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Sample records for elbow flexible piping

  1. Flexibility of trunnion piping elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, G.D.; Chao, Y.J.

    1987-01-01

    Flexibility factors and stress indices for piping component such as straight pipe, elbows, butt-welding tees, branch connections, and butt-welding reducers are contained in the code, but many of the less common piping components, like the trunnion elbow, do not have flexibility factors or stress indices defined. The purpose of this paper is to identify the in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors in accordance with code procedures for welded trunnions attached to the tangent centerlines of long radius elbows. This work utilized the finite element method as applicable to plates and shells for calculating the relative rotations of the trunnion elbow-ends for in-plane and out-of-plane elbow moment loadings. These rotations are used to derive the corresponding in-plane and out-of-plane flexibility factors. (orig./GL)

  2. Comparison of ICEPEL predictions with single elbow flexible piping system experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.W.

    1978-01-01

    The ICEPEL Code for coupled hydrodynamic-structural response analysis of piping systems is used to analyze an experiment on the response of flexible piping systems to internal pressure pulses. The piping system consisted of two flexible Nickel-200 pipes connected in series through a 90 0 thick-walled stainless steel elbow. A tailored pressure pulse generated by a calibrated pulse gun is stabilized in a long thick-walled stainless steel pipe leading to the flexible piping system which ended with a heavy blind flange. The analytical results of pressure and circumferential strain histories are discussed and compared against the experimental data obtained by Stanford Research Institute

  3. Design rules for piping: experimental validation of flexibility and elastic stress indices for elbows under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F.; Ben Jdidia, M.; Acker, D.

    1989-01-01

    Design rules for class 1 piping components are based on stress indices (B, C, K) and flexibility factors (k). For elbows, adjacent straight parts and internal pressure inhibit ovalization of the cross-section, so reducing the sub-mentioned indices. Published theoretical works and experimental results allow for improvement of coded values. End effect may be represented by a suitable function of the elbow angle. The favourable effect of pressure on C 2 , for fatigue damage evaluation, can be taken into account

  4. Pipe elbow stiffness coefficients including shear and bend flexibility factors for use in direct stiffness codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Historically, developments of computer codes used for piping analysis were based upon the flexibility method of structural analysis. Because of the specialized techniques employed in this method, the codes handled systems composed of only piping elements. Over the past ten years, the direct stiffness method has gained great popularity because of its systematic solution procedure regardless of the type of structural elements composing the system. A great advantage is realized with a direct stiffness code that combines piping elements along with other structural elements such as beams, plates, and shells, in a single model. One common problem, however, has been the lack of an accurate pipe elbow element that would adequately represent the effects of transverse shear and bend flexibility factors. The purpose of the present paper is to present a systematic derivation of the required 12x12 stiffness matrix and load vectors for a three dimensional pipe elbow element which includes the effects of transverse shear and pipe bend flexibility according to the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III. The results are presented analytically and as FORTRAN subroutines to be directly incorporated into existing direct stiffness codes. (Auth.)

  5. Applicability of ANSYS ELBOW290 element for flexibility calculation of tight radius bends on feeder pipes in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X., E-mail: Xuan.Zhang@candu.com [Candu Energy Inc, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    A curved pipe element, ELBOW290, became available in ANSYS 12. This element was developed based on a simplified shell theory, and maintains the ability to capture cross-sectional deformations of elbows. Numerical testing on the applicability of this element for the flexibility calculation of the tight radius bends in CANDU reactors is carried out to determine the usability of this element in completing stress analyses for feeder pipes. Comparisons are made between the ELBOW290 and the shell element for various feeder bend types found in domestic and overseas CANDU reactors. The comparisons show that the ELBOW290 element is suitable for calculating the flexibility of the tight radius bends. (author)

  6. Static analysis of a piping system with elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    Vibration tests of elbows to failure were performed in Japan in the early 1970s. The piping system included two elbows and an eccentric mass. Tests were run both pressurized and unpressurized. This report documents a static analysis of the piping system in which the elbows are subjected to out of plane bending. The effects of internal pressure and material plasticity are investigated

  7. Stress indices and flexibility factors in thin elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berton, M.N.; Carbonnier, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    Usually piping calculations are done with a beam model. Ovalisation in elbows is taken into account by the means of flexibility factors and stress indices. This paper compares results from a beam model calculation with results from a 3 D shell model calculation. (codes TEDEL and TRICO from the CEA-SEMT System). The aim of this comparison is to study the validity of the stress indices and flexibility factors used in the beam model for several kinds of loading

  8. Propagation of ovalization along straight pipes and elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.; Roche, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present analytical solutions for the propagation of evalization and the variation of the flexibility factor along pipe bends terminated by straight pipes or flanges, under in-plane bending, assuming an elastic material behaviour. The influence of the various strains in analysed in the simple case of a straight pipe, subjected to an elliptical cross-section shape deformation at one end. The results enlighten the very important part played by the distorsion in the propagation. They have been compared with finite elements solutions and with simple experiments. The solution is developed for an elbow terminated by a straight pipe or a flange, following the Von Karman's approach: local displacements are expanded in Fourier series, the coefficients of which vary along the curvilinear abscissa, like the rotation of the cross-section as a whole; the differential equations as well as the boundary conditions are found by minimization of the total potential energy of the assembly. The solutions are compared to existing and experimental results. (orig./HP)

  9. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S.

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  10. Diffusion in flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brogaard Kristensen, S

    2000-06-01

    This report describes the work done on modelling and simulation of the complex diffusion of gas through the wall of a flexible pipe. The diffusion and thus the pressure in annulus depends strongly on the diffusion and solubility parameters of the gas-polymer system and on the degree of blocking of the outer surface of the inner liner due to pressure reinforcements. The report evaluates the basis modelling required to describe the complex geometries and flow patterns. Qualitatively results of temperature and concentration profiles are shown in the report. For the program to serve any modelling purpose in 'real life' the results need to be validated and possibly the model needs corrections. Hopefully, a full-scale test of a flexible pipe will provide the required temperatures and pressures in annulus to validate the models. (EHS)

  11. Inelastic analysis of Battelle-Columbus piping elbow creep test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhalla, A.K.; Newman, S.Z.

    1979-01-01

    Analytical results are presented for room temperature and 593 deg. C creep bending deformation of a piping elbow structure tested at the Battelle-Columbus Laboratory. This analysis was performed in support of the International Piping Benchmark Problem Program being coordinated by ORNL. Results are presented for both simplified and refined structural models, and compared with test measurements reported by the Battelle-Columbus Laboratory. (author)

  12. Investigation on ultrasonic guided waves propagation in elbow pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi, Minxin; Zhou, Shaoping; Ni, Jing; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Pipeline plays an indispensable role in process industries, whose structural integrity is of great significance for the safe production. In this paper, the axial crack-like defects in 90° elbows are inspected by using the T (0, 1) mode guided waves. The detection sensitivity for different defect locations is firstly investigated by guided waves experimentally. The propagation of guided waves in the bent pipe is then simulated by using finite element method. The results show that the rates of T (0, 1) mode passing through elbow correlate strongly with the excitation frequency. Less mode conversion is generated at the frequency of 38 kHz when passing through the elbow, while most of energy converted into F (1, 2) mode at the frequency of 75 kHz. The crack in different locations of the elbow can affect the rates of mode conversion. It can be found that the crack in the middle of the elbow inhibits mode conversion and shares the highest detection sensitivity, while the crack in the extrados of elbow causes more mode conversion.

  13. Experimental study of plastic responses of pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Load-deflection responses were determined experimentally for sixteen 152.4-mm (6-in.) (nominal) commercial carbon steel pipe elbows and four 152.4-mm (6-in.) stainless steel elbows. Each specimen was loaded with an external force of sufficient magnitude to produce predominantly plastic response. The influences of bend radius and wall thickness were studied, as well as the effect of internal prssure on load-deflection behavior. Comparisons of results from stainless steel and from carbon steel elbows indicate differences in responses attributable to material differences. The results were interpreted in terms of limit analysis concepts, and collapse loads were determined. Trends given by the collapse loads are identified and discussed

  14. Probabilistic assessment of critically flawed LMFBR PHTS piping elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balkey, K.R.; Wallace, I.T.; Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    One of the important functions of the Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS) of a large Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) plant is to contain the circulating radioactive sodium in components and piping routed through inerted areas within the containment building. A significant possible failure mode of this vital system is the development of cracks in the piping components. This paper presents results from the probabilistic assessment of postulated flaws in the most-critical piping elbow of each piping leg. The criticality of calculated maximum sized flaws is assessed against an estimated material fracture toughness to determine safety factors and failure probability estimates using stress-strength interference theory. Subsequently, a different approach is also employed in which the randomness of the initial flaw size and loading are more-rigorously taken into account. This latter approach yields much smaller probability of failure values when compared to the stress-strength interference analysis results

  15. Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90 0 sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions

  16. Resolution of thermal striping issue downstream of a horizontal pipe elbow in stratified pipe flow. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzay, T.M.; Kasza, K.E.

    1985-01-01

    A thermally stratified pipe flow produced by a thermal transient when passing through a horizontal elbow as a result of secondary flow gives rise to large thermal fluctuations on the inner curvature wall of the downstream piping. These fluctuations were measured in a specially instrumented horizontal pipe and elbow system on a test set-up using water in the Mixing Components Technology Facility (MCTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). This study is part of a larger program which is studying the influence of thermal buoyancy on general reactor component performance. This paper discusses the influence of pipe flow generated thermal oscillations on the thermal stresses induced in the pipe walls. The instrumentation was concentrated around the exit plane of the 90/sup 0/ sweep elbow, since prior tests had indicated that the largest thermal fluctuations would occur within about one hydraulic diameter downstream of the elbow exit. The thermocouples were located along the inner curvature of the piping and measured the near surface fluid temperature. The test matrix involved thermal downramps under turbulent flow conditions.

  17. Accounting for straight parts effects on elbow's flexibilities in a beam type finite element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.

    1983-01-01

    An extension of Von Karman's theory is applied to the calculations of the flexibility factor of a pipe bend terminated by a straight part or a flange. This analysis is restricted to the linear elastic deformation behaviour under in plane bending. Analytical solutions are given for the propagation of ovalization in the elbow and in the straight part. Considering the response of the piping structures, we note that the ovalization of the piping systems are reduced significantly when the straight parts or flanges effects are included. This results are presented in terms of global as well local flexibility factors. They have been compared to numerical results obtained by shell type finite elements method. A complete piping system is analyzed, for economical reasons, with a beam type approach. Also, we show how it is possible to take into account an elbow's flexibilities the straight parts effects by means of flexibilities factors introduced in a beam type elements. We have implemented this method in the computer program TEDEL. In some specific geometrical features, we compare solutions using shell type elements and our formulation. (orig.)

  18. Accounting for straight parts effects on elbow's flexibilities in a beam type finite element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, A.; Vaghi, H.; Ricard, A.

    1983-08-01

    An extension of Von Karman's theory is applied to the calculations of the flexibility factor of a pipe bend terminated by a straight part or a flange. This analysis is restricted to the linear elastic deformation behaviour under in plane bending. Analytical solutions are given for the propagation of ovalization in the elbow and in the straight part. Considering the response of the piping structures, we note that the ovalization of the piping systems are reduced significantly when the straight parts or flanges effects are included. The results are presented in terms of global as well local flexibility factors. They have been compared to numerical results obtained by shell type finite element method. A complete piping system is analyzed, for economical reasons, with a beam type approach. Also, we show how it is possible to take into account on elbow's flexibilities the straight parts effects by means of flexibilities factors introduced in a beam type element. We have implemented this method in the computer program TEDEL. In some specific geometrical features, we compare solutions using shell type elements and our formulation

  19. Unsteady hydraulic characteristics in pipe with elbow under high Reynolds condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A.; Kimura, N.; Kamide, H.; Tobita, A. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, O-arai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    In the design of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), coolant velocity is beyond 9 m/s in the primary hot leg pipe of 1.27 m diameter. The Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2x10{sup 7}. Moreover, a short-elbow (r/D=1.0, r: curvature radius, D: pipe diameter) is adopted in the hot leg pipe in order to achieve compact plant layout and reduce plant construction cost. Therefore, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) arising from the piping geometry may occur in the short-elbow pipe. The FIV is due to the excitation force which is caused by the pressure fluctuation on the wall. The pressure fluctuation on the pipe wall is closely related with the flow fluctuation. In this study, water experiments using two types of 1/8 scaled elbows with different curvature ratio, r/D=1.0 and 1.5 (short-elbow and long-elbow), were conducted in order to investigate the mechanism of velocity and pressure fluctuation in the elbow and its downstream. The experiments were carried out at Re=5.4x10{sup 5} conditions. Measurement of velocity fluctuation and pressure fluctuation in two types of elbows with different curvature revealed that behavior of separation region and the circumferential secondary flow affected the pressure fluctuation on the wall of the elbow greatly. (author)

  20. Ratcheting failure of pressurised straight pipes and elbows under reversed bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishnuvardhan, S.; Raghava, G.; Gandhi, P.; Saravanan, M.; Goyal, Sumit; Arora, Punit; Gupta, Suneel K.; Bhasin, Vivek

    2013-01-01

    Ratcheting studies were carried out on Type 304LN stainless steel straight pipes and elbows subjected to steady internal pressure and cyclic bending load. The internal pressure for all the straight pipes was 35 MPa and in the case of elbows the internal pressure was varied for different elbows, ranging from 27.6 MPa to 39.2 MPa. Cyclic bending load was applied on the specimens by subjecting them to different levels of load-line displacement. The specimens have undergone significant ratchet swelling (ballooning), ovalization and consequent thinning of the cross-section during ratcheting. The straight pipes failed either by occurrence of through-wall crack accompanied by simultaneous ballooning, or bursting with simultaneous ballooning. All the elbows failed by occurrence of through-wall crack accompanied by simultaneous ballooning. Ratcheting behaviour of straight pipes and elbows were compared and it was generally inferred that ratcheting was more pronounced in straight pipes than in elbows. -- Graphical abstract: Strain history for the specimen QCE-RAT-6-L1. Highlights: • Studies were carried out under combined internal pressure and cyclic bending. • Ratcheting strains were measured at critical locations of the specimens. • Quantified the percentage of ballooning, ovalization and reduction in thickness. • Modes of ratcheting failure of straight pipes and elbows are studied. • Inferred that ratcheting is more pronounced in straight pipes than in elbows

  1. Reliability analysis of stiff versus flexible piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. The authors then investigated a couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design. They concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allow piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements. Furthermore, the more flexible piping redesigns are capable of exhibiting reliability levels equal to or higher than the original stiffer design. An investigation of the malfunction of pipe whip restraints confirmed that the malfunction introduced higher thermal stresses and tended to reduce the overall piping reliability. Finally, support and component reliabilities were evaluated based on available fragility data. Results indicated that the support reliability usually exhibits a moderate decrease as the piping flexibility increases. Most on-line pumps and valves showed an insignificant reduction in reliability for a more flexible piping design

  2. Influences of overload on low cycle fatigue behaviors of elbow pipe with local wall thinning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kyohei; Ogino, Kanako; Takahashi, Koji; Ando, Kotoji; Urabe, Yoshio

    2011-01-01

    Low cycle fatigue tests were conducted using 100A elbow pipe specimens with or without local wall thinning. Local wall thinning was machined on the inside of the extrados of test elbows to simulate metal loss due to flow-accelerated corrosion or liquid droplet impingement erosion. Low cycle fatigue tests were carried out under displacement control with an inner pressure of 9 MPa. To simulate seismic events, low cycle fatigue tests were carried out on elbow pipe subjected to cyclic overloads. Regardless of local wall thinning, fatigue life of overload pipe was not so different from that of the non-overload pipe in appearance. Miner's rule can be applied to evaluate fatigue life of the elbow pipes with and without wall thinning, even if overload is applied. (author)

  3. Flat flexible polymer heat pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshman, Christopher; Li, Qian; Liew, Li-Anne; Yang, Ronggui; Bright, Victor M; Lee, Y C

    2013-01-01

    Flat, flexible, lightweight, polymer heat pipes (FPHP) were fabricated. The overall geometry of the heat pipe was 130 mm × 70 mm × 1.31 mm. A commercially available low-cost film composed of laminated sheets of low-density polyethylene terephthalate, aluminum and polyethylene layers was used as the casing. A triple-layer sintered copper woven mesh served as a liquid wicking structure, and water was the working fluid. A coarse nylon woven mesh provided space for vapor transport and mechanical rigidity. Thermal power ranging from 5 to 30 W was supplied to the evaporator while the device was flexed at 0°, 45° and 90°. The thermal resistance of the FPHP ranged from 1.2 to 3.0 K W −1 depending on the operating conditions while the thermal resistance for a similar-sized solid copper reference was a constant at 4.6 K W −1 . With 25 W power input, the thermal resistance of the liquid–vapor core of the FPHP was 23% of a copper reference sample with identical laminated polymer material. This work shows a promising combination of technologies that has the potential to usher in a new generation of highly flexible, lightweight, low-cost, high-performance thermal management solutions. (paper)

  4. Seismic Capacity Estimation of Steel Piping Elbow under Low-cycle Fatigue Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Hahm, Dae Gi [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In some cases, this large relative displacement can increase seismic risk of the isolated facility. Especially, a inelastic behavior of crossover piping system to connect base isolated building and fixed base building can caused by a large relative displacement. Therefore, seismic capacity estimation for isolated piping system is needed to increase safety of nuclear power plant under seismic condition. Dynamic behavior analysis of piping system under seismic condition using shake table tests was performed by Touboul et al in 1995. In accordance with their study, plastic behavior could be occurred at pipe elbow under seismic condition. Experimental researches for dynamic behavior of typical piping system in nuclear power plant have been performed for several years by JNES(Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization) and NUPEC(Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation). A low cycle ratcheting fatigue test was performed with scaled model of elbow which is a weakest component in piping system by Mizuno et al. In-plane cyclic loading tests under internal pressure condition were performed to evaluate the seismic capacity of the steel piping elbow. Leakage phenomenon occurred on and near the crown in piping elbow. Those cracks grew up in axial direction. The fatigue curve was estimated from test results. In the fatigue curve, loading amplitude exponentially decreased as the number of cycles increased. A FEM model of piping elbow was modified with test results. The relationships between displacement and force from tests and numerical analysis was well matched.

  5. Experimental study on fluid mixing phenomena in T-pipe junction with upstream elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroshi Ogawa; Minoru Igarashi; Nobuyuki Kimura; Hideki Kamide

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Temperature fluctuation in fluid causes high cycle thermal fatigue in shroud structure according to its amplitude and frequency. There are still some incidents of thermal fatigue and leakage in light water reactors (Japanese PWR Tomari-2 in 2003, French PWR CIVAUX in 1998), and also in sodium cooled reactors (French FBR Phenix in 1992). Mixing tee is a typical component where temperature fluctuation occurs. Water experiment has been carried out to investigate temperature fluctuation characteristics and flow velocity field in a simple T-pipe junction with straight inlet pipings for main and branch lines; test facility is named as WATLON (Water Experiment on Fluid Mixing in T-pipe with Long Cycle Fluctuation). Here, influence of upstream elbow in the main pipe was studied in the WATLON facility. Elbow can be set near the mixing tee in a real plant. Outlet of the elbow has biased velocity distribution and also the secondary flow, which decays unsteadily. Temperature distribution in the mixing tee was measured by a movable tree with 17 thermocouples and velocity field was measured by Dynamic PIV (high speed particle image velocimetry) with sampling frequency of 200 Hz. Measured temperature showed that fluctuation intensity near the wall was larger in the elbow geometry than in the straight inlet pipes in a case of wall jet (branch flow velocity is smaller than main pipe flow velocity); high intensity region in the elbow case was enlarged around the jet exiting from the branch pipe. The result of flow velocity measurement showed that secondary flow and biased flow velocity distributions due to the elbow influenced bending of the jet exiting from the branch pipe and the temperature fluctuation intensity around the jet. The detailed flow velocity distributions and the secondary flow of upstream elbow can be measured by Dynamic PIV. Influence of such elbow was discussed based on detailed temperature data together with fluctuated velocity

  6. Irrecoverable pressure loss coefficients for two out-of-plane piping elbows at high Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffield, R.D.; Hammond, R.B.; McKeown, P.T.

    1999-02-08

    Pressure drops of multiple piping elbows were experimentally determined for high Reynolds number flows. The testing described has been performed in order to reduce uncertainties in the currently used methods for predicting irrecoverable pressure losses and also to provide a qualification database for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer codes. The earlier high Reynolds number correlations had been based on extrapolations over several orders of magnitude in Reynolds number from where the original database existed. Recent single elbow test data shows about a factor of two lower elbow pressure loss coefficient (at 40x 106 Reynolds number) than those from current correlations. This single piping elbow data has been extended in this study to a multiple elbow configuration of two elbows that are 90o out-of-plane relative to each other. The effects of separation distance and Reynolds number have been correlated and presented in a form that can be used for design application. Contrary to earlier extrapolations from low Reynolds numbers (Re c 1.0x 106), a strong Reynolds number dependence was found to exist. The combination of the high Reynolds number single elbow data with the multiple elbow interaction effects measured in this study shows that earlier design correlations are conservative by significant margins at high Reynolds numbers. Qualification of CFD predictions with this new high Reynolds number database will help guide the need for additional high Reynolds number testing of other piping configurations. The study also included velocity measurements at several positions downstream of the first and second test elbows using an ultrasonic flowmeter. Reasonable agreement after the first test elbow was found relative to flow fields that are known to exist from low Reynolds number visual tests and also from CFD predictions. This data should help to qualify CFD predictions of the three-dimensional flow stream downstream of the second test elbow.

  7. Determination of optimal tool parameters for hot mandrel bending of pipe elbows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakajew, Dmitri; Homberg, Werner

    2018-05-01

    Seamless pipe elbows are important components in mechanical, plant and apparatus engineering. Typically, they are produced by the so-called `Hamburg process'. In this hot forming process, the initial pipes are subsequently pushed over an ox-horn-shaped bending mandrel. The geometric shape of the mandrel influences the diameter, bending radius and wall thickness distribution of the pipe elbow. This paper presents the numerical simulation model of the hot mandrel bending process created to ensure that the optimum mandrel geometry can be determined at an early stage. A fundamental analysis was conducted to determine the influence of significant parameters on the pipe elbow quality. The chosen methods and approach as well as the corresponding results are described in this paper.

  8. Parametric Study on Ultimate Failure Criteria of Elbow Piping Components in Seismically Isolated NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahm, Dae Gi; Ki, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    It is well known that the interface pipes between isolated and non-isolated structures will become the most critical in the seismically isolated NPPs. Therefore, seismic performance of such interface pipes should be evaluated comprehensively especially in terms of the seismic fragility capacity. To evaluate the seismic capacity of interface pipes in the isolated NPP, firstly, we should define the failure mode and failure criteria of critical pipe components. Hence, in this study, we performed the dynamic tests of elbow components which were installed in a seismically isolated NPP, and evaluated the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria by using the test results. To do this, we manufactured 25 critical elbow component specimens and performed cyclic loading tests under the internal pressure condition. The failure mode and failure criteria of a pipe component will be varied by the design parameters such as the internal pressure, pipe diameter, loading type, and loading amplitude. From the tests, we assessed the effects of the variation parameters onto the failure criteria. For the tests, we generated the seismic input protocol of relative displacement between the ends of elbow component. In this paper, elbow in piping system was defined as a fragile element and numerical model was updated by component test. Failure mode of piping component under seismic load was defined by the dynamic tests of ultimate pipe capacity. For the interface piping system, the seismic capacity should be carefully estimated since that the required displacement absorption capacity will be increased significantly by the adoption of the seismic isolation system. In this study, the dynamic tests were performed for the elbow components which were installed in an actual NPPs, and the ultimate failure mode and failure criteria were also evaluated by using the test results.

  9. A Failure Estimation Method of Steel Pipe Elbows under In-plane Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bub-Gyu Jeon

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  10. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk [Seismic Simulation Tester Center, Pusan National University, Yangsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Nam Sik [Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation.

  11. A failure estimation method of steel pipe elbows under in-plane cyclic loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Sung Wan; Choi, Hyoung Suk; Park, Dong Uk; Kim, Nam Sik

    2017-01-01

    The relative displacement of a piping system installed between isolated and nonisolated structures in a severe earthquake might be larger when without a seismic isolation system. As a result of the relative displacement, the seismic risks of some components in the building could increase. The possibility of an increase in seismic risks is especially high in the crossover piping system in the buildings. Previous studies found that an elbow which could be ruptured by low-cycle ratcheting fatigue is one of the weakest elements. Fatigue curves for elbows were suggested based on component tests. However, it is hard to find a quantitative evaluation of the ultimate state of piping elbows. Generally, the energy dissipation of a solid structure can be calculated from the relation between displacement and force. Therefore, in this study, the ultimate state of the pipe elbow, normally considered as failure of the pipe elbow, is defined as leakage under in-plane cyclic loading tests, and a failure estimation method is proposed using a damage index based on energy dissipation

  12. Sensitivity Analysis on Elbow Piping Components in Seismically Isolated NPP under Seismic Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Hee Kun; Hahm, Dae Gi; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Bub Gyu; Kim, Nam Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, the FE model is verified using specimen test results and simulation with parameter variations are conducted. Effective parameters will randomly sampled and used as input values for simulations to be applied to the fragility analysis. pipelines are representative of them because they could undergo larger displacements when they are supported on both isolated and non-isolated structures simultaneously. Especially elbows are critical components of pipes under severed loading conditions such as earthquake action because strain is accumulated on them during the repeated bending of the pipe. Therefore, seismic performance of pipe elbow components should be examined thoroughly based on the fragility analysis. Fragility assessment of interface pipe should take different sources of uncertainty into account. However, selection of important sources and repeated tests with many random input values are very time consuming and expensive, so numerical analysis is commonly used. In the present study, finite element (FE) model of elbow component will be validated using the dynamic test results of elbow components. Using the verified model, sensitivity analysis will be implemented as a preliminary process of seismic fragility of piping system. Several important input parameters are selected and how the uncertainty of them are apportioned to the uncertainty of the elbow response is to be studied. Piping elbows are critical components under cyclic loading conditions as they are subjected large displacement. In a seismically isolated NPP, seismic capacity of piping system should be evaluated with caution. Seismic fragility assessment preliminarily needs parameter sensitivity analysis about the output of interest with different input parameter values.

  13. Evaluation of hyper-tempering and machining residual stresses in a pipe and a cast elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupas, P.; Le Delliou, P.; Sussen, L.

    1995-01-01

    Cast elbows in austeno-ferritic stainless steel from the primary circuit of nuclear power plants suffer from important residual stresses initiated during their manufacturing (hyper-tempering followed by machining). Measurements and calculations were performed to determine these stresses. Measurements show a difference between circumferential stresses in the depth of a pipe and of an elbow. On the contrary, calculations indicate similar profiles. Thus, the experimental differences cannot be explained by a geometrical effect of the elbow. (J.S.). 4 refs., 5 figs

  14. Internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltzersen, O. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway) Norwegian Inst. of Tech., Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Petroleum Engineering and Applied Geophysics); Waag, T.I. (IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway))

    1993-10-01

    Methods for internal ultrasonic inspection of flexible pipe have been investigated through experiments with a short sample of Coflexip pipe. Ultrasonic backscatter methods using normal and non-normal incidence have been used for qualitative high contrast ultrasonic imaging of the inner surface of the pipe. Analysis of the internal cross-section has been performed based on the use of a non-contact ultrasonic caliper, and processing procedures which enable calculation of, and compensation for, eccentricity of the tool in the pipe. The methods developed can be used to quantitatively estimate the thickness of the internal carcass, and perform high resolution topographic mapping of the inner surface. (Author)

  15. Flexible heat pipes with integrated bioinspired design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Yang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work we report the facile fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes that have integrated bioinspired wick structures and flexible polyurethane polymer connector design between the copper condenser and evaporator. Inside the heat pipe, a bioinspired superhydrophilic strong-base-oxidized copper mesh with multi-scale micro/nano-structures was used as the wicking material and deionized water was selected as working fluid. Thermal resistances of the fabricated flexible heat pipes charged with different filling ratios were measured under thermal power inputs ranging from 2 W to 12 W while the device was bent at different angles. The fabricated heat pipes with a 30% filling ratio demonstrated a low thermal resistance less than 0.01 K/W. Compared with the vertically oriented straight heat pipes, bending from 30° up to 120° has negligible influence on the heat-transfer performance. Furthermore, repeated heating tests indicated that the fabricated flexible heat pipes have consistent and reliable heat-transfer performance, thus would have important applications for advanced thermal management in three dimensional and flexible electronic devices.

  16. Thermalhydraulic study of a stratified flow in a piping elbow (Application to the model Coufast)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peniguel, C.; Stephan, J.M.

    1992-11-01

    In PWR's, mechanical damages (cracks) have been detected at the internal faces of steam generator feedwater piping and also in dead legs, when thermal stratification occurs. To gain some understanding on these issues, experimental and numerical programs have been set up at EDF. This paper reports a thermalhydraulic study of an elbow geometry under operating conditions leading to the establishment of a stable stratified flow. Results obtained with ESTET (a three dimensional finite differences-finite volume code solving the averaged Navier-Stokes equations) and comparisons with experimental data obtained on COUFAST (an analytical mock up, scale 1 of a French 900-MW PWR steam generator pipe elbow) are shown

  17. Analytical and numerical modeling for flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Chen, Geng

    2011-12-01

    The unbonded flexible pipe of eight layers, in which all the layers except the carcass layer are assumed to have isotropic properties, has been analyzed. Specifically, the carcass layer shows the orthotropic characteristics. The effective elastic moduli of the carcass layer have been developed in terms of the influence of deformation to stiffness. With consideration of the effective elastic moduli, the structure can be properly analyzed. Also the relative movements of tendons and relative displacements of wires in helical armour layer have been investigated. A three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model has been presented to predict the response of flexible pipes under axial force and torque. Further, the friction and contact of interlayer have been considered. Comparison between the finite element model and experimental results obtained in literature has been given and discussed, which might provide practical and technical support for the application of unbonded flexible pipes.

  18. Finite Element Limit Pressures for Circumferential Through-Wall Cracks in the Interface between Elbow and Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yoon-Young; Han, Tae-Song; Huh, Nam-Su; Jeong, Jae-Uk

    2014-01-01

    Among integrity assessment method based on a fracture mechanics concept for piping system, a limit load method is one of the important way to predict a maximum load carrying capacity in the materials with high ductility in the sense that it is used to either assess directly structural integrity of pipe based on fully plastic fracture mechanics or calculate elasticplastic fracture mechanics parameters based on reference stress concept. In nuclear power plants, piping system often involves elbows welded to straight pipe. Since welded regions are vulnerable to cracking, it is important to predict an accurate limit load for pipes with a crack in the interface between elbows and attached pipes. However, although extensive works have been made for developing limit analysis methods for cracked pipes, they were mainly for straight pipes. Recently, limit moment solutions for elbow that is attached to straight pipe with a circumferential through-wall crack(TWC) in the interface were proposed, whereas limit pressure for this geometry is not suggested yet. In this context, plastic limit pressures of circumferential TWCs between elbow and straight pipe were calculated in the present study considering geometric parameters such as an elbow curvature, a pipe size and a crack length. In the present study, the FE plastic limit analyses for circumferential TWC in the interface between elbow and pipe under internal pressure were conducted based on elastic perfectly plastic assumption. Based on the present FE results, it is found that plastic limit pressures of straight pipes with circumferential TWC are not appropriate for predicting plastic limit pressures of circumferential TWC in the interface between elbow and pipe for shorter crack length

  19. Experimental stress analysis of four machined 10-in. NPS piping elbows with specified geometric distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.; Dodge, W.G.; Bolt, S.E.

    1983-09-01

    Four specially fabricated nominal 10-in. NPS, 90 0 , long-radius, schedule 40, carbon-steel piping elbows, welded to short lengths of straight pipe, were stress analyzed both experimentally and analytically. One elbow had a circular cross section and a uniform wall thickness, while the other three had either a circular or elliptical cross section with either a uniform or variable wall thickness. The objectives of the tests were primarily to study the influence of out of roundness and wall-thickness variations on the stresses in piping elbows under internal pressure and/or applied moment loadings. Analytical studies were made to isolate the various effects by comparing the experimental data with theoretical baseline solutions. Results of the studies showed that analytical solutions based on no-end-effects (NEE) theory capture the major characteristics of the stress distributions for elbows loaded with pressure and/or in-plane, out-of-plane, or torsional moment loadings. Of the four second-order effects addressed in this study, and effects had the most influence on the stresses, followed in order by out of roundness, wall-thickness variations, and pressure-moment interactions. Of these, the only significant increase in maximum stresses above those predicted by NEE theory was for the case of out of roundness with internal-pressure loading

  20. Simplified inelastic (plastic and creep) analysis of pipe elbows subjected to inplane and out-of-plane bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Scheller, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The inelastic analysis of elbows typical of use in Liquid Metal Fast Reactor piping systems is described. Detailed information on stresses, plastic and creep strains, and deformations throughout the elbow bodies resulting from elastic/plastic, elastic/plastic/creep, and elastic/plastic-creep/relaxation material behavior was obtained for the cases of applied inplane and out-of-plane moment loading on the elbows. Some conclusions are made concerning the nature of the resulting stresses in the elbows. The simplified pipe-bend element in the MARC nonlinear finite element program is used as the analytical tool. This element permits nonlinear analysis of piping elbows and pipeline systems at realistic cost. 16 refs

  1. Automated numerical simulation of cracked plates, pipes and elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Babu; Sreehari Kumar, B.; Bhate, S.R.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2008-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, piping components are one of the key elements participating in its operation. Integrity of structural tubes and pipes plays a major role in nuclear power plants. The ideal procedure to ensure this aspect would be to conduct experimental studies on pilot/test specimens. However, it may not always be feasible to carry out the experimental investigation, as it requires pre-requisite infrastructure which may not be economically viable. This makes it imperative to conduct numerical simulations of the same particularly in the study of presence of cracks in the critical components. While performing the effect of cracks, the quality of the finite element mesh nearer to the crack tip plays a critical role while estimating J-integral value. The designer is often familiar with design methodology only and he obviously requires a convenient and reliable numerical tool to model and perform the analysis. In this context, an effort has been made in NISA, the general purpose finite element software, to automate the generation of FE meshes for a set of pre-defined components with different crack configurations. To simplify the procedure of FE mesh generation, analysis, and post processing, a graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed accordingly. This paper discusses the automated numerical simulation of plates and pipes with different crack configurations. This simulation software is also designed to help parametric study of cracked pipes. (author)

  2. The modal analysis of a pipe elbow with realistic boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, J.O.; Melo, F.J.Q. de; Rodrigues, J.F.D.; Lopes, H.; Teixeira, V.

    2005-01-01

    A vibration analysis for the determination of the natural frequencies and the associated eigenmodes of a pipe elbow with end-flanges or tangent terminations was performed. A numerical investigation of this problem was achieved with a semi-analytic definition finite ring element and a commercial finite element code. To assess the accuracy of the numerical solution for the elbow vibration, an experimental modal analysis was performed on a curved and on a straight pipe. The responses were processed by a data acquisition system which performs a fast Fourier transform on the time histories to convert them from a time to frequency domain, these leading to the extraction of natural frequencies and mode shapes associated with the test-specimen. The results were compared with the corresponding ones from the numerical approach and discussion about the results completes the paper

  3. Review of the analysis methods of surface crack for straight pipe and elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, H. S.; Jang, Y. S.; Jin, T. E.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to find out optimum EPFM analysis methods of straight pipe and elbow by comparison of load-carrying capacities. To do this, analytical and finite element analyses were performed and then these results compared with the ones in the literatures and experimental data to verify the validity of the analysis results. Comparison results showed that NSC method for straight pipe and SC.ELB2 method for elbow were appropriate ones among analytical methods except FEM to predict load-carrying capacities. However, the trend of prediction results scattered according to the analysis conditions such as geometry and material as well as analytical methods, it is necessary for cautious application of the analytical methods

  4. Experimental analysis of austenitic stainless steel straight pipes and elbows under pressure and moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrou, A.; Prost, J.P.; Delidais, M.

    1983-08-01

    In order to avoid undesirable plastic response in PWR primary system components, tests were performed on 1/10 scale pipes and elbows made from AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel. L/D ratios were from 0.56 to 4.50 mm, arc angles of elbows were 30 0 , 45 0 , 60 0 and 90 0 . Pipes were subjected to bending moments at 3 internal pressure levels. They were tested to determine the mode of failure and served as a reference for elbows. Elbows were subjected to in-plane (closing and opening) and out-of-plane bending moments, at 3 pressure and 2 temperature levels. During these tests, loadings and displacements of components were monitored. Ovalisation of sections was measured regularly. The experimental plastic collapse moment corresponding to excessive deformation was compared to the maximum allowable moment under Design conditions. The experimental plastic instability moment considered as a limit for functional capability was compared to the maximum allowable moment for level C and D service limits

  5. Inelastic finite element analysis of a pipe-elbow assembly (benchmark problem 2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, H P [Internationale Atomreaktorbau GmbH (INTERATOM) Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Prij, J [Netherlands Energy Research Foundation (ECN) Petten (Netherlands)

    1979-06-01

    In the scope of the international benchmark problem effort on piping systems, benchmark problem 2 consisting of a pipe elbow assembly, subjected to a time dependent in-plane bending moment, was analysed using the finite element program MARC. Numerical results are presented and a comparison with experimental results is made. It is concluded that the main reason for the deviation between the calculated and measured values is due to the fact that creep-plasticity interaction is not taken into account in the analysis. (author)

  6. J simplified assessment for cracked pipes and elbows in the RSE-M code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delliou, P.L.; Sermage, J.-P.; Gilles, P.; Marie, S.; Kayser, Y.; Barthelet, B.

    2005-01-01

    RSE-M Code provides rules and requirements for in-service inspection of French Pressurized Water Reactor power plant components. Non mandatory guidance is given in the Code for defect assessment in a wide range of configurations: surface cracked pipes and elbows under pressure, moment and thermal loading. The Code provides influence coefficients to calculate stress intensity factors in pipes and elbows containing semi-elliptical surface defects (circumferential or longitudinal). The J assessment method is based on the reference stress concept with two options for reference loads evaluation: 'CEP elastic plastic stress' and 'CLC modified limit load'. This paper presents an overview of all the formulations and namely the case of pipe-to elbow junctions. The paper provides also a description of the very large data base of 2D and 3D J elastic-plastic finite element calculations performed to establish and validate the formulations. Finally an applicability domain of the methods is given ensuring a conservative prediction of J. (authors)

  7. A Study on Effect of Local Wall Thinning in Carbon Steel Elbow Pipe on Elastic Stress Concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Seo, Jae Seok

    2009-01-01

    Feeder pipes that connect the inlet and outlet headers to the reactor core in CANDU nuclear power plants are considered as safety Class 1 piping items. Therefore, fatigue of feeder pipes should be assessed at design stage in order to verify structural integrity during design lifetime. In accordance with the fatigue assessment result, cumulative usage factors of some feeder pipes have significant values. The feeder pipes made of SA-106 Grade B or C carbon steel have some elbows and bends. An active degradation mechanism for the carbon steel outlet feeder piping is local wall thinning due to flow-accelerated corrosion. Inspection results from plants and metallurgical examinations of removed feeders indicated the presence of localized thinning in the vicinity of the welds in the lower portion of outlet feeders, such as Grayloc hub-to-bend weld, Grayloc hub-to-elbow weld, elbow-to-elbow, and elbow-to-pipe weld. This local wall thinning can cause increase of peak stress due to stress concentration by notch effect. The increase of peak stress results in increase of cumulative usage factor. However, present fatigue assessment doesn't consider the stress concentration due to local wall-thinning. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the effect of local wall thinning on stress concentration. This study investigates the effect of local wall thinning geometry on stress concentration by performing finite element elastic stress analysis

  8. Application of failure assessment diagram methods to cracked straight pipes and elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, R.A.; Gintalas, M.; Sahu, M.K.; Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports fracture assessments of large-scale straight pipes and elbows of various pipe diameters and crack sizes. The assessments estimate the load for ductile fracture initiation using the failure assessment diagram method. Recent solutions in the literature for stress intensity factor and limit load provide the analysis inputs. An assessment of constraint effects is also performed using recent solutions for elastic T-stress. It is found that predictions of initiation load are close to the experimental values for straight pipes under pure bending. For elbows, there is generally increased conservatism in the sense that the experimental loads are greater than those predicted. The effects of constraint are found not to be a major contributor to the initiation fracture assessments but may have some influence on the ductile crack extension. - Highlights: • This paper presents assessments of the loads for ductile fracture initiation in 21 large-scale piping tests. • Modern stress intensity factor and limit load solutions were used for standard failure assessment diagram methods. • This leads to generally accurate assessments of the loads for ductile crack initiation. • The effects of constraint are found not to be a major contributor to the initiation fracture assessments.

  9. The effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Weon; Yoon, Min Soo; Park, Chi Yong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We evaluated bending load effect on the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows. • Burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens with local wall thinning. • The tests were performed under combined pressure and load-controlled bending. • Load-controlled bending reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned elbows. • Bending load effect was significant for opening-mode and intrados wall-thinning case. - Abstract: In this research, burst tests were conducted on real-scale elbow specimens, each with an artificial local wall-thinning defect, under combined internal pressure and constant in-plane bending load, as well as under simple internal pressure, to evaluate the effect of load-controlled bending load on the failure pressure of locally wall-thinned pipe elbows. Ninety-degree, 65A Schedule 80 elbows, with wall-thinning defects in the intrados and extrados, were used as specimens. The bending loads were in-plane opening- and closing-mode bending, applied in load-control mode. The results clearly indicated that a load-controlled in-plane bending load reduced the failure pressure of wall-thinned pipe elbows, in contrast to observations previously made under displacement-controlled bending conditions. The effect of the bending load was more significant for opening-mode than for closing-mode bending, regardless of the wall-thinning location in the elbow. Also, the effect was greater when the wall-thinning defect was located in the intrados region of the elbow, rather than the extrados region. Existing models that have been proposed to evaluate the failure of wall-thinned elbows under simple internal pressure conservatively predicted the failure pressure of elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and load-controlled bending load

  10. Technical considerations for flexible piping design in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, S.C.; Chou, C.K.

    1985-01-01

    The overall objective of this research project is to develop a technical basis for flexible piping designs which will improve piping reliability and minimize the use of pipe supports, snubbers, and pipe whip restraints. The current study was conducted to establish the necessary groundwork based on the piping reliability analysis. A confirmatory piping reliability assessment indicated that removing rigid supports and snubbers tends to either improve or affect very little the piping reliability. A couple of changes to be implemented in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.61 and RG 1.122 aimed at more flexible piping design were investigated. It was concluded that these changes substantially reduce calculated piping responses and allows piping redesigns with significant reduction in number of supports and snubbers without violating ASME code requirements

  11. Prediction of fracture parameters of circumferential through-wall cracks in the interface between an elbow and a pipe under internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Youn Young; Huh, Nam Su [Dept. of Mechanical System Design Engineering, Seoul National Univ. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Uk [Doosan Heavy Industries and Construction, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    This paper provides plastic influence functions of GE/EPRI method for calculating J and Crack opening displacement (COD) of pipes with a circumferential Through-wall crack (TWC) in the interface between an elbow and a straight pipe by using 3-dimensional (3-D) elastic-plastic finite element analyses for Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) materials, in which internal pressure was considered as a loading condition. The proposed plastic influence functions are tabulated as a function of the pipe geometries, crack length and strain hardening exponent. In order to provide sufficient confidence for the proposed plastic influence functions, the estimation scheme using the proposed plastic influence functions for J and COD of cracked elbows was validated against FE results using R-O parameters for the SA312 TP316 stainless steel. Moreover, the predicted J and COD for elbows with a TWC in the interface between an elbow and a pipe by the proposed scheme were compared with those for cracked straight pipes to investigate the effect of the elbow geometries on crack behavior of elbows. One important point is that crack behaviors in the interface between an elbow and a straight pipe can be significantly different with those in straight pipes according to pipe thickness, crack length and bend radius of elbows. Thus, the proposed plastic influence functions can be useful to predict accurate J and COD for cracked elbows.

  12. Prediction of fracture parameters of circumferential through-wall cracks in the interface between an elbow and a pipe under internal pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Youn Young; Huh, Nam Su; Jeong, Jae Uk

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides plastic influence functions of GE/EPRI method for calculating J and Crack opening displacement (COD) of pipes with a circumferential Through-wall crack (TWC) in the interface between an elbow and a straight pipe by using 3-dimensional (3-D) elastic-plastic finite element analyses for Ramberg-Osgood (R-O) materials, in which internal pressure was considered as a loading condition. The proposed plastic influence functions are tabulated as a function of the pipe geometries, crack length and strain hardening exponent. In order to provide sufficient confidence for the proposed plastic influence functions, the estimation scheme using the proposed plastic influence functions for J and COD of cracked elbows was validated against FE results using R-O parameters for the SA312 TP316 stainless steel. Moreover, the predicted J and COD for elbows with a TWC in the interface between an elbow and a pipe by the proposed scheme were compared with those for cracked straight pipes to investigate the effect of the elbow geometries on crack behavior of elbows. One important point is that crack behaviors in the interface between an elbow and a straight pipe can be significantly different with those in straight pipes according to pipe thickness, crack length and bend radius of elbows. Thus, the proposed plastic influence functions can be useful to predict accurate J and COD for cracked elbows

  13. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses for Circumferential Part-Through Surface Cracks at the Interface Between elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  14. Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics Analyses For circumferential Part-through Surface Cracks At The Interface Between Elbows and Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae Kwang; Kim, Yun Jae; Oh, Chang Kyun; Kim, Jong Sung; Jin, Tae Eun

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents plastic limit loads and approximate J-integral estimates for circumferential part-through surface crack at the interface between elbows and pipes. Based on finite element limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials, plastic limit moments under in-plane bending are obtained and it is found that they are similar those for circumferential part-through surface cracks in the center of elbow. Based on present FE results, closed-form limit load solutions are proposed. Welds are not explicitly considered and all materials are assumed to be homogeneous. And the method to estimate the elastic-plastic J-integral for circumferential part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and straight pipes is proposed based on the reference stress approach, which was compared with corresponding solutions for straight pipes

  15. Net-section limit moments and approximate J estimates for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Tae-Kwang; Kim, Yun-Jae; Oh, Chang-Kyun; Jin, Tae-Eun; Kim, Jong-Sung

    2009-01-01

    This paper firstly presents net-section limit moments for circumferential through-wall and part-through surface cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending. Closed-form solutions are proposed based on fitting results from small strain FE limit analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic materials. Net-section limit moments for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes are found to be close to those for cracks in the centre of elbows, implying that the location of the circumferential crack within an elbow has a minimal effect on the net-section limit moment. Accordingly it is also found that the assumption that the crack locates in a straight pipe could significantly overestimate the net-section limit load (and thus maximum load-carrying capacity) of the cracked component. Based on the proposed net-section limit moment, a method to estimate elastic-plastic J based on the reference stress approach is proposed for circumferential cracks at the interface between elbows and attached straight pipes under in-plane bending.

  16. Strain measurements at the HDR-pipe-system under LOCA-load: Effects on elbows and displaced weldings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunger, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper characterizes some effects which have been detected during strain gauge measurements on a test piping with feed water check valve oscillating under blowdown-load. The ovalization of a pipe elbow subjected to in-plane-bending affects the connected straight pipe; this is shown by means of circumferential stresses. Very high LOCA-load produces plastic strain and changes the pipe dynamics. Artificial displaced welds increase the local strain but no defects have occurred. One example compares stresses from measurement and post-calculation. Moreover there are given some remarks on the optimization of the comparison of measurement and calculation. (orig.)

  17. Comparison and evaluation of flexible and stiff piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, W.; Tang, H.T.; Tang, Y.K.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental and numerical study was performed on a piping system, with various support configurations, to assess the difference in piping response for flexible and stiff piping systems. Questions have arisen concerning a basic design philosophy employed in present day piping designs. One basic question is, the reliability of a flexible piping system greater than that of a stiff piping system by virtue of the fact that a flexible system has fewer snubber supports. With fewer snubbers, the pipe is less susceptible to inadvertent thermal stresses introduced by snubber malfunction during normal operation. In addition to the technical issue, the matter of cost savings in flexible piping system design is a significant one. The costs associated with construction, in-service inspection and maintenance are all significantly reduced by reducing the number of snubber supports. The evaluation study, sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, was performed on a boiler feedwater line at Consolidated Edison's Indian Point Unit 1. In this study, the boiler feedwater line was tested and analyzed with two fundamentally different support systems. The first system was very flexible, employing rod and spring hangers, and represented the 'old' design philosophy. The pipe system was very flexible with this support system, due to the long pipe span lengths between supports and the fact that there was only one lateral support. This support did not provide much restraint since it was near an anchor. The second system employed strut and snubber supports and represented the 'modern' design philosophy. The pipe system was relatively stiff with this support system, primarily due to the increased number of supports, including lateral supports, thereby reducing the pipe span lengths between supports. The second support system was designed with removable supports to facilitate interchange of the supports with different support types (i.e., struts, mechanical snubbers and hydraulic

  18. A Study on the Instantaneous Turbulent Flow Field in a 90-Degree Elbow Pipe with Circular Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiming Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the special application of 90-degree elbow pipe in the HTR-PM, the large eddy simulation was selected to calculate the instantaneous flow field in the 90-degree elbow pipe combining with the experimental results. The characteristics of the instantaneous turbulent flow field under the influence of flow separation and secondary flow were studied by analyzing the instantaneous pressure information at specific monitoring points and the instantaneous velocity field on the cross section of the elbow. The pattern and the intensity of the Dean vortex and the small scale eddies change over time and induce the asymmetry of the flow field. The turbulent disturbance upstream and the flow separation near the intrados couple with the vortexes of various scales. Energy is transferred from large scale eddies to small scale eddies and dissipated by the viscous stress in the end.

  19. Intuitional experiment and numerical analysis of flow characteristics affected by flow accelerated corrosion in elbow pipe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Joon [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Seoul National University, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Hoon, E-mail: kimkh@khu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kyung Hee University, Seochun 1, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Wall-thinning erosion of pipelines in plants leads to fatal accidents unexpectedly. • Flow Acceleration Corrosion (FAC) is a main reason of wall-thinning. • For industrial safety, it is necessary to verify the tendency of FAC. • We focused on local wall thinning by FAC with intuitional visualization experiment and numerical analysis in elbow pipe.

  20. Numerical Analysis of Pelton Nozzle Jet Flow Behavior Considering Elbow Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chongji, Zeng; Yexiang, Xiao; Wei, Xu; Tao, Wu; Jin, Zhang; Zhengwei, Wang; Yongyao, Luo

    2016-11-01

    In Pelton turbine, the dispersion of cylindrical jet have a great influence on the energy interaction of jet and buckets. This paper simulated the internal flow of nozzle and the downstream free jet flow at 3 different needle strokes. The nozzle model consists of the elbow pipe and the needle rod which supported by 4 ribs. Homogenous model and SST k-ω model were adopted to simulate the unsteady two-phase jet flow. The development of free flow, including a contraction process followed by an expansion process, was analysed detailed as well as the influence of the nozzle geometry on the jet flow pattern. The increase of nozzle opening results in a more dispersion jet, which means a higher hydraulic loss. Upstream bend and ribs induce the secondary flow in the jet and decrease the jet concentration.

  1. Collapse moment estimation by support vector machines for wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Jin Weon; Hwang, In Joon

    2007-01-01

    The collapse moment due to wall-thinned defects is estimated through support vector machines with parameters optimized by a genetic algorithm. The support vector regression models are developed and applied to numerical data obtained from the finite element analysis for wall-thinned defects in piping systems. The support vector regression models are optimized by using both the data sets (training data and optimization data) prepared for training and optimization, and its performance verification is performed by using another data set (test data) different from the training data and the optimization data. In this work, three support vector regression models are developed, respectively, for three data sets divided into the three classes of extrados, intrados, and crown defects, which is because they have different characteristics. The relative root mean square (RMS) errors of the estimated collapse moment are 0.2333% for the training data, 0.5229% for the optimization data and 0.5011% for the test data. It is known from this result that the support vector regression models are sufficiently accurate to be used in the integrity evaluation of wall-thinned pipe bends and elbows

  2. Development of Pipe Holding Mechanism for Pipe Inspection Robot Using Flexible Pneumatic Cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Kyujun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pipe inspection robot is useful to reduce the inspection cost. In the previous study, a novel pipe inspection robot using a flexible pneumatic cylinder that can move forward along to the pipe by changing the robot’s body naturally was proposed and tested. In this paper, to improve its mobility for a corner of a pipe, the thin pipe holding mechanism using pneumatic bellows was proposed and tested. As a result of its driving test, the holding performance of the mechanism was confirmed.

  3. Study on flow-induced vibration of large-diameter pipings in a sodium-cooled fast reactor. Influence of elbow curvature on velocity fluctuation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Ayako; Kimura, Nobuyuki; Kamide, Hideki; Tobita, Akira

    2010-02-01

    The main cooling system of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) consists of two loops to reduce the plant construction cost. In the design of JSFR, sodium coolant velocity is beyond 9m/s in the primary hot leg pipe with large-diameter (1.3m). The maximum Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2x10 7 . The hot leg pipe having a 90 degree elbow with curvature ratio of r/D=1.0, so-called 'short elbow', which enables a compact reactor vessel. In sodium cooled fast reactors, the system pressure is so low that thickness of pipings in the cooling system is thinner than that in LWRs. Under such a system condition in the cooling system, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) is concerned at the short elbow. The evaluation of the structural integrity of pipings in JSFR should be conducted based on a mechanistic approach of FIV at the elbow. It is significant to obtain the knowledge of the fluctuation intensity and spectra of velocity and pressure fluctuations in order to grasp the mechanism of the FIV. In this study, water experiments were conducted. Two types of 1/8 scaled elbows with different curvature ratio, r/D=1.0, 1.5, were used to investigate the influence of curvature on velocity fluctuation at the elbow. The velocity fields in the elbows were measured using a high speed PIV method. Unsteady behavior of secondary flow at the elbow outlet and separation flow at the inner wall of elbow were observed in the two types of elbows. It was found that the growth of secondary flow correlated with the flow fluctuation near the inside wall of the elbow. (author)

  4. CAPD Software Development for Automatic Piping System Design: Checking Piping Pocket, Checking Valve Level and Flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ari Satmoko; Edi Karyanta; Dedy Haryanto; Abdul Hafid; Sudarno; Kussigit Santosa; Pinitoyo, A.; Demon Handoyo

    2003-01-01

    One of several steps in industrial plant construction is preparing piping layout drawing. In this drawing, pipe and all other pieces such as instrumentation, equipment, structure should be modeled A software called CAPD was developed to replace and to behave as piping drafter or designer. CAPD was successfully developed by adding both subprogram CHKUPIPE and CHKMANV. The first subprogram can check and gives warning if there is piping pocket in the piping system. The second can identify valve position and then check whether valve can be handled by operator hand The main program CAPD was also successfully modified in order to be capable in limiting the maximum length of straight pipe. By limiting the length, piping flexibility can be increased. (author)

  5. The effect of bi-directional loading on fatigue assessment of pressurized piping elbows with local thinned areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balan, C.; Redekop, D.

    2005-01-01

    An elastic-plastic finite element study is conducted to determine the effect of bi-directional loading on the fatigue characteristics of pressurized 90 deg. piping elbows with local thinned areas. The analysis is conducted on pressurized piping elbows considered previously in the literature, but analyzed only for in-plane loading. Considering also the out-of-plane loading the present analysis seeks to simulate simultaneous horizontal and vertical seismic actions. A validation study is first conducted in which the present results obtained for in-plane loading are compared with previous results. Comparisons are made for deformation patterns, hoop strain histories, and reaction forces. The relative in-plane to out-of-plane load intensities to be adopted for the combined loading case is determined next. Results considering bi-directional loadings are then found for the pressurized piping elbow for a total of 23 cases of local area thinning. Finally conclusions are drawn about the significance of considering the additional out-of-plane loading

  6. Condensation induced non-condensable accumulation in a non-vented horizontal pipe connected with an elbow and a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevanovic, V.D.; Stosic, Z.V.; Stoll, U.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the radiolytic gases (hydrogen and oxygen) accumulation is investigated numerically for the pipe geometry consisting of a horizontal pipe closed at one end, and connected via a downward directed elbow with a vertical pipe open at its bottom end. This configuration is a typical part of many pipeline systems or measuring lines. The steam inside the pipes is condensed due to heat losses to the surrounding atmosphere, the condensate is drained and the concentration of the remaining noncondensable radiolytic gases is increased. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed with the thermal-hydraulic and physico-chemical code HELIO, especially developed for the simulation and analyses of radiolytic gases accumulation in pipelines. The HELIO code model is based on the mass, momentum and energy conservation equations for the gas mixture and wall condensate film flow, as well as on the transport equations for non-condensable diffusion and convection. At the liquid film surface, the phases are coupled through the no-slip velocity condition and the mass transfer due to steam condensation and non-condensable absorption and degassing. Obtained numerical results show the gas mixture and condensate liquid film flow fields. In case of here analyzed geometry, the gas mixture circulates in the elbow and the horizontal pipe due to buoyancy forces induced by concentration and related density differences. The circulation flow prevents the formation of the radiolytic gases concentration front. The non-condensable radiolytic gases are transported from the pipe through the open end by the mechanisms of diffusion and convection. The analyzed geometry is the same as in case of venting pipe mounted on the steam pipeline. The results are of practical importance since they show that radiolytic gases accumulation does not occur in the geometry of the venting pipes. (authors)

  7. Determination of flexibility factors in curved pipes with end restraints using a semi-analytic formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, E.M.M.; Melo, F.J.M.Q. de; Oliveira, C.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Piping systems are structural sets used in the chemical industry, conventional or nuclear power plants and fluid transport in general-purpose process equipment. They include curved elements built as parts of toroidal thin-walled structures. The mechanical behaviour of such structural assemblies is of leading importance for satisfactory performance and safety standards of the installations. This paper presents a semi-analytic formulation based on Fourier trigonometric series for solving the pure bending problem in curved pipes. A pipe element is considered as a part of a toroidal shell. A displacement formulation pipe element was developed with Fourier series. The solution of this problem is solved from a system of differential equations using mathematical software. To build-up the solution, a simple but efficient deformation model, from a semi-membrane behaviour, was followed here, given the geometry and thin shell assumption. The flexibility factors are compared with the ASME code for some elbow dimensions adopted from ISO 1127. The stress field distribution was also calculated

  8. Large-eddy simulations of velocity and temperature fluctuations in hot and cold fluids mixing in a tee junction with an upstream straight or elbow main pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, T.; Attinger, D.; Liu, S.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Temperature and velocity fluctuations in a tee junction are predicted using LES. • The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. • Upstream elbow pipe has significant influence on those fluctuations. -- Abstract: Thermal striping resulting in thermal fatigue is an important safety issue for nuclear power plants. In this work, temperature and velocity fluctuations in hot and cold fluids mixing in a tee junction with the main pipe connected either to an upstream straight or elbow pipe have been numerically predicted using large-eddy simulations (LES) on the FLUENT platform with the assumption of fully-developed velocity at both main and branch pipe inlets. The numerical results for the case with an upstream straight pipe were found to be in reasonable agreement with the available experimental data. The reason for the small discrepancy between the numerical results and experimental data can be attributed to the turbulence velocity being 10% of the fully-developed velocity at the main and branch pipe inlets in the LES calculations, while in the experiments the turbulence velocity was about 10% of the average velocity upstream of the tee junction. The simulated normalized mean and root-mean square (RMS) temperatures and the velocities at both straight and elbow tees were then compared, as well as the power spectrum densities (PSD) of the temperature fluctuations. The elbow pipe upstream of the main pipe has a significant influence on the mixing, resulting in increased temperature and velocity fluctuations. The flow pattern of the elbow tee deviates from the wall jet due to the secondary flow in the upstream elbow pipe

  9. Fatigue analysis of flexible pipes using alternative element types and bend stiffener data

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Minghao

    2011-01-01

    The flexible pipe is a vital part of a floating production system. The lifetime of a flexible riser system is crucial for the Health Safety and Environment (HSE) management. As a result of this, it is very necessary to carry out research on the lifetime of flexible pipe. In this thesis we formalized analysis on flexible pipes, utilizing the finite element analysis software BFLEX 2010, developed by MARINTEK. Chapter 1 describes basic knowledge about flexible pipe and relevant facilities. C...

  10. Trunk-rotation flexibility in collegiate softball players with or without a history of shoulder or elbow injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragon, Veronica J; Oyama, Sakiko; Oliaro, Scott M; Padua, Darin A; Myers, Joseph B

    2012-01-01

    Throwing is a whole-body motion that requires the transfer of momentum from the lower extremity to the upper extremity via the trunk. No research to date examines the association between a history of shoulder or elbow injury and trunk flexibility in overhead athletes. To determine if injury history and trunk-rotation flexibility are associated and to compare trunk-rotation flexibility measured using 3 clinical tests: half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the back, half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the front, and seated rotation test in softball position players with or without a history of shoulder or elbow injury. Cross-sectional design. University softball facilities. Sixty-five female National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I softball position players. Trunk-rotation flexibility was measured with 3 clinical tests. Recent injury history was obtained using a questionnaire and verified by the certified athletic trainer. Binomial regression models were used to determine if injury history was associated with flexibility categories (high, normal, or limited tertiles) for each of the 6 (3 tests × 2 directions) trunk-rotation flexibility measures. Trunk-rotation flexibility measures from 3 clinical tests were compared between participants with and without a history of shoulder or elbow injury using analysis-of-variance models. When measured using the half-kneeling rotation test with the bar in the back and the seated rotation test, injury history and forward trunk-rotation flexibility were associated. However, no mean group differences were seen in trunk-rotation flexibility between participants with and without a history of shoulder or elbow injury. Limited forward trunk-rotation flexibility may be a risk factor for shoulder or elbow injuries. However, further study is needed to confirm the study finding.

  11. Life estimation of low-cycle fatigue of pipe elbows. Proposed criteria of low-cycle fatigue life under the multi-axial stress field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Kotoji; Takahashi, Koji; Matsuo, Kazuya; Urabe, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    Pipe elbows were important parts frequently used in the pipelines of nuclear power, thermal power and chemical plants, and their integrity needed to be assured under seismic loads and thermal stresses considering local wall thinning or complex stress distribution due to special configuration different from straight pipe. This article investigated in details elastic-plastic stress-strain state of pipe elbow using finite element analysis and clarified there existed high bi-axial stress field at side inner surface of pipe elbow axial cracks initiated. Bi-axial stress factor was around 0.6 for sound elbow and up to 0.95 for local wall thinning at crown. Fracture strain of 1.15 was reduced to around 0.15 for bi-axial stress factor from 0.6 to 0.9. Normalized fatigue life for bi-axial stress field (0.6 - 0.8) was largely reduced to around 15, 19 and 10% of fatigue life of uni-axial state dependent on material strength level. Proposed revised universal slopes taking account of multi-axial stress factor could explain qualitatively effects of strain range, internal pressure and ratchet strain (pre-strain) on low-cycle fatigue life of pipe elbow. (T. Tanaka)

  12. A methodology to evaluate the fatigue life of flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Fernando J.M. de; Sousa, Jose Renato M. de; Siqueira, Marcos Q. de; Sagrilo, Luis V.S. [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Lemos, Carlos Alberto D. de [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper focus on a methodology to perform the fatigue analysis of flexible pipes. This methodology employs functions that convert forces and moments obtained in global analyses into stresses. The stresses are then processed by well-known cycle counting methods, and S-N curves evaluate the damage at several points in the pipe cross-section. Palmgren-Miner linear damage hypothesis is assumed in order to calculate the accumulated fatigue damage. A parametric study on the fatigue life of a flexible pipe employing this methodology is presented. The main points addressed in the study are the influence of friction between layers in the results, the importance of evaluating the fatigue life in various points of the pipe cross-section and the effect of different mean stress levels. The obtained results suggest that the consideration of friction effects strongly influences the fatigue life of flexible risers and these effects have to be accounted both in the global and local analyses of the riser. Moreover, mean stress effects are also significant and at least 8 equally spaced wires in each analyzed section of the riser must be considered in fatigue analyses. (author)

  13. Simplified inelastic analysis of a 101.6-mm (4-in.), sched-10 elbow-pipe assembly subjected to an in-plane moment loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gwaltney, R.C.; McAfee, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported for a simplified inelastic analysis of a thin-walled elbow pipe assembly tested under elastic-elastic-creep conditions. The analysis was performed as part of an IWGFR-sponsored Piping Benchmark Problem Effort being coordinated by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). Comparisons are made between calculated and measured values of free-end displacement of the assembly and of outside surface strains at selected points in the elbow. The analyses overpredicted and deflections and surface strains by factors ranging from two to five. (author)

  14. Analysis and Optimisation of Carcass Production for Flexible Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe

    Un-bonded flexible pipes are used in the offshore oil and gas industry worldwide transporting hydrocarbons from seafloor to floating production vessels topside. Flexible pipes are advantageous over rigid pipelines in dynamic applications and during installation as they are delivered in full length......-axial tension FLC points were attained. Analysis of weld fracture of duplex stainless steel EN 1.4162 is carried out determining strains with GOM ARAMIS automated strain measurement system, which shows that strain increases faster in the weld zone than the global strain of the parent material. Fracture...... is the analysis and optimisation of the carcass manufacturing process by means of a fundamental investigation in the fields of formability, failure modes / mechanisms, Finite Element Analysis (FEA), simulative testing and tribology. A study of failure mechanisms in carcass production is performed by being present...

  15. Test of Seal System for Flexible Pipe End Fitting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars; Jensen, Thomas Gregers

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the end fitting seal system is to ensure leak proof termination of flexible pipes. The seal system of an NKT end fitting normally consists of a number of ring joint gaskets mounted in a steel sleeve on the outside of the polymeric inner liner of the pipe. The seal system is activated...... by compression of the gaskets, thus using the geometry to establish a seal towards the inner liner of the pipe and the steel sleeve of the end fitting. This paper describes how the seal system of an end fitting can be tested using an autoclave. By regulating temperature and pressure, the seal system can...... be tested up to 130oC and 51.7 MPa. Pressure, temperature and the mechanical behaviours of the pipe are measured for use in further research. The set-up is used to test the efficiency of the seal system as function of parameters such as cross sectional shapes of the gaskets, tolerances between gaskets...

  16. EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF FLEXIBLE BURIED PIPE DEFORMATION BEHAVIOR UNDER VARIOUS BACKFILL CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Uğur TERZİ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Deformation characteristics of polyethylene based flexible pipes are different than rigid pipes such as concrete and iron pipes. Deflection patterns and stress-strain behaviors of flexible pipes have strict relation between the engineering properties of backfill and its settlement method. In this study, deformation behavior of a 100 mm HDPE flexible pipe under vertical loads is investigated in laboratory conditions. Steel test box, pressurized membrane, raining system, linear position transducers and strain gauge rosettes are used in the laboratory tests. In order to analyze the buried pipe performance; Masada Derivation Formula which is mostly used by designers is employed. According to the test and mathematical studies, it is understood that relative density of backfill and its settlement method is a considerable effect on buried pipe performance and Masada Derivation method is very efficient for predicting the pipe performance.

  17. On the integrity of flexible pipes for subsea applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Marcos C. de; Brack, Marcelo; Lontra Filho, Lauro L.; Jorge, Nilo de M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Most of PETROBRAS offshore oil and gas production is conveyed through Flexible Pipes (FPs) used for gathering, exporting and importing functions. PETROBRAS is the greatest user of FPs worldwide and, due to the complexity of the FP, a composite structure having many steel and polymeric layers and end fittings, it implies a huge number of possible failure mechanisms, much more than those expected for steel pipes. The use of FP demands a special approach over all life cycle phases, from the basic engineering up to the operation/reuse/decommission, by evaluating the application feasibility together with potential failures. This paper accounts some of PETROBRAS experience on FPs, mainly a current approach on their integrity and planned measures in order to assure production and prevent accidents, based on the most relevant failure mechanisms. The preventive actions includes review on failures and their causes and, consequently, improvement on specifications, FP design verification, prototype qualification, inspection and monitoring of integrity key parameters during installation and operation, as well as, maintenance. A FPs Company Integrity Directives and Database will allow a continuous improvement of field systems reliability through to a periodic assessment of performances and feedback to activities for the whole FP life cycle. (author)

  18. An advanced revised universal slope method for low cycle fatigue evaluation of elbow piping subjected to in-plane cyclic bending displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    In order to rationalize the low cycle fatigue evaluation of elbow piping subjected to in-plane cyclic bending displacement, an advanced revised universal slope method is proposed. In the proposed method, the coefficient of the first term of the fatigue life equation which resembles Manson's equation is expressed by parameters of the multi-axial degree, the tensile strength and the fracture strength. Also, the coefficient of the second term is expressed by the multi-axial degree, the fracture ductility and the minimum fracture ductility under the maximum multi-axial degree. Here equivalent strain range is used for the fatigue life estimation. The previously carried out pipe elbow test data were reanalyzed using the proposed method. As the result, the experimentally obtained fatigue lives had considerably good coincidences with the predicted fatigue lives by the proposed method. Application of the proposed method is also discussed. (author)

  19. Fabrication and performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes for potential thermal control of foldable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Chao; Chang, Chao; Song, Chengyi; Shang, Wen; Wu, Jianbo; Tao, Peng; Deng, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A flexible and high-performance heat pipe is fabricated. • Bending effect on thermal performance of flexible heat pipes is evaluated. • Theoretical analysis is carried out to reveal the change of thermal resistance with bending. • Thermal control of foldable electronics with flexible heat pipes is demonstrated. - Abstract: In this work, we report the fabrication and thermal performance evaluation of flexible heat pipes prepared by using a fluororubber tube as the connector in the adiabatic section and using strong base treated hydrophilic copper meshes as the wick structure. Deionized water was chosen as working fluid and three different filling ratios (10%, 20%, and 30%) of working fluid were loaded into the heat pipe to investigate its impact on thermal performance. The fabricated heat pipes can be easily bended from 0"o to 180"o in the horizontal operation mode and demonstrated consistently low thermal resistances after repeated bending. It was found that with optimized amount of working fluid, the thermal resistance of flexible heat pipes increased with larger bending angles. Theoretical analysis reveals that bending disturbs the normal vapor flow from evaporator to condenser in the heat pipe, thus leads to increased liquid–vapor interfacial thermal resistance in the evaporator section. The flexible heat pipes have been successfully applied for thermal control of foldable electronic devices showing superior uniform heat-transfer performance.

  20. Effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Weon; Na, Man-Gyun; Park, Chi-Yong

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of local wall thinning on the collapse behavior of pipe elbows subjected to a combined internal pressure and in-plane bending load. This study evaluated the global deformation behavior and collapse moment of the elbows, which contained various types of local wall-thinning defects at their intrados or extrados, using three-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The analysis results showed that the global deformation behavior of locally wall-thinned elbows was largely governed by the mode of the bending and the elbow geometry rather than the wall-thinning parameters, except for elbows with considerably large and deep wall thinning that showed plastic instabilities induced by local buckling and plastic collapsing in the thinned area. The reduction in the collapse moment with wall-thinning depth was considerable when local buckling occurred in the thinned areas, whereas the effect of the thinning depth was small when ovalization occurred. The effects of the circumferential thinning angle and thinning length on the collapse moment of elbows were not major for shallow wall-thinning cases. For deeper wall-thinning cases, however, their effects were significant and the dependence of collapse moment on the axial thinning length was governed by the stress type applied to the wall-thinned area. Typically, the reduction in the collapse moment due to local wall thinning was clearer when the thinning defect was located at the intrados rather than the extrados, and it was apparent for elbows with larger bend radius

  1. A flexible film type EMAT for inspection of small diameter pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Cuixiang; Xiao, Pan; Zhao, Siqi; Chen, Zhenmao [Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an (China); Takagi, Toshiyuki [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    Pipe structures are widely applied in industries, and different kinds of defects may occur in the structures during their long-time service. For non-destructive testing of defects in pipes of small diameter, it has to be conducted from the inner side of the pipe when there is no space for detection from the outside or the geometry of the outside tube surface is too complicated. In this work, a flexible film type Electromagnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) probe with a dual coil configuration is developed. The new probe is flexible and can be inserted into the pipe for inspection. First, the feasibility of the new probe was studied through numerical simulation. Then the feasibility of the proposed flexible EMAT for detection of wall thinning in small diameter pipe was verified experimentally. It was found that the new EMAT method is suitable for the detection of wall thinning defects for small pipes.

  2. LMFBR flexible pipe joint development program. Annual technical progress report, government fiscal year 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Currently, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code does not allow the use of flexible pipe joints (bellows) in Section III, Class 1 reactor primary piping systems. Studies have shown that the primary piping loops of LMFBR's could be simplified by using these joints. This simplification translates directly into shorter primary piping runs and reduced costs for the primary piping system. Further cost savings result through reduced vault sizes and reduced containment building diameter. In addition, the use of flexible joints localizes the motions from thermally-induced piping growth into components which are specifically designed to accommodate this motion. This reduces the stress levels in the piping system and its components. It is thus economically and structurally important that flexible piping joints be available to the LMFBR designer. The overall objective of the Flexible Joint Program is to provide this availability. This will be accomplished through the development of ASME rules which allow the appropriate use of such joints in Section III, Class 1 piping systems and through the development and demonstration of construction methods which satisfy these rules. The rule development includes analytic and testing methodology formulations which will be supported by subscale bellows testing. The construction development and demonstration encompass the design, fabrication, and in-sodium testing of prototypical LMFBR plant-size flexible pipe joints which meet all ASME rule requirements. The satisfactory completion of these developmental goals will result in an approved flexible pipe joint design for the LMFBR. Progress is summarized in the following efforts undertaken during 1977 to accomplish these goals: (1) code case support, (2) engineering and design, (3) material development, (4) testing, and (5) manufacturing development

  3. A novel numerical model for estimating the collapse pressure of flexible pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Victor P.P.; Antoun Netto, Theodoro [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia], e-mail: victor@lts.coppe.ufrj.br

    2009-07-01

    As the worldwide oil and gas industry operational environments move to ultra-deep waters, failure mechanisms in flexible pipes such as instability of the armor layers under compression and hydrostatic collapse are more likely to occur. Therefore, it is important to develop reliable numerical tools to reproduce the failure mechanisms that may occur in flexible pipes. This work presents a representative finite element model of flexible pipe capable to reproduce its pre and post-collapse behavior under hydrostatic pressure. The model, developed in the scope of this work, uses beam elements and includes nonlinear kinematics and material behavior influences. The dependability of the numerical results is assessed in light of experimental tests on flexible pipes with 4 inches and 8 inches nominal diameter available in the literature (Souza, 2002). The applied methodology provided coherent values regarding the estimation of the collapse pressures and results have shown that the proposed model is capable to reproduce experimental results. (author)

  4. On modelling of lateral buckling failure in flexible pipe tensile armour layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, a mathematical model which is capable of representing the physics of lateral buckling failure in the tensile armour layers of flexible pipes is introduced. Flexible pipes are unbounded composite steel–polymer structures, which are known to be prone to lateral wire buckling...... when exposed to repeated bending cycles and longitudinal compression, which mainly occurs during pipe laying in ultra-deep waters. On the basis of multiple single wire analyses, the mechanical behaviour of both layers of tensile armour wires can be determined. Since failure in one layer destabilises...... the torsional equilibrium which is usually maintained between the layers, lateral wire buckling is often associated with a severe pipe twist. This behaviour is discussed and modelled. Results are compared to a pipe model, in which failure is assumed not to cause twist. The buckling modes of the tensile armour...

  5. Flexible mobile robot system for smart optical pipe inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, Wolfram; Bartzke, Ralf; Ziehl, Wolfgang

    1998-03-01

    Damages of pipes can be inspected and graded by TV technology available on the market. Remotely controlled vehicles carry a TV-camera through pipes. Thus, depending on the experience and the capability of the operator, diagnosis failures can not be avoided. The classification of damages requires the knowledge of the exact geometrical dimensions of the damages such as width and depth of cracks, fractures and defect connections. Within the framework of a joint R&D project a sensor based pipe inspection system named RODIAS has been developed with two partners from industry and research institute. It consists of a remotely controlled mobile robot which carries intelligent sensors for on-line sewerage inspection purpose. The sensor is based on a 3D-optical sensor and a laser distance sensor. The laser distance sensor is integrated in the optical system of the camera and can measure the distance between camera and object. The angle of view can be determined from the position of the pan and tilt unit. With coordinate transformations it is possible to calculate the spatial coordinates for every point of the video image. So the geometry of an object can be described exactly. The company Optimess has developed TriScan32, a special software for pipe condition classification. The user can start complex measurements of profiles, pipe displacements or crack widths simply by pressing a push-button. The measuring results are stored together with other data like verbal damage descriptions and digitized images in a data base.

  6. Comparison of the stress distribution in the metallic layers of flexible pipes using two alternative Bflex formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Yunzhu

    2014-01-01

    Axisymmetric load is the most common load acting on flexible pipe. Modelling axisymmetric load correctly is very important to estimate the strength of a flexible pipe. The purpose of the thesis is to compare the stress distribution in metallic layers under three load case, i.e. tension, internal pressure and external pressure. Literature study and discussion to mechanical properties of flexible pipe and finite element modelling method are included in the thesis. The modelling program is BFLEX...

  7. Imperfection analysis of flexible pipe armor wires in compression and bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Niels Højen; Lyckegaard, Anders; Andreasen, Jens H.

    2012-01-01

    The work presented in this paper is motivated by a specific failure mode known as lateral wire buckling occurring in the tensile armor layers of flexible pipes. The tensile armor is usually constituted by two layers of initially helically wound steel wires with opposite lay directions. During pipe...... ability of the wires. This may cause the wires to buckle in the circumferential pipe direction, when these are restrained against radial deformations by adjacent layers. In the present paper, a single armoring wire modeled as a long and slender curved beam embedded in a frictionless cylinder bent...

  8. Reconciliation of equipment flexibility effects on piping system dynamic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraets, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    Piping systems are connected to equipment; if the equipment cannot be considered as ''rigid'' relative to excitation frequencies, nozzle response spectra techniques, or equipment modeling techniques are used. If the equipment is considered rigid, a fixed anchor is assumed. However, occasionally after (seismic) dynamic analysis has been completed, tests or detailed equipment dynamic analyses demonstrate that the assumption of ''infinite stiff'' is questionable. This paper reviews several classes of equipment (pumps, vessels, reservoirs, heat exchangers), and the associated (piping stresses, support loads, equipment nozzle allowables). Significant divergences between design and ''as built'' results are shown (for heat exchangers in particular). The paper discusses the reconciliation process performed for a belgian PWR plant through the use of less conservative seismic damping data (Code Case N-411)

  9. Tennis elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epitrochlear bursitis; Lateral epicondylitis; Epicondylitis - lateral; Tendonitis - elbow ... tennis or other racket sports, hence the name "tennis elbow." Backhand is the most common stroke to cause ...

  10. Design, fabrication and performance tests for a polymer-based flexible flat heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Shou-Shing; Yang, Ya-Ru

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fabrication of a polymer-based flexible flat heat pipe. ► Bending angle of 15° will lead to a better thermal performance of the system. ► Powers higher than 12.67 W can be transferred/delivered. - Abstract: In this paper, we report on the novel design, fabrication and performance tests for a polymer-based flexible flat heat pipe (FHP) with a bending angle in the range of 15–90°. Each heat pipe is 4 mm thick, 20 mm wide and 80 mm long, with two layers of No. 250 copper mesh as the wicking material. A copper/silicone rubber hybrid structure is designed and fabricated to achieve the flexibility of the heat pipe. Thermal characteristics are measured and studied for de-ionized water under different working conditions. Experimental results reveal that a bending angle of 15° on the vertical plane has a better thermal performance than those of heat pipes with/without bending. In addition, a higher power of 12.67 W can be transferred/delivered

  11. Qualification of new design of flexible pipe against singing: testing at multiple scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Lunde, K.; Vijlbrief, O.

    2016-01-01

    Flexible pipes for production of oil and gas typically present a corrugated inner surface. This has been identified as the cause of "singing risers": Flow-Induced Pulsations due to the interaction of sound waves with the shear layers at the small cavities present at each of the multiple

  12. A finite element model for the stress and flexibility analysis of curved pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1987-03-01

    We present a finite element model for the analysis of pipe bends with flanged ends or flanged tangents. Comments are made on the consideration of the internal pressure load. Flexibility and stress instensification factores obtained with the present model are compared with others available. (Author) [pt

  13. Torsion instability of Flexible Pipes at the TDP - Torsjonsinstabilitet av fleksible rør med sjøbunnskontakt

    OpenAIRE

    Hansson, Linn Storesund

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic flexible risers are a common term for cables, umbilicals and flexible pipes,that are freely or semi-freely suspended between two points (offshore). Flexible pipes are mostly used to transport fluids between platforms/ships etc. to a flow-line/sea floor installation or similar. The safe operating window for the installation is limited by whether induced motion of the installation vessel giving rise to dynamic tension and curvature at the touch-down-zone (TDZ). By investigation and ...

  14. Excessive deformation and failure of straight parts and elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touboul, F.; Acker, D.

    1991-01-01

    The design rules for LMFBRs must cover the ranges of loading types and geometries wider than PWR Design Codes. Steam pipework does not differ between two reactor systems, but as far as sodium piping is concerned, usual PWR criteria may not be adequate. The LMFBR sodium piping is operated at high temperature and low pressure level. Moreover, these peculiar loadings require the geometrical characteristics completely different in the fact that the piping must be flexible but need not to be thick. For such piping components, the ultimate behavior depends much on the geometry. 170 experimental results on straight parts and 95 results on elbows were investigated. As for elbows, half of the tests were performed under in-plane closing moment. On the analysis of straight pipes and elbows, the experiments and the proposed expressions for the evaluation of collapse and instability moments are described, respectively. The application of the present study to the design rules and the criteria for various loading conditions are reported. It is difficult to experimentally distinguish between plastic instability and buckling. (K.I.)

  15. Piping Flexibility Analysis of the Primary Cooling System of TRIGA 2000 Bandung Reactor due to Earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahardjo, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    Earthquakes in a nuclear installation can overload a piping system which is not flexible enough. These loads can be forces, moments and stresses working on the pipes or equipment. If the load is too large and exceed the allowable limits, the piping and equipment can be damaged and lead to overall system operation failure. The load received by piping systems can be reduced by making adequate piping flexibility, so all the loads can be transmitted homogeneously throughout the pipe without load concentration at certain point. In this research the analysis of piping stress has been conducted to determine the size of loads that occurred in the piping of primary cooling system of TRIGA 2000 Reactor, Bandung if an earthquake happened in the reactor site. The analysis was performed using Caesar II software-based finite element method. The ASME code B31.1 arranging the design of piping systems for power generating system (Power Piping Code) was used as reference analysis method. Modeling of piping systems was based on the cooling piping that has already been installed and the existing data reported in Safety Analysis Reports (SARs) of TRIGA 2000 reactor, Bandung. The quake considered in this analysis is the earthquake that occurred due to the Lembang fault, since it has the Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) in the Bandung TRIGA 2000 reactor site. The analysis results showed that in the static condition for sustain and expansion loads, the stress fraction in all piping lines does not exceed the allowable limit. However, during operation moment, in dynamic condition, the primary cooling system is less flexible at sustain load, expansion load, and combination load and the stress fraction have reached 95,5%. Therefore a pipeline modification (re-routing) is needed to make pipe stress does not exceed the allowable stress. The pipeline modification was carried out by applied a gap of 3 mm in the X direction of the support at node 25 and eliminate the support at the node 30, also a

  16. A Study on the Characteristics of Corrosion in Cold Worked Flexible STS 304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Soo; Kim, Sung Jin

    1993-01-01

    Effects of cold working on the corrosion resistance of austenitic STS 304 stainless steel pipes were investigated using anodic polarization method, EDX analysis and SEM technique. Corrosion products had a lots of S and Cl - ion. Generally, corrosion patterns as a result of STS 304 stainless steel to concrete environment were proceeded in the order of the pitting to intergranular corrosion. In the case of the flexible pipes were covered tightly with other polymer materials, crevice corrosion occurred to a much greater extent on austenitic than on martensitic region

  17. Study of near-source earthquake effects on flexible buried pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Craig Alan

    2000-10-01

    An investigation is carried out, using strong ground motion recordings, field measurements, and new analytical models, on large diameter flexible buried pipes shaken in the 1994 Northridge earthquake near field. Case studies are presented for corrugated metal pipes (CMP) in the Van Norman Complex (VNC) vicinity in Los Angeles, California. In 1994 the VNC yielded an unprecedented number of strong motion recordings with high acceleration and velocity. These recordings contain forward directivity pulses and provided the largest velocity ever instrumentally recorded (180 cm/s). The recorded motions were significantly different in the longitudinal and transverse directions and had approximately half the amplitude at the VNC center than on the north and south ends. The seismic performances of 61 underground CMPs are presented, beginning with detailed studies of a 2.4 m diameter pipe that suffered complete lateral buckling collapse at the Lower San Fernando Dam (LSFD). The case histories identify factors controlling large diameter CMP seismic performances that are incorporated into several newly developed models for the analysis and design of buried structures. Each model progressively improves the understanding of buried pipe behavior. Simple acceleration- and strain-based pseudo-static models are initially developed to identify main causes for CMP damage. Elasto-dynamic models for transverse SV waves are later used to understand flexible pipe response in the frequency and time domains and are compared with existing solutions. Finally, pseudo-static models, which analyze pipe responses in terms of free-field strains, are formulated to account for dynamic amplification, non-vertical wave incidence, soil layering, and trench backfill soil stiffness. The elastic models are used to investigate soil-pipe interface shear stress and non-linear soil behavior and show that the maximum pipe hoop force is best characterized by assuming no interface slippage. The models explain the

  18. A comparative study on effective dynamic modeling methods for flexible pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Ho; Hong, Sup; Kim, Hyung Woo [Korea Research Institute of Ships and Ocean Engineering, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Soo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    In this paper, in order to select a suitable method that is applicable to the large deflection with a small strain problem of pipe systems in the deep seabed mining system, the finite difference method with lumped mass from the field of cable dynamics and the substructure method from the field of flexible multibody dynamics were compared. Due to the difficulty of obtaining experimental results from an actual pipe system in the deep seabed mining system, a thin cantilever beam model with experimental results was employed for the comparative study. Accuracy of the methods was investigated by comparing the experimental results and simulation results from the cantilever beam model with different numbers of elements. Efficiency of the methods was also examined by comparing the operational counts required for solving equations of motion. Finally, this cantilever beam model with comparative study results can be promoted to be a benchmark problem for the flexible multibody dynamics.

  19. Non-linear finite element analysis of flexible pipes for deep-water applications

    OpenAIRE

    Edmans, Ben

    2013-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University London Flexible pipes are essential components in the subsea oil and gas industry, where they are used to convey fluids under conditions of extreme external pressure and (often) axial load, while retaining low bending stiffness. This is made possible by their complex internal structure, consisting of unbonded components that are, to a certain extent, free to move internally relative to eac...

  20. Elbow Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is also an important factor when treating elbow fractures. Casts are used more frequently in children, as their risk of developing elbow stiffness is small; however, in an adult, elbow stiffness is much more likely. Rehabilitation directed by your doctor is often used to ...

  1. Influence of elbow curvature on flow structure at elbow outlet under high Reynolds number condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, A., E-mail: ono.ayako@jaea.go.jp [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan); Kimura, N.; Kamide, H.; Tobita, A. [Oarai Research and Development Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Narita 4002, Oarai, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2011-11-15

    In the design of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR), coolant velocity is beyond 9 m/s in the primary hot leg pipe of 1.27 m diameter. The Reynolds number in the piping reaches 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7}. Moreover, a short-elbow is adopted in the hot leg pipe in order to achieve compact plant layout and to reduce plant construction cost. Therefore, the flow-induced vibration (FIV) arising from the piping geometry may occur in the short-elbow pipe. The FIV is due to the excitation source which is caused by the pressure fluctuation in the pipe. The pressure fluctuation in the pipe is closely related with the velocity fluctuation. As the first step of clarification of the FIV mechanism, it is important to grasp the mechanism of flow fluctuation in the elbow. In this study, water experiments with two types of elbows with different curvature ratios were conducted in order to investigate the interaction between flow separation and the secondary flow due to the elbow curvature. The experiments were conducted with the short-elbow and the long-elbow under Re = 1.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} and 5.4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} conditions. The velocity fields in the elbows were measured using a high-speed Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The time-series of axial velocity fields and the cross-section velocity fields obtained by the high-speed PIV measurements revealed the unsteady and complex flow structure in the elbow. The flow separation always occurred in the short-elbow while the flow separation occurred intermittently in the long-elbow case. The circumferential secondary flows in clockwise and counterclockwise directions flowed forward downstream of reattachment point alternately in both elbows.

  2. Flexible metallic ultrasonic transducers for structural health monitoring of pipes at high temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Jeanne-Louise; Kobayashi, Makiko; Jen, Cheng-Kuei

    2010-09-01

    Piezoelectric films have been deposited by a sol-gel spray technique onto 75-μm-thick titanium and stainless steel (SS) membranes and have been fabricated into flexible ultrasonic transducers (FUTs). FUTs using titanium membranes were glued and those using SS membranes brazed onto steel pipes, procedures that serve as on-site installation techniques for the purpose of offering continuous thickness monitoring capabilities at up to 490 °C. At 150 °C, the thickness measurement accuracy of a pipe with an outer diameter of 26.6 mm and a wall thickness of 2.5 mm was estimated to be 26 μm and the center frequency of the FUT was 10.8 MHz. It is demonstrated that the frequency bandwidth of the FUTs and SNR of signals using glue or brazing materials as high-temperature couplant for FUTs are sufficient to inspect the steel pipes even with a 2.5 mm wall thickness.

  3. Elbow Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tear damage than are many other joints. Seek emergency care if you have: An obvious deformity in ... http://www.mayoclinic.org/symptoms/elbow-pain/basics/definition/SYM-20050874 . Mayo Clinic Footer Legal Conditions and ...

  4. Investigation of fretting behaviour in pressure armour layers of flexible pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don Rasika Perera, Solangarachchige

    The incidence of fretting damage in the pressure armour wires of flexible pipes used in offshore oil explorations has been investigated. A novel experimental facility which is capable of simulating nub and valley contact conditions of interlocking wire winding with dynamic slip, representative of actual pipe loading, has been developed. The test set-up is equipped with a state of the art data acquisition system and a controller with transducers to measure and control the normal load, slip amplitude and friction force at the contact, in addition to the hoop stress in the wire. Tests were performed with selected loading and the fretted regions were examined using optical microscopy techniques. Results show that the magnitude of contact loading and the slip amplitude have a distinct influence on surface damage. Surface cracks originated from a fretting scar were observed at high contact loads in mixed slip sliding while surface damage predominantly due to wear was observed under gross slip. The position of surface cracks and the wear profile have been related to the contact pressure distribution. The evolution of friction force and surface damage under different slip and normal pressure conditions has been analysed. A fracture mechanics based numerical procedure has been developed to analyse the fretting damage behaviour. A severity parameter is proposed in order to ascertain whether the crack growth is in mode I or mode II cracking. The analysis show the influence of mode II cracking in the early stages of crack growth following which the crack deviates in the mode I direction making mode I the dominant crack propagation mechanism. The crack path determined by the numerical procedure correlates well with the experimental results. A numerical analysis was carried out for the fretting fatigue condition where a cyclic bulk stress superimposes with the friction force. The analysis correlates well with short crack growth behaviour. The analysis confirms that fretting is a

  5. Evaluation of Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Armour Wires in Flexible Pipes, Power Cables and Umbilicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiying

    Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of armour wires in flexible pipes, power cables and umbilicals is a major concern with the development of oil and gas fields and wind farms in harsh environments. Hydrogen induced cracking (HIC) or hydrogen embrittlement (HE) of steel armour wires used in deep-water and ultra-deep-water has been evaluated. Simulated tests have been carried out in simulated sea water, under conditions where the susceptibility is the highest, i.e. at room temperature, at the maximum negative cathodic potential and at the maximum stress level expected in service for 150 hours. Examinations of the tested specimens have not revealed cracking or blistering, and measurement of hydrogen content has confirmed hydrogen charging. In addition, sulphide stress cracking (SSC) and chloride stress cracking (CSC) of nickel-based alloy armour wires used in harsh down-hole environments has been evaluated. Simulated tests have been carried out in simulated solution containing high concentration of chloride, with high hydrogen sulphide partial pressure, at high stress level and at 120 °C for 720 hours. Examinations of the tested specimens have not revealed cracking or blistering. Subsequent tensile tests of the tested specimens at ambient pressure and temperature have revealed properties similar to the as-received specimens.

  6. [Elbow dislocation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pablo Márquez, B; Castillón Bernal, P; Bernaus Johnson, M C; Ibañez Aparicio, N M

    Elbow dislocation is the most frequent dislocation in the upper limb after shoulder dislocation. Closed reduction is feasible in outpatient care when there is no associated fracture. A review is presented of the different reduction procedures. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Current state of low-cycle fatigue research based on multiaxial stress intensity and its challenges. Part 1. Focusing on low-cycle fatigue strength evaluation method of elbow piping subjected to in-plane cyclic bending displacement load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    The R and D of fatigue strength at multiaxial stress intensity is recognized to become extremely important in the future in terms of the elaboration of low-cycle fatigue evaluation of various structures including piping systems and reflection on those standards. This paper focuses on the evaluation method developed by the author, namely cumulative damage rule in consideration of multiaxial stress intensity, and explains the concept and the results of verification and evaluation. It also discusses the engineering problems of the current low cycle fatigue assessment technology that were clarified in the process of developing low-cycle fatigue assessment method based on multiaxial stress intensity. The conservative lifespan and somewhat more conservative actual lifetime of elbow piping can be estimated by the conventional 'revised universal slope method' and 'advanced revised universal slope method.' However, these are empirical rules, and the theoretical basis is not clear. From 'cumulative damage rule in consideration of multiaxial stress intensity,' the author calculated furthermore 'low cycle fatigue evaluation formula based on cumulative damage rule in consideration of multi-axial stress intensity,' and examined it. As a result, an evaluation formula that can reasonably assume the equivalent thermoplastic strain range could be obtained at half of the repeat count as targeted. Furthermore, at the stage where future high precision FEM analysis can be used, direct low-cycle fatigue life curve can be established. (A.O.)

  8. Tennis elbow: associated psychological factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aben, Aurelie; De Wilde, Lieven; Hollevoet, Nadine; Henriquez, Carlos; Vandeweerdt, Marc; Ponnet, Koen; Van Tongel, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The etiology of tennis elbow is multifactorial. Overuse of the wrist extensors along with anatomic factors, such as flexibility problems, aging, and poor blood circulation, may play a role. This study investigated whether patients with tennis elbow have a different psychological profile compared with healthy controls. Patients with clinical signs of tennis elbow, consulting at the Ghent University Hospital between September 2015 and January 2017, were offered a paper-and-pencil questionnaire about Big Five personality traits, perfectionism, anxiety, depression, work satisfaction, and working conditions. Healthy controls in the same risk group were offered the same questionnaires. We recruited 69 patients (35 men, 34 women) and 100 controls (44 men, 56 women). Tennis elbow patients scored significantly lower on the personality traits extraversion and agreeableness. Men, in particular, scored significantly higher on perfectionism and were more likely to develop an anxiety disorder or a depression. Concerning work, patients indicated a significantly higher workload (especially men) and a significantly lower autonomy (especially women). Female patients also indicated less contact with colleagues. However, work satisfaction was relatively high in both groups. The results suggest that there is a relationship between complaints related to tennis elbow and psychological characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Erosion resistant elbow for solids conveyance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    An elvow and process for fabrication for use in particulate material conveying comprising a curved outer pipe, a curved inner pipe having the same radius of curvature as the outer pipe, concentric with and internal to the outer pipe, comprising an outer layer comprised of a first material and an inner layer comprised of a second material wherein said first material is characterized by high erosion resistance when impinged by particulate material and wherein said second material is characterized by high tensile strength and flexibility, and an inner pipe supporting means for providing support to said inner pipe, disposed between said inner pipe and said outer pipe. 4 figures.

  10. Elbow tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitzer, Michael E; Seidenberg, Peter H; Bader, Dov A

    2014-07-01

    Overuse injuries of the lateral and medial elbow are common in sport, recreational activities, and occupational endeavors. They are commonly diagnosed as lateral and medial epicondylitis; however, the pathophysiology of these disorders demonstrates a lack of inflammation. Instead, angiofibroblastic degeneration is present, referred to as tendinosis. As such, a more appropriate terminology for these conditions is epicondylosis. This is a clinical diagnosis, and further investigations are only performed to rule out other clinical entities after conventional therapy has failed. Yet, most patients respond to conservative measures with physical therapy and counterforce bracing. Corticosteroid injections are effective for short-term pain control but have not demonstrated long-term benefit. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vibration suppression of a rotating flexible cantilever pipe conveying fluid using piezoelectric layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khajehpour

    Full Text Available AbstractIn this study, the governing equations of a rotating cantilever pipe conveying fluid are derived and the longitudinal and lateral induced vibrations are controlled. The pipe considered as an Euler Bernoulli beam with tip mass which piezoelectric layers attached both side of it as sensors and actuators. The follower force due to the fluid discharge causes both conservative and non-conservative work. For mathematical modeling, the Lagrange-Rayleigh-Ritz technique is utilized. An adaptive-robust control scheme is applied to suppress the vibration of the pipe. The adaptive-robust control method is robust against parameter uncertainties and disturbances. Finally, the system is simulated and the effects of varying parameters are studied. The simulation results show the excellent performance of the controller.

  12. PipeCraft: Flexible open-source toolkit for bioinformatics analysis of custom high-throughput amplicon sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anslan, Sten; Bahram, Mohammad; Hiiesalu, Indrek; Tedersoo, Leho

    2017-11-01

    High-throughput sequencing methods have become a routine analysis tool in environmental sciences as well as in public and private sector. These methods provide vast amount of data, which need to be analysed in several steps. Although the bioinformatics may be applied using several public tools, many analytical pipelines allow too few options for the optimal analysis for more complicated or customized designs. Here, we introduce PipeCraft, a flexible and handy bioinformatics pipeline with a user-friendly graphical interface that links several public tools for analysing amplicon sequencing data. Users are able to customize the pipeline by selecting the most suitable tools and options to process raw sequences from Illumina, Pacific Biosciences, Ion Torrent and Roche 454 sequencing platforms. We described the design and options of PipeCraft and evaluated its performance by analysing the data sets from three different sequencing platforms. We demonstrated that PipeCraft is able to process large data sets within 24 hr. The graphical user interface and the automated links between various bioinformatics tools enable easy customization of the workflow. All analytical steps and options are recorded in log files and are easily traceable. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Finite element analysis of a fluid-structure interaction in flexible pipe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained mathematical system is constituted of four non-linear hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the wave propagation in both pipe wall and liquid flow. The fluid-structure interaction is found to be governed by Poisson's ratio. In this steady finite element method based on Galerkin formulation is applied.

  14. A study of the kinematic characteristic of a coupling device between the buffer system and the flexible pipe of a deep-seabed mining system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae-Won

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the kinematic characteristics of a coupling device in a deep-seabed mining system. This coupling device connects the buffer system and the flexible pipe. The motion of the buffer system, flexible pipe and mining robot are affected by the coupling device. So the coupling device should be considered as a major factor when this device is designed. Therefore, we find a stable kinematic device, and apply it to the design coupling device through this study. The kinematic characteristics of the coupling device are analyzed by multi-body dynamics simulation method, and finite element method. The dynamic analysis model was built in the commercial software DAFUL. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is applied to build the deep-seabed environment. Hydrodynamic force and moment are applied in the dynamic model for the FSI method. The loads and deformation of flexible pipe are estimated for analysis results of the kinematic characteristics

  15. A study of the kinematic characteristic of a coupling device between the buffer system and the flexible pipe of a deep-seabed mining system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Oh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the kinematic characteristics of a coupling device in a deep-seabed mining system. This coupling device connects the buffer system and the flexible pipe. The motion of the buffer system, flexible pipe and mining robot are affected by the coupling device. So the coupling device should be considered as a major factor when this device is designed. Therefore, we find a stable kinematic device, and apply it to the design coupling device through this study. The kinematic characteristics of the coupling device are analyzed by multi-body dynamics simulation method, and finite element method. The dynamic analysis model was built in the commercial software DAFUL. The Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI method is applied to build the deep-seabed environment. Hydrodynamic force and moment are applied in the dynamic model for the FSI method. The loads and deformation of flexible pipe are estimated for analysis results of the kinematic characteristics.

  16. Pipe grabber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafutdinov, I.G.; Mubashirov, S.G.; Prokopov, O.I.

    1981-05-15

    A pipe grabber is suggested which contains a housing, clamping elements and centering mechanism with drive installed on the lower end of the housing. In order to improve the reliable operation of the pipe grabber, the centering mechanism is made in the form of a reinforced ringed flexible shaft, while the drive is made in the form of elastic rotating discs. In this case the direction of rotation of the discs and the flexible shaft is the opposite.

  17. Size effects in winding roll formed profiles: A study of carcass production for flexible pipes in offshore industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Søe; Nielsen, Morten Storgaard; Bay, Niels

    2013-01-01

    neutral plane. Other parameters such as profile entry angle on the mandrel and spiral pitch are likely to have significant importance. Proper dividing point position is shown to be obtainable by adjusting the profile in the roll forming stage. The profile rolling is successfully modeled by Finite Element......Carcass production of flexible offshore oil and gas pipes implies winding and interlocking of a roll formed stainless steel profile around a mandrel in a spiral shape. The location of the dividing point between the left and right half of the s-shaped profile in the finished carcass is very...... Analysis (FEA), whereas a simplified FE-model of the subsequent winding operation shows that full interlock modeling is required for proper prediction of profile deformation. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications....

  18. Tennis elbow surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lateral epicondylitis - surgery; Lateral tendinosis - surgery; Lateral tennis elbow - surgery ... Surgery to repair tennis elbow is often an outpatient surgery. This means you will not stay in the hospital overnight. You will be given ...

  19. Tennis elbow surgery - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... epicondylitis surgery - discharge; Lateral tendinosis surgery - discharge; Lateral tennis elbow surgery - discharge ... long as you are told. This helps ensure tennis elbow will not return. You may be prescribed a ...

  20. Elbow Injuries and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Many things can make your elbow hurt. A common cause is tendinitis, an inflammation or injury to the tendons that attach muscle to bone. Tendinitis of the elbow is a sports injury, often from playing tennis or golf. You ...

  1. Nursemaid's Elbow (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Parents Parents site Sitio para padres General Health Growth & Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & ... For Parents / Nursemaid's Elbow Print About Nursemaid's Elbow Toddlers and preschoolers are at risk for a common ...

  2. Failure Behavior of Elbows with Local Wall Thinning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Keun; Park, Jai-Hak

    Wall thinning defect due to corrosion is one of major aging phenomena in carbon steel pipes in most plant industries, and it results in reducing load carrying capacity of the piping components. A failure test system was set up for real scale elbows containing various simulated wall thinning defects, and monotonic in-plane bending tests were performed under internal pressure to find out the failure behavior of them. The failure behavior of wall-thinned elbows was characterized by the circumferential angle of thinned region and the loading conditions to the piping system.

  3. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.; Arendts, J.G.

    1984-01-01

    A program has been developed to assess the available piping damping data, to generate additional data and conduct seperate effects tests, and to establish a plan for reporting and storing future test results into a data bank. This effort is providing some of the basis for developing higher allowable damping values for piping seismic analyses, which will potentially permit removal of a considerable number of piping supports, particularly snubbers. This in turn will lead to more flexible piping systems which will be less susceptible to thermal cracking, will be easier to maintain and inspect, as well as less costly

  4. Guidance and control of MIR TDL radiation via flexible hollow metallic rectangular pipes and fibers for possible LHS and other optical system compaction and integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C.

    1983-01-01

    Flexible hollow metallic rectangular pipes and infrared fibers are proposed as alternate media for collection, guidance and manipulation of mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL) radiation. Certain features of such media are found to be useful for control of TDL far field patterns, polarization and possibly intensity fluctuations. Such improvement in dimension compatibility may eventually lead to laser heterodyne spectroscopy (LHS) and optical communication system compaction and integration. Infrared optical fiber and the compound parabolic coupling of light into a hollow pipe waveguide are discussed as well as the design of the waveguide.

  5. Flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1981-01-01

    Flexibility is an important aspect of all sports and recreational activities. Flexibility can be developed and maintained by stretching exercises. Exercises designed to develop flexibility in ankle joints, knees, hips, and the lower back are presented. (JN)

  6. Posttraumatic stiff elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Mittal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Posttraumatic stiff elbow is a frequent and disabling complication and poses serious challenges for its management. In this review forty studies were included to know about the magnitude of the problem, causes, pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stiff elbow. These studies show that simple measures such as internal fixation, immobilization in extension, and early motion of elbow joint are the most important steps that can prevent elbow stiffness. It also supports conservative treatment in selected cases. There are no clear guidelines about the choice between the numerous procedures described in literature. However, this review article disproves two major beliefs-heterotopic ossification is a bad prognostic feature, and passive mobilization of elbow causes elbow stiffness.

  7. Comparison Between Stress Obtained by Numerical Analysis and In-Situ Measurements on a Flexible Pipe Subjected to In-Plane Bending Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard Lukassen, Troels; Glejbøl, Kristian; Lyckegaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    to stress patterns obtained during in-situ OMS measurements carried out during an actual experimental inplane bending test. The study showed a good correlation between the stress variation predicted with the finite element model and the measured stress variation.......To predict the lifetime and long-term properties of tensile armour wires in a dynamically loaded pipe, it is essential to have a tool which allows detailed prediction of the stress variations in the tensile armour wires during global pipe loading. Furthermore, detailed understanding of the stress...... variations will allow for performance optimization of the armour layers. To study the detailed stress variations in flexible pipes during dynamic loading, a comprehensive three-dimensional implicit nonlinear finite element model has been developed. The predicted numerical stress variations will be compared...

  8. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Iskander, S.K.; Moore, S.E.

    1978-03-01

    End effects on elbows subjected to moment loading are investigated using the finite element program EPACA. Relatively simple but more accurate (than present Code) equations are developed and recommendation for an alternative Code method using these equations is presented. Data from EPACA on stresses at welds (elbow-to-pipe juncture) are presented. A simple equation is given for estimating the maximum stresses at the welds

  9. Fracture behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked elbows. Technical report, October 1993--March 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilinski, T.; Mohan, R.; Rudland, D.; Fleming, M.

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results from Task 2 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The focus of the Task 2 work was directed towards furthering the understanding of the fracture behavior of long-radius elbows. This was accomplished through a combined analytical and experimental program. J-estimation schemes were developed for both axial and circumferential surface cracks in elbows. Large-scale, quasi-static and dynamic, pipe-system, elbow fracture experiments under combined pressure and bending loads were performed on elbows containing an internal surface crack at the extrados. In conjunction with the elbow experiments, material property data were developed for the A106-90 carbon steel and WP304L stainless steel elbow materials investigated. A comparison of the experimental data with the maximum stress predictions using existing straight pipe fracture prediction analysis methods, and elbow fracture prediction methods developed in this program was performed. This analysis was directed at addressing the concerns regarding the validity of using analysis predictions developed for straight pipe to predict the fracture stresses of cracked elbows. Finally, a simplified fitting flaw acceptance criteria incorporating ASME B2 stress indices and straight pipe, circumferential-crack analysis was developed

  10. Fracture behavior of circumferentially surface-cracked elbows. Technical report, October 1993--March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilinski, T.; Mohan, R.; Rudland, D.; Fleming, M. [and others

    1996-12-01

    This report presents the results from Task 2 of the Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. The focus of the Task 2 work was directed towards furthering the understanding of the fracture behavior of long-radius elbows. This was accomplished through a combined analytical and experimental program. J-estimation schemes were developed for both axial and circumferential surface cracks in elbows. Large-scale, quasi-static and dynamic, pipe-system, elbow fracture experiments under combined pressure and bending loads were performed on elbows containing an internal surface crack at the extrados. In conjunction with the elbow experiments, material property data were developed for the A106-90 carbon steel and WP304L stainless steel elbow materials investigated. A comparison of the experimental data with the maximum stress predictions using existing straight pipe fracture prediction analysis methods, and elbow fracture prediction methods developed in this program was performed. This analysis was directed at addressing the concerns regarding the validity of using analysis predictions developed for straight pipe to predict the fracture stresses of cracked elbows. Finally, a simplified fitting flaw acceptance criteria incorporating ASME B2 stress indices and straight pipe, circumferential-crack analysis was developed.

  11. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved

  12. The Cryogenic Test Bed experiments: Cryogenic heat pipe flight experiment CRYOHP (STS-53). Cryogenic two phase flight experiment CRYOTP (STS-62). Cryogenic flexible diode flight experiment CRYOFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienel, Lee; Stouffer, Chuck

    1995-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cryogenic Test Bed (CTB) experiments including experiment results, integration techniques used, and lessons learned during integration, test and flight phases of the Cryogenic Heat Pipe Flight Experiment (STS-53) and the Cryogenic Two Phase Flight Experiment (OAST-2, STS-62). We will also discuss the Cryogenic Flexible Diode Heat Pipe (CRYOFD) experiment which will fly in the 1996/97 time frame and the fourth flight of the CTB which will fly in the 1997/98 time frame. The two missions tested two oxygen axially grooved heat pipes, a nitrogen fibrous wick heat pipe and a 2-methylpentane phase change material thermal storage unit. Techniques were found for solving problems with vibration from the cryo-collers transmitted through the compressors and the cold heads, and mounting the heat pipe without introducing parasitic heat leaks. A thermally conductive interface material was selected that would meet the requirements and perform over the temperature range of 55 to 300 K. Problems are discussed with the bi-metallic thermostats used for heater circuit protection and the S-Glass suspension straps originally used to secure the BETSU PCM in the CRYOTP mission. Flight results will be compared to 1-g test results and differences will be discussed.

  13. Elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1994-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...

  14. Elbow arthroplasty in perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, A.

    2017-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the effect of biomechanical aspects of prosthesis design and outcome after radial head and total elbow arthroplasty. First, we examine the available evidence regarding the role of several unfavorable biomechanical conditions about the elbow in the development of

  15. Exposures of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelrod, Terry S

    2014-11-01

    This article describes the basic bony, ligamentous, and neurologic anatomy of the structures about the elbow. The surgical exposures of the elbow joint are described, providing details of the various posterior, lateral, and medial approaches to the articular segments. Clinical applications describing the potential benefits of each surgical exposure are provided as examples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pulled elbow in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanaka, Syunsuke; Goldman, Ran D

    2018-06-01

    Question Our practice is seeing children with relatively minor injuries to their elbows, with a history of "swinging" them when their hands are being held to cross the road. Nothing is usually found on a physical examination. I know that this is likely a "pulled elbow." Can we manage this in the clinic setting rather than sending the family to the emergency department? What would be the best course of action in the clinic setting? Answer Pulled elbow, also called nursemaid's elbow , is a radial head subluxation caused by axial traction or a sudden pull of the extended pronated arm, and it is a very common phenomenon. The practice of swinging children while holding their hands should be abandoned. In the case of pulled elbow, the child usually avoids moving the affected arm, holding it close to his or her body, without considerable pain, and no obvious swelling or deformity can be seen. While a fracture should be excluded, pulled elbow can usually be identified based on this presentation. The reduction procedure can easily be done in the office setting, with an 80% success rate and no complications. The hyperpronation maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° and then firmly pronating the wrist) to reduce pulled elbow has been found to be better than a supination-flexion maneuver (holding the elbow at 90° with one hand, supinating and flexing the elbow rapidly with the other) and should be exercised first. When 2 trials of reduction are unsuccessful, the child's arm should be splinted and the family should be sent for further evaluation. Copyright© the College of Family Physicians of Canada.

  17. A study of stress distribution in elbows mounted on stanchions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavanhally, N.R.; Tonet, N.

    1983-01-01

    It is a common practice, both in the nuclear and power piping industry, to have integral attachments on piping to either form a restraint or an anchor. For small attachments, such as lugs, one can use the readily available methods (eg., ASME Code Case N-318) to evaluate the local stresses at these attachments. For elbows or curved pipes mounted on stanchions, the evaluation of local stresses is more complex. In the present analysis, a 3D finite element model was implemented to determine the stress intensification factor that can be applied to piping stress under internal pressure and in-plane bending type of loads. The analysis indicates that, for an internal pressure load, in-plane bending is generated. For such supports, a stress intensification factor should be used to account for the increased loads. The results also indicate that there is an optimum elbow to stanchion post radius ratio which should be used in designing such supports. (orig.)

  18. The elbow and its disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrey, B.F.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains 49 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Diagnostic Radiographic Techniques of the Elbow; Radiography of the Pediatric Elbow; Muscle and Tendon Trauma: Tennis Elbow; Nerve Injuries; Tendon Injurires about the Elbow; and Ligamentous and Articular Injuries in the Athlete

  19. Development of a cryogenic flexible pipe for the transfer of liquefied natural gas; Mise au point d'un flexible cryogenique pour le transfert du gaz naturel liquefie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigaud, J.; Gerez, J.M.; Dieumegard, C. [Coflexip Stena Offshore, 75 - Paris (France)

    2000-07-01

    For historical reasons, the liquefaction of natural gas is performed with onshore equipments and LNG tanker-ships are loaded and unloaded using rigid articulated arms. When these operations are performed in harbors, the movement of the ship with respect to the pier are relatively limited. Today, several companies aim at liquefying natural gas using floating facilities. The loading of tanker-ships is performed offshore, and thus movements between the ship and the floating facility are enhanced. The use of a flexible pipe can be an interesting alternative solution to the articulated arm. This article describes the state-of-the-art of the LNG flexible technology developed by Coflexip Stena Offshore and the progress of the program of development of a cryogenic flexible: structure, fittings, safety (leaks detection), thermal calculations, optimization of the corrugated hose profile, pressure drops, fatigue tests and service life, materials development, prototype and real tests. (J.S.)

  20. Global Analysis of Flexible Risers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Lars

    1996-01-01

    Flexible pipes are often a technically attractive alternative to the traditional steel pipe. Often commercial utilisation of oil/gas fields depends on the use of flexible pipes. An example is when floating production vessels are used, where the flexible pipe follows the wave induced motions...

  1. Finite element evaluation of erosion/corrosion affected reducing elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basavaraju, C.

    1996-01-01

    Erosion/corrosion is a primary source for wall thinning or degradation of carbon steel piping systems in service. A number of piping failures in the power industry have been attributed to erosion/corrosion. Piping elbow is one of such susceptible components for erosion/corrosion because of increased flow turbulence due to its geometry. In this paper, the acceptability of a 12 in. x 8 in. reducing elbow in RHR service water pump discharge piping, which experienced significant degradation due to wall thinning in localized areas, was evaluated using finite element analysis methodology. Since the simplified methods showed very small margin and recommended replacement of the elbow, a detailed 3-D finite element model was built using shell elements and analyzed for internal pressure and moment loadings. The finite element analysis incorporated the U.T. measured wall thickness data at various spots that experienced wall thinning. The results showed that the elbow is acceptable as-is until the next fuel cycle. FEA, though cumbersome, and time consuming is a valuable analytical tool in making critical decisions with regard to component replacement of border line situation cases, eliminating some conservatism while not compromising the safety

  2. Liquid-metal flow through a thin-walled elbow in a plane perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, J.S.

    1986-04-01

    This paper presents analytical solutions for the liquid-metal flow through two straight pipes connected by a smooth elbow with the same inside radius. The pipes and the elbow lie in a plane which is perpendicular to a uniform, applied magnetic field. The strength of the magnetic field is assumed to be sufficiently strong that inertial and viscous effects are negligible. This assumption is appropriate for the liquid-lithium flow in the blanket of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor, such as a tokamak. The pipes and the elbow have thin metal walls

  3. Posterolateral elbow joint instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Nielsen, K K

    1998-01-01

    Thirty-five osteoligamentous elbows were included in a study on the kinematics of posterolateral elbow joint instability during the pivot shift test (PST) before and after separate ligament cuttings in the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC). Division of the annular ligament or the lateral...... ulnar collateral ligament caused no laxity during the PST. Division of the lateral collateral ligament caused maximal laxity of 4 degrees and 23 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. Cutting of the LCLC at the ulnar or the humeral insertion was necessary...... for any PST stressed elbow joint laxity to occur. Total division of the LCLC induced a maximal laxity of 7.9 degrees and 37 degrees during forced PST in valgus and external rotation (supination), respectively. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be the primary soft tissue constraint...

  4. The thrower's elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak M; Lynch, T Sean; Amin, Nirav H; Calabrese, Gary; Gryzlo, Stephen M; Schickendantz, Mark S

    2014-07-01

    Overhead throwing activities expose the elbow to tremendous valgus stress, making athletes vulnerable to a specific constellation of injuries. Although baseball players, in particular pitchers, are the athletes affected most commonly, overhead throwing athletes in football, volleyball, tennis, and javelin tossing also are affected. The purpose of this review is to review the anatomy, biomechanics, pathophysiology, and treatment of elbow disorders related to overhead throwing athletes. Although focus is on management of ulnar collateral ligament injuries, all common pathologies are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Elbow mass flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  6. Structural integrity assessment of piping components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kushwaha, H.S.; Chattopadhyay, J.

    2008-01-01

    Integrity assessment of piping components is very essential for safe and reliable operation of power plants. Over the last several decades, considerable work has been done throughout the world to develop a methodology for integrity assessment of pipes and elbows, appropriate for the material involved. However, there is scope of further development/improvement of issues, particularly for pipe bends, that are important for accurate integrity assessment of piping. Considering this aspect, a comprehensive Component Integrity Test Program was initiated in 1998 at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), India. In this program, both theoretical and experimental investigations were undertaken to address various issues related to the integrity assessment of pipes and elbows. Under the experimental investigations, fracture mechanics tests have been conducted on pipes and elbows of 200-400 mm nominal bore (NB) diameter with various crack configurations and sizes under different loading conditions. Tests on small tensile and three point bend specimens, machined from the tested pipes, have also been done to evaluate the actual stress-strain and fracture resistance properties of pipe/elbow material. The load-deflection curve and crack initiation loads predicted by non-linear finite element analysis matched well with the experimental results. The theoretical collapse moments of throughwall circumferentially cracked elbows, predicted by the recently developed equations, are found to be closer to the test data compared to the other existing equations. The role of stress triaxialities ahead of crack tip is also shown in the transferability of J-Resistance curve from specimen to component. The cyclic loading and system compliance effect on the load carrying capacity of piping components are investigated and new recommendations are made. (author)

  7. Management of tennis elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chesterton LS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Linda S Chesterton, Christian D Mallen, Elaine M HayArthritis Research UK Primary Care Centre, Primary Care Sciences, Keele University, Keele, Staffordshire, UKDate of preparation: April 21, 2011Conflict of interest: None declaredClinical question: What is the best treatment for tennis elbow?Results: Despite a wealth of research, there is no true consensus on the most efficacious management of tennis elbow especially for effective long-term outcomes. Corticosteroid injections do show large pain-relieving effects in the short term but are associated with risks of adverse events and long-term reoccurrence. Advice with a “wait and see” approach is recommended as the first-line treatment in primary care for most cases. In the medium term physiotherapy and or low-level laser therapy may be effective.Implementation: Rule out alternative diagnosis. Onward referral may be indicated if the condition does not resolve after 12 months.Keywords: tennis elbow, corticosteroids, physiotherapy, laser therapy

  8. Experimental study of heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibrations in a flexible double pipe heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinian, A.; Meghdadi Isfahani, A. H.

    2018-04-01

    In this study, the heat transfer enhancement due to the surface vibration for a double pipe heat exchanger, made of PVDF, is investigated. In order to create forced vibrations (3-9 m/s2, 100 Hz) on the outer surface of the heat exchanger electro-dynamic vibrators are used. Experiments were performed at inner Reynolds numbers ranging from 2533 to 9960. The effects of volume flow rate and temperature on heat transfer performance are evaluated. Results demonstrated that heat transfer coefficient increases by increasing vibration level and mass flow rate. The most increase in heat transfer coefficient is 97% which is obtained for the highest vibration level (9 m/s2) in the experiment range.

  9. Geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on local two-phase flow parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadav, M.; Worosz, T.; Kim, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study presents the geometric effects of 90-degree vertical elbows on the development of the local two-phase flow parameters. A multi-sensor conductivity probe is used to measure local two-phase flow parameters. It is found that immediately downstream of the vertical-upward elbow, the bubbles have a bimodal distribution along the horizontal radius of the pipe cross-section causing a dual-peak in the profiles of local void fraction and local interfacial area concentration. Immediately downstream of the vertical-downward elbow it is observed that the bubbles tend to migrate towards the inside of the elbow's curvature. The axial transport of void fraction and interfacial area concentration indicates that the elbows promote bubble disintegration. Preliminary predictions are obtained from group-one interfacial area transport equation (IATE) model for vertical-upward and vertical-downward two-phase flow. (author)

  10. Hydroforming Process for an Ultrasmall Bending Radius Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangwen Ruan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bent pipes are widely used in automotive, aviation, and aerospace industries for delivering fluids. Parts having small relative bending radiuses are called elbows. However, fabricating a thin-walled elbow part using the simple bending process poses many challenges. One possible way to manufacture elbows is with the stamping-welding process. The major drawbacks of this method include the decline in sealing performance and the addition in weight attributed to the lap welding process. Tube hydroforming (THF is considered as a feasible solution to these problems. However, the forming process could be quite complex, and multistep forming is necessary. This study investigates the effects of preliminary processes on elbow forming such as bending, partition forming, and heat treatment and presents a high-performance optimized process design to achieve an ultrasmall radius elbow. The effects of multistep forming on the thickness distribution and the heat treatment on the microstructure have been evaluated. The results obtained from simulations show a reasonable agreement with those from the experiments.

  11. Comportement comparé de conduites rigides et flexibles ensouillées au voisinage de sols gelés Comparative Behavior of Rigid and Flexible Pipes Buried in the Vicinity of Frozen Ground

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putot C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Au cours des dernières années, les activités pétrolières à terre comme en mer, tant en Alaska qu'au Canada, se sont maintenues à un niveau raisonnable. En octobre 1987, le premier champ pétrolier offshore a été mis en exploitation en mer de Beaufort (Endicott. Bien que l'industrie soit principalement dans une phase d'exploration, des besoins vont progressivement se manifester en matière de lignes de collecte et d'injection. La détermination du tracé de conduites en offshore arctique ainsi que leur dimensionnement nécessite la prise en compte de facteurs très spécifiques : le raclage des glaces dérivantes impose une profondeur minimum d'ensouillage, ce qui accroît, malgré l'isolation des conduites, la proportion de chaleur communiquée au pergélisol (ou permafrost en dégel : les tassements différentiels résultant de la variabilité de composition des sols peuvent provoquer des déformations, voire des instabilités des conduites tout à fait inacceptables. Il est assez intuitif de penser que les conduites flexibles accommoderont plus facilement les mouvements de sol que les rigides. L'objet de cet article est de proposer une méthode d'analyse assez souple permettant de jauger facilement cet avantage. In recent years, onshore and offshore petroleum activities, in both Alaska and Canada, have continued on a reasonable level. In October 1987 the first offshore oil field began production in the Beaufort Sea (Endicott. Although the industry is mainly in an exploration phase, needs will steadily appear with regard to gathering and injection line. . The determination to lay flowlines in offshore arctic areas as well as their sizing require that very specific factors be taken into consideration. Scouring by drifting ice requires a minimum depth of burial. Despite the insulation of pipes, this burial increases the proportion of heat communicated to melting permafrost. The differential compaction resulting from the variability of

  12. Pipe whip: a summary of the damage observed in BNL pipe-on-pipe impact tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, M.R.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes examples of the damage resulting from the impact of a whipping pipe on a nearby pressurised pipe. The work is a by-product of a study of the motion of a whipping pipe. The tests were conducted with small-diameter pipes mounted in rigid supports and hence the results are not directly applicable to large-scale plant applications where flexible support mountings are employed. The results illustrate the influence of whipping pipe energy, impact position and support type on the damage sustained by the target pipe. (author)

  13. Experimental analysis of ratchetting in elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acker, D.; Touboul, F.; Brouard, D.

    1991-01-01

    Despite of their apparent simplicity, elbows or curved tubes are one of the most tested and analyzed structures to the last years when a large effort has been done by CEA in the framework of the European Structural Integrity Working Group in order to reassess the RCC-MR (1985) piping design rules for elbows and straight parts (TOUBOUL (1988-1989)). It is impossible to mention all the authors and an extensive bibliography has been done by BENDJEDIDIA (1987). But nobody in our knowledge has taken care in experimental validation of design rules against ratcheting. With such objectives, an experimental test program has been performed at CEA, in order to appraise the design methods based on shakedown model like 3 S m rule used by ASME section III (1989) in USA or RCC-M (1988) in FRANCE, or based on the efficiency Diagram used by the french design code for Fast Breeder reactors RCC-MR (1985). The first results were published by M. BENDJEDIDIA (1987). They have been completed by additional tests and improved by a better material characterisation

  14. Guided wave propagation and scattering in pipeworks comprising elbows: Theoretical and experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkali, M El; Lhémery, A; Baronian, V; Chapuis, B

    2015-01-01

    Elastic guided waves (GW) are used to inspect pipeworks in various industries. Modelling tools for simulating GW inspection are necessary to understand complex scattering phenomena occurring at specific features (welds, elbows, junctions...). In pipeworks, straight pipes coexist with elbows. GW propagation in the former cases is well-known, but is less documented in the latter. Their scattering at junction of straight and curved pipes constitutes a complex phenomenon. When a curved part is joined to two straight parts, these phenomena couple and give rise to even more complex wave structures. In a previous work, the SemiAnalytic Finite Element method extended to curvilinear coordinates was used to handle GW propagation in elbows, combined with a mode matching method to predict their scattering at the junction with a straight pipe. Here, a pipework comprising an arbitrary number of elbows of finite length and of different curvature linking straight pipes is considered. A modal scattering matrix is built by cascading local scattering and propagation matrices. The overall formulation only requires meshing the pipe section to compute both the modal solutions and the integrals resulting from the mode-matching method for computing local scattering matrices. Numerical predictions using this approach are studied and compared to experiments

  15. Hydrogen assisted cracking and CO2 corrosion behaviors of low-alloy steel with high strength used for armor layer of flexible pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenguang; Gao, Xiuhua; Du, Linxiu; Li, Jianping; Zhou, Xiaowei; Wang, Xiaonan; Wang, Yuxin; Liu, Chuan; Xu, Guoxiang; Misra, R. D. K.

    2018-05-01

    In this study, hydrogen induced cracking (HIC), sulfide stress corrosion cracking (SSCC) and hydrogen embrittlement (HE) were carried out to study hydrogen assisted cracking behavior (HIC, SSCC and HE) of high strength pipeline steel used for armor layer of flexible pipe in ocean. The CO2 corrosion behavior of designed steel with high strength was studied by using immersion experiment. The experimental results demonstrate that the corrosion resistance of designed steel with tempered martensite to HIC, SSCC and HE is excellent according to specific standards, which contributes to the low concentration of dislocation and vacancies previously formed in cold rolling process. The corrosion mechanism of hydrogen induced cracking of designed steel, which involves in producing process, microstructure and cracking behavior, is proposed. The designed steel with tempered martensite shows excellent corrosion resistance to CO2 corrosion. Cr-rich compound was first formed on the coupon surface exposed to CO2-saturated brine condition and chlorine, one of the corrosion ions in solution, was rich in the inner layer of corrosion products.

  16. Heat Pipe with Axial Wick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrose, Jay H. (Inventor); Holmes, Rolland (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A heat pipe has an evaporator portion, a condenser portion, and at least one flexible portion that is sealingly coupled between the evaporator portion and the condenser portion. The flexible portion has a flexible tube and a flexible separator plate held in place within the flexible tube so as to divide the flexible tube into a gas-phase passage and a liquid-phase artery. The separator plate and flexible tube are configured such that the flexible portion is flexible in a plane that is perpendicular to the separator plate.

  17. Is the structural damping of flexible pipes important for its strength against armor lateral buckling?; O amortecimento estrutural de dutos flexiveis e importante para sua resistencia contra flambagem lateral de armaduras?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Mauro Pastor [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents conclusions and results of a project conducted by the PETROBRAS Research Center in 1998. 163 laboratory tests were obtained under the Research Project. The purpose of the Research Project was to determine mechanical properties to be used in the global flexible riser analysis of the ultra deep water Roncador Field. Although the Research Project reached its objective, it had more success than the expected. That is statistics of the results of the Research Project lead to the theoretical background for the behavior of empty flexible pipes operating in ultra deep water. Other research project, finished 5 years later, fully proved this theoretical background. (author)

  18. Hyperextension of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1998-01-01

    According to an epidemiologic study (Scand J Med Sci 1996/ 6: 297-302) the mechanism of "handball goalie's elbow" may be forced hyperextension. The pathomechanics of hyperextension were studied in nine macroscopically normal male cadaver elbow joints. The mean age of the donors was 43.2 years...... of the medial collateral ligament; (3) occasional incomplete rupture of the lateral collateral ligament; and (4) small fragments of cartilage near the posterior edge of the ulna in one of the specimens. One or more of these lesions may be responsible for the symptoms in "handball goalie's elbow."...

  19. 21 CFR 888.3170 - Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. 888.3170 Section 888.3170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... (hemi-elbow) polymer prosthesis. (a) Identification. An elbow joint radial (hemi-elbow) polymer...

  20. Calcific periarthritis of the elbow presenting as acute tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawad, F; Jawad, A S M

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with sudden acute lateral epicondylitis. There was no history of preceding trauma or repetitive use of the arm. Because of the acute onset and signs of acute inflammation, an X-ray was arranged. The X-ray showed a hyperdense calcified elongated globule distal to the lateral epicondyle. A diagnosis of calcific periarthritis (calcium apatite) of the elbow was made. Calcific periarthritis has rarely been reported as a cause of acute elbow pain.

  1. A database to evaluate stress intensity factors of elbows with throughwall flaws under combined internal pressure and bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.; Mahajan, S.C.; Kakodkar, A.

    1993-01-01

    The advent of Leak-Before-Break (LBB) concept has replaced the traditional design basis event of Double Ended Guillotine Break (DEGB) in the design of primary heat transport (PHT) piping. The use of LBB concept requires postulation of largest credible cracks at highly stressed locations and demonstration of its stability under the maximum credible loading conditions. Stress analysis of PHT piping in nuclear power plants shows that the highly stressed piping components are normally elbows and branch tees. This necessitates detailed fracture mechanics evaluation of piping connections by computing Stress Intensity Factor (SIF) and/or J-integral. Simple analytical solutions for evaluation of SIF and J-integral for cracks in straight pipes are readily available in literature. However, the same type of solutions for elbows and tees are limited in open literature. In the present work, a database is generated to evaluate SIF for throughwall circumferential and longitudinal cracks under combined internal pressure and bending moment. Different parameters to characterise a cracked elbow are pipe factor (h), pipe bore radius to thickness ratio (r/t) and crack length. Another parameter (σ) is used to consider the relative magnitude of stresses due to internal pressure and remote bending moment. The database has been used to derive closed form expressions to evaluate SIF for elbow with cracks in terms of the aforementioned parameters. (author). 8 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Elbow arthroscopy: indications, techniques, outcomes, and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Julie E; King, Graham J W; Steinmann, Scott P; Cohen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a tool useful for the treatment of a variety of pathologies about the elbow. The major indications for elbow arthroscopy include débridement for septic elbow arthritis, synovectomy for inflammatory arthritis, débridement for osteoarthritis, loose body extraction, contracture release, treatment of osteochondral defects and selected fractures or instability, and tennis elbow release. To achieve favorable outcomes after elbow arthroscopy, the surgeon should be aware of contraindications, technical considerations, anatomic principles, and the need for proper patient positioning and portal selection. Elbow arthroscopy is an effective procedure for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis, osteoarthritis, and lateral epicondylitis.

  3. Manufacture of piping components for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartecek, R.

    1983-01-01

    Hammer forging of hollow forging ingots, extrusion and elestroslag remelting may be used for the manufacture of large pipes. Technologies have been developed for the manufacture of elbows based on various types of forming. These procedures mainly include the hydraulic pressing of elbows from tubes and the pressing of symmetrical halves of elbows with subsequent welding. The hammer forging of valves, cross pieces, etc., has been replaced by forging and pressing. In order to prevent failures from occurring in the pipes during operation of nuclear power plants, pipes are being made of larger forgings, which reduces the number of welds. This improves the quality of the pipes, reduces production and assembly costs and is metal-saving. (E.S.)

  4. Effect of Reynolds number on flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Nobuyuki; Ikarashi, Yuya; Yamagata, Takayuki; Taguchi, Syoichi

    2016-11-01

    The flow and mass transfer characteristics of a 90 degree elbow was studied experimentally by using the mass transfer measurement by plaster dissolution method, the surface flow visualization by oil film method and stereo PIV measurement. The experiments are carried out in a water tunnel of a circular pipe of 56mm in diameter with a working fluid of water. The Reynolds number was varied from 30000 to 200000. The experimental result indicated the change of the mass transfer coefficient distribution in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds number. This phenomenon is further examined by the surface flow visualization and measurement of secondary flow pattern in the elbow, and the results showed the suggested change of the secondary flow pattern in the elbow with increasing the Reynolds numbers.

  5. Pipe crawlers: Versatile adaptations for real applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    A problem at the Savannah River Site requires the unique application of a pipe crawler. A number of stainless steel pipes buried in concrete require ultrasonic inspection of the heat affected zones of the welds for detection of flaws or cracks. The paper describes the utilization of an inch-worm motion pipe crawler which negotiates a 90 degree reducing elbow with significant changes in diameter and vertical sections before entering the area of concern. After a discussion of general considerations and problem description, special requirements to meet the objectives and the design approach regarding the tractor, control system, instrument carriage, and radiation protection are discussed. 2 refs., 11 figs. (MB)

  6. Fabrication of a multi-walled metal pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimamune, Koji; Toda, Saburo; Ishida, Ryuichi; Hatanaka, Tatsuo.

    1969-01-01

    In concentrically arranged metal pipes for simulated fuel elements in the form of a multi-walled pipe, their one end lengthens gradually in the axial direction from inner and outer pipes toward a central pipe for easy adjustment of deformation which occurs when the pipes are drawn. A plastic electrical insulator is disposed between adjacent pipes. Each end of the pipes is equipped with an annular flexible stopper which is allowed to travel in the axial direction so as to prevent the insulator from falling during drawing work. At the other end, all pipes are constricted and joined to each other to thereby form the desired multi-walled pipe. (Mikami, T.)

  7. Stresses in a curved pipe subject to an in-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, E.; Heeschen, U.

    1979-01-01

    The design of the KWU-primary component supports is mainly defined by the loads of the postulated pipe breaks. To estimate the maximum loading of a component support it is necessary to know the maximum in-plane bending moment (opening and closing) that can be transmitted by a pipe bend. Another reason for such information is that the displacements and distortions of the components cause higher stresses in elbows than in straight pipes. With a detailed knowledge of the deformation characteristic of a pipe bend an integrity analysis could be done without an expensive plastic system analysis. With this purpose in mind experiments were performed with straight pipes and pipe bends of different dimensions subject to in-plane bending moments. The experimental results give the ratio between the maximum transmittable moment of a pipe bend to that of a straight pipe or, the distortion of the end cross-sections and the flattening of the elbow cross-section. An attempt is made to derive simple expressions for estimating the behaviour at pipe elbows. Parallel to the experiments calculations were done for the straight pipe and elbow with a finite difference code with plastic capabilities. The results of the experiment and calculation are compared with the formulas of the ASME-Code section III subjection NB. (orig.)

  8. PIPE STRESS and VERPIP codes for stress analysis and verifications of PEC reactor piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesari, F.; Ferranti, P.; Gasparrini, M.; Labanti, L.

    1975-01-01

    To design LMFBR piping systems following ASME Sct. III requirements unusual flexibility computer codes are to be adopted to consider piping and its guard-tube. For this purpose PIPE STRESS code previously prepared by Southern-Service, has been modified. Some subroutine for detailed stress analysis and principal stress calculations on all the sections of piping have been written and fitted in the code. Plotter can also be used. VERPIP code for automatic verifications of piping as class 1 Sct. III prescriptions has been also prepared. The results of PIPE STRESS and VERPIP codes application to PEC piping are in section III of this report

  9. Pipe support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems is described. A section of the pipe to be suppported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe

  10. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) open-quotes Realclose quotes piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program

  11. IPIRG programs - advances in pipe fracture technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Olson, R.; Scott, P. [Batelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-04-01

    This paper presents an overview of the advances made in fracture control technology as a result of the research performed in the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) program. The findings from numerous experiments and supporting analyses conducted to investigate the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping and pipe systems subjected to high-rate loading typical of seismic events are summarized. Topics to be discussed include; (1) Seismic loading effects on material properties, (2) Piping system behavior under seismic loads, (3) Advances in elbow fracture evaluations, and (4) {open_quotes}Real{close_quotes} piping system response. The presentation for each topic will be illustrated with data and analytical results. In each case, the state-of-the-art in fracture mechanics prior to the first IPIRG program will be contrasted with the state-of-the-art at the completion of the IPIRG-2 program.

  12. Evaluation of fatigue-ratcheting damage of a pressurised elbow undergoing damage seismic inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Van, K.

    2000-01-01

    We present a simplified method to calculate the plastic ratchet of elbow-shaped pipes submitted to seismic loading and an internal pressure. This method is simplified in the sense that the value of the ratchet is obtained without the use of finite element method (FEM) calculations. Here we derive a formula and use it to evaluate the fatigue-ratcheting damage of an elbow. This approach is applicable to complex plastic response appropriately described by non-linear kinematics hardening, which is more realistic for stainless steel such as 316-L. (orig.)

  13. Orthotic devices for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A.; Smidt, N.; Arola, H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Buchbinder, R.; Assendelft, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequently reported condition. A wide variety of treatment strategies has been described. As of yet, no optimal strategy has been identified. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of orthotic devices for

  14. Eponyms in elbow fracture surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somford, Matthijs P.; Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Hoornenborg, Daniël; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; Eygendaal, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Eponyms are common in medicine and in orthopaedic surgery. For future reference and historical considerations, we present common eponyms in elbow fracture surgery. We describe in short the biography of the name giver and give, where possible, the original description on which the eponym was based.

  15. Study on quality control measures of static casting main pipe in PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhenbiao; Li Guanying; Liu Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the main reasons which impact the quality of primary pipe static casting elbows in PWR-M310 nuclear power plant. The quality control measures are developed from the election and inspection of material, improving sand production and casting process, improving lean management of personnel. The static casting defects of primary pipe elbows for Fuqing Unit 1 and 2 were down to less than 50% of the former project. The quality of static casting for the primary pipe elbows was significantly improved. Moreover, the implementation saves human resources and financing to repair casting defects, and also helps to win the delivery schedule. The quality control measures are good reference for improving primary pipe casting process. This study provides valuable experience for further study of improving the quality of static casting for the primary pipe of PWR nuclear power plant. (authors)

  16. Computer simulation of LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.W.; Fistedis, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    Integrity of piping systems is one of the main concerns of the safety issues of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). Hypothetical core disruptive accidents (HCDA) and water-sodium interaction are two examples of sources of high pressure pulses that endanger the integrity of the heat transport piping systems of LMFBRs. Although plastic wall deformation attenuates pressure peaks so that only pressures slightly higher than the pipe yield pressure propagate along the system, the interaction of these pulses with the different components of the system, such as elbows, valves, heat exchangers, etc.; and with one another produce a complex system of pressure pulses that cause more plastic deformation and perhaps damage to components. A generalized piping component and a tee branching model are described. An optional tube bundle and interior rigid wall simulation model makes such a generalized component model suited for modelling of valves, reducers, expansions, and heat exchangers. The generalized component and the tee branching junction models are combined with the pipe-elbow loop model so that a more general piping system can be analyzed both hydrodynamically and structurally under the effect of simultaneous pressure pulses

  17. Total elbow arthroplasty in primary osteoarthritis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozak, T K; Adams, R A; Morrey, B F

    1998-10-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is an infrequent condition typically managed by some form of debridement. There is no comment in the literature regarding prosthetic replacement for this condition. We report 5 patients (mean age, 68), with a minimum assessment of 3 years (range, 37-125 years) after total elbow arthroplasty. Complications in 4 patients included subluxation, fracture of a humeral component with particulate synovitis, heterotopic ossification, recurrent osteophyte formation, and transient ulnar neuropathy. Although revision was required in 2 of the 5, currently all experience had satisfactory outcomes. While replacement has proven ultimately to be a successful option for this high-demand patient group because of the high complication rate, we do not recommend replacement unless alternate operative options are deemed unacceptable.

  18. Flow induced vibrations of piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibert, R.J.; Axisa, F.

    1977-01-01

    In order to design the supports of piping systems, estimations of the vibrations induced by the fluid conveyed through the pipes are generally needed. For that purpose it is necessary to calculate the model parameters of liquid containing pipes. In most computer codes, fluid effects are accounted for just by adding the fluid mass to the structure. This may lead to serious errors. This paper presents a method to take into account these effects, by solving a coupled mechanical-acoustical problem: the computer code TEDEL of the C.E.A /D.E.M.T. System, based on the finite-elements method, has been extended to calculate simultaneously the pressure fluctuations in the fluid and the vibrations of the pipe. By this way the mechanical-acoustical coupled eigenmodes of any piping system can be obtained. These eigenmodes are used to determine the response of the system to various sources. Equations have been written in the hypohesis that acoustical wave lengths remain large compared to the diameter of the pipe. The method has been checked by an experiment performed on the GASCOGNE loop at D.E.M.T. The piping system under test consists of a tube with four elbows. The circuit is ended at each extremity by a large vessel which performs acoustical isolation by generating modes for the pressure. Excitation of the circuit is caused by a valve located near the downstream vessel. This provides an efficient localised broad band acoustical source. The comparison between the test results and the calculations has shown that the low frequency resonant characteristics of the pipe and the vibrational amplitude at various flow-rates can be correctly predicted

  19. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosti, Rick; Jennings, John; Sewards, J Milo

    2013-04-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, or "tennis elbow," is a common musculotendinous degenerative disorder of the extensor origin at the lateral humeral epicondyle. Repetitive occupational or athletic activities involving wrist extension and supination are thought to be causative. The typical symptoms include lateral elbow pain, pain with wrist extension, and weakened grip strength. The diagnosis is made clinically through history and physical examination; however, a thorough understanding of the differential diagnosis is imperative to prevent unnecessary testing and therapies. Most patients improve with nonoperative measures, such as activity modification, physical therapy, and injections. A small percentage of patients will require surgical release of the extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon. Common methods of release may be performed via percutaneous, arthroscopic, or open approaches. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Radiography of the pediatric elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The ability to obtain adequate and appropriate radiographs of the elbow depends on a number of variables. Often the pattern and timing of the appearance of the numerous secondary ossifications centers at the elbow is a source of confusion to those who deal infrequently with children. To obtain diagnostic radiographs consistently requires well-maintained, modern equipment and technologists who pay careful attention to the details of radiographic technique. Radiology technicians are generally empathetic with the anxiety that a child (and an accompanying parent or guardian) may feel when confronted with the need to enter a radiology exposure room with its ominous appearing, bulky machinery. It is always helpful to reassure the patient gently that the examination is easy and will not cause any discomfort

  1. Posterolateral Rotatory Apprehension Test in Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanlalit, Cholawish; Phorkhar, Termphong

    2015-11-01

    Tennis elbow is a syndrome that commonly diagnosed in patient who comes with lateral elbow pain. Instability pain in tennis elbow patient was observed and reported in many previous literatures. Posterolateral rotatory apprehension test was proposed for diagnosis of posterolateral rotatory instability of elbow. However, no review literatures that studied about posterolateral rotatory apprehensions test in tennis elbow. To find out the relationship between posterolateral rotatory apprehension test and tennis elbow. There were 44 patients that were recruited in this study. We examined the posterolateral rotatory apprehension test in tennis elbow patients. The examination was done in our outpatient clinic from March 2012 to April 2012. The data was collected to find out the ratio of negative test in tennis elbow patient. The results from the posterolateral rotatory apprehension test were negative in 43 patients. The ratio of the negative test result was 98%. A result from posterolateral rotatory apprehension test should be negative in general tennis elbow patients. If this test is used in a tennis elbow patients who are suspected with hidden instability and the result is positive, further evaluation is strongly suggested.

  2. Pressurized water-reactor feedwater piping response to water hammer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.

    1978-03-01

    The nuclear power industry is interested in steam-generator water hammer because it has damaged the piping and components at pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Water hammer arises when rapid steam condensation in the steam-generator feedwater inlet of a PWR causes depressurization, water-slug acceleration, and slug impact at the nearest pipe elbow. The resulting pressure pulse causes the pipe system to shake, sometimes violently. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential structural effects of steam-generator water hammer on feedwater piping. This was accomplished by finite-element computation of the response of two sections of a typical feedwater pipe system to four representative water-hammer pulses. All four pulses produced high shear and bending stresses in both sections of pipe. Maximum calculated pipe stresses varied because the sections had different characteristics and were sensitive to boundary-condition modeling

  3. Locking the Elbow: Improved Antibody Fab Fragments as Chaperones for Structure Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Lucas J; Sheehy, Kimberly M; Dominik, Pawel K; Liang, Wenguang G; Rui, Huan; Clark, Michael; Jaskolowski, Mateusz; Kim, Yejoon; Deneka, Dawid; Tang, Wei-Jen; Kossiakoff, Anthony A

    2018-02-02

    Antibody Fab fragments have been exploited with significant success to facilitate the structure determination of challenging macromolecules as crystallization chaperones and as molecular fiducial marks for single particle cryo-electron microscopy approaches. However, the inherent flexibility of the "elbow" regions, which link the constant and variable domains of the Fab, can introduce disorder and thus diminish their effectiveness. We have developed a phage display engineering strategy to generate synthetic Fab variants that significantly reduces elbow flexibility, while maintaining their high affinity and stability. This strategy was validated using previously recalcitrant Fab-antigen complexes where introduction of an engineered elbow region enhanced crystallization and diffraction resolution. Furthermore, incorporation of the mutations appears to be generally portable to other synthetic antibodies and may serve as a universal strategy to enhance the success rates of Fabs as structure determination chaperones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pipe damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to determine whether an increase in the damping values used in seismic structural analyses of nuclear piping systems is justified. Increasing the allowable damping would allow fewer piping supports which could lead to safer, more reliable, and less costly piping systems. Test data from availble literature were examined to determine the important parameters contributing to piping system damping, and each was investigated in separate-effects tests. From the combined results a world pipe damping data bank was established and multiple regression analyses performed to assess the relative contributions of the various parameters. The program is being extended to determine damping applicable to higher frequency (33 to 100 Hz) fluid-induced loadings. The goals of the program are to establish a methodology for predicting piping system damping and to recommend revised guidelines for the damping values to be included in analyses

  5. The effect of elbow angle and external moment on load sharing of elbow muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praagman, M.; Chadwick, E.K.J.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Veeger, H.E.J.

    2010-01-01

    To study elbow muscle load sharing we investigated the effect of external flexion-extension (FE) and pronation-supination (PS) moments and elbow angle on muscle activation and oxygen consumption (V̇O2).Two data sets were obtained. First, (n=6) electromyography (EMG) of elbow flexors (long and short

  6. Heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triggs, G.W.; Lightowlers, R.J.; Robinson, D.; Rice, G.

    1986-01-01

    A heat pipe for use in stabilising a specimen container for irradiation of specimens at substantially constant temperature within a liquid metal cooled fast reactor, comprises an evaporator section, a condenser section, an adiabatic section therebetween, and a gas reservoir, and contains a vapourisable substance such as sodium. The heat pipe further includes a three layer wick structure comprising an outer relatively fine mesh layer, a coarse intermediate layer and a fine mesh inner layer for promoting unimpeded return of condensate to the evaporation section of the heat pipe while enhancing heat transfer with the heat pipe wall and reducing entrainment of the condensate by the upwardly rising vapour. (author)

  7. Response of the primary piping loop to an HCDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.W.; Moneim, M.T.A.; Wang, C.Y.; Gvildys, J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a method for analyzing the response of the primary piping loop that consists of straight pipes, elbows, and other components connected in series and subject to hypothetical core disruptive accident (HCDA) loads at both ends of the loop. The complete hydrodynamic equations in two-dimensions, that include both the nonlinear convective and viscous dissipation terms are used for the fluid dynamics together with the implicit ICE technique. The external walls of the pipes and components are treated as thin shells in which the analysis accounts for the membrane and bending strength of the wall, elastic-plastic material behavior, as well as large deformation under the effect of transient loading conditions. In the straight pipes, the flow is assumed to be axisymmetric; in the elbow regions, the two dimensions considered are the r and theta directions. The flow in the other components is also assumed to be axisymmetric; the components are modeled as a circular cylinder, in which the radius of the cylinder can be varied to conform with the outside shape of the component and the flow area inside can be changed independently from the outside shape. However, they must remain axially symmetric. The method is applied to a piping loop which consists of six elastic-plastic pipes and five rigid elbows connected in series and subjected to pressure pulses at both ends of the loop

  8. Overview of cooperative international piping benchmark analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAfee, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an effort initiated in 1976 by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to evaluate detailed and simplified inelastic analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IAEA countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends (with emphasis on high temperature inelastic tests), to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used: a 90 0 -elbow at 600 0 C with an in-plane transverse force; a 90 0 -elbow with an in-plane moment; and a 180 0 -elbow at room temperature with a reversed, cyclic, in-plane transverse force. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this paper. 15 figures

  9. Review of nuclear piping seismic design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagis, G.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1994-01-01

    Modern-day nuclear plant piping systems are designed with a large number of seismic supports and snubbers that may be detrimental to plant reliability. Experimental tests have demonstrated the inherent ruggedness of ductile steel piping for seismic loading. Present methods to predict seismic loads on piping are based on linear-elastic analysis methods with low damping. These methods overpredict the seismic response of ductile steel pipe. Section III of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code stresses limits for piping systems that are based on considerations of static loads and hence are overly conservative. Appropriate stress limits for seismic loads on piping should be incorporated into the code to allow more flexible piping designs. The existing requirements and methods for seismic design of piping systems, including inherent conservations, are explained to provide a technical foundation for modifications to those requirements. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Pipe connector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.E.; Pardini, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A safety test facility for testing sodium-cooled nuclear reactor components includes a reactor vessel and a heat exchanger submerged in sodium in the tank. The reactor vessel and heat exchanger are connected by an expansion/deflection pipe coupling comprising a pair of coaxially and slidably engaged tubular elements having radially enlarged opposed end portions of which at least a part is of spherical contour adapted to engage conical sockets in the ends of pipes leading out of the reactor vessel and in to the heat exchanger. A spring surrounding the pipe coupling urges the end portions apart and into engagement with the spherical sockets. Since the pipe coupling is submerged in liquid a limited amount of leakage of sodium from the pipe can be tolerated

  11. Trauma and sports injuries of the elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kodde, I.F.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis deals with current issues in the management of trauma and sports injuries of the elbow. Common sports injuries of the elbow involve ruptures of the distal biceps tendon and the ulnar collateral ligament. We evaluated one of the current thoughts, that the height of the radial bicipital

  12. Humeral windows in revision total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Chris A; Salama, Amir; Stanley, David

    2016-04-01

    The use of cortical windows for revision elbow arthroplasty has not previously been widely reported. Their use aids safe revision of a well fixed humeral prosthesis and can be used in the setting of dislocation, periprosthetic fracture or aseptic loosening of the ulnar component. We describe our technique and results of cortical windows in the distal humerus for revision elbow arthroplasty surgery.

  13. Radiographic arthrosis after elbow trauma: interobserver reliability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, A.; Karanicolas, P.J.; Bhandari, M.; Ring, D.; Kampen, A. van; et al.,

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. METHODS: Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  14. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgersom, Nick F. J.; van Deurzen, Derek F. P.; Gerritsma, Carina L. E.; van der Heide, Huub J. L.; Malessy, Martijn J. A.; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by

  15. Radiographic Arthrosis After Elbow Trauma: Interobserver Reliability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindenhovius, Anneluuk; Karanicolas, Paul Jack; Bhandari, Mohit; Ring, David; Allan, Cristopher; Axelrod, Terry; Baratz, Mark; Beingessner, Daphne; Cassidy, Charles; Coles, Chad; Conflitti, Joe; Rocca, Gregory Della; van Dijk, C. Niek; Elmans, L. H. G. J.; Feibe, Roger; Frihagen, Frede; Gosens, Taco; Greenberg, Jeffrey; Grosso, Elena; Harness, Neil; van der Heide, Huub; Jeray, Kyle; Kalainov, David; van Kampen, Albert; Kawamura, Sumito; Kloen, Peter; McCormac, Bob; McKee, Michael; Page, Richard; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Peters, Anil; Petrisor, Brad; Poolman, Rudolf; Richardson, Martin; Seiler, John; Swiontkowski, Marc; Trumble, Thomas; Wright, Thomas; Zalavras, Charalampos; Zura, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This study measured observer variation in radiographic rating of elbow arthrosis. Methods Thirty-seven independent orthopedic surgeons graded the extent of elbow arthrosis in 20 consecutive sets of plain radiographs, according to the Broberg and Morrey rating system (grade 0, normal joint;

  16. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Picado, Alfonso; Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A

    2016-11-01

    Lateral epicondylitis, also known as 'tennis elbow', is a very common condition affecting mainly middle-aged patients.The pathogenesis remains unknown but there appears to be a combination of local tendon pathology, alteration in pain perception and motor impairment.The diagnosis is usually clinical but some patients may benefit from additional imaging for a specific differential diagnosis.The disease has a self-limiting course of between 12 and 18 months, but in some patients, symptoms can be persistent and refractory to treatment.Most patients are well-managed with non-operative treatment and activity modification. Many surgical techniques have been proposed for patients with refractory symptoms.New non-operative treatment alternatives with promising results have been developed in recent years. Cite this article: Vaquero-Picado A, Barco R, Antuña SA. Lateral epicondylitis of the elbow. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:391-397. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000049.

  17. Total elbow arthroplasty for primary osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoch, Bradley S; Werthel, Jean-David; Sánchez-Sotelo, Joaquín; Morrey, Bernard F; Morrey, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Primary osteoarthritis of the elbow is a less common indication for total elbow arthroplasty (TEA). Higher complication rates in younger, active patients may offset short-term improvements in pain and function. The purpose of this study was to determine pain relief, functional outcomes, complications, and survival of TEA in this population. Between 1984 and 2011, 20 consecutive TEAs were performed for primary elbow osteoarthritis. Two patients died before the 2-year follow-up. Mean age at surgery was 68 years (range, 51-85 years). Outcome measures included pain, motion, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, satisfaction, complications, and reoperations. Mean follow-up was 8.9 years (range, 2-20 years). Three elbows sustained mechanical failures. Complications included intraoperative fracture (n = 2), wound irrigation and débridement (n = 1), bony ankylosis (n = 1), humeral loosening (n = 1), humeral component fracture (n = 1), and mechanical failure of a radial head component (n = 1). Fifteen elbows without mechanical failure were examined clinically. Pain improved from 3.6 to 1.5 (P  .05), with preoperative flexion contractures not improving. Mayo Elbow Performance Scores were available for 13 elbows without mechanical failure, averaging 81.5 points (range, 60-100 points); these were graded as excellent (n = 5), good (n = 2), and fair (n = 6). Subjectively, all patients without mechanical failure were satisfied. TEA represents a reliable surgical option for pain relief in patients with primary osteoarthritis. However, restoration of extension is not always obtained, indicating that more aggressive soft tissue releases or bony resection should be considered. Complications occurred in a large number of elbows, but mechanical failure was low considering the nature of this population and the length of follow-up. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Piping system damping data at higher frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1987-01-01

    Research has been performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to determine best-estimate damping values for dynamic analyses of nuclear piping systems excited in the 20 to 100 Hz frequency range. Vibrations in this frequency range are typical of fluid-induced transients, for which no formal pipe damping guidelines exist. The available data found in the open literature and the USNRC/INEL nuclear piping damping data bank were reviewed, and a series of tests on a straight 3-in. (76-mm) piping system and a 5-in. (127-mm) system with several bends and elbows were conducted as part of this research program. These two systems were supported with typical nuclear piping supports that could be changed from test to test during the series. The resulting damping values were ≥ those of the Pressure Vessel Research Committee (PVRC) proposal for unisulated piping. Extending the PVRC damping curve from 20 to 100 Hz at 3% of critical damping would give a satisfactory representation of the test data. This position has been endorsed by the PVRC Technical Committee on Piping Systems. 14 refs

  19. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1994-01-01

    It is approximately 10 years since the Third Edition of Heat Pipes was published and the text is now established as the standard work on the subject. This new edition has been extensively updated, with revisions to most chapters. The introduction of new working fluids and extended life test data have been taken into account in chapter 3. A number of new types of heat pipes have become popular, and others have proved less effective. This is reflected in the contents of chapter 5. Heat pipes are employed in a wide range of applications, including electronics cooling, diecasting and injection mo

  20. Studies on the behavior of part-through circumferential crack at intrados in elbows under in-plane bending moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, A.; Prabhakaran, K.M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Behavior of cracked elbows with part-through crack at intrados under bending moment is studied. → Some part of crack always opens and some part gets closed irrespective of mode of applied moment. → Fraction of the crack that opens basically decides the weakening effect of the cracked elbow. → Results will be useful for fracture studies and limit load estimation especially for LBB. - Abstract: This paper presents the behavior of part-through circumferential crack at intrados in elbows under in-plane bending moment. This is based on detailed non-linear (both material and geometric) finite element analysis performed on various sizes of elbows (generally used in piping industry), having different crack sizes. It is observed that some part of the crack always opens and some part gets closed irrespective of the mode of applied bending moment (opening/closing). The fraction of the crack that opens basically decides the weakening effect of the cracked elbow. It is observed that there is a threshold value of crack length and crack depth, before which no crack opening is observed under opening mode. Also as elbow becomes thinner, the threshold value of above two parameters increases. Quite interestingly, the part of crack which closes in opening mode opens under closing mode. The above mentioned study on the behavior of crack will be useful for fracture studies and limit load estimation especially when leak before break concept is to be employed.

  1. Osteochondrosis dissecans of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Sonhoven, F; Geusens, E; Nijs, S

    2009-01-01

    This case shows a typical presentation of an osteochondrosis dissecans lesion on the capitellum, with associated intra-articular loose bodie(s), diagnosed on plain film. Osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a rather common entity. Mostly the knee joint is involved. Only 5% of OCD lesions occur in the elbow joint. Possible causes of osteochondrosis dissecans include (repetitive) trauma (e.g. in throwing sports or gymnastics), ischemia, ossification defects, and genetic factors. Conventional radiography mostly has a low sensitivity to detect OCD lesions, and is often normal in early stages. CT is more sensitive to detect intra-articular loose bodies. MRI detects very early stages of OCD and radiographically occult lesions that may not be evident on CT.

  2. Elbow arthroscopy: valgus extension overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Christopher S; Conway, John E

    2011-01-01

    Valgus torque combined with deceleration produces high compression and shear forces acting on the posteromedial olecranon and the posteromedial trochlea. This valgus extension overload process may cause posteromedial trochlea chondromalacia, chondral flap formation, osteochondrosis, subchondral erosion, a subchondral insufficiency fracture, and marginal exostosis formation. Olecranon pathologies include proximal stress reaction, a posteromedial tip stress fracture, a transverse proximal process stress fracture, exostosis formation, exostosis fragmentation, and intra-articular loose bodies. Symptoms include posteromedial elbow pain during the deceleration phase of the throwing motion. The extension impingement test reproduces posterior or posteromedial pain similar to that experienced while throwing. Special radiographic techniques and CT scans can show loose bodies and osteophyte fragmentation. Surgical treatment is indicated when symptoms persist despite nonsurgical management. Based on clinical and basic science research, all patients with valgus extension overload should be comprehensively evaluated for medial ulnar collateral ligament insufficiency. Surgical treatment is limited to the resection of osteophytes only; normal olecranon should not be resected.

  3. International piping integrity research group (IPIRG) program final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.; Wilkowski, G.; Scott, P.; Olsen, R.; Marschall, C.; Vieth, P.; Paul, D.

    1992-04-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Programme. The IPIRG Programme was an international group programme managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United states. The objective of the programme was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of nuclear power plant piping that contains circumferential defects. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behaviour of circumferentially flawed piping and piping systems to high-rate loading typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a unique pipe loop test facility was designed and constructed. The pipe system was an expansion loop with over 30 m of 406-mm diameter pipe and five long radius elbows. Five experiments on flawed piping were conducted to failure in this facility with dynamic excitation. The report: provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures in piping; summarizes the technical results of the programme; gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the various pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses; and, summarizes the advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG Program

  4. IPM Pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Submit A Report View Reports List [+] View Reports Map [+] CDM Alert System Sign Up For Alerts User Login Annual Epidemic Histories Annual Season Summaries Contact Us ipmPIPE User Login Web Administrator Login

  5. Numerical Predictions of Flow Characteristics in a 90 Degree Bended Upward Elbow Located at the Downstream Region of a Flow Control Valve (Butterfly Valve)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Se Youl; Park, Young Sheop; Kim, Yun Jung; Oh, Seung Jong

    2006-01-01

    Butterfly valves are widely used in industrial piping components. They are used for flow control in large diameter pipes because of their lightweight, simple structure and the rapidity of manipulation. Any flow disturbing components such as elbows, orifice plates and tees are recommended to be located in a distance of 8 diameters (L/D.8) from the downstream of butterfly valves to decrease the effect of flow disturbance. However, one would encounter cases where other piping components are installed in a close proximity due to the space restriction. In these cases, the numerical simulation will be useful to evaluate the impact of flow disturbances. In this study, we have examined one practical case encountered where the elbow is located in a close proximity to the butterfly valve. Due to the close proximity, we are concerned about pipe thinning and we use the numerical evaluation to determine the range of operating regime and options

  6. Clinical anatomy of the elbow and shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo; Vargas, Angélica; Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Canoso, Juan J; Hernández-Díaz, Cristina; Saavedra, Miguel Ángel; Navarro-Zarza, José Eduardo; Kalish, Robert A

    The elbow patients herein discussed feature common soft tissue conditions such as tennis elbow, golfers' elbow and olecranon bursitis. Relevant anatomical structures for these conditions can easily be identified and demonstrated by cross examination by instructors and participants. Patients usually present rotator cuff tendinopathy, frozen shoulder, axillary neuropathy and suprascapular neuropathy. The structures involved in tendinopathy and frozen shoulder can be easily identified and demonstrated under normal conditions. The axillary and the suprascapular nerves have surface landmarks but cannot be palpated. In neuropathy however, physical findings in both neuropathies are pathognomonic and will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  7. Failure analysis on a ruptured petrochemical pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harun, Mohd [Industrial Technology Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation Malaysia, Bangi, Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Kamardin, A. [Univ. Malaysia Perlis, Jejawi, Arau (Malaysia). School of Materials Engineering

    2010-08-15

    The failure took place on a welded elbow pipe which exhibited a catastrophic transverse rupture. The failure was located on the welding HAZ region, parallel to the welding path. Branching cracks were detected at the edge of the rupture area. Deposits of corrosion products were also spotted. The optical microscope analysis showed the presence of transgranular failures which were related to the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) and were predominantly caused by the welding residual stress. The significant difference in hardness between the welded area and the pipe confirmed the findings. Moreover, the failure was also caused by the low Mo content in the stainless steel pipe which was detected by means of spark emission spectrometer. (orig.)

  8. Inelastic analysis of SNR-300 piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebel, H [INTERATOM, Bergisch Gladbach (Germany); Di Luna, L J; Moy, G [Teledyne Engineering Services, Waltham, MA (United States)

    1983-05-01

    This paper investigates plasticity, creep, and elastic follow-up effects on a full size hot primary piping system of the German fast breeder reactor prototype, the SNR-300. A large model (327 elements, 419 nodes) of straight pipe, special elbow and hanger elements of the general purpose finite element program, MARC-CDC, is used to predict piping behavior for a heat-up, sodium loading-unloading-reloading cycle and other significant operating conditions. Included in this work are many time-dependent solution increments for a 5,000 hour creep period. Creep strains and relaxed stress results, after 5,000 hours, for the complete model are used with uniaxial and biaxial models and results to extrapolate conclusions for a 100,000 hour operating life. (author)

  9. Inelastic analysis of SNR-300 piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebel, H.; Di Luna, L.J.; Moy, G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper investigates plasticity, creep, and elastic follow-up effects on a full size hot primary piping system of the German fast breeder reactor prototype, the SNR-300. A large model (327 elements, 419 nodes) of straight pipe, special elbow and hanger elements of the general purpose finite element program, MARC-CDC, is used to predict piping behavior for a heat-up, sodium loading-unloading-reloading cycle and other significant operating conditions. Included in this work are many time-dependent solution increments for a 5,000 hour creep period. Creep strains and relaxed stress results, after 5,000 hours, for the complete model are used with uniaxial and biaxial models and results to extrapolate conclusions for a 100,000 hour operating life. (author)

  10. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment

  11. Crack opening area estimates in pressurized through-wall cracked elbows under bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, C.; Gilles, P.; Pignol, M.

    1997-04-01

    One of the most important aspects in the leak-before-break approach is the estimation of the crack opening area corresponding to potential through-wall cracks at critical locations during plant operation. In order to provide a reasonable lower bound to the leak area under such loading conditions, numerous experimental and numerical programs have been developed in USA, U.K. and FRG and widely discussed in literature. This paper aims to extend these investigations on a class of pipe elbows characteristic of PWR main coolant piping. The paper is divided in three main parts. First, a new simplified estimation scheme for leakage area is described, based on the reference stress method. This approach mainly developed in U.K. and more recently in France provides a convenient way to account for the non-linear behavior of the material. Second, the method is carried out for circumferential through-wall cracks located in PWR elbows subjected to internal pressure. Finite element crack area results are presented and comparisons are made with our predictions. Finally, in the third part, the discussion is extended to elbows under combined pressure and in plane bending moment.

  12. Video imaging measurement of interfacial wave velocity in air-water flow through a horizontal elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Wazzan, Amir; Than, Cheok F.; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Yew, Chia W.

    2001-10-01

    Two-phase flow in pipelines containing elbows represents a common situation in the oil and gas industries. This study deals with the stratified flow regime between the gas and liquid phase through an elbow. It is of interest to study the change in wave characteristics by measuring the wave velocity and wavelength at the inlet and outlet of the elbow. The experiments were performed under concurrent air-water stratified flow in a horizontal transparent polycarbonate pipe of 0.05m diameter and superficial air and water velocities up to 8.97 and 0.0778 m/s respectively. A non-intrusive video imaging technique was applied to capture the waves. For image analysis, a frame by frame direct overlapping method was used to detect for pulsating flow and a pixel shifting method based on the detection of minimum values in the overlap function was used to determine wave velocity and wavelength. Under superficial gas velocity of less than 4.44 m/s, the results suggest a regular pulsating outflow produced by the elbow. At higher gas velocities, more random pulsation was found and the emergence of localized interfacial waves was detected. Wave velocities measured by this technique were found to produce satisfactory agreement with direct measurements.

  13. Management of tennis elbow by Agnikarma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyasadeva Mahanta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, ′wait-and-see policy′ of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons, asthi (bone, siddhi (joints etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint.

  14. Management of tennis elbow by Agnikarma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanta, Vyasadeva; Dudhamal, Tukaram S; Gupta, Sanjay Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a painful condition and causes restricted movement of forearm which requires treatment for long period. Till date only symptomatic treatments are available like use of anti-inflammatory analgesic drugs, steroids injection, physiotherapy, exercise etc. But none of these provide satisfactory result. Long term use of anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs and steroids injection is also not free from the adverse effects. Usually, 'wait-and-see policy' of treatment guideline is recommended in most of medical texts. According to Ayurveda, snayugata vata can be correlated with the condition of tennis elbow. Sushruta has advised Agnikarma for disorders of snayu (ligaments and tendons), asthi (bone), siddhi (joints) etc. Hence, in this study a case of tennis elbow (snayugata vata) was treated by Agnikarma, along with administration of powder of Ashwagandha and Navajivana Rasa orally, for a period of 03 weeks. This combination therapy provided considerable relief in pain and movement of the elbow joint.

  15. Study on structural integrity of thinned wall piping against seismic loading-overview and future program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Izumi; Otani, Akihito; Shiratori, Masaki

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify the behavior of thinned wall pipes under seismic events, cyclic in-plane and/or out-of-plane bending tests on thinned straight pipe and elbow and also shaking table tests using degraded piping system models were conducted. Relation between the failure mode and thinned condition and the influence of the final failure mode of degraded piping systems were investigated. In addition to these experiments, elastic-plastic FEM analysis using ABAQUS were conducted on thinned piping elements. It has been found that the strain concentrated point could be predicted and the cause of its generation could be explained by the simulated deformation behavior of the pipe. In order to predict the piping system's maximum response under elastic-plastic response, a simple response prediction method was proposed. Further tests and safety margin analyses of thinned pipes against seismic loading will be performed. (T. Tanaka)

  16. Irreducible lateral dislocation of the elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chhaparwal M

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of an irreducible post-traumatic lateral dislocation of elbow is presented. The mechanism of injury was fall on a flexed elbow with trauma on its medial aspect resulting in pronation of the forearm. At open reduction, the brachialis muscle was in the form of a tight band which prevented reduction. The ulnar nerve was entrapped in the joint.

  17. Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    Bobs Candies, Inc. produces some 24 million pounds of candy a year, much of it 'Christmas candy.' To meet Christmas demand, it must produce year-round. Thousands of cases of candy must be stored a good part of the year in two huge warehouses. The candy is very sensitive to temperature. The warehouses must be maintained at temperatures of 78-80 degrees Fahrenheit with relative humidities of 38- 42 percent. Such precise climate control of enormous buildings can be very expensive. In 1985, energy costs for the single warehouse ran to more than 57,000 for the year. NASA and the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) were adapting heat pipe technology to control humidity in building environments. The heat pipes handle the jobs of precooling and reheating without using energy. The company contacted a FSEC systems engineer and from that contact eventually emerged a cooperative test project to install a heat pipe system at Bobs' warehouses, operate it for a period of time to determine accurately the cost benefits, and gather data applicable to development of future heat pipe systems. Installation was completed in mid-1987 and data collection is still in progress. In 1989, total energy cost for two warehouses, with the heat pipes complementing the air conditioning system was 28,706, and that figures out to a cost reduction.

  18. Experimental studies of PWR primary piping under loca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caumette, Pierre; Garcia, J.L.

    1980-07-01

    The experimental program performed on AQUITAINE II facility is directed to study the mechanical behavior of primary PWR pipes and the forces exerted on the neighbouring structures as a consequence of a breach opening. It has been developed in the form of a quadripartite agreement between the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, Framatome, Electricite de France and Westinghouse. Some forty tests have been carried out with different pipe configurations (straight tube, elbow, S- or U-shaped tube) and different break types (single or double guillotine). The following aspects are investigated: - the dynamic behavior of the pipe and in particular the formation of a plastic hinge at the restraint; - the impact function of a pipe or an energy-absorbing bumper; - the lateral stability of both ends of a pipe, after a double-guillotine break [fr

  19. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of high energy line pipe whip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, L.C.; Kuo, A.Y.; Tang, H.T.

    1983-01-01

    To facilitate potential cost savings in pipe whip protection design, TVA conducted a 1'' high pressure line break test to investigate the pipe whip behavior. The test results are available to EPRI as a data base for a generic study on nonlinear dynamic behavior of piping systems and pipe whip phenomena. This paper describes a nonlinear dynamic analysis of the TVA high energy line tests using ABAQUS-EPGEN code. The analysis considers the effects of large deformation and high strain rate on resisting moment and energy absorption capability of the analyzed piping system. The numerical results of impact forces, impact velocities, and reaction forces at pipe supports are compared to the TVA test data. The pipe whip impact time and forces have also been calculated per the current NRC guidelines and compared. The calculated pipe support reaction forces prior to impact have been found to be in good agreement with the TVA test data except for some peak values at the very beginning of the pipe break. These peaks are believed to be due to stress wave propagation which cannot be addressed by the ABAQUS code. Both the effects of elbow crushing and strain rate have been approximately simulated. The results are found to be important on pipe whip impact evaluation. (orig.)

  20. Base-plate effects on pipe-support stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkel, B.V.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1981-01-01

    Present nuclear power plant design methods require that pipe support spring rates be considered in the seismic design of piping systems. Base plate flexibility can have a significant effect on the spring rates of these support structures. This paper describes the field inspection, test, and analytical techniques used to identify and correct excessively flexible base plates on the Fast Flux Test Facility pipe support structures

  1. Remote controlled in-pipe manipulators for dye-penetrant inspection and grinding of weld roots inside of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeberger, E.K.

    2000-01-01

    Technical plants which have to satisfy stringent safety criteria must be continuously kept in line with the state of art. This applies in particular to nuclear power plants. The quality of piping in nuclear power plants has been improved quite considerably in recent years. By virtue of the very high quality requirements fulfilled in the manufacture of medium-carrying and pressure-retaining piping, one of the focal aspects of in-service inspections is the medium wetted inside of the piping. A remote controlled pipe crawler has been developed to allow to perform dye penetrant testing of weld roots inside piping (ID ≥ 150 mm). The light crawler has been designed such that it can be inserted into the piping via valves (gate valves, check valves,...) with their internals removed. Once in the piping, all crawler movements are remotely controlled (horizontal and vertical pipes incl. the elbows). If indications are found these discontinuities are ground according to a qualified procedure using a special grinding head attached to the crawler with complete extraction of all grinding residues. The in-pipe grinding is a special qualified three (3) step performance that ensures no residual tensile stress (less than 50 N/mm 2 ) in the finish machined austenitic material surface. The in-pipe inspection system, qualified according to both the specifications of the German Nuclear Safety Standards Commission (KTA) and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME), has already been used successfully in nuclear power plants on many occasions. (author)

  2. Applicability of the mα-tangent Method to Estimate Plastic Limit Loads of Elbows and Branch Junctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gim, Jae-Min; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Bae, Kyung-Dong; Kim, Yun-Jae [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong-Sung [Sejong Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, the limit loads calculated by the mα-tangent method based on the linear finite element analysis are compared with the closed form solutions that are proposed by various authors. The objects of the analysis is to select the elbow and the branch pipe which are representative structure of piping system. The applicability of the mα-tangent method are investigated by applying it to cases with various geometries. The internal pressure and the in-plane bending moment are considered and the mα-tangent method is in good agreement with the existing solutions in case of elbows. However, the limit loads calculated by the mα-tangent method for branch junctions do not agree well with the existing solutions and do not show any tendency. The reason is a biased result due to the stress concentration of the discontinuous parts.

  3. Design criteria for piping and nozzles program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.; Bryson, J.W.

    1977-01-01

    This report reviews the activities and accomplishments of the Design Criteria for Piping and Nozzles program being conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the period July 1, 1975, to September 30, 1976. The objectives of the program are to conduct integrated experimental and analytical stress analysis studies of piping system components and isolated and closely-spaced pressure vessel nozzles in order to confirm and/or improve the adequacy of structural design criteria and analytical methods used to assure the safe design of nuclear power plants. Activities this year included the development of a finite-element program for analyzing two closely spaced nozzles in a cylindrical pressure vessel; a limited-parameter study of vessels with isolated nozzles, finite-element studies of piping elbows, a fatigue test of an out-of-round elbow, summary and evaluation of experimental studies on the elastic-response and fatigue failure of tees, parameter studies on the behavior of flanged joints, publication of fifteen topical reports and papers on various experimental and analytical studies; and the development and acceptance of a number of design rules changes to the ASME Code. 2 figures, 2 tables

  4. Total elbow arthroplasty: a radiographic outcome study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Xue Susan [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 357115, Seattle, WA (United States); Petscavage-Thomas, Jonelle M. [Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Hershey, PA (United States); Ha, Alice S. [University of Washington, Department of Radiology, Box 354755, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) is becoming a popular alternative to arthrodesis for patients with end-stage elbow arthrosis and comminuted distal humeral fractures. Prior outcome studies have primarily focused on surgical findings. Our purpose is to determine the radiographic outcome of TEA and to correlate with clinical symptoms such as pain. This is an IRB-approved retrospective review from 2005 to 2015 of all patients with semiconstrained TEA. All available elbow radiographs and clinical data were reviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and Kaplan-Meier survival curves for radiographic and clinical survival. A total of 104 total elbow arthroplasties in 102 patients were reviewed; 75 % were in women and the mean patient age was 63.1 years. Mean radiographic follow-up was 826 days with average of four radiographs per patient. Seventy TEAs (67 %) developed radiographic complications, including heterotopic ossification (48 %), perihardware lucency (27 %), periprosthetic fracture (23 %), hardware subluxation/dislocation (7 %), polyethylene wear (3 %), and hardware fracture/dislodgement (3 %); 56 patients (55 %) developed symptoms of elbow pain or instability and 30 patients (30 %) underwent at least one reoperation. In patients with radiographic complications, 66 % developed elbow pain, compared to 19 % of patients with no radiologic complications (p = 0.001). Of the patients with radiographic complications, 39 % had at least one additional surgery compared to 0 % of patients without radiographic complications (p = 0.056). Radiographic complications are common in patients after total elbow arthroplasty. There is a strong positive association between post-operative radiographic findings and clinical outcome. Knowledge of common postoperative radiographic findings is important for the practicing radiologist. (orig.)

  5. Nerve injuries do occur in elbow arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgersom, Nick F J; van Deurzen, Derek F P; Gerritsma, Carina L E; van der Heide, Huub J L; Malessy, Martijn J A; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose is to create more awareness as well as emphasize the risk of permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy. Patients who underwent elbow arthroscopy complicated by permanent nerve injury were retrospectively collected. Patients were collected using two strategies: (1) by word-of-mouth throughout the Dutch Society of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery, and the Leiden University Nerve Centre, and (2) approaching two medical liability insurance companies. Medical records were reviewed to determine patient characteristics, disease history and postoperative course. Surgical records were reviewed to determine surgical details. A total of eight patients were collected, four men and four women, ageing 21-54 years. In five out of eight patients (62.5%), the ulnar nerve was affected; in the remaining three patients (37.5%), the radial nerve was involved. Possible causes for nerve injury varied among patients, such as portal placement and the use of motorized instruments. A case series on permanent nerve injury as a complication of elbow arthroscopy is presented. Reporting on this sequel in the literature is little, however, its risk is not to be underestimated. This study emphasizes that permanent nerve injury is a complication of elbow arthroscopy, concurrently increasing awareness and thereby possibly aiding to prevention. IV, case series.

  6. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P.

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program

  7. International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkowski, G.; Schmidt, R.; Scott, P. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This is the final report of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG) Program. The IPIRG Program was an international group program managed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and funded by a consortium of organizations from nine nations: Canada, France, Italy, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The program objective was to develop data needed to verify engineering methods for assessing the integrity of circumferentially-cracked nuclear power plant piping. The primary focus was an experimental task that investigated the behavior of circumferentially flawed piping systems subjected to high-rate loadings typical of seismic events. To accomplish these objectives a pipe system fabricated as an expansion loop with over 30 meters of 16-inch diameter pipe and five long radius elbows was constructed. Five dynamic, cyclic, flawed piping experiments were conducted using this facility. This report: (1) provides background information on leak-before-break and flaw evaluation procedures for piping, (2) summarizes technical results of the program, (3) gives a relatively detailed assessment of the results from the pipe fracture experiments and complementary analyses, and (4) summarizes advances in the state-of-the-art of pipe fracture technology resulting from the IPIRG program.

  8. MR tomography of the elbow joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaan, M.; Rinast, E.; Weiss, H.D.; Pressler, M.; Vogel, H.

    1989-03-01

    MR examinations of the elbow joint of three healthy subjects and a comparison with corresponding sections of anatomical preparations show that MR tomography enables not only an excellent differentiation of muscles, tendons and of the articular capsule, but will also visualise vessels and nerve tracts. MR tomography proved superior to the conventional methods in demonstration of separate fragments and inflammatory changes in the bone on examining 11 pathological elbow joints: congenital malformation, osteochondritis dissecans, ostitis, ulnar and radial nerve lesions, completely healed radius fracture and epicondylitis of the radial and ulnar humerus. Epicondylitis could not be demonstrated by MR. Magnetic resonance tomography seems to be the only method that enables direct visualisation of the nerve paths at the elbow joint.

  9. S Tank Farm SL-119 saltwell piping failure analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    On January 24, 1992, while pressure testing saltwell line SL-119 in the 241-S Tank Farm, water was observed spraying out of heat trace enclosure. The SL-115, SL-116, SN-215, and SN-216 saltwell lines also recently failed pressure testing because of leaks. This study documents the pertinent facts about the SL-119 line and discusses the cause of the failures. The inspection of the SL-119 failure revealed two through-the-wall holes in the top center of the pipeline. The inspection also strongly suggests that the heat tracing system is directly responsible for causing the SL-119 failure. Poor design of the heat tracing system allowed water to enter, condense, and collect in the electric metallic tubing (EMT) carbon steel conduits. Water flowed to the bottom of the elbow of the conduit and corroded out the elbow. The design also allowed drifting desert sand to enter into the conduit and fall to the bottom (elbow) of the conduit. The sand became wet and aided in the corrosion of the elbow of the conduit. After the EMT conduits corroded though, the water dripped from the corroded ends of the EMT conduits onto the top of the saltwell pipe, corroding the two holes into the top of the line. If the heat tracing hot splice box had not allowed moisture to enter the EMT conduits, the saltwell piping would not have corroded and caused SL-119 to fail

  10. Experiments and numerical simulations of fluctuating thermal stratification in a branch pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Akira; Murase, Michio; Sasaki, Toru [Inst. of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan); Takenaka, Nobuyuki; Hamatani, Daisuke [Kobe Univ. (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Many pipes branch off from the main pipe in plants. When the main flow in the main pipe is hotter than a branch pipe that branches off downward, the hot water penetrates into the branch pipe with the cavity flow that is induced by the main flow and causes thermal stratification. If the interface of the stratification fluctuates in an occluded branch pipe, thermal fatigue may occur in pipe wall. Some experiments and numerical simulations were conducted to elucidate the mechanism of this fluctuating thermal stratification. The vortex structures were observed in the experiments of straight or bent branch pipes. When the main flow was heated and the thermal stratification interface was at the elbow, a ''burst'' phenomenon occurred in the interface in connection with large heat fluctuation. The effects of pipe shape on the length of penetration were investigated in order to modify simulation conditions. The vortex structures and the fluctuating thermal stratification at elbow in the numerical simulation showed good agreement with experiments. (author)

  11. Vieillissement du polyamide 11 utilisé dans les conduites flexibles : influence de la composition du fluide transporté Influence of the Chemical Nature of the Environment on the Aging of Polyamide 11 Used for Offshore Flexible Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubrich E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le polyamide 11 est utilisé comme gaine d'étanchéité interne des conduites flexibles de transport de produits pétroliers. Dans certaines conditions d'utilisation, celui-ci subit une dégradation de ses propriétés mécaniques et physico-chimiques initiales. Des échanges de matières s'établissent entre le matériau et le fluide transporté : des composés constitutifs du fluide (eau, hydrocarbures peuvent être absorbés par le polyamide tandis que le principal additif du matériau (le plastifiant est extrait. Cette étude, entreprise pour déterminer l'influence de la composition du milieu chimique sur les propriétés du polyamide 11, a permis : 1 De développer une nouvelle méthode d'analyse des matières diffusant dans le polyamide 11. Le principe de cette méthode consiste à réaliser une thermodésorption des différentes matières présentes dans le polymère et à les analyser en ligne par spectrométrie de masse à moyenne résolution (résolution = 3000. Cette méthode permet l'analyse quantitative simultanée du plastifiant résiduel, de l'eau et des hydrocarbures absorbés ainsi que la détermination de la répartition par familles chimiques de ces hydrocarbures. 2 De proposer un modèle prédictif du vieillissement du polyamide 11 dans des milieux modèles constitués d'eau, d'une coupe gazole principalement aliphatique et d'une coupe gazole principalement aromatique. La composition de ces différents milieux de vieillissement a été choisie à l'aide d'un plan d'expériences appliqué aux mélanges. L'influence de l'eau sur les propriétés mécaniques (diminution de l'allongement à la rupture et physico-chimiques (diminution de la masse moléculaire moyenne et augmentation du taux de cristallinité a été mise en évidence. Par ailleurs, quel que soit le milieu de vieillissement, à 140°C, le plastifiant est extrait du polyamide. L'influence du milieu aromatique sur la plastification du matériau a été d

  12. Capitellocondylar total elbow replacement in late-stage rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ovesen, Janne; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Johannsen, Hans Viggo

    2012-01-01

    of instability. Other complications included 2 maltracking elbows, 2 triceps tendon ruptures, 2 cases of operative olecranon bursitis, and 2 ulnar nerve palsies. One elbow showed radiolucent lines of more than 1 mm in the circumference of the ulnar component; none of the other elbows showed any signs...

  13. Temporary presence of myofibroblasts in human elbow capsule after trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doornberg, Job N.; Bosse, Tjalling; Cohen, Mark S.; Jupiter, Jesse B.; Ring, David; Kloen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Elbow stiffness is a common complication after elbow trauma. The elbow capsule is often thickened, fibrotic, and contracted at the time of surgical release. The limited studies available suggest that the capsule is contracted because of fibroblast-to-myofibroblast differentiation. We hypothesize

  14. Mode Identification of Guided Waves in a Curved Pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, Heung-Seop; Lim, Sa-Hoe; Kim, Jae-Hee

    2006-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided wave technique has been widely employed for the long range inspection of structures such as plates and pipes because it has the ability to propagate over long distances. In the nuclear power field, there recently appeared a need for on-line nondestructive monitoring which can be employed during the operation stage of power plants. As ultrasonic guided waves have shown promise for on-line monitoring of power plants, a lot of work has been done in the institutes and universities on this matter. In the case of detecting defects in simple straight pipes, the dispersion curves obtained from the modeling processes are closely akin to the experimental results. But the modeling of wave propagation in some structures, such as an elbow region of a pipe, is not practical due to elbow echo and unpredictable interface conditions. This paper presents an experimental approach to identify the most dominant modes of guided waves in a curved region of a pipe, which is a key factor in detecting flaws in a pipe

  15. Acoustic analysis of a piping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, A.S.; Vijay, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    Acoustic pulsations in the Darlington Nuclear Generating Station, a 881 MW CANDU, primary heat transport piping system caused fuel bundle failures under short term operations. The problem was successfully analyzed using the steady-state acoustic analysis capability of the ABAQUS program. This paper describes in general, modelling of low amplitude acoustic pulsations in a liquid filled piping system using ABAQUS. The paper gives techniques for estimating the acoustic medium properties--bulk modulus, fluid density and acoustic damping--and modelling fluid-structure interactions at orifices and elbows. The formulations and techniques developed are benchmarked against the experiments given in 3 cited references. The benchmark analysis shows that the ABAQUS results are in excellent agreement with the experiments

  16. Heat pipes in modern heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasiliev, Leonard L.

    2005-01-01

    Heat pipes are very flexible systems with regard to effective thermal control. They can easily be implemented as heat exchangers inside sorption and vapour-compression heat pumps, refrigerators and other types of heat transfer devices. Their heat transfer coefficient in the evaporator and condenser zones is 10 3 -10 5 W/m 2 K, heat pipe thermal resistance is 0.01-0.03 K/W, therefore leading to smaller area and mass of heat exchangers. Miniature and micro heat pipes are welcomed for electronic components cooling and space two-phase thermal control systems. Loop heat pipes, pulsating heat pipes and sorption heat pipes are the novelty for modern heat exchangers. Heat pipe air preheaters are used in thermal power plants to preheat the secondary-primary air required for combustion of fuel in the boiler using the energy available in exhaust gases. Heat pipe solar collectors are promising for domestic use. This paper reviews mainly heat pipe developments in the Former Soviet Union Countries. Some new results obtained in USA and Europe are also included

  17. Phase 2 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darlaston, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The results of phase 1 of the International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-1) programme have been widely reported. The significance of the results is reviewed briefly, in order to put the phase 2 programme into perspective. The success of phase 1 led the participants to consider further development and validation of pipe and pipe component fracture analysis technology as part of another international group programme (IPIRG-2). The benefits of combined funding and of the technical exchanges and interactions are considered to be of significant advantage and value. The phase 2 programme has been designed with the overall objective of developing and experimentally validating methods of predicting the fracture behaviour of nuclear reactor safety-related piping, to both normal operating and accident loads. The programme will add to the engineering estimation analysis methods that have been developed for straight pipes. The pipe system tests will expand the database to include seismic loadings and flaws in fittings, such as bends, elbows and tees, as well as ''short'' cracks. The results will be used to validate further the analytical methods, expand the capability to make fittings and extend the quasi-static results for the USNRC's new programme on short cracks in piping and piping welds. The IPIRG-2 programme is described to provide a clear understanding of the content, strategy, potential benefits and likely significance of the work. ((orig.))

  18. ELBOW AND WRIST INJURIES IN SPORTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmor, Leonard; Bechtol, Charles O.

    1960-01-01

    Any disabling injury of the elbow or wrist should be studied roentgenographically for evidence of fracture which may not be otherwise evident but which may cause permanent disability unless the joint is immobilized for healing. “Tennis elbow” may be treated with physical therapy and analgesic injection but may require splinting or tendon stripping. Elbow sprain can occur in the growing epiphysis but is rare in adults. A jarring fall on the hand may cause fracture or dislocation at the elbow. Full extension of the joint should be restored gradually by active exercise rather than passive or forcible stretching. Fracture at the head of the radius may cause joint hemorrhage with severe pain which can be relieved by aspiration. A displacing fracture at the head of the radius requires removal of the head to prevent arthritic changes. Myositis ossificans contraindicates operation until after it has cleared. Healing of wrist fractures may be facilitated by exercise of the shoulder and elbow while the wrist is still in a cast. Fractures of the navicular bone are difficult to detect even roentgenographically and splinting may have to be done on clinical evidence alone. PMID:14421374

  19. Predisposing Effect of Elbow Alignment on the Elbow Fracture Type in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seungcheol; Park, Soo-Sung

    2015-08-01

    Under the hypothesis that the elbow alignment, namely the carrying angle, could predispose individuals to a specific type of pediatric elbow fracture after a fall onto an outstretched arm, we investigated the relationship between radiographic carrying angle and elbow fracture type in children. Retrospective case-control study. Level I pediatric trauma center. We reviewed 374 children who were diagnosed with supracondylar fracture (SCF, n = 208), lateral condylar fracture (LCF, n = 132), and radial neck fracture (RNF, n = 34). The association between the radiographic carrying angle and the fracture type was investigated. To adjust for bias, 2 statistical methods were used: multivariate analysis using a baseline-category logistic model and a case-matching method using propensity score analysis. In the multivariate analysis, with SCF patients set as the baseline category, a more valgus-deviated elbow (increased carrying angle, P = 0.011) predisposed individuals to RNF, whereas a more varus-deviated elbow (decreased carrying angle, P predisposed them to LCF. In the case-matched analysis, there were also significant differences in carrying angles between RNF and case-matched SCF patients (14.3 vs. 11.4 degrees, P = 0.013) and between LCF and case-matched SCF patients (7.7 vs. 11.7 degrees, P fall onto an outstretched elbow, could be a predisposing factor for specific types of pediatric elbow fracture. The results provide the additional information about the injury mechanisms of pediatric elbow fracture and may deepen our understanding of the fractures. Prognostic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  20. Pipe supports and anchors - LMFBR applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.

    1983-06-01

    Pipe design and support design can not be treated as separate disciplines. A coordinated design approach is required if LMFBR pipe system adequacy is to be achieved at a reasonable cost. It is particularly important that system designers understand and consider those factors which influence support train flexibility and thus the pipe system dynamic stress levels. The system approach must not stop with the design phase but should continue thru the erection and acceptance test procedures. The factors that should be considered in the design of LMFBR pipe supports and anchors are described. The various pipe support train elements are described together with guidance on analysis, design and application aspects. Post erection acceptance and verification test procedures are then discussed

  1. Heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, Peter D

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date coverage of the theory, design and manufacture of heat pipes and their applications. This latest edition has been thoroughly revised, up-dated and expanded to give an in-depth coverage of the new developments in the field. Significant new material has been added to all the chapters and the applications section has been totally rewritten to ensure that topical and important applications are appropriately emphasised. The bibliography has been considerably enlarged to incorporate much valuable new information. Thus readers of the previous edition, which has established

  2. Inspection and monitoring techniques for un-bonded flexible risers and pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Master's thesis in Offshore technology Un-bonded flexible pipelines and risers are an alternative to conventional rigid steel pipes. The use of flexible pipes has enabled development of several offshore fields that seemed unfeasible with the use of rigid pipes due to extensive seabed preparation and large dynamic motions. The lack of knowledge and integrity management tools for flexible pipes is a limiting factor and cause pipelines and risers to be replaced before their service life has ...

  3. Evaluation of the plastic characteristics of piping products in relation to ASME code criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1978-07-01

    Theories and test data relevant to the plastic characteristics of piping products are presented and compared with Code Equations in NB-3652 for Class 1 piping; in NC/ND-3652.2 for Class 2 and Class 3 piping. Comparisons are made for (a) straight pipe, (b) elbows, (c) branch connections, and (d) tees. The status of data (or lack of data) for other piping components is discussed. Comparisons are made between available data and the Code equations for two typical piping materials, SA106 Grade B and SA312 TP304, for Code Design Limits, and Service Limits A, B, C, and D. Conditions under which the Code Limits cannot be shown to be conservative from available data are pointed out. Based on the results of the study, recommendations for Code revisions are presented, along with recommendations for additional work

  4. A numerical analysis on thermal stratification phenomenon in the SCS piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Chu; Park, Man Heung; Youm, Hag Ki; Lee, Sun Ki; Kim, Tae Ryong

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study is performed to estimate on an unsteady thermal stratification phenomenon in the Shutdown Cooling System(SCS) piping branched off the Reactor Coolant System(RCS) piping of Nuclear Power Plant. In the results, turbulent penetration reaches to the 1 st isolation valve. At 500sec, the maximum temperature difference between top and bottom inner wall in piping is observed at the starting point of horizontal piping passing elbow. The temperature of coolant in the rear side of the 1 st isolation valve disk is very slowly increased and the inflection point in temperature difference curve for time is observed at 2700sec. At the beginning of turbulent penetration from RCS piping, the fast inflow generates the higher temperature for the inner wall than the outer wall in the SCS piping. In the case the hot-leg injection piping and the drain piping are connected to the SCS piping, the effect of thermal stratification in the SCS piping is decreased due to an increase of heat loss compared with no connection case. The hot-leg injection piping affected by turbulent penetration from the SCS piping has a severe temperature difference that exceeds criterion temperature stated in reference. But the drain piping located in the rear compared with the hot-leg injection piping shows a tiny temperature difference. In a viewpoint of designer, for the purpose of decreasing the thermal stratification effect, it is necessary to increase the length of vertical piping in the SCS piping, and to move the position of the hot-leg injection piping backward

  5. Flexibility factors for small (d/D<1/3) branch connections with external loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1977-03-01

    A piping system analysis is accurate only to the extent that the flexibilities of all portions of the piping system are accurately known. The use of a ''conservative'' flexibility factor is not possible because such a factor cannot be defined. Branch connections require a definition of flexibility factor which is conceptually different than commonly used for curved pipe. An appropriate definition for the flexibility factors of branch connections is presented. The background of the present Code formulations of flexibility factors for branch connections is discussed. Additional theoretical data and test data are summarized. Recommendations are given for revisions to Code formulations for handling the flexibility of branch connections in a piping system analysis

  6. Field investigation on structural performance of the buried UPVC pipes with and without geogrid reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teja, Akkineni Surya; Rajkumar, R.; Gokula Krishnan, B.; Aravindh, R.

    2018-02-01

    Buried pipes are used mainly for water supply and drainage besides many other applications such as oil, liquefied natural gas, coal slurries and mine tailings. The pipes used may be rigid (reinforced concrete, vitrified clay and ductile iron) or flexible (Steel, UPVC, aluminium, Fiber glass and High-density polyethylene) although the distinction between them is blurring. Flexible pipe design is governed by deflection or buckling. UPVC pipes are preferred due to light weight, long term chemical stability and cost efficiency. This project aims to study the load deformation behaviour of the buried pipe and stress variation across the cross section of the pipe under static loading along with the influence of depth of embedment, density of backfill on the deformation and stresses in pipe and the deformation behaviour of buried pipe when soil is reinforced with geogrid reinforcement and evaluate the structural performance of the pipe.

  7. Mathematical model of polyethylene pipe bending stress state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebrennikov, Anatoly; Serebrennikov, Daniil

    2018-03-01

    Introduction of new machines and new technologies of polyethylene pipeline installation is usually based on the polyethylene pipe flexibility. It is necessary that existing bending stresses do not lead to an irreversible polyethylene pipe deformation and to violation of its strength characteristics. Derivation of the mathematical model which allows calculating analytically the bending stress level of polyethylene pipes with consideration of nonlinear characteristics is presented below. All analytical calculations made with the mathematical model are experimentally proved and confirmed.

  8. Experimental evaluation of J in cracked straight and curved pipes under bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, D.; Touboul, F.; Foucher, N.; Lebey, J.; Acker, D.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental program is being carried out at the CEA Saclay in collaboration with FRAMATOME and IPSN with a view to validate analysis methods applicable for evaluation of leak before break behavior in P.W.R. piping. A large experimental work was already performed in USA, Germany and Japan and cracked pipes made of stainless steel material under bending. The methods of analysis got same validations for straight pipes. However applicability to elbows and comparison with toughness values obtained on small specimens like CT specimens was not completely dealt with

  9. Stress-deformation analysis of elbow articulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlavoň, Pavel; Florian, Z.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2005), s. 331-337 ISSN 1802-1484. [Mechatronics, Robotics and Biomechanics 2005. Třešť, 26.09.2005-29.09.2005] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/05/0136 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : elbow joint * radial head replacement * radio-humeral alloplasty Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  10. Major Peripheral Nerve Injuries After Elbow Arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir J; Mithani, Suhail K; Lodha, Sameer J; Richard, Marc J; Leversedge, Fraser J; Ruch, David S

    2016-06-01

    To survey the American Society for Surgery of the Hand membership to determine the nature and distribution of nerve injuries treated after elbow arthroscopy. An online survey was sent to all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand under an institutional review board-approved protocol. Collected data included the number of nerve injuries observed over a 5-year period, the nature of treatment required for the injuries, and the outcomes observed after any intervention. Responses were anonymous, and results were securely compiled. We obtained 372 responses. A total of 222 nerve injuries were reported. The most injured nerves reported were ulnar, radial, and posterior interosseous (38%, 22%, and 19%, respectively). Nearly half of all patients with injuries required operative intervention, including nerve graft, tendon transfer, nerve repair, or nerve transfer. Of the patients who sustained major injuries, those requiring intervention, 77% had partial or no motor recovery. All minor injuries resolved completely. Our results suggest that major nerve injuries after elbow arthroscopy are not rare occurrences and the risk of these injuries is likely under-reported in the literature. Furthermore, patients should be counseled on this risk because most nerve injuries show only partial or no functional recovery. With the more widespread practice of elbow arthroscopy, understanding the nature and sequelae of significant complications is critically important in ensuring patient safety and improving outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fundamentals of piping design

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Written for the piping engineer and designer in the field, this two-part series helps to fill a void in piping literature,since the Rip Weaver books of the '90s were taken out of print at the advent of the Computer Aid Design(CAD) era. Technology may have changed, however the fundamentals of piping rules still apply in the digitalrepresentation of process piping systems. The Fundamentals of Piping Design is an introduction to the designof piping systems, various processes and the layout of pipe work connecting the major items of equipment forthe new hire, the engineering student and the vetera

  12. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. 5 refs

  13. Contributions of the ORNL piping program to nuclear piping design codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, S.E.

    1975-11-01

    The ORNL Piping Program was conceived and established to develop basic information on the structural behavior of nuclear power plant piping components and to prepare this information in forms suitable for use in design analysis and codes and standards. One of the objectives was to develop and qualify stress indices and flexibility factors for direct use in Code-prescribed design analysis methods. Progress in this area is described

  14. Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, K. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA

    2012-07-01

    Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.

  15. Identification and reduction of piping-vibrations in plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerkhof, K.

    2012-01-01

    Safe operation, availability and lifetime assessment of piping systems are of utmost concern for plant operators. The use of tuned mass dampers is a rather new approach for reducing vibrations to avoid high cycle fatigue in a large chemical piping system. The investigated piping system is supported by a tall structure fixed at the base. As a result, the steel building stiffness decreases with height. Furthermore large piping-elbow forces act at the top of the building, which lead to large vibration amplitudes. Since both piping system and supporting structure exhibited these large vibration amplitudes, dampers or shock absorbers placed between them would prove ineffective. Therefore, special vibration absorbers were developed for such piping systems. The paper presents the design process, starting with an extensive system investigation up to the passive multi-axial vibration absorber design parameters. This includes: Laboratory tests with a mock-up pipe system, where the first design ideas for new passive vibration absorbers were investigated. Vibration measurements were carried out to investigate the current state of the vibration behaviour. The piping system was inspected; strain gauges were used to identify stress concentrations at welds and other notches due to ovalization. Finite element calculations were performed, first as a combined beam and shell model for the pipe without the support structure. A detailed model for the combined steel construction and pipe system was created. Model-updating was done to fit the calculated model to the experimental modal analysis data. Loading assumptions describing excitation forces from the mass flow were checked. Harmonic frequency analysis was performed. On the basis of these calculations design parameters for the passive vibration absorber were determined. Finally, a solution for the design of two passive vibration absorbers will be presented.

  16. The Relationship of Throwing Arm Mechanics and Elbow Varus Torque: Within-Subject Variation for Professional Baseball Pitchers Across 82,000 Throws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Christopher L; Tubbs, Travis G; Fleisig, Glenn S; Dines, Joshua S; Dines, David M; Altchek, David W; Dowling, Brittany

    2017-11-01

    Likely due to the high level of strain exerted across the elbow during the throwing motion, elbow injuries are on the rise in baseball. To identify at-risk athletes and guide postinjury return-to-throw programs, a better understanding of the variables that influence elbow varus torque is desired. To describe the within-subject relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot and arm rotation in professional baseball pitchers. Descriptive laboratory study. A total of 81 professional pitchers performed 82,000 throws while wearing a motusBASEBALL sensor and sleeve. These throws represented a combination of throw types, such as warm-up/catch, structured long-toss, bullpen throwing from a mound, and live game activity. Variables recorded for each throw included arm slot (angle of the forearm relative to the ground at ball release), arm speed (maximal rotational velocity of the forearm), arm rotation (maximal external rotation of the throwing arm relative to the ground), and elbow varus torque. Linear mixed-effects models and likelihood ratio tests were used to estimate the relationship between elbow varus torque and arm slot, arm speed, and arm rotation within individual pitchers. All 3 metrics-arm slot (χ 2 = 428, P relationship with elbow varus torque. Within individual athletes, a 1-N.m increase in elbow varus torque was associated with a 13° decrease in arm slot, a 116 deg/s increase in arm speed, and an 8° increase in arm rotation. Elbow varus torque increased significantly as pitchers increased their arm rotation during the arm cocking phase, increased the rotational velocity of their arm during the arm acceleration phase of throwing, and decreased arm slot at ball release. Thus, shoulder flexibility, arm speed, and elbow varus torque (and likely injury risk) are interrelated and should be considered collectively when treating pitchers. It is well established that elbow varus torque is related to ulnar collateral ligament injuries in overhead throwers. This

  17. Natural course in tennis elbow--lateral epicondylitis after all?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeisig, Eva

    2012-12-01

    Tennis elbow is a common and difficult-to-treat condition largely because of lack of evidence. The natural history is unknown, but the condition is described as self-limiting. The objective of this case report is to describe the natural course of two control participants (pain free), who later developed tennis elbow, patient history, clinical findings, and ultrasound and colour Doppler examination before, during and after a period of tennis elbow.

  18. Insulated pipe clamp design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Hyde, L.L.; Wagner, S.E.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    Thin wall large diameter piping for breeder reactor plants can be subjected to significant thermal shocks during reactor scrams and other upset events. On the Fast Flux Test Facility, the addition of thick clamps directly on the piping was undesired because the differential metal temperatures between the pipe wall and the clamp could have significantly reduced the pipe thermal fatigue life cycle capabilities. Accordingly, an insulated pipe clamp design concept was developed. The design considerations and methods along with the development tests are presented. Special considerations to guard against adverse cracking of the insulation material, to maintain the clamp-pipe stiffness desired during a seismic event, to minimize clamp restraint on the pipe during normal pipe heatup, and to resist clamp rotation or spinning on the pipe are emphasized

  19. Nirschl surgical technique for concomitant lateral and medial elbow tendinosis: a retrospective review of 53 elbows with a mean follow-up of 11.7 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Oliver N; Dunn, Jonathan H; Ochiai, Derek H; Donovan, J Skye; Nirschl, Robert P

    2011-05-01

    Combined lateral elbow tendinosis (tennis elbow) and medial elbow tendinosis (golfer's elbow) can be a disabling condition that, if unresponsive to nonoperative treatments, may be effectively treated surgically. The authors are not aware of any study that reports the outcome of a combined operation for lateral and medial elbow tendinosis (country club elbow) performed in the same operative setting. Combined surgical treatment of country club elbow in the same operative setting has similar outcomes to those seen in the literature for single operative procedures. Case series; Level of evidence 4. Outcome measurements included the Numeric Pain Intensity Scale, the Nirschl tennis elbow scoring system, and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons elbow form. Forty-eight patients (53 clinical elbows) were available by telephone, with a minimum time to follow-up of 5 years (range, 5-19 years; mean, 11.7 years). The average Nirschl tennis elbow score improved from 16.7 preoperatively to 70.8 postoperatively (P Elbow Surgeons elbow score improved from 45.2 to 90.4 (P tennis elbow score, results were rated excellent in 38 elbows, good in 7 elbows, fair in 5 elbows, and poor in 3 elbows, with 85% (45 of 53) good to excellent results. Patient satisfaction with the surgery averaged 8.7 out of 10. Of the 46 patients who played sports, 44 (96%) reported returning to their sports. When nonoperative treatment of lateral and medial elbow tendinosis fails, combined surgical intervention via the Nirschl operative techniques for country club elbow is highly effective, with results similar to those of single-sided intervention.

  20. HPFRCC - Extruded Pipes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stang, Henrik; Pedersen, Carsten

    1996-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of the research onHigh Performance Fiber Reinforced Cementitious Composite -- HPFRCC --pipes recently carried out at Department of Structural Engineering, Technical University of Denmark. The project combines material development, processing technique development......-w$ relationship is presented. Structural development involved definition of a new type of semi-flexiblecement based pipe, i.e. a cement based pipe characterized by the fact that the soil-pipe interaction related to pipe deformation is an importantcontribution to the in-situ load carrying capacity of the pipe...

  1. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A; Parisher

    2000-01-01

    Pipe designers and drafters provide thousands of piping drawings used in the layout of industrial and other facilities. The layouts must comply with safety codes, government standards, client specifications, budget, and start-up date. Pipe Drafting and Design, Second Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers and drafters and students in Engineering Design Graphics and Engineering Technology through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings using symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. The book is appropriate primarily for pipe

  2. Measurement of pipe wall thinning by ultra acoustic resonance technique using optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Takehiro; Machijima, Yuichi

    2009-01-01

    This is the novel system for Pipe Wall Thickness measurement which is combined EAMT(Electro Magnetic Acoustic Transducer) and Optical Fiber Sensor. The conventional ultrasonic thickness meter is using in pipe wall thickness measurement. However, it is necessary to remove a heat insulator from pipe line. A characteristic of this novel system is that it is possible to measure without removing a heat insulator and on-line monitoring, because of measurement probe is attached between pipe surface and heat insulator. As a result of measured with this system, we could measure 30 mm thickness of carbon and stainless steel at the maximum and pipe specimen of elbow shape. Heat-resistant characteristic confirmed at 200 degrees C until about 7000 hours. (author)

  3. Neuromuscular interfacing: establishing an EMG-driven model for the human elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pau, James W L; Xie, Shane S Q; Pullan, Andrew J

    2012-09-01

    Assistive devices aim to mitigate the effects of physical disability by aiding users to move their limbs or by rehabilitating through therapy. These devices are commonly embodied by robotic or exoskeletal systems that are still in development and use the electromyographic (EMG) signal to determine user intent. Not much focus has been placed on developing a neuromuscular interface (NI) that solely relies on the EMG signal, and does not require modifications to the end user's state to enhance the signal (such as adding weights). This paper presents the development of a flexible, physiological model for the elbow joint that is leading toward the implementation of an NI, which predicts joint motion from EMG signals for both able-bodied and less-abled users. The approach uses musculotendon models to determine muscle contraction forces, a proposed musculoskeletal model to determine total joint torque, and a kinematic model to determine joint rotational kinematics. After a sensitivity analysis and tuning using genetic algorithms, subject trials yielded an average root-mean-square error of 6.53° and 22.4° for a single cycle and random cycles of movement of the elbow joint, respectively. This helps us to validate the elbow model and paves the way toward the development of an NI.

  4. Tennis elbow: role of local steroid injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Gulzar Saeed; Ali, Muhammad; Trago, Imtiaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Tennis elbow is a condition, characterised by pain and tenderness over the lateral epicondyle of the humerus, and pain on resisted dorsiflexion of the wrist, middle finger, or both. The aim of this randomised controlled trial was to investigate the short term efficacy of local steroid injection compared with oral and topical NSAIDs. Sixty patients (45 male and 15 female) were included in the study. The mean age was 42 years for men and 40 years for women. They were placed in group A and B (30 cases each). Group A received local steroid injection (triamcinolone 20 mg mixed with lignocaine 2% 1 cc) and topical NSAID cream application (diclofenac diethylammonium) twice a day, tab. diclofenac sodium 50 mg twice a day for 3 weeks. Group B received tab diclofenac 50 mg twice a day and, topical NSAID cream application twice a day for 3 weeks. Assessment of patients was made 3 times; first at the start of the study, 2nd time after 6 weeks, and 3rd time after 12 weeks. A blinded assessor rated the elbow complaints of the patients at resisted dorsiflexion of wrist using VAS (0 = no severity, 1-3 mild, 4-6 moderate, 7-9 sever, 10 = maximum severity). At six weeks, 22 (73.33%) patient in group A had no pain as compared to 7 (23.33%) patients in group B who were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 38.75). At 12 weeks 27 (90%) patients in group A were pain free compared to group B in which 7 (23.33%) patients were pain free (p < 0.0001, chi2 = 27.56). In patients with tennis elbow, the use of local steroid injection in combination with topical and oral NSAIDs is superior to the use of combination of topical and oral NSAIDs. Better results with combination therapy using local steroid injection may be limited to the short term.

  5. Shoulder-elbow exoskeleton as rehabilitation exerciser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianoşi, A.; Dimitrova, A.; Noveanu, S.; Tătar, O. M.; Mândru, D. S.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents a 2 degree of freedom exoskeleton designed for the rehabilitation of the shoulder and elbow movement in the sagittal plane; a semi-portable design strategy was chosen, which enables an easy attachment to a standard medical chair as well as the patient upper limb. A dedicated driver enables the control from a graphical user interface, which also provides the option of customized rehabilitation exercises. The potential of future improvements is assessed, and recommendations of research direction are made in order to broaden the usability of the proposed device.

  6. Development of a J-estimation scheme for internal circumferential and axial surface cracks in elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, R.; Brust, F.W.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.

    1996-06-01

    This report summarizes efforts to develop elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analyses for internal surface cracks in elbows. The analyses involved development of a GE/EPRI type J-estimation scheme which requires an elastic and fully plastic contribution to crack-driving force in terms of the J-integral parameter. The elastic analyses require the development of F-function values to relate the J e term to applied loads. Similarly, the fully plastic analyses require the development of h-functions to relate the J p term to the applied loads. The F- and h-functions were determined from a matrix of finite element analyses. To minimize the cost of the analyses, three-dimensional ABAQUS finite element analyses were compared to a simpler finite element technique called the line-spring method. The line-spring method provides a significant computational savings over the full three-dimensional analysis. The comparison showed excellent agreement between the line-spring and three-dimensional analysis. This experience was consistent with comparisons with circumferential surface-crack analyses in straight pipes during the NRC's Short Cracks in Piping and Piping Welds program

  7. Efficient simulation of flow and heat transfer in arbitrarily shaped pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Rosen Esquivel, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of fluids through pipes is a very common application. Corrugated pipes have characteristics such as local stiffness and flexibility that makes them convenient in several application areas such as offshore LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) transfer, cryogenic engineering, domestic appliances, etc. Nonetheless, the introduction of pipes with corrugated walls increases the difficulty of simulating flow and heat transfer in these type of pipes. The present thesis addresses the development...

  8. Analysis of the fitness for service of the elbow of the line 8D24 of the cooling system stop CNE and corrective actions taken

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguigne, G.

    2013-01-01

    Given the thickness measurements recorded on the Shutdown Cooling System of Embalse NGS, it was noted that one of the bends had values below the pressure based minimum thickness and because of that, a fitness for service evaluation of the elbow was necessary. The system consists of a pump and a heat exchanger on both sides of the reactor connected between the inlet and outlet headers of both loops. All piping is Class1 and therefore must comply with ASME BPVC, Section III rules. This evaluation was done using the same loads and operating conditions as the ones uses on the design stage, using the original Stress Report of the system as a reference. Due to calculated stresses being near the limits, it was decided that a repair action should take place on the elbow and that applying an external cladding to the locally thinned area was the best option. Finally an evaluation of the repair done on the elbow was performed, finding that the elbow is fit for service following ASME- Section III rules and limits.Given the thickness measurements recorded on the Shutdown Cooling System of Embalse NGS, it was noted that one of the bends had values below the pressure based minimum thickness and because of that, a fitness for service evaluation of the elbow was necessary. The system consists of a pump and a heat exchanger on both sides of the reactor connected between the inlet and outlet headers of both loops. All piping is Class1 and therefore must comply with ASME BPVC, Section III rules. This evaluation was done using the same loads and operating conditions as the ones uses on the design stage, using the original Stress Report of the system as a reference. Due to calculated stresses being near the limits, it was decided that a repair action should take place on the elbow and that applying an external cladding to the locally thinned area was the best option. Finally an evaluation of the repair done on the elbow was performed, finding that the elbow is fit for service following

  9. Orthotic devices for the treatment of tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A. A.; Smidt, N.; Arola, H.; Dijk, van C. N.; Buchbinder, R.; Assendelft, W. J. J.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequently reported condition. A wide variety of treatment strategies has been described. As of yet, no optimal strategy has been identified. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of orthotic devices for the treatment of tennis elbow. SEARCH

  10. Orthotic devices for tennis elbow: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A.; Smidt, N.; Arola, H.; van Dijk, C. N.; Buchbinder, R.; Assendelft, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is af requently reported condition. A wide variety of treatment strategies has been described. Asy et, no optimal strategy has been identified. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of orthotic devices for treatment of tennis elbow. An electronic

  11. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eygendaal, D.; Rahussen, F.T.; Diercks, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis can will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a

  12. MR imaging of the elbow in baseball pitchers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouellette, Hugue; Bredella, Miriam; Palmer, William E.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Division of Musculoskeletal Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Labis, John [Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Baseball pitcher throwing biomechanics are important to understanding the pathophysiology and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging appearances of injuries in baseball pitchers. Baseball pitchers experience repetitive excessive valgus forces at the elbow. Typical injuries are secondary to medial joint distraction, lateral joint compression, and rotatory forces at the olecranon. MR imaging is useful for evaluation of the elbow in baseball pitchers. (orig.)

  13. ERRORS AT RESTORATIVE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ELBOW INJURIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ovsyankin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented analysis based on a large clinical material of reconstructive management of children with posttraumatic contractures of the elbow joint. In reconstructive management of children a plenty of errors are committed, and most of them are through undervaluation of displacements that have not been eliminated after bone fractures at the elbow joint.

  14. The treatment of recurrent posterolateral instability of the elbow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    2003-01-01

    This study describes the surgical technique used for reconstruction and reinforcement of the lateral collateral ligament complex in patients with posterolateral instability of the elbow and the results. A triceps tendon graft from the ipsilateral elbow which was inserted through bone tunnels...

  15. Assessment of induction elbows for an ASME Code application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panesar, J.S.; Soliman, M.

    1991-01-01

    The ASME Nuclear Codes impose some specific requirements on the wall thickness uniformity and the out-of-roundness of cross sections of the elbows for Nuclear Power Plant applications. Due to some of these requirements, manufacturing and installation of these elbows can be time consuming and quite expensive. This paper explores the feasibility of using induction elbows for nuclear application from the stress analysis point of view. To this end, three different sizes of 90deg elbows have been analyzed based on the geometry of an 'ASME Code' elbow and an elbow formed by induction bending. The analysis is carried out for internal pressure, in-plane and out-of-plane loads. Based on the results of these three carbon steel elbows, the use of induction elbows in some of the CANDU-PHW (CANadian Deuterium Uranium-Pressurized Heavy Water) power plant applications seems encouraging. However, before the feasibility can be fully confirmed analysis and induction bending tests over a wider range of geometries, loading conditions, and materials are required. (author)

  16. Tips to avoid nerve injury in elbow arthroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilgersom, Nick F. J.; Oh, Luke S.; Flipsen, Mark; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Elbow arthroscopy is a technical challenging surgical procedure because of close proximity of neurovascular structures and the limited articular working space. With the rising number of elbow arthroscopies being performed nowadays due to an increasing number of surgeons performing this procedure and

  17. Kinematics of the lateral ligamentous constraints of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole; Dalstra, Michel

    1996-01-01

    preventer of elbow joint laxity. The LCLC was observed to be a complex structure of ligamentous fibers rather than discreet bands. The LCLC forms a ligamentous constraint between the lateral humeral epicondyle and the ulna, stabilizing the elbow joint and forming a base for radial head stability...

  18. Validation of the Danish version of the Oxford Elbow Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plaschke, Hans Christian; Jørgensen, Andreas Møller; Thillemann, Theis Muncholm

    2013-01-01

    The Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a patient-related outcome measure quantifying quality of life in relation to elbow disorders. This 12-item patient-administered English questionnaire comprises three domains: function, social-psychological status and pain. The purpose of this study was to examine...

  19. Evaluation and Management of Elbow Tendinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Samuel A.; Hannafin, Jo A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Elbow tendinopathy is a common cause of pain and disability among patients presenting to orthopaedic surgeons, primary care physicians, physical therapists, and athletic trainers. Prompt and accurate diagnosis of these conditions facilitates a directed treatment regimen. A thorough understanding of the natural history of these injuries and treatment outcomes will enable the appropriate management of patients and their expectations. Evidence Acquisitions: The PubMed database was searched in December 2011 for English-language articles pertaining to elbow tendinopathy. Results: Epidemiologic data as well as multiple subjective and objective outcome measures were investigated to elucidate the incidence of medial epicondylitis, lateral epicondylitis, distal biceps and triceps ruptures, and the efficacy of various treatments. Conclusions: Medial and lateral epicondylitis are overuse injuries that respond well to nonoperative management. Their etiology is degenerative and related to repetitive overuse and underlying tendinopathy. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and localized corticosteroid injections yield moderate symptomatic relief in short term but do not demonstrate benefit on long-term follow-up. Platelet-rich plasma injections may be advantageous in cases of chronic lateral epicondylitis. If 6 to 12 months of nonoperative treatment fails, then surgical intervention can be undertaken. Distal biceps and triceps tendon ruptures, in contrast, have an acute traumatic etiology that may be superimposed on underlying tendinopathy. Prompt diagnosis and treatment improve outcomes. While partial ruptures confirmed with magnetic resonance imaging can be treated nonoperatively with immobilization, complete ruptures should be addressed with primary repair within 3 to 4 weeks of injury. PMID:23016111

  20. Pipe-to-pipe impact program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzheimer, J.M.; Bampton, M.C.C.; Friley, J.R.; Simonen, F.A.

    1984-06-01

    This report documents the tests and analyses performed as part of the Pipe-to-Pipe Impact (PTPI) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This work was performed to assist the NRC in making licensing decisions regarding pipe-to-pipe impact events following postulated breaks in high energy fluid system piping. The report scope encompasses work conducted from the program's start through the completion of the initial hot oil tests. The test equipment, procedures, and results are described, as are analytic studies of failure potential and data correlation. Because the PTPI Program is only partially completed, the total significance of the current test results cannot yet be accurately assessed. Therefore, although trends in the data are discussed, final conclusions and recommendations will be possible only after the completion of the program, which is scheduled to end in FY 1984

  1. Solar heating pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinson-Rider, G.

    1977-10-04

    A fluid carrying pipe is described having an integral transparent portion formed into a longitudinally extending cylindrical lens that focuses solar heat rays to a focal axis within the volume of the pipe. The pipe on the side opposite the lens has a heat ray absorbent coating for absorbing heat from light rays that pass through the focal axis.

  2. Investigation of erosion behavior in different pipe-fitting using Eulerian-Lagrangian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Harshwardhan; Khadamkar, Hrushikesh; Mathpati, Channamallikarjun

    2017-11-01

    Erosion is a wear mechanism of piping system in which wall thinning occurs because of turbulent flow along with along with impact of solid particle on the pipe wall, because of this pipe ruptures causes costly repair of plant and personal injuries. In this study two way coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is used to solve the liquid solid (water-ferrous suspension) flow in the different pipe fitting namely elbow, t-junction, reducer, orifice and 50% open gate valve. Simulations carried out using incomressible transient solver in OpenFOAM for different Reynolds's number (10k, 25k, 50k) and using WenYu drag model to find out possible higher erosion region in pipe fitting. Used transient solver is a hybrid in nature which is combination of Lagrangian library and pimpleFoam. Result obtained from simulation shows that exit region of elbow specially downstream of straight, extradose of the bend section more affected by erosion. Centrifugal force on solid particle at bend affect the erosion behavior. In case of t-junction erosion occurs below the locus of the projection of branch pipe on the wall. For the case of reducer, orifice and a gate valve reduction area as well as downstream is getting more affected by erosion because of increase in velocities.

  3. Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.

  4. The role of arthroscopy in chronic elbow instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, David; Dynin, Maria; Macdonnell, J Ryan; Kessler, Michael W

    2013-12-01

    Elbow arthroscopy has had an emerging role in the management of many disorders of the elbow. In patients with chronic elbow instability, several arthroscopic techniques have been described in the diagnosis and management of posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability. We performed a systematic review investigating the role of arthroscopy in posterolateral rotatory instability and valgus instability in the elbow using the PubMed and CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature) databases, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, consisting of articles from peer-reviewed journals published in the English language after January 1, 1991. Search criteria initially identified 249 articles. Twenty-five articles met criteria for inclusion. This included 17 review articles, 4 cadaveric studies, 3 retrospective studies, and 1 prospective study. Two of the retrospective studies compared arthroscopic and open techniques. Articles included in this systematic review concluded that arthroscopy is an accurate adjunct to physical examination and imaging in the diagnosis of chronic elbow instability and affords an exceptional view of the joint with the ability to address intra-articular pathologic conditions. Arthroscopic surgical techniques have shown equivalent clinical outcomes in a comparison of arthroscopic and open techniques. Elbow arthroscopy is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of chronic elbow instability. Patients treated arthroscopically benefit from additional diagnostic techniques, improved visualization of the elbow joint, the ability to address coexisting intra-articular pathologic conditions, and minimal soft tissue injury with no clinical consequences in outcomes. With such significant advantages, the use of elbow arthroscopy is likely to expand in the management of chronic elbow instability. Level IV, systematic review. Copyright © 2013 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc

  5. Chronic elbow dislocation: a rare complication of tennis elbow surgery. Successful treatment by open reduction and external fixator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degreef, I; De Smet, L

    2007-06-01

    A case is presented of chronic dislocation of the elbow after tennis elbow surgery combined with posterior interosseous nerve (PIN) release. An open reduction with repair of the collateral ligaments was performed. Postoperative rehabilitation involved the use of an articulated external fixator and there was a successful outcome. Possible causes of the dislocation are discussed.

  6. Design analysis of liquid metal pipe supports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, L.L.; LaSalle, F.R.

    1979-02-01

    Design guidelines pertinent to liquid metal pipe supports are presented. The numerous complex conditions affecting the support stiffness and strength are addressed in detail. Topics covered include modeling of supports for natural frequency and stiffness calculations, support hardware components, formulas for deflection due to torsion, plate bending, and out-of-plane flexibility. A sample analysis and a discussion on stress analysis of supports are included. Also presented are recommendations for design improvements for increasing the stiffness of pipe supports and which were utilized in the FFTF system

  7. ASME code and ratcheting in piping components. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, T.; Matzen, V.C.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to develop an analysis program which can accurately simulate ratcheting in piping components subjected to seismic or other cyclic loads. Ratcheting is defined as the accumulation of deformation in structures and materials with cycles. This phenomenon has been demonstrated to cause failure to piping components (known as ratcheting-fatigue failure) and is yet to be understood clearly. The design and analysis methods in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code for ratcheting of piping components are not well accepted by the practicing engineering community. This research project attempts to understand the ratcheting-fatigue failure mechanisms and improve analysis methods for ratcheting predictions. In the first step a state-of-the-art testing facility is developed for quasi-static cyclic and seismic testing of straight and elbow piping components. A systematic testing program to study ratcheting is developed. Some tests have already been performed and the rest will be completed by summer'99. Significant progress has been made in the area of constitutive modeling. A number of sophisticated constitutive models have been evaluated in terms of their simulations for a broad class of ratcheting responses. From the knowledge gained from this evaluation study two improved models are developed. These models are demonstrated to have promise in simulating ratcheting responses in piping components. Hence, implementation of these improved models in widely used finite element programs, ANSYS and/or ABAQUS, is in progress. Upon achieving improved finite element programs for simulation of ratcheting, the ASME Code provisions for ratcheting of piping components will be reviewed and more rational methods will be suggested. Also, simplified analysis methods will be developed for operability studies of piping components and systems. Some of the future works will be performed under the auspices of the Center for Nuclear Power Plant Structures

  8. Sonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve at the elbow with different degrees of elbow flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Prutha; Norbury, John W; Fang, Xiangming

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether there were differences in the cross-sectional area (CSA) and the flattening ratio of the normative ulnar nerve as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon at 30° of elbow flexion versus 90° of elbow flexion. Bilateral upper extremities of normal healthy adult volunteers were evaluated with ultrasound. The CSA and the flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at the elbow as it passes between the medial epicondyle and the olecranon were measured, with the elbow flexed at 30° and at 90°, by 2 operators with varying ultrasound scanning experience by using ellipse and direct tracing methods. The results from the 2 different angles of elbow flexion were compared for each individual operator. Finally, intraclass correlations for absolute agreement and consistency between the 2 raters were calculated. An outpatient clinic room at a regional rehabilitation center. Twenty-five normal healthy adult volunteers. The mean CSA and the mean flattening ratio of the ulnar nerve at 30° of elbow flexion and at 90° of elbow flexion. First, for the ellipse method, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (9.93 mm(2)) was slightly larger than at 30° (9.77 mm(2)) for rater 1. However, for rater 2, the mean CSA of the ulnar nerve at 90° (6.80 mm(2)) was slightly smaller than at 30° (7.08 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically insignificant when using a matched pairs t test and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, with a significance level of .05. Similarly, the difference between the right side and the left side was not statistically significant. The intraclass correlations for absolute agreement between the 2 raters were not very high due to different measurement locations, but the intraclass correlations for consistency were high. Second, for the direct tracing method, the mean CSA at 90° (7.26 mm(2)) was slightly lower than at 30° (7.48 mm(2)). This was found to be statistically nonsignificant when using the matched pairs t test and the

  9. Measured residual stresses in overlay pipe weldments removed from service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shack, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    Surface and throughwall residual stresses were measured on an elbow-to-pipe weldment that had been removed from the Hatch-2 reactor about a year after the application of a weld overlay. The results were compared with experimental measurements on three mock-up weldments and with finite-element calculations. The comparison shows that there are significant differences in the form and magnitude of the residual stress distributions. However, even after more than a year of service, the residual stresses over most of the inner surface of the actual plant weldment with an overlay were strongly compressive. 3 refs., 7 figs

  10. Lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Vaesel, M T; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole

    1996-01-01

    The structure and kinematics of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow joint were investigated in 10 cadaveric specimens. The lateral collateral ligament was observed to be a distinct part of the lateral collateral ligament complex. It contains posterior fibers that pass through the annular....... Division of the posterolateral capsule caused no further laxity. Cutting the lateral collateral ligament induced a maximum laxity of 11.8 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced varus and a maximum laxity of 20.6 degrees at 110 degrees of flexion in forced external rotation. The corresponding maximal...... posterior radial head translation was observed at 80 degrees to 100 degrees of flexion and was 5.7 mm in forced varus and 8.1 mm in forced external rotation. This study suggests the lateral collateral ligament to be an important stabilizer of the humeroulnar joint and the radial head in forced varus...

  11. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy for chronic elbow tendinosis: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Darryl E; Beckley, James M; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Elbow tendinopathy is the most common cause of elbow pain affecting active populations. Surgical excision is reserved for patients with refractory symptoms. Percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy performed under local anesthesia also removes degenerated tissue and therefore provides an alternative treatment option to surgical excision. This investigation prospectively documented the safety and 1-year efficacy of ultrasonic percutaneous tenotomy performed by a single operator. Nineteen patients, aged 38 to 67 years, in whom >6 months of conservative management for medial (7) or lateral (12) elbow tendinopathy had failed were prospectively studied. All patients were treated with percutaneous ultrasonic tenotomy of the elbow by a single operator. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, the 11-item version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick DASH) index, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) were assessed by an independent observer before treatment and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after treatment. No procedural complications occurred. Total treatment time was elbow tendinopathy up to 1 year after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Application of CT three-dimensional reconstruction in elbow injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Wenhua; Qian Li

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the application of multi-slice spiral CT in fracture of elbow, and to study the value of different methods of the reconstruction. Methods: Thin line cross-section spiral CT scan was carried out in 13 cases with elbow injury, three-dimensional reconstruction was completed later. Several reconstructed image quality to display f the elbow fracture and dislocation were analyzed and compared. Results: 13 cases (17) elbow trauma included humeral media epicondyle fracture, humeral external epicondyle fracture, intercondylar fracture, olecranal fracture and radial head fracture. Among them, X-ray film showed negative in three sites, showed suspect fractures in 2 cases, and only showed single fracture in 2 cases. MPR reconstruction image could not only identify the diagnosis of fracture, but also provide further multi-angle display on fracture line and the extent of articular surface involvement. Surface reconstruction technology could exclude the impact of passive elbow flexion and display elbow injury more intuitively. Conclusion The elbow fracture dislocation could be showed clearly in multi-slice spiral CT, especially for complex fractures, with unmatched advantages compared to X-ray for clinical diagnosis and treatment determination. (authors)

  13. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun [Pusan National University, School of Mechanical Engineering, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  14. Assessment of wall-thinning in carbon steel pipe by using laser-generated guided wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Yong; Cho, Youn Ho; Lee, Joon Hyun

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this research is to estimate the crack location and size of a carbon steel pipe by using a laser ultrasound guided wave for the wall thinning evaluation of an elbow. The wall thinning of the carbon steel pipe is one of the most serious problems in nuclear power plants, especially the wall thinning of the carbon steel elbow caused by Flow-Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Therefore, a non-destructive inspection method of elbow is essential for the nuclear power plants to operate safely. The specimens used in this study were carbon steel elbows, which represented the main elements of real nuclear power plants. The shape of the wall thinning was an oval with a width of 120mm, a length of 80mm, and a depth of 5mm. The L(0,1) and L(0,2) modes variation of the ultrasound guided wave signal is obtained from the response of the laser generation/air-coupled detection ultrasonic hybrid system represent the characteristics of the defect. The trends of these characteristics and signal processing were use dto estimate the size and location of wall thinning

  15. Drill pipe bridge plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winslow, D.W.; Brisco, D.P.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a method of stopping flow of fluid up through a pipe bore of a pipe string in a well. It comprises: lowering a bridge plug apparatus on a work string into the pipe string to a position where the pipe bore is to be closed; communicating the pipe bore below a packer of the bridge plug apparatus through the bridge plug apparatus with a low pressure zone above the packer to permit the fluid to flow up through the bridge plug apparatus; engaging the bridge plug apparatus with an internal upset of the pipe string; while the fluid is flowing up through the bridge plug apparatus, pulling upward on the work string and the bridge plug apparatus and thereby sealing the packer against the pipe bore; isolating the pipe bore below the packer from the low pressure zone above the packer and thereby stopping flow of the fluid up through the pipe bore; disconnecting the work string from the bridge plug apparatus; and maintaining the bridge plug apparatus in engagement with the internal upset and sealed against the pipe bore due to an upward pressure differential applied to the bridge plug apparatus by the fluid contained therebelow

  16. Myositis Ossificans Traumatica Causing Ankylosis of the Elbow

    OpenAIRE

    Kanthimathi, B.; Udhaya Shankar, S.; Arun Kumar, K.; Narayanan, V. L.

    2014-01-01

    Myositis ossificans traumatica is an unusual complication following a muscle contusion injury. A significantly large myositic mass causing ankylosis of the elbow is even rarer. We report a 13-year-old boy who presented with a 14-month history of a fixed elbow with no movement and a palpable bony mass in the anterior aspect of the elbow. He had sustained significant trauma to the affected limb 1 month prior to onset of symptoms, which was managed by native massage and bandaging for 4 weeks. Th...

  17. Long-term sequel of posterolateral rotatory instability of the elbow: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chun-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The natural course of untreated posterior lateral rotatory instability of the elbow is unclear. A case of elbow arthrosis with progressing deformity and flexion contracture after an episode of elbow dislocation about 20 years ago presented the possibility the long term outcome of untreated posterior lateral rotatory instability of the elbow.

  18. Evaluations of the piping system inelastic analysis computer program PIRAX2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1977-01-01

    The report contains two sets of comparisons of inelastic test data with PIRAX2-Theory; i.e., ORNL beam tests and ORNL elbow tests. The purpose of these comparisons is to evaluate the accuracy of the simplified analytical techniques used in PIRAX2. The test data are on structures that are much simpler than piping systems but provide a fundamental basis for comparison. The report includes an analysis of a 3-anchor piping system to illustrate the relative simplicity of PIRAX2 input/output data and relatively small computer running time. Some areas of needed improvements in PIRAX2 are discussed

  19. A lead-before-break strategy for primary heat transport piping of 500 MWe Indian PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) is being used to design the primary heat transport piping system of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR). The work is categorized in three directions to demonstrate three levels of safety against sudden catastrophic break. Level 1 is inherent in the design procedure of piping system as per ASME Sec.III with a well defined factor of safety. Level 2 consists of fatigue crack growth study of a postulated part-through flaw at the inside surface of pipes. Level 3 is stability analysis of a postulated leakage size flaw under the maximum credible loading condition. Developmental work related to demonstration of level 2 and level 3 confidence is described in this paper. In a case study on fatigue crack growth on PHT straight pipes for level 2, negligible crack growth is predicted for the life of the reactor. For level 3 analysis, the R6 method has been adopted. A database to evaluate SIF of elbows with throughwall flaws under combined internal pressure and bending moment has been generated to provide one of the inputs for R6 method. The methodology of safety assessment of elbow using R6 method has been demonstrated for a typical pump discharge elbow. In this analysis, limit load of the cracked elbow has been determined by carrying out elasto-plastic finite element analysis. The limit load results compared well with those given by Miller. However, it requires further study to give a general form of limit load solution. On the experimental front, a set of small diameter pipe fracture experiments have been carried out at room temperature and 300{degrees}C. Two important observations of the experiments are - appreciable drop in maximum load at 300{degrees}C in case of SS pipes and out-of-plane crack growth in case of CS pipes. Experimental load deflection curves are finally compared with five J-estimation schemes predictions. A material database of PHT piping materials is also being generated for use in LBB analysis.

  20. A lead-before-break strategy for primary heat transport piping of 500 MWe Indian PHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    Leak-Before-Break (LBB) is being used to design the primary heat transport piping system of 500 MWe Indian Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (IPHWR). The work is categorized in three directions to demonstrate three levels of safety against sudden catastrophic break. Level 1 is inherent in the design procedure of piping system as per ASME Sec.III with a well defined factor of safety. Level 2 consists of fatigue crack growth study of a postulated part-through flaw at the inside surface of pipes. Level 3 is stability analysis of a postulated leakage size flaw under the maximum credible loading condition. Developmental work related to demonstration of level 2 and level 3 confidence is described in this paper. In a case study on fatigue crack growth on PHT straight pipes for level 2, negligible crack growth is predicted for the life of the reactor. For level 3 analysis, the R6 method has been adopted. A database to evaluate SIF of elbows with throughwall flaws under combined internal pressure and bending moment has been generated to provide one of the inputs for R6 method. The methodology of safety assessment of elbow using R6 method has been demonstrated for a typical pump discharge elbow. In this analysis, limit load of the cracked elbow has been determined by carrying out elasto-plastic finite element analysis. The limit load results compared well with those given by Miller. However, it requires further study to give a general form of limit load solution. On the experimental front, a set of small diameter pipe fracture experiments have been carried out at room temperature and 300 degrees C. Two important observations of the experiments are - appreciable drop in maximum load at 300 degrees C in case of SS pipes and out-of-plane crack growth in case of CS pipes. Experimental load deflection curves are finally compared with five J-estimation schemes predictions. A material database of PHT piping materials is also being generated for use in LBB analysis

  1. Analysis of pressure wave transients and seismic response in LMFBR piping systems using the SHAPS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeuch, W.R.; Wang, C.Y.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents some of the current capabilities of the three-dimensional piping code SHAPS and demonstrates their usefulness in handling analyses encountered in typical LMFBR studies. Several examples demonstrate the utility of the SHAPS code for problems involving fluid-structure interactions and seismic-related events occurring in three-dimensional piping networks. Results of two studies of pressure wave propagation demonstrate the dynamic coupling of pipes and elbows producing global motion and rigorous treatment of physical quantities such as changes in density, pressure, and strain energy. Results of the seismic analysis demonstrate the capability of SHAPS to handle dynamic structural response within a piping network over an extended transient period of several seconds. Variation in dominant stress frequencies and global translational frequencies were easily handled with the code. 4 refs., 10 figs

  2. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  3. Acute and overuse elbow trauma: radio-orthopaedics overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocerino, Elisabetta Antonia; Cucchi, Davide; Arrigoni, Paolo; Brioschi, Marco; Fusi, Cristiano; Genovese, Eugenio A; Messina, Carmelo; Randelli, Pietro; Masciocchi, Carlo; Aliprandi, Alberto

    2018-01-19

    The correct management of acute, subacute and overuse-related elbow pathologies represents a challenging diagnostic and therapeutic problem. While major trauma frequently requires a rapid surgical intervention, subluxation and minor trauma allow taking more time for diagnostics and planning the correct elective treatment after careful clinical and radiological investigation. In these conditions, communication between orthopaedic surgeon and radiologist allow to create a detailed radiology report, tailored to the patient's and surgeon's needs and optimal to plan proper management. Imaging technique as X-Ray, CT, US, MRI, CTA and MRA all belong to the radiologist's portfolio in elbow diagnostics. Detailed knowledge of elbow pathology and its classification and of the possibilities and limits of each imaging technique is of crucial importance to reach the correct diagnosis efficiently. The aim of this review is to present the most frequent elbow pathologies and suggest a suitable diagnostic approach for each of them.

  4. Golf Injuries to the Hand, Wrist, or Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Golf Injuries to the Hand, Wrist or Elbow Email ... enjoyment of the game injury free. Types of Golf Injuries Golf injuries can include tendonitis, sprains or ...

  5. Dry Arthroscopy of the Elbow and Basic Hip Arthroscopy Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubowitz, James H

    2015-08-01

    In Arthroscopy Techniques, dry arthroscopy of the elbow is well-illustrated, and hip arthroscopy patient positioning including fluoroscopic examination under anesthesia is critically reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow using magnetic resonance neurography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keen, Nayela N.; Chin, Cynthia T.; Saloner, David; Steinbach, Lynne S.; Engstrom, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is important. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) images peripheral nerves. We evaluated the usefulness of elbow MRN in diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. The MR neurograms of 21 patients with ulnar neuropathy were reviewed retrospectively. MRN was performed prospectively on 10 normal volunteers. The MR neurograms included axial T1 and axial T2 fat-saturated and/or axial STIR sequences. The sensitivity and specificity of MRN in detecting ulnar neuropathy were determined. The mean ulnar nerve size in the symptomatic and normal groups was 0.12 and 0.06 cm 2 (P 2 , sensitivity was 95% and specificity was 80%. Ulnar nerve size and signal intensity were greater in patients with ulnar neuropathy. MRN is a useful test in evaluating ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. (orig.)

  7. Elbow joint stability in relation to forced external rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, S.R.; Jensen, S.L.; Olsen, B.S.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the osseous constraint related to forced forearm external rotation as the initial stage in a posterior elbow dislocation. Six joint specimens without soft tissues were examined in a joint analysis system developed for simulation of dislocation. The osse......The objective of this study was to evaluate the osseous constraint related to forced forearm external rotation as the initial stage in a posterior elbow dislocation. Six joint specimens without soft tissues were examined in a joint analysis system developed for simulation of dislocation...... external forearm rotation until the point of maximal torque decreased from a maximum in full extension to a minimum at 30 degrees of elbow flexion (P =.03). The elbow in a slightly flexed position, varus stress, and forearm external rotation trauma might be the important biomechanical factors...

  8. Introduction to Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Jentung

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation file for the short course Introduction to Heat Pipes, to be conducted at the 2015 Thermal Fluids and Analysis Workshop, August 3-7, 2015, Silver Spring, Maryland. NCTS 21070-15. Course Description: This course will present operating principles of the heat pipe with emphases on the underlying physical processes and requirements of pressure and energy balance. Performance characterizations and design considerations of the heat pipe will be highlighted. Guidelines for thermal engineers in the selection of heat pipes as part of the spacecraft thermal control system, testing methodology, and analytical modeling will also be discussed.

  9. Riser pipe elevator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, W.; Jimenez, A.F.

    1987-09-08

    This patent describes a method for storing and retrieving a riser pipe, comprising the steps of: providing an upright annular magazine comprised of an inside annular wall and an outside annular wall, the magazine having an open top; storing the riser pipe in a substantially vertically oriented position within the annular magazine; and moving the riser pipe upwardly through the open top of the annular magazine at an angle to the vertical along at least a portion of the length of the riser pipe.

  10. Piping engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The conference 'Piping Engineering and Operation' was organized by the Institution of Mechanical Engineers in November/December 1993 to follow on from similar successful events of 1985 and 1989, which were attended by representatives from all sectors of the piping industry. Development of engineering and operation of piping systems in all aspects, including non-metallic materials, are highlighted. The range of issues covered represents a balance between current practices and implementation of future international standards. Twenty papers are printed. Two, which are concerned with pressurized pipes or steam lines in the nuclear industry, are indexed separately. (Author)

  11. Piping equipment; Materiel petrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This 'blue bible' of the perfect piping-man appeals to end-users of industrial facilities of the petroleum and chemical industries (purchase services, standardization, new works, maintenance) but also to pipe-makers and hollow-ware makers. It describes the characteristics of materials (carbon steels, stainless steels, alloyed steels, special alloys) and the dimensions of pipe elements: pipes, welding fittings, flanges, sealing products, forged steel fittings, forged steel valves, cast steel valves, ASTM standards, industrial valves. (J.S.)

  12. Flexible Bronchoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Russell J; Casal, Roberto F; Lazarus, Donald R; Ost, David E; Eapen, George A

    2018-03-01

    Flexible bronchoscopy has changed the course of pulmonary medicine. As technology advances, the role of the flexible bronchoscope for both diagnostic and therapeutic indications is continually expanding. This article reviews the historical development of the flexible bronchoscopy, fundamental uses of the flexible bronchoscope as a tool to examine the central airways and obtain diagnostic tissue, and the indications, complications, and contraindications to flexible bronchoscopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A review of epidemiology of paediatric elbow injuries in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magra, Merzesh; Caine, Dennis; Maffulli, Nicola

    2007-01-01

    The elbow is a common site of orthopaedic injury in the paediatric population. The number of these injuries continues to rise following increased levels of participation in paediatric recreational and competitive sport. Injuries to the paediatric elbow can be classified as either overuse or acute. Delineating injury patterns to the elbow in children can be challenging, given the cartilaginous composition of the distal humerus and the multiple secondary ossification centres that appear and unite with the epiphysis at defined ages. Pitching in baseball, serving in tennis, spiking in volleyball, passing in American football and launching in javelin-throwing can all produce elbow pathology by forceful valgus stress, with medial stretching, lateral compression and posterior impingement. In children and adolescents, the epiphyseal plate is weaker than the surrounding ligaments, predisposing them to epiphyseal plate injuries. On the other hand, post-pubescent or skeletally mature athletes are more prone to tendinous or ligamentous injury. Injuries may cause significant impact on the athlete, parents and healthcare system. With the exception of baseball, there are few prospective cohort studies on the epidemiological trends of childhood elbow injuries in other sports. This paper aims to describe the epidemiological trends in paediatric elbow injuries related to sports, suggests prevention strategies and discusses the scope for further research. A web-based search of existing articles pertaining to paediatric elbow injuries in sports was performed. The implications of acute and overuse injuries and the possibility of permanent damage should be understood by parents, coaches and the athletes. Proper understanding of the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors that could lead to elbow injuries is thus required. Measures to prevent elbow injuries should include proper coaching, warm-up, officiation, legislation, medical expertise and protective gear. There are still many

  14. The medial collateral ligament of the elbow joint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Floris, S; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Dalstra, Michel

    1998-01-01

    Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed. On morph......Eighteen osteoligamentous elbow joint specimens were included in a study of the medial collateral ligament complex (MCL). The morphologic characteristics of the MCL were examined, and three-dimensional kinematic measurements were taken after selective ligament dissections were performed...

  15. Energy transformation and flow topology in an elbow draft tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štefan D.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a computational study of energy transformation in two geometrical configurations of Kaplan turbine elbow draft tube. Pressure recovery, hydraulic efficiency and loss coefficient are evaluated for a series of flow rates and swirl numbers corresponding to operating regimes of the turbine. These integral characteristics are then correlated with local flow field properties identified by extraction of topological features. Main focus is to find the reasons for hydraulic efficiency drop of the elbow draft tube.

  16. Elbow joint fatigue and bench-press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yen-Po; Chou, You-Li; Chen, Feng-Chun; Wang, Rong-Tyai; Huang, Ming-Jer; Chou, Paul Pei-Hsi

    2014-01-01

    Bench-press exercises are among the most common form of training exercise for the upper extremity because they yield a notable improvement in both muscle strength and muscle endurance. The literature contains various investigations into the effects of different bench-press positions on the degree of muscle activation. However, the effects of fatigue on the muscular performance and kinetics of the elbow joint are not understood fully. To investigate the effects of fatigue on the kinetics and myodynamic performance of the elbow joint in bench-press training. Controlled laboratory study. Motion research laboratory. A total of 18 physically healthy male students (age = 19.6 ± 0.8 years, height = 168.7 ± 5.5 cm, mass = 69.6 ± 8.6 kg) participated in the investigation. All participants were right-hand dominant, and none had a history of upper extremity injuries or disorders. Participants performed bench-press training until fatigued. Maximal possible number of repetitions, cycle time, myodynamic decline rate, elbow-joint force, and elbow-joint moment. We observed a difference in cycle time in the initial (2.1 ± 0.42 seconds) and fatigue (2.58 ± 0.46 seconds) stages of the bench-press exercise (P = .04). As the participants fatigued, we observed an increase in the medial-lateral force (P = .03) and internal-external moment (P ≤ .04) acting on the elbow joint. Moreover, a reduction in the elbow muscle strength was observed in the elbow extension-flexion (P ≤ .003) and forearm supination-pronation (P ≤ .001) conditions. The results suggest that performing bench-press exercises to the point of fatigue increases elbow-joint loading and may further increase the risk of injury. Therefore, when clinicians design bench-press exercise regimens for general athletic training, muscle strengthening, or physical rehabilitation, they should control carefully the maximal number of repetitions.

  17. Regional Variation Is Present in Elbow Capsules after Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Germscheid, Niccole M.; Hildebrand, Kevin A.

    2006-01-01

    Myofibroblast numbers and α-smooth muscle actin expression are increased in anterior joint capsules of patients with posttraumatic elbow contractures. The purpose of our study was to determine whether these changes occur regionally or throughout the entire joint capsule. We hypothesized that the α-smooth muscle actin mRNA expression and the myofibroblast numbers in posterior joint capsules would be elevated in elbows obtained from patients with posttraumatic joint contractures compared with j...

  18. Development of engineering program for integrity evaluation of pipes with local wall thinned defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chi Yong; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Ryong; Park, Sang Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Integrity evaluation of pipes with local wall thinning by erosion and corrosion is increasingly important in maintenance of wall thinned carbon steel pipes in nuclear power plants. Though a few program for integrity assessment of wall thinned pipes have been developed in domestic nuclear field, however those are limited to straight pipes and methodology proposed in ASME Sec.XI Code Case N-597. Recently, the engineering program for integrity evaluation of pipes with all kinds of local wall defects such as straight, elbow, reducer and branch pipes was developed successfully. The program was designated as PiTEP (Pipe Thinning Evaluation Program), which name was registered as a trademark in the Korea Intellectual Property Office. A developed program is carried out by sequential step of four integrity evaluation methodologies, which are composed of construction code, code case N-597, its engineering method and two developed owner evaluation method. As PiTEP program will be performed through GUI (Graphic User Interface) with user's familiarity, it would be conveniently used by plant engineers with only measured thickness data, basic operation conditions and pipe data

  19. Flexible, pre-insulated pipelines for heat and water supply. Systems with integrated quality and service; Flexible, vorgedaemmte Rohrsysteme fuer die Versorgungstechnik. Gesamtsysteme mit Qualitaet und Service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetzel, Michaela [Uponor Central Europe, Hassfurt (Germany). Unternehmenskommunikation

    2010-10-15

    Flexible pipes are suited for heat distribution, cooling water and freshwater transport. Uponor uses a modified, cross-linked polythene for insulation. The material is flexible, ageing-resistant, and will reduce the heat loss. Pipes are supplied to the construction site within two days, cut to measure and with all required parts. (orig.)

  20. Deliberate utilization of interaction torques brakes elbow extension in a fast throwing motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hore, Jon; Debicki, Derek B; Gribble, Paul L; Watts, Sherry

    2011-05-01

    We tested the hypothesis that in fast arm movements the CNS deliberately utilizes interaction torques to decelerate (brake) joint rotations. Twelve subjects performed fast 2-D overarm throws in which large elbow extension velocities occurred. Joint motions were computed from recordings made with search coils; joint torques were calculated using inverse dynamics. After ball release, a large follow-through shoulder extension acceleration occurred that was initiated by shoulder extensor muscle torque. This shoulder acceleration produced a flexor interaction torque at the elbow that initiated elbow deceleration (braking). An instantaneous mechanical interaction of passive torques then occurred between elbow and shoulder, i.e., elbow extension deceleration produced a large shoulder extensor interaction torque that contributed to the shoulder extension acceleration which, simultaneously, produced a large elbow flexor interaction torque that contributed to elbow extension deceleration, and so on. Late elbow flexor muscle torque also contributed to elbow deceleration. The interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow was braked by shoulder flexor muscle torque. In this mechanism, shoulder musculature contributed to braking elbow extension in two ways: shoulder extensors initiated the mechanical interaction of passive torques between shoulder and elbow and shoulder flexors dissipated kinetic energy from elbow braking. It is concluded that, in fast 2-D throws, the CNS deliberately utilizes powerful interaction torques between shoulder and elbow to brake motion at the elbow.

  1. Anatomic factors related to the cause of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunata, Robert E; Brown, David S; Capelo, Roderick

    2007-09-01

    The pathogenesis of lateral epicondylitis remains unclear. Our purpose was to study the anatomy of the lateral aspect of the elbow under static and dynamic conditions in order to identify bone-to-tendon and tendon-to-tendon contact or rubbing that might cause abrasion of the tissues. Eighty-five cadaveric elbows were examined to determine details related to the bone structure and musculotendinous origins. We identified the relative positions of the musculotendinous units and the underlying bone when the elbow was in different degrees of flexion. We also recorded the contact between the extensor carpi radialis brevis and the lateral edge of the capitellum as elbow motion occurred, and we sought to identify the areas of the capitellum and extensor carpi radialis brevis where contact occurs. The average site of origin of the extensor carpi radialis brevis on the humerus lay slightly medial and superior to the outer edge of the capitellum. As the elbow was extended, the undersurface of the extensor carpi radialis brevis rubbed against the lateral edge of the capitellum while the extensor carpi radialis longus compressed the brevis against the underlying bone. The extensor carpi radialis brevis tendon has a unique anatomic location that makes its undersurface vulnerable to contact and abrasion against the lateral edge of the capitellum during elbow motion.

  2. Elbow joint position sense after neuromuscular training with handheld vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Brady L; Faust, Donald; Jacobs, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Clinicians use neuromuscular control exercises to enhance joint position sense (JPS); however, because standardizing such exercises is difficult, validations of their use are limited. To evaluate the acute effects of a neuromuscular training exercise with a handheld vibrating dumbbell on elbow JPS acuity. Crossover study. University athletic training research laboratory. Thirty-one healthy, college-aged volunteers (16 men, 15 women, age = 23 + or - 3 years, height = 173 + or - 8 cm, mass = 76 + or - 14 kg). We measured and trained elbow JPS using an electromagnetic tracking device that provided auditory and visual biofeedback. For JPS testing, participants held a dumbbell and actively identified the target elbow flexion angle (90 degrees ) using the software-generated biofeedback, followed by 3 repositioning trials without feedback. Each neuromuscular training protocol included 3 exercises during which participants held a 2.55-kg dumbbell vibrating at 15, 5, or 0 Hz and used software-generated biofeedback to locate and maintain the target elbow flexion angle for 15 seconds. We calculated absolute (accuracy) and variable (variability) errors using the differences between target and reproduced angles. Training protocols using 15-Hz vibration enhanced accuracy and decreased variability of elbow JPS (P or = .200). Our results suggest these neuromuscular control exercises, which included low-magnitude, low-frequency handheld vibration, may enhance elbow JPS. Future researchers should examine vibration of various durations and frequencies, should include injured participants and functional multijoint and multiplanar measures, and should examine long-term effects of training protocols on JPS and injury.

  3. Elbow flexor and extensor muscle weakness in lateral epicondylalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Brooke K; Bisset, Leanne; Vicenzino, Bill

    2012-05-01

    To evaluate whether deficits of elbow flexor and extensor muscle strength exist in lateral epicondylalgia (LE) in comparison with a healthy control population. Cross-sectional study. 150 participants with unilateral LE were compared with 54 healthy control participants. Maximal isometric elbow flexion and extension strength were measured bilaterally using a purpose-built standing frame such that gripping was avoided. The authors found significant side differences in elbow extensor (-6.54 N, 95% CI -11.43 to -1.65, p=0.008, standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.45) and flexor muscle strength (-11.26 N, 95% CI -19.59 to -2.94, p=0.009, SMD -0.46) between LE and control groups. Within the LE group, only elbow extensor muscle strength deficits between sides was significant (affected-unaffected: -2.94 N, 95% CI -5.44 to -0.44). Small significant deficits of elbow extensor and flexor muscle strength exist in the affected arm of unilateral LE in comparison with healthy controls. Notably, comparing elbow strength between the affected and unaffected sides in unilateral epicondylalgia is likely to underestimate these deficits. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000051246.

  4. Metallized ceramic vacuum pipe for particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, B.L.; Featherby, M.

    1990-01-01

    A ceramic vacuum chamber segment in the form of a long pipe of rectangular cross section has been assembled from standard shapes of alumina ceramic using glass bonding techniques. Prior to final glass bonding, the internal walls of the pipe are metallized using an electroplating technology. These advanced processes allow for precision patterning and conductivity control of surface conducting films. The ability to lay down both longitudinal and transverse conductor patterns separated by insulating layers of glass give the accelerator designer considerable freedom in tailoring longitudinal and transverse beam pipe impedances. Assembly techniques of these beam pipes are followed through two iterations of semi-scale pipe sections made using candidate materials and processes. These demonstrate the feasibility of the concepts and provide parts for electrical characterization and for further refinement of the approach. In a parallel effort, a variety of materials, joining processes and assembly procedures have been tried to assure flexibility and reliability in the construction of 10-meter long sections to any required specifications

  5. The Reasons of Steam Pipeline Elbow Rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesjasz A.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the reasons for steam pipeline’s elbow material rupture, made of steel 13CrMo4-5 (15HM that is being used in the energetics. Based on the mechanical properties in the ambient temperature (Rm, Rp0,2 and elongation A5 and in the increased temperature (Rp0,2t it was found, that the pipeline elbow’s material sampled from the ruptured area has lower Rp0,2 i Rp0,2t by around 2% than it is a requirement for 13CrMo4-5 steel in it’s base state. The damage appeared as a result of complex stress state, that substantially exceeded the admissible tensions, what was the consequence of considerable structure degradation level. As a result of the microstructure tests on HITACHI S4200 microscope, the considerable development of the creeping process associates were found. Also the advances progress of the microstructure degradation was observed, which is substantial decomposition of bainite and multiple, with varied secretion size, and in most cases forming the micro cracks chains. With the use of lateral micro sections the creeping voids were observed, that creates at some places the shrinkage porosities clusters and micro pores.

  6. Transients in pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchesin, D.; Paes-Leme, P.J.S.; Sampaio, R.

    1981-01-01

    The motion of a fluid in a pipe is commonly modeled utilizing the one space dimension conservation laws of mass and momentum. The development of shocks and spikes utilizing the uniform sampling method is studied. The effects of temperature variations and friction are compared for gas pipes. (Author) [pt

  7. These Pipes Are "Happening"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skophammer, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The author is blessed with having the water pipes for the school system in her office. In this article, the author describes how the breaking of the pipes had led to a very worthwhile art experience for her students. They practiced contour and shaded drawing techniques, reviewed patterns and color theory, and used their reasoning skills--all while…

  8. Piping research program plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-09-01

    This document presents the piping research program plan for the Structural and Seismic Engineering Branch and the Materials Engineering Branch of the Division of Engineering, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. The plan describes the research to be performed in the areas of piping design criteria, environmentally assisted cracking, pipe fracture, and leak detection and leak rate estimation. The piping research program addresses the regulatory issues regarding piping design and piping integrity facing the NRC today and in the foreseeable future. The plan discusses the regulatory issues and needs for the research, the objectives, key aspects, and schedule for each research project, or group of projects focussing of a specific topic, and, finally, the integration of the research areas into the regulatory process is described. The plan presents a snap-shot of the piping research program as it exists today. However, the program plan will change as the regulatory issues and needs change. Consequently, this document will be revised on a bi-annual basis to reflect the changes in the piping research program. (author)

  9. Use of the Liverpool Elbow Score as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Alexander M; Gozzard, Charles; Blewitt, Neil

    2007-01-01

    The Liverpool Elbow Score (LES) is a newly developed, validated elbow-specific score. It consists of a patient-answered questionnaire (PAQ) and a clinical assessment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the PAQ portion of the LES could be used independently as a postal questionnaire for the assessment of outcome after total elbow arthroplasty and to correlate the LES and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS). A series of 51 total elbow replacements were reviewed by postal questionnaire. Patients then attended the clinic for assessment by use of both the LES and the MEPS. There was an excellent response rate to the postal questionnaire (98%), and 44 elbows were available for clinical review. Good correlation was shown between the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.84; P PAQ portion of the LES and the MEPS (Spearman correlation coefficient, 0.76; P PAQ component and the MEPS, suggesting that outcome assessment is possible by postal questionnaire.

  10. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  11. MR arthrography of elbow: evaluation of the ulnar collateral ligament of elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Katsunuki; Masatomi, Takashi; Ochi, Takahiro; Ishida, Takeshi; Hori, Shinichi; Ikezoe, Junpei; Nakamura, Hironobu

    1996-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) injury of the elbow in throwing athletes by MRI and MR arthrography. Design. Ten elbows of throwing athletes were examined on both plain MRI and MR saline arthrography and the injuries subsequently surgically proven. Spin-echo (SE) T1-weighted and fast SE T2-weighted coronal images were obtained. Results. The UCL was unclear in all ten cases on T1-weighted MRI. In five cases an avulsion fracture was also found on T1-weighted MRI. On T2-weighted MRI, abnormal high-intensity areas were identified in or around the UCL. On T2-weighted MR arthrography images, extracapsular high-intensity areas, which represent extracapsular leakage, were found in four of five cases with avulsion fracture. At surgery, all these four cases showed avulsion fractures with instability; the other case had a fracture but it was stable and adherent to the humerus. On T2-weighted MR arthrography images, an extracapsular high-intensity area was found in one of the five cases without avulsion fracture. At surgery this patient had a complete tear of the UCL itself. Conclusion. MR arthrography provided additional information for evaluating the degree of UCL injury. (orig.). With 5 figs., 1 tab

  12. Elbow Reconstruction Using Island Flap for Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Yeun Hur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDeep burns of the elbow lead to soft tissue necrosis and infection, with exposure of deep structures. Adequate wound coverage of this area requires thin, pliable, and durable tissue, while optimal functional recovery requires early coverage and functional rehabilitation. We have found 3 types of island flaps that provide reliable coverage for the elbow.MethodsA retrospective study was performed on all patients who underwent flap coverage of an elbow defect at our hospital. The patients' data including age, sex, cause of injury, wound dimensions, timing of flap coverage, postoperative elbow motion, and complications were investigated.ResultsBetween 2001 and 2012, 16 patients were treated at our hospital. The mean age was 53.3 years. Three kinds of flaps were performed: 9 latissimus dorsi flaps, 4 lateral arm flaps, and 4 radial forearm flaps. The average defect size was 183.5 cm2 (range, 28 to 670 cm2. Wound coverage was performed at mean duration of 45.9 days (range, 14 to 91 days. The mean postoperative active elbow flexion was 98° (range, 85° to 115°. Partial flap failure occurred in 1 latissimus dorsi flap. Minor complications included partial flap loss (11.8%, hematoma (23.5%, seroma (35.3%, and wound infection (5.9%.ConclusionsFlap selection for elbow reconstruction is determined by the defect size and the extent of the adjacent tissue injury. Elbow reconstruction using an island flap is a single-staged, reliable, and relatively simple procedure that permits initiation of early rehabilitation, thereby improving a patient's functional outcome.

  13. Elbow Reconstruction Using Island Flap for Burn Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Yeun Hur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Deep burns of the elbow lead to soft tissue necrosis and infection, with exposureof deep structures. Adequate wound coverage of this area requires thin, pliable, and durabletissue, while optimal functional recovery requires early coverage and functional rehabilitation.We have found 3 types of island flaps that provide reliable coverage for the elbow.Methods A retrospective study was performed on all patients who underwent flap coverageof an elbow defect at our hospital. The patients’ data including age, sex, cause of injury, wounddimensions, timing of flap coverage, postoperative elbow motion, and complications wereinvestigated.Results Between 2001 and 2012, 16 patients were treated at our hospital. The mean agewas 53.3 years. Three kinds of flaps were performed: 9 latissimus dorsi flaps, 4 lateral armflaps, and 4 radial forearm flaps. The average defect size was 183.5 cm2 (range, 28 to 670cm2. Wound coverage was performed at mean duration of 45.9 days (range, 14 to 91 days.The mean postoperative active elbow flexion was 98° (range, 85° to 115°. Partial flap failureoccurred in 1 latissimus dorsi flap. Minor complications included partial flap loss (11.8%,hematoma (23.5%, seroma (35.3%, and wound infection (5.9%.Conclusions Flap selection for elbow reconstruction is determined by the defect size andthe extent of the adjacent tissue injury. Elbow reconstruction using an island flap is a singlestaged,reliable, and relatively simple procedure that permits initiation of early rehabilitation,thereby improving a patient’s functional outcome.

  14. Inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty for bony ankylosed elbows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Chadrabose

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bony ankylosis of elbow is challenging and difficult problem to treat. The options are excision arthroplasty and total elbow replacement. We report our midterm results on nine patients, who underwent inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty in our hospital with good functional results. Materials Our case series includes 9 patients (seven males and two females with the mean age of 34 years (13-56 years. Five patients had trauma, two had pyogenic arthritis, one had tuberculous arthritis, and one had pyogenic arthritis following surgical fixation. Results The average duration of follow up is 65 months (45 months-80 months. The mean Mayo's elbow performance score (MEPS preoperatively was 48 (35-70. The MEPS at final follow up was 80 (60-95. With no movement at elbow and fixed in various degrees of either flexion or extension preoperatively, the mean preoperative position of elbow was 64°(30°to 100°. The mean post operative range of motion at final follow up was 27°of extension (20-500, 116°of flexion (1100-1300, and the arc of motion was 88°(800-1000. One patient had ulnar nerve neuropraxia and another patient developed median nerve neuropraxia, and both recovered completely in six weeks. No patient had symptomatic instability of the elbow. All patients were asymptomatic except one patient, who had pain mainly on heavy activities. Conclusion We conclude that inverted 'V' osteotomy excision arthroplasty is a viable option in the treatment of bony ankylosis of the elbow in young patients.

  15. On flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, Christoph R.; Briglauer, Wolfgang

    2000-01-01

    By building on theoretical work by Mills and Schumann (1985) and Ungern-Sternberg (1990) this paper provides evidence on the determinants of two dimensions of flexibility, the flexibility in adjusting aggregate output over time (tactical flexibility) as well as the ability to switch quickly between products (operational flexibility). Econometric analysis of a sample of 40.000 farms in Upper-Austria for the period 1980 to 1990 suggests that larger full-time farms operated by younger, better ed...

  16. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D. [Department of Radiology (114), Veterans Administration Medical Center, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.) With 11 figs., 20 refs.

  17. MR imaging of the major nerves about the elbow: cadaveric study examining the effect of flexion and extension of the elbow and pronation and supination of the forearm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Sook; Yeh, Lee Ren; Trudell, D.; Resnick, D.

    1998-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides useful information in the evaluation of peripheral nerves. Recent advances in MR imaging allow for detailed depiction of the soft tissue structures of the elbow joint. Three major nerves are present about the elbow. Six cadaveric elbows were imaged to depict the normal anatomy of these nerves and to determine the best plane and position of the elbow for optimal visualization of each nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in supination allow identification of all major nerves. Axial images with the elbow in full flexion allow accurate assessment of the cubital tunnel and the ulner nerve. Axial images of the elbow in full extension with the forearm in pronation are helpful for assessment of the median and radial nerves in the forearm. (orig.)

  18. Incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture following pediatric elbow dislocation: 11 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Seth D; Flanagin, Brody A; Bohl, Daniel D; DeLuca, Peter A; Smith, Brian G

    2014-09-01

    To describe outcomes after surgical management of pediatric elbow dislocation with incarceration of the medial epicondyle. We conducted a retrospective case review of 11 consecutive children and adolescents with an incarcerated medial epicondyle fracture after elbow dislocation. All patients underwent open reduction internal fixation using a similar technique. We characterized outcomes at final follow-up. Average follow-up was 14 months (range, 4-56 mo). All patients had clinical and radiographic signs of healing at final follow-up. There was no radiographic evidence of loss of reduction at intervals or at final follow-up. There were no cases of residual deformity or valgus instability. Average final arc of elbow motion was 4° to 140°. All patients had forearm rotation from 90° supination to 90° pronation. Average Mayo elbow score was 99.5. Four of 11 patients had ulnar nerve symptoms postoperatively and 1 required a second operation for ulnar nerve symptoms. In addition, 1 required a second operation for flexion contracture release with excision of heterotopic ossification. Three patients had ulnar nerve symptoms at final follow-up. Two of these had mild paresthesia only and 1 had both mild paresthesia and weakness. Our results suggest that open reduction internal fixation of incarcerated medial epicondyle fractures after elbow dislocation leads to satisfactory motion and function; however, the injury carries a high risk for complications, particularly ulnar neuropathy. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pulled elbow in infancy: diagnostic role of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scapinelli, Raffaele; Borgo, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. Pulled elbow is a common injury in infancy. Typically the child, after a sudden pull, refuses to use the arm. The history and clinical findings are sufficient to make the diagnosis, and radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary. When imaging procedures are performed, a few small signs are useful to confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Materials and methods. The authors reviewed the radiographic and ultrasonographic signs reported to be suggestive of pulled elbow (increased radio-condylar distance, increased radio-coronoid distance, proximal radio-ulnar diastasis, deviation of the radio-condylar line) and attempted to confirm their presence in children affected by this trauma. Results. Increased radio-condylar and radio-coronoid distance were present in 8 of 8 cases: proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line were inconsistently present. Ultrasonography gave contradictory results. Conclusions. In typical cases of pulled elbow, radiography or ultrasonography are not necessary for diagnosis and treatment. imaging procedures are recommended only in the case of non typical history, in the presence of deformity or traumatic skin lesions and in children over six years of age. Increased radio-coronoid distance on the affected side is the most frequent and visible sign, which can confirm the diagnosis of pulled elbow. Increased radio-condylar distance is also present, but it is not easy to visualize. Proximal radio-ulnar diastasis and deviation of the radio-condylar line are inconstant. Ultrasonography is difficult to standardize [it

  20. The posterior transtriceps approach for elbow arthrography: a forgotten technique?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohman, M.; Borrero, C.; Casagranda, B.; Rafiee, B.; Towers, J.

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the technical feasibility of performing elbow MR arthrography via a posterior approach through the triceps. The images of 19 patients with elbow MR arthrography via a posterior transtriceps approach were retrospectively studied. The injections were performed by four musculoskeletal radiologists, using fluoroscopic guidance and a 22- or 25-gauge needle. The fluoroscopic and subsequent MR images were reviewed by two musculoskeletal radiologists and evaluated for adequacy of joint capsular distention, degree and location of contrast leakage, and presence of gas bubbles. The injection was diagnostic in all 19 patients, with a sufficient amount of contrast agent seen in the elbow joint. No significant contrast leakage occurred in 12 patients who received injections of 8 cc or less of contrast agent, but moderate contrast leakage occurred in 6/7 patients who received injections of greater than 8 cc. Contrast leakage generally occurred within the triceps myotendinous junction. No gas bubbles were identified in the injected joints. Patients often present for MR arthrography of the elbow with medial or lateral elbow pain. Contrast leakage during a radiocapitellar approach may complicate evaluation of the lateral collateral ligament or the common extensor tendon origin. Transtriceps MR arthrography offers an alternative to the more commonly used radiocapitellar approach. With injected volumes not exceeding 8 cc, the risk of significant contrast leakage is small. An advantage of the transtriceps injection is that contrast leakage through the posterior needle tract does not interfere with evaluation of the lateral structures. (orig.)

  1. Pipe drafting and design

    CERN Document Server

    Parisher, Roy A

    2011-01-01

    Pipe Drafting and Design, Third Edition provides step-by-step instructions to walk pipe designers, drafters, and students through the creation of piping arrangement and isometric drawings. It includes instructions for the proper drawing of symbols for fittings, flanges, valves, and mechanical equipment. More than 350 illustrations and photographs provide examples and visual instructions. A unique feature is the systematic arrangement of drawings that begins with the layout of the structural foundations of a facility and continues through to the development of a 3-D model. Advanced chapters

  2. Validation of nonlinear FEA models of a thin-walled elbow under extreme loading conditions for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watakabe, Tomoyoshi; Wakai, Takashi; Jin, Chuanrong; Usui, Yoshiya; Sakai, Shinkichi; Ooshika, Junji; Tsukimori, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    For the purpose of confirming failure modes and safety margin, some studies on the ultimate strength of thin-walled piping components for Sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (SFRs) under extreme loading conditions such as large earthquakes have been reported these several years. Nonlinear finite element analysis has been applied in these studies to simulate buckling and yielding with large deformation, whose accuracy is dependent on the element type, the mesh size, the elasto-plastic model and so on. It is important to check the validation of a finite element model for nonlinear analysis especially under extreme loading conditions. This paper presents static and dynamic analyses of a thin-walled elbow with large deformation under large seismic loading, and discusses the validation of the FEA models comparing with experimental results. The finite element analysis models in this study are generated by shell elements for a stainless steel pipe elbow of diameter-to-thickness ratio 59:1 similar to the main pipe of SFRs, which is used for shaking table tests. At first, a static analysis is carried out for an in-plane monotonic bending test, in order to confirm that the shell element is appropriate to the large deformation analysis and the material parameters are proper for the strain level in the experiments. And then, a dynamic in-plane bending test with the maximum acceleration of 11.7G is simulated by the nonlinear FEA with stiffness-proportional damping. The influence of mesh sizes on results is investigated, to determine proper mesh sizes and reduce the computational cost. Finally, comparing the results of the FEM analyses with those of experiments, it is concluded that the appropriately generated FEA models are effective and give accurate results for nonlinear analyses of the thin-walled elbow under large seismic loading. (author)

  3. Durability and Reliability of Large Diameter HDPE Pipe for Water Main Applications (Web Report 4485)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research validates HDPE as a suitable material for use in municipal piping systems, and more research may help users maximize their understanding of its durability and reliability. Overall, corrosion resistance, hydraulic efficiency, flexibility, abrasion resistance, toughness, f...

  4. Efficient simulation of flow and heat transfer in arbitrarily shaped pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosen Esquivel, P.I.

    2012-01-01

    The transport of fluids through pipes is a very common application. Corrugated pipes have characteristics such as local stiffness and flexibility that makes them convenient in several application areas such as offshore LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) transfer, cryogenic engineering, domestic appliances,

  5. Whistling of pipes with narrow corrugations: scale model tests and consequences for carcass design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Bendiksen, E.; Frimodt, C.

    2013-01-01

    Pipes for gas production and transport with a corrugated inner surface, as used in flexible pipes, can be subject to Flow-Induced Pulsations when the flow velocity is larger than a certain velocity. This onset velocity is dependent on the geometry of the corrugations, the operational conditions and

  6. Heat pipe development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienart, W. B.

    1973-01-01

    The objective of this program was to investigate analytically and experimentally the performance of heat pipes with composite wicks--specifically, those having pedestal arteries and screwthread circumferential grooves. An analytical model was developed to describe the effects of screwthreads and screen secondary wicks on the transport capability of the artery. The model describes the hydrodynamics of the circumferential flow in triangular grooves with azimuthally varying capillary menisci and liquid cross-sections. Normalized results were obtained which give the influence of evaporator heat flux on the axial heat transport capability of the arterial wick. In order to evaluate the priming behavior of composite wicks under actual load conditions, an 'inverted' glass heat pipe was designed and constructed. The results obtained from the analysis and from the tests with the glass heat pipe were applied to the OAO-C Level 5 heat pipe, and an improved correlation between predicted and measured evaporator and transport performance were obtained.

  7. Myositis ossificans traumatica causing ankylosis of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanthimathi, B; Udhaya Shankar, S; Arun Kumar, K; Narayanan, V L

    2014-12-01

    Myositis ossificans traumatica is an unusual complication following a muscle contusion injury. A significantly large myositic mass causing ankylosis of the elbow is even rarer. We report a 13-year-old boy who presented with a 14-month history of a fixed elbow with no movement and a palpable bony mass in the anterior aspect of the elbow. He had sustained significant trauma to the affected limb 1 month prior to onset of symptoms, which was managed by native massage and bandaging for 4 weeks. The clinicoradiological diagnosis was suggestive of myositis ossificans, and the myositic mass was completely excised. Histopathology revealed lamellar bone. The 2-year follow-up showed full function of the affected limb and no signs of recurrence. We report this case of clinical interest due to the unusually large myositic mass.

  8. The Unilateral Below Elbow Test: a function test for children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Anita M; Molitor, Fred; Wagner, Lisa V; Tomhave, Wendy; James, Michelle A

    2006-07-01

    The Unilateral Below Elbow Test (UBET) was developed to evaluate function in bimanual activities for both the prosthesis wearer and non-wearer. Nine tasks were chosen for each of four age-specific categories defined by development stages of hand function (2-4y, 5-7y, 8-10y, and 11-21y). Two scales, Completion of Task and Method of Use, were designed to rate performance. To measure reliability, four occupational therapists scored samples of videotaped UBET performances. For Completion of Task, an interval scale, agreement in scoring was measured with interclass correlation coefficients (ICC; n=9; five females, four males). For Method of Use, a nominal scale, chance-adjusted association was calculated with Cohen's kappa coefficients (interobserver n=198; 111 females, 87 males; intraobserver n=93; 56 females, 37 males). For Completion of Task, the average ICC was 0.87 for the prosthesis-on condition, and 0.85 for the prosthesis-off condition. ICCs exceeded 0.80 for eight out of nine tasks for the two older age groups, but for only five out of nine tasks in the younger age groups. Higher inter- and intraobserver kappa coefficients for Method of Use resulted when scoring children with their prostheses on versus off. The oldest age group had lower kappa values than the other three groups. The UBET is recommended for the functional evaluation of Completion of Task in children with unilateral congenital below elbow deficiency with and without their prostheses. Method of Use scoring can evaluate individuals for directed therapy interventions or prosthetic training.

  9. Simplified pipe gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorensen, H.; Nordskov, A.; Sass, B.; Visler, T.

    1987-01-01

    A simplified version of a deuterium pellet gun based on the pipe gun principle is described. The pipe gun is made from a continuous tube of stainless steel and gas is fed in from the muzzle end only. It is indicated that the pellet length is determined by the temperature gradient along the barrel right outside the freezing cell. Velocities of around 1000 m/s with a scatter of +- 2% are obtained with a propellant gas pressure of 40 bar

  10. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed

    2016-03-10

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  11. Stuck pipe prediction

    KAUST Repository

    Alzahrani, Majed; Alsolami, Fawaz; Chikalov, Igor; Algharbi, Salem; Aboudi, Faisal; Khudiri, Musab

    2016-01-01

    Disclosed are various embodiments for a prediction application to predict a stuck pipe. A linear regression model is generated from hook load readings at corresponding bit depths. A current hook load reading at a current bit depth is compared with a normal hook load reading from the linear regression model. A current hook load greater than a normal hook load for a given bit depth indicates the likelihood of a stuck pipe.

  12. Heat pipe dynamic behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issacci, F.; Roche, G. L.; Klein, D. B.; Catton, I.

    1988-01-01

    The vapor flow in a heat pipe was mathematically modeled and the equations governing the transient behavior of the core were solved numerically. The modeled vapor flow is transient, axisymmetric (or two-dimensional) compressible viscous flow in a closed chamber. The two methods of solution are described. The more promising method failed (a mixed Galerkin finite difference method) whereas a more common finite difference method was successful. Preliminary results are presented showing that multi-dimensional flows need to be treated. A model of the liquid phase of a high temperature heat pipe was developed. The model is intended to be coupled to a vapor phase model for the complete solution of the heat pipe problem. The mathematical equations are formulated consistent with physical processes while allowing a computationally efficient solution. The model simulates time dependent characteristics of concern to the liquid phase including input phase change, output heat fluxes, liquid temperatures, container temperatures, liquid velocities, and liquid pressure. Preliminary results were obtained for two heat pipe startup cases. The heat pipe studied used lithium as the working fluid and an annular wick configuration. Recommendations for implementation based on the results obtained are presented. Experimental studies were initiated using a rectangular heat pipe. Both twin beam laser holography and laser Doppler anemometry were investigated. Preliminary experiments were completed and results are reported.

  13. Replaceable liquid nitrogen piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasujima, Yasuo; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sato, Masataka; Hongo, Toshio

    1982-01-01

    This liquid nitrogen piping with total length of about 50 m was made and installed to supply the liquid nitrogen for heat insulating shield to three superconducting magnets for deflection and large super-conducting magnet for detection in the π-meson beam line used for high energy physics experiment in the National Laboratory for High Energy Physics. The points considered in the design and manufacture stages are reported. In order to minimize the consumption of liquid nitrogen during transport, vacuum heat insulation method was adopted. The construction period and cost were reduced by the standardization of the components, the improvement of welding works and the elimination of ineffective works. For simplifying the maintenance, spare parts are always prepared. The construction and the procedure of assembling of the liquid nitrogen piping are described. The piping is of double-walled construction, and its low temperature part was made of SUS 316L. The super-insulation by aluminum vacuum evaporation and active carbon were attached on the external surface of the internal pipe. The final leak test and the heating degassing were performed. The tests on evacuation, transport capacity and heat entry are reported. By making the internal pipe into smaller size, the piping may be more efficient. (Kako, I.)

  14. Static progressive versus dynamic splinting for posttraumatic elbow stiffness: a systematic review of 232 patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltman, Ewout S.; Doornberg, Job N.; Eygendaal, Denise; van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.

    2015-01-01

    The elbow is prone to stiffness after trauma. To regain functional elbow motion, several conservative and surgical treatment options are available. Nonoperative treatment includes physical therapy, intra-articular injections with corticosteroids, and a static progressive or dynamic splinting

  15. Romantic Resonances in the Rhetoric of Peter Elbow's "Writing Without Teachers."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, Kristi

    1996-01-01

    Seeks to uncover the historical roots within English Romanticism of Peter Elbow's thinking in order to show the depth and complexity of his assumptions about writing. Implicitly refutes charges questioning the intellectual credibility of Elbow's work. (TB)

  16. 78 FR 68907 - Agency Information Collection (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under OMB Review AGENCY: Veterans Benefits... Control No. 2900- NEW (Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any... Benefits Questionnaire)''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Elbow and Forearm Conditions Disability...

  17. Measurement issues in the sonographic assessment of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltawski, Leon; Jayaram, Vijay; Watson, Tim

    2010-05-01

    Sonography is increasingly being used for assessment in tennis elbow research and clinical practice, but there are a lack of data regarding its validity, reliability, and responsiveness to change for this application. Studies using the modality were reviewed to establish current levels of evidence for these measurement properties. There is reasonable evidence regarding its validity for identifying tennis elbow tendinopathy, but a lack of data addressing its reliability and responsiveness. Practical issues affecting image quality are discussed, and recommendations for further investigation are suggested, to enhance the credible use of sonography with this debilitating condition.

  18. Clinical application of advances in elbow and forearm anatomy and biomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Neal B

    2002-02-01

    The static and dynamic stabilizers of the elbow and forearm axis are closely interrelated in elbow and forearm unit motion and load handling. An [figure: see text] understanding of elbow and forearm anatomy is crucial to the surgeon evaluating and treating complex pathologies resulting from acute or remote trauma.

  19. Incidence and risk factors for the development of radiographic arthrosis after traumatic elbow injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guitton, Thierry G.; Zurakowski, David; van Dijk, Niek C.; Ring, David

    2010-01-01

    Radiographic arthrosis is a common sequela of elbow trauma. Few studies have addressed risk factors for radiographic arthrosis after elbow injury, especially in the long term. Data from multiple long-term follow-up studies of patients with surgically treated elbow fractures provided us with an

  20. 24 CFR 3280.705 - Gas piping systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... upstream of the connection. (3) The connection(s) may be made by a listed quick disconnect device which... separated. (4) The flexible connector, direct plumbing pipe, or “quick disconnect” device shall be provided... disconnect device is installed, a 3 inch by 13/4 inch minimum size tag made of etched, metal-stamped or...

  1. Test method for measuring insulation values of cryogenic pipes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, J.F.M.; Blokland, H.; Klaver, B.W.; Beld, C. van de

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a large-area heat flux and temperature sensor (HFT) is used for the evaluation of the insulation value of cryogenic pipes. The HFT is flexible and clamp-on. The test method is relatively simple and can be used in-situ. The HFT makes it possible to monitor insulation performance over

  2. Qualification of a Method to Calculate the Irrecoverable Pressure Loss in High Reynolds Number Piping Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigg, K. C.; Coffield, R. D.

    2002-09-01

    High Reynolds number test data has recently been reported for both single and multiple piping elbow design configurations at earlier ASME Fluid Engineering Division conferences. The data of these studies ranged up to a Reynolds number of 42 x 10[sup]6 which is significantly greater than that used to establish design correlations before the data was available. Many of the accepted design correlations, based on the lower Reynolds number data, date back as much as fifty years. The new data shows that these earlier correlations are extremely conservative for high Reynolds number applications. Based on the recent high Reynolds number information a new recommended method has been developed for calculating irrecoverable pressure loses in piping systems for design considerations such as establishing pump sizing requirements. This paper describes the recommended design approach and additional testing that has been performed as part of the qualification of the method. This qualification testing determined the irrecoverable pressure loss of a piping configuration that would typify a limiting piping section in a complicated piping network, i.e., multiple, tightly coupled, out-of-plane elbows in series under high Reynolds number flow conditions. The overall pressure loss measurements were then compared to predictions, which used the new methodology to assure that conservative estimates for the pressure loss (of the type used for pump sizing) were obtained. The recommended design methodology, the qualification testing and the comparison between the predictions and the test data are presented. A major conclusion of this study is that the recommended method for calculating irrecoverable pressure loss in piping systems is conservative yet significantly lower than predicted by early design correlations that were based on the extrapolation of low Reynolds number test data.

  3. Piping structural design for the ITER thermal shield manifold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Chang Hyun, E-mail: chnoh@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Wooho, E-mail: whchung@nfri.re.kr [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Kwanwoo; Kang, Kyoung-O. [ITER Korea, National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Jing Do; Cha, Jong Kook [Korea Marine Equipment Research Institute, Busan 606-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyoung-Kyu [Mecha T& S, Jinju-si 660-843 (Korea, Republic of); Hamlyn-Harris, Craig; Hicks, Robby; Her, Namil; Jun, Chang-Hoon [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We finalized piping design of ITER thermal shield manifold for procurement. • Support span is determined by stress and deflection limitation. • SQP, which is design optimization method, is used for the pipe design. • Benchmark analysis is performed to verify the analysis software. • Pipe design is verified by structural analyses. - Abstract: The thermal shield (TS) provides the thermal barrier in the ITER tokamak to minimize heat load transferred by thermal radiation from the hot components to the superconducting magnets operating at 4.2 K. The TS is actively cooled by 80 K pressurized helium gas which flows from the cold valve box to the cooling tubes on the TS panels via manifold piping. This paper describes the manifold piping design and analysis for the ITER thermal shield. First, maximum allowable span for the manifold support is calculated based on the simple beam theory. In order to accommodate the thermal contraction in the manifold feeder, a contraction loop is designed and applied. Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method is used to determine the optimized dimensions of the contraction loop to ensure adequate flexibility of manifold pipe. Global structural behavior of the manifold is investigated when the thermal movement of the redundant (un-cooled) pipe is large.

  4. Conflicting flexibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, P.; Schaap, A.

    2011-01-01

    New buildings are designed for first users. For a sustainable approach there are many advantages in designing in flexibility and adjustability in order to enable and facilitate the other sequential users. For the first investor this flexibility is translated into improved exit values due to

  5. Metallurgical factors that contribute to cracking in BWR piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weeks, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    During the fall of 1974 and early winter of 1975, cracks have been discovered in the 4 in. bypass lines of several Boiling Water Reactors (BWR's) in the United States. Further, similar cracks were discovered at two BWR's in Japan during the same period. More recently, cracks have been discovered in the core spray piping and in a furnace-sensitized ''safe end'' and adjacent ''dutchman'' at the Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit No. 2. Although inspections at all other U.S. BWR's have not disclosed further instances of cracking in core spray piping, leaking cracks have been found in the core spray piping of two BWR's overseas. Metallurgical examinations of these cracks are not yet complete. The following observations have been made to date. All cracks (except those in the furnace-sensitized safe end and dutchman) occurred in seamless type 304 stainless steel piping or in elbows fabricated from such piping, in the outer heat affected zone of either field or shop welds, in lines isolated from the main primary coolant flow during full power operation, except for the not yet examined cracks in the Monticello bypass lines. The cracks are exclusively intergranular, and occur in metal that has been lightly sensitized by the welding process, with only intermittent grain boundary carbides. They developed in the areas of peak axial residual stresses from welding rather than in the most heavily sensitized areas. No fatigue striations have been found on the fracture surfaces. The evidence received to date strongly indicates that these cracks were caused by intergranular stress corrosion of weld-sensitized stainless steel by BWR water containing greater than 0.2 ppM oxygen. The possible role of fatigue or alternating stresses in this corrosion is not clear. Further, not all the cracks detected to date necessarily have occurred by the same mechanism

  6. Rehabilitation of the Overhead Athlete’s Elbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, Kevin E.; Macrina, Leonard C.; Cain, E. Lyle; Dugas, Jeffrey R.; Andrews, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The activities required during overhead sports, particularly during baseball pitching, produce large forces at the elbow joint. Injuries to the elbow joint frequently occur in the overhead athlete because of the large amount of forces observed during the act of throwing, playing tennis, or playing golf. Injuries may result because of repetitive overuse, leading to tissue failure. Rehabilitation following injury or surgery to the throwing elbow is vital to fully restore normal function and return the athlete to competition as quickly and safely as possible. Rehabilitation of the elbow, whether following injury or postsurgical, must follow a progressive and sequential order, building on the previous phase, to ensure that healing tissues are not compromised. Emphasis is placed on restoring full motion, muscular strength, and neuromuscular control while gradually applying loads to healing tissue. In addition, when one is creating a rehabilitation plan for athletes, it is imperative to treat the entire upper extremity, core, and legs to create and dissipate the forces generated at each joint. PMID:23016113

  7. A review of national shoulder and elbow joint replacement registries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jeppe V; Olsen, Bo S; Fevang, Bjørg-Tilde S

    2012-01-01

    The aim was to review the funding, organization, data handling, outcome measurements, and findings from existing national shoulder and elbow joint replacement registries; to consider the possibility of pooling data between registries; and to consider wether a pan european registry might be feasible....

  8. The role of total elbow arthroplasty in traumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansat, P; Bonnevialle, N; Rongières, M; Bonnevialle, P

    2014-10-01

    Fractures of the distal humerus account for 5% of osteoporotic fractures in subjects older than 60 years. A history of osteoporosis, co-morbidities, and joint comminution make their management difficult. The therapeutic options are limited to functional treatments, osteosynthesis, or either partial or total arthroplasty. Functional treatment of distal humerus fractures in the elderly subject provide inconsistent results, often with persistence of pain with a stiff or unstable elbow. Osteosynthesis remains the reference treatment for these fractures, following the principle of stable and rigid osteosynthesis allowing early mobilization. However, joint comminution and a history of osteoporosis occasionally make it impossible to meet this objective, with a considerable rate of complications and surgical revisions. Total elbow arthroplasty remains an alternative to osteosynthesis with very satisfactory immediate results restoring a painless, stable, and functional elbow. These results seem reproducible and sustainable over time. The complication rate is not uncommon with an approximately 10% surgical revision rate. Elbow hemiarthroplasty remains to be validated in this indication. V. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Elbow joint stability following experimental osteoligamentous injury and reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, Søren R; Jensen, Steen Lund; Tyrdal, Stein

    2003-01-01

    Elbow joint dislocation was simulated in cadaveric specimens to quantify laxity induced by radial head and coronoid process lesions, either alone or in combination with collateral ligament insufficiency. The effects of lateral ligament reconstruction and radial head prosthesis replacement were also...

  10. Radiographic and tomographic study of the elbow joint in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendyk-Grunkraut, Alessandra; Martin, Claudia M.; Souza, Alexandre N.A.; Patricio, Geni Cristina F.; Lorigados, Carla A.B.; Matera, Julia M.; Fonseca-Pinto, Ana C.B.C.

    2017-01-01

    Elbow dysplasia disease includes an united anconeal process, fragmented medial coronoid process, osteochondrosis of humeral trochlea, articular incongruity and degenerative joint disease. The aim of this study was to present detailed morphologic and morphometric aspects of the elbow joint in dog in clinical and correlate with radiographic and tomographic (CT) exam. Inter-observer variation for articular incongruity measurements by CT, comparative analysis in the radiographic exam, angle in ulnar notch and its comparative analysis between radiographic and tomographic agreement examination in 44 elbow of dogs with different ages were evaluated. The statistics analyses included the kappa coefficient and interclass correlation and Fischer's test and McNemar's test. It was evidenced that individual performance of each radiographic incidence had poor agreement with the tomographic exam, suggesting that the accomplishment of more than two radiograph views are needed. There was no agreement between the three evaluators in the ulnar notch angle at radiographic and tomographic exams. However, there was good/moderate agreement for articular incongruity measurement in the sagittal plane between evaluators. It was possible to conclude that none of the five radiographic incidences was better than the others for radiographic analysis because each incidence had a better identification of a particular elbow compartment; measurements at the tomographic exam to evaluate radioulnar incongruity had no reproductiveness in the frontal plane, but in sagittal plan had a good/moderate agreement between observers and the angle in ulnar notch presented no repeatability at radiographic exam and no reproductiveness at tomographic exam. (author)

  11. Static Progressive Orthoses for Elbow Contracture: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. As one of the most common musculoskeletal complications following trauma, elbow contracture is a frequent source of disabled daily activities. Conventional interventions are inadequate to provide favorable outcome. The static progressive orthoses are getting popular in the treatment of this problem. Objective. The purpose of this review was to assess the effectiveness of static progressive orthoses for elbow contracture. Methods. Literatures when written in English published during 1 January 1997 and 31 January 2017 were searched in the following databases: Web of Science, Cochrane Library, PubMed, and EBSCOhost. Articles are quality-assessed by two assessors, each article was summarized in evidence tables, and a narrative synthesis was also performed. Results. Ten clinical trials were included. The study design and outcome measures used varied. Significant immediate improvement in the range of motion was reported by all studies, and those effects were still significant at follow-up. No significant difference was shown between static progressive and dynamic orthoses for elbow contracture in one randomized control trial. Conclusions. Current low-quality evidence suggested that static progressive orthoses provided assistance for elbow contracture through improving range of motion. Further research is recommended using high-quality randomized controlled trials.

  12. Diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow using magnetic resonance neurography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keen, Nayela N.; Chin, Cynthia T.; Saloner, David; Steinbach, Lynne S. [University of California San Francisco, Dept of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Engstrom, John W. [University of California San Francisco, Department of Neurology, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Early diagnosis of ulnar neuropathy at the elbow is important. Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) images peripheral nerves. We evaluated the usefulness of elbow MRN in diagnosing ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. The MR neurograms of 21 patients with ulnar neuropathy were reviewed retrospectively. MRN was performed prospectively on 10 normal volunteers. The MR neurograms included axial T1 and axial T2 fat-saturated and/or axial STIR sequences. The sensitivity and specificity of MRN in detecting ulnar neuropathy were determined. The mean ulnar nerve size in the symptomatic and normal groups was 0.12 and 0.06 cm{sup 2} (P < 0.001). The mean relative signal intensity in the symptomatic and normal groups was 2.7 and 1.4 (P < 0.01). When using a size of 0.08 cm{sup 2}, sensitivity was 95% and specificity was 80%. Ulnar nerve size and signal intensity were greater in patients with ulnar neuropathy. MRN is a useful test in evaluating ulnar neuropathy at the elbow. (orig.)

  13. Nontyphoidal Salmonella Septic arthritis of the elbow in a healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of rarely encountered nontyphoidal Salmonella septic arthritis of the elbow in an infant with no preexisting disease is reported. Salmonella etiology was not suspected in this case, and the diagnosis was made only after bacterial isolation. Aspiration of the infected joint with radiological guidance initially failed to give a ...

  14. Modelling of Aquitaine II pipe whipping test with EUROPLEXUS fast dynamics code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potapov, S.

    2003-01-01

    To validate the modelling of multi-physics phenomena with EUROPLEXUS code we considered a pipe whipping problem occurring in thermal hydraulic conditions of a Loss of Coolant Accident in PWR primary circuit. Two numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) models, a simplified 'pipe-like' model and a mixed 1D/3D model, were used to simulate both the conditioning phase and a phase of whipping. The results of calculations were compared with existing experimental data. Analysis of numerical results shows that both models give a good prediction of global behaviour of the coupled fluid-structure system, namely for pipe displacements and stresses in the pipe walls, as well as for pressure and velocity in the fluid. By comparison with experimental data, we show that only the mixed EUROPLEXUS model, where the pipe elbow is discretized with shells, allows us to estimate correctly the time history and maximum value of the contact force between the pipe and the obstacle. The 1D model with reduced kinematics (rigid cross section hypothesis) does not allow the correct detection of contact phenomenon. This study shows that the use of mixed numerical models containing simplified and totally 3D parts duly interconnected allows a very efficient and CPU inexpensive numerical analysis which is able to take into account different global and local physical phenomena. (author)

  15. The Second International Piping Integrity Research Group (IPIRG-2) program. Final report, October 1991--April 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopper, A.; Wilowski, G.; Scott, P.; Olson, R.

    1997-03-01

    The IPIRG-2 program was an international group program managed by the US NRC and funded by organizations from 15 nations. The emphasis of the IPIRG-2 program was the development of data to verify fracture analyses for cracked pipes and fittings subjected to dynamic/cyclic load histories typical of seismic events. The scope included: (1) the study of more complex dynamic/cyclic load histories, i.e., multi-frequency, variable amplitude, simulated seismic excitations, than those considered in the IPIRG-1 program, (2) crack sizes more typical of those considered in Leak-Before-Break (LBB) and in-service flaw evaluations, (3) through-wall-cracked pipe experiments which can be used to validate LBB-type fracture analyses, (4) cracks in and around pipe fittings, such as elbows, and (5) laboratory specimen and separate effect pipe experiments to provide better insight into the effects of dynamic and cyclic load histories. Also undertaken were an uncertainty analysis to identify the issues most important for LBB or in-service flaw evaluations, updating computer codes and databases, the development and conduct of a series of round-robin analyses, and analyst's group meetings to provide a forum for nuclear piping experts from around the world to exchange information on the subject of pipe fracture technology. 17 refs., 104 figs., 41 tabs

  16. Incremental-hinge piping analysis methods for inelastic seismic response prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquay, K.R.; Castle, W.R.; Larson, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    This paper proposes nonlinear seismic response prediction methods for nuclear piping systems based on simplified plastic hinge analyses. The simplified plastic hinge analyses utilize an incremental series of flat response spectrum loadings and replace yielded components with hinge elements when a predefined hinge moment is reached. These hinge moment values, developed by Rodabaugh, result in inelastic energy dissipation of the same magnitude as observed in seismic tests of piping components. Two definitions of design level equivalent loads are employed: one conservatively based on the peaks of the design acceleration response spectra, the other based on inelastic frequencies determined by the method of Krylov and Bogolyuboff recently extended by Lazzeri to piping. Both definitions account for piping system inelastic energy dissipation using Newmark-Hall inelastic response spectrum reduction factors and the displacement ductility results of the incremental-hinge analysis. Two ratchet-fatigue damage models are used: one developed by Rodabaugh that conservatively correlates Markl static fatigue expressions to seismic tests to failure of piping components; the other developed by Severud that uses the ratchet expression of Bree for elbows and Edmunds and Beer for straights, and defines ratchet-fatigue interaction using Coffin's ductility based fatigue equation. Comparisons of predicted behavior versus experimental results are provided for a high-level seismic test of a segment of a representative nuclear plant piping system. (orig.)

  17. Assessment of Pipe Wall Loss Using Guided Wave Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Kyung Mun; Jin, Seuk Hong; Moon, Yong Sig

    2010-01-01

    Flow accelerated corrosion(FAC) of carbon steel pipes in nuclear power plants has been known as one of the major degradation mechanisms. It could have bad influence on the plant reliability and safety. Also detection of FAC is a significant cost to the nuclear power plant because of the need to remove and replace insulation. Recently, the interest of the guided wave testing(GWT) has grown because it allows long range inspection without removing insulation of the pipe except at the probe position. If GWT can be applied to detection of FAC damages, it will can significantly reduce the cost for the inspection of the pipes. The objective of this study was to determine the capability of GWT to identify location of FAC damages. In this paper, three kinds of techniques were used to measure the amplitude ratio between the first and the second welds at the elbow area of mock-ups that contain real FAC damages. As a result, optimal inspection technique and minimum detectability to detect FAC damages drew a conclusion

  18. Combined hyperextension and supination of the elbow joint induces lateral ligament lesions. An experimental study of the pathoanatomy and kinematics in elbow ligament injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tyrdal, Stein; Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff

    1998-01-01

    An epidemiological study suggested that the injury mechanism of 'handball goalie's elbow' may be hyperextension. The pathomechanics of hyperextension combined with supination was studied in ten macroscopically normal, male, cadaveric elbow joint specimens. The age of the donors was 28.8 years...... rupture of the lateral collateral ligament. The lesions indicate that combined hyperextension and supination represent a possible mechanism leading to 'handball goalie's elbow'....

  19. The Elbow Self-Assessment Score (ESAS): development and validation of a new patient-reported outcome measurement tool for elbow disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirer, Marc; Friese, Henrik; Lenich, Andreas; Crönlein, Moritz; Sandmann, Gunther H; Biberthaler, Peter; Kirchhoff, Chlodwig; Siebenlist, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    To develop and validate an elbow self-assessment score considering subjective as well as objective parameters. Each scale of the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow Score, the Broberg and Morrey rating system (BMS), the Patient-Rated Elbow Evaluation (PREE) Questionnaire, the Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS), the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (Quick-DASH) was analysed, and after matching of the general topics, the dedicated items underwent a fusion to the final ESAS's item and a score containing 22 items was created. In a prospective clinical study, validity, reliability and responsiveness in physically active patients with traumatic as well as degenerative elbow disorders were evaluated. Validation study included 103 patients (48 women, 55 men; mean age 43 years). A high test-retest reliability was found with intraclass correlation coefficients of at least 0.71. Construct validity and responsiveness were confirmed by correlation coefficients of -0.80 to -0.84 and 0.72-0.84 (p Self-Assessment Score (ESAS), a valid and reliable instrument for a qualitative self-assessment of subjective and objective parameters (e.g. range of motion) of the elbow joint is demonstrated. Quantitative measurement of elbow function may not longer be limited to specific elbow disorders or patient groups. The ESAS seems to allow for a broad application in clinical research studying elbow patients and may facilitate the comparison of treatment results in elbow disorders. The treatment efficacy can be easily evaluated, and treatment concepts could be reviewed and revised. Diagnostic study, Level III.

  20. Analysis of results of surgical treatment of posttraumatic stiff elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Chandrabose

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Surgical management of posttraumatic elbow stiffness has been reported with poor outcome following treatment. Sequential release in earlier stages of stiffness yielded much better results. The goal of our study was to assess the outcome in improvement of the range of motion of the elbow after surgical release and to analyze a tailor-made approach according to individual needs to yield good result. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 47 cases of elbow stiffness due to various types of injuries. All the cases were treated with sequential release if there was no progress after adequate supervised conservative management except in unreduced dislocations. All the cases were followed up for a minimum period of 24 months. Overall outcome was rated with the functional scoring system by Mayo Clinic Performance Index. Results: Twenty-five (44.68% out of 47 patients had excellent results with a mean preoperative range of motion of 33.9° and postoperative range of motion of 105° with net gain in range of motion of 71.1° (′ t ′ test value is 19.27, P < 0.01. None of the patients had elbow instability. Patients not having heterotopic ossification, who underwent surgery from three to six months post injury had a mean gain of 73.5°. In patients who waited for more than six months had mean gain of 66.8°. However, the results in cases having heterotopic ossification followed a slightly different pattern. In cases where release was performed from three months to six months had mean gain of 77.5°. Cases in which release was performed after six months had gain of 57.1°. Conclusions: In cases of posttraumatic elbow stiffness after a failed initial conservative treatment, early arthrolysis with sequential surgical soft tissue release yields good result than delayed surgery.

  1. BNL NONLINEAR PRE TEST SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR THE NUPEC ULTIMATE STRENGTH PIPING TEST PROGRAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DEGRASSI, G.; HOFMAYER, C.; MURPHY, C.; SUZUKI, K.; NAMITA, Y.

    2003-01-01

    The Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) of Japan has been conducting a multi-year research program to investigate the behavior of nuclear power plant piping systems under large seismic loads. The objectives of the program are: to develop a better understanding of the elasto-plastic response and ultimate strength of nuclear piping; to ascertain the seismic safety margin of current piping design codes; and to assess new piping code allowable stress rules. Under this program, NUPEC has performed a large-scale seismic proving test of a representative nuclear power plant piping system. In support of the proving test, a series of materials tests, static and dynamic piping component tests, and seismic tests of simplified piping systems have also been performed. As part of collaborative efforts between the United States and Japan on seismic issues, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and its contractor, the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), are participating in this research program by performing pre-test and post-test analyses, and by evaluating the significance of the program results with regard to safety margins. This paper describes BNL's pre-test analysis to predict the elasto-plastic response for one of NUPEC's simplified piping system seismic tests. The capability to simulate the anticipated ratcheting response of the system was of particular interest. Analyses were performed using classical bilinear and multilinear kinematic hardening models as well as a nonlinear kinematic hardening model. Comparisons of analysis results for each plasticity model against test results for a static cycling elbow component test and for a simplified piping system seismic test are presented in the paper

  2. Early results of surgical intervention for elbow deformity in cerebral palsy based on degree of contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Michelle G; Hearns, Krystle A; Inkellis, Elizabeth; Leach, Michelle E

    2012-08-01

    Elbow flexion posture, caused by spasticity of the muscles on the anterior surface of the elbow, is the most common elbow deformity seen in patients with cerebral palsy. This study retrospectively evaluated early results of 2 surgical interventions for elbow flexion deformities based on degree of contracture. We hypothesized that by guiding surgical treatment to degree of preoperative contracture, elbow extension and flexion posture angle at ambulation could be improved while preserving maximum flexion. Eighty-six patients (90 elbows) were treated for elbow spasticity due to cerebral palsy. Seventy-one patients (74 elbows) were available for follow-up. Fifty-seven patients with fixed elbow contractures less than 45° were surgically treated with a partial elbow muscle lengthening, which included partial lengthening of the biceps and brachialis and proximal release of the brachioradialis. Fourteen patients (17 elbows) with fixed elbow contractures ≥ 45° had a more extensive full elbow release, with biceps z-lengthening, partial brachialis myotomy, and brachioradialis proximal release. Age at surgery averaged 10 years (range, 3-20 y) for partial lengthening and 14 years (range, 5-20 y) for full elbow release. Follow-up averaged 22 months (range, 7-144 mo) for partial lengthening and 18 months (range, 6-51 mo) for full elbow release. Both groups achieved meaningful improvement in flexion posture angle at ambulation, active and passive extension, and total range of motion. Elbow flexion posture angle at ambulation improved by 57° and active extension increased 17° in the partial lengthening group, with a 4° loss of active flexion. In the full elbow release group, elbow flexion posture angle at ambulation improved 51° and active extension improved 38°, with a loss of 19° of active flexion. Surgical treatment of spastic elbow flexion in cerebral palsy can improve deformity. We obtained excellent results by guiding the surgical intervention by the amount of

  3. Heat-pipe Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, William B; Webb, A Alexander G

    2013-09-26

    The heat transport and lithospheric dynamics of early Earth are currently explained by plate tectonic and vertical tectonic models, but these do not offer a global synthesis consistent with the geologic record. Here we use numerical simulations and comparison with the geologic record to explore a heat-pipe model in which volcanism dominates surface heat transport. These simulations indicate that a cold and thick lithosphere developed as a result of frequent volcanic eruptions that advected surface materials downwards. Declining heat sources over time led to an abrupt transition to plate tectonics. Consistent with model predictions, the geologic record shows rapid volcanic resurfacing, contractional deformation, a low geothermal gradient across the bulk of the lithosphere and a rapid decrease in heat-pipe volcanism after initiation of plate tectonics. The heat-pipe Earth model therefore offers a coherent geodynamic framework in which to explore the evolution of our planet before the onset of plate tectonics.

  4. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  5. PE 100 pipe systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brömstrup, Heiner

    2012-01-01

    English translation of the 3rd edition ""Rohrsysteme aus PE 100"". Because of the considerably increased performance, pipe and pipe systems made from 100 enlarge the range of applications in the sectors of gas and water supply, sewage disposal, industrial pipeline construction and in the reconstruction and redevelopment of defective pipelines (relining). This book applies in particular to engineers, technicians and foremen working in the fields of supply, disposal and industry. Subject matters of the book are all practice-relevant questions regarding the construction, operation and maintenance

  6. The Snapping Elbow Syndrome as a Reason for Chronic Elbow Neuralgia in a Tennis Player - MR, US and Sonoelastography Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łasecki, Mateusz; Olchowy, Cyprian; Pawluś, Aleksander; Zaleska-Dorobisz, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    Ulnar neuropathy is the second most common peripheral nerve neuropathy after median neuropathy, with an incidence of 25 cases per 100 000 men and 19 cases per 100 000 women each year. Skipping (snapping) elbow syndrome is an uncommon cause of pain in the posterior-medial elbow area, sometimes complicated by injury of the ulnar nerve. One of the reason is the dislocation of the abnormal insertion of the medial triceps head over the medial epicondyle during flexion and extension movements. Others are: lack of the Osboune fascia leading to ulnar nerve instability and focal soft tissue tumors (fibromas, lipomas, etc). Recurrent subluxation of the nerve at the elbow results in a tractional and frictional neuritis with classical symptoms of peripheral neuralgia. As far as we know snapping triceps syndrome had never been evaluated in sonoelastography. A 28yo semi-professional left handed tennis player was complaining about pain in posterior-medial elbow area. Initial US examination suggest golfers elbow syndrome which occurs quite commonly and has a prevalence of 0.3-0.6% in males and 0-3-1.1% in women and may be associated (approx. 50% of cases) with ulnar neuropathy. However subsequently made MRI revealed unusual distal triceps anatomy, moderate ulnar nerve swelling and lack of medial epicondylitis symptoms. Followed (second) US examination and sonoelastography have detected slipping of the both ulnar nerve and the additional band of the medial triceps head. Snapping elbow syndrome is a poorly known medical condition, sometimes misdiagnosed as the medial epicondylitis. It describes a broad range of pathologies and anatomical abnormalities. One of the most often reasons is the slipping of the ulnar nerve as the result of the Osborne fascia/anconeus epitrochlearis muscle absence. Simultaneously presence of two or more "snapping reasons" is rare but should be always taken under consideration. There are no sonoelastography studies describing golfers elbow syndrome

  7. Mechanistic multidimensional analysis of two-phase flow in horizontal tube with 90 deg elbow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tselishcheva, E.A.; Antal, St.P.; Podowski, M.Z.; Marshall, S.

    2007-01-01

    The development of modeling and simulation capabilities of two-phase flow and heat transfer is very important for the design, operation and safety of nuclear reactors. Whereas a significant progress in this field has been made over the recent years, further advancements are clearly needed for new concepts of advanced (Generation-IV in particular) reactors. Difficulties in analyzing gas/liquid flows are due to the fact that such two-phase mixtures can assume several different flow patterns, each characterized by flow-regime specific interfacial phenomena of mass, momentum and energy transfer. The level of difficulty increases even further in the case of a complex tube geometries and spatial orientations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the results of the analysis of a two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe with a 90-degree elbow. The overall objective of the present work is the development of a 3-dimensional computational model of a two-phase high-Reynolds number turbulent flow. The overall new model has been encoded in the next-generation Computational Multiphase Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) computer code, NPHASE. The model has been tested parametrically and the results of NPHASE calculations have been compared against experimental data. It has been demonstrated that the proposed model is consistent both physically and numerically, the predictions are in a reasonable agreement with the measurements

  8. Experimental measurement of flexion-extension movement in normal and corpse prosthetic elbow joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TarniŢă, Daniela; TarniŢă, DănuŢ Nicolae

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative experimental study of flexion-extension movement in healthy elbow and in the prosthetic elbow joint fixed on an original experimental bench. Measurements were carried out in order to validate the functional morphology and a new elbow prosthesis type ball head. The three-dimensional (3D) model and the physical prototype of our experimental bench used to test elbow endoprosthesis at flexion-extension and pronation-supination movements is presented. The measurements were carried out on a group of nine healthy subjects and on the prosthetic corpse elbow, the experimental data being obtained for flexion-extension movement cycles. Experimental data for the two different flexion-extension tests for the nine subjects and for the corpse prosthetic elbow were acquired using SimiMotion video system. Experimental data were processed statistically. The corresponding graphs were obtained for all subjects in the experimental group, and for corpse prosthetic elbow for both flexion-extension tests. The statistical analysis has proved that the flexion angles of healthy elbows were significantly close to the values measured at the prosthetic elbow fixed on the experimental bench. The studied elbow prosthesis manages to re-establish the mobility for the elbow joint as close to the normal one.

  9. Pipe-to-pipe impact tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bampton, M C.C.; Alzheimer, J M; Friley, J R; Simonen, F A

    1985-11-01

    Existing licensing criteria express what damage shall be assumed for various pipe sizes as a consequence of a postulated break in a high energy system. The criteria are contained in Section 3.6.2 of the Standard Review Plan, and the purpose of the program described with this paper is to evaluate the impact criteria by means of a combined experimental and analytical approach. A series of tests has been completed. Evaluation of the test showed a deficiency in the range of test parameters. These deficiencies are being remedied by a second series of tests and a more powerful impact machine. A parallel analysis capability has been developed. This capability has been used to predict the damage for the first test series. The quality of predictions has been improved by tests that establish post-crush and bending relationships. Two outputs are expected from this project: data that may, or may not, necessitate changes to the criteria after appropriate value impact evaluations and an analytic capability for rapidly evaluating the potential for pipe whip damage after a postulated break. These outputs are to be contained in a value-impact document and a program final report. (orig.).

  10. Performance of buried pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of geometric and mechanical parameters : characterizing the soil structure interaction developed in a buried pipe installation located under : roads/highways. The drainage pipes or culverts instal...

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part I: Normal anatomy, imaging technique, and osseous abnormalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Part I of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses normal elbow anatomy and the technical factors involved in obtaining high-quality magnetic resonance images of the elbow. Part I also discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with osseous abnormalities of the elbow. With proper patient positioning and imaging technique, magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the osseous structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early osteochondritis dissecans of the capitellum and can be used to evaluate the size, location, stability, and viability of the osteochondritis dissecans fragment. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect early stress injury to the proximal ulna in athletes. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect radiographically occult fractures of the elbow in both children and adults. Magnetic resonance imaging is also useful in children to further evaluate elbow fractures which are detected on plain-film radiographs. (orig.)

  12. Structural analyses on piping systems of sodium reactors. 2. Eigenvalue analyses of hot-leg pipelines of large scale sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Ichiro; Kasahara, Naoto

    2002-01-01

    Two types of finite element models analyzed eigenvalues of hot-leg pipelines of a large-scale sodium reactor. One is a beam element model, which is usual for pipe analyses. The other is a shell element model to evaluate particular modes in thin pipes with large diameters. Summary of analysis results: (1) A beam element model and a order natural frequency. A beam element model is available to get the first order vibration mode. (2) The maximum difference ratio of beam mode natural frequencies was 14% between a beam element model with no shear deformations and a shell element model. However, its difference becomes very small, when shear deformations are considered in beam element. (3) In the first order horizontal mode, the Y-piece acts like a pendulum, and the elbow acts like the hinge. The natural frequency is strongly affected by the bending and shear rigidities of the outer supporting pipe. (4) In the first order vertical mode, the vertical sections of the outer and inner pipes moves in the axial-directional piston mode, the horizontal section of inner pipe behaves like the cantilever, and the elbow acts like the hinge. The natural frequency is strongly affected by the axial rigidity of outer supporting pipe. (5) Both effective masses and participation factors were small for particular shell modes. (author)

  13. Research on Flow Pattern of Nitrogen Tetroxide Liquid in the Different Bend Radii Pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available N2O4 is a common rocket fuel propellants, it has the characteristics of low boiling point and a large viscosity , the friction between viscosity fluids and pipeline dramatic leads to a huge sticky heat, therefore, the vaporization phenomenon often occurs in the pipeline, particularly in bending of the viscous heat. For this reason, the research of the different bending radii vaporized fluid conditions for optimizing the piping and precise the filling flow is significant. In this paper, the MIXTURE mixed flow model is used to achieve the numerical simulation the pipelines filling of the three different bending radii, it still have not solved the mass transfer problem between the different phases. Therefore, the custom functions are needed to define the mass transfer problems from the liquid phase to the vapor phase. Though the contrast among the volume phase cloud of six different elbow models , we have the following conclusions: 1 In the entire pipeline transportation, the distribution vaporization rate from the inlet pipe to the outlet pipe follows the distribution of the first increasing and then decreasing, the gas rates of the elbow area is highest; 2Analyzing the sticky heat for different bend radii, we have the conclusion that the lowest bending vaporization the of the optimal radius is 0.45m. The above conclusions are drawn in good agreement with the actual law, can effectively guide the engineering practice, have important significance for the future design for the optimization of the fuel pipeline transportation.

  14. Optimization of Pipe Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. T.; Madsen, Kaj; Nielsen, Hans Bruun

    1991-01-01

    algorithm using successive linear programming is presented. The performance of the algorithm is illustrated by optimizing a network with 201 pipes and 172 nodes. It is concluded that the new algorithm seems to be very efficient and stable, and that it always finds a solution with a cost near the best...

  15. Recent development of three-dimensional piping code SHAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.Y.; Zeuch, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the recent development of the three-dimensional, structural, and hydrodynamic analysis piping code SHAPS. Several new features have been incorporated into the program, including (1) an elbow hydrodynamic model for analyzing the effect of global motion on the pressure-wave propagation, (2) a component hydrodynamic model for treating fluid motion in the vicinity of rigid obstacles and baffle plates, (3) the addition of the implicit time integration scheme in the structural-dynamic analysis, (4) the option of an implicit-implicit fluid-structural linking scheme, and (5) provisions for two constitutive equations for materials under various loading conditions. Sample problems are given to illustrate these features. Their results are discussed in detail. 7 refs., 8 figs

  16. Synovial chondromatosis of the elbow in a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Narasimhan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial chondromatosis is cartilaginous metaplasia of mesenchymal remnants of synovial tissue of the joints. Its main characteristic is the formation of cartilaginous nodules in the synovium and inside the articular space (loose bodies. It usually presents between the third and fifth decades and is rare in children. It presents as a mono-articular pathology affecting large joints such as the knee, hip, and elbow. The main symptoms are pain, swelling, and limitation of movements in the affected joint. Diagnosis is made by panoramic radiographs, computed tomography scan, and mainly magnetic resonance imaging and on surgery. The authors describe of synovial chondromatosis presenting in the elbow of an 11 year-old girl which is unreported to the best of our knowledge.

  17. Bimanual elbow exoskeleton: Force based protocol and rehabilitation quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, N; Herrnstadt, G; Randhawa, B K; Boyd, L A; Menon, C

    2015-08-01

    An aging population, along with the increase in cardiovascular disease incidence that accompanies this demographic shift, is likely to increase both the economic and medical burden associated with stroke in western societies. Rehabilitation, the standard treatment for stroke, can be expanded and augmented with state of the art technologies, such as robotic therapy. This paper expands upon a recent work involving a force-feedback master-slave bimanual exoskeleton for elbow rehabilitation, named a Bimanual Wearable Robotic Device (BWRD). Elbow force data acquired during the execution of custom tasks is analyzed to demonstrate the feasibility of tracking patient progress. Two training tasks that focus on applied forces are examined. The first is called "slave arm follow", which uses the absolute angular impulse as a metric; the second is called "conditional arm static", which uses the rise time to target as a metric, both presented here. The outcomes of these metrics are observed over three days.

  18. Elbow joint rehabilitation equipment actuated by pneumatic muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrice Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The mobility of the limbs is an essential prerequisite for the individual’s physical autonomy. For persons suffering from post-traumatic affections of the elbow joint such limited mobility results in barriers in fulfilling personal or professional tasks. Passive motion has certain specific advantages and beneficial effects, thus being highly recommended for the recovery of injured joints. The paper presents a model of rehabilitation equipment that induces continuous passive motion of the elbow, as part of a recovery programme. The equipment is actuated by pneumatic muscles, using compressed air as the source of energy that generates force and motion. The main benefits of the pneumatic actuation system compared to other driving systems are its low cost, simple and robust construction and swift response to commands. Its constructive simplicity and reduced cost adds to the system’s eligibility for deployment in medical units.

  19. Portal placement in elbow arthroscopy by novice surgeons: cadaver study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessen, Femke M A P; Kachooei, Amir R; Kolovich, Gregory P; Buijze, Geert A; Oh, Luke S; van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Doornberg, Job N

    2017-07-01

    In this anatomical cadaver study, the distance between major nerves and ligaments at risk for injury and portal sites created by trainees was measured. Trainees, inexperienced in elbow arthroscopy, have received a didactic lecture and cadaver instruction prior to portal placement. The incidence of iatrogenic injury from novice portal placement was also determined. Anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial arthroscopic portals were created in ten cadavers by ten inexperienced trainees in elbow arthroscopy. After creating each portal, the trajectory of the portal was marked with a guide pin. Subsequently, the cadavers were dissected and the distances between the guide pin in the anterolateral, direct lateral, and anteromedial portals and important ligaments and nerves were measured. The difference between the distance of the direct lateral portal and the posterior antebrachial cutaneous nerve (PABCN) (22 mm, p cadaver instruction session alone. Level of evidence V.

  20. Comparison between two models of elbow rehabilitation equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vetrice Georgiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available International studies have revealed that using continuous passive motion (CPM equipment as part of a rehabilitation program improves the recovery period and also diminishes the rehabilitation costs by about 50%. This explains the need for conceiving elbow joint rehabilitation equipment to help persons suffering from posttraumatic disabilities. In order to create the best model to meet the patients’ requirements this paper presents two constructive solutions of such equipment and a comparison between their designs. Both achieve the desired movements of the elbow joint: flexion-extension and pronation-supination and are actuated by pneumatic muscles, due to the multiple advantages of pneumatic actuation: low cost, compliance and favorable response to commands.

  1. Heat pipe applications workshop report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranken, W.A.

    1978-04-01

    The proceedings of the Heat Pipe Applications Workshop, held at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory October 20-21, 1977, are reported. This workshop, which brought together representatives of the Department of Energy and of a dozen industrial organizations actively engaged in the development and marketing of heat pipe equipment, was convened for the purpose of defining ways of accelerating the development and application of heat pipe technology. Recommendations from the three study groups formed by the participants are presented. These deal with such subjects as: (1) the problem encountered in obtaining support for the development of broadly applicable technologies, (2) the need for applications studies, (3) the establishment of a heat pipe technology center of excellence, (4) the role the Department of Energy might take with regard to heat pipe development and application, and (5) coordination of heat pipe industry efforts to raise the general level of understanding and acceptance of heat pipe solutions to heat control and transfer problems

  2. Ligamentous and capsular restraints to experimental posterior elbow joint dislocation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deutch, S.R.; Olsen, B.S.; Jensen, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    the anterior capsule and the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC), whereas in the flexed elbow the anterior capsule did not have a stabilizing effect. In flexed joint positions, the LCLC seems to be the only immediate stabilizer against PEFR, and thereby against posterolateral instability and possibly...... against posterior dislocation. The medial collateral ligament did not have any immediate stabilizing effect, but it prevented the final step of the posterior dislocation....

  3. Myofibroblast Numbers are Elevated in Human Elbow Capsules After Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Hildebrand, Kevin A.; Zhang, Mei; van Snellenberg, Wistara; King, Graham J. W.; Hart, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Elbow contractures, a frequent problem after injury, can be treated by excision of the joint capsule. However, the underlying changes in the joint capsule are poorly understood. Based on skin healing work, we examined the hypotheses that myofibroblast numbers and expression of a myofibroblast marker α-smooth muscle actin, are elevated in patients with posttraumatic joint contractures. Anterior capsules were obtained from six patients who had operative release of posttraumatic contractures gre...

  4. Direct magnetic resonance arthrography of the canine elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yauheni Zhalniarovich

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of four dilutions of the gadolinium-containing contrast media (1:100; 1:400; 1:800; 1:1,200 administered to the elbow on the quality of magnetic resonance images. All the examined dilutions had a positive effect on image quality, and 1:800 was regarded as the optimal dilution of gadolinium for viewing the elbow because it imparted good contrast to the joint cavity without obliterating the contours of articular surfaces. Transverse, sagittal, and dorsal low-field magnetic resonance images were obtained in 24 canine cadaver front limbs. The musculus biceps brachii, m. triceps brachii, m. extensor carpi radialis, m. flexor carpi ulnaris, the articular surfaces, the medial coronoid process and the anconeal process of the ulna were well visualized by High Resolution Gradient Echo, XBONE T2 and Spin Echo T1 sequences in the sagittal plane. The biceps brachii, pronator teres, flexor carpi radialis, extensor digitorum communis, extensor carpi radialis, deltoid muscle and the articular surface of the medial condyle of the humerus were very well visualized by 3D SST1 and XBONE T2 sequences in the transverse plane. The triceps brachii muscle, extensor digitorum lateralis muscle, superficial digital flexor, deep digital flexor and the medial condyle of the humerus were very well visualized by the Spin Echo T1 sequence in the dorsal plane. This article describes for the first time the use of the gadolinium contrast agent administered to the canine elbow joint during magnetic resonance modality. Magnetic resonance arthrography can be a helpful visualization technique in treating canine soft tissue elbow injury.

  5. Articular Contact Area and Pressure in Posteromedial Rotatory Instability of the Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellato, Enrico; Fitzsimmons, James S; Kim, Youngbok; Bachman, Daniel R; Berglund, Lawrence J; Hooke, Alexander W; O'Driscoll, Shawn W

    2018-03-21

    Joint incongruity in posteromedial rotatory instability (PMRI) has been theorized to determine early articular degenerative changes. Our hypothesis was that the articular contact area and contact pressure differ significantly between an intact elbow and an elbow affected by PMRI. Seven cadaveric elbows were tested under gravity varus stress using a custom-made machine designed to simulate muscle loads and allow passive elbow flexion (0° to 90°). The mean contact area and contact pressure data were collected and processed using the Tekscan sensor and software. After testing the intact specimen (intact elbow), a PMRI injury was simulated (PMRI elbow) and the specimen was tested again. The PMRI elbows were characterized by initial joint subluxation and significantly elevated articular contact pressure. Both worsened, corresponding with a reduction in contact area, as the elbow was flexed from 0° until the joint subluxation and incongruity spontaneously reduced (at a mean [and standard error] of 60° ± 5° of flexion), at which point the mean contact pressure decreased from 870 ± 50 kPa (pre-reduction) to 440 ± 40 kPa (post-reduction) (p contact area increased from 80 ± 8 mm to 150 ± 58 mm (p contact area from the coronoid fracture edge toward the lower portion of the coronoid. At the flexion angle at which the PMRI elbows reduced, both the contact area and the contact pressure of the intact elbows differed significantly from those of the PMRI elbows, both before and after the elbow reduction (p contact area and increased contact pressures due to joint subluxation and incongruity could explain the progressive arthritis seen in some elbows affected by PMRI. This biomechanical study suggests that the early degenerative changes associated with PMRI reported in the literature could be subsequent to joint incongruity and an increase in contact pressure between the coronoid fracture surface and the trochlea.

  6. On the computer simulation of LMFBR piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A-Moneim, M.T.; Chang, Y.-W.; Fistedis, S.H.

    1977-01-01

    A two-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic-structural response analysis of piping systems is described. Implicit Continuous-Fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique is utilized in the hydrodynamics while a finite-element technique is used in the structural analysis. Different piping components such as elbows, valves, reducers, expansions, heat exchangers, and tees are modelled and coupled with the straight pipe model. An axisymmetric general component model that can be used in modelling valves, reducers, expansions, and heat exchangers is described. At the inlet and outlet region of such component the cross-sectional area may change suddently or gradually, or many not change at all. Among the options available in this model are deformable exterior walls, interior rigid wall simulation, and tube bundle effect. Exterior walls of pipes and components are treated as thin axisymmetric shell. A convected coordinate explicit finite-element scheme for large displacement small strain, elastic-plastic material behavior in which membrane and bending strengths are accounted for is employed. The strains are linearly related to the displacement of the element relative to its convective coordinates, and similarly, the nodal forces are linearly related to the elements stresses. The coupling of the hydrodynamics and structural problems is done in such a way that the hydrodynamics supplies the structure with a pressure loading and the structure supplying the hydrodynamics with a moving boundary condition. Because of the difficulties of handling interior walls that may occupy partial zones, the walls are assumed rigid and limited in their orientation to be parallel to the radial or axial directions, their position to zone boundaries, and their thickness to zero

  7. Total elbow arthroplasty for the treatment of distal humeral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, G L; Larrondo Calderón, W; Boretto, J G; Castellaro Lantermo, J A; Terán, J; de Carli, P

    2016-01-01

    To report the clinical-functional outcomes of the treatment of humeral distal fractures with a total elbow prosthesis. This retrospective study was performed in two surgical centres. A total of 23patients were included, with a mean age of 79years, and of which 21 were women. The inclusion criteria were: patients with humeral distal fractures, operated on using a Coonrad-Morrey prosthesis, and with a follow-up of more than one year. According to AO classification, 15fractures were type C3, 7 C2 and 1 A2. All patients were operated on without de-insertion of the extensor mechanism. The mean follow-up was 40 months. Flexor-extension was 123-17°, with a total mobility arc of 106° (80% of the contralateral side). Pain, according to a visual analogue scale was 1. The Mayo Elbow Performance Index (MEPI) was 83 points. Excellent results were obtained in 8 patients, good in 13, medium in 1, and poor in 1. The mean DASH (disability) score was 24 points. Treatment of humeral distal fractures with total elbow arthroplasty could be a good treatment option, but indications must be limited to patients with complex fractures, poor bone quality, with osteoporosis and low functional demands. In younger patients, the use is limited to serious cases where there is no other treatment option. Level of Evidence IV. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, M; Bercher, M; Wegmann, K; Müller, L P; Dargel, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) and the surrounding forearm extensors. Using 81 human cadaveric upper extremities, the anatomy of the forearm extensors-especially the anconeus, supinator and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)-was analyzed. After removal of aforementioned extensors the functional anatomy of the LCLC was analyzed. The origin of the LCLC was evaluated for isometry. The insertion types of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) were analyzed and classified. The ECU runs parallel to the RCL to dynamically preserve varus stability. The supinator and anconeus muscle fibers coalesce with the LCLC and lengthen during pronation. The anconeus fibers run parallel to the LUCL in full flexion. The LCLC consists of the annular ligament (AL) and the isometric radial collateral ligament (RCL). During elbow flexion, its posterior branches (LUCL) tighten while the anterior branches loosen. When performing a pivot shift test, the loosened LUCL fibers do not fully tighten in full extension. The LUCL inserts along with the AL at the supinator crest. Three different insertion types could be observed. The LUCL represents the posterior branch of the RCL rather than a distinct ligament. It is non-isometric and lengthens during elbow flexion. The RCL was found to be of vital importance for neutralization of posterolateral rotatory forces. Pronation of the forearm actively stabilizes the elbow joint as the supinator, anconeus and biceps muscle work in unison to increase posterolateral rotatory stability.

  9. Unreduced elbow dislocation treated by Ilizarov method: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Unreduced elbow dislocation is every elbow dislocation older than one week. It may be treated non-operatively (with prereduction traction or surgically. The treatment goals are: to reduce pain, to establish joint stability and movements. There are a lot of techniques described in literature, series are relatively small, mostly case reports. Multicentric studies have not been done. That is why there are no precisely defined therapeutic protocols. Every contribution in the field is valuable. Case Outline. A 43-year-old patient was admitted for the treatment of a three-month old unreduced elbow dislocation. Treatment has been done by Ilizarov method, using the reduction mechanism. The reduction process lasted two weeks. The Ilizarov device was removed two months after the operation, then physical therapy was started. Normal anatomical and functional findings were established five months following the operation. Conclusion. The presented method of treatment has been found as very useful, having in mind that it may solve two problems: difficult reduction and redislocation. Reduction may be done without the joint opening, step by step; retention of the reduced joint may be easily done. Physical therapy may be started without Ilizarov device removal, movements of flexion and extension may be improved without any lateral instability. There is no iatrogenic intraarticular damage, so there are no secondary joint degeneration, pains and invalidity.

  10. Anthropometric characterisation of elbow angles and lines among Indian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Awasthi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: For understanding injuries in paediatric elbow and checking the degree of reduction after manipulation, various radiological criteria using anthropometric parameters are used. Since anthropometric parameters of Caucasians are different from European and Mongoloids, their parameters cannot be applied on our population. Hence, there is a need to characterise anthropometric parameters of elbow among children in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The study population comprised all cases of injury to the elbow joint between 3 and 13 years of age reporting to the Department of Orthopaedics during the study. The X-rays films were preserved, and the angles and lines (as anthropometric parameters were drawn on the radiographs. Results: Mean ± (standard deviation [SD] for Baumann angle in children included in this study was 75° ± 4.70°. Mean ± (SD of Baumann angle in males was 76° ± 4.44° and females was 74° ± 5.37°. Mean ± (SD for lateral capitellohumeral angle in children from 3 to 13 years of age was 49 ± 5.75. Conclusions: As the values of normal side have been found to affect the functional and cosmetic outcome of the affected extremity, slight changes in values of our population in comparison to that of the Western population can significantly affect the outcome.

  11. U-rans model for the prediction of the acoustic sound power generated in a whistling corrugated pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golliard, J.; González Díez, N.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nakiboǧlu, G.; Hirschberg, A.

    2013-01-01

    Corrugated pipes, as used in flexible risers for gas production or in domestic appliances, can whistle when a flow is imposed through the pipe. Nakiboglu et al [1, 2] have developed a method to compute the acoustic source term for axi-symmetric cavities. The method is based on the resolution of

  12. A consideration on pipe-wall thinning mechanisms from an aspect of fluid-mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Fumio; Yoneda, Kimitoshi; Morita, Ryo; Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Furuya, Masahiro

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of the fluid mechanics to the piping wall thinning phenomena was investigated. It was shown that the fluid force to the wall was quite different between flow accelerated corrosion (FAC) and erosion. The turbulent mass transfer, which is one of the primary factors of FAC, was analogous to the turbulent heat transfer. The model that the molecular transport in the viscous sublayer nearby soon of wall was predominant was practicable. In addition, the mass transport was predicted using commercial codes of computational fluid dynamics. Some prediction results of the mass transfer in orifice and the elbow using above techniques were explained. (author)

  13. Nuclear piping and pipe support design and operability relating to loadings and small bore piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stout, D.H.; Tubbs, J.M.; Callaway, W.O.; Tang, H.T.; Van Duyne, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The present nuclear piping system design practices for loadings, multiple support design and small bore piping evaluation are overly conservative. The paper discusses the results developed for realistic definitions of loadings and loading combinations with methodology for combining loads under various conditions for supports and multiple support design. The paper also discusses a simplified method developed for performing deadweight and thermal evaluations of small bore piping systems. Although the simplified method is oriented towards the qualification of piping in older plants, this approach is applicable to plants designed to any edition of the ASME Section III or B31.1 piping codes

  14. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of J55ERW Steel Pipe Processed by On-Line Spray Water Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available An on-line spray water cooling (OSWC process for manufacturing electric resistance welded (ERW steel pipes is presented to enhance their mechanical properties and performances. This technique reduces the processing needed for the ERW pipe and overcomes the weakness of the conventional manufacturing technique. Industrial tests for J55 ERW steel pipe were carried out to validate the effectiveness of the OSWC process. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the J55 ERW steel pipe processed by the OSWC technology were investigated. The optimized OSWC technical parameters are presented based on the mechanical properties and impact the performance of steel pipes. The industrial tests show that the OSWC process can be used to efficiently control the microstructure, enhance mechanical properties, and improve production flexibility of steel pipes. The comprehensive mechanical properties of steel pipes processed by the OSWC are superior to those of other published J55 grade steels.

  15. Ratcheting study in pressurized piping components under cyclic loading at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravi Kiran, A.; Agrawal, M.K.; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-07-01

    The nuclear power plant piping components and systems are often subjected to reversing cyclic loading conditions due to various process transients, seismic and other events. Earlier the design of piping subjected to seismic excitation was based on the principle of plastic collapse. It is believed that during such events, fatigue-ratcheting is likely mode of failure of piping components. The 1995 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel code, Section-III, has incorporated the reverse dynamic loading and ratcheting into the code. Experimental and analytical studies are carried out to understand this failure mechanism. The biaxial ratcheting characteristics of SA 333, Gr. 6 steel and SS 304 stainless steel at room temperature are investigated in the present work. Experiments are carried out on straight pipes subjected to internal pressure and cyclic bending load applied in a three point and four point bend test configurations. A shake table test is also carried out on a pressurized elbow by applying sinusoidal base excitation. Analytical simulation of ratcheting in the piping elements is carried out. Chaboche nonlinear kinematic hardening model is used for ratcheting simulation. (author)

  16. Waste pipe calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1978-01-01

    A rapid method is presented for calculating transport in a network of one-dimensional flow paths or ''pipes''. The method defines a Green's function for each flow path and prescribes a method of combining these Green's functions to produce an overall Green's function for the flow path network. A unique feature of the method is the use of the Laplace transform of these Green's functions to carry out most of the calculations

  17. Workplace flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordato, C; Harris, J

    1990-01-01

    Whether your organization is in a growth pattern or downsizing, you are probably facing change. To gain some insight into your options, here is an in-depth look at the problems and benefits of some flexible work arrangements from a just published study by Catalyst.

  18. Flexibility conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delsen, L.W.M.; Bauer, F.; Groß, H.; Sieglen, G.

    2002-01-01

    The chapter deals with the presupposed conflict of interests between employers and employees resulting from a decoupling of operating hours and working times. It starts from the notion that both long operating hours and flexibility are relative concepts. As there is some discretion, the ultimate

  19. Pipe damping studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) is conducting a research program to assist the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) in determining best-estimate damping values for use in the dynamic analysis of nuclear power plant piping systems. This paper describes four tasks in the program that were undertaken in FY-86. In the first task, tests were conducted on a 5-in. INEL laboratory piping system and data were analyzed from a 6-in. laboratory system at the ANCO Engineers facility to investigate the parameters influencing damping in the seismic frequency range. Further tests were conducted on 3- and 5-in. INEL laboratory piping systems as the second task to determine damping values representative of vibrations in the 33 to 100 Hz range, typical of hydrodynamic transients. In the third task a statistical evaluation of the available damping data was conduted to determine probability distributions suitable for use in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs), and the final task evaluated damping data at high strain levels

  20. Pipe clamp effects on thin-walled pipe design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindquist, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Clamp induced stresses in FFTF piping are sufficiently large to require structural assessment. The basic principles and procedures used in analyzing FFTF piping at clamp support locations for compliance with ASME Code rules are given. Typical results from a three-dimensional shell finite element pipe model with clamp loads applied over the clamp/pipe contact area are shown. Analyses performed to categorize clamp induced piping loads as primary or secondary in nature are described. The ELCLAMP Computer Code, which performs analyses at clamp locations combining clamp induced stresses with stresses from overall piping system loads, is discussed. Grouping and enveloping methods to reduce the number of individual clamp locations requiring analysis are described

  1. Neurological Complications Related to Elective Orthopedic Surgery: Part 1: Common Shoulder and Elbow Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, Tim; Henry, Patrick D G; Cholvisudhi, Phantila; Chan, Vincent W S; Theodoropoulos, John S; Brull, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Many anesthesiologists are unfamiliar with the rate of surgical neurological complications of the shoulder and elbow procedures for which they provide local anesthetic-based anesthesia and/or analgesia. Part 1 of this narrative review series on neurological complications of elective orthopedic surgery describes the mechanisms and likelihood of peripheral nerve injury associated with some of the most common shoulder and elbow procedures, including open and arthroscopic shoulder procedures, elbow arthroscopy, and total shoulder and elbow replacement. Despite the many articles available, the overall number of studied patients is relatively low. Large prospective trials are required to establish the true incidence of neurological complications following elective shoulder and elbow surgery. As the popularity of regional anesthesia increases with the development of ultrasound guidance, anesthesiologists should have a thoughtful understanding of the nerves at risk of surgical injury during elective shoulder and elbow procedures.

  2. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned

  3. Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers for heat recovery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, L L; Grakovich, L P; Kiselev, V G; Kurustalev, D K; Matveev, Yu

    1984-01-01

    Heat pipes and heat pipe exchangers are of great importance in power engineering as a means of recovering waste heat of industrial enterprises, solar energy, geothermal waters and deep soil. Heat pipes are highly effective heat transfer units for transferring thermal energy over large distance (tens of meters) with low temperature drops. Their heat transfer characteristics and reliable working for more than 10-15 yr permit the design of new systems with higher heat engineering parameters.

  4. Pipe inspection using the pipe crawler. Innovative technology summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective remediation technologies for use in the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of nuclear facilities. In several of the buildings at the Fernald Site, there is piping that was used to transport process materials. As the demolition of these buildings occur, disposal of this piping has become a costly issue. Currently, all process piping is cut into ten-foot or less sections, the ends of the piping are wrapped and taped to prevent the release of any potential contaminants into the air, and the piping is placed in roll off boxes for eventual repackaging and shipment to the Nevada Test Site (NTS) for disposal. Alternatives that allow for the onsite disposal of process piping are greatly desired due to the potential for dramatic savings in current offsite disposal costs. No means is currently employed to allow for the adequate inspection of the interior of piping, and consequently, process piping has been assumed to be internally contaminated and thus routinely disposed of at NTS. The BTX-II system incorporates a high-resolution micro color camera with lightheads, cabling, a monitor, and a video recorder. The complete probe is capable of inspecting pipes with an internal diameter (ID) as small as 1.4 inches. By using readily interchangeable lightheads, the same system is capable of inspecting piping up to 24 inches in ID. The original development of the BTX system was for inspection of boiler tubes and small diameter pipes for build-up, pitting, and corrosion. However, the system is well suited for inspecting the interior of most types of piping and other small, confined areas. The report describes the technology, its performance, uses, cost, regulatory and policy issues, and lessons learned.

  5. New Design of a Soft Robotics Wearable Elbow Exoskeleton Based on Shape Memory Alloy Wire Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    Copaci, Dorin; Cano, Enrique; Moreno, Luis; Blanco, Dolores

    2017-01-01

    The elbow joint is a complex articulation composed of the humeroulnar and humeroradial joints (for flexion-extension movement) and the proximal radioulnar articulation (for pronation-supination movement). During the flexion-extension movement of the elbow joint, the rotation center changes and this articulation cannot be truly represented as a simple hinge joint. The main goal of this project is to design and assemble a medical rehabilitation exoskeleton for the elbow with one degree of freed...

  6. Feasibility of four-dimensional preoperative simulation for elbow debridement arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Michiro; Murakami, Yukimi; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Kurimoto, Shigeru; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-04-02

    Recent advances in imaging modalities have enabled three-dimensional preoperative simulation. A four-dimensional preoperative simulation system would be useful for debridement arthroplasty of primary degenerative elbow osteoarthritis because it would be able to detect the impingement lesions. We developed a four-dimensional simulation system by adding the anatomical axis to the three-dimensional computed tomography scan data of the affected arm in one position. Eleven patients with primary degenerative elbow osteoarthritis were included. A "two rings" method was used to calculate the flexion-extension axis of the elbow by converting the surface of the trochlea and capitellum into two rings. A four-dimensional simulation movie was created and showed the optimal range of motion and the impingement area requiring excision. To evaluate the reliability of the flexion-extension axis, interobserver and intraobserver reliabilities regarding the assessment of bony overlap volumes were calculated twice for each patient by two authors. Patients were treated by open or arthroscopic debridement arthroplasties. Pre- and postoperative examinations included elbow range of motion measurement, and completion of the patient-rated questionnaire Hand20, Japanese Orthopaedic Association-Japan Elbow Society Elbow Function Score, and the Mayo Elbow Performance Score. Measurement of the bony overlap volume showed an intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.93 and 0.90, and an interobserver intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.94. The mean elbow flexion-extension arc significantly improved from 101° to 125°. The mean Hand20 score significantly improved from 52 to 22. The mean Japanese Orthopaedic Association-Japan Elbow Society Elbow Function Score significantly improved from 67 to 88. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score significantly improved from 71 to 91 at the final follow-up evaluation. We showed that four-dimensional, preoperative simulation can be generated by

  7. A practical, systematic and structured approach to piping vibration assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukaih, Naren

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this paper is to present a systematic and structured approach to piping vibration assessment and control. Piping vibration assessment is a complex subject, since there are no general analytical methods for dealing with vibration problems. It was noted that most existing vibrating piping systems had poor or degraded support arrangements. This approach therefore focuses mainly on vibration control through assessing and improving the supporting systems. Vibration theory has not been covered in any detail. A simplified procedure is presented for the Integrity custodian to determine when a simple assessment may be carried out and when specialist/consultant services are required. The assessment techniques are based on simplifying assumptions, good rules of thumb and available literature and current practices. A typical case study is used to illustrate the use and the flexibility of the above approach. A standard sheet is proposed to record and document the assessment and recommendations

  8. Flutter instability of freely hanging articulated pipes conveying fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouveiler, Lionel; Chermette, Félix

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the stability of freely hanging articulated pipes made of rigid segments connected by flexible joints and with their displacements constrained in a vertical plane. When the velocity of the fluid conveyed by the pipe is increased, flutter-type instability occurs above a critical value. The critical velocity and the characteristics of the flutter modes (frequency, amplitude, and shape) are determined as a function of the number n of segments into the pipe which is varied from 2 to 5. Experimental results are compared to predictions from linear stability analysis extending previous studies by taking into account damping due to the dissipation in the joints. Qualitative agreement is found and the limits of the analysis are discussed.

  9. Does Excision of Heterotopic Ossification of the Elbow Result in Satisfactory Patient-Rated Outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandeep, K N; Suresh, G; Gopisankar, B; Abhishek, N; Sujiv, A

    2017-03-01

    Treatment of heterotopic ossification (HO) of the elbow is challenging and fraught with complications. Patients who sustain direct trauma to the elbow joint, the central nervous system, and thermal burns are at increased risk for development of HO. There is a paucity of studies and reports on patient's self-evaluation after the excision of the heterotopic ossification. This retrospective study assessed outcomes after excision of heterotopic ossification around the elbow in a cohort of ten patients operated from 2012 to 2015. The outcome assessment was done by the Mayo Elbow Performance index (MEPI) and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons-Elbow score (ASES-E scores). The mean follow-up was 18.11 months after the operation. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score was excellent in two elbows, good in six and fair in two. The mean gain in flexion-extension arc after excision of HO was 80 degrees. All of the patients had residual flexion deformity postoperatively. Eight of the nine patients were able to do activities requiring flexion at final follow-up. Excision of HO around the elbow is associated with satisfactory patient-rated outcomes in spite of failure to regain full range of motion.

  10. Muscle contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness in preparation for sudden external arm perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Michael W R; Keir, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Understanding joint stiffness and stability is beneficial for assessing injury risk. The purpose of this study was to examine joint rotational stiffness for individual muscles contributing to elbow joint stability. Fifteen male participants maintained combinations of three body orientations (standing, supine, sitting) and three hand preloads (no load, solid tube, fluid filled tube) while a device imposed a sudden elbow extension. Elbow angle and activity from nine muscles were inputs to a biomechanical model to determine relative contributions to elbow joint rotational stiffness, reported as percent of total stiffness. A body orientation by preload interaction was evident for most muscles (Psafety.

  11. Correlation of radiographic, necropsy and histologic findings in 8 dogs with elbow dysplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, G.G.; Kreeger, J.M.; Mann, F.A.; Lattimer, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Elbow dysplasia is osteoarthrosis/degenerative joint disease due to abnormal development of the elbow joint. The abnormal development is the result of specific inherited etiologies alone or in combination. This paper attempts to clarify the diagnosis of elbow dysplasia based on the presence of degenerative joint disease by correlating radiographic, necropsy, and histopathologic results using elbows from 8 German Shepherd dogs. All elbows had radiographic changes consistent with osteoarthrosis/degenerative joint disease which were identified best on the flexed medial-lateral projection. Radiographically, a specific diagnosis was made in seven elbows; ununited anconeal process (6) and osteochondrosis (1). At necropsy these lesions were confirmed plus 14 elbows were identified that had fragmented medial coronoid process (6), abnormally shaped medial coronoid processes or fissures in the articular cartilage of the medial coronoid process (8). Additionally, histopathologically there was proliferative synovitis at the radial notch of the ulna and degenerative changes on the proximal, nonarticular surface of the anconeal process at the site of insertion of the olecranon ligament and joint capsule. Therefore, for screening the elbow joint to identify elbow dysplasia, the recognition of osteoarthrosis/degenerative joint disease on an extreme flexed mediolateral radiograph appears to be sufficient

  12. Effect of cryotherapy after elbow arthrolysis: a prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-yang; Chen, Shuai; Yan, He-de; Fan, Cun-yi

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of cryotherapy after elbow arthrolysis on elbow pain, blood loss, analgesic consumption, range of motion, and long-term elbow function. Prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled study. University hospital. Patients (N=59; 27 women, 32 men) who received elbow arthrolysis. Patients were randomly assigned into a cryotherapy group (n=31, cryotherapy plus standard care) or a control group (n=28, standard care). Elbow pain at rest and in motion were measured using a visual analog scale (VAS) on postoperative day (POD) 1 to POD 7 and at 2 weeks and 3 months after surgery. Blood loss and analgesic consumption were recorded postoperatively. Elbow range of motion (ROM) was measured before surgery and on POD 1, POD 7, and 3 months after surgery. The Mayo Elbow Performance Score (MEPS) was evaluated preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively. VAS scores were significantly lower in the cryotherapy group during the first 7 PODs, both at rest and in motion (Pcryotherapy group than the control group for pain relief (P.05). Cryotherapy is effective in relieving pain and reducing analgesic consumption for patients received elbow arthrolysis. The application of cryotherapy will not affect blood loss, ROM, or elbow function. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pipe support program at Pickering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahazizian, L.A.; Jazic, Z.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the pipe support program at Pickering. The program addresses the highest priority in operating nuclear generating stations, safety. We present the need: safety, the process: managed and strategic, and the result: assurance of critical piping integrity. In the past, surveillance programs periodically inspected some systems, equipment, and individual components. This comprehensive program is based on a managed process that assesses risk to identify critical piping systems and supports and to develop a strategy for surveillance and maintenance. The strategy addresses all critical piping supports. Successful implementation of the program has provided assurance of critical piping and support integrity and has contributed to decreasing probability of pipe failure, reducing risk to worker and public safety, improving configuration management, and reducing probability of production losses. (author)

  14. A new concept of smart flexible phased array transducer to inspect component of complex geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, O.; Mauhaut, S.; Casula, O.; Cattiaux, G.

    2001-01-01

    In most of industries as aeronautics, aerospace and nuclear, the main part of the non destructive testing is carried out directly in touch with the inspected component. Among others, the cooling piping of French pressurized water reactor comprises many welding components with complex geometry: elbows, butt welds, nozzles. In service inspections of such components performed with conventional ultrasonic contact transducers present limited performances. First, variations in sensitivity, due to unmatched contact on depressions or irregular surface are observed, resulting in poor detection performances. In addition, the beam orientation transmitted through complex interfaces cannot be totally controlled, because of the disorientations suffered by the transducer during its displacement. As a result, the possible defect cannot be correctly detected, positioned and characterized. To overcome these difficulties and to improve the performances of such inspections, the French Atomic Energy Commission has developed a new concept of transducer, allowing both to take into account the varying profile of the tested component and to efficiently compensate these effects. This transducer is a flexible phased array able to match the surface of the inspected specimen and to efficiently compensate the deformation of its own surface, in order to preserve the ultrasonic beam characteristics in spite of the profile variations encountered during the scanning. This ability is achieved thanks to a specific instrumentation, which measures the deformation of the transducer radiating surface, made of individual ultrasonic elements mechanically jointed to fit the actual surface of the component being inspected. Inspections in pulse-echo mode have been performed on a specimen with an irregular profile containing artificial embedded reflectors. The comparison with inspection carried out using conventional transducer shows the efficiency of the system to characterize defects under such complex

  15. The effects of gender, level of co-contraction, and initial angle on elbow extensor muscle stiffness and damping under a step increase in elbow flexion moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yunju; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2011-10-01

    Flexion buckling of an arm under the large ground reaction loads associated with arresting a fall to the ground increases the risk for head and thorax injuries. Yet, the factors that determine the arm buckling load remain poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis in 18 healthy young adults that neither gender, triceps co-contraction level (i.e., 25, 50, or 75% MVC) nor elbow angle would affect the rotational stiffness and damping resistance to step changes in elbow flexion loading. Data on the step response were gathered using optoelectronic markers (150 Hz) and myoelectric activity measurements (2 kHz), and an inverse dynamics analysis was used to estimate elbow extensor stiffness and damping coefficients. A repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that gender (p = 0.032), elbow flexion angle and co-contraction level (both p initial elbow flexion angle and maximum co-contraction, female stiffness and damping coefficients were 18 and 30% less, respectively, than male values after normalization by body height and weight. We conclude that the maximum extensor rotational stiffness and damping at the elbow is lower in women than in men of the same body size, and varies with triceps co-contraction level and initial elbow angle.

  16. Flexible licensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyn Jansen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The case is presented for a more flexible approach to licensing online library resources. Today's distributed education environment creates pressure for UK higher and further education institutions (HEI/FEIs to form partnerships and to develop educational products and roll them out across the globe. Online library resources are a key component of distributed education and yet existing licensing agreements struggle to keep pace with the increasing range of users and purposes for which they are required. This article describes the process of developing a flexible approach to licensing and proposes a new model licence for online library resources which has the adaptability needed in this new global educational landscape. These ideas have been presented and discussed at various workshops across Eduserv's and JISC Collections' higher education and publisher communities, and further consultation is ongoing.

  17. Damping in LMFBR pipe systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, M.J.; Barta, D.A.; Lindquist, M.R.; Renkey, E.J.; Ryan, J.A.

    1983-06-01

    LMFBR pipe systems typically utilize a thicker insulation package than that used on water plant pipe systems. They are supported with special insulated pipe clamps. Mechanical snubbers are employed to resist seismic loads. Recent laboratory testing has indicated that these features provide significantly more damping than presently allowed by Regulatory Guide 1.61 for water plant pipe systems. This paper presents results of additional in-situ vibration tests conducted on FFTF pipe systems. Pipe damping values obtained at various excitation levels are presented. Effects of filtering data to provide damping values at discrete frequencies and the alternate use of a single equivalent modal damping value are discussed. These tests further confirm that damping in typical LMFBR pipe systems is larger than presently used in pipe design. Although some increase in damping occurred with increased excitation amplitude, the effect was not significant. Recommendations are made to use an increased damping value for both the OBE and DBE seismic events in design of LMFBR pipe systems

  18. Dynamic experiments on cracked pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, M.; Brunet, G.; Buland, P.

    1991-01-01

    In order to apply the leak before break concept to piping systems, the behavior of cracked pipes under dynamic, and especially seismic loading must be studied. In a first phase, an experimental program on cracked stainless steel pipes under quasi-static monotonic loading has been conducted. In this paper, the dynamic tests on the same pipe geometry are described. These tests have been performed on a shaking table with a mono frequency input signal. The main parameter of the tests is the frequency of excitation versus the frequency of the system

  19. Water hammer in elastic pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, J.; Tiselj, I.

    2002-01-01

    One dimensional two-fluid six-equation model of two-phase flow, that can be found in computer codes like RELAP5, TRAC, and CATHARE, was upgraded with additional terms, which enable modelling of the pressure waves in elastic pipes. It is known that pipe elasticity reduces the propagation velocity of the shock and other pressure waves in the piping systems. Equations that include the pipe elasticty terms are used in WAHA code, which is being developed within the WAHALoads project of 5't'h EU research program.(author)

  20. Progress report on a NDT round robin on austenitic circumferential pipe welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brast, G.; Maier, H.J.; Knoch, P.; Mletzko, U.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the project is establish on the basis of Round Robin tests the current state of efficiency of various, defined testing methods, so that required or achievable optimizations can be defined and made. The project work up to date encompasses mon-destructive examinations of 15 austenitic welds with nominal widths DN 150/200/250 and wall thicknesses from 8 to 18 mm. Except for one test piece, (elbow/elbow), the joining welds are straight pipe to elbow welds. The results of the Round Robin tests show that the NDE detection limits for the fault examined (intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking) are in the range assumed so far, i.e. from about 20 to 25% of the wall thickness to be examined. The defect detection rates of the ultrasonic test methods applied are approx. 70% and thus are about equal in achievement with comparable international Round Robin tests (PISC; ASME/PDI, ENIQ, etc.). Clearly better are the fault detection rates of radiography. Evaluation of the individual results indicates the detection limits can be improved, by 1. reducing the misalignment of edges, 2. grinding of welds, 3. avoiding sharp notches at the root, 4. producing coaxial surfaces. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Uses of four-fold coaxial corrugated piping in low temperature technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, A; Rohner, P [Kabel- und Metallwerke Gutehoffnungshuette A.G., Hannover (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-06-01

    The increasing uses of superconducting equipment in various areas of research and technology, including even medicine, create an increasing demand for suitable transfer lines for liquid helium which still remains practically the only suitable coolant. This paper reports on flexible four-fold coaxial corrugated piping lines which can combine a forword flow and a return flow channel for the coolant and which can be designed for various operating conditions. The mechanical and thermal properties of such piping lines are discussed.

  2. Safety catching device for pipes in missile shielding cylinders of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hering, S.; Doll, B.

    1976-01-01

    The safety catching device consists of a steel wire passed in U-shape around the pipe to be caught and supported by two anchor ties embedded in the concrete of the missile shielding cylinder. This flexible catching device is to cause the energy released in case of a pipe rupture to be absorbed and no dangerous bending shesses to be transferred to the walls of the missile shielding cylinder. (UWI) [de

  3. Reliability of sonographic assessment of tendinopathy in tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltawski, Leon; Ali, Syed; Jayaram, Vijay; Watson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    To assess the reliability and compute the minimum detectable change using sonographic scales to quantify the extent of pathology and hyperaemia in the common extensor tendon in people with tennis elbow. The lateral elbows of 19 people with tennis elbow were assessed sonographically twice, 1-2 weeks apart. Greyscale and power Doppler images were recorded for subsequent rating of abnormalities. Tendon thickening, hypoechogenicity, fibrillar disruption and calcification were each rated on four-point scales, and scores were summed to provide an overall rating of structural abnormality; hyperaemia was scored on a five point scale. Inter-rater reliability was established using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) to compare scores assigned independently to the same set of images by a radiologist and a physiotherapist with training in musculoskeletal imaging. Test-retest reliability was assessed by comparing scores assigned by the physiotherapist to images recorded at the two sessions. The minimum detectable change (MDC) was calculated from the test-retest reliability data. ICC values for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.35 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.60) for fibrillar disruption to 0.77 (0.55, 0.88) for overall greyscale score, and 0.89 (0.79, 0.95) for hyperaemia. Test-retest reliability ranged from 0.70 (0.48, 0.84) for tendon thickening to 0.82 (0.66, 0.90) for overall greyscale score and 0.86 (0.73, 0.93) for calcification. The MDC for the greyscale total score was 2.0/12 and for the hyperaemia score was 1.1/5. The sonographic scoring system used in this study may be used reliably to quantify tendon abnormalities and change over time. A relatively inexperienced imager can conduct the assessment and use the rating scales reliably.

  4. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Catana, Ciprian; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Appel, Lieuwe; Engler, Henry; Långström, Bengt; Sörensen, Jens; Furmark, Tomas; Fredrikson, Mats; Borsook, David; Peterson, Magnus

    Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis) were selected out of a larger (n = 120) randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis). These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET) with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA), was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP) / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  5. Management of Tennis Elbow with sodium hyaluronate periarticular injections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrella Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of peri-articular hyaluronic acid injections in chronic lateral epicondylosis (tennis elbow. Design Prospective randomized clinical trial in primary care sport medicine. Patients Three hundred and thirty one consecutive competitive racquette sport athletes with chronic (>3 months lateral epicondylosis were administered 2 injections (first injection at baseline into the subcutaneous tissue and muscle 1 cm. from the lateral epicondyle toward the primary point of pain using a two-dimensional fanning technique. A second injection was administered 1 week later. Outcomes measures Assessments were done at baseline, days 7, 14, 30, 90 and 356. Efficacy measures included patient's visual analogue scale (VAS of pain at rest (0-100 mm and following assessment of grip strength (0-100 mm. Grip strength was determined using a jamar hydraulic hand dynamometer. Other assessments included patients' global assessment of elbow injury (5 point categorical scale; 1 = no disability, 5 = maximal disability, patients' assessment of normal function/activity (5 point categorical scale, patients/physician satisfaction assessment (10 point categorical scale, time to return to pain-free and disability-free sport and adverse events as per WHO definition. Differences between groups were determined using an intent-to-treat ANOVA. Results Average age of the study population was 49 years (± 12 years. One hundred and sixty-five patients were randomized to the HA and 166 were randomized to the control groups. The change in VAS pain was -6.7 (± 2.0 for HA vs -1.3 (± 1.5 for control (p Conclusion Peri-articular HA treatment for tennis elbow was significantly better than control in improving pain at rest and after maximal grip testing. Further, HA treatment was highly satisfactory by patients and physicians and resulted in better return to pain free sport compared to control.

  6. Decreased Brain Neurokinin-1 Receptor Availability in Chronic Tennis Elbow.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clas Linnman

    Full Text Available Substance P is released in painful and inflammatory conditions, affecting both peripheral processes and the central nervous system neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor. There is a paucity of data on human brain alterations in NK1 expression, how this system may be affected by treatment, and interactions between central and peripheral tissue alterations. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis were selected out of a larger (n = 120 randomized controlled trial evaluating graded exercise as a treatment for chronic tennis elbow (lateral epicondylosis. These ten subjects were examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1-specific radioligand 11C-GR205171 before, and eight patients were followed up after treatment with graded exercise. Brain binding in the ten patients before treatment, reflecting NK1-receptor availability (NK1-RA, was compared to that of 18 healthy subjects and, longitudinally, to the eight of the original ten patients that agreed to a second PET examination after treatment. Before treatment, patients had significantly lower NK1-RA in the insula, vmPFC, postcentral gyrus, anterior cingulate, caudate, putamen, amygdala and the midbrain but not the thalamus and cerebellum, with the largest difference in the insula contralateral to the injured elbow. No significant correlations between brain NK1-RA and pain, functional severity, or peripheral NK1-RA in the affected limb were observed. In the eight patients examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in everyone, but there were no significant changes in NK1-RA. These findings indicate a role for the substance P (SP / NK1 receptor system in musculoskeletal pain and tissue healing. As neither clinical parameters nor successful treatment response was reflected in brain NK1-RA after treatment, this may reflect the diverse function of the SP/NK1 system in CNS and peripheral tissue, or a change too small or slow to capture over the three-month treatment.

  7. Plastics pipe couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, J.B.

    1980-07-01

    A method is described of making a pipe coupling of the type comprising a plastics socket and a resilient annular sealing member secured in the mouth thereof, in which the material of at least one component of the coupling is subjected to irradiation with high energy radiation whereby the material is caused to undergo cross-linking. As examples, the coupling may comprise a polyethylene or plasticised PVC socket the material of which is subjected to irradiation, and the sealing member may be moulded from a thermoplastic elastomer which is subjected to irradiation. (U.K.)

  8. The behaviour of flexible riser tensile armour in the region of an end fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Martindale, H. G. A.

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of axial and transverse slip in helically wound armour wires on flexible pipe under the influence of end restraint. Analysis of steel strip layers in order to find the effect of end restraint prompted the development of a new model to describe their behaviour. This avoids the shortfalls of adapting previous models designed either for similar but different structures or for application away from any end fitting restraint. Previous analytical solutions concerning flexible pipe t...

  9. Influence of gravity on flutter of cantilevered pipes conveying fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero, Javier; Perez-Saborid, Miguel

    2012-11-01

    We have considered the dynamics of the nonlinear interaction between a flexible pipe and the conveyed fluid in the presence of gravity. The stability of the system (fllutter and buckling) depends on parameters such as the dimensionless fluid flow rate, the gravity to bending stiffness ratio and the fluid to pipe mass ratio and it has been studied in detail both numerically and experimentally. It has also been found that the stabilizing or destabilizing effects of fluid flow depends crucially on the direction of gravity respect to the undeformed midline of the pipe. We have also computed the post-critical behavior of the system by solving the full nonlinear equations of the problem and analyzed the transfer of energy within the system in the nonlinear regime. We have formulated the problem in terms of the angles of the midline of the pipe instead of its transverse displacements, so that we can deal with large deflections without recurring to the quasi-linear approximations concerning the pipe curvature usually made in the literature. Supported by the Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deportes of Spain under grant DPI 2010-20450 C03-02.

  10. Pediatric elbow fractures: a new angle on an old topic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, Kathleen H.; Anton, Christopher G. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zingula, Shannon N. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Salisbury, Shelia R. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Tamai, Junichi [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Orthopedics, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The three most common elbow fractures classically reported in pediatric orthopedic literature are supracondylar (50-70%), lateral condylar (17-34%), and medial epicondylar fractures (10%), with fractures of the proximal radius (including but not limited to fractures of the radial neck) being relatively uncommon (5-10%). Our experience at a large children's hospital suggests a different distribution. Our goals were (1) to ascertain the frequency of different elbow fracture types in a large pediatric population, and (2) to determine which fracture types were occult on initial radiographs but detected on follow-up. Review of medical records identified 462 children, median age 6 years and interquartile range for age of 4-8 years (range 0.8-18 years), who were diagnosed with elbow fractures at our institution over a 10-month period. Initial and follow-up radiographs were reviewed in blinded fashion independently by two experienced pediatric musculoskeletal radiologists to identify fracture types on initial and follow-up radiographs. The most common fractures included supracondylar (n = 258, 56%), radial neck (n = 80, 17%), and lateral condylar (n = 69, 15%). Additional fractures were seen on follow-up exams in 32 children. Of these, 25 had a different fracture type than was identified on initial radiographs. The most common follow-up fractures were olecranon (n = 23, 72%), coronoid process (n = 4, 13%) and supracondylar (n = 3, 9%). Olecranon fractures were significantly more common on follow-up radiographs than they were on initial radiographs (n = 33, 7%; P <.0001). Twenty-six children had more than one fracture type on the initial radiograph. The most common fracture combinations were radial neck with olecranon (n = 9) and supracondylar with lateral condylar (n = 9). Supracondylar fractures are the most frequent elbow fracture seen initially, followed by radial neck, lateral condylar, and olecranon fractures in a distribution different from what has been

  11. Kinetic chain contributions to elbow function and dysfunction in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Kibler, W; Sciascia, Aaron

    2004-10-01

    The elbow functions in throwing and other athletic activities as a link in the kinetic chain of force development, regulation, and transfer. Efficient function, with maximal performance and minimal injury risk, requires optimum activation of all the link in the kinetic chain. Injury is often associated with alterations in force production or regulation capabilities in links that may be distant to the site of injury. Evaluation of injured athletes should include screening examinations for these areas, and treatment and conditioning should also include these areas.

  12. Hemophilic osteoarthropathy with special attention to the elbow joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erlemann, R.; Adolph, J.; Peters, P.E.; Pollmann, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemophilia is a rare disorder, whereas recurrent bleedings in the joint can result in osteoarthropathy. Radiological changes consist of osteoporosis, enlargement of the epiphyses, irregularity of the subchondral bone surface, narrowing of the joint space, cysts, erosions, joint incongruence and joint deformity. The earlier and the more frequently bleedings have occurred which have not been treated adequately, the more of the changes mentioned above are present. In children, osteoarthropathy of the elbow is present in only about 50% of cases, and in the remaining cases the degree is mostly minimal or moderate. Differential diagnosis consists of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis in children, and rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis in adults. (orig.) [de

  13. Design of a Soft Robotic Elbow Sleeve with Passive and Intent-Controlled Actuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tze Hui Koh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The provision of continuous passive, and intent-based assisted movements for neuromuscular training can be incorporated into a robotic elbow sleeve. The objective of this study is to propose the design and test the functionality of a soft robotic elbow sleeve in assisting flexion and extension of the elbow, both passively and using intent-based motion reinforcement. First, the elbow sleeve was developed, using elastomeric and fabric-based pneumatic actuators, which are soft and lightweight, in order to address issues of non-portability and poor alignment with joints that conventional robotic rehabilitation devices are faced with. Second, the control system was developed to allow for: (i continuous passive actuation, in which the actuators will be activated in cycles, alternating between flexion and extension; and (ii an intent-based actuation, in which user intent is detected by surface electromyography (sEMG sensors attached to the biceps and triceps, and passed through a logic sequence to allow for flexion or extension of the elbow. Using this setup, the elbow sleeve was tested on six healthy subjects to assess the functionality of the device, in terms of the range of motion afforded by the device while in the continuous passive actuation. The results showed that the elbow sleeve is capable of achieving approximately 50% of the full range of motion of the elbow joint among all subjects. Next, further experiments were conducted to test the efficacy of the intent-based actuation on these healthy subjects. The results showed that all subjects were capable of achieving electromyography (EMG control of the elbow sleeve. These preliminary results show that the elbow sleeve is capable of carrying out continuous passive and intent-based assisted movements. Further investigation of the clinical implementation of the elbow sleeve for the neuromuscular training of neurologically-impaired persons, such as stroke survivors, is needed.

  14. Large-bore pipe decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    The decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of 1200 buildings within the US Department of Energy-Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) Complex will require the disposition of miles of pipe. The disposition of large-bore pipe, in particular, presents difficulties in the area of decontamination and characterization. The pipe is potentially contaminated internally as well as externally. This situation requires a system capable of decontaminating and characterizing both the inside and outside of the pipe. Current decontamination and characterization systems are not designed for application to this geometry, making the direct disposal of piping systems necessary in many cases. The pipe often creates voids in the disposal cell, which requires the pipe to be cut in half or filled with a grout material. These methods are labor intensive and costly to perform on large volumes of pipe. Direct disposal does not take advantage of recycling, which could provide monetary dividends. To facilitate the decontamination and characterization of large-bore piping and thereby reduce the volume of piping required for disposal, a detailed analysis will be conducted to document the pipe remediation problem set; determine potential technologies to solve this remediation problem set; design and laboratory test potential decontamination and characterization technologies; fabricate a prototype system; provide a cost-benefit analysis of the proposed system; and transfer the technology to industry. This report summarizes the activities performed during fiscal year 1997 and describes the planned activities for fiscal year 1998. Accomplishments for FY97 include the development of the applicable and relevant and appropriate regulations, the screening of decontamination and characterization technologies, and the selection and initial design of the decontamination system

  15. Heat pipe and method of production of a heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The heat pipe consists of a copper pipe in which a capillary network or wick of heat-conducting material is arranged in direct contact with the pipe along its whole length. Furthermore, the interior space of the tube contains an evaporable liquid for pipe transfer. If water is used, the capillary network consists of, e.g., a phosphorus band network. To avoid contamination of the interior of the heat pipe during sealing, its ends are closed by mechanical deformation so that an arched or plane surface is obtained which is in direct contact with the network. After evacuation of the interior space, the remaining opening is closed with a tapered pin. The ratio wall thickness/tube diameter is between 0.01 and 0.6. (TK/AK) [de

  16. Pipe conveyors transport bulk material efficiently over long distances; Rohrgurtfoerderer transportieren Schuettgut effizient ueber lange Strecken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Will, Frank [BEUMER Maschinenfabrik GmbH und Co. KG, Beckum (Germany); Staribacher, Josef [KOCH Material Handling GmbH, Schwechat (Australia)

    2011-05-15

    The specific characteristics of a pipe conveyor, which are due to its operating principle, allow transportation solutions which are not possible with other conveyor systems; or if they are possible, then only with considerable restrictions or additional expenses. The enclosed design of the pipe conveyor protects the material from the environment and the environment from the conveyed material. The system, thus, makes a valuable contribution towards achieving environmental protection objectives and in meeting official regulations. The pipe conveyor handles both tight curve radiuses and steep inclines. This permits a very flexible route and also allows existing obstacles to be bypassed. Consequently, solutions can often be found which do not require any changes to be made to the existing terrain or plant structures. The investment costs of just the conveyor can sometimes be slightly higher for a pipe conveyor than for a conventional troughed belt conveyor. But if the pipe conveyor can take full advantage of its special features, then these additional costs become quite relative very quickly. And if, for example, transfer points, alterations of existing facilities, earthwork, or expensive dust and noise protection measures can be avoided due to the very flexible route layout of the pipe conveyor, then these savings on part of the customer are much higher than the additional costs for this perfect conveyor system. All told, it is possible to solve challenging conveying tasks with great efficiency while also saving resources when the pipe conveyor is used; thus, producing a sustained benefit to both the operator and the environment. (orig.)

  17. Flexible Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm Jacobsen, Peter; Pallesen, Trine

    This report presents the first findings from our qualitative study of consumer behaviour vis-à-vis flexible consumption. The main of objective of this report is to present our first round of data from Bornholm, and to assist the design of products/services designed in WP6. In the report, we adopt...... the perspective of the consumer: what does living in a demand response setup look like to participants – and what kinds of behaviour and interest motivate – and emerge from – their participation in EcoGrid 2.0....

  18. Flexible Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Approaching “work” as at heart a practice of exchange, this volume explores sociality in work environments marked by the kind of structural changes that have come to define contemporary “flexible” capitalism. It introduces anthropological exchange theory to a wider readership, and shows how...... the perspective offers new ways to enquire about the flexible capitalism’s social dimensions. The essays contribute to a trans-disciplinary scholarship on contemporary economic practice and change by documenting how, across diverse settings, “gift-like” socialities proliferate, and even sustain the intensified...

  19. Impact analyses after pipe rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses

  20. Mechanical Behaviour of Lined Pipe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilberink, A.

    2011-01-01

    Installing lined pipe by means of the reeling installation method seems to be an attractive combination, because it provides the opportunity of eliminating the demanding welds from the critical time offshore and instead preparing them onshore. However, reeling of lined pipe is not yet proven

  1. Pulsed TIG welding of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killing, U.

    1989-01-01

    The present study investigates into the effects of impulse welding parameters on weld geometry in the joint welding of thin-walled sheets and pipes (d=2.5 mm), and it uses random samples of thick-walled sheets and pipes (d=10 mm), in fixed positions. (orig./MM) [de

  2. Heterotopic ossification of the elbow after closed reduction and retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture treated by anconeus interposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenivas, T; Menon, Jagdish; Nataraj, A R

    2013-12-01

    Heterotopic ossification around the elbow can lead to considerable functional disability. We describe a case of a 42-year-old man who developed heterotopic ossification of his elbow after closed reduction of the elbow dislocation and radial neck fracture and retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture. During the follow-up after initial surgery, movements of the elbow were gradually deteriorated and diagnosed as heterotopic ossification of the elbow. Implant removal, radial head excision along with heterotopic mass, and also interposition of the anconeus muscle resulted in improvement of his elbow mobility. At 18 months of follow-up, patient had elbow flexion arc of 15°-110°, 70° of supination, and 50° of pronation without recurrence of heterotopic ossification. The uniqueness of this case lies in the treatment of heterotopic ossification of the elbow to prevent its recurrence, which was developed after retrograde intramedullary nailing for radial neck fracture following closed reduction.

  3. Biomechanics of the elbow joint in tennis players and relation to pathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eygendaal, Denise; Rahussen, F. T. G.; Diercks, R. L.

    Elbow injuries constitute a sizeable percentage of tennis injuries. A basic understanding of biomechanics of tennis and analysis of the forces, loads and motions of the elbow during tennis will improve the understanding of the pathophysiology of these injuries. All different strokes in tennis have a

  4. Functional Results in Arthroscopic Treatment in Patients with Chronic Lateral Elbow Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phorkhar, Termphong; Chanlalit, Cholawish

    2015-11-01

    Modern surgery as elbow arthroscopic surgery is an accepted operation due to benefit in precise intra-articular lesion detection and minimally invasive surgery. To report the functional results when using arthroscopic surgery to treat chronic lateral elbow pain. The data was collected from 25 patients with chronic lateral elbow pain that failed in non-operative treatment and treated with elbow arthroscopic surgery. Five patients were excluded from this study due to diagnosed as instability that needed the ligament reconstruction. The etiology of pain were grouped in to tennis elbow (4 pts), plica (9 pts), tennis elbow combined with plica (4 pts) and cartilage lesion (3 pts). Thai quick DASH questionnaire was used to evaluate the functional results by comparing pre and post operation score and calculated statistic results with paired t-test by level of significance p tennis elbow mean score was 74 and 33, in plica lesion mean score was 65 and 11, combined lesions mean score was 60 and 18 and cartilage lesion mean score was 60 and 20. Approaching chronic lateral elbow pain with arthroscopy can maintain the signficant improvement of functional result in midterm follow-up.

  5. Surgical Procedures of the Elbow: A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Observational Study in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kinaci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Elbow surgery is shared by several subspecialties. We were curious about the most common elbow surgeries and their corresponding diagnoses in the United States.   Methods:  We used the National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS and the National Survey of Ambulatory Surgery (NSAS data gathered in 2006-databases that together provide an estimate of all inpatient and ambulatory surgical care in the US.  Results:  An estimated 150,000 elbow surgeries were performed in the US in 2006, 75% in an outpatient setting. The most frequent diagnosis treated operative was enthesopathy (e.g. lateral epicondylitis and it was treated with several different procedures. More than three quarters of all elbow surgeries treated enthesopathy, cubital tunnel syndrome, or fracture (radial head in particular. Arthroscopy and arthroplasty accounted for less than 10% of all elbow surgeries.  Conclusions:  Elbow surgery in the United States primarily addresses enthesopathies such as tennis elbow, cubital tunnel syndrome, and trauma. It is notable that some of the most common elbow surgeries (those that address enthesopathy and radial head fracture are some of the most variably utilized and debated.

  6. Cost effectiveness of brace, physiotherapy, or both for treatment of tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, P. A. A.; Korthals-de Bos, I. B. C.; van Tulder, M. W.; van Dijk, C. N.; Bouter, L. M.; Assendelft, W. J. J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The annual incidence of tennis elbow in the general population is high (1-3%). Tennis elbow often leads to limitation of activities of daily living and work absenteeism. Physiotherapy and braces are the most common treatments. OBJECTIVES: The hypothesis of the trial was that no

  7. The predictive value of the extensor grip test for the effectiveness of bracing for tennis elbow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Struijs, Peter A. A.; Assendelft, Willem J. J.; Kerkhoffs, Gino M. M. J.; Souer, Sebastiaan; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2005-01-01

    Background: Tennis elbow is a common complaint. Several treatment strategies, such as corticosteroid injections and physical therapy and braces, have been described. Hypothesis: The extensor grip test has predictive value in assessing the effectiveness of bracing in tennis elbow. Study Design:

  8. Genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäki, K.; Groen, A.F.; Liinamo, A.E.; Ojala, M.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess genetic variances, trends and mode of inheritance for hip and elbow dysplasia in Finnish dog populations. The influence of time-dependent fixed effects in the model when estimating the genetic trends was also studied. Official hip and elbow dysplasia screening

  9. Complex and unstable simple elbow dislocations: a review and quantitative analysis of individual patient data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Jeroen; Schep, Niels; Tuinebreijer, Wim; den Hartog, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The primary objective of this review of the literature with quantitative analysis of individual patient data was to identify the results of available treatments for complex elbow dislocations and unstable simple elbow dislocations. The secondary objective was to compare the results of patients with

  10. Stability of the elbow joint: relevant anatomy and clinical implications of in vitro biomechanical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, J.; Schep, N. W. L.; Eygendaal, D.; Kleinrensink, G.-J.; Tuinebreijer, W. E.; den Hartog, D.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this literature review is to describe the clinical anatomy of the elbow joint based on information from in vitro biomechanical studies. The clinical consequences of this literature review are described and recommendations are given for the treatment of elbow joint dislocation.The PubMed

  11. Stability of the Elbow Joint: Relevant Anatomy and Clinical Implications of In Vitro Biomechanical Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. de Haan (Jeroen); D. Eygendaal (Denise); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); G.J. Kleinrensink (Gert Jan); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); D. den Hartog (Dennis)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: The aim of this literature review is to describe the clinical anatomy of the elbow joint based on information from in vitro biomechanical studies. The clinical consequences of this literature review are described and recommendations are given for the treatment of elbow joint

  12. Muscle changes in brachial plexus birth injury with elbow flexion contracture: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H; Koivikko, Mika P; Lamminen, Antti E [University of Helsinki, Helsinki Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki (Finland); Peltonen, Jari I; Nietosvaara, A Y [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Hospital for Children and Adolescents, Helsinki (Finland); Kirjavainen, Mikko O [Helsinki University Central Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Helsinki (Finland)

    2007-02-15

    Muscle pathology of the arm and forearm in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) with elbow flexion contracture has not been evaluated with MRI. To determine whether limited range of motion of the elbow in BPBI is correlated with specific patterns of muscular pathology. For 15 BPBI patients, total active motion (TAM) of the elbow (extension-flexion) and the forearm (pronation-supination) were measured. MRI of the elbow joints and musculature allowed assessment of elbow congruency. Fatty infiltration and size reduction of the muscles were graded semiquantitatively. Mean TAM of the elbow was 113 (50 -140 ) and that of the forearm 91 (10 -165 ). The greater the size reduction of the brachioradialis muscle, the more diminished was elbow TAM. The more extensive the BPBI and muscle pathology of the pronator teres muscle, the more limited was the TAM of the forearm. Pathology of the supinator and brachialis muscles was evident in every patient. Extensive BPBI may result in marked limitation of TAM. Elbow flexion contracture seems to be caused mainly by brachialis muscle pathology. Prosupination of the forearm is better preserved when the pronator teres is not severely affected. MRI can reliably show the extent of muscle pathology in BPBI. (orig.)

  13. An evaluation of the carrying angle of the elbow joint in adolescents

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    Department of Anatomy and Orthopedics, Sri Lakshmi Narayana Institute of Medical Sciences,. Pondicherry - 605 502 ... forearm deviates laterally from the long axis of the humerus, with the arm extended and the palm ... for elbow reconstruction. Key words: Carrying angle, elbow joint, adolescent, forearm, humerus, ulna ...

  14. Corticosteroid injection for tennis elbow or lateral epicondylitis: a review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Saccomanni, Bernardino

    2010-01-01

    Lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow is a painful and functionally limiting entity affecting the upperextremity and is frequently treated by hand surgeons. Corticosteroid injection is one of the most common interventions for lateral epicondylitis or tennis elbow. Here, a review of the medical literature on this treatment is presented.

  15. Isometric elbow extensors strength in supine- and prone-lying positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelzaher, Ibrahim E; Ababneh, Anas F; Alzyoud, Jehad M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare isometric strength of elbow extensors measured in supine- and prone-lying positions at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees. Twenty-two male subjects under single-blind procedures participated in the study. Each subject participated in both supine-lying and prone-lying measuring protocols. Calibrated cable tensiometer was used to measure isometric strength of the right elbow extensors and a biofeedback electromyography was used to assure no substitution movements from shoulder girdle muscles. The mean values of isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees were 11.1  ±  4.2 kg and 13.1  ±  4.6 kg, while those measured from prone-lying position were 9.9  ±  3.6 kg and 12  ±  4.2 kg, respectively. There is statistical significant difference between the isometric strength of elbow extensors measured from supine-lying position at elbow flexion angles of 45 and 90 degrees compared to that measured from prone-lying position (p  isometric strength of elbow extensors since supine-lying starting position is better than prone-lying starting position.

  16. Angioleiomyoma: A Rare Cause of Fixed Flexion Contracture of the Elbow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asterios Dramis

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an unusual case of a patient presented with a painless fixed flexion contracture of the elbow due to an angioleiomyoma. This benign smooth muscle tumour should be considered in the differential diagnosis of flexion contractures of the elbow.

  17. ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF THE LATERAL ELBOW PAIN –OUR EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oskar Zupanc

    2008-01-01

    Arthroscopic treatment of the lateral elbow pain has been proved to be very effectiveespecially in younger population and in patients with early elbow osteoarthritis. The lengthof hospital stay is reduced. However, the length of rehabilitation depends on the stage ofelbow osteoarthritis and extensiveness of the arthroscopic intervention

  18. Muscle changes in brachial plexus birth injury with elbow flexion contracture: an MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poeyhiae, Tiina H.; Koivikko, Mika P.; Lamminen, Antti E.; Peltonen, Jari I.; Nietosvaara, A.Y.; Kirjavainen, Mikko O.

    2007-01-01

    Muscle pathology of the arm and forearm in brachial plexus birth injury (BPBI) with elbow flexion contracture has not been evaluated with MRI. To determine whether limited range of motion of the elbow in BPBI is correlated with specific patterns of muscular pathology. For 15 BPBI patients, total active motion (TAM) of the elbow (extension-flexion) and the forearm (pronation-supination) were measured. MRI of the elbow joints and musculature allowed assessment of elbow congruency. Fatty infiltration and size reduction of the muscles were graded semiquantitatively. Mean TAM of the elbow was 113 (50 -140 ) and that of the forearm 91 (10 -165 ). The greater the size reduction of the brachioradialis muscle, the more diminished was elbow TAM. The more extensive the BPBI and muscle pathology of the pronator teres muscle, the more limited was the TAM of the forearm. Pathology of the supinator and brachialis muscles was evident in every patient. Extensive BPBI may result in marked limitation of TAM. Elbow flexion contracture seems to be caused mainly by brachialis muscle pathology. Prosupination of the forearm is better preserved when the pronator teres is not severely affected. MRI can reliably show the extent of muscle pathology in BPBI. (orig.)

  19. Development of an advanced PFM code for the integrity evaluation of nuclear piping system under combined aging mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Debashis

    2010-02-01

    A nuclear piping system is composed of several straight pipes and elbows joined by welding. These weld sections are usually the most susceptible failure parts susceptible to various degradation mechanisms. Whereas a specific location of a reactor piping system might fail by a combination of different aging mechanisms, e.g. fatigue and/or stress corrosion cracking, the majority of the piping probabilistic fracture mechanics (PFM) codes can only consider a single aging mechanism at a time. So, a probabilistic fracture mechanics computer code capable of considering multiple aging mechanisms was developed for an accurate failure analysis of each specific component of a nuclear piping section. The newly proposed crack morphology based probabilistic leak flow rate module is introduced in this code to separately treat fatigue and SCC type cracks. Improved models e.g. stressors models, elbow failure model, SIFs model, local seismic occurrence probability model, performance based crack detection models, etc., are also included in this code. Recent probabilistic fatigue (S-N) and SCC crack initiation (S-T) and subsequent crack growth rate models are coded. An integrated probabilistic risk assessment and probabilistic fracture mechanics methodology is proposed. A complete flow chart regarding the combined aging mechanism model is presented. The combined aging mechanism based module can significantly reduce simulation efforts and time. Two NUREG benchmark problems, e.g. reactor pressure vessel outlet nozzle section and a surge line elbow located just below the pressurizer are reinvestigated by this code. The results showed that, contribution of pre-existing cracks in addition to initiating cracks, can significantly increase the overall failure probability. Inconel weld location of reactor pressure vessel outlet nozzle section showed the weakest point in terms of relative through-wall leak failure probability in the order of about 10 -2 at the 40-year plant life. Considering

  20. Functional capability of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terao, D.; Rodabaugh, E.C.

    1992-11-01

    General Design Criterion I of Appendix A to Part 50 of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations requires, in part, that structures, systems, and components important to safety be designed to withstand the effects of earthquakes without a loss of capability to perform their safety function. ne function of a piping system is to convey fluids from one location to another. The functional capability of a piping system might be lost if, for example, the cross-sectional flow area of the pipe were deformed to such an extent that the required flow through the pipe would be restricted. The objective of this report is to examine the present rules in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III, and potential changes to these rules, to determine if they are adequate for ensuring the functional capability of safety-related piping systems in nuclear power plants

  1. Promethus Hot Leg Piping Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AM Girbik; PA Dilorenzo

    2006-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Prime Contractor Team (NRPCT) recommended the development of a gas cooled reactor directly coupled to a Brayton energy conversion system as the Space Nuclear Power Plant (SNPP) for NASA's Project Prometheus. The section of piping between the reactor outlet and turbine inlet, designated as the hot leg piping, required unique design features to allow the use of a nickel superalloy rather than a refractory metal as the pressure boundary. The NRPCT evaluated a variety of hot leg piping concepts for performance relative to SNPP system parameters, manufacturability, material considerations, and comparison to past high temperature gas reactor (HTGR) practice. Manufacturability challenges and the impact of pressure drop and turbine entrance temperature reduction on cycle efficiency were discriminators between the piping concepts. This paper summarizes the NRPCT hot leg piping evaluation, presents the concept recommended, and summarizes developmental issues for the recommended concept

  2. Long term results in refractory tennis elbow using autologous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Naseem Ul; Khan, Hayat Ahmad; Kamal, Younis; Farooq, Munir; Jeelani, Hina; Shah, Adil Bashir

    2014-10-27

    Tennis elbow (TE) is one of the commonest myotendinosis. Different treatment options are available and autologous blood injection has emerged as the one of the acceptable modalities of treatment. Long term studies over a larger group of patients are however lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these patients on longer durations. One-hundred and twenty patients of TE, who failed to respond to conventional treatment including local steroid injections were taken up for this prospective study over the period from year 2005 to 2011 and were followed up for the minimum of 3 years (range 3-9 years). Two mL of autologous blood was taken from the ipsilateral limb and injected into the lateral epicondyle. The effectiveness of the procedure was assessed by Pain Rating Sscale and Nirschl Staging, which was monitored before the procedure, at first week, monthly for first three months, at 6 months and then 3 monthly for first year, six monthly for next 2 years and then yearly. Statistical analysis was done and a P value of tennis elbow should be made as there is lot of controversy regarding the treatment.

  3. Acute effects of maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cauê V La Scala Teixeira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim the aim was to investigate the influence of a maximal isometric muscle action of the elbow extensors on the contralateral dynamic task of the elbow flexors. Methods Seventeen recreationally trained men (23.3 ± 4.9 yrs, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2 Kg/m² underwent two randomized different testing sessions separated by one week. In the control session (CON all subjects performed a maximum number of repetitions test (RMs at 75%1RM using the right elbow flexors. The experimental session (EXP was similar to the CON; however, all subjects were instructed to perform RMs at 75%1RM by using the right elbow flexors and maintaining the maximal voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors during the test. RMs, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and training volume (TV were measured and compared between sessions. Results The EXP showed a significant 10.4% increase on the RMs (13.8 vs. 12.5, p < 0.001, d = 0.44 and 12.1% increase in TV (238.0 vs. 212.4 kg, p < 0.001, d = 0.43 than CON. No differences were observed for RPE between sessions. Conclusion The maximum voluntary contraction of the left elbow extensors increased the RMs of the contralateral elbow flexors, reflecting a higher TV, and no differences in the RPE. Our results suggest that the investigated method may be a viable and practical alternative to increase the acute strength performance of elbow flexors when using submaximal loads.

  4. Flexible nanovectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugno, Nicola M

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  5. Flexible nanovectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugno, Nicola M.

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we show that the control of adhesion in highly flexible (a property that could be crucial for smart drug delivery but which is still ignored in the literature) nanovectors can help in smartly targeting and delivering the drug. The existence of and the conditions for activating and controlling a super-adhesive state are addressed. Even if such a state has never been observed in nanovectors, our calculations, as well as observations in spiders and geckos, suggest its existence and feasible control. Control of the competition between the drag and the adhesive force is exploited to improve the targeting ability and a hierarchical model is applied to describe a real vasculature. The high flexibility of the nanovector is used to smartly deliver the drug only during adhesion by nanopumping or, as a limiting case, by the new concept of 'adhesion induced nanovector implosion'; a liquid drop analogy is utilized for the calculations. Fast (pumping) and slow (diffusion) drug deliveries can thus be separately controlled by controlling the size and shape of the nanovector. Multiple stage nanovectors are also briefly discussed, mimicking aerospace vector strategies.

  6. Results of Posterior Dislocation of Elbow Associated with Bony and Soft Tissue Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neel M Bhavsar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Elbow trauma is challenging to manage by virtue of its complex articular structure and capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous arrangements. We included 17 patients with elbow dislocation and associated injuries in this study. The study protocol included early elbow reduction and planned fixation of the medial or lateral condyle, coronoid and radial head. The sample was 73% male and 27% female with mean duration follow-up of 8 months, and mean age of 37 years. The mean Mayo Elbow Performance Score was 96 points at conclusion of follow-up, indicating an excellent result in 14 patients. Whenever the radial head was excised, we performed a strong transosseous ligamentous repair of the medial and lateral collateral ligaments. Fixation of the coronoid is essential for elbow stability. A small avulsed fragment can be fixed using an ACL jig. We found this technique very useful. Early planned intervention, stable fixation, and repair provide sufficient stability and enhance functional outcomes.

  7. Effect of strength training on regional hypertrophy of the elbow flexor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Marcos D M; Szmuchrowski, Leszek A; Goulart, Karine N O; Couto, Bruno P

    2016-10-01

    Muscle hypertrophy is the main structural adaptation to strength training. We investigated the chronic effects of strength training on muscle hypertrophy in different regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Eleven untrained men (21.8 ± 1.62 years) underwent magnetic resonance imaging to determine the proximal, medial, distal, and mean cross-sectional areas (CSA) of the elbow flexors. The volunteers completed 12 weeks of strength training. The training protocol consisted of 4 sets of 8-10 maximum repetitions of unilateral elbow flexion. The interval between sets was 120 s. The training frequency was 3 sessions per week. The magnetic resonance images verified the presence of significant and similar hypertrophy in the distal, medial, and proximal portions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle hypertrophy may be assessed using only the medial CSA. We should not expect different degrees of hypertrophy among the regions of the elbow flexor muscles. Muscle Nerve 54: 750-755, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Finite Element Analysis and Experimental Study on Elbow Vibration Transmission Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing-shan, Dai; Zhen-hai, Zhang; Shi-jian, Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Pipeline system vibration is one of the significant factors leading to the vibration and noise of vessel. Elbow is widely used in the pipeline system. However, the researches about vibration of elbow are little, and there is no systematic study. In this research, we firstly analysed the relationship between elbow vibration transmission characteristics and bending radius by ABAQUS finite element simulation. Then, we conducted the further vibration test to observe the vibration transmission characteristics of different elbows which have the same diameter and different bending radius under different flow velocity. The results of simulation calculation and experiment both showed that the vibration acceleration levels of the pipeline system decreased with the increase of bending radius of the elbow, which was beneficial to reduce the transmission of vibration in the pipeline system. The results could be used as reference for further studies and designs for the low noise installation of pipeline system.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  10. Multiple nucleophilic elbows leading to multiple active sites in a single module esterase from Sorangium cellulosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Udatha, D.B.R.K. Gupta; Madsen, Karina Marie; Panagiotou, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    The catalytic residues in carbohydrate esterase enzyme families constitute a highly conserved triad: serine, histidine and aspartic acid. This catalytic triad is generally located in a very sharp turn of the protein backbone structure, called the nucleophilic elbow and identified by the consensus...... sequence GXSXG. An esterase from Sorangium cellulosum Soce56 that contains five nucleophilic elbows was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the function of each nucleophilic elbowed site was characterized. In order to elucidate the function of each nucleophilic elbow, site directed mutagenesis....... To our knowledge, this is the first report presenting the role of multiple nucleophilic elbows in the catalytic promiscuity of an esterase. Further structural analysis at protein unit level indicates the new evolutionary trajectories in emerging promiscuous esterases....

  11. A meniscus causing painful snapping of the elbow joint: MR imaging with arthroscopic and histologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Guo-Shu; Chen, Cheng-Yu [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Chian-Her [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan); Lee, Herng-Sheng [National Defense Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-12-01

    Snapping of the elbow joint can cause pain. We report a case of painful snapping elbow produced by an interposed meniscus in the radiohumeral joint in a 20-year-old man. The MR arthrogram demonstrated a meniscus-like tissue interposed between the radial head and humeral capitellum. The MR-arthrographic findings were well correlated with surgical findings. The location and appearance of the meniscus-like tissue was similar to that of meniscus in the knee joint. Histologic findings of the excised meniscus-like tissue showed a typical presentation of fibrocartilage. A meniscus may exist in the elbow joint and can be a rare cause of painful snapping elbow. MR arthrography is helpful for identifying the snapping tissue in the elbow joint. (orig.)

  12. The effect of repetitive baseball pitching on medial elbow joint space gapping associated with 2 elbow valgus stressors in high school baseball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Hiroshi; Akasaka, Kiyokazu; Otsudo, Takahiro; Hall, Toby; Amemiya, Katsuya; Mori, Yoshihisa

    2018-04-01

    To prevent elbow injury in baseball players, various methods have been used to measure medial elbow joint stability with valgus stress. However, no studies have investigated higher levels of elbow valgus stress. This study investigated medial elbow joint space gapping measured ultrasonically resulting from a 30 N valgus stress vs. gravitational valgus stress after a repetitive throwing task. The study included 25 high school baseball players. Each subject pitched 100 times. The ulnohumeral joint space was measured ultrasonographically, before pitching and after each successive block of 20 pitches, with gravity stress or 30 N valgus stress. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance and Pearson correlation coefficient analysis were used. The 30 N valgus stress produced significantly greater ulnohumeral joint space gapping than gravity stress before pitching and at each successive 20-pitch block (P space gapping increased significantly from baseline after 60 pitches (P space gapping (r = 0.727-0.859, P space gapping before pitching; however, 30 N valgus stress appears to induce greater mechanical stress, which may be preferable when assessing joint instability but also has the potential to be more aggressive. The present results may indicate that constraining factors to medial elbow joint valgus stress matched typical viscoelastic properties of cyclic creep. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Development of a piping thickness monitoring system using equipotential switching direct current potential drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyung Ha, Ryu; Na Young, Lee; Il Soon, Hwang

    2007-01-01

    As nuclear power plants age, low alloy steel piping undergoes wall thickness reduction due to Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC). Persisting pipe rupture accidents prompted thinned pipe management programs. As a consequence extensive inspection activities are made based on the Ultrasonic Technique (UT). As the inspection points increase, time is needed to cover required inspection areas. In this paper, we present the Wide Range Monitoring (WiRM) concept with Equipotential Switching Direct Current Potential Drop (ES-DCPD) method by which FAC-active areas can be screened for detailed UT inspections. To apply ES-DCPD, we developed an electric resistance network model and electric field model based on Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to verify its feasibility. Experimentally we measured DCPD of the pipe elbow and confirmed the validity using UT inspections. For a more realistic validation test, we designed a high temperature flow test loop with environmental parameters turned for FAC simulation in the laboratory. Using electrochemical monitoring of water chemistry and local flow velocity prediction by computational fluid dynamic model, FAC rate is estimated. Based on the FAC prediction model and the simulation loop test, we plan to demonstrate the applicability of ES-DCPD in the PWR secondary environment. (authors)

  14. Investigation on method of elasto-plastic analysis for piping system (benchmark analysis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabaya, Takuro; Kojima, Nobuyuki; Arai, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides method of an elasto-plastic analysis for practical seismic design of nuclear piping system. JSME started up the task to establish method of an elasto-plastic analysis for nuclear piping system. The benchmark analyses have been performed in the task to investigate on method of an elasto-plastic analysis. And our company has participated in the benchmark analyses. As a result, we have settled on the method which simulates the result of piping exciting test accurately. Therefore the recommended method of an elasto-plastic analysis is shown as follows; 1) An elasto-plastic analysis is composed of dynamic analysis of piping system modeled by using beam elements and static analysis of deformed elbow modeled by using shell elements. 2) Bi-linear is applied as an elasto-plastic property. Yield point is standardized yield point multiplied by 1.2 times, and second gradient is 1/100 young's modulus. Kinematic hardening is used as a hardening rule. 3) The fatigue life is evaluated on strain ranges obtained by elasto-plastic analysis, by using the rain flow method and the fatigue curve of previous studies. (author)

  15. Intrinsic constraint of unlinked total elbow replacements--the ulnotrochlear joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamineni, S; O'Driscoll, S W; Urban, M; Garg, A; Berglund, L J; Morrey, B F; An, K N

    2005-09-01

    Many unlinked total elbow replacement designs with radically differing articular geometries exist, suggesting that there is no consensus regarding an optimal design. A feature inherent to the articular design is the intrinsic constraint afforded to the joint by the implant. Our aim was to compare the intrinsic constraints of unlinked implants with that of the normal ulnotrochlear joint. We tested twelve cadaveric ulnotrochlear joints with a custom-made multiple-axis materials testing machine. With compressive loads ranging from 10 to 100 N, the joints were moved in either valgus or varus directions at 90 degrees of flexion. The ulnotrochlear components from a single example of five medium-sized unlinked elbow replacements (Ewald, Kudo, Pritchard ERS, Sorbie-Questor, and Souter-Strathclyde) were also tested. The recorded measurements included the torques and forces, angular displacement, and axial displacement of the humerus relative to the ulna. In general, the peak torque and the constraint ratio significantly increased with increasing compressive load for the implants as well as for the normal elbow. In valgus displacement, the Souter-Strathclyde implant had the highest and the Sorbie-Questor had the smallest peak torque and the Souter-Strathclyde had the highest and the Ewald had the smallest constraint ratio. In varus displacement, the Kudo had the highest and the Ewald had the smallest peak torque and constraint ratio. The constraint ratio is a characteristic that is useful for describing elbow joint behavior and for comparing the behavior of implants with that of the human elbow. Of the unlinked implants tested, the Souter-Strathclyde and Kudo prostheses most closely approximated the behavior of the human elbow joint. Implants that resemble the human elbow in appearance do not replicate normal behavior consistently, whereas other implants that do not resemble the human elbow closely do not deviate markedly from human behavior. Thus, much basic information

  16. Can We Achieve Intuitive Prosthetic Elbow Control Based on Healthy Upper Limb Motor Strategies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manelle Merad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most transhumeral amputees report that their prosthetic device lacks functionality, citing the control strategy as a major limitation. Indeed, they are required to control several degrees of freedom with muscle groups primarily used for elbow actuation. As a result, most of them choose to have a one-degree-of-freedom myoelectric hand for grasping objects, a myoelectric wrist for pronation/supination, and a body-powered elbow. Unlike healthy upper limb movements, the prosthetic elbow joint angle, adjusted prior to the motion, is not involved in the overall upper limb movements, causing the rest of the body to compensate for the lack of mobility of the prosthesis. A promising solution to improve upper limb prosthesis control exploits the residual limb mobility: like in healthy movements, shoulder and prosthetic elbow motions are coupled using inter-joint coordination models. The present study aims to test this approach. A transhumeral amputated individual used a prosthesis with a residual limb motion-driven elbow to point at targets. The prosthetic elbow motion was derived from IMU-based shoulder measurements and a generic model of inter-joint coordinations built from healthy individuals data. For comparison, the participant also performed the task while the prosthetic elbow was implemented with his own myoelectric control strategy. The results show that although the transhumeral amputated participant achieved the pointing task with a better precision when the elbow was myoelectrically-controlled, he had to develop large compensatory trunk movements. Automatic elbow control reduced trunk displacements, and enabled a more natural body behavior with synchronous shoulder and elbow motions. However, due to socket impairments, the residual limb amplitudes were not as large as those of healthy shoulder movements. Therefore, this work also investigates if a control strategy whereby prosthetic joints are automatized according to healthy individuals

  17. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. Objectives To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Materials and Methods Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Results Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). Conclusions The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one). PMID:28180116

  18. A Newly Designed Tennis Elbow Orthosis With a Traditional Tennis Elbow Strap in Patients With Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saremi, Hossein; Chamani, Vahid; Vahab-Kashani, Reza

    2016-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis is a common cause of pain and upper limb dysfunction. The use of counterforce straps for treatment of lateral epicondylitis is widespread. This kind of orthosis can be modified to have a greater effect on relieving pain by reducing tension on the origin of the extensor pronator muscles. To determine the immediate effects of a newly designed orthosis on pain and grip strength in patients with lateral epicondylitis. Twelve participants (six men and six women) were recruited (mean age = 41 ± 6.7 years) and evaluated for pain and grip strength in three sessions. A 48-hour break was taken between each session. The first session was without any orthosis, the second session was with the new modified tennis elbow orthosis, and the third session was with a conventional tennis elbow strap. Both counterforce straps were effective. However, significantly more improvement was observed in pain and grip strength after using the newly modified orthosis (P < 0.05). The newly designed strap reduces pain more effectively and improves grip strength by causing greater localized pressure on two regions with different force applications (two component vectors versus one).

  19. Waste pipe calculus extensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    The waste pipe calculus provides a rapid method, using Laplace transforms, to calculate the transport of a pollutant such as nuclear waste, by a network of one-dimensional flow paths. The present note extends previous work as follows: (1) It provides an alternate approximation to the time-domain function (inverse Laplace transform) for the resulting transport. This algebraic approximation may be viewed as a simpler and more approximate model of the transport process. (2) It identifies two scalar quantities which may be used as summary consequence measures of the waste transport (or inversely, waste retention) system, and provides algebraic expressions for them. (3) It includes the effects of radioactive decay on the scalar quantity results, and further provides simplifying approximations for the cases of medium and long half-lives. This algebraic method can be used for quick approximate analyses of expected results, uncertainty and sensitivity, in evaluating selection and design choices for nuclear waste disposal systems

  20. Solar chemical heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, M.; Levitan, R.; Rosin, H.; Rubin, R.

    1991-08-01

    The performance of a solar chemical heat pipe was studied using CO 2 reforming of methane as a vehicle for storage and transport of solar energy. The endothermic reforming reaction was carried out in an Inconel reactor, packed with a Rh catalyst. The reactor was suspended in an insulated box receiver which was placed in the focal plane of the Schaeffer Solar Furnace of the Weizman Institute of Science. The exothermic methanation reaction was run in a 6-stage adiabatic reactor filled with the same Rh catalyst. Conversions of over 80% were achieved for both reactions. In the closed loop mode the products from the reformer and from the metanator were compressed into separate storage tanks. The two reactions were run either separately or 'on-line'. The complete process was repeated for over 60 cycles. The overall performance of the closed loop was quite satisfactory and scale-up work is in progress in the Solar Tower. (authors). 35 refs., 2 figs