young; Park, Jihye; Choi, Asayeon; Kim, Soo Yeon; Boulias, Chris; Phadke, Chetan P; Ismail, Farooq; Im, Sun

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate Korean physiatrists' practice of performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and to assess their preference in controlling the bleeding risk before injection. As part of an international collaboration survey study, a questionnaire survey was administered to 100 Korean physiatrists. Physiatrists were asked about their level of experience with botulinum toxin injection, the safe international normalized ratio range in anticoagulated patients undergoing injection, their tendency for injecting into deep muscles, and their experience of bleeding complications. International normalized ratio injection by 41% of the respondents. Thirty-six respondents replied that the international normalized ratio should be lowered to sub-therapeutic levels before injection, and 18% of the respondents reported that anticoagulants should be intentionally withheld and discontinued prior to injection. In addition, 20%-30% of the respondents answered that they were uncertain whether they should perform the injection regardless of the international normalized ratio values. About 69% of the respondents replied that they did have any standardized protocols for performing botulinum toxin injection in patients using anticoagulants. Only 1 physiatrist replied that he had encountered a case of compartment syndrome. In accordance with the lack of consensus in performing intramuscular botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients, our survey shows a wide range of practices among many Korean physiatrists; they tend to avoid botulinum toxin injection in anticoagulated patients and are uncertain about how to approach these patients. The results of this study emphasize the need for formulating a proper international consensus on botulinum toxin injection management in anticoagulated patients.

  2. Injection Pressure as a Marker of Intraneural Injection in Procedures of Peripheral Nerves Blockade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilvana Vučković

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The blockade of peripheral nerves carries a certain risk of unwanted complications, which can follow after unintentional intraneural injection of a local anesthetic. Up till today, the research of measuring injection pressure has been based on animal models, even though the histological structure of periphery nerve is different for animal and human population, so the application pressure which presages intraneural injection in human population is still unknown. As material in performing this study there have been used 12 Wistar rats and 12 delivered stillborns. After bilateral access to the median nerve, we applied 3 ml of 2% lidocaine with epinephrine, with the help of automatic syringe charger. The needle was at first placed perineural on one side, and then intraneural on the other side of both examination groups. During every application the pressure values were monitored using the manometer, and then they were analyzed by special software program BioBench. All perineural injections resulted with the pressure < or = 27.92 kPa, while the majority of intraneural injections were combined with the injectionpressure > or = 69.8 kPa. The difference between intraneural and perineural injection pressures for the two different examination groups (rats and delivered stillborns was not statistically significant (P>0.05. As prevention from intraneural injections today are in use two methods: the method of causing paresthesia or the method of using the peripheral nerve stimulator. However the nerve injury can still occur, independent from the technique used. If our results are used in clinical practice on human population, than the high injection pressure could be the markerof intraneural lodging of a needle.

  3. Injecting risk behavior among traveling young injection drug users: travel partner and city characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Martha E; Fatch, Robin S; Evans, Jennifer L; Yu, Michelle; Davidson, Peter J; Page, Kimberly; Hahn, Judith A

    2013-06-01

    Young injection drug users (IDUs), a highly mobile population, engage in high levels of injecting risk behavior, yet little is understood about how such risk behavior may vary by the characteristics of the cities to which they travel, including the existence of a syringe exchange program (SEP), as well as travel partner characteristics. In 2004-2005, we conducted a 6-month prospective study to investigate the risk behavior of 89 young IDUs as they traveled, with detailed information gathered about 350 city visits. In multivariable analyses, travel to larger urban cities with a population of 500,000-1,000,000 was significantly associated with injecting drugs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 3.71; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.56-8.82), ancillary equipment sharing (AES; AOR = 7.05; 95 % CI, 2.25-22.06) and receptive needle sharing (RNS; AOR = 5.73; 95 % CI, 1.11-27.95), as compared with visits to smaller cities with populations below 50,000. Region of the country, and the existence of a SEP within the city visited, were not independently associated with injecting drugs, AES, or RNS during city visits. Traveling with more than one injecting partner was associated with injecting drugs during city visits (AOR = 2.77; 95 % CI, 1.46-5.27), when compared with traveling alone. Additionally, both non-daily and daily/almost daily alcohol use during city visits were associated with AES (AOR = 3.37; 95 % CI, 1.42-7.68; AOR = 3.03; 95 % CI, 1.32-6.97, respectively) as compared with no alcohol consumption. Traveling young IDUs are more likely to inject when traveling with other IDUs and to engage in higher risk injection behavior when they are in large cities. Risk behavior occurring in city visits, including equipment sharing and alcohol consumption, suggests further need for focused interventions to reduce risk for viral infection among this population.

  4. Charmonium formation and suppression in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajun; Wang Jia; Zhuang Chao; Zhuang Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    The coupling Schroedinger equations describing the evolution of cc-bar states in nuclear matter are analytically and systematically solved via perturbation method, and the correlation between charmonium formation and nuclear absorption is investigated. After calculating J/Ψ and Ψ' suppression in nucleon-nucleus collisions and comparing with experiment data, it is found that the formation time effect plays an important rule in charmonium suppression, especially in Ψ' suppression. (authors)

  5. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  6. Improvement of combustion in a direct injection diesel engine by the use of a combustion-hole injection nozzle; Kumiawase funko nozzle ni yoru chokusetsu funshashiki diesel engine no nensho kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoji, T. [Mitsubishi Motors Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Kamimoto, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-04-25

    Suppression of pre-mixed combustion and activation of diffusion combustion in DI diesel engines are known to be effective in reducing both NOx and fuel consumption. To achieve this concept, the authors have proposed a new type of fuel injection nozzle named combination-hole nozzle. This nozzle has very small holes with a diameter of 0.13 mm below (sub holes) for reducing ignition delay and normal holes (main holes) for keeping reasonable injection duration. The experiments conducted with a single cylinder research engine revealed that the combination-hole nozzle reduced the ignition delay and the peak value of the rate of heat release during the premixed combustion by 10% and 40% respectively compared with the experimental results of conventional nozzles and that the trade-off curve between NOx and fuel consumption sifted to the low level corner at half and full load conditions at a low engine speed. The reason for this improvement was investigated by the measurement of flame temperature distribution in the combustion chamber by means of the two colors method. The result revealed that the flame temperature in regions between sub and main hole`s flames of the nozzle was lower than that of the flames of a conventional nozzle at a full load and a low speed condition. 13 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. An experimental study of injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends on a common rail injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Dong; Wang, Chunhai; Duan, Yaozong; Tian, Zhisong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The injection and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are investigated on a common rail injection system. The injection rate, fuel spray evolution process (tip penetration distance, spray cone angle, projected spray area and relative brightness intensity contour) and microscopic droplet features are analyzed. The results show that diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates, earlier starts of injection and shorter injection delays, but little variances are observed in the mass injection rates for different test fuels. Increased gasoline proportion in the test blends causes slightly decreased spray tip penetration distance but increased spray cone angle. Also, more smaller-size droplets are observed in the fuel jet of the diesel and gasoline blends, indicating that the spray breakup and atomization processes are promoted. - Highlights: • Injection rate and spray characteristics of diesel and gasoline blends are studied. • Diesel and gasoline blends have higher volumetric injection rates. • Earlier starts of injection are found when using diesel and gasoline blends. • Diesel and gasoline blends produce shorter spray penetration but higher cone angle. • The number of small droplets increases in the spray of diesel and gasoline blends

  8. ITER Neutral Beam Injection System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shigeru; Akiba, Masato

    1991-03-01

    A Japanese design proposal of the ITER Neutral Beam Injection System (NBS) which is consistent with the ITER common design requirements is described. The injection system is required to deliver a neutral deuterium beam of 75MW at 1.3MeV to the reactor plasma and utilized not only for plasma heating but also for current drive and current profile control. The injection system is composed of 9 modules, each of which is designed so as to inject a 1.3MeV, 10MW neutral beam. The most important point in the design is that the injection system is based on the utilization of a cesium-seeded volume negative ion source which can produce an intense negative ion beam with high current density at a low source operating pressure. The design value of the source is based on the experimental values achieved at JAERI. The utilization of the cesium-seeded volume source is essential to the design of an efficient and compact neutral beam injection system which satisfies the ITER common design requirements. The critical components to realize this design are the 1.3MeV, 17A electrostatic accelerator and the high voltage DC acceleration power supply, whose performances must be demonstrated prior to the construction of ITER NBI system. (author)

  9. GTLine – Gasoline as a potential CN suppressant for GTL

    KAUST Repository

    Reijnders, Jos; Boot, Michael; Johansson, Bengt; de Goey, Philip

    2018-01-01

    The main driver to investigate low temperature combustion concepts, such as partially premixed combustion (PPC), is the promise of low particulate matter (PM) and nitric oxide (NOx) emissions. A critical prerequisite for PPC is to temporally isolate the fuel injection and combustion events. In practice, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is applied in order to sufficiently extend the ignition delay to that effect. Hereby, in general, higher EGR rates are necessary for fuels with higher cetane numbers (CN). Against this background, the objective of this paper is to investigate the efficacy, with respect to PM-NOx emissions and engine efficiency, of gasoline as a potential gas-to-liquid (GTL) CN suppressant in various dosages. The performance of the resulting GTLine blend will be evaluated under PPC operating conditions in a heavy-duty direct-injected diesel engine. Setting aside for a moment any potential practical issues (e.g., flash point, vapor pressure) that fall outside the scope of this study, our data suggest that blending gasoline to otherwise high CN GTL appears to be a promising route to improve not only the efficiency, but also PM and NOx emissions, particularly when operating in PPC mode. Interestingly, this benefit is notwithstanding the high aromaticity of the gasoline compared to GTL. Given the ongoing dieselization trend and associated surplus of gasoline in many regions, notably Europe, along with the fact that the cost price of gasoline is significantly lower than that of GTL, the proposed GTLine approach promises to be a cost effective way to accommodate GTL in a world wherein low temperature combustion concepts, such as PPC, appear to be really taking off.

  10. GTLine – Gasoline as a potential CN suppressant for GTL

    KAUST Repository

    Reijnders, Jos

    2018-03-23

    The main driver to investigate low temperature combustion concepts, such as partially premixed combustion (PPC), is the promise of low particulate matter (PM) and nitric oxide (NOx) emissions. A critical prerequisite for PPC is to temporally isolate the fuel injection and combustion events. In practice, exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is applied in order to sufficiently extend the ignition delay to that effect. Hereby, in general, higher EGR rates are necessary for fuels with higher cetane numbers (CN). Against this background, the objective of this paper is to investigate the efficacy, with respect to PM-NOx emissions and engine efficiency, of gasoline as a potential gas-to-liquid (GTL) CN suppressant in various dosages. The performance of the resulting GTLine blend will be evaluated under PPC operating conditions in a heavy-duty direct-injected diesel engine. Setting aside for a moment any potential practical issues (e.g., flash point, vapor pressure) that fall outside the scope of this study, our data suggest that blending gasoline to otherwise high CN GTL appears to be a promising route to improve not only the efficiency, but also PM and NOx emissions, particularly when operating in PPC mode. Interestingly, this benefit is notwithstanding the high aromaticity of the gasoline compared to GTL. Given the ongoing dieselization trend and associated surplus of gasoline in many regions, notably Europe, along with the fact that the cost price of gasoline is significantly lower than that of GTL, the proposed GTLine approach promises to be a cost effective way to accommodate GTL in a world wherein low temperature combustion concepts, such as PPC, appear to be really taking off.

  11. One-tone suppression in the frog auditory nerve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Jørgensen, M B

    1996-01-01

    Sixty-seven fibers of a sample of 401 in the auditory nerve of grassfrogs (Rana temporaria) showed one-tone suppression, i.e., their spontaneous activity was suppressed by tones. All fibers were afferents from the amphibian papilla with best frequencies between 100 and 400 Hz. Best suppression...

  12. Patterns and Predictors of Tic Suppressibility in Youth With Tic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conelea, Christine A; Wellen, Brianna; Woods, Douglas W; Greene, Deanna J; Black, Kevin J; Specht, Matthew; Himle, Michael B; Lee, Han-Joo; Capriotti, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Tic suppression is the primary target of tic disorder treatment, but factors that influence voluntary tic inhibition are not well understood. Several studies using the Tic Suppression Task have demonstrated significant inter-individual variability in tic suppressibility but have individually been underpowered to address correlates of tic suppression. The present study explored patterns and clinical correlates of reward-enhanced tic suppression in youth with tic disorders using a large, pooled dataset. Individual-level data from nine studies using the Tic Suppression Task were pooled, yielding a sample of 99 youth with tic disorders. Analyses examined patterns of tic suppressibility and the relationship between tic suppressibility and demographic and clinical characteristics. A large majority of youth demonstrated a high degree of tic suppression, but heterogeneous patterns of tic suppressibility were also observed. Better tic suppressibility was related to older age and more frequent tics but unrelated to other clinical variables, including presence of psychiatric comorbidity, psychotropic medication status, tic and premonitory urge severity, and self-rated tic suppressibility. The mechanisms underlying the observed heterogeneity in reward-enhanced tic suppressibility warrant further investigation. The Tic Suppression Task is a promising method for testing mechanistic hypotheses related to tic suppression.

  13. Modelling the effect of injection pressure on heat release parameters and nitrogen oxides in direct injection diesel engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yüksek Levent

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigation and modelling the effect of injection pressure on heat release parameters and engine-out nitrogen oxides are the main aim of this study. A zero-dimensional and multi-zone cylinder model was developed for estimation of the effect of injection pressure rise on performance parameters of diesel engine. Double-Wiebe rate of heat release global model was used to describe fuel combustion. extended Zeldovich mechanism and partial equilibrium approach were used for modelling the formation of nitrogen oxides. Single cylinder, high pressure direct injection, electronically controlled, research engine bench was used for model calibration. 1000 and 1200 bars of fuel injection pressure were investigated while injection advance, injected fuel quantity and engine speed kept constant. The ignition delay of injected fuel reduced 0.4 crank angle with 1200 bars of injection pressure and similar effect observed in premixed combustion phase duration which reduced 0.2 crank angle. Rate of heat release of premixed combustion phase increased 1.75 % with 1200 bar injection pressure. Multi-zone cylinder model showed good agreement with experimental in-cylinder pressure data. Also it was seen that the NOx formation model greatly predicted the engine-out NOx emissions for both of the operation modes.

  14. The effect of blood injection for the prevention of Ethanol reflux after intrahepatic Ethanol injection in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Kook Jin; Kim, Choon Yul; Kim, Bum Soo; Hahn, Seong Tai; Lee, Jae Mun; Shinn, Kyung Sub

    1998-01-01

    To reduce ethanol reflux from the needle channel by injecting rat blood immediately after the injection of ethanol into rat liver. The first experiment involved 33 rat livers which were divided into four groups (three livers in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and 0.1ml saline was injected into the liver; in group 2, ethanol-Tc-99m-O 4 - mixed solution (0.1ml, 0.2mCi) was injected into the liver;in groups 3 and 4, the needle channel was blocked with 0.02ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After removing the needle, a 3cm round filter paper was laid on each injection site to absorb refluxed ethanol-T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution from the liver, and each paper was then counted by a gamma camera unit. In the second experiment, 33rats were divided into four groups (three rats in group 1;ten in groups 2, 3, and 4). Group 1 animals were used as controls, and after exposing the left lateral lobe of the liver, 0.05 ml of saline was injected;in group 2, 0.05 ml of ethanol was injected into the livder;in groups 3 and 4 the needle channel was blocked with 0.02 ml of fresh blood and old blood, respectively, after the injection of ethanol. After ten days, peritoneal adhesions were scored macroscopically and microscopically. In the first experiment using ethanol- T c -99m-O 4 - mixed solution, groups blocked with blood after the injection of mixed solution showed lower gamma counts than the group injected with mixed solution only (p-value=3D0.0002). The group blocked with old blood showed the lowest count. Macroscopical and microscopical examination of peritoneal adhesions indicated that the grade of adhesion was lower in groups blocked with blood than in the group injected with ethanol onluy (p-value=3D0.0261 and 0.0163, respectively). The above results suggest that an injection of blood after an injection of ethanol is a very effective way of preventing reflux from the liver.=20

  15. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Ultrasound-guided botulinum toxin injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Khatkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the key conditions for achieving the desirable result during botulinum toxin therapy for muscular dystonia, spasticity, and other diseases accompanied by spasm, pain, and autonomic dysfunction (dystonias, spasticity, etc. is the proper administration of the agent into the muscles directly involved in the pathological process. The exact entry of botulinum toxin into the target muscles is essential for successful and safe treatment because its injection into a normal muscle may cause side effects. The most common errors are the incorrect depth and incorrect direction of a needle on insertion. Therefore, the exact injection of the agent particularly into the shallow and deep muscles is a difficult task even for an experienced specialist and requires the use of controlling methods.The European Consensus on Botulinum Toxin Therapy points out that various injection techniques are needed for the better identification of necessary muscles. However, there are currently no reports on the clear advantage of any technique. In our country, injections using palpation and anatomical landmarks have been widely used in routine practice so far; electromyographic monitoring and electrostimulation have been less frequently applied. In recent years, the new method ultrasound-guided injection has continued to grow more popular. This effective, accessible, and easy-to-use method makes it possible to manage a real-time injection process and to ensure the exact entry of the agent into the muscle. This paper is dedicated to a comparative analysis of different injection methods and to a description of the ultrasound-guided technique and its advantages over others. 

  17. Irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced elevation of bile acids potentiates suppression of IL-10 expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze; Zhang, Dunfang; Cao, Yun-Feng; Xie, Cen; Lu, Dan; Sun, Dong-Xue; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao; Chen, Qianming; Chen, Yu; Wang, Haina; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a first-line anti-colon cancer drug, however; CPT-11-induced toxicity remains a key factor limiting its clinical application. To search for clues to the mechanism of CPT-11-induced toxicity, metabolomics was applied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of CPT-11 induced loss of body weight, and intestine toxicity. Changes in gallbladder morphology suggested alterations in bile acid metabolism, as revealed at the molecular level by analysis of the liver, bile, and ileum metabolomes between the vehicle-treated control group and the CPT-11-treated group. Analysis of immune cell populations further showed that CPT-11 treatment significantly decreased the IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes, but not in spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the addition of bile acids deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid accelerated the CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by activated CD4 + naive T cells isolated from mouse splenocytes. These results showed that CPT-11 treatment caused metabolic changes in the composition of bile acids that altered CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 expression. - Highlights: • CPT-11 is an effective anticancer drug, but induced toxicity limits its application in the clinic. • CPT-11 decreased IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes. • CPT-11 altered the composition of bile acid metabolites, notably DCA and TDCA in liver, bile and intestine. • DCA and TDCA potentiated CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by active CD4 + naive T cells.

  18. Irinotecan (CPT-11)-induced elevation of bile acids potentiates suppression of IL-10 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhong-Ze [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Toxicology, School of Public Health, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Joint Center for Translational Medicine, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Dalian (China); Zhang, Dunfang [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Cao, Yun-Feng [Joint Center for Translational Medicine, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Dalian (China); Xie, Cen [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Lu, Dan [Department of Immunology, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cellular and Molecular Immunology, Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin (China); Sun, Dong-Xue; Tanaka, Naoki; Jiang, Changtao [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Chen, Qianming; Chen, Yu [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Wang, Haina [School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan (China); Gonzalez, Frank J., E-mail: gonzalef@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Metabolism, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Irinotecan (CPT-11) is a first-line anti-colon cancer drug, however; CPT-11-induced toxicity remains a key factor limiting its clinical application. To search for clues to the mechanism of CPT-11-induced toxicity, metabolomics was applied using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Intraperitoneal injection of 50 mg/kg of CPT-11 induced loss of body weight, and intestine toxicity. Changes in gallbladder morphology suggested alterations in bile acid metabolism, as revealed at the molecular level by analysis of the liver, bile, and ileum metabolomes between the vehicle-treated control group and the CPT-11-treated group. Analysis of immune cell populations further showed that CPT-11 treatment significantly decreased the IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes, but not in spleen or mesenteric lymph nodes. In vitro cell culture studies showed that the addition of bile acids deoxycholic acid and taurodeoxycholic acid accelerated the CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by activated CD4{sup +} naive T cells isolated from mouse splenocytes. These results showed that CPT-11 treatment caused metabolic changes in the composition of bile acids that altered CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 expression. - Highlights: • CPT-11 is an effective anticancer drug, but induced toxicity limits its application in the clinic. • CPT-11 decreased IL-10-producing CD4 T cell frequency in intestinal lamina propria lymphocytes. • CPT-11 altered the composition of bile acid metabolites, notably DCA and TDCA in liver, bile and intestine. • DCA and TDCA potentiated CPT-11-induced suppression of IL-10 secretion by active CD4{sup +} naive T cells.

  19. Assessment of the safety of injection practices and injection-related procedures in family health units and centers in Alexandria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhoseeny, Taghareed A; Mourad, Juidan K

    2014-08-01

    The Safe Injection Global Network (SIGN) developed an intervention strategy for reducing overuse of injections and promoting the administration of safe injections. Tool C--Revised is designed to assess the safety of the most common procedures that puncture the skin within health services. The aim of the study was to assess injection safety within the primary healthcare facilities in Alexandria using Tool C--Revised. A total of 45 family health units and centers in Alexandria were selected by proportional allocation from the eight regions of Alexandria. The Tool C--Revised of the WHO was used for observation of the entire facility, injection practices and injection-related procedures, and sterilization practices. Interview of different health providers and immediate supervisor of injections was carried out. Indicators that reflect risk included: deficiency of alcohol-based hand rub for cleansing hands (13.3%), compliance with hand wash before preparing a procedure (56.9% before injection practices, 61.3% before phlebotomy, and 67.6% before lancet puncture), and wearing a new pair of gloves before new procedures (48.6% before injection practices, 9.7% for phlebotomy, 11.8% for lancet puncture, and 80% for both intravenous injections and infusions). Enough disposable equipment in all facilities for at least 2 weeks dependent on the statement of the average numbers of procedures per week was shown. Only 38% of the providers had received training regarding injection safety in the last 2 years and 62.5% had completed their three doses of hepatitis B vaccine. Only 42.2% of staffs who handled healthcare waste had access to heavy gloves. Indicators related to injection and injection-related practices that reflect risk to patients include deficiency of alcohol-based hand rub tools, nonadherence to hand hygiene before preparing an injection, and inadequate adherence to using a clean barrier when opening a glass ampule and use of gloves. Indicators that may reflect risk to

  20. Suppressed neural complexity during ketamine- and propofol-induced unconsciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jisung; Noh, Gyu-Jeong; Choi, Byung-Moon; Ku, Seung-Woo; Joo, Pangyu; Jung, Woo-Sung; Kim, Seunghwan; Lee, Heonsoo

    2017-07-13

    Ketamine and propofol have distinctively different molecular mechanisms of action and neurophysiological features, although both induce loss of consciousness. Therefore, identifying a common feature of ketamine- and propofol-induced unconsciousness would provide insight into the underlying mechanism of losing consciousness. In this study we search for a common feature by applying the concept of type-II complexity, and argue that neural complexity is essential for a brain to maintain consciousness. To test this hypothesis, we show that complexity is suppressed during loss of consciousness induced by ketamine or propofol. We analyzed the randomness (type-I complexity) and complexity (type-II complexity) of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals before and after bolus injection of ketamine or propofol. For the analysis, we use Mean Information Gain (MIG) and Fluctuation Complexity (FC), which are information-theory-based measures that quantify disorder and complexity of dynamics respectively. Both ketamine and propofol reduced the complexity of the EEG signal, but ketamine increased the randomness of the signal and propofol decreased it. The finding supports our claim and suggests EEG complexity as a candidate for a consciousness indicator. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  2. Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Value of Danshen Injection and Huangqi Injection in Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changtai Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the clinical value of Danshen injection and Huangqi injection for the treatment of liver cirrhosis. Methods. The Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM, Chinese Scientific Journals Full-Text Database (VIP, Wanfang Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, PubMed, and EMBASE database were searched to collect the literatures about the randomized controlled trials involving the treatment of liver cirrhosis with Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection, and the data analyses were performed using RevMan 4.2 software. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 1086 patients (trials group: 554 cases, control group: 532 cases were included in this study. Compared with those in control group, the meta-analysis showed-that the total effectiveness rate and the level of serum albumin increased, while serum total bilirubin, alanine transmninase, type III procollagen, hyaluronic acid, laminin, and type-IV collagen decreased in trials group. The Jadad score ranged from 1 to 2 and the funnel plot analysis suggests that publication bias may occur. Conclusions. Danshen injection combined with Huangqi injection may promote the curative efficacy of liver cirrhosis, which is a promising novel treatment approach. The exact outcome needs to perform rigorously designed, multicenter, and large randomized controlled trials.

  3. Noise suppressed partial volume correction for cardiac SPECT/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chung; Liu, Chi, E-mail: chi.liu@yale.edu [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Liu, Hui [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Key Laboratory of Particle and Radiation Imaging (Tsinghua University), Ministry of Education, Beijing 100084 (China); Grobshtein, Yariv [GE Healthcare, Haifa 3910101 (Israel); Stacy, Mitchel R. [Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States); Sinusas, Albert J. [Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 and Department of Internal Medicine, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Partial volume correction (PVC) methods typically improve quantification at the expense of increased image noise and reduced reproducibility. In this study, the authors developed a novel voxel-based PVC method that incorporates anatomical knowledge to improve quantification while suppressing noise for cardiac SPECT/CT imaging. Methods: In the proposed method, the SPECT images were first reconstructed using anatomical-based maximum a posteriori (AMAP) with Bowsher’s prior to penalize noise while preserving boundaries. A sequential voxel-by-voxel PVC approach (Yang’s method) was then applied on the AMAP reconstruction using a template response. This template response was obtained by forward projecting a template derived from a contrast-enhanced CT image, and then reconstructed using AMAP to model the partial volume effects (PVEs) introduced by both the system resolution and the smoothing applied during reconstruction. To evaluate the proposed noise suppressed PVC (NS-PVC), the authors first simulated two types of cardiac SPECT studies: a {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial perfusion scan and a {sup 99m}Tc-labeled red blood cell (RBC) scan on a dedicated cardiac multiple pinhole SPECT/CT at both high and low count levels. The authors then applied the proposed method on a canine equilibrium blood pool study following injection with {sup 99m}Tc-RBCs at different count levels by rebinning the list-mode data into shorter acquisitions. The proposed method was compared to MLEM reconstruction without PVC, two conventional PVC methods, including Yang’s method and multitarget correction (MTC) applied on the MLEM reconstruction, and AMAP reconstruction without PVC. Results: The results showed that the Yang’s method improved quantification, however, yielded increased noise and reduced reproducibility in the regions with higher activity. MTC corrected for PVE on high count data with amplified noise, although yielded the worst performance among all the methods

  4. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical.

  5. Helical axial injection concept for cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for an external beam injection system using a helical beam path centered on the cyclotron axis is described. This system could be used to couple two accelerator stages, with or without intermediate stripping, in cases where conventional axial injection or radial injection are not practical

  6. Tanreqing Injection Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Airway Inflammation through MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathways in Rats Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Jiang, Hong-li; Cai, Lin-li; Yan, Min; Dong, Shou-jin; Mao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. Tanreqing injection (TRQ) is a commonly used herbal patent medicine for treating inflammatory airway diseases in view of its outstanding anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we explored the signaling pathways involved in contributions of TRQ to LPS-induced airway inflammation in rats. Methods/Design. Adult male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats randomly divided into different groups received intratracheal instillation of LPS and/or intraperitoneal injection of TRQ. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid (BALF) and lung samples were collected at 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after TRQ administration. Protein and mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, Interleukin- (IL-) 1β, IL-6, and IL-8 in BALF and lung homogenate were observed by ELISA and real-time PCR, respectively. Lung sections were stained for p38 MAPK and NF-κB detection by immunohistochemistry. Phospho-p38 MAPK, phosphor-extracellular signal-regulated kinases ERK1/2, phospho-SAPK/JNK, phospho-NF-κB p65, phospho-IKKα/β, and phospho-IκB-α were measured by western blot analysis. Results. The results showed that TRQ significantly counteracted LPS-stimulated release of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, attenuated cells influx in BALF, mitigated mucus hypersecretion, suppressed phosphorylation of NF-κB p65, IκB-α, ΙKKα/β, ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 MAPK, and inhibited p38 MAPK and NF-κB p65 expression in rat lungs. Conclusions. Results of the current research indicate that TRQ possesses potent exhibitory effects in LPS-induced airway inflammation by, at least partially, suppressing the MAPKs and NF-κB signaling pathways, in a general dose-dependent manner. PMID:27366191

  7. Prostatic acid phosphatase is an ectonucleotidase and suppresses pain by generating adenosine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zylka, Mark J.; Sowa, Nathaniel A.; Taylor-Blake, Bonnie; Twomey, Margaret A.; Herrala, Annakaisa; Voikar, Vootele; Vihko, Pirkko

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Thiamine monophosphatase (TMPase, also known as Fluoride-Resistant Acid Phosphatase) is a classic histochemical marker of small-diameter dorsal root ganglia neurons. The molecular identity of TMPase is currently unknown. We found that TMPase is identical to the transmembrane isoform of Prostatic Acid Phosphatase (PAP), an enzyme with unknown molecular and physiological functions. We then found that PAP knockout mice have normal acute pain sensitivity but enhanced sensitivity in chronic inflammatory and neuropathic pain models. In gain-of-function studies, intraspinal injection of PAP protein has potent anti-nociceptive, anti-hyperalgesic and anti-allodynic effects that last longer than the opioid analgesic morphine. PAP suppresses pain by functioning as an ecto-5’-nucleotidase. Specifically, PAP dephosphorylates extracellular adenosine monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine and activates A1-adenosine receptors in dorsal spinal cord. Our studies reveal molecular and physiological functions for PAP in purine nucleotide metabolism and nociception and suggest a novel use for PAP in the treatment of chronic pain. PMID:18940592

  8. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  9. Addendum: First injection technique recommendations for patients with diabetes, Forum for Injection Techniques India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Kalra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The forum for injection techniques, India recommendation, the first ever in the country on insulin injcetion techniques, have covered the science and the art of insulin injection technique in an exhaustive manner. However, a few gaps were identified in the document, which are addressed in the current addendum. This article focuses on insulin injection technique in special clinical situations, including geriatric people, women in pregnancy and those with dermatological or surgical disease who live with diabetes. The addendum also covers salient features of administration of insulin using the insulin pump.

  10. Evolution of Surface Texture and Cracks During Injection Molding of Fiber-Reinforced, Additively-Manufactured, Injection Molding Inserts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Mischkot, Michael; Pedersen, David Bue

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow-density polyethy......This paper investigates the lifetime and surfacedeterioration of additively-manufactured, injection-moulding inserts. The inserts were produced using digital light processing and were reinforcedwith oriented short carbon fibers. Theinserts were used during injection molding oflow......-density polyethylene until their failure. The molded products were used to analyse the development of the surface roughness and wear. By enhancing the lifetime of injection-molding inserts,this work contributes to the establishment of additively manufactured inserts in pilot production....

  11. Cold water injection nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kura, Masaaki; Maeda, Masamitsu; Endo, Takio.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To inject cold water in a reactor without applying heat cycles to a reactor container and to the inner wall of a feedwater nozzle by securing a perforated plate at the outlet of the cold water injection nozzle. Constitution: A disc-like cap is secured to the final end of a return nozzle of a control rod drive. The cap prevents the flow of a high temperature water flowing downward in the reactor from entering into the nozzle. The cap is perforated with a plurality of bore holes for injecting cold water into the reactor. The cap is made to about 100 mm in thickness so that the cold water passing through the bore holes is heated by the heat conduction in the cap. Accordingly, the flow of high temperature water flowing downwardly in the reactor is inhibited by the cap from backward flowing into the nozzle. Moreover, the flow of the cold water in the nozzle is controlled and rectified when passed through the bore holes in the cap and then injected into the reactor. (Yoshino, Y.)

  12. Destabilization of counter-propagating TAEs by off-axis, co-current Neutral Beam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta', M.; Fredrickson, E.; Gorelenkova, M.

    2017-10-01

    Neutral Beam injection (NBI) is a common tool to heat the plasma and drive current non-inductively in fusion devices. Energetic particles (EP) resulting from NBI can drive instabilities that are detrimental for the performance and the predictability of plasma discharges. A broad NBI deposition profile, e.g. by off-axis injection aiming near the plasma mid-radius, is often assumed to limit those undesired effects by reducing the radial gradient of the EP density, thus reducing the ``universal'' drive for instabilities. However, this work presents new evidence that off-axis NBI can also lead to undesired effects such as the destabilization of Alfvénic instabilities, as observed in NSTX-U plasmas. Experimental observations indicate that counter propagating toroidal AEs are destabilized as the radial EP density profile becomes hollow as a result of off-axis NBI. Time-dependent analysis with the TRANSP code, augmented by a reduced fast ion transport model (known as kick model), indicates that instabilities are driven by a combination of radial and energy gradients in the EP distribution. Understanding the mechanisms for wave-particle interaction, revealed by the phase space resolved analysis, is the basis to identify strategies to mitigate or suppress the observed instabilities. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences under Contract Number DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  13. Cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of TRPV1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M-K; Wang, S

    2011-09-01

    Cold therapy is frequently used to reduce pain and edema following acute injury or surgery such as tooth extraction. However, the neurobiological mechanisms of cold therapy are not completely understood. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a capsaicin- and heat-gated nociceptive ion channel implicated in thermosensation and pathological pain under conditions of inflammation or injury. Although capsaicin-induced nociception, neuropeptide release, and ionic currents are suppressed by cold, it is not known if cold suppresses agonist-induced activation of recombinant TRPV1. We demonstrate that cold strongly suppressed the activation of recombinant TRPV1 by multiple agonists and capsaicin-evoked currents in trigeminal ganglia neurons under normal and phosphorylated conditions. Cold-induced suppression was partially impaired in a TRPV1 mutant that lacked heat-mediated activation and potentiation. These results suggest that cold-induced suppression of TRPV1 may share a common molecular basis with heat-induced potentiation, and that allosteric inhibition may contribute, in part, to the cold-induced suppression. We also show that combination of cold and a specific antagonist of TRPV1 can produce an additive suppression. Our results provide a mechanistic basis for cold therapy and may enhance anti-nociceptive approaches that target TRPV1 for managing pain under inflammation and tissue injury, including that from tooth extraction.

  14. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penicillin G injection is used to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. ...

  15. Botulinum toxin injection in laryngeal dyspnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woisard, Virginie; Liu, Xuelai; Bes, Marie Christine Arné; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion

    2017-02-01

    Data, regarding the use of botulinum toxin (BT-A) in laryngeal dyspnea, are scarce, coming from some cases reports in the literature, including Vocal fold paralysis, laryngeal dystonia, vocal cord dysfunction also called paradoxical motion of the vocal fold (PMVF), and post-neuroleptic laryngeal dyskinesia. There is no consensus regarding the muscles and the doses to inject. The aim of this study is to present a retrospective review of patients treated in our ENT Department by BT-A injection in this indication. This study is a retrospective study describing patients who underwent an injection of botulinum toxin for laryngeal dyspnea in the ENT Department from 2005 to 2015 years. The inclusion criteria were a dyspnea associated with a laryngeal dysfunction, confirmed by flexible fiberoptic nasopharyngolaryngoscopy. Information concerning the causes of the dyspnea, the botulinum toxin BT-A injections procedure, post-injection follow-up, and respiratory outcome were collected for all patients included. In the group of 13 patients included, the main cause identified as principal factor linked with the short breath was: a bilateral VF paralysis (Patel et al., Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 130:686-689, 7), laryngeal dystonia (Balkissoon and Kenn, Semin Respir Crit Care Med 33:595-605, 2), Anxiety syndrome associated with unilateral vocal fold paralysis or asthma (Marcinow et al., Laryngoscope 124:1425-1430, 3), and an isolated asthma (Zwirner et al., Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 254:242-245, 1). Nine out of the thirteen patients were improved by the injections. A BT-A-induced stable benefit for four patients led them to stop the injections in the follow-up. Good outcome was observed in five other patients (main cause: bilateral VP paralysis), allowing a progressive lengthening of the delay between BT-A injections. Four patients did not report a positive risk/benefit ratio after BT-A injections; two of them (with bilateral VF paralysis), because of respiratory side effects and

  16. Proton accumulator ring injection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, R.K.; Neil, V.K.

    1977-01-01

    Protons may be created in an accelerator or storage ring by stripping electrons from neutral hydrogen atoms that have been injected into the machine. Because Liouville's theorem is violated by this type of injection, particles may be continually injected into a region of phase space that is already populated, and the density in that region increases with time. A computational investigation was made of the evolution of the distribution of particles in longitudinal phase space during such an injection process for a storage ring operating below the transition energy. In one calculation, an rf cavity is present in the ring and particles are injected into the stable phase region once each revolution. The purpose of this calculation is to determine the rf voltage necessary to overcome the longitudinal self-forces and contain the particles within the region of stable phase. In a second calculation, the rf is turned off, so that there is spreading in azimuth of the injected particles (i.e., de-bunching). The de-bunching occurs because of the initial energy spread and the action of the self-forces. One purpose of the calculation is to determine the total energy spread after a given number of revolutions. Another purpose is to elucidate the effect of finite resistance in the vacuum tank walls. For sufficiently high current, the finite resistance can cause bunching of a beam that is initially uniform in azimuth. Therefore it might be expected that the finite resistance would inhibit or prevent de-bunching once the number of particles injected reaches some threshold, and that this threshold would depend upon the energy spread in the beam

  17. Pellet injection into ASDEX upgrade plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, P.T.; Zohm, H.; Buechl, K.; Fuchs, J.C.; Gehre, O.; Gruber, O.; Lang, R.S.; Mertens, V.; Neuhauser, J.; Salzmann, H.

    1996-04-01

    This work comprises results obtained using the new centrifuge injection system for the two first years of pellet injection experiments at Asdex Upgrade until the end of the 1995 experimental campaign. The main aim of the pellet injection investigation is to develop scenarios allowing for a more flexible plasma density control means of injection of cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. Efforts have been made to develop scenarios allowing more flexible plasma density control by injecting cryogenic solid hydrogen pellets. While the injection of pellets during ohmic discharges was found to be most efficient and also improves the plasma performance, increasing the auxiliary heating power causes a detoriation of the pellet fuelling efficiency. A further strong reduction of the pellet fuelling efficiency by an additional process was observed for the more reactor-relevant conditions of shallow particle deposition during H-mode phases. With injection during type I ELMy H-mode phases, each pellet was found to trigger the release of an ELM and therefore cause particle losses mainly from the edge region. In the type I ELMy H-mode, only sufficient pellet penetration allowed noticeable, persistent particle deposition in the plasma by the pellets. Applying adequate pellet injection conditions and favourable scenarios using combined pellet/gas puff refuelling, significant density ramp-up to densities exceeding the empirical Greenwald limit by up to a factor of two was achieved even for strongly heated H-mode plasmas. (orig.)

  18. Comparison Between the Two-Injection Technique and the Four-Injection Technique in Axillary Brachial Plexus Block with Articaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertikin, Aysun; Argun, Güldeniz; Mısırlıoğlu, Mesut; Aydın, Murat; Arıkan, Murat; Kadıoğulları, Nihal

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to compare axillary brachial plexus block using the two-injection and four-injection techniques assisted with ultrasonography (USG) and nerve stimulator in patients operated for carpal tunnel syndrome with articaine. To evaluate which technique is more effective, we compared the onset time, effectiveness, and duration of block procedures, patient satisfaction, adverse effect of the drug, and complication rates of the motor and sensory blocks. Sixty patients were randomly divided into two groups. A mixture of physiologic serum added to articain with NaHCO 3 (30 mL) was injected into the patients' axilla in both the groups. After the blockage of the musculocutaneous nerve in both the groups, the median nerve in the two-injection group and the median nerve, ulnar nerve, and radial nerve in the four-injection group were blocked. In brachial plexus nerves, sensorial blockage was evaluated with pinprick test, and motor block was evaluated by contraction of the muscles innervated by each nerve. The adverse effects and complications, visual analog scale (VAS) values during the operation, and post-operative patient satisfaction were recorded. Sufficient analgesia and anaesthesia were achieved with no need for an additional local anaesthetics in both the groups. Furthermore, additional sedation requirements were found to be similar in both the groups. A faster rate and a more effective complete block were achieved in more patients from the four-injection group. In the two-injection group, the block could not be achieved for N. radialis in one patient. All other nerves were successfully blocked. Whereas the blockage procedure lasted longer in the four-injection group, the VAS values recorded during the blockage procedure were higher in the four-injection group. No statistical difference was found with regard to patient satisfaction, and no adverse effects and complications were observed in any group. Although the multi-injection method takes more time

  19. Social hierarchy and depression: the role of emotion suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Carrie A; Epel, Elissa S; Matthews, Karen A; Moskowitz, Judith T; Adler, Nancy E

    2012-01-01

    Position in the social hierarchy is a major determinant of health outcomes. We examined the associations between aspects of social hierarchy and depressive symptoms with a specific focus on one potential psychological mechanism: emotion suppression. Suppressing negative emotion has mental health costs, but individuals with low social power and low social status may use these strategies to avoid conflict. Study 1 assessed perceived social power, tendency to suppress negative emotion, and depressive symptoms in a community sample of women. Low social power was related to greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by emotion suppression. Study 2 examined education as a proxy for social hierarchy position, anger suppression, and depressive symptoms in a national, longitudinal cohort study (The coronary artery risk development in young adults [CARDIA] study; Cutter et al., 1991). Much as in study 1, low education levels were correlated with greater depressive symptoms, and this relationship was partially mediated by anger suppression. Further, suppression mediated the relationship between low education and subsequent depression up to 15 years later. These findings support the theory that social hierarchy affects mental health in part through a process of emotion suppression.

  20. Cefotaxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  1. Cefuroxime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  2. Doripenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  3. Daptomycin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as daptomycin injection will not work for treating colds, flu, or other viral infections. ...

  4. Ceftaroline Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  5. Aztreonam Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as aztreonam injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  6. Cefazolin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  7. Ceftazidime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  8. Cefotetan Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotetan injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  9. Cefoxitin Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  10. Ertapenem Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  11. Ceftriaxone Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.Using ...

  12. Cefepime Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using ...

  13. Disease Suppressive Soils: New Insights from the Soil Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlatter, Daniel; Kinkel, Linda; Thomashow, Linda; Weller, David; Paulitz, Timothy

    2017-11-01

    Soils suppressive to soilborne pathogens have been identified worldwide for almost 60 years and attributed mainly to suppressive or antagonistic microorganisms. Rather than identifying, testing and applying potential biocontrol agents in an inundative fashion, research into suppressive soils has attempted to understand how indigenous microbiomes can reduce disease, even in the presence of the pathogen, susceptible host, and favorable environment. Recent advances in next-generation sequencing of microbiomes have provided new tools to reexamine and further characterize the nature of these soils. Two general types of suppression have been described: specific and general suppression, and theories have been developed around these two models. In this review, we will present three examples of currently-studied model systems with features representative of specific and general suppressiveness: suppression to take-all (Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici), Rhizoctonia bare patch of wheat (Rhizoctonia solani AG-8), and Streptomyces. To compare and contrast the two models of general versus specific suppression, we propose a number of hypotheses about the nature and ecology of microbial populations and communities of suppressive soils. We outline the potential and limitations of new molecular techniques that can provide novel ways of testing these hypotheses. Finally, we consider how this greater understanding of the phytobiome can facilitate sustainable disease management in agriculture by harnessing the potential of indigenous soil microbes.

  14. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Fasciitis after Intramuscular Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Abbate

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Necrotizing soft tissue fasciitis (NSTIs or necrotizing fasciitis is an infrequent and serious infection. Herein, we describe the clinical course of a female patient who received a diagnosis of NSTIs after gluteus intramuscular injection. We also report the results of our review of published papers from 1997 to 2017. Since now, 19 cases of NSTIs following intramuscular injections have been described. We focus on the correlation between intramuscular injection and NSTIs onset, especially in immunosuppressed patients treated with corticosteroids, suffering from chronic diseases or drug addicted. Intramuscular injections can provoke severe tissue trauma, representing local portal of infection, even if correctly administrated. Otherwise, it is important not to inject drug in subcutaneous, which is a less vascularized area and therefore more susceptible to infections. Likewise, a proper injecting technique and aspiration prior to injection seem to be valid measure to prevent intra-arterial or para-arterial drug injection with the consequent massive inflammatory reaction. Necrosis at the infection site appears to be independent of the drug, and it is a strong additional risk factor for NSTIs.

  15. In-situ combustion with solvent injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Silva, J.; Kakade, G. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)]|[Maharashtra Inst. of Technology, Pune (India)

    2008-10-15

    The effects of combining in situ combustion and heavy hydrocarbon naphtha vapor injection techniques in a heavy oil reservoir were investigated. Oil production rates and steam injection efficiencies were considered. The technique was also combined with toe-to-heel air injection (THAI) processes. The study showed that the modified THAI process achieved high rates of recovery for both primary production and as a follow-up technique in partially depleted reservoirs after cyclic steam and cold production. Oil produced using the modified THAI technique was also partially upgraded by the process. Results of the vapour chamber pressure calculations showed that the volume of oil produced by naphtha assisted gravity drainage was between 1 to 3 times higher than amounts of oil produced by SAGD processes during the same amount of time. The naphtha injection process produced more oil than the steam only process. However, high amounts of naphtha were needed to produce oil. Injection and production rates during the naphtha injection process were higher. Naphtha vapor was injected near the heel of a horizontal producer well. The vapor acted as a thermal and diluent mechanism in order to reduce the viscosity of the heavy oil . 9 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  16. Temporal fossa defects: techniques for injecting hyaluronic acid filler and complications after hyaluronic acid filler injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhász, Margit Lai Wun; Marmur, Ellen S

    2015-09-01

    Facial changes with aging include thinning of the epidermis, loss of skin elasticity, atrophy of muscle, and subcutaneous fat and bony changes, all which result in a loss of volume. As temporal bones become more concave, and the temporalis atrophies and the temporal fat pad decreases, volume loss leads to an undesirable, gaunt appearance. By altering the temporal fossa and upper face with hyaluronic acid filler, those whose specialty is injecting filler can achieve a balanced and more youthful facial structure. Many techniques have been described to inject filler into the fossa including a "fanned" pattern of injections, highly diluted filler injection, and the method we describe using a three-injection approach. Complications of filler in the temporal fossa include bruising, tenderness, swelling, Tyndall effect, overcorrection, and chewing discomfort. Although rare, more serious complications include infection, foreign body granuloma, intravascular necrosis, and blindness due to embolization into the ophthalmic artery. Using reversible hyaluronic acid fillers, hyaluronidase can be used to relieve any discomfort felt by the patient. Injectors must be aware of the complications that may occur and provide treatment readily to avoid morbidities associated with filler injection into this sensitive area. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Shoulder pain: the role of diagnostic injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, H M; O'Connor, F G; Nirschl, R P

    1996-04-01

    Many different shoulder disorders cause similar symptoms and pain patterns. An accurate diagnosis can generally be made by obtaining a detailed history, performing a comprehensive, directed physical examination and obtaining selected radiographs. Occasionally, shoulder injections can be of great assistance in establishing a clear diagnosis and providing relief of symptoms. Subacromial space injection, acromioclavicular joint injection, intra-articular injection and injection of the biceps tendon are helpful in identifying such disorders as subacromial bursitis, acromioclavicular arthritis, injury to the glenohumeral joint and bicipital tendinitis.

  18. Injection and Non-Injection Drug Use and Infectious Disease in Baltimore City: Differences by Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keen, Larry; Khan, Maria; Clifford, Lisa; Harrell, Paul T.; Latimer, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The current study examines differences in the prevalence of biologically-confirmed hepatitis C virus (HCV), HIV, and coinfection between Black and White adult cocaine/heroin users across three drug use subgroups identified in previous research (Harrell et al, 2012): non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users, heroin injectors, and polydrug injectors. Results 59% of the 482 participants in the study were male. Significant race differences emerged between drug use subgroup memberships. Non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin users were predominantly Black (75%), while heroin injectors and polydrug injectors were predominantly White (69% and 72%, respectively). Polydrug injectors accounted for nearly three quarters of the HCV positive diagnoses in Whites. Though HIV disease status, stratified by race, did not differ significantly between drug use subgroups, the non-injection smoking crack/nasal heroin subgroup contained over half of the HIV positive diagnoses in the sample and was predominantly Black. Despite much lower rates of injection, Blacks (8%) had a higher prevalence of coinfection than Whites (3%; X2 (2) = 6.18, p = .015). Conclusions The current findings are consistent with trends in recent HIV transmission statistics where sexual activity has overtaken injection drug use as a HIV risk factor. The current findings also provide further support to the notion of injection drug use as an exceedingly high-risk behavior for HCV and coinfection, specifically those who are polysubstance injectors. PMID:24837755

  19. Venture capital: States suffer as suppression expenses climb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krista Gebert

    2008-01-01

    The high cost of suppressing wildfires is taking a toll on federal and state agencies alike. Large wildland fires are complex, costly events influenced by a vast array of physical, climatic, and social factors. During five of the last eight years, the Forest Services' wildfire suppression expenditures have topped $1 billion, and total federal wildland suppression...

  20. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  1. Fat Injection: A Systematic Review of Injection Volumes by Facial Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Shirley; Kurlander, David E; Guyuron, Bahman

    2017-08-08

    Fat grafting to the aging face has become an integral component of esthetic surgery. However, the amount of fat to inject to each area of the face is not standardized and has been based mainly on the surgeon's experience. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review of injected fat volume to different facial zones. A systematic review of the literature was performed through a MEDLINE search using keywords "facial," "fat grafting," "lipofilling," "Coleman technique," "autologous fat transfer," and "structural fat grafting." Articles were then sorted by facial subunit and analyzed for: author(s), year of publication, study design, sample size, donor site, fat preparation technique, average and range of volume injected, time to follow-up, percentage of volume retention, and complications. Descriptive statistics were performed. Nineteen articles involving a total of 510 patients were included. Rhytidectomy was the most common procedure performed concurrently with fat injection. The mean volume of fat injected to the forehead is 6.5 mL (range 4.0-10.0 mL); to the glabellar region 1.4 mL (range 1.0-4.0 mL); to the temple 5.9 mL per side (range 2.0-10.0 mL); to the eyebrow 5.5 mL per side; to the upper eyelid 1.7 mL per side (range 1.5-2.5 mL); to the tear trough 0.65 mL per side (range 0.3-1.0 mL); to the infraorbital area (infraorbital rim to lower lid/cheek junction) 1.4 mL per side (range 0.9-3.0 mL); to the midface 1.4 mL per side (range 1.0-4.0 mL); to the nasolabial fold 2.8 mL per side (range 1.0-7.5 mL); to the mandibular area 11.5 mL per side (range 4.0-27.0 mL); and to the chin 6.7 mL (range 1.0-20.0 mL). Data on exactly how much fat to inject to each area of the face in facial fat grafting are currently limited and vary widely based on different methods and anatomical terms used. This review offers the ranges and the averages for the injected volume in each zone. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence

  2. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  3. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did ... respond or are unable to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in ...

  4. Double suppression of FCNCs in a supersymmetric model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajiyama, Yuji

    2004-01-01

    A concrete model which can suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena is suggested. It is S 3 symmetric extension of MSSM in extra dimensions where only SU(2) and SU(3) gauge multiplet are assumed to propagate in the bulk. They are suppressed due to S 3 flavor symmetry at M SUSY , and the infrared attractive force of gauge interaction in extra dimensions are used to suppress them at the compactification scale. We find that O(1) disorders of the soft parameters are allowed at the cut-off scale to suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena. (author)

  5. Double suppression of FCNCs in a supersymmetric model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajiyama, Yuji [Kanazawa Univ., Dept. of Physics, Kanazawa, Ishikawa (Japan)

    2004-12-01

    A concrete model which can suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena is suggested. It is S{sub 3} symmetric extension of MSSM in extra dimensions where only SU(2) and SU(3) gauge multiplet are assumed to propagate in the bulk. They are suppressed due to S{sub 3} flavor symmetry at M{sub SUSY}, and the infrared attractive force of gauge interaction in extra dimensions are used to suppress them at the compactification scale. We find that O(1) disorders of the soft parameters are allowed at the cut-off scale to suppress FCNCs and CP violating phenomena. (author)

  6. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Mi Sook

    2006-01-01

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections

  7. Epidural steroid injection for lumbosacral radiculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Mi Sook [The Catholic University of Korea, Pucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Low back pain combined with radicular pain remains as one of the most challenging musculoskeletal problems for its therapeutic management. This malady results from nerve root impingement and/or inflammation that causes neurologic symptoms in the distribution of the affected nerve root(s) Conservative treatment, percutaneous spine interventions and surgery have all been used as treatment; and the particular treatment that's chosen depends on the severity of the clinical and neurologic presentation. In 1930, Evans reported that sciatica could treated by epidural injection. The use of epidural corticosteroid injections for the treatment of axial and radicular back pain was first reported in 1953. Epidural steroid injections are currently used by many medical professionals for the treatment of lumbosacral radiculopathy. Performing 'blind' epidural steroid injection lacks target specificity that often results in incorrect delivery of medication to the lesion. Imaging-guided steroid injections are now becoming more popular despite the controversy regarding their efficacy. Many reports, including a few randomized controlled trials, have documented the clinical utility of epidural steroid injections.

  8. Spring-loaded syringe for multiple rapid injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C R Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesotherapy refers to multiple injections of small quantity of the drug over a large area. The mesoguns available are expensive and the motor-driven models tends to waste the expensive material to be injected since the plunger stops after injecting without recoil. We searched for a less expensive device which would inject like the mesogun and still not waste the solution. On searching the web, we identified a spring-loaded syringe. We describe the assembly and use of this inexpensive syringe for delivering multiple injections with minimal wastage.

  9. Spring-loaded Syringe for Multiple Rapid Injections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, CR; Somani, Anirudh; Shashidharan Nair, CK; Mylswamy, Thirumurthy

    2017-01-01

    Mesotherapy refers to multiple injections of small quantity of the drug over a large area. The mesoguns available are expensive and the motor-driven models tends to waste the expensive material to be injected since the plunger stops after injecting without recoil. We searched for a less expensive device which would inject like the mesogun and still not waste the solution. On searching the web, we identified a spring-loaded syringe. We describe the assembly and use of this inexpensive syringe for delivering multiple injections with minimal wastage. PMID:28529423

  10. Porous media heat transfer for injection molding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-05-31

    The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.

  11. Enhanced Benefit in Diabetic Macular Edema from AKB-9778 Tie2 Activation Combined with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campochiaro, Peter A; Khanani, Arshad; Singer, Michael; Patel, Sunil; Boyer, David; Dugel, Pravin; Kherani, Saleema; Withers, Barbara; Gambino, Laura; Peters, Kevin; Brigell, Mitchell

    2016-08-01

    with a ≥2-step change was 11.4% in all AKB-9778-treated subjects compared with 4.2% in the ranibizumab monotherapy group. AKB-9778 was well tolerated, with no clear by-treatment differences in adverse events. Activation of Tie2 by subcutaneous injections of AKB-9778 combined with suppression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) causes a significantly greater reduction in DME than that seen with suppression of VEGF alone. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Exploring genetic suppression interactions on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Jolanda; Pons, Carles; Mellor, Joseph C; Yamaguchi, Takafumi N; Friesen, Helena; Koschwanez, John; Ušaj, Mojca Mattiazzi; Pechlaner, Maria; Takar, Mehmet; Ušaj, Matej; VanderSluis, Benjamin; Andrusiak, Kerry; Bansal, Pritpal; Baryshnikova, Anastasia; Boone, Claire E; Cao, Jessica; Cote, Atina; Gebbia, Marinella; Horecka, Gene; Horecka, Ira; Kuzmin, Elena; Legro, Nicole; Liang, Wendy; van Lieshout, Natascha; McNee, Margaret; San Luis, Bryan-Joseph; Shaeri, Fatemeh; Shuteriqi, Ermira; Sun, Song; Yang, Lu; Youn, Ji-Young; Yuen, Michael; Costanzo, Michael; Gingras, Anne-Claude; Aloy, Patrick; Oostenbrink, Chris; Murray, Andrew; Graham, Todd R; Myers, Chad L; Andrews, Brenda J; Roth, Frederick P; Boone, Charles

    2016-11-04

    Genetic suppression occurs when the phenotypic defects caused by a mutation in a particular gene are rescued by a mutation in a second gene. To explore the principles of genetic suppression, we examined both literature-curated and unbiased experimental data, involving systematic genetic mapping and whole-genome sequencing, to generate a large-scale suppression network among yeast genes. Most suppression pairs identified novel relationships among functionally related genes, providing new insights into the functional wiring diagram of the cell. In addition to suppressor mutations, we identified frequent secondary mutations,in a subset of genes, that likely cause a delay in the onset of stationary phase, which appears to promote their enrichment within a propagating population. These findings allow us to formulate and quantify general mechanisms of genetic suppression. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Anesthetic efficacy of a repeated intraosseous injection given 30 min following an inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection.

    OpenAIRE

    Reitz, J.; Reader, A.; Nist, R.; Beck, M.; Meyers, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    To determine whether a repeated intraosseous (IO) injection would increase or prolong pulpal anesthesia, we measured the degree of anesthesia obtained by a repeated IO injection given 30 min following a combination inferior alveolar nerve block/intraosseous injection (IAN/IO) in mandibular second premolars and in first and second molars. Using a repeated-measures design, we randomly assigned 38 subjects to receive two combinations of injections at two separate appointments. The combinations w...

  14. A Review of the Effect of Injected Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid Copolymer Volume on Reflux Correction Following Endoscopic Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Dave

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The current literature suggests that multiple variables affect vesicoureteric reflux (VUR resolution rates following dextranomer/hyaluronic acid copolymer (Dx/HA injection. This article reviews the evidence pertaining to the effect of injected Dx/HA volume on success rates following endoscopic correction. Lack of prospective studies which use injected volume as a continuous variable coupled with a nonstandardized injection technique and endpoint hinders the ability to reach a definite conclusion.