WorldWideScience

Sample records for elastomeric pdms networks

  1. Influence of Bulk PDMS Network Properties on Water Wettability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Matthew; Walker, Edwin; Klein, Zoe; Efimenko, Kirill; Genzer, Jan

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most common elastomers, with applications ranging from sealants and marine antifouling coatings to absorbents for water treatment. Fundamental understanding of how liquids spread on the surface of and absorb into PDMS networks is of critical importance for the design and use of another application - medical devices. We have systematically studied the effects of polymer molecular weight, loading of tetra-functional crosslinker, and end-group chemical functionality on the mechanical and surface properties of end-linked PDMS networks. Wettability was investigated through the sessile drop technique, wherein a DI water droplet was placed on the bulk network surface and droplet volume, shape, surface area, and contact angle were monitored as a function of time. Various silicone substrates ranging from incredibly soft and flexible materials (E' 50 kPa) to highly rigid networks (E' 5 MPa) were tested. The dynamic behavior of the droplet on the surfaces demonstrated equilibration times between the droplet and surface on the order of 5 minutes. Similar trends were observed for the commercial PDMS material, Sylgard-184. Our results have provided new evidence for the strong influence that substrate modulus and molecular network structure have on the wettability of PDMS elastomers. These findings will aid in the design and implementation of efficient, accurate, and safe PDMS-based medical devices and microfluidic materials that involve aqueous media.

  2. Visualisation and characterisation of heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Fleury, Clemence

    2014-01-01

    The existence of short-chain domains in heterogeneous bimodal PDMS networks has been confirmed visually, for the first time, through confocal fluorescence microscopy. The networks were prepared using a controlled reaction scheme where short PDMS chains were reacted below the gelation point...... bimodal networks with short-chain domains within a long-chain network. The average sizes of the short-chain domains were found to vary from 2.1 to 5.7 mm depending on the short-chain content. The visualised network structure could be correlated thereafter to the elastic properties, which were determined...... by rheology. All heterogeneous bimodal networks displayed significantly lower moduli than mono-modal PDMS elastomers prepared from the long polymer chains. Low-loss moduli as well as low-sol fractions indicate that low-elastic moduli can be obtained without compromising the network's structure...

  3. Improving dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG block copolymer into PDMS network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    introduces different properties in terms of contact angles, dielectric permittivity and rheological behaviour. All morphologies of PDMS-PEG block copolymer in this study exhibit high storage permittivity; at the same time the loss permittivity is even higher which implies that the synthesized PDMS-PEG block...

  4. Improving dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG block copolymer into PDMS network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based elastomers are well-known to actuate with large strain mainly due to their low modulus and their non-conducting nature. On the other hand, polyethyleneglycols(PEG) are not stretchable but they have high permittivity and are conductive. Combination of the two...... polymers as a block copolymer depicts a possibility for substantial improvement of properties such as high permittivity and non-conductivity – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesize PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer assembling into different morphologies1 such as lamellar,cylinder, gyroid...... and spheres based on variation of volume fractions of PDMS and PEG. The synthesisis amended from Klasner et al.2 and Jukarainen et al.3 Variation in the ratio between the two constituents introduces distinctive properties in terms of dielectric permittivity and rheological behaviour. PDMS-PEG multiblock...

  5. Tribological properties and morphology of bimodal elastomeric nitrile butadiene rubber networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yin; Wang, Jiaxu; Li, Kang; Ding, Xingwu

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Bimodal elastomeric NBR as a new material was developed. • The structure of bimodal elastomeric NBR networks was determined. • The relationship between structure and mechanical properties was investigated. • The tribological properties and mechanisms of bimodal NBR were analyzed. • The benefits of bimodal NBR in the field of tribology were discussed. - Abstract: Bimodal nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) was examined in this study. The molecular structure was determined by dynamic mechanical analysis and transmission electron microscopy. The relationship between the structure and the mechanical properties related to elastomeric tribological properties was investigated. The properties and the mechanisms of friction and wear of bimodal elastomeric NBR networks were also analyzed. The lubricating characteristics of bimodal NBR networks were revealed based on the mechanisms of friction and wear. Results show that bimodal NBR networks are similar to bimodal polydimethylsiloxane networks. The form and density of the network structure can be controlled from elastomeric networks to thermosetting resin networks. The mechanical properties of bimodal NBR networks, such as elasticity, elongation at break, fatigue characteristic, tensile strength, elastic modulus, and thermal stability can be precisely controlled following the variation in network structure. The friction, wear, and lubrication of bimodal NBR networks can be clearly described according to the principles of tribology. Common elastomers cannot simultaneously reduce friction and wear because of the different mechanisms of friction and wear; however, bimodal elastomer networks can efficiently address this problem

  6. PDMS Network Structure-Property Relationships: Influence of Molecular Architecture on Mechanical and Wetting Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melillo, Matthew Joseph

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is one of the most common elastomers, with applications ranging from sealants and marine-antifouling coatings to medical devices and absorbents for water treatment. Fundamental understanding of how liquids spread on the surface of and absorb into and leach out of PDMS networks is of critical importance for the design and use in another application - microfluidic devices. The growing use of PDMS in microfluidic devices raises the concern that some researchers may use this material without fully understanding all of its advantages, drawbacks, and intricacies. The primary goal of this Ph.D. dissertation is to elucidate PDMS network molecular structure to macroscopic property relationships and to demonstrate how molecular architecture can alter dynamic mechanical and wetting characteristics. We prepare PDMS materials by using vinyl/ tetrakis(dimethylsiloxy)silane (TDSS) and silanol/ tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) combinations of PDMS end-groups and crosslinkers as two model systems. Under constant curing conditions, we systematically study the effects of polymer molecular weight, loading of crosslinker, and end-group chemical functionality on the extent of gelation and the dynamic mechanical and water wetting properties of end-linked PDMS networks. The extent of the gelation reaction is determined using the Soxhlet extraction to quantify the amount of material that did and did not participate in the crosslinking reactions, termed the gel and sol fractions, respectively. We use the Miller-Macosko model in conjunction with the gel fraction and precise chemical composition (i.e., stoichiometric ratio and molecular weight) to determine the fractions of elastic and pendant material, the molecular weight between chemical crosslinks, and the average effective functionality of the crosslinker molecule. Based on dynamic mechanical testing, we find that the maximum storage moduli are achieved at optimal stoichiometric conditions in the vinyl

  7. New elastomeric silicone based networks applicable as electroactive systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Boll, Mads; Lotz, Mikkel Rønne

    2011-01-01

    . In this study we focus on optimization of the mechanical properties of the elastomer and show that it is possible to lower the elastic modulus and still not compromise the other required mechanical properties such as fast response, stability, low degree of viscous dissipation and high extensibility....... The elastomers are prepared from a vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and a 4-functional crosslinker by a platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction between the two reactants. Traditionally, elastomers based on hydrosilylation are prepared via a ‘one-step two-pot’ procedure (with a mix A and a mix B...

  8. Low cost fabrication and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available and assembly process for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land, Mesuli B. Mbanjwa, Klariska Govindasamy, and Jan G. Korvink Citation: Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011); doi: 10.1063/1.3641859 View online: http... polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Kevin J. Land,1,2,a) Mesuli B. Mbanjwa,1,3 Klariska Govindasamy,1 and Jan G. Korvink2,4 1Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria, South Africa 2University of Freiburg, Department...

  9. Novel cross-linkers for PDMS networks for controlled and well distributed grafting of functionalities by click chemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2013-01-01

    by 35%. The contact angle of PDMS films was increased from 108° to 116° by the introduction of a small poly(pentafluorostyrene) chain. Finally, 17α-ethynyl-1,3,5(10)-estratriene-3,17β-diol and 1-ethynyl-3,5- bis(trifluoromethyl)benzene were incorporated as examples of other functional groups. © 2013......-linkers have been utilized to prepare novel polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks. All functional cross-linkers were successfully incorporated into the networks and were demonstrated to be well distributed within the PDMS films. This was substantiated by fluorescence microscopy of a film prepared with the 4...

  10. Dipolar cross-linkers for PDMS networks with enhanced dielectric permittivity and low dielectric loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    -(4-((4-nitrophenyl)diazenyl)phenoxy)-prop-1-yn-1-ylium, with a synthesized silicone compatible azide-functional cross-linker by click chemistry. The thermal, mechanical and electromechanical properties were investigated for PDMS films with 0 to 3.6 wt% of dipole-cross-linker. The relative dielectric permittivity......Dipole grafted cross-linkers were utilized to prepare polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers with various chain lengths and with various concentrations of functional cross-linker. The grafted cross-linkers were prepared by reaction of two alkyne-functional dipoles, 1-ethynyl-4-nitrobenzene and 3...

  11. Novel silicone compatible cross-linkers for controlled functionalization of PDMS networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Hvilsted, Søren

    2013-01-01

    . In order to improve the dielectric properties of PDMS a novel system is developed where push-pull dipoles are grafted to a new silicone compatible cross-linker. The grafted cross-linkers are prepared by reaction of two different push-pull dipole alkynes as well as a fluorescent alkyne with the new azide...

  12. Stretchable gold conductors embedded in PDMS and patterned by photolithography: fabrication and electromechanical characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrega, T; Lacour, S P

    2010-01-01

    Stretchable gold conductors embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films were successfully prepared using standard photolithography. The minimum feature sizes patterned in the metal film and PDMS encapsulation are 10 µm and 20 µm, respectively. The micro-patterned conductors are robust to uni-axial (1D) and radial (2D) stretching with applied strains of tens of percent. The electrical response of the conductors follows a nonlinear increase with strain, and is reversible. The extensive stretchability of the conductors relies on a randomly and independently distributed network of micro-cracks (∼100 nm long) in the metal film on PDMS. The micro-cracks elongate to a few microns length both in the stretching and normal directions in 1D stretching but during 2D stretching, the micro-cracks grow and form 'dry mud' islands leaving the gold microstructure inside the islands intact. Patterning metallic thin films directly onto elastomeric substrates opens a promising route for microelectrodes and interconnects for soft and ultra-compliant MEMS and electronic devices.

  13. An elastomeric grating coupler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocabas, A.; Ay, F.; Dana, A.; Aydinli, A.

    We report on a novel nondestructive and reversible method for coupling free space light to planar optical waveguides. In this method, an elastomeric grating is used to produce an effective refractive index modulation on the surface of the optical waveguide. The external elastomeric grating binds to

  14. Novel elastomeric fibrous networks produced from poly(xylitol sebacate)2:5 by core/shell electrospinning: fabrication and mechanical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qizhi

    2014-12-01

    Fabrication of nonlinear elastic materials that resemble biological tissues remains a challenge in biomaterials research. Here, a new fabrication protocol to produce elastomeric fibrous scaffolds was established, using the core/shell electrospinning technique. A prepolymer of poly(xylitol sebacate) with a 2:5mol ratio of xylitol:sebacic acid (PXS2:5) was first formulated, then co-electrospun with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA - 95,000Mw). After cross-linking of core polymer PXS2:5, the PVA shells were rinsed off in water, leaving a porous elastomeric network of PXS2:5 fibres. Under aqueous conditions, the PXS2:5 fibrous scaffolds exhibited stable, nonlinear J-shaped stress-strain curves, with large average rupture elongation (76%) and Young׳s modulus (~1.0MPa), which were in the range of muscle tissue. Rupture elongation of PXS2:5 was also much higher when electrospun, compared to 2D solid sheets (45%). In direct contact with cell monolayers under physiological conditions, PXS2:5 scaffolds were as biocompatible as those made of poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), with improvements over culture medium alone. In conclusion, the newly developed porous PXS2:5 scaffolds show tissue-like mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility, making them very promising for bioengineering of soft tissues and organs. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Quantitative Studies on PDMS-PDMS Interface Bonding with Piranha Solution and its Swelling Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Lai Chiang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a low-cost yet effective method of irreversible bonding between two elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS interfaces using Piranha solution is investigated. Piranha solutions at a weight ratio of 3:1 using different acids and hydrogen peroxide were attempted. The average tensile strengths of the device bonded with concentrated sulfuric acid-based piranha solution and nitric acid-based piranha solution were found to be 200 ± 20 kPa and 100 ± 15 kPa respectively. A PDMS surface treated with Piranha Solution demonstrated an increase in hydrophilicity. In addition, relatively straightforward swelling studies of PDMS using a weight loss method with common organic solvents were also investigated. Experimental results show that hexane, toluene, ethyl acetate, n-propyl alcohol and acetone swell PDMS significantly over a duration of up to 1 h and above; PDMS samples reached a steady state of swelling only after 5 min of immersion in other solvents. This will enable researchers to develop devices for the future according to the interaction between the material and the solvents in contact.

  16. Bimodal Networks as Candidates for Electroactive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    An alternative network formulation method was adopted in order to obtain a different type of silicone based elastomeric systems - the so-called bimodal networks - using two vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS) of different molecular weight, a labelled crosslinker (3 or 4-functional), an...... themselves between the long chains and show how this leads to unexpectedly good properties for DEAP purposes due both to the low extensibility of the short chains that attach strongly the long chains and to the extensibility of the last ones that retards the rupture process....

  17. Fabrication of elastomeric silk fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradner, Sarah A; Partlow, Benjamin P; Cebe, Peggy; Omenetto, Fiorenzo G; Kaplan, David L

    2017-09-01

    Methods to generate fibers from hydrogels, with control over mechanical properties, fiber diameter, and crystallinity, while retaining cytocompatibility and degradability, would expand options for biomaterials. Here, we exploited features of silk fibroin protein for the formation of tunable silk hydrogel fibers. The biological, chemical, and morphological features inherent to silk were combined with elastomeric properties gained through enzymatic crosslinking of the protein. Postprocessing via methanol and autoclaving provided tunable control of fiber features. Mechanical, optical, and chemical analyses demonstrated control of fiber properties by exploiting the physical cross-links, and generating double network hydrogels consisting of chemical and physical cross-links. Structure and chemical analyses revealed crystallinity from 30 to 50%, modulus from 0.5 to 4 MPa, and ultimate strength 1-5 MPa depending on the processing method. Fabrication and postprocessing combined provided fibers with extensibility from 100 to 400% ultimate strain. Fibers strained to 100% exhibited fourth order birefringence, revealing macroscopic orientation driven by chain mobility. The physical cross-links were influenced in part by the drying rate of fabricated materials, where bound water, packing density, and microstructural homogeneity influenced cross-linking efficiency. The ability to generate robust and versatile hydrogel microfibers is desirable for bottom-up assembly of biological tissues and for broader biomaterial applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Improved actuation strain of PDMS-based DEA materials chemically modified with softening agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biedermann, Miriam; Blümke, Martin; Wegener, Michael; Krüger, Hartmut

    2015-04-01

    Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are smart materials that gained much in interest particularly in recent years. One active field of research is the improvement of their properties by modification of their structural framework. The object of this work is to improve the actuation properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based DEAs by covalent incorporation of mono-vinyl-terminated low-molecular PDMS chains into the PDMS network. These low-molecular units act as a kind of softener within the PDMS network. The loose chain ends interfere with the network formation and lower the network's density. PDMS films with up to 50wt% of low-molecular PDMS additives were manufactured and the chemical, mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical properties of these novel materials were investigated.

  19. Fabrication and transfer of fragile 3D PDMS microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, J Mikael; Haraldsson, Tommy; Carlborg, Carl Fredrik; Van der Wijngaart, Wouter; Hansson, Jonas; Russom, Aman

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for PDMS microfabrication of fragile membranes and 3D fluidic networks, using a surface modified water-dissolvable release material, poly(vinyl alcohol), as a tool for handling, transfer and release of fragile polymer microstructures. The method is well suited for the fabrication of complex multilayer microfluidic devices, here shown for a PDMS device with a thin gas permeable membrane and closely spaced holes for vertical interlayer connections fabricated in a single layer. To the authors’ knowledge, this constitutes the most advanced PDMS fabrication method for the combination of thin, fragile structures and 3D fluidics networks, and hence a considerable step in the direction of making PDMS fabrication of complex microfluidic devices a routine endeavour. (paper)

  20. Green silicone elastomer obtained from a counterintuitively stable mixture of glycerol and PDMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, P.; Hvilsted, S.; Skov, A. L.

    2016-01-01

    A green and cheap silicone-based elastomer has been developed. Through the simple mixing-in of biodiesel-originating glycerol into commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pre-polymer, a glycerol-in-PDMS emulsion was produced. This counterintuitively stable mixture became a basis...... for obtaining elastomeric composites with uniformly distributed glycerol droplets. Various compositions, containing from 0 to 140 parts of glycerol per 100 parts of PDMS by weight, were prepared and investigated in terms of ATR-FTIR, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, mechanical properties as well as optical......, even in the presence of very high loadings. The conducted experiments highlight the great potential of this new type of elastomer and reveal some possible applications....

  1. Fabrication of microstamps and patterned cell network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seong, Nak Seon; Pak, James Jung Ho; Choi, Ju Hee; Ahn, Dong June; Hwang, Seong Min; Lee, Kyung J.

    2002-01-01

    Elastomeric stamps with micrometer-sized grids are fabricated for building biological cell networks by design. Polymerized polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) stamps are cast in a variety of different molds prepared by micro-electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Micro square-grid patterns of 3-aminopropyl triethoxy silane (APS) are successfully imprinted on glass plates, and patterned networks of cardiac cells are obtained as designed. The resulting cellular networks clearly demonstrate that cell attachment and growth are greatly favored on APS-treated thin tracks. Here, we report the technical details related to the fabrication of microstamps, to the stamping procedure, and to the culture method. The potential applications of patterned cellular networks are also discussed

  2. PDMS patterning by proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Huszank, R.; Csik, A.; Rajta, I.; Cserhati, C.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In this paper the poly-(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) is introduced as a resist material for proton beam writing. We were looking for a biocompatible micropatternable polymer in which the chemical structure changes significantly due to proton beam exposure making the polymer capable of proton beam writing. PDMS is a commonly used silicon-based organic polymer, optically clear, and generally considered to be inert, non-toxic biocompatible polymer. PDMS is also notably hydrophobic, meaning that water cannot easily penetrate its surface. This property has led extended use of PDMS in microfluidics too. PDMS is a crosslinkable polymer, it acts like a rubbery solid when it is cross-linked. In this state, the polymer does not deform permanently under stress or strain. Up to now the PDMS has been used as a casting or replicating material in microfabrication to form microchannels, micromolding, or creating microstamps, etc. PDMS has not been used as a resist material for direct write techniques. In this work we investigated the surface topography of the irradiated regions of PDMS under and without stress (on the cut surface and on the original fluid surface, respectively). In the samples wherein stress was not developed, noticeable compaction was observed. In case of those samples wherein stress was developed, noticeable swelling occurred. During the irradiation around the actual position of the beam spot we experienced significant swelling that reduced in time. To determine the large scale remaining changes in the surface topography at the cut edges of the samples we used Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). After numerous profilometer measurements we experienced that the irradiated areas became harder, so the probe could move on it without sinking. The unirradiated areas of the PDMS were so soft, that the probe sank in the medium even with the smallest load (5 x 10 -7 N). Because of this phenomenon the irradiated areas seem to be higher

  3. Photonic devices prepared by embossing in PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandura, D., E-mail: jandura@fyzika.uniza.sk; Pudis, D.; Berezina, S.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fabrication technology of photonic devices based on embossing in PDMS is presented. • Analysis of morphological properties of prepared devices in PDMS by CLSM and AFM. • Spectral characterization of PDMS ring resonator proved the resonator functionality. - Abstract: In this paper, we present useful technique for fabrication of novel photonic devices created in the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). We use combination of direct laser writing in thin photoresist layer with embossing process of liquid PDMS. We prepared ring resonator and Mach-Zehnder interferometer in PDMS. The shape of prepared PDMS photonic devices was analyzed by confocal laser microscope and atomic force microscope. Optical characterization of these devices reveals extinction ratios of up to 20 dB.

  4. Study of PDMS conformation in PDMS-based hybrid materials prepared by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancastre, J.J.H.; Fernandes, N.; Margaça, F.M.A.; Miranda Salvado, I.M.; Ferreira, L.M.; Falcão, A.N.; Casimiro, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane-silicate based hybrid materials have recognized properties (high flexibility, low elastic modulus or high mechanical strength) for which there are a large number of applications in development, such as for the bioapplications field. The hybrids addressed in the present study were prepared by gamma irradiation of a mixture of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) and zirconium propoxide (PrZr) without addition of any solvent or other product. The materials are homogeneous, transparent, monolithic and flexible. The structure dependence on the PrZr content is addressed. A combination of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) was used. The results reveal that the polymer in the hybrids prepared with PrZr, in a content≤5 wt%, shows a structure similar to that in the irradiated pure polymer sample. In these samples the presence of ordered polymer regions is clearly found. For samples prepared with higher content of Zr almost no ordered polymer regions are observed. The addition of PrZr plays an important role on polymer conformation in these hybrid materials. - Highlights: ► PDMS-based hybrid materials were prepared by γ-irradiation. ► FTIR, ATR/FT-IR and XRD techniques were used to characterize the materials. ► Changes in FTIR bands reflect growth of crosslinking network. ► Above certain Zr concentration regions of Zr-silicate oxide are formed. ► Zr content determines conformation of the polymer chain network.

  5. Microheater based on magnetic nanoparticle embedded PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun; Park, Hongsuk; Kim, Jong Hyo

    2010-01-01

    A microheater was established by embedding magnetic nanoparticles into PDMS (MNP-PDMS). MNP-PDMS generated heat under an AC magnetic field and the temperature was controlled by varying the magnetic particle content and the magnetic field intensity. In this study, the MNP-PDMS chip was demonstrated to amplify the target DNA (732 bp) with > 90% efficiency compared to the conventional PCR thermocycler, and exhibited good performance in regards to temperature control. This system holds great promise for reliably controlling the temperature of thermal processes on an integrated microchip platform for biochemical applications.

  6. Microheater based on magnetic nanoparticle embedded PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Ah; Lee, Seung Hwan; Park, Tai Hyun [School of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hongsuk [Interdisciplinary Program of Bioengineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hyo, E-mail: thpark@snu.ac.kr [Department of Radiology, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-23

    A microheater was established by embedding magnetic nanoparticles into PDMS (MNP-PDMS). MNP-PDMS generated heat under an AC magnetic field and the temperature was controlled by varying the magnetic particle content and the magnetic field intensity. In this study, the MNP-PDMS chip was demonstrated to amplify the target DNA (732 bp) with > 90% efficiency compared to the conventional PCR thermocycler, and exhibited good performance in regards to temperature control. This system holds great promise for reliably controlling the temperature of thermal processes on an integrated microchip platform for biochemical applications.

  7. Preparation and Characterizing of PANI/PDMS Elastomer for Artificial Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyang; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Genlin; Zhang, Ming; Luo, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    A dielectric elastomer has been synthesized using organic soluble PANI and PDMS through solution blending method for applications as artificial muscles. The dielectric constant of PANI/PDMS composite reached 4.82 with a filling amount of 0.8 wt.%, which was 2.24 times of pure silicone, due to the dipole polarization in matrix network and electron polarization in conductive polyaniline. The actuated strain of 0.8w.t % PANI/PDMS was 16.57% compared to 8.52% of pure silicone at an electric field of 10V/μm, and can be applied as a soft actuator.

  8. Patterning the Stiffness of Elastomeric Nanocomposites by Magnetophoretic Control of Cross-linking Impeder Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvojit Ghosh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel method to pattern the stiffness of an elastomeric nanocomposite by selectively impeding the cross-linking reactions at desired locations while curing. This is accomplished by using a magnetic field to enforce a desired concentration distribution of colloidal magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs in the liquid precursor of polydimethysiloxane (PDMS elastomer. MNPs impede the cross-linking of PDMS; when they are dispersed in liquid PDMS, the cured elastomer exhibits lower stiffness in portions containing a higher nanoparticle concentration. Consequently, a desired stiffness pattern is produced by selecting the required magnetic field distribution a priori. Up to 200% variation in the reduced modulus is observed over a 2 mm length, and gradients of up to 12.6 MPa·mm−1 are obtained. This is a significant improvement over conventional nanocomposite systems where only small unidirectional variations can be achieved by varying nanoparticle concentration. The method has promising prospects in additive manufacturing; it can be integrated with existing systems thereby adding the capability to produce microscale heterogeneities in mechanical properties.

  9. Improvement in current density of nano- and micro-structured Si solar cells by cost-effective elastomeric stamp process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kiseok; Jee, Hongsub; Lim, Sangwoo; Park, Min Joon; Jeong, Chaehwan

    2018-03-01

    Effective incident light should be controlled for improving the current density of solar cells by employing nano- and micro-structures on silicon surface. The elastomeric stamp process, which is more cost effective and simpler than conventional photolithography, was proposed for the fabrication of nano- and micro-structures. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was poured on a mother pattern with a diameter of 6 μm and a spacing of 2 μm; then, curing was performed to create a PDMS mold. The regular micropattern was stamped on a low-viscosity resin-coated silicon surface, followed by the simple reactive ion etching process. Nano-structures were formed using the Ag-based electroless etching process. As etching time was increased to 6 min, reflectance decreased to 4.53% and current density improved from 22.35 to 34.72 mA/cm2.

  10. Accounting for PDMS shrinkage when replicating structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Morten Hannibal; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft; Hansen, Poul-Erik

    2014-01-01

    are seldom applied to counteract the shrinkage of PDMS. Also, to perform metrological measurements using replica techniques one has to take the shrinkage into account. Thus we report a study of the shrinkage of PDMS with several different mixing ratios and curing temperatures. The shrinkage factor, with its...

  11. Encapsulated PDMS microspheres with reactive handles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Lidia; Ma, Baoguang; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    , cured PDMS microspheres are coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) using a chemical process (solvent evaporation technique). Three solvents are used in three different experiments: dichloromethane, tetrahydrofuran, and acetone. The composition and morphology of the cured PDMS microspheres and PMMA coated...

  12. Evaluation of Force Degradation Pattern of Elastomeric Ligatures and Elastomeric Separators in Active Tieback State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammadi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial force and force decay of commercially available elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators in active tieback state in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. A total of 288 elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators from three manufacturers (Dentaurum, RMO, 3M Unitek were stretched to 100% and 150% of their original inner diameter. Force levels were measured initially and at 3-minute, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week intervals. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. Results. The means of initial forces of elastomeric ligatures and separators from three above-mentioned companies, when stretched to 100% of their inner diameters, were 199, 305 and 284 g, and 330, 416, 330 g; when they were stretched to 150% of their inner diameters the values were 286, 422 and 375 g, and 433, 540 and 504 g, respectively. In active tieback state, 11‒18% of the initial force of the specimens was lost within the first 3 minutes and 29‒63% of the force decay occurred in the first 24 hours; then force decay rate decreased. 62‒81% of the initial force was lost in 4 weeks. Although force decay pattern was identical in all the products, the initial force and force decay of Dentaurum elastomeric products were less than the similar products of other companies (P<0.05. Under the same conditions, the force of elastomeric separators was greater than elastomeric ligatures of the same company. Conclusion. Regarding the force pattern of elastomeric ligatures and separators and optimal force for tooth movement, many of these products can be selected for applying orthodontic forces in active tieback state.

  13. Chemical Stability of Telavancin in Elastomeric Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Sand, MSc

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that telavancin remains chemically stable when diluted in the Intermate Infusion System and the Homepump Eclipse elastomeric pumps and stored at 2°C to 8°C for up to 8 days protected from light at the concentration range and dilution schemes evaluated.

  14. Tribologically modified surfaces on elastomeric materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, N.V.; Masen, Marc Arthur; Schipper, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    As the result of tribological loading, the properties of the surface of elastomeric materials will alter. This effect has been observed using SEM and EDS analysis of the tread of a used car tyre, where differences in structure between the substrate and the area near the surface were found. To study

  15. Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pêgo, A.P.; Poot, Andreas A.; Grijpma, Dirk W.; Feijen, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Elastomeric copolymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and ε-caprolactone (CL) and copolymers of TMC and D,L-lactide (DLLA) have been evaluated as candidate materials for the preparation of biodegradable scaffolds for soft tissue engineering. TMC-DLLA copolymers are amorphous and degrade more

  16. Biofunctionalization of PDMS-based microfluidic systems

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Bergoi Ibarlucea, Cesar Fernández-Sánchez, Stefanie Demming, Stephanus Büttgenbach & Andreu Llobera ### Abstract Three simple approaches for the selective immobilization of biomolecules on the surface of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic systems that do not require any specific instrumentation, are described and compared. They are based in the introduction of hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface by direct adsorption of either polyethylene glycol (PEG) or polyvinyl alc...

  17. A new UV-curing elastomeric substrate for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvankarian, Jafar; Yeop Majlis, Burhanuddin

    2012-03-01

    Rapid prototyping in the design cycle of new microfluidic devices is very important for shortening time-to-market. Researchers are facing the challenge to explore new and suitable substrates with simple and efficient microfabrication techniques. In this paper, we introduce and characterize a UV-curing elastomeric polyurethane methacrylate (PUMA) for rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices. The swelling and solubility of PUMA in different chemicals is determined. Time-dependent measurements of water contact angle show that the native PUMA is hydrophilic without surface treatment. The current monitoring method is used for measurement of the electroosmotic flow mobility in the microchannels made from PUMA. The optical, physical, thermal and mechanical properties of PUMA are evaluated. The UV-lithography and molding process is used for making micropillars and deep channel microfluidic structures integrated to the supporting base layer. Spin coating is characterized for producing different layer thicknesses of PUMA resin. A device is fabricated and tested for examining the strength of different bonding techniques such as conformal, corona treating and semi-curing of two PUMA layers in microfluidic application and the results show that the bonding strengths are comparable to that of PDMS. We also report fabrication and testing of a three-layer multi inlet/outlet microfluidic device including a very effective fluidic interconnect for application demonstration of PUMA as a promising new substrate. A simple micro-device is developed and employed for observing the pressure deflection of membrane made from PUMA as a very effective elastomeric valve in microfluidic devices.

  18. Tensile properties of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrari, F; Jalaly, T; Zebarjad, M

    2010-01-01

    Tensile properties of elastomeric ligatures become important when efficiency of orthodontic appliances is considered. The aim of this study was to compare tensile strength, extension to tensile strength, toughness and modulus of elasticity of elastomeric ligatures in both the as--received condition and after 28 days of immersion in the simulated oral environment. Furthermore, the changes that occurred in tensile properties of each brand of ligatures after 28 days were evaluated. Experimental-laboratory based. Elastomeric ligatures were obtained from different companies and their tensile properties were measured using Zwick testing machine in both the as-received condition and after 28 days of immersion in the simulated oral environment. The data were analyzed using independent sample t-tests, analysis of variance and Tukey tests. After 28 days, all the ligatures experienced a significant decrease in tensile strength, extension to tensile strength and toughness ( P tensile properties of different brands of ligatures in both conditions ( P tensile properties of different brands of ligatures, which should be considered during selection of these products.

  19. Fouling release nanostructured coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers

    KAUST Repository

    Fang, Jason

    2010-05-01

    The bulk and surface characteristics of a series of coatings based on PDMS-polyurea segmented copolymers were correlated to their fouling release performance. Incorporation of polyurea segments to PDMS backbone gives rise to phase separation with the extensively hydrogen bonded hard domains creating an interconnected network that imparts mechanical rigidity. Increasing the compositional complexity of the system by including fluorinated or POSS-functionalized chain extenders or through nanoclay intercalation, confers further thermomechanical improvements. In analogy to the bulk morphology, the surface topography also reflects the compositional complexity of the materials, displaying a wide range of motifs. Investigations on settlement and subsequent removal of Ulva sporelings on those nanostructured surfaces indicate that the work required to remove the microorganisms is significantly lower compared to coatings based on standard PDMS homopolymer. All in all, the series of materials considered in this study demonstrate advanced fouling release properties, while exhibiting superior mechanical properties and, thus, long term durability. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Hydrogen isotope permeation in elastomeric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmeyer, R.H.; Braun, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The permeabilities of elastomeric and polymeric materials to hydrogen isotopes were measured at room temperature. The technique for measuring permeation rates is based on the following constant-volume method: a fixed pressure of gas is applied to one side of the specimen to be studied and the permeability constant is determined from the observed rate of pressure increase in an initially evacuated volume on the other side of the specimen. Permeability constants for hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium were measured for Mylar, Teflon, Kapton, Saran, Buna-N, and latex rubber. Results were compared with literature values for hydrogen and deuterium where available and showed excellent agreement

  1. Evaluation of shear mounted elastomeric damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E.; Walton, J.

    1982-01-01

    Viton-70 elastomeric shear mounted damper was built and tested on a T-55 power turbine spool in the rotor's high speed balancing rig. This application of a shear mounted elastomeric damper demonstrated for the first time, the feasibility of using elastomers as the primary rotor damping source in production turbine engine hardware. The shear damper design was selected because it was compatible with actual gas turbine engine radial space constraints, could accommodate both the radial and axial thrust loads present in gas turbine engines, and was capable of controlled axial preload. The shear damper was interchangeable with the production T-55 power turbine roller bearing support so that a direct comparison between the shear damper and the production support structure could be made. Test results show that the Viton-70 elastomer damper operated successfully and provided excellent control of both synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations through all phases of testing up to the maximum rotor speed of 16,000 rpm. Excellent correlation between the predicted and experienced critical speeds, mode shapes and log decrements for the power turbine rotor and elastomer damper assembly was also achieved.

  2. Culture of bovine embryos on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microwell plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Satoshi; Hosoe, Misa; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Ichikawa, Akihiko; Tanikawa, Tamio; Takahashi, Seiya

    2010-08-01

    We fabricated a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microwell plate (PDMS-MP) containing 100 microwells with a rounded bottom and examined whether it can be used for culture of individual in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos or parthenogenetically activated zona-free embryos in cattle. In Experiment 1, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of IVF embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. After IVF, 20 embryos were transferred into 100 microl drops on PDMS-MP and cultured individually in each well of PDMS-MP (PDMS group). After 7 days of culture, the embryos in the PDMS group developed to the blastocyst stage at the same rate of those in the control group cultured in a group of 20 embryos without PDMS-MP. There were no differences in total number of cells and the ratio of inner cell mass to total cells between the PDMS and control groups. In Experiment 2, we examined the in vitro developmental ability of parthenogenetically activated zona-free bovine embryos cultured individually on PDMS-MP. The zona-free embryos were cultured individually in each well of a PDMS-MP or in each well produced by pressing a darning needle onto the bottom of a culture dish (WOW group). After 7 days of culture, the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts in the PDMS group did not differ from those of the zona-intact embryos in the control group. Also, there were no differences in the blastocyst formation rate and cell number of blastocysts between the WOW and PDMS groups. These results suggest that the culture system using PDMS-MP is useful for individual embryos or zona-free embryos in cattle.

  3. The synthesis and protein resistance of amphiphilic PDMS-b-(PDMS-g-cysteine) copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yufeng; Lin, Yaling; Zhang, Anqiang

    2017-10-01

    Zwitterionic polymers have been used to cope with nonspecific protein adsorption and bio-fouling problems for a wide range of materials, including biomedical devices, marine coatings and membrane separation. However, direct surface modification with highly water-soluble zwitterionic polymers is rather difficult due to their poor attachment to hydrophobic solid surfaces. In this work, we utilize the hydrophobic interaction to anchor zwitterionic polysiloxanes grafted with cysteine onto surfaces by adding an hydrophobic block of polydimethylsiloxanes, referred as PDMS-b-(PDMS-g-Cys)s. The synthesis involves only three steps of reactions, and the structures of each product were characterized using GPC, FT-IR and 1H NMR. The adsorption and protein resistance of PDMS-b-(PDMS-g-Cys)s on a gold surface are investigated with QCM-D. The results show that the hydrophobic interaction moieties of the additional PDMS blocks help the hydrophilic cysteine-grafted blocks stably attach and then function on the sensor. These findings suggest that the addition of hydrophobic moieties provides an effective approach to construct anti-fouling interfaces with zwitterionic polymers in aqueous solution.

  4. An air-pressure-free elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Wooseok; Barrett, Matthew; Brooks, Carla; Zenhausern, Frederic; Rivera, Andrew; Birdsell, Dawn N; Wagner, David M

    2015-01-01

    We present a new elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The valve functions include metering to capture a designated volume of biological sample into a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber, sealing to preserve the sample during PCR cycling, and transfer of the PCR-products and on-chip formamide post-processing for the analysis of DNA fragments by capillary gel electrophoresis. This new valve differs from prior art polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves in that the valve is not actuated externally by air-pressure or vacuum so that it simplifies a DNA analysis system by eliminating the need for an air-pressure or vacuum source, and off-cartridge solenoid valves, control circuit boards and software. Instead, the new valve is actuated by a thermal cycling peltier assembly integrated within the hardware instrument that tightly comes in contact with a microfluidic cartridge for thermal activation during PCR, so that it spontaneously closes the valve without an additional actuator system. The valve has bumps in the designated locations so that it has a self-alignment that does not require precise alignment of a valve actuator. Moreover, the thickness of the new valve is around 600 μm with an additional bump height of 400 μm so that it is easy to handle and very feasible to fabricate by injection molding compared to other PDMS valves whose thicknesses are around 30–100 μm. The new valve provided over 95% of metering performance in filling the fixed volume of the PCR chamber, preserved over 97% of the sample volume during PCR, and showed very comparable capillary electrophoresis peak heights to the benchtop assay tube controls with very consistent transfer volume of the PCR-product and on-chip formamide. The new valve can perform a core function for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. (paper)

  5. Contact angle of unset elastomeric impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menees, Timothy S; Radhakrishnan, Rashmi; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2015-10-01

    Some elastomeric impression materials are hydrophobic, and it is often necessary to take definitive impressions of teeth coated with some saliva. New hydrophilic materials have been developed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare contact angles of water and saliva on 7 unset elastomeric impression materials at 5 time points from the start of mixing. Two traditional polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) (Aquasil, Take 1), 2 modified PVS (Imprint 4, Panasil), a polyether (Impregum), and 2 hybrid (Identium, EXA'lence) materials were compared. Each material was flattened to 2 mm and a 5 μL drop of distilled water or saliva was dropped on the surface at 25 seconds (t0) after the start of mix. Contact angle measurements were made with a digital microscope at initial contact (t0), t1=2 seconds, t2=5 seconds, t3=50% working time, and t4=95% working time. Data were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model analysis, and individual 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc tests (α=.05). For water, materials grouped into 3 categories at all time-points: the modified PVS and one hybrid material (Identium) produced the lowest contact angles, the polyether material was intermediate, and the traditional PVS materials and the other hybrid (EXA'lence) produced the highest contact angles. For saliva, Identium, Impregum, and Imprint 4 were in the group with the lowest contact angle at most time points. Modified PVS materials and one of the hybrid materials are more hydrophilic than traditional PVS materials when measured with water. Saliva behaves differently than water in contact angle measurement on unset impression material and produces a lower contact angle on polyether based materials. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Kinetic analysis of elastomeric lag damper for helicopter rotors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yafang; Wang, Jidong; Tong, Yan

    2018-02-01

    The elastomeric lag dampers suppress the ground resonance and air resonance that play a significant role in the stability of the helicopter. In this paper, elastomeric lag damper which is made from silicone rubber is built. And a series of experiments are conducted on this elastomeric lag damper. The stress-strain curves of elastomeric lag dampers employed shear forces at different frequency are obtained. And a finite element model is established based on Burgers model. The result of simulation and tests shows that the simple, linear model will yield good predictions of damper energy dissipation and it is adequate for predicting the stress-strain hysteresis loop within the operating frequency and a small-amplitude oscillation.

  7. Atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation investigation of polydimethylsiloxane elastomeric substrate compliancy for various sputtered thin film morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maji, Debashis; Das, Soumen

    2018-03-01

    Crack free electrically continuous metal thin films over soft elastomeric substrates play an integral part in realization of modern day flexible bioelectronics and biosensors. Under nonoptimized deposition conditions, delamination, and/or cracking of the top film as well as the underlying soft substrate hinders optimal performance of these devices. Hence it is very important to understand and control not only the various deposition factors like power, time, or deposition pressure but also investigate the various interfacial physics playing a critical role in assuring thin film adhesion and substrate compliancy. In the present study, various nanomechanical information of the underlying substrate, namely, crack profile, average roughness, Young's modulus, and adhesion force were studied for uncracked and cracked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces along with pristine and conventional plasma treated PDMS samples as control. Quantification of the above parameters were done using three-dimensional surface profiler, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and atomic force microscopy techniques to elucidate the modulus range, average roughness, and adhesion force. Comparative analysis with control revealed remarkable similarity between increased modulus values, increased surface roughness, and reduced adhesion force accounting for reduced substrate compliancy and resulting in film cracking or buckling which are critical for development of various bioflexible devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 725-737, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Influence of particle arrangement on the permittivity of an elastomeric composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying J. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastomers are used as dielectric layers contained between the parallel conductive plates of capacitors. The introduction of filler particles into an elastomer changes its permittivity ε. When particle organization in a composite is intentionally varied, this alters its capacitance. Using numerical simulations, we examine how conductive particle chains introduced into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS alter ε. The effects of filler volume fraction ψ, interparticle d and interchain spacing a, zigzag angle θ between adjacent particles and overall chain orientation, particle size r, and clearance h between particles and the conductive plates are characterized. When filler particles are organized into chainlike structures rather than being just randomly distributed in the elastomer matrix, ε increases by as much as 85%. When particles are organized into chainlike forms, ε increases with increasing ψ and a, but decreases with increasing d and θ. A composite containing smaller particles has a higher ε when ψ<9% while larger particles provide greater enhancement when ψ is larger than that value. To enhance ε, adjacent particles must be interconnected and the overall chain direction should be oriented perpendicular to the conductive plates. These results are useful for additive manufacturing on electrical applications of elastomeric composites.

  9. Influence of particle arrangement on the permittivity of an elastomeric composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Peiying J.; Nayak, Suchitra; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.

    2017-01-01

    Elastomers are used as dielectric layers contained between the parallel conductive plates of capacitors. The introduction of filler particles into an elastomer changes its permittivity ɛ. When particle organization in a composite is intentionally varied, this alters its capacitance. Using numerical simulations, we examine how conductive particle chains introduced into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) alter ɛ. The effects of filler volume fraction ψ, interparticle d and interchain spacing a, zigzag angle θ between adjacent particles and overall chain orientation, particle size r, and clearance h between particles and the conductive plates are characterized. When filler particles are organized into chainlike structures rather than being just randomly distributed in the elastomer matrix, ɛ increases by as much as 85%. When particles are organized into chainlike forms, ɛ increases with increasing ψ and a, but decreases with increasing d and θ. A composite containing smaller particles has a higher ɛ when ψ <9 % while larger particles provide greater enhancement when ψ is larger than that value. To enhance ɛ, adjacent particles must be interconnected and the overall chain direction should be oriented perpendicular to the conductive plates. These results are useful for additive manufacturing on electrical applications of elastomeric composites.

  10. Chemical Stability of Telavancin in Elastomeric Pumps☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Patrick; Aladeen, Traci; Kirkegaard, Paul; LaChance, Dennis; Slover, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background VIBATIV is a once-daily, injectable lipoglycopeptide antibiotic approved in the U.S. for the treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) caused by susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus when alternative treatments are not suitable. In addition, VIBATIV is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of adult patients with complicated skin & skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by susceptible isolates of Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. Objective To evaluate the chemical stability of telavancin (Vibativ; Theravance Biopharma US, Inc, Northbrook, Illinois), a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in 2 types of elastomeric pumps, the Intermate Infusion System (Baxter International Inc) and the Homepump Eclipse (I-Flow Corporation). Methods Different sizes of the Baxter (Ontario, Canada) (105 mL and 275 mL) and I-Flow (Stoughton, Massachusetts) (100 mL and 250 mL) pumps were compared with glass controls. The telavancin drug product was reconstituted and diluted to concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL using either 0.9% saline, 5% dextrose in water, or sterilized water for injection (0.6 mg/mL telavancin) or saline (8.0 mg/mL telavancin) followed by Ringer’s Lactate solution. Pumps were filled and stored at 2°C to 8°C, protected from light. Aliquots from both pump types and for all telavancin reconstitution/dilution schemes and concentrations were taken over a period of 8 days and analyzed for appearance, pH, telavancin concentration and purity, and degradation products. Results The pH of all pump solutions remained consistent throughout the 8-day analysis period, within a range of 4.6 to 5.7 for the 0.6 mg/mL and 4.4 to 4.9 for the 8.0 mg/mL telavancin solutions. There was no significant change in the chromatographic purity for any of the pump

  11. Chemical Stability of Telavancin in Elastomeric Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Patrick; Aladeen, Traci; Kirkegaard, Paul; LaChance, Dennis; Slover, Christine

    2015-12-01

    VIBATIV is a once-daily, injectable lipoglycopeptide antibiotic approved in the U.S. for the treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP) caused by susceptible isolates of Staphylococcus aureus when alternative treatments are not suitable. In addition, VIBATIV is approved in the U.S. for the treatment of adult patients with complicated skin & skin structure infections (cSSSI) caused by susceptible isolates of Gram-positive bacteria, including Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant (MRSA) strains. To evaluate the chemical stability of telavancin (Vibativ; Theravance Biopharma US, Inc, Northbrook, Illinois), a lipoglycopeptide antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, in 2 types of elastomeric pumps, the Intermate Infusion System (Baxter International Inc) and the Homepump Eclipse (I-Flow Corporation). Different sizes of the Baxter (Ontario, Canada) (105 mL and 275 mL) and I-Flow (Stoughton, Massachusetts) (100 mL and 250 mL) pumps were compared with glass controls. The telavancin drug product was reconstituted and diluted to concentrations of 0.6 mg/mL and 8.0 mg/mL using either 0.9% saline, 5% dextrose in water, or sterilized water for injection (0.6 mg/mL telavancin) or saline (8.0 mg/mL telavancin) followed by Ringer's Lactate solution. Pumps were filled and stored at 2°C to 8°C, protected from light. Aliquots from both pump types and for all telavancin reconstitution/dilution schemes and concentrations were taken over a period of 8 days and analyzed for appearance, pH, telavancin concentration and purity, and degradation products. The pH of all pump solutions remained consistent throughout the 8-day analysis period, within a range of 4.6 to 5.7 for the 0.6 mg/mL and 4.4 to 4.9 for the 8.0 mg/mL telavancin solutions. There was no significant change in the chromatographic purity for any of the pump solutions examined. All decreases in

  12. A novel method for transferring graphene onto PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranyawasit, Witchawate; Punpattanakul, Krirktakul; Pimpin, Alongkorn; Kim, Houngkyung; Jeon, Seokwoo; Srituravanich, Werayut

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method for graphene transfer onto PDMS substrates established. • SU-8 layer is used to strengthen the adhesion between graphene and PDMS substrate. • A great potential for the development of graphene-based microfluidic devices. - Abstract: Graphene has been attracting great attention from scientific community due to its astonishing mechanical, optical, and electrical properties, especially, graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method are large, uniform and high-quality. CVD-grown graphene films have been successfully transferred onto various kinds of substrates such as SiO 2 /Si, quartz, PET, and plastics. However, graphene transfer onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates for device development has been limited due to the very low surface energy of PDMS. Here, we present a novel method to transfer graphene onto PDMS substrates by utilizing a thin layer of SU-8 as an adhesion layer. The SU-8 adhesion layer significantly improves the adhesion between the graphene layer and the PDMS substrate resulting in successful graphene transfer onto the PDMS substrate. This opens up a great potential of using graphene on PDMS substrates for the development of a wide range of graphene-based transparent and flexible devices.

  13. A novel method for transferring graphene onto PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiranyawasit, Witchawate; Punpattanakul, Krirktakul; Pimpin, Alongkorn [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Kim, Houngkyung; Jeon, Seokwoo [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science & Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Srituravanich, Werayut, E-mail: werayut.s@chula.ac.th [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A novel method for graphene transfer onto PDMS substrates established. • SU-8 layer is used to strengthen the adhesion between graphene and PDMS substrate. • A great potential for the development of graphene-based microfluidic devices. - Abstract: Graphene has been attracting great attention from scientific community due to its astonishing mechanical, optical, and electrical properties, especially, graphene films synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method are large, uniform and high-quality. CVD-grown graphene films have been successfully transferred onto various kinds of substrates such as SiO{sub 2}/Si, quartz, PET, and plastics. However, graphene transfer onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates for device development has been limited due to the very low surface energy of PDMS. Here, we present a novel method to transfer graphene onto PDMS substrates by utilizing a thin layer of SU-8 as an adhesion layer. The SU-8 adhesion layer significantly improves the adhesion between the graphene layer and the PDMS substrate resulting in successful graphene transfer onto the PDMS substrate. This opens up a great potential of using graphene on PDMS substrates for the development of a wide range of graphene-based transparent and flexible devices.

  14. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A stable gel of Au nanoparticles in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanocomposite is prepared by employing the curing agent of PDMS elastomer as a reducing agent for the formation of Au nanoparticles by an in-situ process. The viscoelastic nature of these gels is very sensitive to the Au nanoparticle loading and the ...

  15. Stretchable Metamaterial Absorber Using Liquid Metal-Filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeongseob Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A stretchable metamaterial absorber is proposed in this study. The stretchability was achieved by liquid metal and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS. To inject liquid metal, microfluidic channels were fabricated using PDMS powers and microfluidic-channel frames, which were built using a three-dimensional printer. A top conductive pattern and ground plane were designed after considering the easy injection of liquid metal. The proposed metamaterial absorber comprises three layers of PDMS substrate. The top layer is for the top conductive pattern, and the bottom layer is for the meandered ground plane. Flat PDMS layers were inserted between the top and bottom PDMS layers. The measured absorptivity of the fabricated absorber was 97.8% at 18.5 GHz, and the absorption frequency increased from 18.5 to 18.65 GHz as the absorber was stretched from its original length (5.2 cm to 6.4 cm.

  16. Development of a flameproof elastic elastomeric fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, J. T.; Nilgrom, J.; Massucco, A.; Sheth, S. G.; Dawn, F. S.

    1971-01-01

    Various flexible polyurethane structures containing halogen were synthesized from polyesters derived from aliphatic or aromatic polyols and dibasic acids. Aliphatic halide structures could not be used because they are unstable at the required reaction temperatures, giving of hydrogen halide which hydrolyzes the ester linkages. In contract, halogen-containing aromatic polyols were stable and satisfactory products were made. The most promising composition, a brominated neopentyl glycol capped with toluene disocyanate, was used as a conventional diisocyanate, in conjunction with hydroxy-terminated polyethers or polyesters to form elastomeric urethanes containing about 10% bromine with weight. Products made in this manner will not burn in air, have an oxygen index value of about 25, and have tensile strength values of about 5,000 psi at 450% elongation. The most efficient additives for imparting flame retardancy to Spandex urethanes are aromatic halides and the most effective of these are the bromide compounds. Various levels of flame retardancy have been achieved depending on the levels of additives used.

  17. Unvulcanized elastomeric waterproofing materials for construction application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the construction was widespread elastomer profiles, which have the ability to swell in water. Such products should have a high capacity for swelling, elasticity, resistance to weathering. At the present time for these purposes are used materials, mostly of foreign origin. With the increasing pace of construction in Russia the problem of replacement of imported materials is particularly relevant. The work was dedicated to the creation of water-swellable elastomer materials using bentonite powders and study of their properties. Сomparative testing of imported and domestic hydrophilic sealants were held. Rationale and choice of components for the cords of bentonite was conducted. Polymer base is saturated ethylene-propylene rubber. Bentonite from different manufacturers used to increase the swelling of the samples. Filler added in an amount of 50–100 phr. The elastomeric compositions were prepared using laboratory roller at a temperature of 60 ± 5° C. Profiling was performed on a syringe-machine at a temperature of 120° C. Extrusion indicator of the mixtures were evaluated on a 10-point scale (German-Russian system. It is found that high swelling products provided using field Azerbaijan bentonite. It is noted that the dosage of bentonite than 150 w.p. deteriorates technological properties of bentonite cords. It has been shown that activation of the bentonite and sodium carbonate chloride can significantly improve product swelling, wherein the bentonite content of the composition was 150–200 w.p.

  18. Elastomeric composites with tuned electromagnetic characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeland, Sara; Bayatpur, Farhad; Amirkhizi, Alireza V; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel elastomeric composite that exhibits a deformation-induced change in chirality. Previous efforts primarily dealt with a coil array in air without chiral tuning. Here, a composite is created that consists of an array of parallel, metallic helices of the same handedness embedded in a polymer matrix. The chiral response of the composite depends on pitch, coil diameter, wire thickness and coil spacing; however, pitch has the greatest effect on electromagnetic performance. The present study explores this effect by using helical elements to construct a chiral medium that can be mechanically stretched to adjust pitch. This adjustment directly affects the overall chirality of the composite. A prototype sample of the composite, fabricated for operation between 5.5–12.5 GHz, demonstrates repeatable elastic deformation. Using a transmit/receive measurement setup, the composite scattering response is measured over the frequency interval. The results indicate substantial tuning of chirality through deformation. An increase in axial strain of up to 30% yields a ∼18% change in axial chirality. (paper)

  19. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Feasibility of weight estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Carole R; Pabia, Mica; Sawyer, Michael; Tang, Patricia A

    2017-09-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to infuse a 46-h fluorouracil protocol and patients are asked to visually inspect the pump daily. The pump has a variability of ±10% and there are additional patient variables that can increase this. The feasibility of weighing the pump rather than a visual inspection along with the secondary objective to confirm the pump's variability in real world conditions was undertaken. Methods Empty pumps were weighed using both pharmacy and kitchen scales. Pumps upon completion of the 46-h infusion were also weighed using both pharmacy and kitchen scales. Results The kitchen scale was as accurate as the pharmacy grade scale. Disconnected pumps showed the expected variability from using these infusor pumps along with a few showing greater variability likely due to patient variables. Conclusion Weighing pumps appears to be feasible both at the pharmacy and home level. Next steps would be to weigh pumps during the infusion to validate an alternate method to simple visual inspection for patients to confirm proper infusing of the pump at their home.

  20. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60 (20 KGy gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination, Group 2 (70°GL alcohol, Group 3 (autoclave, Group 4 (ultraviolet, Group 5 (peracetic acid and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde. After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL, and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  1. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  2. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  3. Elastomeric Cellular Structure Enhanced by Compressible Liquid Filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yueting; Xu, Xiaoqing; Xu, Chengliang; Qiao, Yu; Li, Yibing

    2016-05-01

    Elastomeric cellular structures provide a promising solution for energy absorption. Their flexible and resilient nature is particularly relevant to protection of human bodies. Herein we develop an elastomeric cellular structure filled with nanoporous material functionalized (NMF) liquid. Due to the nanoscale infiltration in NMF liquid and its interaction with cell walls, the cellular structure has a much enhanced mechanical performance, in terms of loading capacity and energy absorption density. Moreover, it is validated that the structure is highly compressible and self-restoring. Its hyper-viscoelastic characteristics are elucidated.

  4. Thermal and bonding properties of nano size carbon black filled PDMS

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available is varied from 10% to 25%. The mechanical property is characterized by testing the bond strength of the bond between pure PDMS and PDMS-CB composite. The bond between pure PDMS and 10% carbon black filled PDMS broke at 0.72 MPa. The bond has become very...

  5. Design and fabrication of microfluidic mixer from carbonyl iron–PDMS composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jiaxing; Zhang, Mengying; Wang, Limu; Li, Weihua; Sheng, Ping; Wen, Weijia

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a carbonyl iron-PDMS (CI-PDMS) composite magnetic elastomer in which carbonyl iron (CI) particles are uniformly distributed in a PDMS matrix. The CI particles and the PDMS were mixed at different weight ratios and tested

  6. Viscoelastic nature of Au nanoparticle–PDMS nanocomposite gels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1Chemistry and Physics of Materials Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research,. Bangalore ... enhanced thermal stability.3 These unique properties have ..... (loss modulus) and G (storage modulus) for plain PDMS gel.

  7. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigild, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au)

  8. Elastomeric neutron shielding material and process of production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, G.; Knorr, W.

    1987-01-01

    Elastomeric neutron shielding material made of plastic with high hydrogen content, characterized in that the shielding material is a polymeric reaction product of a reaction between (a) polyol on the base of polybutadiene which compares with polyethylene with regard to hydrogen content, and (b) aliphatic diisocyanate, and in that the hydrogen content is higher than 8 weight per cent. (orig.) [de

  9. Benchtop fabrication of PDMS microstructures by an unconventional photolithographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chang Mo; Sim, Woo Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Foudeh, Amir M; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microstructures have been widely used in bio-microelectromechanical systems (bio-MEMS) for various types of analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, PDMS-based soft lithographic techniques still use conventional microfabrication processes to generate a master mold, which requires access to clean room facilities and costly equipment. With the increasing use of these systems in various fields, the development of benchtop systems for fabricating microdevices is emerging as an important challenge in their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a simple, low-cost and rapid method to fabricate PDMS microstructures by using micropatterned poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) master molds. In this method, PEGDA microstructures were patterned on a glass substrate by photolithography under ambient conditions and by using simple tools. The resulting PEGDA structures were subsequently used to generate PDMS microstructures by standard molding in a reproducible and repeatable manner. The thickness of the PEGDA microstructures was controllable from 15 to 300 μm by using commonly available spacer materials. We also demonstrate the use of this method to fabricate microfluidic channels capable of generating concentration gradients. In addition, we fabricated PEGDA microstructures by photolithography from the light generated from commonly available laminar cell culture hood. These data suggest that this approach could be beneficial for fabricating low-cost PDMS-based microdevices in resource limited settings.

  10. Fs-laser processing of medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanasov, P.A., E-mail: paatanas@ie.bas.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Stankova, N.E.; Nedyalkov, N.N. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Blvd., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Fukata, N. [International Centre for Materials for NanoArchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz Institute of Surface Modification (IOM), Permoserstrasse 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Amoruso, S.; Wang, X. [Dipartimento di Fisica Università degli Studi di Napoli Federico II and CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario di Monte S.Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Fs-laser (263, 527 and 1055 nm) processing of PDMS-elastomer is studied. • High quality trenches are produced on the PDMS surface. • The trenches are analyzed by Laser Microscope and by μ-Raman spectrometry. • Selective Ni metallization of the trenches is accomplished via electro-less plating. • The metalized trenches are studied by SEM. - Abstract: Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a biomaterial widely used in medicine and high-tech devices, e.g. MEMS and NEMS. In this work, we report an experimental investigation on femtosecond laser processing of PDMS-elastomer with near infrared (NIR), visible (VIS) and ultraviolet (UV) pulses. High definition trenches are produced by varying processing parameters as laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlap of the subsequent pulses. The sample surface morphology and chemical composition are investigated by Laser Microscopy, SEM and Raman spectroscopy, addressing the effects of the various processing parameters through comparison with the native materials characteristics. For all the laser pulse wavelengths used, the produced tracks are successfully metalized with Ni via electro-less plating method. We observe a negligible influence of the time interval elapsed between laser treatment and metallization process. Our experimental findings suggest promising perspectives of femtosecond laser pulses in micro- and nano-fabrication of hi-tech PDMS devices.

  11. Nanooxide/Polymer Composites with Silica@PDMS and Ceria-Zirconia-Silica@PDMS: Textural, Morphological, and Hydrophilic/Hydrophobic Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulym, Iryna; Goncharuk, Olena; Sternik, Dariusz; Terpilowski, Konrad; Derylo-Marczewska, Anna; Borysenko, Mykola V; Gun'ko, Vladimir M

    2017-12-01

    SiO 2 @PDMS and CeO 2 -ZrO 2 -SiO 2 @PDMS nanocomposites were prepared and studied using nitrogen adsorption-desorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), measurements of advancing and receding contact angles with water, and microcalorimetry. The pore size distributions indicate that the textural characteristics change after oxide modification by poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Composites are characterized by mainly mesoporosity and macroporosity of aggregates of oxide nanoparticles or oxide@PDMS nanoparticles and their agglomerates. The FT-IR spectra show that PDMS molecules cover well the oxide surface, since the intensity of the band of free silanols at 3748 cm -1 decreases with increasing PDMS concentration and it is absent in the IR spectrum at C PDMS  ≥ 20 wt% that occurs due to the hydrogen bonding of the PDMS molecules to the surface hydroxyls. SEM images reveal that the inter-particle voids are gradually filled and aggregates are re-arranged and increase from 20 to 200 nm in size with the increasing polymer concentration. The highest hydrophobicity (contact angle θ = 140° at C PDMS  = 20-40 wt%) is obtained for the CeO 2 -ZrO 2 -SiO 2 @PDMS nanocomposites. The heat of composite immersion in water shows a tendency to decrease with increasing PDMS concentration.

  12. Design and Fabrication of a PDMS Microchip Based Immunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao, Guocheng; Wang, Wanjun; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication process of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchip for on-chip multiplex immunoassay application. The microchip consists of a PDMS microfluidic channel layer and a micro pneumatic valve control layer. By selectively pressurizing the pneumatic microvalves, immuno reagents were controlled to flow and react in certain fluidic channel sites. Cross contamination was prevented by tightly closed valves. Our design was proposed to utilize PDMS micro channel surface as the solid phase immunoassay substrate and simultaneously detect four targets antigens on chip. Experiment result shows that 20psi valve pressure is sufficient to tightly close a 200µm wide micro channel with flow rate up to 20µl/min.

  13. Applying the vantage PDMS to jack-up drilling ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Peng; Chen, Yuan-Ming; Cui, Tong-Kai; Wang, Zi-Shen; Gong, Li-Jiang; Yu, Xiang-Fen

    2009-09-01

    The plant design management system (PDMS) is an integrated application which includes a database and is useful when designing complex 3-D industrial projects. It could be used to simplify the most difficult part of a subsea oil extraction project—detailed pipeline design. It could also be used to integrate the design of equipment, structures, HVAC, E-ways as well as the detailed designs of other specialists. This article mainly examines the applicability of the Vantage PDMS database to pipeline projects involving jack-up drilling ships. It discusses the catalogue (CATA) of the pipeline, the spec-world (SPWL) of the pipeline, the bolt tables (BLTA) and so on. This article explains the main methods for CATA construction as well as problem in the process of construction. In this article, the authors point out matters needing attention when using the Vantage PDMS database in the design process and discuss partial solutions to these questions.

  14. Soft and flexible conductive PDMS/MWCNT composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    (trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was used to pre-disperse MWCNT in a MWCNT/IL-gel that was used for preparation of MWCVNT/PDMS composites. The method was seen to be effective at low levels of MWCNT, but required combination with a roll mill to obtain a stable dispersion at 4 wt % MWCNT. With higher amounts of MWCNT a reduction...... for preparation of MWCNT/PDMS composites. Composites prepared by use of the IL dispersion method, use of a roll mill or by use of the f-MWCNT all had conductivities around 0.005–0.01 s/cm and retained conductivity upon extension....

  15. Static friction between silicon nanowires and elastomeric substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingquan; Zhu, Yong

    2011-09-27

    This paper reports the first direct measurements of static friction force and interfacial shear strength between silicon (Si) nanowires (NWs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). A micromanipulator is used to manipulate and deform the NWs under a high-magnification optical microscope in real time. The static friction force is measured based on "the most-bent state" of the NWs. The static friction and interface shear strength are found to depend on the ultraviolet/ozone (UVO) treatment of PDMS. The shear strength starts at 0.30 MPa without UVO treatment, increases rapidly up to 10.57 MPa at 60 min of treatment and decreases for longer treatment. Water contact angle measurements suggest that the UVO-induced hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic conversion of PDMS surface is responsible for the increase in the static friction, while the hydrophobic recovery effect contributes to the decrease. The static friction between NWs and PDMS is of critical relevance to many device applications of NWs including NW-based flexible/stretchable electronics, NW assembly and nanocomposites (e.g., supercapacitors). Our results will enable quantitative interface design and control for such applications. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  16. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang; Chen, Guang; Hickner, Michael A.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst

  17. PDMS/glass microfluidic cell culture system for cytotoxicity tests and cells passage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ziolkowska, K.; Jedrych, E.; Kwapiszewski, R.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid (PDMS/glass) microfluidic cell culture system (MCCS) integrated with the concentration gradient generator (CGG) is presented. PDMS gas permeability enabled cells' respiration in the fabricated microdevices and excellent glass hydrophilicity allowed successful cells' seeding...

  18. Surface morphology of PS-PDMS diblock copolymer films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T.H.; Tougaard, S.; Larsen, N.B.

    2001-01-01

    Spin coated thin films (∼400 Å) of poly(styrene)–poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS–PDMS) diblock copolymers have been investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. Surface segregation of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) blocks was studied for five diblock copolymers which ra...

  19. PMMA highlights the layering transition of PDMS in Langmuir films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Leermakers, F.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report a system consisting of a mixed Langmuir monolayer, made of water-insoluble, spreadable, fluid-like polymers polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) with a minority P(DMS-b-MMA) copolymer. We have performed both Langmuir trough pressure/area isotherm measurements and

  20. Mesomorphic phase behaviour of low molar mass PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers synthesized by anionic polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigild, M.E.

    1997-10-01

    The phase behaviour of low molar mass poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) -poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PEP-PDMS) is investigated in this thesis by the combination of dynamical mechanical spectroscopy (rheology) to measure phase transition temperatures, and small-angle x-ray scattering to identify the morphology of encountered phases. Samples of PEP-PDMS in the range of 0.2-0.7 in volume fraction of PEP are studied. This diblock copolymer system exhibits the three classical phases of lamellar sandwich structure (LAM), hexagonally packed cylinders (HEX), and spheres arranged on a body centered cubic lattice (BCC). Furthermore the gyroid phase (Ia3d symmetry) of two interpenetrating networks was also identified as a stable phase of the PEP-PDMS system. Time resolved measurements of small-angle neutron scattering in tandem with simultaneous in-situ rheological measurements are performed on samples showing transitions between different ordered phases. The identification of especially the BCC and gyroid phases from scattering experiments is treated. By performing mesoscopic crystallographic measurements using a custom built goniometer it was unambiguously shown that the application of shear to an unoriented powder-like sample introduces uniaxial orientation of the gyroid phase. The orientation of the ordered phase is otherwise random, causing a two-dimensional powder. Finally this dissertation presents a discussion of relevant parameters for the description of diblock copolymer phase behaviour together with descriptions of anionic polymerization for the synthesis of copolymers, and various experimental techniques for the characterization of diblocks. (au). 9 tabs., 40 ills., 81 refs.

  1. Three-Dimensional Elastomeric Scaffolds Designed with Cardiac-Mimetic Structural and Mechanical Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Rebekah A.; Jean, Aurélie; Park, Hyoungshin; Wu, Patrick B.; Hsiao, James; Engelmayr, George C.; Langer, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Tissue-engineered constructs, at the interface of material science, biology, engineering, and medicine, have the capacity to improve outcomes for cardiac patients by providing living cells and degradable biomaterials that can regenerate the native myocardium. With an ultimate goal of both delivering cells and providing mechanical support to the healing heart, we designed three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric scaffolds with (1) stiffnesses and anisotropy mimicking explanted myocardial specimens as predicted by finite-element (FE) modeling, (2) systematically varied combinations of rectangular pore pattern, pore aspect ratio, and strut width, and (3) structural features approaching tissue scale. Based on predicted mechanical properties, three scaffold designs were selected from eight candidates for fabrication from poly(glycerol sebacate) by micromolding from silicon wafers. Large 20×20 mm scaffolds with high aspect ratio features (5:1 strut height:strut width) were reproducibly cast, cured, and demolded at a relatively high throughput. Empirically measured mechanical properties demonstrated that scaffolds were cardiac mimetic and validated FE model predictions. Two-layered scaffolds providing fully interconnected pore networks were fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly. C2C12 myoblasts cultured on one-layered scaffolds exhibited specific patterns of cell elongation and interconnectivity that appeared to be guided by the scaffold pore pattern. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured on two-layered scaffolds for 1 week were contractile, both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation, and expressed sarcomeric α-actinin, a cardiac biomarker. This work not only demonstrated several scaffold designs that promoted functional assembly of rat heart cells, but also provided the foundation for further computational and empirical investigations of 3D elastomeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. PMID:23190320

  2. Compaction of PDMS due to proton beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilasi, S.Z.; Huszank, R.; Rajta, I.; Kokavecz, J.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. This work is about the detailed investigation of the changes of the surface topography, the degree of compaction/shrinkage and its relation to the irradiation fluence and the structure spacing in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) patterned with 2 MeV proton microbeam. Sylgard 184 kit (Dow-Corning) was used to create the PDMS samples. The density of the PDMS samples was determined with pycnometer. The penetration depth for 2 MeV protons is ∼85 μm, the PDMS layer was ∼95 μm thick, so the incident protons stop in the PDMS, they do not reach the substrate. The irradiations have been performed at the nuclear microprobe facility at ATOMKI. The irradiated periodic structures consisted of parallel lines with different widths and spacing. To achieve different degrees of compaction, each structure was irradiated with five different fluences. The surface topography, the phase modification of the surface, and the connection between them were revealed using an atomic force microscope (AFM PSIA XE 100). The shrinkage data were obtained from the topography images. The structures with different line widths and spacing show different degrees of compaction as a function of irradiation fluence. By plotting them in the same graph (Fig. 1) it is clearly seen that the degree of compaction depends on both the irradiation fluence and the distance of the structures. The fluence dependence of the compaction can be explained with the chemical changes of PDMS. When an energetic ion penetrates through the material it scissions the polymer chain, whereupon among other things volatile products form. In the case of PDMS, these are mainly hydrogen, methane and ethane gases that can be released from PDMS. The irradiated volume shrinks due to significant structural change during which silicate derivatives (SiO x ) are formed. The phase change and the corresponding surface topography was compared and studied at all applied irradiation fluences. It was concluded

  3. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRONOWSKI,DAVID R.

    2000-06-01

    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  4. Interaction of Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings in Bridge Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittmannová Ľubica

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of reinforced elastomeric bearings under various loads. They are made of special types of bearings. The experimental verification of these special bearings has been tested on various types of loading. The results of the experimental measurements are compared with the results of the numerical modeling and calculations according to the standard assumptions in STN EN 1337-3. In the conclusion, the results are summarized for the selected types of bearings.

  5. Visualization of the distribution of surface-active block copolymers in PDMS-based coatings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noguer, A. Camós; Latipov, R.; Madsen, F. B.

    2018-01-01

    the distribution and release of these block copolymers from PDMS-based coatings has been previously reported. However, the distribution and behaviour of these compounds in the bulk of the PDMS coating are not fully understood. A novel fluorescent-labelled triblock PEG-b-PDMS-b-PEG copolymer was synthesized...... results in non-specific protein adsorption and wettability issues. Poly(ethylene glycol)-based surface-active block copolymers and surfactants have been added to PDMS coatings and films to impart biofouling resistance and hydrophilicity to the PDMS surface with successful results. Information regarding...

  6. Porous PDMS structures for the storage and release of aqueous solutions into fluidic environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurgood, Peter; Baratchi, Sara; Szydzik, Crispin; Mitchell, Arnan; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar

    2017-07-11

    Typical microfluidic systems take advantage of multiple storage reservoirs, pumps and valves for the storage, driving and release of buffers and other reagents. However, the fabrication, integration, and operation of such components can be difficult. In particular, the reliance of such components on external off-chip equipment limits their utility for creating self-sufficient, stand-alone microfluidic systems. Here, we demonstrate a porous sponge made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which is fabricated by templating microscale water droplets using a T-junction microfluidic structure. High-resolution microscopy reveals that this sponge contains a network of pores, interconnected by small holes. This unique structure enables the sponge to passively release stored solutions very slowly. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the sponge can be used for the passive release of stored solutions into narrow channels and circular well plates, with the latter used for inducing intracellular calcium signalling of immobilised endothelial cells. The release rate of stored solutions can be controlled by varying the size of interconnecting holes, which can be easily achieved by changing the flow rate of the water injected into the T-junction. We also demonstrate the active release of stored liquids into a fluidic channel upon the manual compression of the sponge. The developed PDMS sponge can be easily integrated into complex micro/macro fluidic systems and prepared with a wide array of reagents, representing a new building block for self-sufficient microfluidic systems.

  7. Osteogenic differentiation on DLC-PDMS-h surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soininen, Antti; Kaivosoja, Emilia; Sillat, Tarvo; Virtanen, Sannakaisa; Konttinen, Yrjö T; Tiainen, Veli-Matti

    2014-10-01

    The hypothesis was that anti-fouling diamond-like carbon polydimethylsiloxane hybrid (DLC-PDMS-h) surface impairs early and late cellular adhesion and matrix-cell interactions. The effect of hybrid surface on cellular adhesion and cytoskeletal organization, important for osteogenesis of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSC), where therefore compared with plain DLC and titanium (Ti). hMSCs were induced to osteogenesis and followed over time using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and hydroxyapatite (HA) staining. SEM at 7.5 hours showed that initial adherence and spreading of hMSC was poor on DLC-PDMS-h. At 5 days some hMSC were undergoing condensation and apoptotic fragmentation, whereas cells on DLC and Ti grew well. DAPI-actin-vinculin triple staining disclosed dwarfed cells with poorly organized actin cytoskeleton-focal complex/adhesion-growth substrate attachments on hybrid coating, whereas spread cells, organized microfilament bundles, and focal adhesions were seen on DLC and in particular on Ti. Accordingly, at day one ToF-SIMS mass peaks showed poor protein adhesion to DLC-PDMS-h compared with DLC and Ti. COL1A1, ALP, OP mRNA levels at days 0, 7, 14, 21, and/or 28 and lack of HA deposition at day 28 demonstrated delayed or failed osteogenesis on DLC-PDMS-h. Anti-fouling DLC-PDMS-h is a poor cell adhesion substrate during the early protein adsorption-dependent phase and extracellular matrix-dependent late phase. Accordingly, some hMSCs underwent anoikis-type apoptosis and failed to complete osteogenesis, due to few focal adhesions and poor cell-to-ECM contacts. DLC-PDMS-h seems to be a suitable coating for non-integrating implants/devices designed for temporary use. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Carbon doped PDMS: conductance stability over time and implications for additive manufacturing of stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Rocha, Rui; Osorio, Luis; Almeida, Miguel; De Almeida, Anibal; Ramachandran, Vivek; Tabatabai, Arya; Lu, Tong; Majidi, Carmel

    2017-01-01

    Carbon doped PDMS (cPDMS), has been used as a conductive polymer for stretchable electronics. Compared to liquid metals, cPDMS is low cost and is easier to process or to print with an additive manufacturing process. However, changes on the conductance of the carbon based conductive PDMS (cPDMS) were observed over time, in particular after integration of cPDMS and the insulating polymer. In this article we investigate the process parameters that lead to improved stability over conductance of the cPDMS over time. Slight modifications to the fabrication process parameters were conducted and changes on the conductance of the samples for each method were monitored. Results suggested that change of the conductance happens mostly after integration of a pre-polymer over a cured cPDMS, and not after integration of the cPDMS over a cured insulating polymer. We show that such changes can be eliminated by adjusting the integration priority between the conductive and insulating polymers, by selecting the right curing temperature, changing the concentration of the carbon particles and the thickness of the conductive traces, and when possible by changing the insulating polymer material. In this way, we obtained important conclusions regarding the effect of these parameters on the change of the conductance over time, that should be considered for additive manufacturing of soft electronics. Also, we show that these changes can be possibly due to the diffusion from PDMS into cPDMS. (paper)

  9. Design and fabrication of microfluidic mixer from carbonyl iron–PDMS composite membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Jiaxing

    2010-10-12

    This paper introduces a carbonyl iron-PDMS (CI-PDMS) composite magnetic elastomer in which carbonyl iron (CI) particles are uniformly distributed in a PDMS matrix. The CI particles and the PDMS were mixed at different weight ratios and tested to determine the influence of CI concentration. The magnetic and mechanical properties of the magnetic elastomers were characterized, respectively, by vibrating-sample magnetometer and by tensile testing using a mechanical analyzer. The elastomer was found to exhibit high magnetization and good mechanical flexibility. The morphology and deformation of the CI-PDMS membrane also were observed. A magnetically actuated microfluidic mixer (that is, a micromixer) integrated with CI-PDMS elastomer membranes was successfully designed and fabricated. The high efficiency and quality of the mixing makes possible the impressive potential applications of this unique CI-PDMS material in microfluidic systems. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

  10. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  11. Adjustment of Part Properties for an Elastomeric Laser Sintering Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, A.; Ünlü, T.

    2018-03-01

    Laser sintering of polymers is gaining more and more importance within the field of small series productions. Polyamide 12 is predominantly used, although a variety of other materials are also available for the laser sintering process. For example, elastomeric, rubberlike materials offer very different part property profiles. Those make the production of flexible parts like, e.g., sealings, flexible tubes or shoe soles possible because they offer high part ductility and low hardness. At the chair for manufacturing technology, a new elastomeric laser sintering material has been developed and then commercialized by a spin-off from university. The aim of the presented study was the analysis of the new material's properties. Proof was found that Shore hardness can be modified by varying the parameter settings. Therefore, the correlation between process parameters, energy input, Shore hardness and other part properties like mechanical properties were analyzed. Based on these results, suitable parameter settings were established which lead to the possibility of producing parts with different Shore hardnesses.

  12. Mechanically programmed shape change in laminated elastomeric composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Jaimee M; Torbati, Amir H; Rodriguez, Erika D; Mao, Yiqi; Baker, Richard M; Qi, H Jerry; Mather, Patrick T

    2015-07-28

    Soft, anisotropic materials, such as myocardium in the heart and the extracellular matrix surrounding cells, are commonly found in nature. This anisotropy leads to specialized responses and is imperative to material functionality, yet few soft materials exhibiting similar anisotropy have been developed. Our group introduced an anisotropic shape memory elastomeric composite (A-SMEC) composed of non-woven, aligned polymer fibers embedded in an elastomeric matrix. The composite exhibited shape memory (SM) behavior with significant anisotropy in room-temperature shape fixing. Here, we exploit this anisotropy by bonding together laminates with oblique anisotropy such that tensile deformation at room temperature - mechanical programming - results in coiling. This response is a breakthrough in mechanical programming, since non-affine shape change is achieved by simply stretching the layered A-SMECs at room temperature. We will show that pitch and curvature of curled geometries depend on fiber orientations and the degree of strain programmed into the material. To validate experimental results, a model was developed that captures the viscoplastic response of A-SMECs. Theoretical results correlated well with experimental data, supporting our conclusions and ensuring attainability of predictable curling geometries. We envision these smart, soft, shape changing materials will have aerospace and medical applications.

  13. Cleaning of nanopillar templates for nanoparticle collection using PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merzsch, S.; Wasisto, H. S.; Waag, A.; Kirsch, I.; Uhde, E.; Salthammer, T.; Peiner, E.

    2011-05-01

    Nanoparticles are easily attracted by surfaces. This sticking behavior makes it difficult to clean contaminated samples. Some complex approaches have already shown efficiencies in the range of 90%. However, a simple and cost efficient method was still missing. A commonly used silicone for soft lithography, PDMS, is able to mold a given surface. This property was used to cover surface-bonded particles from all other sides. After hardening the PDMS, particles are still embedded. A separation of silicone and sample disjoins also the particles from the surface. After this procedure, samples are clean again. This method was first tested with carbon particles on Si surfaces and Si pillar samples with aspect ratios up to 10. Experiments were done using 2 inch wafers, which, however, is not a size limitation for this method.

  14. Development of piping support structure design software based on PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yongtao; Guan Hui; Su Rongfu; Huang Wei; Mao Huihui

    2014-01-01

    In order to enhance the efficiency of nuclear power process system piping support design, the veracity of interface with support, piping and anchor, and decrease the clash between supports and other disciplines, developed piping support structure design software NPHS based on PDMS independently. That achieved the seamless integration of PDMS and NPHS by method of embedded development, reduce the size of program code, improve the running efficiency; That predigested the 3D modeling and information storage for support parts, that increased the support database opening and maintenance using the special mechanism and configuration of database. The support modeling efficiency due to setting of the connection key point of support parts is improved. Practices in several real nuclear power projects proved that NPHS software is provided with such outstanding performances: quick running, strong stability, accurate data, easy to operate and maintain, and output results satisfied the engineering requirements. (authors)

  15. Engineers are from PDMS-land, Biologists are from Polystyrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthier, Erwin; Young, Edmond W K; Beebe, David

    2012-04-07

    As the integration of microfluidics into cell biology research proceeds at an ever-increasing pace, a critical question for those working at the interface of both disciplines is which device material to use for a given application. While PDMS and soft lithography methods offer the engineer rapid prototyping capabilities, PDMS as a material has characteristics that have known adverse effects on cell-based experiments. In contrast, while polystyrene (PS), the most commonly used thermoplastic for laboratory cultureware, has provided decades of grounded and validated research conclusions in cell behavior and function, PS as a material has posed significant challenges in microfabrication. These competing issues have forced microfluidics engineers and biologists to make compromises in how they approach specific research questions, and furthermore, have attenuated the impact of microfluidics on biological research. In this review, we provide a comparison of the attributes of PDMS and PS, and discuss reasons for their popularity in their respective fields. We provide a critical evaluation of the strengths and limitations of PDMS and PS in relation to the advancement and future impact on microfluidic cell-based studies and applications. We believe that engineers have a responsibility to overcome any challenges associated with microfabrication, whether with PS or other materials, and that engineers should provide options and solutions that assist biologists in their experimental design. Our goal is not to advocate for any specific material, but provide guidelines for researchers who desire to choose the most suitable material for their application, and suggest important research directions for engineers working at the interface between microfabrication technology and biological application. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012

  16. Viscoelasticity of Brownian Carbon Nanotubes in PDMS Semidilute Regime

    OpenAIRE

    MARCEAU, Sandrine; DUBOIS, Philippe; FULCHIRON, René; CASSAGNAU, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the linear viscoelasticity of diluted suspension of MWNT spread in PDMS. Specifically, we focus our attention on both the CNT relaxation in semidilute conditions and the concept of percolation threshold for such system. Finally, the results, and mainly the concentration dependence of the zero-shear viscosity and mean relaxation time, will be discussed within the Doi−Edwards theory framework on molecular dynamic of rigid rods in a semi...

  17. Patterning conductive PDMS nanocomposite in an elastomer using microcontact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Chao-Xuan; Choi, Jin-Woo

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a simple method of embedding conductive and flexible elastomer micropatterns into a bulk elastomer. Employing microcontact printing and cast molding techniques, patterns consisting of conductive poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) composites mixed with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) are embedded into bulk PDMS to form all-elastomer devices. To pattern conductive composites, a micromachined printing mold is utilized to transfer composite ink from a spin-coated thin layer to another substrate. Distinct from previously reported approaches, the printing mold in this technique, once fabricated, can be repeatedly used to generate new patterns and therefore greatly simplifies the device fabrication process and improves its efficiency. Manufactured devices with embedded conductive patterns exhibit excellent mechanical flexibility. With characterization of printing reliability, electrical conductivity of the composites is also shown with different loading percentages of MWCNTs. Furthermore, a simple strain gauge was fabricated and tested to demonstrate the potential applications of embedded conductive patterns. Overall, this approach demonstrates feasibility to be a simple method to pattern conductive elastomers that work as electrodes or sensing probes in PDMS-based devices. With further development, this technology yields many potential applications in lab-on-a-chip systems

  18. A guide to the suitability of elastomeric seal materials for use in radioactive material transport packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vince, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Elastomeric seals are a frequently favoured method of sealing Radioactive Material Transport (RMT) packages. The sealing technology has been proven for many years in a wide range of industrial applications. The requirements of the RMT package applications, however, are significantly different from those commonly found in other industries. This guide outlines the Regulatory performance requirements placed on an RMT package sealing system by TS-R-1, and then summarises the material, environment and geometry characteristics of elastomeric seals relevant to RMT applications. Tables in the guide list typical material properties for a range of elastomeric materials commonly used in RMT packages

  19. Preparation and Property Research of Strain Sensor Based on PDMS and Silver Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihua Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the advantages and broad applications of stretchable strain sensors, this study reports a simple method to fabricate a highly sensitive strain sensor with Ag nanomaterials-polydimethylsiloxane (AgNMs-PDMS to create a synergic conductive network and a sandwich-structure. Three Ag nanomaterial samples were synthesized by controlling the concentrations of the FeCl3 solution and reaction time via the heat polyols thermal method. The AgNMs network’s elastomer nanocomposite-based strain sensors show strong piezoresistivity with a high gauge factor of 547.8 and stretchability from 0.81% to 7.26%. The application of our high-performance strain sensors was demonstrated by the inducting finger of the motion detection. These highly sensitive sensors conform to the current trends of flexible electronics and have prospects for broad application.

  20. Elastomeric polymer resonant waveguide grating based pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Fuchuan; Xie, Antonio Jou; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an elastomeric polymer resonant waveguide grating structure to be used as a pressure sensor. The applied pressure is measured by optical resonance spectrum peak shift. The sensitivity—as high as 86.74 pm psi −1 or 12.58 pm kPa −1 —has been experimentally obtained from a fabricated sensor. Potentially, the sensitivity of the demonstrated sensor can be tuned to different pressure ranges by the choices of elastic properties and layer thicknesses of the waveguide and cladding layers. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and indicate that the dominant effect on the sensor is the change of grating period when external pressure is applied. Based on the two-dimensional planar structure, the demonstrated sensor can be used to measure applied surface pressure optically, which has potential applications for optical ultrasound imaging and pressure wave detection/mapping

  1. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using elastomeric bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Seismic isolation using low damping rubber (LDR) and lead-rubber (LR) bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 has led the nuclear community to consider seismic isolation for new large light water and small modular reactors to withstand the effects of extreme earthquakes. The mechanical properties of LDR and LR bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead-rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the horizontal displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) were investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead-rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees and ABAQUS. A series of experiments were conducted at University at Buffalo to characterize the behavior of elastomeric bearings in tension. The test data was used to validate a phenomenological model of an elastomeric bearing in tension. The value of three times the shear modulus of rubber in elastomeric bearing was found to be a reasonable estimate of the cavitation stress of a bearing. The sequence of loading did not change the behavior of an elastomeric bearing under cyclic tension, and there was no

  2. Soft lithography of ceramic microparts using wettability-tunable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Bo; Zhang, Aijun; Meng, Junhu; Zhang, Zhaozhu

    2016-01-01

    Green alumina microparts were fabricated from a high solid content aqueous suspension by microtransfer molding using air plasma-treated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) molds. The wettability of the air plasma-treated PDMS molds spontaneously changed between the hydrophilic and hydrophobic states during the process. Initial hydrophilicity of the air plasma-treated PDMS molds significantly improved the flowability of the concentrated suspension. Subsequent hydrophobic recovery of the air plasma-treated PDMS molds enabled a perfect demolding of the green microparts. Consequently, defect-free microchannel parts of 60 μ m and a micromixer with an area of several square centimeters were successfully fabricated. In soft lithography, tuning the wetting behavior of PDMS molds has a great effect on the quality of ceramic microparts. Using wettability-tunable PDMS molds has great potential in producing complex-shaped and large-area ceramic microparts and micropatterns. (paper)

  3. Linear dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrofé, Analía B; Ferrari, Beatriz A; Picca, Mariana; Kaplan, Andrea E

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional stability of different elastomeric impression materials over time. A metal mold was designed with its custom trays, which were made of thermoplastic sheets (Sabilex sheets 0.125 mm thick). Three impressions were taken of it with each of the following: the polyvinylsiloxane Examix-GC-(AdEx), Aquasil-Dentsply-(AdAq) and Panasil-Kettenbach-(AdPa), and the polydimethylsiloxane Densell-Dental Medrano-(CoDe), Speedex-Coltene-(CoSp) and Lastic-Kettenbach-(CoLa). All impressions were taken with putty and light-body materials using a one-step technique. Standardized digital photographs were taken at different time intervals (0, 15, 30, 60, 120 minutes; 24 hours; 7 and 14 days), using an "ad-hoc" device, and analyzed using software (Image Tool) by measuring the distance between lines previously made at the top of the mold. The results were analyzed by ANOVA for repeated measures. The initial and final values for mean and SD were: AdEx: 1.32 (0.01) and 1.31 (0.00); AdAq: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.00), AdPa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00); CoDe: 1.32 (0.00) and 1.32 (0.01); CoSp: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.31 (0.00), CoLa: 1.327 (0.006) and 1.303 (0.006). Statistical evaluation showed that both material and time have significant effects. Under the conditions in this study we conclude that time would significantly affect the lineal dimensional stability of elastomeric impression materials.

  4. Engineered elastomeric proteins with dual elasticity can be controlled by a molecular regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Li, Hongbin

    2008-08-01

    Elastomeric proteins are molecular springs that confer excellent mechanical properties to many biological tissues and biomaterials. Depending on the role performed by the tissue or biomaterial, elastomeric proteins can behave as molecular springs or shock absorbers. Here we combine single-molecule atomic force microscopy and protein engineering techniques to create elastomeric proteins that can switch between two distinct types of mechanical behaviour in response to the binding of a molecular regulator. The proteins are mechanically labile by design and behave as entropic springs with an elasticity that is governed by their configurational entropy. However, when a molecular regulator binds to the protein, it switches into a mechanically stable state and can act as a shock absorber. These engineered proteins effectively mimic and combine the two extreme forms of elastic behaviour found in natural elastomeric proteins, and thus represent a new type of smart nanomaterial that will find potential applications in nanomechanics and material sciences.

  5. Flexible Connection Elastomeric Rubber as a Pounding Resisting Element between Two Adjacent Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuskar Lase

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available To solve pounding problem of two adjacent buildings, structural designer usually employs a dilatation between the structures or make the two structures as a monolith structure. Other alternative is by using an elastomeric rubber as a pounding resisting element between the two structures. Effectiveness in applying elastomeric rubber component as flexible connection of two adjacent structures is the main focus of this paper. Various simulations such as structure models, earthquake excitations and openings in gap element are studied. Observation of maximum structural responses will be performed for structure model with elastomeric rubber in comparison with (1 monolith structure model and (2 structure model with rigid element (steel element. Simulation results show that application of elastomeric rubber component to prevent structures from pounding problem provides advantages especially in reducing internal forces in the shorter building. However, it slightly increases displacement of both structures.

  6. Correlation between in vitro Elastomeric Force Degradation and Glass Transition Temperature determined by Dynamic Mechanical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu Krishnan

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Tg can be considered as a dependable parameter in envisaging the force properties of an elastomeric chain. Clinically, it suggested that a polymer with higher Tg can give higher or optimum levels of force for tooth movement.

  7. 3D Printing PDMS Elastomer in a Hydrophilic Support Bath via Freeform Reversible Embedding

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton, Thomas J.; Hudson, Andrew; Pusch, Kira; Lee, Andrew; Feinberg, Adam W.

    2016-01-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is used in a wide range of biomaterial applications including microfluidics, cell culture substrates, flexible electronics, and medical devices. However, it has proved challenging to 3D print PDMS in complex structures due to its low elastic modulus and need for support during the printing process. Here we demonstrate the 3D printing of hydrophobic PDMS prepolymer resins within a hydrophilic Carbopol gel support via freeform reversible embedding (FRE). In...

  8. Evaluation of the cytotoxicity of elastomeric ligatures after sterilisation with 0.25% peracetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogerio Lacerda; Judice, Renata Lima Pasini; de Assuncao, Paulo Sergio; Restle, Luciana

    2013-11-01

    Sterilisation using peracetic acid (PAA) has been advocated for orthodontic elastic bands. However, cane-loaded elastomeric ligatures can also become contaminated during processing, packaging, and manipulation before placement in the oral cavity and are therefore susceptible, and possible causes, of cross-contamination. To test the hypothesis that 0.25% peracetic acid (PAA), following the sterilisation of elastomers, influences the cytotoxicity of elastomeric ligatures on L929 cell lines. Four hundred and eighty silver elastomeric ligatures were divided into 4 groups of 120 ligatures to produce, Group TP (latex natural, bulk pack, TP Orthodontics), Group M1 (Polyurethane, bulk pack, Morelli), Group M2 (Polyurethane, cane-loaded, Morelli) and Group U (Polyurethane, cane-loaded, Uniden). Of the 120 ligatures in each group, 100 were sterilised in 0.25% PAA at time intervals (N = 20) of 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 4 hours and 5 hours. The 20 remaining elastomeric ligatures in each group were not sterilised and served as controls. Cytotoxicity was assessed using L929 cell lines and a dye-uptake method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by the Tukey post hoc test (p < 0.05) determined statistical relevance. There was a significant difference between TP, Morelli and Uniden elastomerics (p < 0.05), but no difference between the two types of Morelli elastomerics at the 1 hour time interval. In addition, there was a significant difference between Group CC and the other groups assessed, except between Groups CC and TP at the 1 hour time interval. The non-sterilised elastomeric ligatures showed similar cell viability to that observed after 1 hour of standard sterilisation. PAA did not significantly influence the cytotoxicity of elastomeric ligatures after a sterilisation time of 1 hour and is therefore recommended for clinical use.

  9. Anti-stiction coating of PDMS moulds for rapid microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Guisheng; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2011-01-01

    ), which resulted in an anti-stiction layer for the improved release after PDMS casting. The deposition of FDTS on an O2 plasma-activated surface of PDMS produced a reproducible and well-performing anti-stiction monolayer of fluorocarbon, and we used the FDTS-coated moulds as micro-masters for rapid......In this paper, we report a simple and precise method to rapidly replicate master structures for fast microchannel fabrication by double replica moulding of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A PDMS mould was surface-treated by vapour phase deposition of 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS...

  10. Mechanically compliant electrodes and dielectric elastomers from PEG-PDMS copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2016-01-01

    Soft conducting elastomers have been prepared from polydimethylsiloxane-polyethyleneglycol (PDMS-PEG) copolymer and surfactant-stabilized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The copolymer was chain-extended with PDMS of molecular weight 17.2 kg mol-1 in order to obtain a crosslinkable PDMS...... showed high conductivity combined with inherent softness. The high conductivity and softness, PDMS-PEG copolymers with incorporated MWCNTs hold great promises as compliant and highly stretchable electrodes for stretchable devices such as electro-mechanical transducers....

  11. PDMS membranes as sensing element in optical sensors for gas detection in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Torino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS has been introduced the first time about 20years ago. This polymer is worldwide used for the rapid prototyping of microfluidic device through a replica molding process. However, the great popularity of PDMS is not only related to its easy processability, but also to its chemical and physical properties. For its interesting properties, the polymer has been implied for several applications, including sensing. In this work, we investigated how to use functionalized PDMS membranes as sensing elements in optical sensors for gas detection in water samples. Keywords: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR sensors, Gas sensor

  12. Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a PDMS/polymer tape composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungkyu; Surapaneni, Rajesh; Gale, Bruce K

    2009-05-07

    Rapid prototyping of microfluidic systems using a combination of double-sided tape and PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) is introduced. PDMS is typically difficult to bond using adhesive tapes due to its hydrophobic nature and low surface energy. For this reason, PDMS is not compatible with the xurography method, which uses a knife plotter and various adhesive coated polymer tapes. To solve these problems, a PDMS/tape composite was developed and demonstrated in microfluidic applications. The PDMS/tape composite was created by spinning it to make a thin layer of PDMS over double-sided tape. Then the PDMS/tape composite was patterned to create channels using xurography, and bonded to a PDMS slab. After removing the backing paper from the tape, a complete microfluidic system could be created by placing the construct onto nearly any substrate; including glass, plastic or metal-coated glass/silicon substrates. The bond strength was shown to be sufficient for the pressures that occur in typical microfluidic channels used for chemical or biological analysis. This method was demonstrated in three applications: standard microfluidic channels and reactors, a microfluidic system with an integrated membrane, and an electrochemical biosensor. The PDMS/tape composite rapid prototyping technique provides a fast and cost effective fabrication method and can provide easy integration of microfluidic channels with sensors and other components without the need for a cleanroom facility.

  13. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang

    2011-08-12

    In this study we demonstrate a novel approach for the rapid fabricating micro scale metal (silver) patterning directly on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate. Silver nanoparticles were sintered on PDMS to form conductive metal films using laser direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical conductivities and good film properties of the sintered silver patterns. This study reveals an advanced method of metal patterning on PDMS, and proposes a new research application of LDW in a nanoparticle colloidal environment. © 2011 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Investigation on the mechanism of nitrogen plasma modified PDMS bonding with SU-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chengxin; Yuan, Yong J., E-mail: yongyuan@swjtu.edu.cn

    2016-02-28

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Different nitrogen plasma processes modified PDMS bonding with SU-8 had been studied. • The effect of nitrogen plasma modification would produce the best result and the recovery of PDMS hydrophobicity could be delayed. - Abstract: Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and SU-8 are both widely used for microfluidic system. However, it is difficult to permanently seal SU-8 microfluidic channels using PDMS with conventional methods. Previous efforts of combining these two materials mainly employed oxygen plasma modified PDMS. The nitrogen plasma modification of PDMS bonding with SU-8 is rarely studied in recent years. In this work, the mechanism of nitrogen plasma modified PDMS bonding with SU-8 was investigated. The fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle of a water droplet were used to analyze the nitrogen plasma modified surface and the hydrophilic stability of PDMS samples. Pull-off tests were used for estimating the bonding effect of interface between nitrogen plasma modified PDMS and SU-8.

  15. Effect of proton irradiation on photoluminescent properties of PDMS-nanodiamond composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borjanovic, Vesna; Hens, Suzanne; Shenderova, Olga; McGuire, Gary E; Lawrence, William G; Edson, Clark; Jaksic, Milko; Zamboni, Ivana; Vlasov, Igor

    2008-01-01

    Pure poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films, PDMS-nanodiamond (ND) and pure nanodiamond powder were irradiated with 2 MeV protons under a variety of fluence and current conditions. Upon proton irradiation, these samples acquire a fluence-dependent photoluminescence (PL). The emission and excitation spectra, photostability and emission lifetime of the induced photoluminescence of PDMS and PDMS-ND samples are reported. Pure PDMS exhibits a noticeable stable blue PL, while the PDMS-ND composites exhibit a pronounced stable green PL under 425 nm excitation. The PL of PDMS-ND composites is much more prominent than that of pure PDMS or pure ND powder even when irradiated at higher doses. The origin of the significantly enhanced PL intensity for the proton-irradiated PDMS-ND composite is explained by the combination of enhanced intrinsic PL within ND particles due to ion-implantation-generated defects and by PL originating from structural transformations produced by protons at the nanodiamond/matrix interface.

  16. Analysis of the Influence of Food Colorings in Esthetic Orthodontic Elastomeric Ligatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias da Silva, Vanessa; de Lima, Eduardo Martinelli S; Dias, Caroline; Osório, Leandro Berni

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the color changes of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of different shades when exposed to four food colorings commonly found in the diet of patients. The sample consisted of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures in the colors pearl, pearl blue, pearl white and colorless, which were immersed for 72 hours in five different solutions: distilled water (control group), coffee, tea, Coca-Cola ® and wine. The color changes of the esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures were measured with the aid of a spectrophotometer, at T1 - as provided by the manufacturer; and T2 - after colorings process. The results indicated that the esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of all initial hues are susceptible to pigmentation. Among the evaluated colors, all changed the finished look and the color of the samples tested. In ascending order, the color of the samples was as follows: distilled water, Coca-Cola ® , black tea, wine and coffee. The substances that have a greater potential for pigmentation in esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures were black tea, wine and coffee, respectively. All shades of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures are susceptible to color change.

  17. Optical properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) during nanosecond laser processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: nestankova@yahoo.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nikov, Ru.G.; Nikov, R.G.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsaridradsko shose Boul., Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Fukata, N. [International Center for Materials for NanoArchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria)

    2016-06-30

    Highlights: • Ns-laser (266, 355, 532 and 1064 nm) processing of medical grade PDMS is performed. • Investigation of the optical transmittance as a function of the laser beam parameters. • Analyses of laser treated area by optical & laser microscope and μ-Raman spectrometry. • Application as (MEAs) neural interface for monitor and stimulation of neural activity. - Abstract: This article presents experimental investigations of effects of the process parameters on the medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer processed by laser source with irradiation at UV (266 and 355 nm), VIS (532 nm) and NIR (1064 nm). Systematic experiments are done to characterize how the laser beam parameters (wavelength, fluence, and number of pulses) affect the optical properties and the chemical composition in the laser treated areas. Remarkable changes of the optical properties and the chemical composition are observed. Despite the low optical absorption of the native PDMS for UV, VIS and NIR wavelengths, successful laser treatment is accomplished due to the incubation process occurring below the polymer surface. With increasing of the fluence and the number of the pulses chemical transformations are revealed in the entire laser treated area and hence decreasing of the optical transmittance is observed. The incubation gets saturation after a certain number of pulses and the laser ablation of the material begins efficiently. At the UV and VIS wavelengths the number of the initial pulses, at which the optical transmittance begins to reduce, decreases from 16 up to 8 with increasing of the laser fluence up to 1.0, 2.5 and 10 J cm{sup −2} for 266, 355 and 532 nm, respectively. In the case of 1064 nm the optical transmittance begins to reduce at 11th pulse incident at a fluence of 13 J cm{sup −2} and the number of the pulses decreases to 8 when the fluence reaches value of 16 J cm{sup −2}. The threshold laser fluence needed to induce incubation process after certain

  18. Static characterization of a soft elastomeric capacitor for non destructive evaluation applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Hussam; Laflamme, Simon; Zhang, Huanhuan; Geiger, Randall; Kessler, Michael; Rajan, Krishna

    2014-01-01

    A large and flexible strain transducer consisting of a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) has been proposed by the authors. Arranged in a network setup, the sensing strategy offers tremendous potential at conducting non-destructive evaluation of large-scale surfaces. In prior work, the authors have demonstrated the performance of the sensor at tracking strain history, localizing cracks, and detecting vibration signatures. In this paper, we characterize the static performance of the proposed SEC. The characterization includes sensitivity of the signal, and temperature and humidity dependences. Tests are conducted on a simply supported aluminum beam subjected to bending as well as on a free standing sensor. The performance of the SEC is compared against off-the-shelf resistance-based strain gauges with resolution of 1 με. A sensitivity of 1190 pF/ε is obtained experimentally, in agreement with theory. Results also show the sensor linearity over the given level of strain, showing the promise of the SEC at monitoring of surface strain

  19. Static characterization of a soft elastomeric capacitor for non destructive evaluation applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Hussam; Laflamme, Simon; Zhang, Huanhuan; Geiger, Randall; Kessler, Michael; Rajan, Krishna

    2014-02-01

    A large and flexible strain transducer consisting of a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) has been proposed by the authors. Arranged in a network setup, the sensing strategy offers tremendous potential at conducting non-destructive evaluation of large-scale surfaces. In prior work, the authors have demonstrated the performance of the sensor at tracking strain history, localizing cracks, and detecting vibration signatures. In this paper, we characterize the static performance of the proposed SEC. The characterization includes sensitivity of the signal, and temperature and humidity dependences. Tests are conducted on a simply supported aluminum beam subjected to bending as well as on a free standing sensor. The performance of the SEC is compared against off-the-shelf resistance-based strain gauges with resolution of 1 μɛ. A sensitivity of 1190 pF/ɛ is obtained experimentally, in agreement with theory. Results also show the sensor linearity over the given level of strain, showing the promise of the SEC at monitoring of surface strain.

  20. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) modulates CD38 expression, absorbs retinoic acid and may perturb retinoid signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futrega, Kathryn; Yu, Jianshi; Jones, Jace W; Kane, Maureen A; Lott, William B; Atkinson, Kerry; Doran, Michael R

    2016-04-21

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most commonly used material in the manufacture of customized cell culture devices. While there is concern that uncured PDMS oligomers may leach into culture medium and/or hydrophobic molecules may be absorbed into PDMS structures, there is no consensus on how or if PDMS influences cell behaviour. We observed that human umbilical cord blood (CB)-derived CD34(+) cells expanded in standard culture medium on PDMS exhibit reduced CD38 surface expression, relative to cells cultured on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP). All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) induces CD38 expression, and we reasoned that this hydrophobic molecule might be absorbed by PDMS. Through a series of experiments we demonstrated that ATRA-mediated CD38 expression was attenuated when cultures were maintained on PDMS. Medium pre-incubated on PDMS for extended durations resulted in a time-dependant reduction of ATRA in the medium and increasingly attenuated CD38 expression. This indicated a time-dependent absorption of ATRA into the PDMS. To better understand how PDMS might generally influence cell behaviour, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to identify potential upstream regulators. This analysis was performed for differentially expressed genes in primary cells including CD34(+) haematopoietic progenitor cells, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC), and keratinocytes, and cell lines including prostate cancer epithelial cells (LNCaP), breast cancer epithelial cells (MCF-7), and myeloid leukaemia cells (KG1a). IPA predicted that the most likely common upstream regulator of perturbed pathways was ATRA. We demonstrate here that ATRA is absorbed by PDMS in a time-dependent manner and results in the concomitant reduced expression of CD38 on the cell surface of CB-derived CD34(+) cells.

  1. Ethanol fermentation integrated with PDMS composite membrane: An effective process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chaohui; Cai, Di; Hu, Song; Miao, Qi; Wang, Yong; Qin, Peiyong; Wang, Zheng; Tan, Tianwei

    2016-01-01

    The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane, prepared in water phase, was investigated in separation ethanol from model ethanol/water mixture and fermentation-pervaporation integrated process. Results showed that the PDMS membrane could effectively separate ethanol from model solution. When integrated with batch ethanol fermentation, the ethanol productivity was enhanced compared with conventional process. Fed-batch and continuous ethanol fermentation with pervaporation were also performed and studied. 396.2-663.7g/m(2)h and 332.4-548.1g/m(2)h of total flux with separation factor of 8.6-11.7 and 8-11.6, were generated in the fed-batch and continuous fermentation with pervaporation scenario, respectively. At the same time, high titre ethanol production of ∼417.2g/L and ∼446.3g/L were also achieved on the permeate side of membrane in the two scenarios, respectively. The integrated process was environmental friendly and energy saving, and has a promising perspective in long-terms operation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laser-induced superhydrophobic grid patterns on PDMS for droplet arrays formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farshchian, Bahador [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Gatabi, Javad R. [Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Bernick, Steven M.; Park, Sooyeon [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Lee, Gwan-Hyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Droopad, Ravindranath [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Materials Science, Engineering and Commercialization, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States); Kim, Namwon, E-mail: n_k43@txstate.edu [Ingram School of Engineering, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX 78666 (United States)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Superhydrophobic grid patterns were processed on the surface of PDMS using a pulsed nanosecond laser. • Droplet arrays form instantly on the laser-patterned PDMS with the superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water. • Droplet size can be controlled by controlling the pitch size of superhydrophobic grid and the withdrawal speed. - Abstract: We demonstrate a facile single step laser treatment process to render a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface superhydrophobic. By synchronizing a pulsed nanosecond laser source with a motorized stage, superhydrophobic grid patterns were written on the surface of PDMS. Hierarchical micro and nanostructures were formed in the irradiated areas while non-irradiated areas were covered by nanostructures due to deposition of ablated particles. Arrays of droplets form spontaneously on the laser-patterned PDMS with superhydrophobic grid pattern when the PDMS sample is simply immersed in and withdrawn from water due to different wetting properties of the irradiated and non-irradiated areas. The effects of withdrawal speed and pitch size of superhydrophobic grid on the size of formed droplets were investigated experimentally. The droplet size increases initially with increasing the withdrawal speed and then does not change significantly beyond certain points. Moreover, larger droplets are formed by increasing the pitch size of the superhydrophobic grid. The droplet arrays formed on the laser-patterned PDMS with wettability contrast can be used potentially for patterning of particles, chemicals, and bio-molecules and also for cell screening applications.

  3. Physico-chemical properties of PDMS surfaces suitable as substrates for cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raczkowska, Joanna, E-mail: joanna.raczkowska@uj.edu.pl [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Prauzner-Bechcicki, Szymon [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Lukes, Jaroslav; Sepitka, Josef [Czech Technical University in Prague, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technicka 4, 16607 Prague (Czech Republic); Bernasik, Andrzej [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH - University of Science and Technology, Reymonta 19, 30-049 Kraków (Poland); Awsiuk, Kamil [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland); Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Pabijan, Joanna; Lekka, Małgorzata [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Budkowski, Andrzej [The Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Łojasiewicza 11, 30-428 Kraków (Poland)

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Series of PDMS substrates with monotonically tuned elasticity were produced. • Method to estimate PDMS stiffness based on AFM force-distance curves was shown. • No change in surface properties of PDMS other than elasticity was demonstrated. • MTT performed for cancer cells showed impact of PDMS elasticity on cells behavior. - Abstract: Elastic properties of the substrate have profound effect on adhesion and proliferation of cells. Here, we introduce a method to produce polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates with stiffness tuned monotonically from 1.67 to 0.24 MPa, by the time of UV irradiation adjusted up to 5 h. The Young’s modulus (determined by using nanoindenter) scales linearly with stiffness calculated using AFM-based force spectroscopy data. Such a relation enables the determination of the Young modulus from AFM force – distance curves also when the Herz model is not applicable. Our findings demonstrate that surface properties of PDMS substrates are not affected by the applied methodology of tuning substrate elasticity. Finally, the colorimetric proliferation assay (MTT) carried out for non-malignant (HCV29) and cancerous (T24) bladder cancer cells depicted a significant contribution of PDMS substrate elasticity to the behavior of cells. The softer PDMS substrate demonstrated excellent cytocompatibility whereas the stiff one is more cell-repellent.

  4. Novel anti-flooding poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) catalyst binder for microbial fuel cell cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2012-11-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was investigated as an alternative to Nafion as an air cathode catalyst binder in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Cathodes were constructed around either stainless steel (SS) mesh or copper mesh using PDMS as both catalyst binder and diffusion layer, and compared to cathodes of the same structure having a Nafion binder. With PDMS binder, copper mesh cathodes produced a maximum power of 1710 ± 1 mW m -2, while SS mesh had a slightly lower power of 1680 ± 12 mW m -2, with both values comparable to those obtained with Nafion binder. Cathodes with PDMS binder had stable power production of 1510 ± 22 mW m -2 (copper) and 1480 ± 56 mW m -2 (SS) over 15 days at cycle 15, compared to a 40% decrease in power with the Nafion binder. Cathodes with the PDMS binder had lower total cathode impedance than those with Nafion. This is due to a large decrease in diffusion resistance, because hydrophobic PDMS effectively prevented catalyst sites from filling up with water, improving oxygen mass transfer. The cost of PDMS is only 0.23% of that of Nafion. These results showed that PDMS is a very effective and low-cost alternative to Nafion binder that will be useful for large scale construction of these cathodes for MFC applications. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  5. Sub-15nm Silicon Lines Fabrication via PS-b-PDMS Block Copolymer Lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Schulte, Lars; Borah, Dipu

    2013-01-01

    -b-PDMS (33 k–17 k) was conditioned by applying solvent and solvothermal annealing techniques. BCP nanopatterns formed after the annealing process have been confirmed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after removal of upper PDMS wetting layer by plasma etching. Silicon nanostructures were obtained...

  6. Motor Skill Performance by Low SES Preschool and Typically Developing Children on the PDMS-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ting; Hoffmann, Chelsea; Hamilton, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the motor skill performance of preschool children from low socioeconomic (SES) backgrounds to their age matched typically developing peers using the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2 (PDMS-2). Sixty-eight children (34 low SES and 34 typically developing; ages 3-5) performed the PDMS-2. Standard scores…

  7. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-04-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Surface tension-induced high aspect-ratio PDMS micropillars with concave and convex lens tips

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Yi, Ying; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method for the fabrication of 3-dimensional (3D) Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micropillars with concave and convex lens tips in a one-step molding process, using a CO2 laser-machined Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through holes. The PDMS micropillars are 4 mm high and have an aspect ratio of 251. The micropillars are formed by capillary force drawing up PDMS into the through hole mold. The concave and convex lens tips of the PDMS cylindrical micropillars are induced by surface tension and are controllable by changing the surface wetting properties of the through holes in the PMMA mold. This technique eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to prepare a 3D mold, and it provides a simple and rapid method to fabricate 3D PDMS micropillars with controllable dimensions and tip shapes. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Investigation Into Accessible Surface Vinyl Concentrations of Nonstoichiometric PDMS Microspheres from Hydrosilylation Reactions and Their Further Crosslinking Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Baoguang; Hansen, Jens Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of surface vinyl groups to PDMS microspheres broadens the latter's applicability range since the microspheres can be further functionalized or crosslinked into elastomers. Quantification of the surface vinyl concentration of PDMS microspheres is therefore essential. Here, a novel...

  10. Thermal stability of the elastomeric anti-trauma pad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olszewska Karolina

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The elastomeric anti-trauma pad (EA-TP based on shear thickening fluid (STF has been developed. Dynamic oscillatory shear experiment was conducted at constant strain amplitude of 5%. STF composed of 25% of volume fraction of 7 nm Fumed Silica, dispersed in polypropylene glycol with molar mass 400 gmol−1 shows elastic properties in entire investigated range of the frequency. Ballistic tests of EA-TP with 7.62 mm × 39 mm PS bullets were performed according to the PN-V-87000:2011 standard. The studies revealed about 60% reduction of the average backface signature depth (BSD for the EA-TP, when compared to the nowadays commonly used soft insert. The ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed slight impact of the elevated temperature and air (oxygen on the chemical degradation of the EA-TP surface. The UV-VIS spectroscopy has allowed to notice colour deviation of the aged samples towards green and yellow, as well as lack of dye resistance to accelerated aging process. Thermographic analysis has shown no visible changes of the EA-TP surface and sub-surface during accelerated aging process. The aforementioned small changes on the surface of EA-TP did not affect the ballistic properties of composite armour. EA-TP insert maintains ballistic properties after accelerated aging process which was simulating the period of 6 years according to ASTM F1980 – 07:2002 standard.

  11. Diffusion of nanoparticles in solution through elastomeric membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemzem, Mohamed; Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane

    2017-04-01

    Diffusion phenomena encountered in mass transfer of liquids play an important role in many technological processes of polymer manufacturing and use. In addition and alongside the notable growth of nanoparticles use, particularly when in suspension in liquid solutions, it has become important to pay some attention to their interactions with polymeric structures. The aim of this work is to evaluate some diffusion parameters of gold nanoparticle solutions as well as of their liquid carrier (water) through elastomeric membranes. Gravimetric method was chosen as the main technique to quantify swelling phenomena and to assess kinetic properties. The dynamic liquid uptake measurements were conducted on gold nanoparticles (5 nm and 50 nm in diameter) in aqueous solutions when brought into contact with two types of nitrile material samples. Results showed that diffusion mechanism of the liquids lies between Fickian and sub-Fickian modes. Slight deviations were noticed with the gold nanoparticle solutions. A growth in liquid interaction with the rubbery structure in presence of the nanoparticles was also observed from comparison of K factor (characteristic of the elastomer-liquid interaction). Difference between the characteristics of the two membranes was also reported using this parameter. Besides, diffusion coefficients testified the impact of the membrane thickness on the penetration process, while no significant effect of the nature of the nanoparticle solution can be seen on this coefficient.

  12. Diffusion of nanoparticles in solution through elastomeric membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemzem, Mohamed; Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane

    2017-01-01

    Diffusion phenomena encountered in mass transfer of liquids play an important role in many technological processes of polymer manufacturing and use. In addition and alongside the notable growth of nanoparticles use, particularly when in suspension in liquid solutions, it has become important to pay some attention to their interactions with polymeric structures. The aim of this work is to evaluate some diffusion parameters of gold nanoparticle solutions as well as of their liquid carrier (water) through elastomeric membranes. Gravimetric method was chosen as the main technique to quantify swelling phenomena and to assess kinetic properties. The dynamic liquid uptake measurements were conducted on gold nanoparticles (5 nm and 50 nm in diameter) in aqueous solutions when brought into contact with two types of nitrile material samples. Results showed that diffusion mechanism of the liquids lies between Fickian and sub-Fickian modes. Slight deviations were noticed with the gold nanoparticle solutions. A growth in liquid interaction with the rubbery structure in presence of the nanoparticles was also observed from comparison of K factor (characteristic of the elastomer-liquid interaction). Difference between the characteristics of the two membranes was also reported using this parameter. Besides, diffusion coefficients testified the impact of the membrane thickness on the penetration process, while no significant effect of the nature of the nanoparticle solution can be seen on this coefficient. (paper)

  13. Strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties of magnetorheological elastomeric foams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wereley, Norman M.; Perez, Colette; Choi, Young T.

    2018-05-01

    This paper addresses the strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties (i.e., so-called Payne effect) of magnetorheological elastomeric foams (MREFs). Isotropic MREF samples (i.e., no oriented particle chain structures), fabricated in flat square shapes (nominal size of 26.5 mm x 26.5 mm x 9.5 mm) were synthesized by randomly dispersing micron-sized iron oxide particles (Fe3O4) into a liquid silicone foam in the absence of magnetic field. Five different Fe3O4 particle concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 percent by volume fraction (hereinafter denoted as vol%) were used to investigate the effect of particle concentration on the dynamic compressive properties of the MREFs. The MREFs were sandwiched between two multi-pole flexible plate magnets in order to activate the magnetorheological (MR) strengthening effect. Under two different pre-compression conditions (i.e., 35% and 50%), the dynamic compressive stresses of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes (i.e., 1%-10%) were measured by using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The complex modulus (i.e., storage modulus and loss modulus) and loss factors of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes were presented as performance indices to evaluate their strain-dependent dynamic compressive behavior.

  14. Strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties of magnetorheological elastomeric foams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman M. Wereley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the strain-dependent dynamic compressive properties (i.e., so-called Payne effect of magnetorheological elastomeric foams (MREFs. Isotropic MREF samples (i.e., no oriented particle chain structures, fabricated in flat square shapes (nominal size of 26.5 mm x 26.5 mm x 9.5 mm were synthesized by randomly dispersing micron-sized iron oxide particles (Fe3O4 into a liquid silicone foam in the absence of magnetic field. Five different Fe3O4 particle concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 percent by volume fraction (hereinafter denoted as vol% were used to investigate the effect of particle concentration on the dynamic compressive properties of the MREFs. The MREFs were sandwiched between two multi-pole flexible plate magnets in order to activate the magnetorheological (MR strengthening effect. Under two different pre-compression conditions (i.e., 35% and 50%, the dynamic compressive stresses of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes (i.e., 1%-10% were measured by using a servo-hydraulic testing machine. The complex modulus (i.e., storage modulus and loss modulus and loss factors of the MREFs with respect to dynamic strain amplitudes were presented as performance indices to evaluate their strain-dependent dynamic compressive behavior.

  15. Unification of reactor elastomeric sealing based on material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, N.K.; Raj, Baldev

    2012-01-01

    The unification of elastomeric sealing applications of Indian nuclear reactors based on a few qualified fluoroelastomer/perfluoroelastomer compounds and standardized approaches for finite element analysis (FEA) based design, manufacturing process and antifriction coatings is discussed. It is shown that the advance polymer architecture based Viton ® formulation developed for inflatable seals of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) and its four basic variations can encompass other sealing applications of PFBR with minimum additional efforts on development and validation. Changing the blend ratio of Viton ® GBL 200S and 600S in inflatable seal formulation could extend its use to Pressurized Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). The higher operating temperature of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) seals expands the choice to perfluoroelastomers. FEA based on plane-strain/axisymmetric modeling (with Mooney–Rivlin as the basic constitutive model), seal manufacture by cold feed extrusion and injection molding as well as plasma Teflon-like coating belonging to two variations obtained from the development of inflatable seals provide the necessary standardization for unification. The gains in simplification of design, development and operation of seals along with the enhancements of safety and reliability are expected to be substantial.

  16. Adhesion enhancement by a dielectric barrier discharge of PDMS used for flexible and stretchable electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morent, R; Geyter, N De; Axisa, F; Smet, N de; Gengembre, L; Leersnyder, E De; Leys, C; Vanfleteren, J; Rymarczyk-Machal, M; Schacht, E; Payen, E

    2007-01-01

    Currently, there is a strong tendency to replace rigid electronic assemblies by mechanically flexible and stretchable equivalents. This emerging technology can be applied for biomedical electronics, such as implantable devices and electronics on skin. In the first step of the production process of stretchable electronics, electronic interconnections and components are encapsulated into a thin layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Afterwards, the electronic structures are completely embedded by placing another PDMS layer on top. It is very important that the metals inside the electronic circuit do not leak out in order to obtain a highly biocompatible system. Therefore, an excellent adhesion between the 2 PDMS layers is of great importance. However, PDMS has a very low surface energy, resulting in poor adhesion properties. Therefore, in this paper, PDMS films are plasma treated with a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) operating in air at medium pressure (5.0 kPa). Contact angle and XPS measurements reveal that plasma treatment increases the hydrophilicity of the PDMS films due to the incorporation of silanol groups at the expense of methyl groups. T-peel tests show that plasma treatment rapidly imparts adhesion enhancement, but only when both PDMS layers are plasma treated. Results also reveal that it is very important to bond the plasma-treated PDMS films immediately after treatment. In this case, an excellent adhesion is maintained several days after treatment. The ageing behaviour of the plasma-treated PDMS films is also studied in detail: contact angle measurements show that the contact angle increases during storage in air and angle-resolved XPS reveals that this hydrophobic recovery is due to the migration of low molar mass PDMS species to the surface

  17. Static frictional resistance with the slide low-friction elastomeric ligature system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven P; Ben Bihi, Saida

    2009-11-01

    This ex-vivo study compared the static frictional resistance of a low-friction ligation system against a conventional elastomeric module, and studied the effect of storage in a simulated oral environment on the static frictional resistance of both ligation systems. Eighty stainless steel brackets were tested by sliding along straight lengths of 0.018 inch round and 0.019 x 0.025 inch rectangular stainless steel wires ligated with either conventional elastomerics or the Slide system (Leone, Florence, Italy). During the tests the brackets and wires were lubricated with artificial saliva. A specially constructed jig assembly was used to hold the bracket and archwire securely. The jig was clamped in an Instron universal load testing machine. Crosshead speed was controlled via a microcomputer connected to the Instron machine. The static frictional forces at 0 degree bracket/wire angulation were measured for both systems, fresh from the pack and after storage in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. The results of this investigation demonstrated that the Slide ligatures produced significantly lower static frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules in the fresh condition and after 24 hours of storage in a simulated oral environment (p static frictional resistance of conventional elastomeric modules and the Slide system (p = 0.525). The claim by the manufacturer that the Slide system produces lower frictional resistance than conventional elastomeric modules is upheld.

  18. The role of elastomeric pumps in postoperative analgesia in orthopaedics and factors affecting their flow rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorides, Anthony Andreas

    2017-12-01

    Elastomeric pumps are mechanical devices composed of an elastomeric balloon reservoir into which the drug to be infused is stored, a protective casing (used by some manufacturers), a flow controller and a wound catheter. In orthopaedics they are used to provide continuous local infiltration analgesia. In this way patients rely less on other routes of analgesia and thus avoid their systemic side effects. Studies have shown good response to analgesia with these pumps for the first 24 hours but their benefit is not as clear at 48 and 72 hours. There are numerous factors that affect the flow rate of elastomeric pumps. Some are inherent to all elastomeric pumps such as: the pressure exerted by the elastomeric balloon, catheter size, the vertical height of the pump in relation to the wound, viscosity and partial filling. There are also other factors which vary according to the manufacturer such as: the optimal temperature to obtain the desired flow rate as this directly affects viscosity, the dialysate that the analgesic drug is mixed with (ie normal saline or 5% dextrose), and the storage conditions of the fluid to be infused. It is thus essential to follow the clinical guidelines provided by the manufacturer in order to obtain the desired flow rate. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.

  19. Force decay of elastomeric chains - a mechanical design and product comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balhoff, David A; Shuldberg, Matthew; Hagan, Joseph L; Ballard, Richard W; Armbruster, Paul C

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the percentage force decay of elastomeric chain products utilizing three different design mechanisms simulating canine retraction; and to evaluate the percentage force decay of elastomeric chain products from four different companies. In vitro, laboratory study. LSUHSC Dental School, New Orleans, LA, USA. Closed (non-spaced), grey elastomeric chains from four companies were selected for the study. Three acrylic resin jigs were constructed to provide a framework for three simulated space closure mechanisms. The 6-5-3, the chain loop, and the 6-3 were the configuration mechanisms used in the study. An electronic force gauge was used to measure the percentage force decay associated with each elastomeric chain over 28 days at preselected times. There was a significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the three different mechanisms (P < 0·001). For all four companies, the 6-3 mechanical design had the smallest mean percentage force decay. There was a significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the different companies (P < 0·001). For all three mechanisms, Ormco had the smallest percentage force decay while Unitek had the highest percentage force decay. The significant difference in the mean percentage force decay for the different mechanisms suggests that the 6-3 design is a more efficient means of closing extraction spaces utilizing elastomeric chains.

  20. Investigation of PDMS as coating on CMUTs for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Mette Funding; Stuart, Matthias Bo; Laursen, Mads Bjerregaard

    2014-01-01

    A protective layer is necessary for Capacitive Mi- cromachined Ultrasonic Transducers (CMUTs) to be used for imaging purpose. The layer should both protect the device itself and the patient while maintaining the performance of the device. In this work Sylgard 170 PDMS is tested as coating material...... for CMUTs through comparison of transmit pressure and receive sensitivity in immersion of coated and uncoated elements. It is seen that the transmitted pressure decreases with 27% and the receive sensitivity decreases 35 % when applying the coating using a dam and fill principle. This matches well...... with the estimated value of 31 %. With the coating, the center frequency was found to be decreased from 4.5 MHz to 4.1 MHz and the fractional bandwidth was increased from 77 % to 84 % in transmit. In receive the center frequency was found to decrease from 4.4 MHz to 3.9 MHz and the fractional bandwidth was decreased...

  1. PDMS Based Thermopnuematic Peristaltic Micropump for Microfluidic Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamanee, W; Tuantranont, A; Afzulpurkar, N V; Porntheerapat, N; Rahong, S; Wisitsoraat, A

    2006-01-01

    A thermopnuematic peristaltic micropump for controlling micro litters of fluid was designed and fabricated from multi-stack PDMS structure on glass substrate. Pump structure consists of inlet and outlet, microchannel, three thermopneumatic actuation chambers, and three heaters. In microchannel, fluid is controlled and pumped by peristaltic motion of actuation diaphragm. Actuation diaphragm can bend up and down by exploiting air expansion that is induced by increasing heater temperature. The micropump characteristics were measured as a function of applied voltage and frequency. The flow rate was determined by periodically recording the motion of fluid at Nanoport output and computing flow volume from height difference between consecutive records. From the experiment, an optimum flow rate of 0.82 μl/min is obtained under 14 V three-phase input voltages at 0.033 Hz operating frequency

  2. Flexible electret energy harvesters with parylene electret on PDMS substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, Yi; Wu, Shih-Hsien

    2013-01-01

    Currently, most vibrational energy harvesters have rigid and resonant structures to harvest energy from periodic motions in specific directions. However, in some situations the motion is random and aperiodic; or the targeted energy source is the strain energy in deformation, rather than the kinetic energy in vibration. Therefore we propose and demonstrate a PDMS-based flexible energy harvester with parylene-C electret that can be attached to any deformable surfaces to harvest the stain energy caused by external deformation. The proposed flexible harvester was fabricated and characterized. The measured power at 20 Hz is 0.18 μW and 82 nW in the compression and bending modes, respectively. Such a harvester has the potential for wearable and implantable electronics applications

  3. Photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal patterned in PDMS surfaces and their effect on LED radiation properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suslik, Lubos [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Pudis, Dusan, E-mail: pudis@fyzika.uniza.sk [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Goraus, Matej [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Nolte, Rainer [Fakultät für Maschinenbau FG Lichttechnik Ilmenau University of Technology, Ilmenau (Germany); Kovac, Jaroslav [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Durisova, Jana; Gaso, Peter [Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Zilina, Univerzitna 1, 010 26, Zilina (Slovakia); Hronec, Pavol [Inst. of Electronics and Photonics, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19, Bratislava (Slovakia); Schaaf, Peter [Chair Materials for Electronics, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro- and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, TU Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Photonic quasicrystal patterned in the surface of polydimethylsiloxane membrane (left) and radiation pattern of light emitting diode with patterned membrane applied in the surface (right). - Highlights: • We presented fabrication technique of PDMS membranes with patterned surface by photonic crystal (PhC) and photonic quasi-crystal (PQC). • Presented technique is effective for preparation PhC and PQC PDMS membranes easily implementing in the LED chip. • From the goniophotometer measurements, the membranes document effective angular emission due to the diffraction on patterned surfaces. • 12 fold symmetry PQC structure shows homogeneous radiation pattern, while the 2 fold symmetry of square PhC shows evident diffraction lobes. - Abstract: We present results of fabrication and implementation of thin polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes with patterned surface for the light emitting diode (LED). PDMS membranes were patterned by using the interference lithography in combination with embossing technique. Two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic quasicrystal structures with different period were patterned in the surface of thin PDMS membranes with depth up to 550 nm. Patterned PDMS membranes placed on the LED chip effectively diffracted light and increased angular emission of LED radiation pattern. We presented effective technique for fabrication of patterned PDMS membranes, which could modify the emission properties of optoelectronic devices and can be applied directly on surface LEDs and small optical devices.

  4. The Fabrication and Application of a PDMS Micro Through-Holes Mask in Electrochemical Micromanufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolei Chen

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical micromanufacturing process, as a key micromanufacturing technology, plays an important role in diverse industries. In this paper, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS is employed as a mask in the electrochemical micromanufacture of microstructures because of its chemical resistance, low cost, flexibility, and high molding capability. A new method for fabricating a PDMS micro through-holes mask is proposed. In this method, a thin resist film is employed to enhance the adhesion between the substrate and the SU-8 pillar array which is used as a mold. A vacuum-aided process is used to inject the PDMS gel into the SU-8 mold and the PDMS micro through-holes mask can be peeled off from the SU-8 mold when the gel is cured. Experiments were conducted to verify the feasibility of the proposed approach and PDMS microholes of various shapes were obtained. The PDMS mask can then be successfully applied in the electrochemical micromanufacturing process to generate microstructures and microdimple and embossment arrays have been successfully demonstrated. Furthermore, the PDMS mask can be reused, as it is not damaged during the manufacturing process.

  5. Adequate plasma drug concentrations suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arensdorff, Lyne; Boillat-Blanco, Noémie; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Vallière, Serge

    2017-09-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h. Subsequently nine patients were treated with continuous infusions of 8 or 12 g of amoxicillin per day. Plasma amoxicillin concentrations were measured on each visit to the outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy unit. Clinical outcome was verified 3 months after the end of treatment. Amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps reached 10% after 48 h in the fridge and an additional 30% when worn around the waist for 24 h. Mean plasma drug concentrations achieved with 12 g of amoxicillin per day were 18.5 mg/L (95% CI 13.5-23.5), which is largely above the MIC of amoxicillin-susceptible bacteria. Nine patients treated for various complicated infections were cured and had no unexpected adverse effects. Adequate plasma drug concentrations and favourable clinical outcomes suggest that amoxicillin can be administered by continuous infusion using elastomeric pumps. This treatment modality does not fulfil formal requirements regarding pharmaceutical stability, but the resulting safety impact in patients is probably limited. Therapeutic drug monitoring and a close clinical follow-up are recommended if this route of administration is chosen. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Baxter elastomeric pumps: Weighing as an alternative to visual inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, Ellen L; Ali, Raafi; Sawyer, Michael B; Chambers, Carole R; Tang, Patricia A

    2018-04-01

    Purpose Elastomeric pumps are used to administer 46-hour infusions of 5-fluorouracil (5FU). Baxter suggests patients visually monitor their pumps to ensure that infusions are proceeding correctly. This can be confusing and lead to concerns about under- or over-dosing. Baxter has not considered weighing pumps as a validated method for monitoring. This study aims to validate weighing as a more accurate method for patients and healthcare professionals, and describe real life Baxter Infusor™ variability. Methods Patients who had been started on a 46-hour 5FU infusion returned to the clinic approximately 24 h after starting treatment. The pump was weighed on a StarFrit kitchen scale, and date, time, and weights recorded. Patients were asked if they had a preference for weighing or visually inspecting their pump. Results Pumps ( n = 103) were weighed between 17.25 and 27.5 h after connection. The average weight of a pump was 189 g. Of 103 pumps weighed, 99 weighed less than expected, corresponding to average flow rates of 5.69 mL/h over the elapsed time. The expected flow rate is 5 mL/h with 10% variability. Average flow rates within the 17.25- to 27.5-hour window were 4.561 mL/h, which is 8.78% slower than expected, but within the 10% known variability. Forty-seven percent of patients didn't have a preference for either method, but for those who did have a preference, more than twice as many preferred weighing. Conclusion With proper education, weighing Baxter Infusors at home with kitchen scales can be an accepted and objective alternative to the current recommendation of visual inspection.

  7. Effect of storage period on the accuracy of elastomeric impressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Batista Franco

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of the storage period on the accuracy of recently developed elastomeric materials. METHODS: Simultaneous impressions of a steel die were taken using a polyether (I: Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body, 3M ESPE and vinyl polysiloxane (P: Perfectim Blue Velvet and Flexi-Velvet, J.Morita. The trays were loaded with the heavy-bodied impression materials while the light-bodied impression materials were simultaneously spread on the steel die. The impressions were poured after 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. Impressions were stored at approximately 55% relative humidity and room temperature. Ten replicas were produced for each experimental condition (n=60. Accuracy of the stone dies was assessed with a depth-measuring microscope. The difference in height between the surface of the stone die and a standard metallic ring was recorded in micrometers at four demarcated points, by two independent examiners. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (a = 0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were found among the groups. Smaller discrepancies were observed when pouring was performed up to 24 hours (I-2h= 65.0 ± 15.68 µm; I-24h= 81.6 ± 11.13 µm for the polyether, and up to 7 days for the vinyl polysiloxane (P-2h= 79.1 ± 13.82 µm; P-24h= 96.8 ± 6.02 µm; P-7d= 81.4 ± 4.3 µm. Significant dimensional discrepancies, however, were observed when polyether was stored for 7 days (I-7d= 295.3 ± 17.4 µm. CONCLUSION: Storage may significantly affect the dimensional accuracy of impressions and, thus, a maximum period and storage condition should be specified for the recently developed materials.

  8. Elastomeric Properties of Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) Based Nanoparticle Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun-Joong; Li, Xinda; Hong, Albert T.-L.

    2014-03-01

    Owing to the unique combination of biocompatible, biodegradable, and elastomeric properties, poly(glycerol sebacate) and their derivatives are an emerging class of biomaterials for soft tissue replacement, drug delivery, tissue adhesive, and hard tissue regeneration. The mechanical properties of the polyester have been tailored to match a wide range of target organs, ranging from cardiac muscle to bones, by manipulating the process parameters to modulate cross-linking density. In the present study, we applied nanoparticles and cross-linking agents to further optimize their elastomeric properties. Especially, the study aims to enhance the practically important, but less studied, property of tear resistance. Microscopic origin of the property enhancement is discussed.

  9. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings and study of its wetting behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakradhar, R.P.S., E-mail: chakra@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR), Bangalore 560017 (India); Kumar, V. Dinesh [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR), Bangalore 560017 (India); Rao, J.L. [Department of Physics, S.V. University, Tirupathi 517502 (India); Basu, Bharathibai J., E-mail: bharathi@nal.res.in [Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories (CSIR), Bangalore 560017 (India)

    2011-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings are demonstrated by a simple, facile, time-saving, wet chemical route. ZnO nanopowders with average particle size of 14 nm were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirm that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure and belong to space group P63mc. Field emission scanning electron micrographs reveal that the nanoparticles are connected to each other to make large network systems consisting of hierarchical structure. The as formed ZnO coating exhibits wetting behaviour with Water Contact Angle (WCA) of {approx}108{sup o}, however on modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), it transforms to superhydrophobic surface with measured contact and sliding angles for water at 155{sup o} and less than 5{sup o} respectively. The surface properties such as surface free energy ({gamma}{sub p}), interfacial free energy ({gamma}{sub pw}), and the adhesive work (W{sub pw}) were evaluated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on superhydrophobic coatings revealed that the surface defects play a major role on the wetting behaviour. Advantages of the present method include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, and feasibility for applying on large area of different substrates.

  10. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings and study of its wetting behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakradhar, R. P. S.; Kumar, V. Dinesh; Rao, J. L.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2011-08-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings are demonstrated by a simple, facile, time-saving, wet chemical route. ZnO nanopowders with average particle size of 14 nm were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirm that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure and belong to space group P63 mc. Field emission scanning electron micrographs reveal that the nanoparticles are connected to each other to make large network systems consisting of hierarchical structure. The as formed ZnO coating exhibits wetting behaviour with Water Contact Angle (WCA) of ˜108°, however on modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), it transforms to superhydrophobic surface with measured contact and sliding angles for water at 155° and less than 5° respectively. The surface properties such as surface free energy ( γp), interfacial free energy ( γpw), and the adhesive work ( Wpw) were evaluated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on superhydrophobic coatings revealed that the surface defects play a major role on the wetting behaviour. Advantages of the present method include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, and feasibility for applying on large area of different substrates.

  11. Fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings and study of its wetting behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakradhar, R.P.S.; Kumar, V. Dinesh; Rao, J.L.; Basu, Bharathibai J.

    2011-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces based on ZnO-PDMS nanocomposite coatings are demonstrated by a simple, facile, time-saving, wet chemical route. ZnO nanopowders with average particle size of 14 nm were synthesized by a low temperature solution combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction results confirm that the nanopowders exhibit hexagonal wurtzite structure and belong to space group P63mc. Field emission scanning electron micrographs reveal that the nanoparticles are connected to each other to make large network systems consisting of hierarchical structure. The as formed ZnO coating exhibits wetting behaviour with Water Contact Angle (WCA) of ∼108 o , however on modification with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), it transforms to superhydrophobic surface with measured contact and sliding angles for water at 155 o and less than 5 o respectively. The surface properties such as surface free energy (γ p ), interfacial free energy (γ pw ), and the adhesive work (W pw ) were evaluated. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies on superhydrophobic coatings revealed that the surface defects play a major role on the wetting behaviour. Advantages of the present method include the cheap and fluorine-free raw materials, environmentally benign solvents, and feasibility for applying on large area of different substrates.

  12. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers are well-known to be soft and highly stretchable, yet they never achieve maximum elongation when utilised as dielectric elastomers, simply because their dielectric permittivity remains rather low. Conversely, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable......, but they do possess high permittivity. Combining two such polymers in a block copolymer allows for further crosslinking and presents the possibility of substantial improvements in the actuation response of the resulting dielectric elastomer – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesise a PDMS......, the discontinuity in PEG can be acquired and the relative permittivity (ε’) is significantly enhanced (60%) with 5wt% of PDMS-PEG block copolymer incorporated into the silicone elastomer....

  13. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds for SPME/PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hsuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The partition coefficients of 51 organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and gas were compiled from the literature sources in this study. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis. The PDMS-gas partition coefficients were well correlated to the molecular weight of organic compounds (r = 0.832, p < 0.05. An empirical model, consisting of the molecular weight and the polarizability, was developed to appropriately predict the partition coefficients of organic compounds. The empirical model for estimating the PDMS-gas partition coefficient will contribute to the practical applications of the SPME technique.

  14. Microphase separation behavior on the surfaces of PEG-MDI-PDMS multiblock copolymer coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Hongxia; Zhou Shuxue; Wu Limin

    2006-01-01

    A series of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-4,4'-diphenylmethanediisocyanate(MDI)-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) multiblock copolymers were synthesized by employing two-step growth polymerization technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) observed nanoscopically well-organized phase-separated surfaces consisting of hydrophilic domain from PEG and MDI segments and hydrophobic domain from PDMS segments even with 50 wt.% PDMS in the copolymer, and the multiblock copolymer coatings presented a surface free energy of as low as 6-8 mN m -1

  15. Novel method to prepare multiwalled carbon nanotube/poly(dimethyl siloxane) (MWCNT/PDMS) non-conducting composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    In this study a new method of carbon nanotube (CNT) incorporation was employed for the preparation of ultraviolet (UV) curable CNT filled poly (dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) composites. The composites were designed to contain loadings of CNT above the percolation threshold without becoming conductive...... due to a localized distribution of CNT. Ultrasonicated and dispersed multiwalled CNTs were mixed with short chain ,- vinyl terminated PDMS. When the whole mixture containing dispersed CNT and short chain PDMS was irradiated with UV radiation in presence of deficient amount of hexa functional thiol...... PDMS crosslinker and a photoinitiator, hyperbranced PDMS layer was formed over the CNTs. The prepared hyperbranched CNTs were mixed in different weight ratios (0.33%, 0.66%, 1%) with long chain ,- vinyl terminated PDMS and crosslinked subsequently with the same hexa functional thiol PDMS via UV...

  16. Simple and fast polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) patterning using a cutting plotter and vinyl adhesives to achieve etching results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun Kim; Sun-Young Yoo; Ji Sung Kim; Zihuan Wang; Woon Hee Lee; Kyo-In Koo; Jong-Mo Seo; Dong-Il Cho

    2017-07-01

    Inhibition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymerization could be observed when spin-coated over vinyl substrates. The degree of polymerization, partially curing or fully curing, depended on the PDMS thickness coated over the vinyl substrate. This characteristic was exploited to achieve simple and fast PDMS patterning method using a vinyl adhesive layer patterned through a cutting plotter. The proposed patterning method showed results resembling PDMS etching. Therefore, patterning PDMS over PDMS, glass, silicon, and gold substrates were tested to compare the results with conventional etching methods. Vinyl stencils with widths ranging from 200μm to 1500μm were used for the procedure. To evaluate the accuracy of the cutting plotter, stencil designed on the AutoCAD software and the actual stencil widths were compared. Furthermore, this method's accuracy was also evaluated by comparing the widths of the actual stencils and etched PDMS results.

  17. Friction, adhesion and wear properties of PDMS films on silicon sidewalls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penskiy, I; Gerratt, A P; Bergbreiter, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first tests of friction, adhesion and wear properties of thin poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films on the sidewalls of silicon-on-insulator structures. The test devices were individually calibrated using a simple method that included optical and electrical measurements. The static coefficient of friction versus normal pressure curves were obtained for PDMS–PDMS, PDMS–silicon and silicon–silicon sidewall interfaces. The effects of aging on friction and adhesion properties of PDMS were also evaluated. The results of friction tests showed that the static coefficient of friction follows the JKR contact model, which means that the friction force depends on the apparent area of contact. The wear tests showed high resistance of PDMS to abrasion over millions of cycles.

  18. Rapid selective metal patterning on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated by capillarity-assisted laser direct write

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Ming-Tsang; Lee, Daeho; Sherry, Alexander; Grigoropoulos, Costas P

    2011-01-01

    direct write (LDW) technology. To achieve good metal film quality, a capillarity-assisted laser direct writing (CALDW) of nanoparticle suspensions on a low surface energy material (PDMS) was utilized. Experimental results showed controllable electrical

  19. Low cost fabrication of polymer composite (h-ZnO + PDMS) material for piezoelectric device application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Akanksha; Das, Sonatan; Bharathkumar, Mareddi; Revanth, D.; Karthik, ARB; Sudhakara Sastry, Bala; Ramgopal Rao, V.

    2016-07-01

    Flexible piezoelectric composites offer alternative and/or additional solutions to sensor, actuator and transducer applications. Here in this work, we have successfully fabricated highly flexible piezoelectric composites with poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS) using herbal zinc oxide (h-ZnO) as filler having weight fractions up to 50 wt.% by solution casting of dispersions of h-ZnO in PDMS. Excellent piezo properties (Resonant frequency 935 Hz, d*33 29.76 pm V-1), physiochemical properties (Wurtzite structure ZnO, 380 nm absorbance) and mechanical properties (Young modulus 16.9 MPa) have been optimized with theoretical simulations and observed experimentally for h-ZnO + PDMS. As such, the demonstrated piezoelectric PDMS membranes combined with the excellent properties of these composites open new ways to ‘soft touch’ applications and could serve as a variety of soft and sensitive electromechanical transducers, which are desired for a variety of sensor and energy harvesting applications.

  20. Fabrication of hierarchically structured superhydrophobic PDMS surfaces by Cu and CuO casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Christopher P.; Lazarus, Nathan

    2015-10-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) films decorated with hierarchically structured pillars are cast from large area copper and copper oxide negative molds. The molds are fabricated using a single patterning step and electroplating. The process of casting structured PDMS films is simpler and cheaper than alternatives based on deep reactive ion etching or laser roughening of bulk silicone. Texture imparted to the pillars from the mold walls renders the PDMS films superhydrophobic, with the contact angle/hysteresis of the most non-wetting surfaces measuring 164°/9° and 158°/10° for surfaces with and without application of a low surface energy coating. The usefulness of patterned PDMS films as a "self-cleaning" solar cell module covering is demonstrated and other applications are discussed.

  1. Thermal conductivity and stability of nano size carbon black filled PDMS: Fuel cell perspective

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, H

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon black filled Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was considered as a prospective bipolar plate material candidate for a Fuel Cell. In this perspective, thermal conductivity and stability of the composites were investigated. Samples with filler weight...

  2. Two-dimensional nanopatterning by PDMS relief structures of polymeric colloidal crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hye Jin; Kim, Ju-Hee; Jung, Duk-Young; Park, Jong Bae; Lee, Hae Seong

    2008-06-01

    A new constructive method of fabricating a nanoparticle self-assembly on the patterned surface of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) relief nanostructure was demonstrated. Patterned PDMS templates with close-packed microwells were fabricated by molding against a self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene spheres. Alkanethiol-functionalized gold nanoparticles with an average particle size of 2.5 nm were selectively deposited onto a hydrophobic self-assembled monolayer printed on the substrate by the micro-contact printing (μCP) of the prepared PDMS microwell, in which the patterned gold nanoparticles consisted of close-packed hexagons with an average diameter of 370 nm. In addition, two-dimensional colloidal crystals derived from PMMA microspheres with a diameter of 380 nm and a negative surface charge were successfully formed on the hemispherical microwells by electrostatic force using positively charged PAH-coated PDMS as a template to produce multidimensional nanostructures.

  3. The study of PDMS surface treatment and it's applications by using proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, J. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, K. H.; Park, J. Y.

    2007-04-01

    PDMS(Polydimethylsiloxane) is mainly used as a material to do lab on a chip for biochemical analysis. PDMS has many applicability at the Bio-Technology(BT) field, because it is flexible, biocompatible and has good oxygen permeability. In this study, we have investigated to physical and chemical changes of PDMS surface by proton beam radiation conditions. The used kind of ion were Ar and N, beam energy was 30keV, 60keV, 80keV, total fluence was 1E10 to 1E16 [ions/cm 2 ]. PDMS membrane was produced as 150 μm thick on the 3' silicon wafer. We inquired into physical and chemical changes up to beam radiation conditions through the investigate the change of surface roughness by AFM(Atomic Force Microscope), the change of surface morphology by SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) and the change of chemical composition by FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared Raman spectroscopy) and XPS(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). From these basic data to we set up the proton beam radiation conditions to secure metal layer and PDMS adhesion. This enables to produce the electrode at the PDMS material lab on a chip. From now on, we'll investigate the cell patterning possibility after carry out of cell culture with mouse fibroblast at PDMS surface what is surface modification by using of proton beam radiation and apply this to produce lab on a chip. Physical property: Surface roughness of PDMS membrane was observed using AFM, after exposure of proton beam on it. The roughness increased as the power level of proton beam increase. This phenomena was caused by the kinetic energy of particle. Chemical property: Long term observation was conducted on the contact angles of the samples made by the proton beam exposure or oxygen plasma treatment; the hydrophilicity was found to be stronger in the samples made by the proton beam exposure. We found the reason of this was the destruction of polymer chains by proton beam. Feasibility of Through-hole: Considering that comparatively high level energy beam

  4. The study of PDMS surface treatment and it's applications by using proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, J. Y.; Kim, J. Y.; Kwon, K. H.; Park, J. Y. [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    PDMS(Polydimethylsiloxane) is mainly used as a material to do lab on a chip for biochemical analysis. PDMS has many applicability at the Bio-Technology(BT) field, because it is flexible, biocompatible and has good oxygen permeability. In this study, we have investigated to physical and chemical changes of PDMS surface by proton beam radiation conditions. The used kind of ion were Ar and N, beam energy was 30keV, 60keV, 80keV, total fluence was 1E10 to 1E16 [ions/cm{sup 2}]. PDMS membrane was produced as 150 {mu}m thick on the 3' silicon wafer. We inquired into physical and chemical changes up to beam radiation conditions through the investigate the change of surface roughness by AFM(Atomic Force Microscope), the change of surface morphology by SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) and the change of chemical composition by FT-IR(Fourier Transform Infrared Raman spectroscopy) and XPS(X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy). From these basic data to we set up the proton beam radiation conditions to secure metal layer and PDMS adhesion. This enables to produce the electrode at the PDMS material lab on a chip. From now on, we'll investigate the cell patterning possibility after carry out of cell culture with mouse fibroblast at PDMS surface what is surface modification by using of proton beam radiation and apply this to produce lab on a chip. Physical property: Surface roughness of PDMS membrane was observed using AFM, after exposure of proton beam on it. The roughness increased as the power level of proton beam increase. This phenomena was caused by the kinetic energy of particle. Chemical property: Long term observation was conducted on the contact angles of the samples made by the proton beam exposure or oxygen plasma treatment; the hydrophilicity was found to be stronger in the samples made by the proton beam exposure. We found the reason of this was the destruction of polymer chains by proton beam. Feasibility of Through-hole: Considering that comparatively high

  5. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds for SPME/PDMS

    OpenAIRE

    Liao Hsuan-Yu; Huang Miao-Ling; Lu Yu-Ting; Chao Keh-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The partition coefficients of 51 organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and gas were compiled from the literature sources in this study. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis. The PDMS-gas partition coefficients were well correlated to the molecular weight of organic compounds (r = 0.832, p < 0.05). An empirical model, consisting of the molecular weight and the polarizability, was ...

  6. Stretchable and bendable carbon nanotube on PDMS super-lyophobic sheet for liquid metal manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Daeyoung; Jung, Daewoong; Yoo, Jun Hyeon; Lee, Gil S; Lee, Jeong-Bong; Lee, Yunho; Choi, Wonjae; Yoo, Koangki

    2014-01-01

    We report a vertically-aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) forest on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sheet as a novel widely stretchable and bendable anti-wetting super-lyophobic surface for naturally oxidized gallium-based liquid metals. The vertically-aligned CNT has inherent chemical inertness and a hierarchical texture combining micro/nanoscale roughness; these two characters render the developed sheet as a super-lyophobic substrate against gallium-based liquid metals. The vertically-aligned CNT forest was first grown on Si substrate and then transferred onto a PDMS sheet by imprinting. It was found that the transferred CNT on the PDMS sheet maintained its vertically-aligned nature as well as hierarchical micro/nano surface morphology. It was found that the static contact angles of the gallium-based liquid metal droplet on the CNT on Si and on the CNT on PDMS were both greater than 155° and the contact angle hysteresis on the CNT on Si was 4° and that on the transferred CNT on PDMS was 19°. These measurement results showed that the surface retains a super-lyophobic property before and after the CNT transfer onto PDMS. We tested the CNT on PDMS sheet for its mechanical flexibility using stretching (50% and 100%) and bending (curvature of 0.1 and 0.4 mm −1 ). We carried out a bouncing test and a rolling test on the stretched/bent CNT on the PDMS sheet and the results confirmed that the flexible sheet maintains anti-wetting characteristics under bending or stretching conditions. (paper)

  7. 3D Printing PDMS Elastomer in a Hydrophilic Support Bath via Freeform Reversible Embedding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Thomas J; Hudson, Andrew; Pusch, Kira; Lee, Andrew; Feinberg, Adam W

    2016-10-10

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is used in a wide range of biomaterial applications including microfluidics, cell culture substrates, flexible electronics, and medical devices. However, it has proved challenging to 3D print PDMS in complex structures due to its low elastic modulus and need for support during the printing process. Here we demonstrate the 3D printing of hydrophobic PDMS prepolymer resins within a hydrophilic Carbopol gel support via freeform reversible embedding (FRE). In the FRE printing process, the Carbopol support acts as a Bingham plastic that yields and fluidizes when the syringe tip of the 3D printer moves through it, but acts as a solid for the PDMS extruded within it. This, in combination with the immiscibility of hydrophobic PDMS in the hydrophilic Carbopol, confines the PDMS prepolymer within the support for curing times up to 72 h while maintaining dimensional stability. After printing and curing, the Carbopol support gel releases the embedded PDMS prints by using phosphate buffered saline solution to reduce the Carbopol yield stress. As proof-of-concept, we used Sylgard 184 PDMS to 3D print linear and helical filaments via continuous extrusion and cylindrical and helical tubes via layer-by-layer fabrication. Importantly, we show that the 3D printed tubes were manifold and perfusable. The results demonstrate that hydrophobic polymers with low viscosity and long cure times can be 3D printed using a hydrophilic support, expanding the range of biomaterials that can be used in additive manufacturing. Further, by implementing the technology using low cost open-source hardware and software tools, the FRE printing technique can be rapidly implemented for research applications.

  8. The effect of dietary pigmentation on the esthetic appearance of clear orthodontic elastomeric modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeel F Talic

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Coffee and tea are strong staining media that should be avoided by patients who opted to have esthetic appliances for their orthodontic treatment. Elastomeric modules manufactured by AU showed higher staining optical properties as compared to the other two companies, which could be related to the manufacturing processing of these modules.

  9. Physical and Chemical Stability of Urapidil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Elastomeric Infusion Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Cristina; Leggieri, Anna; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Baietto, Lorena; Fulcheri, Chiara; De Nicolò, Amedeo; De Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Urapidil is an antihypertensive agent, usually administered through intravenous bolus injection, slow-intravenous infusion, or continuous-drug infusion by perfusor. Since to date no evidences are available on drug stability in elastomeric pumps, patients have to be hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method to evaluate urapidil stability in an elastomeric infusion pump, in order to allow continuous infusion as home-care treatment. Analyses were conducted by diluting urapidil in an elastomeric pump. Two concentrations were evaluated: 1.6 mg/mL and 3.3 mg/mL. For the analyses, a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic- photodiode array detection instrument was used. Stressed degradation, pH changes, and visual clarity were used as stability indicators up to 10 days after urapidil solution preparation. The drug showed no more than 5% degradation during the test period at room temperature. No pH changes and no evidences of incompatibility were observed. Stress tests resulted in appreciable observation of degradation products. Considering the observed mean values, urapidil hydrochloride in sodium chloride 0.9% in elastomeric infusion pumps is stable for at least 10 days. These results indicate that this treatment could be administered at home for a prolonged duration (at least 7 days) with a satisfactory response. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  10. Enhancing relative permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multi block copolymers in binary polymer blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts a possibil......Polydimethylsiloxanes (PDMS) are well-known to actuate with relatively large strains due to low modulus, but they possess lowpermittivity. Contrary, polyethyleneglycols (PEG) are not stretchable but possess high permittivity. Combination of the two polymers in a block copolymer depicts...... a possibility for substantial improvement of properties such as high permittivity, stretchability and non-conductivity – if carefully designed. The objective is to synthesize PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer assembling into discontinuous morphologies in PEG based on variation of volume fractions of PDMS....... The utilized synthesis of PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer is based on hydrosilylation reaction, which is amended from Klasner et al.1 and Jukarainen etal.2 Variation in the ratio between the two constituents introduces distinctive properties in terms of dielectric permittivity and rheological behaviour. PDMS...

  11. Direct transfer of multilayer graphene grown on a rough metal surface using PDMS adhesion engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Heejun; Kang, Il-Suk; Lee, Youngbok; Cha, Yun Jeong; Yoon, Dong Ki; Ahn, Chi Won; Lee, Wonhee

    2016-09-01

    The direct transfer of graphene using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamping has advantages such as a ‘pick-and-place’ capability and no chemical residue problems. However, it is not easy to apply direct PDMS stamping to graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition on rough, grainy metal surfaces due to poor contact between the PDMS and graphene. In this study, graphene consisting of a mixture of monolayers and multiple layers grown on a rough Ni surface was directly transferred without the use of an adhesive layer. Liquid PDMS was cured on graphene to effect a conformal contact with the graphene. A fast release of graphene from substrate was achieved by carrying out wet-etching-assisted mechanical peeling. We also carried out a thermal post-curing of PDMS to control the level of adhesion between PDMS and graphene and hence facilitate a damage-free release of the graphene. Characterization of the transferred graphene by micro-Raman spectroscopy, SEM/EDS and optical microscopy showed neither cracks nor contamination from the transfer. This technique allows a fast and simple transfer of graphene, even for multilayer graphene grown on a rough surface.

  12. Investigation of the properties of fully reacted unstoichiometric polydimethylsiloxane networks and their extracted network fractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankær, Sarah Maria Grundahl; Jensen, Mette Krog; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the linear dynamic response of a series of fully reacted unstoichiometric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) networks and of the two corresponding network fractions namely the sol and the washed network. The sol and the washed network were separated by a simple extraction process. This way...

  13. Effect of Commonly Used Beverage, Soft Drink, and Mouthwash on Force Delivered by Elastomeric Chain: A Comparative In Vitro Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-01-01

    Background: The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Materials and Methods: Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a...

  14. The flow Rate Accuracy of Elastomeric Infusion Pumps After Repeated Filling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohseni, Masood; Ebneshahidi, Amin

    2014-05-01

    One of the frequent applications of elastomeric infusion pumps is postoperative pain management. In daily practice, the disposable pumps get refilled with modified medication combinations in the successive days; although, the accuracy of infusion rates is unknown to clinicians. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of repeated filling on the delivery rate accuracy of an elastomeric pump available in our market. We examined 10 elastomeric infusion pumps (BOT-802, Nanchang Biotek Medical Device Company, China) with 100 mL capacity and nominal flow of 5 mL/h. Each pump was filled for three times, accounting for 30 series of experiments. A microset scaled in mL was used to measure the pump deliveries. Flow profile and reliability of infusion rate were analyzed after repeated use. The mean flow rate in the three series of measurements showed a gradual increase; however, the difference was not statistically significant (5.01 ± 0.07 vs. 5.03 ± 0.06 vs. 5.06 ± 0.08 mL/h; P = 0.81). The percentage of the flow rate error (deviation from 5 mL/h ± 15%) was 100% in the first and second hours of infusion, 96% in the third hour, 60% in the 20th hour and zero percent in the rest of the infusion time. This study indicated that the delivery rate accuracy of elastomeric infusion pumps is preserved after repeated usage. These laboratory findings suggested that elastomeric pumps could be safely refilled in the successive days to provide postoperative analgesia.

  15. Modulation of hepatocarcinoma cell morphology and activity by parylene-C coating on PDMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaré Pereira-Rodrigues

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to understand and locally control the morphogenesis of mammalian cells is a fundamental objective of cell and developmental biology as well as tissue engineering research. We present parylene-C (ParC deposited on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS as a new substratum for in vitro advanced cell culture in the case of Human Hepatocarcinoma (HepG2 cells. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our findings establish that the intrinsic properties of ParC-coated PDMS (ParC/PDMS influence and modulate initial extracellular matrix (ECM; here, type-I collagen surface architecture, as compared to non-coated PDMS substratum. Morphological changes induced by the presence of ParC on PDMS were shown to directly affect liver cell metabolic activity and the expression of transmembrane receptors implicated in cell adhesion and cell-cell interaction. These changes were characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM, which elucidated differences in HepG2 cell adhesion, spreading, and reorganization into two- or three-dimensional structures by neosynthesis of ECM components. Local modulation of cell aggregation was successfully performed using ParC/PDMS micropatterns constructed by simple microfabrication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrated for the first time the modulation of HepG2 cells' behavior in relation to the intrinsic physical properties of PDMS and ParC, enabling the local modulation of cell spreading in a 2D or 3D manner by simple microfabrication techniques. This work will provide promising insights into the development of cell-based platforms that have many applications in the field of in vitro liver tissue engineering, pharmacology and therapeutics.

  16. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kant, Madhushree Bute; Shinde, Shashikant D. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Bodas, Dhananjay [Centre for Nanobioscience, Agharkar Research Institute, Agharkar road, Pune 411004 (India); Patil, K.R. [Center for Materials Characterization, National Chemical Laboratories, Pune 411008 (India); Sathe, V.G. [UGC DAE Inter University Consortium, Indore 452017 (India); Adhi, K.P. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India); Gosavi, S.W., E-mail: swg@physics.unipune.ac.in [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Pune 411007 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Use of KrF Laser micromachining for Lab-On-Chip applications at lower fluence. • Addition of Benzophenone in PDMS enhances its self development sensitivity. • Benzophenone helps efficient energy transfer for equal density of bond scissioning. • Correlation of chemical composition with laser dose and microstructure. • Microstructures with well defined clean sidewalls. - Abstract: This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm{sup 2}. The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in C-O, C=O, Si-O{sub 3} and Si-O{sub 4} bonding at the expense of Si-C and Si-O{sub 2} bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology.

  17. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2011-11-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  18. Rapid and low-cost fabrication of polystyrene-based molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Foulds, Ian G.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we described a rapid and low-cost method to fabricate polystyrene molds for PDMS microfluidic devices using a CO2 laser system. It takes only several minutes to fabricate the polystyrene mold with bump pattern on top of it using a CO2 laser system. The bump pattern can be easily transferred to PDMS and fabricate microchannles as deep as 3μm on PDMS. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

  19. Surface studies on benzophenone doped PDMS microstructures fabricated using KrF excimer laser direct write lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kant, Madhushree Bute; Shinde, Shashikant D.; Bodas, Dhananjay; Patil, K.R.; Sathe, V.G.; Adhi, K.P.; Gosavi, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Use of KrF Laser micromachining for Lab-On-Chip applications at lower fluence. • Addition of Benzophenone in PDMS enhances its self development sensitivity. • Benzophenone helps efficient energy transfer for equal density of bond scissioning. • Correlation of chemical composition with laser dose and microstructure. • Microstructures with well defined clean sidewalls. - Abstract: This paper discusses microfabrication process for benzophenone doped polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using laser lithography. KrF excimer laser of 248 nm with 20 ns pulse width at repetition rate of 1 Hz was used for microfabrication of undoped and benzophenone doped PDMS. The doped-PDMS shows sensitivity below 365 nm, permitting processing under ambient light. The analysis of etch depth revealed that doped PDMS shows self developable sensitivity at lower fluence of ∼250 mJ/cm 2 . The unexposed and exposed surface was studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Spectrocopic analysis indicated increase in C-O, C=O, Si-O 3 and Si-O 4 bonding at the expense of Si-C and Si-O 2 bonds of PDMS. In case of laser exposed doped-PDMS, removal of benzophenone from probe depth of spectroscopy was observed. Whereas the surface morphology of exposed and unexposed doped-PDMS was observed to be same, indicating clean development of PDMS micropatterns. The present study indicates that addition of 3.0 wt.% benzophenone in PDMS enhance self development sensitivity of PDMS. The self developable results on doped-PDMS are quite encouraging for its potential use in point of care Lab-On-Chip applications, for fabricating micropatterns using direct write laser lithography technology

  20. Printing Three-Dimensional Heterogeneities in the Elastic Modulus of an Elastomeric Matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K

    2016-05-04

    We present a rapid and controllable method to create microscale heterogeneities in the 3D stiffness of a soft material by printing patterns with a ferrofluid ink. An ink droplet moved through a liquid polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) volume using an externally applied magnetic field sheds clusters of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) in its wake. By varying the field spatiotemporally, a well-defined three-dimensional curvilinear feature is printed that contains MNP clusters. Subsequent cross-linking of the PDMS preserves the feature in place after the magnetic field is removed. Since the ferrofluid ink interferes with the cross-linking of PDMS, a 3D print containing ink density variations leads to corresponding spatial deviations in the elastic modulus of the matrix. The modulus is mapped in the experiments with atomic force microscopy. This rapid method to print 3D heterogeneities in soft matter promises the ability to mimic mechanical variations that occur in natural biomaterials.

  1. Is static friction affected by aging and amount of elastomeric ligatures in orthodontic sliding mechanics? An in-vitro investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Giudice, A; Portelli, M; Militi, A; Spinuzza, P; Bellocchio, A M; Nucera, R; Marcolina, M; Ghilardi, G; Manuelli, M; Lucchese, A

    2018-03-15

    In straight-wire mechanics, friction can significantly influence the forces expressed by wires. The aim of this study is to assess whether the aging and the sum of elastomeric ligatures affect the static friction during orthodontic space closure. A 0.017x 0.025-in SS was drawn throughout a 3-bracket experimental model and engaged with elastomeric ligatures. Before performing the test, the ligatures were soaked in artificial saliva for 48 hours (Group 1), 2 weeks (Group 2) and 4 weeks (Group 3); brand-new ligatures were also tested as control group (Group 4). The resistance to sliding (RS) was recorded at 3 different numerical configurations of ligatures using a customized testing machine and tests were repeated for ten times. Data of RS were statistically analysed by using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s multiple comparison tests. RS was found to increase systematically when more elastomeric ligatures were included in the wire engaging system. At two weeks of immersion in artificial saliva elastomeric ligatures showed the lowest values of RS while they became significantly more frictional after immersion for 4 weeks. The results of this study showed that in multi-bracket orthodontic therapy, the RS increases with the number of elastomeric ligatures involved for arch-wire engagement. Differently from the frictional behavior of elastomeric modules, the aging of these ligatures does not influence their incremental effect of frictional forces.

  2. Poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based micro-reactors for steam reforming of methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Ji Won; Kundu, Arunabha; Jang, Jae Hyuk

    2010-11-15

    A miniaturized methanol steam reformer with a serpentine type of micro-channels was developed based on poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material. This way of fabricating micro-hydrogen generator is very simple and inexpensive. The volume of a PDMS micro-reformer is less than 10 cm{sup 3}. The catalyst used was a commercial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst from Johnson Matthey. The Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst particles of mean diameter 50-70 {mu}m was packed into the micro-channels by injecting water based suspension of catalyst particles at the inlet point. The miniaturized PDMS micro-reformer was operated successfully in the operating temperatures of 180-240 C and 15%-75% molar methanol conversion was achieved in this temperature range for WHSV of 2.1-4.2 h{sup -1}. It was not possible to operate the micro-reformer made by pure PDMS at temperature beyond 240 C. Hybrid type of micro-reformer was fabricated by mixing PDMS and silica powder which allowed the operating temperature around 300 C. The complete conversion (99.5%) of methanol was achieved at 280 C in this case. The maximum reformate gas flow rate was 30 ml/min which can produce 1 W power at 0.6 V assuming hydrogen utilization of 60%. (author)

  3. Irreversible bonding of polyimide and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based on a thiol-epoxy click reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang, Michelle V; Chung, Hyun-Joong; Elias, Anastasia L

    2016-01-01

    Polyimide is one of the most popular substrate materials for the microfabrication of flexible electronics, while polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is the most widely used stretchable substrate/encapsulant material. These two polymers are essential in fabricating devices for microfluidics, bioelectronics, and the internet of things; bonding these materials together is a crucial challenge. In this work, we employ click chemistry at room temperature to irreversibly bond polyimide and PDMS through thiol-epoxy bonds using two different methods. In the first method, we functionalize the surfaces of the PDMS and polyimide substrates with mercaptosilanes and epoxysilanes, respectively, for the formation of a thiol-epoxy bond in the click reaction. In the second method, we functionalize one or both surfaces with mercaptosilane and introduce an epoxy adhesive layer between the two surfaces. When the surfaces are bonded using the epoxy adhesive without any surface functionalization, an extremely small peel strength (<0.01 N mm −1 ) is measured with a peel test, and adhesive failure occurs at the PDMS surface. With surface functionalization, however, remarkably higher peel strengths of ∼0.2 N mm −1 (method 1) and  >0.3 N mm −1 (method 2) are observed, and failure occurs by tearing of the PDMS layer. We envision that the novel processing route employing click chemistry can be utilized in various cases of stretchable and flexible device fabrication. (paper)

  4. Sensitivity improvement of a fibre Bragg grating pH sensor with elastomeric coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianti, Ian; Supa'at, A. S. M.; Idrus, Sevia M.; Kurdi, Ojo; Anwar, M. R. S.

    2012-01-01

    A new optical pH sensor based on fibre Bragg grating (FBG) is demonstrated. The sensor consists of a FBG coated with pH sensitive hydrogel. The sensing was performed through the detection of wavelength shifts resulting from the induced strain on the FBG due to mechanical expansion of the hydrogel. An elastomeric coating was applied before the hydrogel coating to improve the sensitivity. The sensor performance was investigated by simulating the hydrogel swelling and the strain induced on the FBG. The swelling of hydrogel due to pH change was modelled using a free-energy function and was solved using the finite element method. With silicone rubber as the elastomer material, the results show that the sensitivity was improved by up to 66% compared to that of the FBG pH sensor without elastomeric coating.

  5. Sensitivity improvement of a fibre Bragg grating pH sensor with elastomeric coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yulianti, Ian; Supa'at, A S M; Idrus, Sevia M; Anwar, M R S; Kurdi, Ojo

    2012-01-01

    A new optical pH sensor based on fibre Bragg grating (FBG) is demonstrated. The sensor consists of a FBG coated with pH sensitive hydrogel. The sensing was performed through the detection of wavelength shifts resulting from the induced strain on the FBG due to mechanical expansion of the hydrogel. An elastomeric coating was applied before the hydrogel coating to improve the sensitivity. The sensor performance was investigated by simulating the hydrogel swelling and the strain induced on the FBG. The swelling of hydrogel due to pH change was modelled using a free-energy function and was solved using the finite element method. With silicone rubber as the elastomer material, the results show that the sensitivity was improved by up to 66% compared to that of the FBG pH sensor without elastomeric coating

  6. Surface tension-induced PDMS micro-pillars with controllable tips and tilt angles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei; Fan, Yiqiang; Conchouso Gonzalez, David; Foulds, Ian G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars using a CO2 laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through-holes. This method eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to fabricate a 3D mold. The micro-pillars were formed by the capillary force that draws PDMS into the through-holes of the PMMA mold. The tilt angles of the micro-pillars depend on the tilt angles of the through-holes in the mold, and the concave and convex micro-lens tip shapes of the PDMS micro-pillars can be modified by changing the surface wettability of the PMMA through-holes.

  7. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huei-Wen; Hsiao, Yi-Hsing; Chen, Chih-Chen; Yet, Shaw-Fang; Hsu, Chia-Hsien

    2016-07-06

    The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB) formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  8. A PDMS-Based Microfluidic Hanging Drop Chip for Embryoid Body Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Wen Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The conventional hanging drop technique is the most widely used method for embryoid body (EB formation. However, this method is labor intensive and limited by the difficulty in exchanging the medium. Here, we report a microfluidic chip-based approach for high-throughput formation of EBs. The device consists of microfluidic channels with 6 × 12 opening wells in PDMS supported by a glass substrate. The PDMS channels were fabricated by replicating polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS from SU-8 mold. The droplet formation in the chip was tested with different hydrostatic pressures to obtain optimal operation pressures for the wells with 1000 μm diameter openings. The droplets formed at the opening wells were used to culture mouse embryonic stem cells which could subsequently developed into EBs in the hanging droplets. This device also allows for medium exchange of the hanging droplets making it possible to perform immunochemistry staining and characterize EBs on chip.

  9. Influence of crosslinking process on the mechanical behavior of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Barbara Monteiro Pessoa; Weber, Ricardo Ponde; Elzubair, Amal; Suarez, Joao Carlos Miguez

    2010-01-01

    In the present work was studied the influence of the crosslinking process on the mechanical behavior of a composite with a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) matrix filled with inorganic particles, used as dental impression material. The material was crosslinked chemically and by exposition to 400kGy gamma radiation dose. The material properties, before and after crosslinking, were analyzed through physical chemical and mechanical tests and microscopic exam. The results showed that the gamma irradiation, as compared to chemical cure process, produced higher degree of crosslinking, better wettability, adjusted hardness and low fragility. However, the microscopic exam showed that the gamma irradiated PDMS presents, as compared with the chemical cure, a greater number of defaults which resulted from the large concentration of released gases. The results allowed us to conclude that gamma irradiation is an adequate process to crosslink the studied PDMS composite, since we can reduce the quantity of gases formed in this process. (author)

  10. Surface tension-induced PDMS micro-pillars with controllable tips and tilt angles

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huawei

    2013-12-21

    This paper reports a novel method to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro-pillars using a CO2 laser-machined poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mold with through-holes. This method eliminates the requirements of expensive and complicated facilities to fabricate a 3D mold. The micro-pillars were formed by the capillary force that draws PDMS into the through-holes of the PMMA mold. The tilt angles of the micro-pillars depend on the tilt angles of the through-holes in the mold, and the concave and convex micro-lens tip shapes of the PDMS micro-pillars can be modified by changing the surface wettability of the PMMA through-holes.

  11. Nanoporous polymeric nanofibers based on selectively etched PS-b-PDMS block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Gokcen B; Buyukserin, Fatih; Morris, Michael A; Demirel, Gokhan

    2012-01-01

    One-dimensional nanoporous polymeric nanofibers have been fabricated within an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane by a facile approach based on selective etching of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) domains in polystyrene-block-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PS-b-PDMS) block copolymers that had been formed within the AAO template. It was observed that prior to etching, the well-ordered PS-b-PDMS nanofibers are solid and do not have any porosity. The postetched PS nanofibers, on the other hand, had a highly porous structure having about 20-50 nm pore size. The nanoporous polymeric fibers were also employed as a drug carrier for the native, continuous, and pulsatile drug release using Rhodamine B (RB) as a model drug. These studies showed that enhanced drug release and tunable drug dosage can be achieved by using ultrasound irradiation. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-Based Flexible Resistive Strain Sensors for Wearable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available There is growing attention and rapid development on flexible electronic devices with electronic materials and sensing technology innovations. In particular, strain sensors with high elasticity and stretchability are needed for several potential applications including human entertainment technology, human–machine interface, personal healthcare, and sports performance monitoring, etc. This article presents recent advancements in the development of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS-based flexible resistive strain sensors for wearable applications. First of all, the article shows that PDMS-based stretchable resistive strain sensors are successfully fabricated by different methods, such as the filtration method, printing technology, micromolding method, coating techniques, and liquid phase mixing. Next, strain sensing performances including stretchability, gauge factor, linearity, and durability are comprehensively demonstrated and compared. Finally, potential applications of PDMS-based flexible resistive strain sensors are also discussed. This review indicates that the era of wearable intelligent electronic systems has arrived.

  13. Effects of atmospheric pressure conditions on flow rate of an elastomeric infusion pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong; Moeller, Anna; Ding, Yuanpang Samuel

    2012-04-01

    The effects of pressure conditions, both hyperbaric and hypobaric, on the flow rate of an elastomeric infusion pump were investigated. The altered pressure conditions were tested with the restrictor outlet at two different conditions: (1) at the same pressure condition as the Infusor elastomeric balloon and (2) with the outlet exposed to ambient conditions. Five different pressure conditions were tested. These included ambient pressure (98-101 kilopascals [kPa]) and test pressures controlled to be 10 or 20 kPa below or 75 or 150 kPa above the ambient pressure. A theoretical calculation based on the principles of fluid mechanics was also used to predict the pump's flow rate at various ambient conditions. The conditions in which the Infusor elastomeric pump and restrictor outlet were at the same pressure gave rise to average flow rates within the ±10% tolerance of the calculated target flow rate of 11 mL/hr. The flow rate of the Infusor pump decreased when the pressure conditions changed from hypobaric to ambient. The flow rate increased when the pressure conditions changed from hyperbaric to ambient. The flow rate of the Infusor elastomeric pump was not affected when the balloon reservoir and restrictor outlet were at the same pressure. The flow rate varied from 58.54% to 377.04% of the labeled flow rate when the pressure applied to the reservoir varied from 20 kPa below to 150 kPa above the pressure applied to the restrictor outlet, respectively. The maximum difference between observed flow rates and those calculated by applying fluid mechanics was 4.9%.

  14. Hybrid magnetorheological fluid–elastomeric lag dampers for helicopter stability augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Wei; Wereley, Norman M

    2008-01-01

    A laboratory demonstration of a hybrid magnetorheological fluid–elastomeric (MRFE) damper is investigated for adjustable or programmable lag mode damping in helicopters, so that damping requirements can be varied as a function of different flight conditions. The laboratory demonstration of this hybrid MRFE lag damper consists of a double lap shear elastomeric damper in parallel with two magnetorheological (MR) flow mode dampers. This is compared to a damper where only elastomeric materials are implemented, i.e., a double lap shear specimen. The relationship between the output force and the quasi-steady harmonic displacement input to a flow mode MR damper is exploited, where the output force can be adjusted as a function of applied magnetic field. Equivalent viscous damping is used to compare the damping characteristics of the hybrid damper to a conventional elastomeric damper under steady-state sinusoidal displacement excitation. To demonstrate feasibility, a hybrid MRFE damper test setup is designed, and single frequency (lag frequency or rotor in-plane bending frequency) and dual frequency (lag frequency and rotor frequency) tests are conducted under different magnetic fields. The hybrid MRFE damper exhibits amplitude-dependent damping behavior. However, with application of a magnetic field, the damping level is controlled to a specific damping level objective as a function of displacement amplitude. Similarly, under dual frequency conditions, damping degradation at the lag frequency, because of lag motion at the rotor frequency, can also be recovered by increasing magnetic field. A time-domain analysis is developed to study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper. Using rate-dependent elasto-slides, the amplitude-dependent behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper is accurately reconstructed using both constant and current-dependent (i.e. controllable) parameters. The analysis is physically motivated and can be applied to the elastomer and MR fluid

  15. Antibiotic stability related to temperature variations in elastomeric pumps used for outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voumard, Rachel; Van Neyghem, Niklas; Cochet, Camille; Gardiol, Céline; Decosterd, Laurent; Buclin, Thierry; de Valliere, Serge

    2017-05-01

    Elastomeric pumps can be used for the continuous administration of antimicrobials in the outpatient setting. A potentially limiting factor in their use is the stability of antimicrobials. To investigate under real-life conditions the temperature variations of antibiotic solutions contained in elastomeric pumps, and to examine under such conditions the stability of five antibiotics. Healthy volunteers carried the elastomeric pumps in carry pouches during their daily activities. A thermologger measured the temperatures every 15 min over 24 h. Antibiotic concentrations were measured by HPLC coupled to tandem MS. During daytime, the temperature of solutions in the pumps increased steadily, warming to >30°C. During the night, when the pumps were kept attached to the waist, the temperatures reached up to 33°C. The use of white carry pouches avoided excessive temperature increases. Over seven experiments, cefazolin, cefepime, piperacillin and tazobactam were found to be stable over 24 h. Flucloxacillin showed a mean decrease in concentration of 11% ( P  = 0.001). Real-life situations can cause significant temperature rises in elastomeric pumps, thereby potentially increasing the risk of antibiotic degradation. Patients should be instructed to avoid situations causing excessive temperature increases. Despite these temperature variations, cefazolin, cefepime, piperacillin and tazobactam were found to be stable over 24 h. A moderate degradation was noticed for flucloxacillin, albeit most probably not to an extent that might impair anti-infective efficacy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Friction produced by types of elastomeric ligatures in treatment mechanics with the preadjusted appliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Franchi, Lorenzo

    2006-03-01

    The objective was to compare the frictional forces generated by new nonconventional passive elastomeric ligatures (NCL) and conventional elastomeric ligatures (CL) under dry conditions. An experimental model reproducing the right buccal segment of the upper arch and consisting of five stainless steel 0.022-inch preadjusted brackets (from the second premolar through the central incisor) was used to assess both static and kinetic frictional forces produced by NCL and CL. The frictional forces generated by the 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel wire with the two types of elastomeric ligatures were recorded by sliding the wire into the aligned brackets. The friction produced by the 0.014-inch superelastic nickel titanium wire was evaluated both in the presence of aligned brackets and of three-mm misaligned canine bracket. The amount of both static and kinetic frictions were minimal (<10 g) in the NCL group in the presence of aligned brackets with both types of wires, whereas it ranged from a minimum of 95.6 g for the 0.014-inch superelastic nickel titanium wire to a maximum of 590.7 g for the 0.019 x 0.025-inch stainless steel wire when using CL. The amount of both static and kinetic frictions in the presence of a misaligned canine bracket in the NCL group were less than half of that shown by the CL group. A recently developed passive ligature system is able to produce significantly lower levels of frictional forces in vitro when compared with conventional elastomeric modules.

  17. Radiation-induced aging of PDMS Elastomer TR-55: a summary of constitutive, mesoscale, and population-based models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiti, A [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Weisgraber, T. H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dinh, L. N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-11-16

    Filled and cross-linked elastomeric rubbers are versatile network materials with a multitude of applications ranging from artificial organs and biomedical devices to cushions, coatings, adhesives, interconnects, and seismic-isolation-, thermal-, and electrical barriers. External factors like mechanical stress, temperature fluctuations, or radiation are known to create chemical changes in such materials that can directly affect the molecular weight distribution (MWD) of the polymer between cross-links and alter the structural and mechanical properties. From a Materials Science point of view it is highly desirable to understand, effect, and manipulate such property changes in a controlled manner. In this report we summarize our modeling efforts on a polysiloxane elastomer TR-55, which is an important component in several of our systems, and representative of a wide class of filled rubber materials. The primary aging driver in this work has been γ-radiation, and a variety of modeling approaches have been employed, including constitutive, mesoscale, and population-based models. The work utilizes diverse experimental data, including mechanical stress-strain and compression set measurements, as well as MWD measurements using multiquantum NMR.

  18. A Facile Method and Novel Mechanism Using Microneedle-Structured PDMS for Triboelectric Generator Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Van-Long; Chung, Chen-Kuei

    2017-08-01

    The triboelectric generator (TEG) is a cost-effective, multi-fabricated, friendly mechanical-energy-harvesting device. The traditional TEG, generally formed by two triboelectric materials in multilayers or a simple pattern, generated triboelectricity as it worked in the cycling contact-separation operation. This paper demonstrates a novel, high-aspect-ratio, microneedle (MN)-structured polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based triboelectric generator (MN-TEG) by means of a low-cost, simple fabrication using CO 2 laser ablation on the polymethyl methacrylate substrate and a molding process. The MN-TEG, consisting of an aluminum foil and a microneedle-structured PDMS (MN-PDMS) film, generates an output performance with an open-circuit voltage up to 102.8 V, and a short-circuit current of 43.1 µA, corresponding to the current density of 1.5 µA cm -2 . With introducing MN-PDMS into the MN-TEG, a great increase of randomly closed bending-friction-deformation (BFD) behavior of MNs leads to highly enhanced triboelectric performance of the MN-TEG. The BFD keeps increasingly on in-contact between MN with Al that results in enhancement of electrical capacitance of PDMS. The effect of aspect ratio and density of MN morphology on the output performance of MN-PDMS TEG is studied further. The MN-TEG can rapidly charge electric energy on a 0.1 µF capacitor up to 2.1 V in about 0.56 s. The MN-TEG source under tapping can light up 53 light-emitting diodes with different colors, connected in series. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. In silico simulation and in vitro evaluation of an elastomeric scaffold using ultrasonic shear wave imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao; Nie, Erwei; Zhu, Yanying; Hong, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Biodegradable elastomeric scaffolds for soft tissue repair represent a growing area of biomaterials research. Mechanical strength is one of the key factors to consider in the evaluation of candidate materials and the designs for tissue scaffolds. It is desirable to develop non-invasive evaluation methods of the mechanical property of scaffolds which would provide options for monitoring temporal mechanical property changes in situ. In this paper, we conduct in silico simulation and in vitro evaluation of an elastomeric scaffold using a novel ultrasonic shear wave imaging (USWI). The scaffold is fabricated from a biodegradable elastomer, poly(carbonate urethane) urea using salt leaching method. A numerical simulation is performed to test the robustness of the developed inversion algorithm for the elasticity map reconstruction which will be implemented in the phantom experiment. The generation and propagation of shear waves in a homogeneous tissue-mimicking medium with a circular scaffold inclusion is simulated and the elasticity map is well reconstructed. A PVA phantom experiment is performed to test the ability of USWI combined with the inversion algorithm to non-invasively characterize the mechanical property of a porous, biodegradable elastomeric scaffold. The elastic properties of the tested scaffold can be easily differentiated from the surrounding medium in the reconstructed image. The ability of the developed method to identify the edge of the scaffold and characterize the elasticity distribution is demonstrated. Preliminary results in this pilot study support the idea of applying the USWI based method for non-invasive elasticity characterization of tissue scaffolds.

  20. Puncture mechanics of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation by rigid cylindrical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Chen, Zhe; Liang, Xueya; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Guoyong; Hong, Wei; Yu, Honghui; Qu, Shaoxing

    2018-03-01

    Soft elastomeric membrane structures are widely used and commonly found in engineering and biological applications. Puncture is one of the primary failure modes of soft elastomeric membrane at large deformation when indented by rigid objects. In order to investigate the puncture failure mechanism of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation, we study the deformation and puncture failure of silicone rubber membrane that results from the continuous axisymmetric indentation by cylindrical steel indenters experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, effects of indenter size and the friction between the indenter and the membrane on the deformation and puncture failure of the membrane are investigated. In the analytical study, a model within the framework of nonlinear field theory is developed to describe the large local deformation around the punctured area, as well as to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The deformed membrane is divided into three parts and the friction contact between the membrane and indenter is modeled by Coulomb friction law. The first invariant of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor I1 is adopted to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The experimental and analytical results agree well. This work provides a guideline in designing reliable soft devices featured with membrane structures, which are present in a wide variety of applications.

  1. Preliminary SEM Observations on the Surface of Elastomeric Impression Materials after Immersion or Ozone Disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prombonas, Anthony; Yannikakis, Stavros; Karampotsos, Thanasis; Katsarou, Martha-Spyridoula; Drakoulis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Surface integrity of dental elastomeric impression materials that are subjected to disinfection is of major importance for the quality of the final prosthetic restorations. Aim The aim of this qualitative Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM) study was to reveal the effects of immersion or ozone disinfection on the surface of four dental elastomeric impression materials. Materials and Methods Four dental elastomeric impression material brands were used (two vinyl polysiloxane silicones, one polyether, and one vinyl polyether silicone). Total of 32 specimens were fabricated, eight from each impression material. Specimens were immersion (0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution or 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution) or ozone disinfected or served as controls and examined with SEM. Results Surface degradation was observed on several speci-mens disinfected with 0.525% sodium hypochlorite solution. Similar wavy-wrinkling surface structures were observed in almost all specimens, when treated either with 0.3% benzalkonium chloride solution or ozone. Conclusion The SEM images obtained from this study revealed that both immersion disinfectants and ozone show similar impression material surface alterations. Ozone seems to be non-inferior as compared to immersion disinfectants, but superior as to environmental protection. PMID:28208993

  2. Initial Tensile and Residual Forces of Pigmented Elastomeric Ligatures from Various Brands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichai, Wassana; Anuwongnukroh, Niwat; Dechkunakorn, Surachai; Kaypetch, Rattiporn; Tua-ngam, Peerapong

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to investigate the initial tensile and residual forces of pigmented elastomeric ligatures (clear, pink, and metallic) from three commercial brands - Brand 1 (USA), Brand 2 (USA), and Brand 3(China). Twelve elastomeric ligatures of each brand and color were evaluated for initial tensile and residual forces after stretching for 28 days at 37°C by a Universal Testing Machine. The results showed that the highest initial tensile force was 14.78 N, 20.71 N, and 15.1 N for the metallic color of Brand-1, pink color of Brand -2, and metallic color of Brand -3, respectively. There were significant (ptensile force of each brand, except clear and metallic color of Brand-1 & 3 and pink color of Brand-2 & 3. Similarly, among the pigmented ligatures from each brand, significant (ptensile force, except metallic color of Brand-1 & 3. Brand-3 had the highest residual force after 28 days, whereas the loss of force was 80-90% in Brand-1 & 2 and 20-30% in Brand-3. There were also significant (ptensile and residual forces among the three pigmented elastomeric ligatures of the three commercial brands.

  3. Forces released during alignment with a preadjusted appliance with different types of elastomeric ligatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2006-05-01

    The purpose of this in-vitro study was to compare the forces generated by new nonconventional elastomeric ligatures (NCEL) and conventional elastomeric ligatures (CEL) during leveling and aligning phases. The testing model consisted of 5 stainless steel 0.022-in preadjusted brackets for second premolar, first premolar, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor. The canine bracket was welded to a sliding bar that allowed for different vertical positions. The forces generated by 3 sizes of wires (0.012-, 0.014-, and 0.016-in superelastic nickel-titanium) with the 2 types of elastomeric ligatures at different amounts of upward canine misalignment (1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 mm) were recorded. Significant differences between CEL and NCEL were found for all tested variables (P <.01) with the exception of the 0.014- and 0.016-in wires at canine misalignment of 1.5 mm. A noticeable amount of force was generated with the NCEL at all 4 canine positions with all 3 wire sizes (from about 50 to about 150 g). With 4.5 mm of canine misalignment or more, the average amount of released force with the CEL was approximately zero.

  4. Investigation of the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by techniques of thermal compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Gisbert, Antonio V.

    In this work is investigated the recycling of tires to elastomeric requirements by thermal compression. The production of recycled products is carried out starting from the powder, of elastomeric nature, coming from the grinding of used tires denominated GTR (Ground Tire Rubber) of different grain size, although the fundamental objective is the recycling of powder of 0,2mm grain size. The process of forming used for obtaining the recycled product is thermal compression, due to its simplicity and low cost. The composition of the powder has been analyzed and also the influence, on the elastomeric characteristics of the recycled product, of different parameters: Grain size, compact pressure, temperature, time, thickness of the recycled product and combination of sizes. At last we give an hypothesis that justifies the mechanism that gives cohesion to the powder GTR and allows their recycling. We also have carried out an analysis of the investigation lines, at the present, on the recycling of tires in general and an economic study of the viability of the recycled product in front of present products in the market, agglomerated with polyurethane, that have their application in using it in different types of floors.

  5. Softlithographic partial integration of surface-active nanoparticles in a PDMS matrix for microfluidic biodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demming, Stefanie; Buettgenbach, Stephanus [Institute for Microtechnology (IMT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Alte Salzdahlumer Strasse 203, 38124 Braunschweig (Germany); Hahn, Anne; Barcikowski, Stephan [Nanotechnology Department, Laser Zentrum Hannover e.V. (LZH), Hollerithallee 8, 30419 Hannover (Germany); Edlich, Astrid; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel; Krull, Rainer [Institute of Biochemical Engineering (IBVT), Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Gaussstrasse 17, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    The mergence of microfluidics and nanocomposite materials and their in situ structuring leads to a higher integration level within microsystems technology. Nanoparticles (Cu and Ag) produced via laser radiation were suspended in Poly(dimethylsiloxane) to permanently modify surface material. A microstructuring process was implemented which allows the incorporation of these nanomaterials globally or partially at defined locations within a microbioreactor (MBR) for the determination of their antiseptic and toxic effects on the growth of biomass. Partially structured PDMS with nanoparticle-PDMS composite. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  6. Monolithic PDMS Laminates for Dielectric Elastomer Transducers through Open-Air PlasmATreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassouneh, Suzan Sager; Oubæk, Jakob; Daugaard, Anders Egede

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the use of an open-air plasma-treatment system for the surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), in order to improve layer-to-layer adhesion. The procedure presented herein is more cost efficient compared to conventional vacuum-based plasma-treatment, and......The present study investigates the use of an open-air plasma-treatment system for the surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), in order to improve layer-to-layer adhesion. The procedure presented herein is more cost efficient compared to conventional vacuum-based plasma...

  7. PDMS/PVDF hybrid electrospun membrane with superhydrophobic property and drop impact dynamics for dyeing wastewater treatment using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin; Guo, Jiaxin; Lee, Eui-Jong; Jeong, Sanghyun; Zhao, Yanhua; Wang, Zuankai; Leiknes, TorOve

    2016-01-01

    .4°) and roughness (Ra = 1,285mm). The zeta potential of E-PDMS membrane surface showed a higher negative value than that of a commercial PVDF (C-PVDF) membrane. These properties of E-PDMS membrane provided an antifouling in treating of differently-charged dyes

  8. High quality sub-10 nm graphene nanoribbons by on-chip PS-b-PDMS block copolymer lithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Caridad, Jose; Schulte, Lars

    2015-01-01

    block and the graphene under PS. Raman analysis supports the formation of graphene nanoribbons with an average distance between defects corresponding to the oxidized PDMS pitch, with no sign of defects generated in the ribbon channel. This suggests a high degree of protection of the nanoribbons...... by the hard oxidized PDMS mask formed in situ during oxygen plasma etching....

  9. PDMS/PVDF hybrid electrospun membrane with superhydrophobic property and drop impact dynamics for dyeing wastewater treatment using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    An, Alicia Kyoungjin

    2016-10-21

    Fouling in membrane distillation (MD) results in an increase in operation costs and deterioration in a water quality. In this work, a poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropene) (PVDF-HFP) electrospun (E-PH) membrane was fabricated by hybridizing polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymeric microspheres with superhydrophobicity onto the E-PH membrane via electrospinning. The resulting hybrid PDMS with E-PH (E-PDMS) membrane showed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity (contact angle, CA = 155.4°) and roughness (Ra = 1,285mm). The zeta potential of E-PDMS membrane surface showed a higher negative value than that of a commercial PVDF (C-PVDF) membrane. These properties of E-PDMS membrane provided an antifouling in treating of differently-charged dyes and generated a flake-like dye–dye (loosely bound foulant) structure on the membrane surface rather than in the membrane pores. This also led to a high productivity of E-PDMS membrane (34 Lm-2h-1, 50% higher than that of C-PVDF membrane) without fouling or wetting. In addition, complete color removal and pure water production were achieved during a long-term operation. An application of intermittent water flushing (WF) in direct contact MD (DCMD) operation led to a 99% CA recovery of E-PDMS membrane indicating its sustainability. Therefore, the E-PDMS membrane is a promising candidate for MD application in dyeing wastewater treatment.

  10. The fabrication and performance of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based microreformer for application to electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Ji Won [Department of Chemistry, Rice University, 6100 Main Street, Houston, TX 77005 (United States); Hyuck Jang, Jae; Hyoung Gil, Jae; Kim, Sung-Han [Micro-Fuel Cell Team, Electro-Material and Device Laboratory, Central R and D Institute, Samsung Electro-Mechanics, Maetan 3-Dong, Yeoungtong-Gu, Suwon 442-838 (Korea)

    2008-04-15

    A miniaturized poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-based methanol steam reformer having a serpentine microchannel for application in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been developed. The fabricated PDMS microreformer consists of four layers, and a commercial thin-flexible heater for reforming reaction is embedded in the PDMS layers. The volume of a PDMS microreformer is about 10cm{sup 3}. The commercial Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst was used and the Cu/ZnO/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst particles of mean diameter 50-70{mu} m was packed into the microchannels by fluidized method. In this study, the miniaturized PDMS microreformer was operated successfully in the operating temperatures of 180-240 C and 30-40% molar methanol conversion was achieved in the temperature range for the feed rate of 10 and 50{mu} l-{sup -1}. (author)

  11. Study of Different Sol-Gel Coatings to Enhance the Lifetime of PDMS Devices: Evaluation of Their Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aymerich, María; Gómez-Varela, Ana I; Álvarez, Ezequiel; Flores-Arias, María T

    2016-08-25

    A study of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) sol-gel-coated channels fabricated using soft lithography and a laser direct writing technique is presented. PDMS is a biocompatible material that presents a high versatility to reproduce several structures. It is widely employed in the fabrication of preclinical devices due to its advantages but it presents a rapid chemical deterioration to organic solvents. The use of sol-gel layers to cover the PDMS overcomes this problem since it provides the robustness of glass for the structures made with PDMS, decreasing its deterioration and changing the biocompatibility of the surface. In this work, PDMS channels are coated with three different kinds of sol-gel compositions (60MTES/40TEOS, 70MTES/30TISP and 80MTES/20TISP). The endothelial cell adhesion to the different coated devices is evaluated in order to determine the most suitable sol-gel preparation conditions to enhance cellular adhesion.

  12. Does introduction of a Patient Data Management System (PDMS) improve the financial situation of an intensive care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Ixchel; Schüttler, Jürgen; Prokosch, Hans-Ulrich; Bürkle, Thomas

    2013-09-16

    Patient Data Management Systems (PDMS) support clinical documentation at the bedside and have demonstrated effects on completeness of patient charting and the time spent on documentation. These systems are costly and raise the question if such a major investment pays off. We tried to answer the following questions: How do costs and revenues of an intensive care unit develop before and after introduction of a PDMS? Can higher revenues be obtained with improved PDMS documentation? Can we present cost savings attributable to the PDMS? Retrospective analysis of cost and reimbursement data of a 25 bed Intensive Care Unit at a German University Hospital, three years before (2004-2006) and three years after (2007-2009) PDMS implementation. Costs and revenues increased continuously over the years. The profit of the investigated ICU was fluctuating over the years and seemingly depending on other factors as well. We found a small increase in profit in the year after the introduction of the PDMS, but not in the following years. Profit per case peaked at 1039 € in 2007, but dropped subsequently to 639 € per case. We found no clear evidence for cost savings after the PDMS introduction. Our cautious calculation did not consider additional labour costs for IT staff needed for system maintenance. The introduction of a PDMS has probably minimal or no effect on reimbursement. In our case the observed increase in profit was too small to amortize the total investment for PDMS implementation.This may add some counterweight to the literature, where expectations for tools such as the PDMS can be quite unreasonable.

  13. Contact angle studies on PDMS surfaces fouled by bovine serum albumin

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Windvoel, VT

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) has a hydrophobic surface, forming a contact angle of around 110º with deionised water. It is due to its hydrophobic nature that the elastomer is prone to bio-fouling, such as non-specific adsorption of biomaterials like...

  14. PZT-5A4/PA and PZT-5A4/PDMS piezoelectric composite bimorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babu, I.; Hendrix, M.M.R.M.; With, de G.

    2014-01-01

    Disc type reinforced piezoelectric composite bimorphs with series connection were designed and the performance was investigated. The composite bimorphs (PZT/PA and PZT/PDMS (40/60 vol%)) were successfully fabricated by a compression molding and solution casting technique. The charge developed at an

  15. Adhesive Stretchable Printed Conductive Thin Film Patterns on PDMS Surface with an Atmospheric Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chun-Yi; Liao, Ying-Chih

    2016-05-11

    In this study, a plasma surface modification with printing process was developed to fabricate printed flexible conductor patterns or devices directly on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface. An atmospheric plasma treatment was first used to oxidize the PDMS surface and create a hydrophilic silica surface layer, which was confirmed with photoelectron spectra. The plasma operating parameters, such as gas types and plasma powers, were optimized to obtain surface silica layers with the longest lifetime. Conductive paste with epoxy resin was screen-printed on the plasma-treated PDMS surface to fabricate flexible conductive tracks. As a result of the strong binding forces between epoxy resin and the silica surface layer, the printed patterns showed great adhesion on PDMS and were undamaged after several stringent adhesion tests. The printed conductive tracks showed strong mechanical stability and exhibited great electric conductivity under bending, twisting, and stretching conditions. Finally, a printed pressure sensor with good sensitivity and a fast response time was fabricated to demonstrate the capability of this method for the realization of printed electronic devices.

  16. A simple method for fabricating multi-layer PDMS structures for 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Mengying

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple methodology to fabricate PDMS multi-layer microfluidic chips. A PDMS slab was surface-treated by trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) silane, and acts as a reusable transferring layer. Uniformity of the thickness of the patterned PDMS layer and the well-alignment could be achieved due to the transparency and proper flexibility of this transferring layer. Surface treatment results are confirmed by XPS and contact angle testing, while bonding forces between different layers were measured for better understanding of the transferring process. We have also designed and fabricated a few simple types of 3D PDMS chip, especially one consisting of 6 thin layers (each with thickness of 50 μm), to demonstrate the potential utilization of this technique. 3D fluorescence images were taken by a confocal microscope to illustrate the spatial characters of essential parts. This fabrication method is confirmed to be fast, simple, repeatable, low cost and possible to be mechanized for mass production. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  17. Graphene-Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Hybrid on PDMS as Stretchable Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun; Fu, Shichen; Zhang, Runzhi; Boon, Eric Peter; Lee, Woo; Fisher, Frank T; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2017-09-11

    Stretchable electrodes are a critical component for flexible electronics such as displays, energy devices, and wearable sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have been considered for flexible electrode applications, due to their mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, and excellent thermal conductivity. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) provide the possibility to serve as interconnects to graphene sheets as stretchable electrodes that could maintain high electrical conductivity under large tensile strain. In this work, a graphene oxide (GO) -VACNT hybrid on a PDMS substrate was demonstrated. Here, 50 μm long VACNTs were grown on a Si/SiO2 wafer substrate via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD). VACNTs were directly transferred by delamination from the Si/SiO2 to a semi-cured PDMS substrate, ensuring strong adhesion between VACNTs and PDMS upon full curing of the PDMS. GO ink was then printed on the surface of the VACNT carpet and thermally reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The sheet resistance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was measured under uniaxial tensile strains up to 300% applied to the substrate. Under applied strain, the rGO-VACNT hybrid maintained a sheet resistant of 386±55 Ω/sq. Cyclic stretching of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was performed with up to 50 cycles at 100% maximum tensile strain, showing no increase in sheet resistance. These results demonstrate promising performance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid for flexible electronics applications. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  18. LEO resistant PI-B-PDMS block copolymer films for solar array applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lonkhuyzen, H. van; Bongers, E.; Fischer, H.R.; Dingemans, T.J.; Semprimoschnig, C.

    2013-01-01

    Due to their low atomic oxygen erosion yields PI-b-PDMS block copolymer films have considerable potential for application onto space exposed surfaces of satellites in low earth orbit. On solar arrays these materials might be used as electrical electrical insulation film, flexprint outer layer,

  19. Development of a Waterproof Crack-Based Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on PDMS Shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Seong Kyung; Yang, Seongjin; Cho, Seong J; Jeon, Hyungkook; Lim, Geunbae

    2018-04-12

    This paper details the design of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-shielded waterproof crack-based stretchable strain sensor, in which the electrical characteristics and sensing performance are not influenced by changes in humidity. This results in a higher number of potential applications for the sensor. A previously developed omni-purpose stretchable strain (OPSS) sensor was used as the basis for this work, which utilizes a metal cracking structure and provides a wide sensing range and high sensitivity. Changes in the conductivity of the OPSS sensor, based on humidity conditions, were investigated along with the potential possibility of using the design as a humidity sensor. However, to prevent conductivity variation, which can decrease the reliability and sensing ability of the OPSS sensor, PDMS was utilized as a shielding layer over the OPSS sensor. The PDMS-shielded OPSS sensor showed approximately the same electrical characteristics as previous designs, including in a high humidity environment, while maintaining its strain sensing capabilities. The developed sensor shows promise for use under high humidity conditions and in underwater applications. Therefore, considering its unique features and reliable sensing performance, the developed PDMS-shielded waterproof OPSS sensor has potential utility in a wide range of applications, such as motion monitoring, medical robotics and wearable healthcare devices.

  20. PDMS as a sacrificial substrate for SU-8-based biomedical and microfluidic applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Jasbir N; Kaminska, Bozena; Gray, Bonnie L; Gates, Byron D

    2008-01-01

    We describe a new fabrication process utilizing polydimethylesiloxane (PDMS) as a sacrificial substrate layer for fabricating free-standing SU-8-based biomedical and microfluidic devices. The PDMS-on-glass substrate permits SU-8 photo patterning and layer-to-layer bonding. We have developed a novel PDMS-based process which allows the SU-8 structures to be easily peeled off from the substrate after complete fabrication. As an example, a fully enclosed microfluidic chip has been successfully fabricated utilizing the presented new process. The enclosed microfluidic chip uses adhesive bonding technology and the SU-8 layers from 10 µm to 450 µm thick for fully enclosed microchannels. SU-8 layers as large as the glass substrate are successfully fabricated and peeled off from the PDMS layer as single continuous sheets. The fabrication results are supported by optical microscopy and profilometry. The peel-off force for the 120 µm thick SU-8-based chips is measured using a voice coil actuator (VCA). As an additional benefit the release step leaves the input and the output of the microchannels accessible to the outside world facilitating interconnecting to the external devices

  1. CNT/PDMS composite flexible dry electrodes for long-term ECG monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Ha-Chul; Moon, Jin-Hee; Baek, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Hee; Choi, Yoon-Young; Hong, Joung-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2012-05-01

    We fabricated a carbon nanotube (CNT)/ polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite-based dry ECG electrode that can be readily connected to conventional ECG devices, and showed its long-term wearable monitoring capability and robustness to motion and sweat. While the dispersion of CNTs in PDMS is challenging, we optimized the process to disperse untreated CNTs within PDMS by mechanical force only. The electrical and mechanical characteristics of the CNT/PDMS electrode were tested according to the concentration of CNTs and its thickness. The performances of ECG electrodes were evaluated by using 36 types of electrodes which were fabricated with different concentrations of CNTs, and with a differing diameter and thickness. The ECG signals were obtained by using electrodes of diverse sizes to observe the effects of motion and sweat, and the proposed electrode was shown to be robust to both factors. The CNT concentration and diameter of the electrodes were critical parameters in obtaining high-quality ECG signals. The electrode was shown to be biocompatible from the cytotoxicity test. A seven-day continuous wearability test showed that the quality of the ECG signal did not degrade over time, and skin reactions such as itching or erythema were not observed. This electrode could be used for the long-term measurement of other electrical biosignals for ubiquitous health monitoring including EMG, EEG, and ERG.

  2. A soft and conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymer as a compliant electrode for dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    Conductive PDMS-PEG block copolymers (Mn = 3 – 5 kg/mol) were chain-extended (Mn = 30 – 45 kg/mol) using hydrosilylation reaction as presented in figure 1. Subsequently, the extended copolymers were added to a conductive nano-filler (multi-walled carbon nanotubes – MWCNTs) in order to enhance...... conductivity. The combination of soft chainextended PDMS-PEG block copolymers and conductive MWCNTs results in a soft and conductive block copolymer composite which potentially can be used as a compliant and highly stretchable electrode for dielectric elastomers. The addition of MWCNTs into the PDMS-PEG matrix...... MWCNTs is 10-3 S/cm compared to 10-1 S/cm of a non-stretchable reference conducting silicone elastomer (LR3162 from Wacker). Furthermore, PDMS-PEG block copolymer with 4 phr MWCNTs (Young’s modulus, Y = 0.26 MPa) is softer and more stretchable thanLR3162 (Y = 1.17 MPa)....

  3. Development of a Waterproof Crack-Based Stretchable Strain Sensor Based on PDMS Shielding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong Kyung Hong

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper details the design of a poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS-shielded waterproof crack-based stretchable strain sensor, in which the electrical characteristics and sensing performance are not influenced by changes in humidity. This results in a higher number of potential applications for the sensor. A previously developed omni-purpose stretchable strain (OPSS sensor was used as the basis for this work, which utilizes a metal cracking structure and provides a wide sensing range and high sensitivity. Changes in the conductivity of the OPSS sensor, based on humidity conditions, were investigated along with the potential possibility of using the design as a humidity sensor. However, to prevent conductivity variation, which can decrease the reliability and sensing ability of the OPSS sensor, PDMS was utilized as a shielding layer over the OPSS sensor. The PDMS-shielded OPSS sensor showed approximately the same electrical characteristics as previous designs, including in a high humidity environment, while maintaining its strain sensing capabilities. The developed sensor shows promise for use under high humidity conditions and in underwater applications. Therefore, considering its unique features and reliable sensing performance, the developed PDMS-shielded waterproof OPSS sensor has potential utility in a wide range of applications, such as motion monitoring, medical robotics and wearable healthcare devices.

  4. Graphene—vertically aligned carbon nanotube hybrid on PDMS as stretchable electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Junjun; Fu, Shichen; Zhang, Runzhi; Boon, Eric; Lee, Woo; Fisher, Frank T.; Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2017-11-01

    Stretchable electrodes are a critical component for flexible electronics such as displays, energy devices, and wearable sensors. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene have been considered for flexible electrode applications, due to their mechanical strength, high carrier mobility, and excellent thermal conductivity. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) provide the possibility to serve as interconnects to graphene sheets as stretchable electrodes that could maintain high electrical conductivity under large tensile strain. In this work, a graphene oxide (GO)-VACNT hybrid on a PDMS substrate was demonstrated. Here, 50 μm long VACNTs were grown on a Si/SiO2 wafer substrate via atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. VACNTs were directly transferred by delamination from the Si/SiO2 to a semi-cured PDMS substrate, ensuring strong adhesion between VACNTs and PDMS upon full curing of the PDMS. GO ink was then printed on the surface of the VACNT carpet and thermally reduced to reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The sheet resistance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was measured under uniaxial tensile strains up to 300% applied to the substrate. Under applied strain, the rGO-VACNT hybrid maintained a sheet resistant of 386 ± 55 Ω/sq. Cyclic stretching of the rGO-VACNT hybrid was performed with up to 50 cycles at 100% maximum tensile strain, showing no increase in sheet resistance. These results demonstrate promising performance of the rGO-VACNT hybrid for flexible electronics applications.

  5. P.D.M.S. a cad software for the design of new power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Lous, Y.

    1982-01-01

    P.D.M.S. (''Plant Design Management System'') is a computer based management system designed to assist the engineer, with no previous computer knowledge, to solve the problems associated with plant and piping design. The essential feature of P.D.M.S. is that it provides the user with the ability to create a 3D model of his complete plant, by making use of a graphic terminal connected to a computer. The system gives the engineer the powerful advantage over existing techniques that any part of the plant information, which may be required for a specific function, may be retrieved and presented to him in the form most suited to his requirements (i.e. lists of items or fully annotated drawings). P.D.M.S. incorporates advanced facilities to enable engineers to analyse the information for design accuracy and consistency. The project manager can ensure that no errors in the total design due to integration of disciplines within the project, or due to the amalgamation of the work of many designers, who possibly operate in different design centres. P.D.M.S., implemented on an IBM machine of the computer center of Clamart, is being used by the equipment Direction of EDF for the design of new power plants [fr

  6. Rapid prototyping of microstructures in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by direct UV-lithography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnweber, Tim; Truckenmüller, R.K.; Schneider, Andrea M.; Welle, Alexander; Reinhardt, Martina; Giselbrecht, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Microstructuring of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is a key step for many lab-on-a-chip (LOC) applications. In general, the structure is generated by casting the liquid prepolymer against a master. The production of the master in turn calls for special equipment and know how. Furthermore, a given

  7. Flexible Piezoelectric Touch Sensor by Alignment of Lead-Free Alkaline Niobate Microcubes in PDMS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deutz, D.B.; Mascarenhas, N.T.; Schelen, J.B.J.; de Leeuw, D.M.; van der Zwaag, S.; Groen, W.A.

    2017-01-01

    A highly sensitive, lead-free, and flexible piezoelectric touch sensor is reported based on composite films of alkaline niobate K0.485Na0.485Li0.03NbO3 (KNLN) powders aligned in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. KNLN powder is fabricated by

  8. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of zinc molybdate nanocrystals and molybdate-doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings for Mg alloy protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduok, Ubong; Szpunar, Jerzy

    2018-06-01

    Zinc molybdate (ZM) is a safer anticorrosive additive for cooling systems when compared with chromates and lead salts, due to its insolubility in aqueous media. For most molybdate pigments, their molybdate anion (MoO 4 -2 ) acts as an anionic inhibitor and its passivation capacity is comparable with chromate anion (CrO 4 -2 ). To alleviate the environmental concerns involving chromates-based industrial protective coatings, we have proposed new alternative in this work. We have synthesized ZM nanocrystals via ultrasound-assisted process and encapsulated them within an epoxy/PDMS coating towards corrosion protection. The surface morphology and mechanical properties of these ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings is exhaustively discussed to show the effect of ZM content on protective properties. The presence of ZM nanocrystals significantly contributed to the corrosion barrier performance of the coating while the amount of ZM nanocrystals needed to prepare an epoxy coating with optimum barrier performance was established. Beyond 2 wt% ZM concentration, the siloxane-structured epoxy coating network became saturated with ZM pigments. This further broadened inherent pores channels, leading to the percolation of corrosion chloride ions through the coating. SEM evidence has revealed proof of surface delamination on ZM3 coating. A model mechanism of corrosion resistance has been proposed for ZM doped epoxy/PDMS nanocomposite coatings from exhaustive surface morphological investigations and evidence. This coating matrix may have emerging applications in cooling systems as anticorrosive surface paints as well as create an avenue for environmental corrosion remediation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An Evaluation of the Effect of Various Gloves on Polymerization Inhibition of Elastomeric Impression Materials: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiremath, Vinuta; Vinayakumar, G; Ragher, Mallikarjuna; Rayannavar, Sounyala; Bembalagi, Mahantesh; Ashwini, B L

    2017-11-01

    Latex protective barriers such as gloves and rubber dam material have been used widely in restorative procedures for crown and bridge. However, the chemical used during latex glove fabrication is thought to inhibit the polymerization of elastomeric impression materials used for impression making which has a detrimental effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface definition of resultant casts used for restorative procedures. The objectives of the study were to examine the surface of different elastomeric impressions on contact with various gloves. This clinical study included a total of eighty specimens of two types of the putty elastomeric impression material were hand manipulated by wearing three different gloves materials and is placed on a marked area of a clean and alcohol-treated glass slab at room temperature. The specimens examined for any signs of polymerization inhibition. The specimen will be rated as being "inhibited" if any residue remains on the glass slab and absence of the above will result as "no inhibition." The results showed no interference with the polymerization inhibition of the selected elastomers followed by the nitrile glove. The latex gloves showed inhibited set of the elastomeric impression material but set after sometime confirming time-dependent inhibition of the impression material. This study shows that the use of latex and sometime nitrile gloves during crown and bridge procedures should be contraindicated and the use of vinyl gloves should be stressed when working with elastomeric impression materials.

  10. An evaluation of the effect of various gloves on polymerization inhibition of elastomeric impression materials: An In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinuta Hiremath

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Latex protective barriers such as gloves and rubber dam material have been used widely in restorative procedures for crown and bridge. However, the chemical used during latex glove fabrication is thought to inhibit the polymerization of elastomeric impression materials used for impression making which has a detrimental effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface definition of resultant casts used for restorative procedures. The objectives of the study were to examine the surface of different elastomeric impressions on contact with various gloves. Materials and Methods: This clinical study included a total of eighty specimens of two types of the putty elastomeric impression material were hand manipulated by wearing three different gloves materials and is placed on a marked area of a clean and alcohol-treated glass slab at room temperature. The specimens examined for any signs of polymerization inhibition. The specimen will be rated as being “inhibited” if any residue remains on the glass slab and absence of the above will result as “no inhibition.” Results: The results showed no interference with the polymerization inhibition of the selected elastomers followed by the nitrile glove. The latex gloves showed inhibited set of the elastomeric impression material but set after sometime confirming time-dependent inhibition of the impression material. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of latex and sometime nitrile gloves during crown and bridge procedures should be contraindicated and the use of vinyl gloves should be stressed when working with elastomeric impression materials.

  11. Enhanced protection of PDMS-embedded palladium catalysts by co-embedding of sulphide-scavengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandella, Daniele; Ahn, Min Hyung; Kim, Hojeong; Mackenzie, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    For Pd-containing hydrodechlorination catalysts, coating with poly(dimethyl siloxane) (PDMS) was proposed earlier as promising protection scheme against poisoning. The PDMS coating can effectively repel non-permeating poisons (such as SO 3 2- ) retaining the hydrodechlorination Pd activity. In the present study, the previously achieved protection efficiency was enhanced by incorporation of sulphide scavengers into the polymer. The embedded scavengers were able to bind permeating non-ionic poisons (such as H 2 S) during their passage through PDMS prior to Pd contact which ensured an extended catalyst lifetime. Three scavenger types forming non-permeable sulphur species from H 2 S - alkaline, oxidative or iron-based compounds - were either incorporated into single-layer coats around individual Pd/Al 2 O 3 particles or into a second layer above Pd-containing PDMS films (Pd-PDMS). Hydrodechlorination and hydrogenation were chosen as model reactions, carried out in batch and continuous-flow reactors. Batch tests with all scavenger-containing catalysts showed extended Pd protection compared to scavenger-free catalysts. Solid alkaline compounds (Ca(OH) 2 , NaOH, CaO) and MnO 2 showed the highest instantaneous scavenger efficiencies (retained Pd activity=30-60%), while iron-based catalysts, such as nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) or ferrocene (FeCp 2 ), proved less efficient (1-10%). When stepwise poisoning was applied, the protection efficiency of iron-based and oxidizing compounds was higher in the long term than that of alkaline solids. Long-term experiments in mixed-flow reactors were performed with selected scavengers, revealing the following trend of protection efficiency: CaO 2 >Ca(OH) 2 >FeCp 2 . Under field-simulating conditions using a fixed-bed reactor, the combination of sulphide pre-oxidation in the water phase by H 2 O 2 and local scavenger-enhanced Pd protection was successful. The oxidizing agent H 2 O 2 does not disturb the Pd-catalysed reduction, while the

  12. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L

    2015-09-01

    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. A facile route for irreversible bonding of plastic-PDMS hybrid microdevices at room temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Linzhi; Lee, Nae Yoon

    2010-05-21

    Plastic materials do not generally form irreversible bonds with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) regardless of oxygen plasma treatment and a subsequent thermal process. In this paper, we perform plastic-PDMS bonding at room temperature, mediated by the formation of a chemically robust amine-epoxy bond at the interfaces. Various plastic materials, such as poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), polycarbonate (PC), polyimide (PI), and poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) were adopted as choices for plastic materials. Irrespective of the plastic materials used, the surfaces were successfully modified with amine and epoxy functionalities, confirmed by the surface characterizations such as water contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and chemically robust and irreversible bonding was successfully achieved within 1 h at room temperature. The bonding strengths of PDMS with PMMA and PC sheets were measured to be 180 and 178 kPa, respectively, and their assemblies containing microchannel structures endured up to 74 and 84 psi (510 and 579 kPa) of introduced compressed air, respectively, without destroying the microdevices, representing a robust and highly stable interfacial bonding. In addition to microchannel-molded PDMS bonded with flat plastic substrates, microchannel-embossed plastics were also bonded with a flat PDMS sheet, and both types of bonded assemblies displayed sufficiently robust bonding, tolerating an intense influx of liquid whose per-minute injection volume was nearly 1000 to 2000 times higher than the total internal volume of the microchannel used. In addition to observing the bonding performance, we also investigated the potential of surface amine and epoxy functionalities as durable chemical adhesives by observing their storage-time-dependent bonding performances.

  14. PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymer-based microspheres mediate cardiovascular differentiation from embryonic stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liqing

    Poly-epsilon-caprolactone (PCL) based copolymers have received much attention as drug or growth factor delivery carriers and tissue engineering scaffolds due to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and tunable biophysical properties. Copolymers of PCL and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) also have shape memory behaviors and can be made into thermoresponsive shape memory polymers for various biomedical applications such as smart sutures and vascular stents. However, the influence of biophysical properties of PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers on stem cell lineage commitment is not well understood. In this study, PDMS was used as soft segments of varying length to tailor the biophysical properties of PCL-based co-polymers. While low elastic modulus (affected cardiovascular differentiation of embryonic stem cells, the range of 60-100 MPa PCL-PDMS-PCL showed little influence on the differentiation. Then different size (30-140 mum) of microspheres were fabricated from PCL-PDMS-PCL copolymers and incorporated within embryoid bodies (EBs). Mesoderm differentiation was induced using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-4 for cardiovascular differentiation. Differential expressions of mesoderm progenitor marker KDR and vascular markers CD31 and VE-cadherin were observed for the cells differentiated from EBs incorporated with microspheres of different size, while little difference was observed for cardiac marker alpha-actinin expression. Small size of microspheres (30 mum) resulted in higher expression of KDR while medium size of microspheres (94 mum) resulted in higher CD31 and VE-cadherin expression. This study indicated that the biophysical properties of PCL-based copolymers impacted stem cell lineage commitment, which should be considered for drug delivery and tissue engineering applications.

  15. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Extension of Soft Polymeric Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2010-01-01

    sing a filament stretching rheometer (FSR) surrounded by a thermostatic chamber and equipped with a micrometric laser it is possible to measure large amplitude oscillatory elongation (LAOE) on elastomeric based networks with no base flow as in the LAOE method for polymer melts. Poly(dimethylsilox...

  16. New Soft Polymeric Materials Applicable as Elastomeric Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    An elastomer is a material characterized by the capability to regain its original size and shape after being deformed (stretched or distorted). An ideal elastomer for electroactive polymer (EAP) applications is a system characterized by high extensibility, flexibility and a good mechanical fatigue....... Dielectric elastomers (DEs) are part of electronic EAPs presenting a good combination of electromechanical properties such as high achievable strains and stresses, fast response speeds, long lifetime, high reliability and high efficiency1. Subjected to a voltage, a polymeric electroactive material sandwiched...... easy to handle. From a mechanical point of view, the materials for EAPs use have to be soft with sufficient mechanical strength so the rupture of the material can be avoided at high strain actuation. Considering the EAP requirements and the experimental data for the hyperswollen networks based...

  17. Towards development of lignin reinforced elastomeric compounds with reduced energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Kushal

    This research deals with development of lignin as reinforcing filler for elastomeric compounds. Lignins are naturally abundant and cost competitive wood derivatives possessing strong mechanical properties and offering reactive functional groups on their surfaces. The presence of the functional groups imparts polarity to the lignin molecules and makes them incompatible with non-polar elastomers. Also, the large particle size of lignin does not produce desired mechanical reinforcement. The present study deals with solving the outstanding issues associated with the use of lignin as fillers for polymeric compounds. In addition, the work specifically focuses on producing rubber compounds with reduced energy dissipation via partial replacement of carbon black with lignin. The first part of this study is devoted to suppression of the polarity of lignin and achievement of compatibility with rubber matrix via modification of lignosulfonates (LS) with cyclohexylamine (CA). CA reduces the polarity of lignin via interactions originating from proton transfer and hydrogen bonding. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) confirms the attachment of CA on the surfaces of lignin. The mechanical properties of rubber compounds increase substantially along with improvement in cure properties and increase in crosslink density in the presence of LS particles modified with CA. The tensile strength and storage modulus show an increase by 45% and 41% respectively. The values of the 100% modulus and elongation at break also improve by 35% and 60% respectively. The second part of this study exploits the non-covalent interactions between lignin and carbon black (CB) for the design of novel hybrid filler particles exhibiting lower energy loss in rubber compounds. The hybrid fillers offer unique morphology consisting of coating layers of lignin on carbon black particle aggregates. It is found that such coating layers are formed due to pi-pi interactions between lignin and carbon black. Raman

  18. Multiple refraction switches realized by stretching elastomeric scatterers in sonic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Huang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of out-of-plane pre-stretch on the 2D sonic crystal with stretchable elastomeric scatterers is explored. The hyperelastic scatterers are characterized by a compressible neo-Hookean model. The Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN map is adopted to obtain the band structure and equi-frequency contours. We focus on the first passband and find that a variety of switching functionalities for refraction behaviors can be realized in selected frequencies under a specific pre-stretch range. These refraction switches enable an active control of wave propagation and are applicable in advanced technologies where switchable and multifunctional sonic crystals are required.

  19. Optical Manipulation of Shape-Morphing Elastomeric Liquid Crystal Microparticles Doped with Gold Nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Y. R.; Evans, J. S.; Lee, T.; Senyuk, B.; Keller, P.; He, S. L.; Smalyukh, I. I.

    2012-06-11

    We demonstrate facile optical manipulation of shape of birefringent colloidal microparticles made from liquid crystal elastomers. Using soft lithography and polymerization, we fabricate elastomeric microcylinders with weakly undulating director oriented on average along their long axes. These particles are infiltrated with gold nanospheres acting as heat transducers that allow for an efficient localized transfer of heat from a focused infrared laser beam to a submicrometer region within a microparticle. Photothermal control of ordering in the liquid crystal elastomer using scanned beams allows for a robust control of colloidal particles, enabling both reversible and irreversible changes of shape. Possible applications include optomechanics, microfluidics, and reconfigurable colloidal composites with shape-dependent self-assembly.

  20. Elastomeric thermal interface materials with high through-plane thermal conductivity from carbon fiber fillers vertically aligned by electrostatic flocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uetani, Kojiro; Ata, Seisuke; Tomonoh, Shigeki; Yamada, Takeo; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji

    2014-09-03

    Electrostatic flocking is applied to create an array of aligned carbon fibers from which an elastomeric thermal interface material (TIM) can be fabricated with a high through-plane thermal conductivity of 23.3 W/mK. A high thermal conductivity can be achieved with a significantly low filler level (13.2 wt%). As a result, this material retains the intrinsic properties of the matrix, i.e., elastomeric behavior. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Functionalization of carbon nanofibers with elastomeric block copolymer using carbodiimide chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mapkar, Javed A.; Iyer, Ganesh [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 305, 2801 W Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Coleman, Maria R., E-mail: maria.coleman6@utoledo.edu [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, University of Toledo, Mail Stop 305, 2801 W Bancroft St., Toledo, OH 43606 (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Surface functionalization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane [(PDMS-NH{sub 2})] and other organic diamines was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. The carbodiimide chemistry provides faster reaction rate so that the reaction occurs at lower temperature compared to amidation and acylation-amidation chemistry. CNF functionalized with PDMS-NH{sub 2} fibers were further functionalized with oligomer of polyimide (6FDA-BisP) using imidization reaction. The formation of block copolymer on the surface of CNF is proposed as an effective method to engineer the interphase between the fiber and the polymer, which is essential to modulate and enhance the properties of the nanocomposite. The efficiency of the carbodiimide chemistry to functionalize amine terminated groups on CNF and the functionalization of block copolymer was characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  2. Functionalization of carbon nanofibers with elastomeric block copolymer using carbodiimide chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapkar, Javed A.; Iyer, Ganesh; Coleman, Maria R.

    2009-01-01

    Surface functionalization of carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with aminopropyl terminated polydimethylsiloxane [(PDMS-NH 2 )] and other organic diamines was achieved using carbodiimide chemistry. The carbodiimide chemistry provides faster reaction rate so that the reaction occurs at lower temperature compared to amidation and acylation-amidation chemistry. CNF functionalized with PDMS-NH 2 fibers were further functionalized with oligomer of polyimide (6FDA-BisP) using imidization reaction. The formation of block copolymer on the surface of CNF is proposed as an effective method to engineer the interphase between the fiber and the polymer, which is essential to modulate and enhance the properties of the nanocomposite. The efficiency of the carbodiimide chemistry to functionalize amine terminated groups on CNF and the functionalization of block copolymer was characterized using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis spectroscopy.

  3. Computerized microfluidic cell culture using elastomeric channels and Braille displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Wei; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Futai, Nobuyuki; Cho, Brenda S; Takayama, Shuichi

    2004-11-09

    Computer-controlled microfluidics would advance many types of cellular assays and microscale tissue engineering studies wherever spatiotemporal changes in fluidics need to be defined. However, this goal has been elusive because of the limited availability of integrated, programmable pumps and valves. This paper demonstrates how a refreshable Braille display, with its grid of 320 vertically moving pins, can power integrated pumps and valves through localized deformations of channel networks within elastic silicone rubber. The resulting computerized fluidic control is able to switch among: (i) rapid and efficient mixing between streams, (ii) multiple laminar flows with minimal mixing between streams, and (iii) segmented plug-flow of immiscible fluids within the same channel architecture. The same control method is used to precisely seed cells, compartmentalize them into distinct subpopulations through channel reconfiguration, and culture each cell subpopulation for up to 3 weeks under perfusion. These reliable microscale cell cultures showed gradients of cellular behavior from C2C12 myoblasts along channel lengths, as well as differences in cell density of undifferentiated myoblasts and differentiation patterns, both programmable through different flow rates of serum-containing media. This technology will allow future microscale tissue or cell studies to be more accessible, especially for high-throughput, complex, and long-term experiments. The microfluidic actuation method described is versatile and computer programmable, yet simple, well packaged, and portable enough for personal use.

  4. Hydrophilic Surface Modification of PDMS Microchannel for O/W and W/O/W Emulsions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Bashir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A surface modification method for bonded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microchannels is presented herein. Polymerization of acrylic acid was performed on the surface of a microchannel using an inline atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier microplasma technique. The surface treatment changes the wettability of the microchannel from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. This is a challenging task due to the fast hydrophobic recovery of the PDMS surface after modification. This modification allows the formation of highly monodisperse oil-in-water (O/W droplets. The generation of water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W double emulsions was successfully achieved by connecting in series a hydrophobic microchip with a modified hydrophilic microchip. An original channel blocking technique to pattern the surface wettability of a specific section of a microchip using a viscous liquid comprising a mixture of honey and glycerol, is also presented for generating W/O/W emulsions on a single chip.

  5. Flexible Pressure Sensor with Ag Wrinkled Electrodes Based on PDMS Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianli Cui

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Flexible pressure sensors are essential components of electronic skins for future attractive applications ranging from human healthcare monitoring to biomedical diagnostics, robotic skins, and prosthetic limbs. Here we report a new kind of flexible pressure sensor. The sensors are capacitive, and composed of two Ag wrinkled electrodes separated by a carbon nanotubes (CNTs/polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS composite deformable dielectric layer. Ag wrinkled electrodes were formed by vacuum deposition on top of pre-strained and relaxed PDMS substrates which were treated using an O2 plasma, a surface functionalization process, and a magnetron sputtering process. Ultimately, the developed sensor exhibits a maximum sensitivity of 19.80% kPa−1 to capacitance, great durability over 500 cycles, and rapid mechanical responses (<200 ms. We also demonstrate that our sensor can be used to effectively detect the location and distribution of finger pressure.

  6. Polymer (PDMS-Fe3O4) magneto-dielectric substrate for a MIMO antenna array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadami, Abdulrahman Shueai Mohsen; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Soh, Ping Jack; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a 2 × 4 multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) antenna array fabricated on a nanocomposite magneto-dielectric polymer substrate. The 10-nm iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) composite is used as substrate to enhance the performance of a MIMO antenna array. The measured results showed up to 40.8 % enhancement in terms of bandwidth, 9.95 dB gain, and 57 % of radiation efficiency. Furthermore, it is found that the proposed magneto-dielectric (PDMS-Fe3O4) composite substrate provides excellent MIMO parameters such as correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mutual coupling. The prototype of the proposed antenna is transparent, flexible, lightweight, and resistant against dust and corrosion. Measured results indicate that the proposed antenna is suitable for WLAN and ultra-wideband biomedical applications within frequency range of 5.33-7.70 GHz.

  7. A constrained maximization formulation to analyze deformation of fiber reinforced elastomeric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Krishnan, Girish

    2017-06-01

    Fiber reinforced elastomeric enclosures (FREEs) are soft and smart pneumatic actuators that deform in a predetermined fashion upon inflation. This paper analyzes the deformation behavior of FREEs by formulating a simple calculus of variations problem that involves constrained maximization of the enclosed volume. The model accurately captures the deformed shape for FREEs with any general fiber angle orientation, and its relation with actuation pressure, material properties and applied load. First, the accuracy of the model is verified with existing literature and experiments for the popular McKibben pneumatic artificial muscle actuator with two equal and opposite families of helically wrapped fibers. Then, the model is used to predict and experimentally validate the deformation behavior of novel rotating-contracting FREEs, for which no prior literature exist. The generality of the model enables conceptualization of novel FREEs whose fiber orientations vary arbitrarily along the geometry. Furthermore, the model is deemed to be useful in the design synthesis of fiber reinforced elastomeric actuators for general axisymmetric desired motion and output force requirement.

  8. Sulcus reproduction with elastomeric impression materials: a new in vitro testing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Werner J; Kurokawa, Rie; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Komatsu, Masashi

    2008-12-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the depth reproduction of differently wide sulci with elastomeric impression materials by single- and double-mix techniques using a tooth and sulcus model, simulating clinical conditions. Impressions with one vinyl polysiloxane (VPS; FLE), two polyethers (PE; IMP and P2), and one hybrid VPS/PE elastomer (FUS) were taken from a truncated steel cone with a circumferential 2 mm deep sulcus, 50, 100 or 200 microm wide. The "root surface" was in steel and the "periodontal tissue" in reversible hydrocolloid. Single-mix impressions were taken with light-body (L) or monophase (M) pastes, double-mix impressions with L as syringe and M or heavy-body (H) as tray materials (n=8). Sulcus reproduction was determined by 3D laser topography of impressions at eight locations, 45 degrees apart. Statistical data analysis by ANOVA and multiple comparison tests (pimpression materials only: FLE=IMP>FUS=P2. At 50 and 100 microm width, significant differences were found between materials (IMP>FUS=FLE>P2) and techniques (L+H=L+M>M>L). The sulcus model is considered useful for screening evaluation of elastomeric impression materials ability to reproduce narrow sulci. All tested materials and techniques reproduced 200 microm wide sulci to almost nominal depth. Irrespective of the impression technique used, IMP showed the best penetration ability in 50 and 100 microm sulci. Double-mix techniques are more suitable to reproduce narrow sulci than single-mix techniques.

  9. Power turbine dynamics - An evaluation of a shear-mounted elastomeric damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Walton, J.; Cunningham, R.

    1983-01-01

    As an alternative to the more conventional squeeze-film bearing damper designs, a Viton-70 shear-mounted, elastomeric damper was built and tested in a T-55 power turbine high-speed balancing rig. This application demonstrated, for the first time, the feasibility of using elastomers as the primary rotor damping source in production turbine engine hardware. The shear-mounted damper design was selected because of its compatibility with actual gas turbine engine radial space constraints, its accommodation of both the radial and axial thrust loads present in gas turbine engines, and its capability of controlled axial preload. Test results showed that the Viton-70 elastomeric damper operated successfully and provided excellent control of both synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations through all phases of testing to the maximum rotor speed of 1676 rad/s (16,000 rpm). Excellent correlation between the predicted and experienced critical speeds, mode shapes, and log decrements for the power turbine rotor and elastomer damper assembly was also achieved.

  10. Experiment-Based Sensitivity Analysis of Scaled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Elastomeric Isolators in Bonded Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Hedayati Dezfuli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced elastomeric isolators (FREIs are a new type of elastomeric base isolation systems. Producing FREIs in the form of long laminated pads and cutting them to the required size significantly reduces the time and cost of the manufacturing process. Due to the lack of adequate information on the performance of FREIs in bonded applications, the goal of this study is to assess the performance sensitivity of 1/4-scale carbon-FREIs based on the experimental tests. The scaled carbon-FREIs are manufactured using a fast cold-vulcanization process. The effect of several factors including the vertical pressure, the lateral cyclic rate, the number of rubber layers, and the thickness of carbon fiber-reinforced layers are explored on the cyclic behavior of rubber bearings. Results show that the effect of vertical pressure on the lateral response of base isolators is negligible. However, decreasing the cyclic loading rate increases the lateral flexibility and the damping capacity. Additionally, carbon fiber-reinforced layers can be considered as a minor source of energy dissipation.

  11. Frictional resistance of orthodontic wires tied with 3 types of elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Carneiro da Cunha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to determine and compare frictional resistance obtained by low-friction and conventional elastomeric ligatures in the presence of artificial saliva, and observe whether this variable changed after 21 days. Super Slick® low-friction elastomeric ligatures and conventional ligatures of the brands TP conventional® and Unitek® were placed on standard edgewise maxillary central incisor metal brackets, slot .022" × .028" tying rectangular orthodontic wires .018" × .025". Three experimental groups were arranged according to the type of ligature and a control group in which no wires were used. The friction values obtained between the bracket/wire/ligature set were measured using a Universal Test Machine at a speed of 20 mm/minute, at two experimental time intervals: T0 - immediately after specimen fabrication; and T1 - 21 days after fabrication and immersion in artificial saliva at 37 ºC. Conventional Unitek ligatures and the low-friction ligature (Super Slick showed the lowest friction values at T0. After 21 days (T1, however, conventional Unitek ligatures presented the lowest value. All groups assessed from T0 to T1 showed a numerical reduction in friction values, suggesting that time, heat and humidity may cause elastic degradation, however this was not verified statistically (P > 0.05.

  12. METHOD FOR PROVIDING SHAPED BIODEGRADABLE AND ELASTOMERIC STRUCTURES OF (CO) POLYMERS OF 1,3-TRIMETHYLENE CARBONATE (TMC), SHAPED BIODEGRADABLE AND ELASTOMERIC STRUCTURES, AND THE USE OF THESE STRUCTURES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpma, D.W.; Pêgo, A.P.; Feijen, Jan

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for providing shaped biodegradable and elastomeric structures of (co)polymers of 1,3­trimethylene carbonate (TMC) with improved (mechanical) properties which can be used for tissue or tissue component support, generation or regeneration. Such shaped

  13. Enhancement of dielectric permittivity by incorporating PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymers in silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Szabo, Peter; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2015-01-01

    A silicone elastomer from PDMS-PEG multiblock copolymer has been prepared by use of silylation reactions for both copolymer preparation and crosslinking. The dielectric and mechanical properties of the silicone elastomers were carefully investigated, as well as the morphology of the elastomers wa...... to a significantly increased dielectric permittivity. The conductivity also remained low due to the resulting discontinuity in PEG within the silicone matrix....

  14. Multi-layered fabrication of large area PDMS flexible optical light guide sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert; Knopf, George K.; Bordatchev, Evgueni V.

    2017-02-01

    Large area polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible optical light guide sheets can be used to create a variety of passive light harvesting and illumination systems for wearable technology, advanced indoor lighting, non-planar solar light collectors, customized signature lighting, and enhanced safety illumination for motorized vehicles. These thin optically transparent micro-patterned polymer sheets can be draped over a flat or arbitrarily curved surface. The light guiding behavior of the optical light guides depends on the geometry and spatial distribution of micro-optical structures, thickness and shape of the flexible sheet, refractive indices of the constituent layers, and the wavelength of the incident light. A scalable fabrication method that combines soft-lithography, closed thin cavity molding, partial curing, and centrifugal casting is described in this paper for building thin large area multi-layered PDMS optical light guide sheets. The proposed fabrication methodology enables the of internal micro-optical structures (MOSs) in the monolithic PDMS light guide by building the optical system layer-by-layer. Each PDMS layer in the optical light guide can have the similar, or a slightly different, indices of refraction that permit total internal reflection within the optical sheet. The individual molded layers may also be defect free or micro-patterned with microlens or reflecting micro-features. In addition, the bond between adjacent layers is ensured because each layer is only partially cured before the next functional layer is added. To illustrate the scalable build-by-layers fabrication method a three-layer mechanically flexible illuminator with an embedded LED strip is constructed and demonstrated.

  15. Quantitative Determination of Nicotine in a PDMS Microfluidic Channel Using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hyun; Choo, Jae Bum [Hanyang University, Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Duck Joong [Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Hoon [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-02-15

    Rapid and highly sensitive determination of nicotine in a PDMS microfluidic channel was investigated using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). A three-dimensional PDMS microfluidic channel was fabricated for this purpose. This channel shows a high mixing efficiency because the transverse and vertical dispersions of the fluid occur simultaneously through the upper and lower zig zag-type blocks. A higher efficiency of mixing could also be obtained by splitting each of the confluent streams into two sub-streams that then joined and recombined. The SERS signal was measured after nicotine molecules were effectively adsorbed onto silver nanoparticles by passing through the three-dimensional channel. A quantitative analysis of nicotine was performed based on the measured peak area at 1030 cm{sup -1}. The detection limit was estimated to be below 0.1 ppm. In this work, the SERS detection, in combination with a PDMS microfluidic channel, has been applied to the quantitative analysis of nicotine in aqueous solution. Compared to the other conventional analytical methods, the detection sensitivity was enhanced up to several orders of magnitude.

  16. Controlled Contamination of Epoxy Composites with PDMS and Removal by Laser Ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Frank; Ledesma, Rodolfo; Cataldo, Daniel; Lin, Yi; Wohl, Christopher; Gupta, Mool; Connell, John

    2016-01-01

    Surface preparation is critical to the performance of adhesively bonded composites. During manufacturing, minute quantities of mold release compounds are inevitably deposited on faying surfaces and may compromise bond performance. To ensure safety, mechanical fasteners and other crack arrest features must be installed in the bondlines of primary structures, which negates some advantages of adhesively bonded construction. Laser ablation is an automated, repeatable, and scalable process with high potential for the surface preparation of metals and composites in critical applications such as primary airframe structures. In this study, laser ablation is evaluated on composite surfaces for the removal of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a common mold release material. Composite panels were contaminated uniformly with PDMS film thicknesses as low as 6.0 nm as measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. Bond performance was assessed by mechanical testing using a 250 F cure, epoxy adhesive and compared with pre-bond surface inspection results. Water contact angle, optically stimulated electron emission, and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy were used to characterize contaminated and laser ablated surfaces. The failure mode obtained from double cantilever beam tests correlated well with surface characterization data. The test results indicated that even low levels of PDMS were not completely removed by laser ablation.

  17. Numerical study of acoustophoretic motion of particles in a PDMS microchannel driven by surface acoustic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Nitesh; Barnkob, Rune; Mao, Zhangming; Kähler, Christian J; Costanzo, Francesco; Huang, Tony Jun

    2015-06-21

    We present a numerical study of the acoustophoretic motion of particles suspended in a liquid-filled PDMS microchannel on a lithium niobate substrate acoustically driven by surface acoustic waves. We employ a perturbation approach where the flow variables are divided into first- and second-order fields. We use impedance boundary conditions to model the PDMS microchannel walls and we model the acoustic actuation by a displacement function from the literature based on a numerical study of piezoelectric actuation. Consistent with the type of actuation, the obtained first-order field is a horizontal standing wave that travels vertically from the actuated wall towards the upper PDMS wall. This is in contrast to what is observed in bulk acoustic wave devices. The first-order fields drive the acoustic streaming, as well as the time-averaged acoustic radiation force acting on suspended particles. We analyze the motion of suspended particles driven by the acoustic streaming drag and the radiation force. We examine a range of particle diameters to demonstrate the transition from streaming-drag-dominated acoustophoresis to radiation-force-dominated acoustophoresis. Finally, as an application of our numerical model, we demonstrate the capability to tune the position of the vertical pressure node along the channel width by tuning the phase difference between two incoming surface acoustic waves.

  18. Experimental and Modeling Study of Solvent Diffusion in PDMS for Nanoparticle-Polymer Cosuspension Imprint Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasio, Michelle; Lu, Kathy; Davis, Richey

    2015-09-15

    This study is the first that focuses on solvent migration in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp during the imprint lithography of ZnO-poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) hybrid suspensions. Using suspensions with varying solids loading levels and ZnO/PMMA ratios, the uptake of the anisole solvent in the stamp is evaluated as a function of time. Laser confocal microscopy is employed as a unique technique to measure the penetration depth of the solvent into the stamp. The suspension solids loading affects the anisole saturation depth in the PDMS stamp. For the suspensions with low solids loading, the experimental data agree with the model for non-Fickian diffusion through a rubbery-elastic polymer. For the suspensions with high solids loading, the data agree more with a sigmoidal diffusion curve, reflecting the rubbery-viscous behavior of a swelling polymer. This difference is due to the degree of swelling in the PDMS. Higher solids loadings induce more swelling because the rate of anisole diffusing into the stamp is increased, likely due to the less dense buildup of the solids as the suspension dries.

  19. PDMS-based triboelectric and transparent nanogenerators with ZnO nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yeong Hwan; Nagaraju, Goli; Lee, Soo Hyun; Yu, Jae Su

    2014-05-14

    Vertically-grown ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs) on indium tin oxide (ITO)-coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET), as a top electrode of nanogenerators, were investigated for the antireflective property as well as an efficient contact surface in bare polydimethysiloxane (PDMS)-based triboelectric nanogenerators. Compared to conventional ITO-coated PET (i.e., ITO/PET), the ZnO NRAs considerably suppressed the reflectance from 20 to 9.7% at wavelengths of 300-1100 nm, creating a highly transparent top electrode, as demonstrated by theoretical analysis. Also, the interval time between the peaks of generated output voltage under external pushing forces was significantly decreased from 1.84 to 0.19 s because the reduced contact area of the PDMS by discrete surfaces of the ZnO NRAs on ITO/PET causes a rapid sequence for triboelectric charge generation process including rubbing and separating. Therefore, the use of this top electrode enabled to operate the transparent PDMS-based triboelectric nanogenerator at high frequency of external pushing force. Under different external forces of 0.3-10 kgf, the output voltage and current were also characterized.

  20. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu

    2015-07-21

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  1. Suspended liquid subtractive lithography: printing three dimensional channels directly into uncured PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmer, D.; Voigt, A.; Wagner, S.; Keller, N.; Sachsenheimer, K.; Kotz, F.; Nargang, T. M.; Rapp, B. E.

    2018-02-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is one of the most widely used polymers for the generation of microfluidic chips. The standard procedures of soft lithography require the formation of a new master structure for every design which is timeconsuming and expensive. All channel generated by soft lithography need to be consecutively sealed by bonding which is a process that can proof to be hard to control. Channel cross-sections are largely restricted to squares or flat-topped designs and the generation of truly three-dimensional designs is not straightforward. Here we present Suspended Liquid Subtractive Lithography (SLSL) a method for generating microfluidic channels of nearly arbitrary three-dimensional structures in PDMS that do not require master formation or bonding and give circular channel cross sections which are especially interesting for mimicking in vivo environments. In SLSL, an immiscible liquid is introduced into the uncured PDMS by a capillary mounted on a 3D printer head. The liquid forms continuous "threads" inside the matrix thus creating void suspended channel structures.

  2. Minimizing residues and strain in 2D materials transferred from PDMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Achint; Bharadwaj, Palash; Heeg, Sebastian; Parzefall, Markus; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Novotny, Lukas

    2018-06-01

    Integrating layered two-dimensional (2D) materials into 3D heterostructures offers opportunities for novel material functionalities and applications in electronics and photonics. In order to build the highest quality heterostructures, it is crucial to preserve the cleanliness and morphology of 2D material surfaces that come in contact with polymers such as PDMS during transfer. Here we report that substantial residues and up to ∼0.22% compressive strain can be present in monolayer MoS2 transferred using PDMS. We show that a UV-ozone pre-cleaning of the PDMS surface before exfoliation significantly reduces organic residues on transferred MoS2 flakes. An additional 200 ◦C vacuum anneal after transfer efficiently removes interfacial bubbles and wrinkles as well as accumulated strain, thereby restoring the surface morphology of transferred flakes to their native state. Our recipe is important for building clean heterostructures of 2D materials and increasing the reproducibility and reliability of devices based on them.

  3. A PDMS Device Coupled with Culture Dish for In Vitro Cell Migration Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoqing; Geng, Zhaoxin; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shicai; Pei, WeiHua; Chen, Hongda

    2018-04-30

    Cell migration and invasion are important factors during tumor progression and metastasis. Wound-healing assay and the Boyden chamber assay are efficient tools to investigate tumor development because both of them could be applied to measure cell migration rate. Therefore, a simple and integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device was developed for cell migration assay, which could perform quantitative evaluation of cell migration behaviors, especially for the wound-healing assay. The integrated device was composed of three units, which included cell culture dish, PDMS chamber, and wound generation mold. The PDMS chamber was integrated with cell culture chamber and could perform six experiments under different conditions of stimuli simultaneously. To verify the function of this device, it was utilized to explore the tumor cell migration behaviors under different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (FBS) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β) at different time points. This device has the unique capability to create the "wound" area in parallel during cell migration assay and provides a simple and efficient platform for investigating cell migration assay in biomedical application.

  4. Ultra-soft PDMS-based magnetoactive elastomers as dynamic cell culture substrata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Mayer

    Full Text Available Mechanical cues such as extracellular matrix stiffness and movement have a major impact on cell differentiation and function. To replicate these biological features in vitro, soft substrata with tunable elasticity and the possibility for controlled surface translocation are desirable. Here we report on the use of ultra-soft (Young's modulus <100 kPa PDMS-based magnetoactive elastomers (MAE as suitable cell culture substrata. Soft non-viscous PDMS (<18 kPa is produced using a modified extended crosslinker. MAEs are generated by embedding magnetic microparticles into a soft PDMS matrix. Both substrata yield an elasticity-dependent (14 vs. 100 kPa modulation of α-smooth muscle actin expression in primary human fibroblasts. To allow for static or dynamic control of MAE material properties, we devise low magnetic field (≈40 mT stimulation systems compatible with cell-culture environments. Magnetic field-instigated stiffening (14 to 200 kPa of soft MAE enhances the spreading of primary human fibroblasts and decreases PAX-7 transcription in human mesenchymal stem cells. Pulsatile MAE movements are generated using oscillating magnetic fields and are well tolerated by adherent human fibroblasts. This MAE system provides spatial and temporal control of substratum material characteristics and permits novel designs when used as dynamic cell culture substrata or cell culture-coated actuator in tissue engineering applications or biomedical devices.

  5. Functionalized PDMS with versatile and scalable surface roughness gradients for cell culture

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Bingpu; Gao, Xinghua; Wang, Cong; Ye, Ziran; Gao, Yibo; Xie, Jiao; Wu, Xiaoxiao; Wen, Weijia

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes a simple and versatile approach to engineering surface roughness gradients via combination of microfluidics and photo-polymerization. Through UV-mediated polymerization, N-isopropylacrylamide with concentration gradients are successfully grafted onto PDMS surface, leading to diverse roughness degrees on the obtained PDMS substrate. Furthermore, the extent of surface roughness can be controllably regulated via tuning the flow rate ratio between the monomer solution and deionized water. Average roughness ranging from 8.050 nm to 151.68 nm has well been achieved in this work. Such PDMS samples are also demonstrated to be capable of working as supporting substrates for controlling cell adhesion or detachment. Due to the different degrees of surface roughness on a single substrate, our method provides an effective approach for designing advanced surafecs for cell culture. Finally, the thermosensitive property of N-isopropylacrylamide makes our sample furnish as another means for controlling the cell detachment from the substrates with correspondence to the surrounding temperature.

  6. Acrylic acid grafted PDMS preliminary activated by Ar{sup +}beam plasma and cell observation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, A.; Zaekov, N. [Institute of Biophysics, BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria); Keranov, I. [Department of Polymer Engineering, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy (UCTM), Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2007-07-01

    Plasma based Ar{sup +} beam performed in RF (13.56 MHz) low-pressure (200 mTorr) glow discharge (at 100 W, 1200 W and 2500 W) with a serial capacitance was employed for surface modification of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) aimed at improvement of its interactions with living cells. The presence of a serial capacitance ensures arise of an ion-flow inside the plasma volume directed toward the treated sample and the vary of the discharge power ensures varied density of the ion-flow The initial adhesion of human fibroblast cells was studied on the described above plasma based Ar{sup +}beam modified and acrylic acid (AA) grafted or not fibronectin (FN) pre-coated or ba resurfaces. The cell response seem sto be related with the peculiar structure and wettability of the modified PDMS surface layer after plasma based Ar{sup +} beam treatment followed or not by AA grafting. Key words: Biomaterials; Surface treatment of PDMS; Plasma based Ar{sup +} beam; Acrylic acid grafting; Fibroblast cells.

  7. Synthesis of Ru/PDMS nano-composites via supercritial deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Minglan [Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Technology, Beijing 102617 (China); Bozbag, Selmi E. [Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, 34450 Sariyer, Istanbul (Turkey); Ayala, Christian J.; Aindow, Mark [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Materials Science, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Erkey, Can, E-mail: cerkey@ku.edu.tr [Dept. of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Koç University, 34450 Sariyer, Istanbul (Turkey); Koç University TÜPRAŞ Energy Center (KUTEM), Koç University, 34450 Sariyer, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2016-09-01

    Nanomaterials consisting of Ru nanoparticles dispersed in polydimethylsiloxane films were synthesized by supercritical deposition. The films were impregnated with the organometallic precursor bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) (1,5-cyclooctadiene) ruthenium (II) under thermodynamic control in the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}) at 40 °C and 10.34 MPa. The precursor molecules were then converted to metallic Ru by thermal treatment in flowing N{sub 2} at ambient pressure, resulting in well-dispersed nanoparticles with diameters of ≈2 nm. - Highlights: • PDMS-Ru nanoparticle composites were prepared using supercritical deposition. • PDMS-Ru nanoparticle composites were prepared without using an immobilization agent. • PDMS films were impregnated with Ru(cod)(tmhd){sub 2} in supercritical CO{sub 2}. • The impregnated Ru(cod)(tmhd){sub 2} was then reduced to metallic Ru in flowing N{sub 2}. • The resulting Ru nanoparticles were well-dispersed and had diameters of ≈2 nm.

  8. Ultrasonic and dielectric studies of polymer PDMS composites with ZnO and onion-like carbons nanoinclusions

    OpenAIRE

    Samulionis, Vytautas; Macutkevič, Jan; Banys, Jūras; Shenderova, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The ultrasonic and dielectric temperature investigations were performed in polydi-methylsiloxane (PDMS) with zinc oxide (ZnO) and onion-like carbon (OLC) nanocomposites. In the glass transition region, the ultrasonic velocity dispersion and large ultrasonic attenuation maxima were observed. The positions of ultrasonic attenuation peaks were slightly shifted to higher temperatures after doping PDMS with OLC and ZnO nanoparticles. The ultrasonic relaxation was compared to that of dielectric and...

  9. Elastomeric networks based on trimethylene carbonate polymers for biomedical applications : physical properties and degradation behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bat, E.

    2010-01-01

    The number of applications for biomedical technologies is ever-increasing, and there is a need to develop new materials with properties that can conform to the requirements of a specific application. Synthetic polymers are of great importance in the biomedical field as they can be designed to

  10. Biomimetic elastomeric, conductive and biodegradable polycitrate-based nanocomposites for guiding myogenic differentiation and skeletal muscle regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yuzhang; Ge, Juan; Li, Yannan; Ma, Peter X; Lei, Bo

    2018-03-01

    Artificial muscle-like biomaterials have gained tremendous interests owing to their broad applications in regenerative medicine, wearable devices, bioelectronics and artificial intelligence. Unfortunately, key challenges are still existed for current materials, including biomimetic viscoelasticity, biocompatibility and biodegradation, multifunctionality. Herein, for the first time, we develop highly elastomeric, conductive and biodegradable poly (citric acid-octanediol-polyethylene glycol)(PCE)-graphene (PCEG) nanocomposites, and demonstrate their applications in myogenic differentiation and guiding skeletal muscle tissue regeneration. In PCEG nanocomposites, PCE provides the biomimetic elastomeric behavior, and the addition of reduced graphene oxide (RGO) endows the enhanced mechanical strength and conductivity. The highly elastomeric behavior, significantly enhanced modulus (400%-800%), strength (200%-300%) of PCEG nanocomposites with controlled biodegradability and electrochemical conductivity were achieved. The myoblasts proliferation and myogenic differentiation were significantly improved by PCEG nanocomposite. Significantly high in vivo biocompatibility of PCEG nanocomposites was observed when implanted in the subcutaneous tissue for 4 weeks in rats. PCEG nanocomposites could significantly enhance the muscle fibers and blood vessels formation in vivo in a skeletal muscle lesion model of rat. This study may provide a novel strategy to develop multifunctional elastomeric nanocomposites with high biocompatibility for potential soft tissue regeneration and stretchable bioelectronic devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Glass interface effect on high-strain-rate tensile response of a soft polyurethane elastomeric polymer material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, J.T.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The glass interface effect on dynamic tensile response of a soft polyurethane elastomeric polymer material has been investigated by subjecting a glass-polymer system of this polymer material matrix embedded a single 3 mm-diameter glass particle to impact loading in a split Hopkinson tension bar

  12. Fabrication, characterization, and biocompatibility assessment of a novel elastomeric nanofibrous scaffold: A potential scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamirzaei Jeshvaghani, Elham; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Mansurnezhad, Reza

    2017-01-01

    With regard to flexibility and strength properties requirements of soft biological tissue, elastomeric materials could be more beneficial in soft tissue engineering applications. The present work investigates the use of an elastic polymer, (polycaprolactone fumarate [PCLF]), for fabricating...... experiments and its application for engineering of soft tissues subjected to in vivo cyclic mechanical stresses....

  13. Valence band structure of PDMS surface and a blend with MWCNTs: A UPS and MIES study of an insulating polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmerl, Natalya M.; Khodakov, Dmitriy A.; Stapleton, Andrew J.; Ellis, Amanda V.; Andersson, Gunther G., E-mail: gunther.andersson@flinders.edu.au

    2015-10-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Valence electron spectroscopy was performed on an insulating polymer using different charge compensation methods. • MWCNT were embedded in PDMS and found to be the most effective method for reducing the charging of the insulating polymer. • The valence band spectrum of PDMS was obtained via MIES and UPS. • Ion scattering spectroscopy was used to determine the concentration depth profile of the PDMS in the sample. - Abstract: The use of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is increasing with new technologies working toward compact, flexible and transparent devices for use in medical and microfluidic systems. Electronic characterization of PDMS and other insulating materials is difficult due to charging, yet necessary for many applications where the interfacial structure is vital to device function or further modification. The outermost layer in particular is of importance as this is the area where chemical reactions such as surface functionalization will occur. Here, we investigate the valence band structure of the outermost layer and near surface area of PDMS through the use of metastable induced photoelectron spectroscopy (MIES) paired with ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The chemical composition of the samples under investigation were measured via X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and the vertical distribution of the polymer was shown with neutral impact collision ion scattering spectroscopy (NICISS). Three separate methods for charge compensation are used for the samples, and their effectiveness is compared.

  14. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby

    2014-06-01

    The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a constant length. These jigs allowed for complete submersion of the elastomeric chain in a water bath throughout the test period, as well as the dipping of elastomeric chains in respective control and test solutions. For 60 s, twice a day, groups were exposed to the respective solutions, the two daily exposure was separated by 9 h and force measurements were taken at six time points during the experiment, that is, 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Force measurements were made by Instron machine by a single blinded examiner with the help of a second examiner. It was found out that there was highly significant difference between groups control, Coca-Cola®, Listerine®, and tea as well as there was highly significant (p Coca-Cola® and the Listerine® group reached a plateau between 7 and 21 days then decrease between 21 and 28 days. The tea group showed plateau phase between 7 and 28 days. After 28 days in the control group, 25% force decay occurred while the test groups force decay of 30-50% occurred. Coca-Cola®, Listerine® mouthwash, and tea cause an increase in force decay of elastomeric chains over time. Tea caused highest force decay followed by Listerine® and Coca-Cola® when compared to control group. How to cite the article: Kumar K, Shetty S, Krithika MJ, Cyriac B. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: A comparative in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):7-10.

  15. fs- and ns-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer: Comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stankova, N.E., E-mail: nestankova@yahoo.com [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Atanasov, P.A.; Nedyalkov, N.N.; Stoyanchov, T.R. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Kolev, K.N.; Valova, E.I.; Georgieva, J.S.; Armyanov, St.A. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Amoruso, S.; Wang, X.; Bruzzese, R. [CNR-SPIN, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Complesso Universitario di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Grochowska, K.; Śliwiński, G. [Photophysics Department, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St., 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Baert, K.; Hubin, A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Faculty of Engineering, Research group, SURF “Electrochemical and Surface Engineering” (Belgium); Delplancke, M.P.; Dille, J. [Université Libre de Bruxelles, Materials Engineering, Characterization, Synthesis and Recycling (Service 4MAT), Faculté des Sciences Appliquées, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Highlights: • fs- and ns-laser (266 and 532 nm) processing of PDMS-elastomer, in air, is studied. • High definition tracks (on the PDMS-elastomer surface) for electrodes are produced. • Selective Pt or Ni metallization of the tracks is produced via electroless plating. • Irradiated and metallized tracks are characterized by μ-Raman spectrometry and SEM. • DC resistance of Pt and Ni tracks is always between 0.5 and 15 Ω/mm. - Abstract: Medical grade polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is a widely used biomaterial as encapsulation and/or as substrate insulator carrier for long term neural implants because of its remarkable properties. Femtosecond (λ = 263 and 527 nm) and nanosecond (266 and 532 nm) laser processing of PDMS-elastomer surface, in air, is investigated. The influence of different processing parameters, including laser wavelength, pulse duration, fluence, scanning speed and overlapping of the subsequent pulses, on the surface activation and the surface morphology are studied. High definition tracks and electrodes are produced. Remarkable alterations of the chemical composition and structural morphology of the ablated traces are observed in comparison with the native material. Raman spectra illustrate well-defined dependence of the chemical composition on the laser fluence, pulse duration, number of pulses and wavelength. An extra peak about ∼512–518 cm{sup −1}, assigned to crystalline silicon, is observed after ns- or visible fs-laser processing of the surface. In all cases, the intensities of Si−O−Si symmetric stretching at 488 cm{sup −1}, Si−CH{sub 3} symmetric rocking at 685 cm{sup −1}, Si−C symmetric stretching at 709 cm{sup −1}, CH{sub 3} asymmetric rocking + Si−C asymmetric stretching at 787 cm{sup −1}, and CH{sub 3} symmetric rocking at 859 cm{sup −1}, modes strongly decrease. The laser processed areas are also analyzed by SEM and optical microscopy. Selective Pt or Ni metallization of the laser processed

  16. Molecular modeling of the elastomeric properties of repeating units and building blocks of resilin, a disordered elastic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandaker, Md Shahriar K; Dudek, Daniel M; Beers, Eric P; Dillard, David A; Bevan, David R

    2016-08-01

    The mechanisms responsible for the properties of disordered elastomeric proteins are not well known. To better understand the relationship between elastomeric behavior and amino acid sequence, we investigated resilin, a disordered rubber-like protein, found in specialized regions of the cuticle of insects. Resilin of Drosophila melanogaster contains Gly-rich repetitive motifs comprised of the amino acids, PSSSYGAPGGGNGGR, which confer elastic properties to resilin. The repetitive motifs of insect resilin can be divided into smaller partially conserved building blocks: PSS, SYGAP, GGGN and GGR. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we studied the relative roles of SYGAP, and its less common variants SYSAP and TYGAP, on the elastomeric properties of resilin. Results showed that SYGAP adopts a bent structure that is one-half to one-third the end-to-end length of the other motifs having an equal number of amino acids but containing SYSAP or TYGAP substituted for SYGAP. The bent structure of SYGAP forms due to conformational freedom of glycine, and hydrogen bonding within the motif apparently plays a role in maintaining this conformation. These structural features of SYGAP result in higher extensibility compared to other motifs, which may contribute to elastic properties at the macroscopic level. Overall, the results are consistent with a role for the SYGAP building block in the elastomeric properties of these disordered proteins. What we learned from simulating the repetitive motifs of resilin may be applicable to the biology and mechanics of other elastomeric biomaterials, and may provide us the deeper understanding of their unique properties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Elastomeric Sensing of Pressure with Liquid Metal and Wireless Inductive Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Jacob; Zou, Xiyue; Hogan, Ben; Tumalle, Jonathan; Etikyala, Sowmith; Fung, Diego; Charles, Watley; Gu, Tianye; Hull, Patrick V.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-01-01

    This project describes resistance-based soft sensors filled with liquid metal, which permit measurements of large strains (0 percent to 110 percent), associated with small forces of less than 30 Newtons. This work also demonstrates a methodology for wireless transfer of these strain measurements without connected electrodes. These sensors allow intermittent detection of pressure on soft membranes with low force. Adapting these sensors for passive wireless pressure sensing will eliminate the need for embedded batteries, and will allow the sensors to transmit pressure data through non-conductive materials including glass and acrylic. The absence of batteries allows us to embed these sensors into materials for long-term use because the sensors only use passive analog circuit elements. We found the oxidation of the liquid metal (eutectic gallium indium) plays a role in the repeatability of the soft sensors. We investigated how the oxidation layer affected the behavior of the sensor by encapsulating materials (silicone, fluorosilicone, and PVC) with varied permeabilities to oxygen. We measured the effects of mechanical loading on the oxidation layer and the effects of wireless inductive coupling on the oxidation layer. We concluded our research by investigating the effects of embedding self-resonant circuits into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Efforts to design engineered systems with soft materials are a growing field with progress in soft robotics, epidermal electronics, and wearable electronics. In the field of soft robotics, PDMS-based grippers are capable of picking up delicate objects because their form-fitting properties allow them to conform to the shape of objects more easily than conventional robotic grippers. Epidermal devices also use PDMS as a substrate to hold electronic components such as radios, sensors, and power supply circuits. Additionally, PDMS-based soft sensors can monitor human motion with liquid metal embedded within micro-channels. Passive

  18. Mechanics of nanowire/nanotube in-surface buckling on elastomeric substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, J; Huang, Y [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Ryu, S Y; Paik, U [Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Hangdang-dong, Sungdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, K-C [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Rogers, J A, E-mail: y-huang@northwestern.edu, E-mail: jrogers@uiuc.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Frederick-Seitz Materials Research Laboratory and Beckman Institute, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2010-02-26

    A continuum mechanics theory is established for the in-surface buckling of one-dimensional nanomaterials on compliant substrates, such as silicon nanowires on elastomeric substrates observed in experiments. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for the buckling wavelength, amplitude and critical buckling strain in terms of the bending and tension stiffness of the nanomaterial and the substrate elastic properties. The analysis is applied to silicon nanowires, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanotube bundles. For silicon nanowires, the measured buckling wavelength gives Young's modulus to be 140 GPa, which agrees well with the prior experimental studies. It is shown that the energy for in-surface buckling is lower than that for normal (out-of-surface) buckling, and is therefore energetically favorable.

  19. Mechanics of nanowire/nanotube in-surface buckling on elastomeric substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, J; Huang, Y; Ryu, S Y; Paik, U; Hwang, K-C; Rogers, J A

    2010-01-01

    A continuum mechanics theory is established for the in-surface buckling of one-dimensional nanomaterials on compliant substrates, such as silicon nanowires on elastomeric substrates observed in experiments. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for the buckling wavelength, amplitude and critical buckling strain in terms of the bending and tension stiffness of the nanomaterial and the substrate elastic properties. The analysis is applied to silicon nanowires, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanotube bundles. For silicon nanowires, the measured buckling wavelength gives Young's modulus to be 140 GPa, which agrees well with the prior experimental studies. It is shown that the energy for in-surface buckling is lower than that for normal (out-of-surface) buckling, and is therefore energetically favorable.

  20. Silicon micro-masonry using elastomeric stamps for three-dimensional microfabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keum, Hohyun; Eisenhaure, Jeffrey D; Kim, Seok; Carlson, Andrew; Ning, Hailong; Mihi, Agustin; Braun, Paul V; Rogers, John A

    2012-01-01

    We present a micromanufacturing method for constructing microsystems, which we term ‘micro-masonry’ based on individual manipulation, influenced by strategies for deterministic materials assembly using advanced forms of transfer printing. Analogous to masonry in construction sites, micro-masonry consists of the preparation, manipulation, and binding of microscale units to assemble microcomponents and microsystems. In this paper, for the purpose of demonstration, we used microtipped elastomeric stamps as manipulators and built three dimensional silicon microstructures. Silicon units of varied shapes were fabricated in a suspended format on donors, retrieved, delivered, and placed on a target location on a receiver using microtipped stamps. Annealing of the assembled silicon units permanently bound them and completed the micro-masonry procedure. (paper)

  1. The effect of rinsing time periods on wettability of elastomeric impression materials: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.

  2. Active shape-morphing elastomeric colloids in short-pitch cholesteric liquid crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Julian S; Sun, Yaoran; Senyuk, Bohdan; Keller, Patrick; Pergamenshchik, Victor M; Lee, Taewoo; Smalyukh, Ivan I

    2013-05-03

    Active elastomeric liquid crystal particles with initial cylindrical shapes are obtained by means of soft lithography and polymerization in a strong magnetic field. Gold nanocrystals infiltrated into these particles mediate energy transfer from laser light to heat, so that the inherent coupling between the temperature-dependent order and shape allows for dynamic morphing of these particles and well-controlled stable shapes. Continuous changes of particle shapes are followed by their spontaneous realignment and transformations of director structures in the surrounding cholesteric host, as well as locomotion in the case of a nonreciprocal shape morphing. These findings bridge the fields of liquid crystal solids and active colloids, may enable shape-controlled self-assembly of adaptive composites and light-driven micromachines, and can be understood by employing simple symmetry considerations along with electrostatic analogies.

  3. Optimization of fractional composition of the excipient in the elastomeric covering for asphalt highways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Nurullaev

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The computational method of optimum fractional composition of a dispersible filler of polymeric composite on the basis of three-dimensionally linked elastomer is developed according to non-linear programming. The coefficient of dynamic viscosity of polymeric suspension or the initial module of a viscoelasticity of the join solidification low-molecular rubbers with the final functional groups, filled by many fractional dioxide of silicon are considered as criteria of optimization. Influence of the limiting volume filling on energy of mechanical destruction was investigated. The elastomeric material is offered for use as a covering of asphalt highways in the form of a frost-proof waterproofing layer, which allowing multiply to increase operating properties.

  4. Utilizing stretch-tunable thermochromic elastomeric opal films as novel reversible switchable photonic materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Christian G; Lederle, Christina; Zentel, Kristina; Stühn, Bernd; Gallei, Markus

    2014-11-01

    In this work, the preparation of highly thermoresponsive and fully reversible stretch-tunable elastomeric opal films featuring switchable structural colors is reported. Novel particle architectures based on poly(diethylene glycol methylether methacrylate-co-ethyl acrylate) (PDEGMEMA-co-PEA) as shell polymer are synthesized via seeded and stepwise emulsion polymerization protocols. The use of DEGMEMA as comonomer and herein established synthetic strategies leads to monodisperse soft shell particles, which can be directly processed to opal films by using the feasible melt-shear organization technique. Subsequent UV crosslinking strategies open access to mechanically stable and homogeneous elastomeric opal films. The structural colors of the opal films feature mechano- and thermoresponsiveness, which is found to be fully reversible. Optical characterization shows that the combination of both stimuli provokes a photonic bandgap shift of more than 50 nm from 560 nm in the stretched state to 611 nm in the fully swollen state. In addition, versatile colorful patterns onto the colloidal crystal structure are produced by spatial UV-induced crosslinking by using a photomask. This facile approach enables the generation of spatially cross-linked switchable opal films with fascinating optical properties. Herein described strategies for the preparation of PDEGMEMA-containing colloidal architectures, application of the melt-shear ordering technique, and patterned crosslinking of the final opal films open access to novel stimuli-responsive colloidal crystal films, which are expected to be promising materials in the field of security and sensing applications. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Novel amphiphilic poly(dimethylsiloxane) based polyurethane networks tethered with carboxybetaine and their combined antibacterial and anti-adhesive property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jingxian; Fu, Yuchen; Zhang, Qinghua, E-mail: qhzhang@zju.edu.cn; Zhan, Xiaoli; Chen, Fengqiu

    2017-08-01

    Highlights: • An amphiphilic poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) based polyurethane (PU) network tethered with carboxybetaine is prepared. • The surface distribution of PDMS and zwitterionic segments produces an obvious amphiphilic heterogeneous surface. • This designed PDMS-based amphiphilic PU network exhibits combined antibacterial and anti-adhesive properties. - Abstract: The traditional nonfouling materials are powerless against bacterial cells attachment, while the hydrophobic bactericidal surfaces always suffer from nonspecific protein adsorption and dead bacterial cells accumulation. Here, amphiphilic polyurethane (PU) networks modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and cationic carboxybetaine diol through simple crosslinking reaction were developed, which had an antibacterial efficiency of 97.7%. Thereafter, the hydrolysis of carboxybetaine ester into zwitterionic groups brought about anti-adhesive properties against bacteria and proteins. The surface chemical composition and wettability performance of the PU network surfaces were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle analysis. The surface distribution of PDMS and zwitterionic segments produced an obvious amphiphilic heterogeneous surface, which was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to test the nonspecific protein adsorption behaviors. With the advantages of the transition from excellent bactericidal performance to anti-adhesion and the combination of fouling resistance and fouling release property, the designed PDMS-based amphiphilic PU network shows great application potential in biomedical devices and marine facilities.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of Aerogel-Polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) Insulation Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Yeoung ah; Song, Sinae; Taik Kim, Hee

    2018-03-01

    The building has a large impact on the space heating demand and the indoor environment is affected by climate or daylight. Hence, silica aerogel has generally used as a film to reduce the coefficient of the window in the building. Silica aerogel is a suitable material to apply for insulation material with lower thermal conductivity than that of air to save interior energy. However expensive precursor and drying process were the main issue of the silica aerogel synthesis and practical usage. We attempt to fabricate aerogel insulation film for energy saving through the economic process under ambient pressure. Silica aerogel was synthesized from rice husk ash, which was an agricultural waste to be able to recycle. Taguchi design was used to optimize the parameters (amount of rice husk ash, pH, aging time) controlling the surface area of silica aerogel. The silica aerogel is prepared by sol-gel processing through acidic treatment and aging. The silica aerogel was obtained by modification of silica hydrogel surface and dry at ambient pressure. Finally, aerogel film was respectively fabricated by the different content of aerogel in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Silica aerogel obtained 21 – 24nm average particle size was analyzed by SEM and silica aerogel with high surface area (832.26 m2/g), pore size ( 3.30nm ) was characterized by BET. Then silica Aerogel – PDMS insulation film with thermal conductivity (0.002 W/mK) was analyzed by thermal wave system. The study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low-cost route toward silica – PDMS insulation film with low thermal conductivity (0.002 W/mK).

  7. Anti-icing properties of superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS composite coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chao; Wang, Fajun; Li, Wen; Ou, Junfei; Li, Changquan; Amirfazli, Alidad

    2016-01-01

    We present the excellent anti-icing performance for a superhydrophobic coating surface based on ZnO/polydimethylsiloxane (ZnO/PDMS) composite. The superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS coating surface was prepared by a facile solution mixing, drop coating, room-temperature curing and surface abrading procedure. The superhydrophobic ZnO/PDMS composite coating possesses a water contact angle of 159.5° and a water sliding angle of 8.3° at room temperature (5 °C). The anti-icing properties of the superhydrophobic coating were investigated by continuously dropping cold-water droplets (about 0 °C) onto the pre-cooled surface using a home-made apparatus. The sample was placed at different tilting angle (0° and 10°) and pre-cooled to various temperatures (-5, -10 and -15 °C) prior to measure. The pure Al surface was also studied for comparison. It was found that icing accretion on the surface could be reduced apparently because the water droplets merged together and slid away from the superhydrophobic surface at all of the measuring temperatures when the surface is horizontally placed. In addition, water droplet slid away completely from the superhydrophobic surface at -5 and -10 °C when the surface is tilted at 10°, which demonstrates its excellent anti-icing properties at these temperatures. When the temperature decreased to -15 °C, though ice accretion on the tilted superhydrophobic coating surface could not be avoided absolutely, the amount of ice formed on the surface is very small, which indicated that the coating surface with superhydrophobicity could significantly reduce ice accumulation on the surface at very low temperature (-15 °C). Importantly, the sample is also stable against repeated icing/deicing cycles. More meaningfully, once the superhydrophobic surface is damaged, it can be repaired easily and rapidly.

  8. Time-Dependent Wetting Behavior of PDMS Surfaces with Bio-Inspired, Hierarchical Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu; Schrader, Alex M.; Lee, Dong Woog; Gallo, Adair; Chen, Szu-Ying; Kaufman, Yair; Das, Saurabh; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2015-01-01

    Wetting of rough surfaces involves time-dependent effects, such as surface deformations, non-uniform filling of surface pores within or outside the contact area, and surface chemistries, but the detailed impact of these phenomena on wetting is not entirely clear. Understanding these effects is crucial for designing coatings for a wide range of applications, such as membrane-based oil-water separation and desalination, waterproof linings/windows for automobiles, aircrafts, and naval vessels, and antibiofouling. Herein, we report on time-dependent contact angles of water droplets on a rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface that cannot be completely described by the conventional Cassie-Baxter or Wenzel models or the recently proposed Cassie-impregnated model. Shells of sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) were used as lithography-free, robust templates to produce rough PDMS surfaces with hierarchical, periodic features ranging from 10-7-10-4 m. Under saturated vapor conditions, we found that in the short-term (<1 min), the contact angle of a sessile water droplet on the templated PDMS, θSDT = 140° ± 3°, was accurately described by the Cassie-Baxter model (predicted θSDT = 137°); however, after 90 min, θSDT fell to 110°. Fluorescent confocal microscopy confirmed that the initial reduction in θSDT to 110° (the Wenzel limit) was primarily a Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel transition during which pores within the contact area filled gradually, and more rapidly for ethanol-water mixtures. After 90 min, the contact line of the water droplet became pinned, perhaps caused by viscoelastic deformation of the PDMS around the contact line, and a significant volume of water began to flow from the droplet to pores outside the contact region, causing θSDT to decrease to 65° over 48 h on the rough surface. The system we present here to explore the concept of contact angle time dependence (dynamics) and modeling of natural surfaces provides insights into the design and

  9. Tunable, flexible antireflection layer of ZnO nanowires embedded in PDMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Kyu; Yi, Dong Kee; Paik, Ungyu

    2010-05-18

    In this article, we report the fabrication of ordered hybrid structures composed of ZnO nanowires and a polymeric matrix with a polymer precursor infiltrating the nanowire arrays. The antireflective properties of the resulting ZnO nanowire-embedded polydimethylsiloxane composite (ZPC) were investigated at various ZnO nanowire lengths and ZPC bending angles. Interestingly, we found that whereas the antireflective properties showed a strong dependence on the length of the embedded ZnO nanowires in PDMS, the bending of ZPC has little effect on the antireflective properties.

  10. Time-Dependent Wetting Behavior of PDMS Surfaces with Bio-Inspired, Hierarchical Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Mishra, Himanshu

    2015-12-28

    Wetting of rough surfaces involves time-dependent effects, such as surface deformations, non-uniform filling of surface pores within or outside the contact area, and surface chemistries, but the detailed impact of these phenomena on wetting is not entirely clear. Understanding these effects is crucial for designing coatings for a wide range of applications, such as membrane-based oil-water separation and desalination, waterproof linings/windows for automobiles, aircrafts, and naval vessels, and antibiofouling. Herein, we report on time-dependent contact angles of water droplets on a rough polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surface that cannot be completely described by the conventional Cassie-Baxter or Wenzel models or the recently proposed Cassie-impregnated model. Shells of sand dollars (Dendraster excentricus) were used as lithography-free, robust templates to produce rough PDMS surfaces with hierarchical, periodic features ranging from 10-7-10-4 m. Under saturated vapor conditions, we found that in the short-term (<1 min), the contact angle of a sessile water droplet on the templated PDMS, θSDT = 140° ± 3°, was accurately described by the Cassie-Baxter model (predicted θSDT = 137°); however, after 90 min, θSDT fell to 110°. Fluorescent confocal microscopy confirmed that the initial reduction in θSDT to 110° (the Wenzel limit) was primarily a Cassie-Baxter to Wenzel transition during which pores within the contact area filled gradually, and more rapidly for ethanol-water mixtures. After 90 min, the contact line of the water droplet became pinned, perhaps caused by viscoelastic deformation of the PDMS around the contact line, and a significant volume of water began to flow from the droplet to pores outside the contact region, causing θSDT to decrease to 65° over 48 h on the rough surface. The system we present here to explore the concept of contact angle time dependence (dynamics) and modeling of natural surfaces provides insights into the design and

  11. Utilization of the UV laser with picosecond pulses for the formation of surface microstructures on elastomeric plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoszewski, B.; Tofil, S.; Scendo, M.; Tarelnik, W.

    2017-08-01

    Elastomeric plastics belong to a wide range of polymeric materials with special properties. They are used as construction material for seals and other components in many branches of industry and, in particular, in the biomedical industry, mechatronics, electronics and chemical equipment. The micromachining of surfaces of these materials can be used to build micro-flow, insulating, dispensing systems and chemical and biological reactors. The paper presents results of research on the effects of micro-machining of selected elastomeric plastics using a UV laser emitting picosecond pulses. The authors see the prospective application of the developed technology in the sealing technique in particular to shaping the sealing pieces co-operating with the surface of the element. The result of the study is meant to show parameters of the UV laser’s performance when producing typical components such as grooves, recesses for optimum ablation in terms of quality and productivity.

  12. Processing of Al2O3/SrTiO3/PDMS Composites With Low Dielectric Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, J. L.; Guo, M. J.; Qi, Y. B.; Zhu, H. X.; Yi, R. Y.; Gao, L.

    2018-05-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is widely used in the electrical and electronic industries due to its excellent electrical insulation and biocompatible characteristics. However, the dielectric constant of pure PDMS is very low which restricts its applications. Herein, we report a series of PDMS/Al2O3/strontium titanate (ST) composites with high dielectric constant and low loss prepared by a simple experimental method. The composites exhibit high dielectric constant (relative dielectric constant is 4) after the composites are coated with insulated Al2O3 particles, and the dielectric constant gets further improved for composites with ST particles (dielectric constant reaches 15.5); a lower dielectric loss (tanδ= 0.05) is also found at the same time which makes co-filler composites suitable for electrical insulation products, and makes the experimental method more interesting in modern teaching.

  13. A robust and stretchable superhydrophobic PDMS/PVDF@KNFs membrane for oil/water separation and flame retardancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deke; Gou, Xuelian; Wu, Daheng; Guo, Zhiguang

    2018-04-05

    The wide application of superhydrophobic membranes has been limited due to their complicated preparation technology and weak durability. Inspired by the mechanical flexibility of nanofibrous biomaterials, nanofibrils have been successfully generated from Kevlar, which is one of the strongest synthetic fibers, by appropriate hydrothermal treatment. In this study, a robust superhydrophobic PDMS/PVDF@KNFs membrane is prepared via a simple one-step process and subsequent curing without combination with inorganic fillers. The as-prepared PDMS/PVDF@KNFs membrane not only shows efficient oil/water separation ability and oil absorption capacity but also has excellent superhydrophobicity stability after deformation. The resultant membrane shows stretchability, flexibility and flame retardance because of the reinforcing effect and the excellent flame retardancy of Kevlar. We believe that this simple fabrication of PDMS/PVDF@KNFs has promising applications in filtering membranes and wearable devices.

  14. XPS and μ-Raman study of nanosecond-laser processing of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armyanov, S., E-mail: armyanov@ipc.bas.bg [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Stankova, N.E.; Atanasov, P.A. [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tsarigradsko Shose, Sofia 1784 (Bulgaria); Valova, E.; Kolev, K.; Georgieva, J. [Rostislaw Kaischew Institute of Physical Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bonchev Str., Block 11, Sofia 1113 (Bulgaria); Steenhaut, O.; Baert, K.; Hubin, A. [Vrije Universiteit Brussels, Faculty of Engineering, Research Group, SURF “Electrochemical and Surface Engineering” (Belgium)

    2015-10-01

    Data about the chemical status of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) after nanosecond Q-switched Nd:YAG laser treatment with near infrared, visible and ultraviolet radiation are presented. The μ-Raman spectroscopy analyses reveal as irradiation result a new sharp peak of crystalline silicon. In addition, broad bands appear assigned to D band of amorphous carbon and G band of microcrystalline and polycrystalline graphite. The μ-Raman spectra are variable taken in different inspected points in the trenches formed by laser treatment. The XPS surface survey spectra indicate the constituent elements of PDMS: carbon, oxygen and silicon. The spectra of detail XPS scans illustrate the influence of the laser treatment. The position of Si 2p peaks of the treated samples is close to the value of non-treated except that irradiated by 1064 nm 66 pulses, which is shifted by 0.9 eV. Accordingly, a shift by 0.4 eV is noticed of the O 1s peak, which reflects again a stronger oxidation of silicon. The curve fitting of Si 2p and O 1s peaks after this particular laser treatment shows the degree of conversion of organic to inorganic silicon that takes place during the irradiation.

  15. Route to one-step microstructure mold fabrication for PDMS microfluidic chip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiaoqing; Geng, Zhaoxin; Fan, Zhiyuan; Wang, Shicai; Su, Yue; Fang, Weihao; Pei, Weihua; Chen, Hongda

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure mold fabrication for PDMS microfluidic chip remains complex and time-consuming process requiring special equipment and protocols: photolithography and etching. Thus, a rapid and cost-effective method is highly needed. Comparing with the traditional microfluidic chip fabricating process based on the micro-electromechanical system (MEMS), this method is simple and easy to implement, and the whole fabrication process only requires 1-2 h. Different size of microstructure from 100 to 1000 μm was fabricated, and used to culture four kinds of breast cancer cell lines. Cell viability and morphology was assessed when they were cultured in the micro straight channels, micro square holes and the bonding PDMS-glass microfluidic chip. The experimental results indicate that the microfluidic chip is good and meet the experimental requirements. This method can greatly reduce the process time and cost of the microfluidic chip, and provide a simple and effective way for the structure design and in the field of biological microfabrications and microfluidic chips.

  16. PZT-5A4/PA and PZT-5A4/PDMS piezoelectric composite bimorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu, I; Hendrix, M M R M; De With, G

    2014-01-01

    Disc type reinforced piezoelectric composite bimorphs with series connection were designed and the performance was investigated. The composite bimorphs (PZT/PA and PZT/PDMS (40/60 vol%)) were successfully fabricated by a compression molding and solution casting technique. The charge developed at an applied force of 150 N is 18150 pC (PZT/PA) and 2310 pC (PZT/PDMS), respectively. Electric force microscopy (EFM) is used to study the structural characterization and piezoelectric properties of the materials realized. A clear inverse piezoelectric effect was observed when the bimorphs were subjected to an electric field stepped up through 2, 6 and 10 V, indicating the net polarization direction of the different ferroelectric domains. The as-developed bimorphs have the basic structure of a sensor and actuator, and, since they do not use any bonding agent for bonding, they can provide a valuable alternative to the present bimorphs where bonding processes are required for their realization that can limit their application at high temperature. (paper)

  17. Sub-100 nm gold nanohole-enhanced Raman scattering on flexible PDMS sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun; Ongko, Andry; Kim, Ho Young; Yim, Sang-Gu; Jeon, Geumhye; Jeong, Hee Jin; Lee, Seungwoo; Kwak, Minseok; Yang, Seung Yun

    2016-08-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a highly sensitive vibrational spectroscopy technique enabling detection of multiple analytes at the molecular level in a nondestructive and rapid manner. In this work, we introduce a new approach to fabricate deep subwavelength-scaled (sub-100 nm) metallic nanohole arrays (quasi-3D metallic nanoholes) on flexible and highly efficient SERS substrates. Target structures have been fabricated using a two-step process consisting of (i) direct pattern transfer of spin-coated polymer films onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates by plasma etching with transferred anodic aluminum oxide masks, and (ii) producing SERS-active substrates by functionalization of the etched polymeric films followed by Au deposition. Such an all-dry, top-down lithographic approach enables on-demand patterning of SERS-active metallic nanoholes with high structural fidelity even onto flexible and stretchable substrates, thus making possible multiple sensing modes in a versatile fashion. For example, metallic nanoholes on flexible PDMS substrates are highly amenable to their integration with curved glass sticks, which can be used in optical fiber-integrated SERS systems. Au surfaces immobilized by probe DNA molecules show a selective enhancement of Raman scattering with Cy5-labeled complementary DNA (as compared to flat Au surfaces), demonstrating the potential of using the quasi-3D Au nanohole arrays for bio-sensing applications.

  18. Geometric study of transparent superhydrophobic surfaces of molded and grid patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davaasuren, Gaasuren; Ngo, Chi-Vinh; Oh, Hyun-Seok; Chun, Doo-Man

    2014-09-01

    Herein we describe an economical method to fabricate a transparent superhydrophobic surface that uses grid patterning, and we report on the effects of grid geometry in determining the wettability and transparency of the fabricated surfaces. A polymer casting method was utilized because of its applicability to economical manufacturing and mass production; the material polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) was selected because of its moldability and transparency. PDMS was replicated from a laser textured mold fabricated by a UV nanosecond pulsed laser. Sapphire wafer was used for the mold because it has very low surface roughness (Ra ≤0.3 nm) and adequate mechanical properties. To study geometric effects, grid patterns of a series of step sizes were fabricated. The maximum water droplet contact angle (WDCA) observed was 171°. WDCAs depended on the wetting area and the wetting state. The experimental results of WDCA were analyzed with Wenzel and Cassie-Baxter equations. The designed grid pattern was suitably transparent and structurally stable. Transmittance of the optimal transparent superhydrophobic surface was measured by using a spectrophotometer. Transmittance loss due to the presence of the grid was around 2-4% over the wavelength region measured (300-1000 nm); the minimum transmittance observed was 83.1% at 300 nm. This study also demonstrates the possibility of using a nanosecond pulsed laser for the surface texturing of a superhydrophobic surface.

  19. Reactive bonding mediated high mass loading of individualized single-walled carbon nanotubes in an elastomeric polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liping; Li, Yongjin; Qiu, Jishan; You, Jichun; Dong, Wenyong; Cao, Xiaojun

    2012-09-01

    A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance.A reactive chemical bonding strategy was developed for the incorporation of a high mass loading of individual single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) into an elastomeric matrix using a reactive ionic liquid as a linker. This method simultaneously prevented the agglomeration of SWCNTs and caused strong interfacial bonding, while the electronic properties of the SWCNTs remained intact. As a result, the high conductivity of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and the flexibility of the elastomeric matrix were retained, producing optimum electrical and mechanical properties. A composite material with a loading of 20 wt% SWCNTs was fabricated with excellent mechanical properties and a high conductivity (9500 S m-1). The method could be used to form transparent thin conductive films that could tolerate over 800 bend cycles at a bending angle of 180° while maintaining a constant sheet resistance. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Conductivity test of the SEBS-SWCNTs film, transmission spectra and sheet resistance for the spin-coated SEBS-SWCNTs thin films on PET slides. See DOI: 10

  20. The effect of a lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic on pain and discomfort associated with orthodontic elastomeric separator placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abu Al-Melh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The initial placement of orthodontic elastomeric separators can be uncomfortable and painful. Therefore, it is important to relieve this disturbing sensation to create a discomfort or pain-free orthodontic visit. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic on pain and discomfort associated with the placement of orthodontic elastomeric separators. Methods Fifty subjects aging between 20–35 years were included in this study. In the maxillary arch, a lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic was placed around the ginigval margins of the premolar and molar on side. On the other side, a placebo agent was placed around the ginigval margins of the premolar and molar. After two minutes, an elastomeric separator was placed between the premolar and molar on both sides. The subjects were then asked to report their findings on a Verbal Scale and a Visual Analogue Scale every second minute for a period of 10 min. The subjects were also given a questionnaire to evaluate the overall impression on the topical anesthetic use. Results The overall mean discomfort/pain score was found to be significantly lower (p < 0.001 with the topical anesthetic than with the placebo. Repeated measures ANOVA with a Greenhouse-Geisser correction determined that mean pain scores were statistically significantly low with the 10-min time duration (F (1.54,42.2 = 40.7, p = 0.001, with an estimated grand mean (8.37, 95% CI 6.75–9.98. The questionnaire responses revealed that 87% of the subjects reported an overall satisfaction and agreement with the topical anesthetic than with the placebo or no difference (13% after the initial separator placement. Conclusions The discomfort and pain resulting from the initial placement of orthodontic elastomeric separators can be significantly reduced with the lidocaine/prilocaine topical anesthetic.

  1. Nanoporous materials from stable and metastable structures of 1,2-PB-b-PDMS block copolymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulte, Lars; Grydgaard, Anne; Jakobsen, Mathilde R.

    2011-01-01

    matrix component) and secondly degrading PDMS (the expendable component). Depending on the temperature of the cross-linking reaction different morphologies can be ‘frozen’ from the same block copolymer. Starting with a block copolymer precursor of lamellar morphology at room temperature, the gyroid...... structure or a metastable structure showing hexagonal symmetry (probably HPL) were permanently captured by cross-linking the precursor at 140 °C or at 85 °C, respectively. PDMS was degraded by reaction with tetrabutylamonium fluoride; considerations on the mechanism of cleaving reaction are presented...

  2. PDMS-modified poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)s as water-borne coatings based on surfactant-free latexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gunbas, I.D.; Wouters, M.E.L.; Benthem, R.A.T.M. van; Koning, C.E.; Noordover, B.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, two series of PDMS-modified poly(styrene-alt-maleic anhydride)s (PSMA) were prepared by the partial imidization of their anhydride groups with mono-functional, amine-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS-NH2) with two different molecular weights. Subsequently, surfactant-free

  3. Elastic Moduli of Nanoparticle-Polymer Composite Thin Films via Buckling on Elastomeric Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hongyi; Karim, Alamgir; University of Akron Team

    2011-03-01

    Polymeric thin films find applications in diverse areas such as coatings, barriers and packaging. The dispersion of nanoparticles into the films was proven to be an effective method to generate tunable properties, particularly mechanical strength. However, there are very few methods for mechanical characterization of the composite thin films with high accuracy. In this study, nanometric polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol films with uniformly dispersed cobalt and Cloisite nanoparticles at varying concentrations were synthesized via flow-coating and then transferred to crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) flexible substrates. The technique of Strain-Induced Elastic Buckling Instability for Mechanical Measurements (SIEBIMM) was employed to determine the elastic moduli of the films, which were calculated from the buckling patterns generated by applying compressive stresses. Results on moduli of films as a function of the concentrations of nanoparticles and the thicknesses of the composite films will be presented. *Corresponding author: alamgir@uakron.edu

  4. Mechanical control of the plasmon coupling with Au nanoparticle arrays fixed on the elastomeric film via chemical bond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedogni, Elena; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated Au nanoparticle arrays on the flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film. The nanoparticles were bound to the film via a covalent bond by a ligand exchange reaction. Thanks to the strong chemical bonding, highly stable and uniformly dispersed Au nanoparticle arrays were fixed on the PDMS film. The Au nanoparticle arrays were characterized by the UV-vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The UV-vis and SEM measurements showed the uniformity of the surface-dispersed Au nanoparticles, and SERS measurement confirmed the chemistry of the PDMS film. Reflecting the high stability and the uniformity of the Au nanoparticle arrays, the plasmon wavelength of the Au nanoparticles reversely changed with modulation of the interparticle distance, which was induced by the stretching of the PDMS film. The plasmon wavelength linearly decreased from 664 to 591 nm by stretching of 60%. The plasmon wavelength shift can be explained by the change in the strength of the plasmon coupling which is mechanically controlled by the mechanical strain.

  5. In-use Stability of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Elastomeric Home Infusion Systems and MINI-BAG Plus Containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Parekh, Satish; Dedhiya, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine in-use stability of ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution of concentrations up to 12 mg/mL in elastomeric home infusion system prefilled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP or 5% Dextrose Injection USP and MINI-BAG Plus Container delivery devices prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. In-use ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution (12 mg/mL) was prepared for elastomeric home infusion systems (Homepump Eclipse, Baxter Intermate, and AccuRx Elastomeric Pump) pre-filled with either 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose; or Baxter MINI-BAG Plus Containers pre-filled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP (4 mg/mL to 12 mg/mL ceftaroline fosamil in final solution). The systems were stored refrigerated for 24 hours followed by up to 6 hours of storage at room temperature. Samples were analyzed at various time points for assay and degradation product by a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. In-use ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution, ranging from 4-mg/mL to a maximum of 12-mg/mL concentration, in elastomeric home infusion systems prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose, and MINI-BAG Plus Containers prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection were chemically stable for up to 24 hours refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) and up to 6 hours at room temperature and had acceptable compatibility with material used. Ceftaroline fosamil (4 mg/mL to 12 mg/mL) maintains its potency for up to 24 hours refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) and up to 6 hours of storage at room temperature upon reconstitution in infusion solution with 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose when used in elastomeric home infusion system and MINI-BAG Plus Containers delivery devices prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

  6. A comparative study on the influence of the platinum catalyst in poly(dimethylsiloxane) based networks synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Poulsen, Julie Øblom; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the project is to find the best of three Pt catalysts and their appropriate quantity in order to obtain soft networks in one hour at room temperature. How the choice of catalyst influences the final elastomeric properties is also evaluated. The differences between the catalysts...

  7. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  8. Caterpillar locomotion-inspired valveless pneumatic micropump using a single teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Seo, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic pump operated by an asymmetrically deformed membrane, which was inspired by caterpillar locomotion. Almost all mechanical micropumps consist of two major components of fluid halting and fluid pushing parts, whereas the proposed caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump has only a single, bilaterally symmetric membrane-like teardrop shape. A teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane was asymmetrically deformed and then consecutively touched down to the bottom of the chamber in response to pneumatic pressure, thus achieving fluid pushing. Consecutive touchdown motions of the teardrop-shaped membrane mimicked the propagation of a caterpillar's hump during its locomotory gait. The initial touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane at the centroid worked as a valve that blocked the inlet channel, and then, the consecutive touchdown motions pushed fluid in the chamber toward the tail of the chamber connected to the outlet channel. The propagation of the touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane was investigated using computational analysis as well as experimental studies. This caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump composed of only a single membrane can provide new opportunities for simple integration of microfluidic systems. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  9. Synthesis of polyester urethane urea and fabrication of elastomeric nanofibrous scaffolds for myocardial regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamadi, Elham Sadat; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh [Department of Textile engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morshed, Mohammad, E-mail: morshed@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Textile engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Morteza [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: nanotechmpp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 2 Engineering Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 2 Engineering Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)

    2016-06-01

    Fabrication of bioactive scaffolds is one of the most promising strategies to reconstruct the infarcted myocardium. In this study, we synthesized polyester urethane urea (PEUU), further blended it with gelatin and fabricated PEUU/G nanofibrous scaffolds. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterization of the synthesized PEUU and properties of nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ATR-FTIR, contact angle measurement, biodegradation test, tensile strength analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). In vitro biocompatibility studies were performed using cardiomyocytes. DMA analysis showed that the scaffolds could be reshaped with cyclic deformations and might remain stable in the frequencies of the physiological activity of the heart. On the whole, our study suggests that aligned PEUU/G 70:30 nanofibrous scaffolds meet the required specifications for cardiac tissue engineering and could be used as a promising construct for myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • PEUU was synthesized to fabricate elastomeric scaffolds for myocardial regeneration. • FTIR, DSC and XRD analysis showed that polymer synthesis was well. • PEUU/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds could be reshaped with cyclic deformations of the heart. • Gelatin in structure of PEUU nanofibers improved proliferation of cardiomyocytes. • Aligned PEUU/gelatin 70:30 nanofibrous scaffold support the alignment of cardiomyocytes.

  10. Highly Magneto-Responsive Elastomeric Films Created by a Two-Step Fabrication Process

    KAUST Repository

    Marchi, Sophie

    2015-08-24

    An innovative method for the preparation of elastomeric magnetic films with increased magneto-responsivity is presented. Polymeric films containing aligned magnetic microchains throughout their thickness are formed upon the magnetophoretic transport and assembly of microparticles during polymer curing. The obtained films are subsequently magnetized at a high magnetic field of 3 T directed parallel to the orientation of the microchains. We prove that the combination of both alignment of the particles along a favorable direction during curing and the subsequent magnetization of the solid films induces an impressive increase of the films’ deflection. Specifically, the displacements reach few millimeters, up to 85 times higher than those of the nontreated films with the same particle concentration. Such a process can improve the performance of the magnetic films without increasing the amount of magnetic fillers and, thus, without compromising the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. The proposed method can be used for the fabrication of magnetic films suitable as components in systems in which large displacements at relatively low magnetic fields are required, such as sensors and drug delivery or microfluidic systems, especially where remote control of valves is requested to achieve appropriate flow and mixing of liquids.

  11. Design and Fabrication of an Elastomeric Unit for Soft Modular Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Iris; Gerboni, Giada; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, soft robotics technologies have aroused increasing interest in the medical field due to their intrinsically safe interaction in unstructured environments. At the same time, new procedures and techniques have been developed to reduce the invasiveness of surgical operations. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been successfully employed for abdominal interventions, however standard MIS procedures are mainly based on rigid or semi-rigid tools that limit the dexterity of the clinician. This paper presents a soft and high dexterous manipulator for MIS. The manipulator was inspired by the biological capabilities of the octopus arm, and is designed with a modular approach. Each module presents the same functional characteristics, thus achieving high dexterity and versatility when more modules are integrated. The paper details the design, fabrication process and the materials necessary for the development of a single unit, which is fabricated by casting silicone inside specific molds. The result consists in an elastomeric cylinder including three flexible pneumatic actuators that enable elongation and omni-directional bending of the unit. An external braided sheath improves the motion of the module. In the center of each module a granular jamming-based mechanism varies the stiffness of the structure during the tasks. Tests demonstrate that the module is able to bend up to 120° and to elongate up to 66% of the initial length. The module generates a maximum force of 47 N, and its stiffness can increase up to 36%. PMID:26650236

  12. Methodology for Evaluating Raw Material Changes to RSRM Elastomeric Insulation Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildenhall, Scott D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses asbestos and silicon dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (AS-NBR) as the primary internal insulation to protect the case from heat. During the course of the RSRM Program, several changes have been made to the raw materials and processing of the AS-NBR elastomeric insulation material. These changes have been primarily caused by raw materials becoming obsolete. In addition, some process changes have been implemented that were deemed necessary to improve the quality and consistency of the AS-NBR insulation material. Each change has been evaluated using unique test efforts customized to determine the potential impacts of the specific raw material or process change. Following the evaluations, the various raw material and process changes were successfully implemented with no detectable effect on the performance of the AS-NBR insulation. This paper will discuss some of the raw material and process changes evaluated, the methodology used in designing the unique test plans, and the general evaluation results. A summary of the change history of RSRM AS-NBR internal insulation is also presented.

  13. Highly Magneto-Responsive Elastomeric Films Created by a Two-Step Fabrication Process

    KAUST Repository

    Marchi, Sophie; Casu, Alberto; Bertora, Franco; Athanassiou, Athanassia; Fragouli, Despina

    2015-01-01

    An innovative method for the preparation of elastomeric magnetic films with increased magneto-responsivity is presented. Polymeric films containing aligned magnetic microchains throughout their thickness are formed upon the magnetophoretic transport and assembly of microparticles during polymer curing. The obtained films are subsequently magnetized at a high magnetic field of 3 T directed parallel to the orientation of the microchains. We prove that the combination of both alignment of the particles along a favorable direction during curing and the subsequent magnetization of the solid films induces an impressive increase of the films’ deflection. Specifically, the displacements reach few millimeters, up to 85 times higher than those of the nontreated films with the same particle concentration. Such a process can improve the performance of the magnetic films without increasing the amount of magnetic fillers and, thus, without compromising the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. The proposed method can be used for the fabrication of magnetic films suitable as components in systems in which large displacements at relatively low magnetic fields are required, such as sensors and drug delivery or microfluidic systems, especially where remote control of valves is requested to achieve appropriate flow and mixing of liquids.

  14. Caterpillar locomotion-inspired valveless pneumatic micropump using a single teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a microfluidic pump operated by an asymmetrically deformed membrane, which was inspired by caterpillar locomotion. Almost all mechanical micropumps consist of two major components of fluid halting and fluid pushing parts, whereas the proposed caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump has only a single, bilaterally symmetric membrane-like teardrop shape. A teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane was asymmetrically deformed and then consecutively touched down to the bottom of the chamber in response to pneumatic pressure, thus achieving fluid pushing. Consecutive touchdown motions of the teardrop-shaped membrane mimicked the propagation of a caterpillar\\'s hump during its locomotory gait. The initial touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane at the centroid worked as a valve that blocked the inlet channel, and then, the consecutive touchdown motions pushed fluid in the chamber toward the tail of the chamber connected to the outlet channel. The propagation of the touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane was investigated using computational analysis as well as experimental studies. This caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump composed of only a single membrane can provide new opportunities for simple integration of microfluidic systems. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  15. Optimal elastomeric scaffold leaflet shape for pulmonary heart valve leaflet replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Bayoumi, Ahmed S; Chen, Peter; Hobson, Christopher M; Wagner, William R; Mayer, John E; Sacks, Michael S

    2013-02-22

    Surgical replacement of the pulmonary valve (PV) is a common treatment option for congenital pulmonary valve defects. Engineered tissue approaches to develop novel PV replacements are intrinsically complex, and will require methodical approaches for their development. Single leaflet replacement utilizing an ovine model is an attractive approach in that candidate materials can be evaluated under valve level stresses in blood contact without the confounding effects of a particular valve design. In the present study an approach for optimal leaflet shape design based on finite element (FE) simulation of a mechanically anisotropic, elastomeric scaffold for PV replacement is presented. The scaffold was modeled as an orthotropic hyperelastic material using a generalized Fung-type constitutive model. The optimal shape of the fully loaded PV replacement leaflet was systematically determined by minimizing the difference between the deformed shape obtained from FE simulation and an ex-vivo microCT scan of a native ovine PV leaflet. Effects of material anisotropy, dimensional changes of PV root, and fiber orientation on the resulting leaflet deformation were investigated. In-situ validation demonstrated that the approach could guide the design of the leaflet shape for PV replacement surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Biodegradable, elastomeric coatings with controlled anti-proliferative agent release for magnesium-based cardiovascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xinzhu; Mao, Zhongwei; Ye, Sang-Ho; Koo, Youngmi; Yun, Yeoheung; Tiasha, Tarannum R; Shanov, Vesselin; Wagner, William R

    2016-08-01

    Vascular stent design continues to evolve to further improve the efficacy and minimize the risks associated with these devices. Drug-eluting coatings have been widely adopted and, more recently, biodegradable stents have been the focus of extensive evaluation. In this report, biodegradable elastomeric polyurethanes were synthesized and applied as drug-eluting coatings for a relatively new class of degradable vascular stents based on Mg. The dynamic degradation behavior, hemocompatibility and drug release were investigated for poly(carbonate urethane) urea (PCUU) and poly(ester urethane) urea (PEUU) coated magnesium alloy (AZ31) stents. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) coated and bare stents were employed as control groups. The PCUU coating effectively slowed the Mg alloy corrosion in dynamic degradation testing compared to PEUU-coated, PLGA-coated and bare Mg alloy stents. This was confirmed by electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and magnesium ion release experiments. PCUU-coating of AZ31 was also associated with significantly reduced platelet adhesion in acute blood contact testing. Rat vascular smooth muscle cell (rSMC) proliferation was successfully inhibited when paclitaxel was released from pre-loaded PCUU coatings. The corrosion retardation, low thrombogenicity, drug loading capacity, and high elasticity make PCUU an attractive option for drug eluting coating on biodegradable metallic cardiovascular stents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accuracy of a new elastomeric impression material for complete-arch dental implant impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Mirza R; Buzayan, Muaiyed M; Yunus, Norsiah

    2018-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of multi-unit dental implant casts obtained from two elastomeric impression materials, vinyl polyether silicone (VPES) and polyether (PE), and to test the effect of splinting of impression copings on the accuracy of implant casts. Forty direct impressions of a mandibular reference model fitted with six dental implants and multibase abutments were made using VPES and PE, and implant casts were poured (N = 20). The VPES and PE groups were split into four subgroups of five each, based on splinting type: (a) no splinting; (b) bite registration polyether; (c) bite registration addition silicone; and (d) autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The accuracy of implant-abutment replica positions was calculated on the experimental casts, in terms of interimplant distances in the x, y, and z-axes, using a coordinate measuring machine; values were compared with those measured on the reference model. Data were analyzed using non-parametrical Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests at α = .05. The differences between the two impression materials, VPES and PE, regardless of splinting type, were not statistically significant (P>.05). Non-splinting and splinting groups were also not significantly different for both PE and VPES (P>.05). The accuracy of VPES impression material seemed comparable with PE for multi-implant abutment-level impressions. Splinting had no effect on the accuracy of implant impressions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Design and Fabrication of an Elastomeric Unit for Soft Modular Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Falco, Iris; Gerboni, Giada; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2015-11-14

    In recent years, soft robotics technologies have aroused increasing interest in the medical field due to their intrinsically safe interaction in unstructured environments. At the same time, new procedures and techniques have been developed to reduce the invasiveness of surgical operations. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been successfully employed for abdominal interventions, however standard MIS procedures are mainly based on rigid or semi-rigid tools that limit the dexterity of the clinician. This paper presents a soft and high dexterous manipulator for MIS. The manipulator was inspired by the biological capabilities of the octopus arm, and is designed with a modular approach. Each module presents the same functional characteristics, thus achieving high dexterity and versatility when more modules are integrated. The paper details the design, fabrication process and the materials necessary for the development of a single unit, which is fabricated by casting silicone inside specific molds. The result consists in an elastomeric cylinder including three flexible pneumatic actuators that enable elongation and omni-directional bending of the unit. An external braided sheath improves the motion of the module. In the center of each module a granular jamming-based mechanism varies the stiffness of the structure during the tasks. Tests demonstrate that the module is able to bend up to 120° and to elongate up to 66% of the initial length. The module generates a maximum force of 47 N, and its stiffness can increase up to 36%.

  19. Durability assessment of soft elastomeric capacitor skin for SHM of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Austin; Pisello, Anna Laura; Fortunati, Elena; Fabiani, Claudia; Luzi, Francesca; Torre, Luigi; Ubertini, Filippo; Laflamme, Simon

    2018-03-01

    Renewable energy production has become a key research driver during the last decade. Wind energy represents a ready technology for large-scale implementation in locations all around the world. While important research is conducted to optimize wind energy production efficiency, a critical issue consists of monitoring the structural integrity and functionality of these large structures during their operational life cycle. This paper investigates the durability of a soft elastomeric capacitor strain sensing membrane, designed for structural health monitoring of wind turbines, when exposed to aggressive environmental conditions. The sensor is a capacitor made of three thin layers of an SEBS polymer in a sandwich configuration. The inner layer is doped with titania and acts as the dielectric, while the external layers are filled with carbon black and work as the conductive plates. Here, a variety of samples, not limited to the sensor configuration but also including its dielectric layer, were fabricated and tested within an accelerated weathering chamber (QUV) by simulating thermal, humidity, and UV radiation cycles. A variety of other tests were performed in order to characterize their mechanical, thermal, and electrical performance in addition to their solar reflectance. These tests were carried out before and after the QUV exposures of 1, 7, 15, and 30 days. The tests showed that titania inclusions improved the sensor durability against weathering. These findings contribute to better understanding the field behavior of these skin sensors, while future developments will concern the analysis of the sensing properties of the skin after aging.

  20. Liquid gating elastomeric porous system with dynamically controllable gas/liquid transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Zhizhi; Wang, Honglong; Tang, Yongliang; Wang, Miao; Huang, Lizhi; Min, Lingli; Meng, Haiqiang; Chen, Songyue; Jiang, Lei; Hou, Xu

    2018-02-01

    The development of membrane technology is central to fields ranging from resource harvesting to medicine, but the existing designs are unable to handle the complex sorting of multiphase substances required for many systems. Especially, the dynamic multiphase transport and separation under a steady-state applied pressure have great benefits for membrane science, but have not been realized at present. Moreover, the incorporation of precisely dynamic control with avoidance of contamination of membranes remains elusive. We show a versatile strategy for creating elastomeric microporous membrane-based systems that can finely control and dynamically modulate the sorting of a wide range of gases and liquids under a steady-state applied pressure, nearly eliminate fouling, and can be easily applied over many size scales, pressures, and environments. Experiments and theoretical calculation demonstrate the stability of our system and the tunability of the critical pressure. Dynamic transport of gas and liquid can be achieved through our gating interfacial design and the controllable pores' deformation without changing the applied pressure. Therefore, we believe that this system will bring new opportunities for many applications, such as gas-involved chemical reactions, fuel cells, multiphase separation, multiphase flow, multiphase microreactors, colloidal particle synthesis, and sizing nano/microparticles.

  1. Rapid fabrication of microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell in PDMS by surface patterning of perfluorinated ion-exchange resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Yong-Ak; Han, Jongyoon [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Department of Biological Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Batista, Candy [Roxbury Community College, 1234 Columbus Ave., Roxbury Crossing, MA 02120 (United States); Sarpeshkar, Rahul [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2008-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a simple and rapid fabrication method for a microfluidic polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), which has become the de facto standard material in BioMEMS. Instead of integrating a Nafion sheet film between two layers of a PDMS device in a traditional ''sandwich format,'' we pattern a perfluorinated ion-exchange resin such as a Nafion resin on a glass substrate using a reversibly bonded PDMS microchannel to generate an ion-selective membrane between the fuel-cell electrodes. After this patterning step, the assembly of the microfluidic fuel cell is accomplished by simple oxygen plasma bonding between the PDMS chip and the glass substrate. In an example implementation, the planar PEM microfluidic fuel cell generates an open circuit voltage of 600-800 mV and delivers a maximum current output of nearly 4 {mu}A. To enhance the power output of the fuel cell we utilize self-assembled colloidal arrays as a support matrix for the Nafion resin. Such arrays allow us to increase the thickness of the ion-selective membrane to 20 {mu}m and increase the current output by 166%. Our novel fabrication method enables rapid prototyping of microfluidic fuel cells to study various ion-exchange resins for the polymer electrolyte membrane. Our work will facilitate the development of miniature, implantable, on-chip power sources for biomedical applications. (author)

  2. STABILITY OF MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS MEMBRANES DURING PERVAPORATIVE ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES CONTAINING ACETIC ACID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervaporation is potentially a cost-effective means of recovering biofuels, such as ethanol, from biomass fermentation broths for small- to medium-scale applications (~2 - 20 million liters per year). Hydrophobic zeolite-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes have been sho...

  3. Study on the Optimum Cutting Parameters of an Aluminum Mold for Effective Bonding Strength of a PDMS Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffiyar Mohamed Yousuff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Master mold fabricated using micro milling is an easy way to develop the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS based microfluidic device. Achieving high-quality micro-milled surface is important for excellent bonding strength between PDMS and glass slide. The aim of our experiment is to study the optimal cutting parameters for micro milling an aluminum mold insert for the production of a fine resolution microstructure with the minimum surface roughness using conventional computer numerical control (CNC machine systems; we also aim to measure the bonding strength of PDMS with different surface roughnesses. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the cutting parameters in order to obtain high surface smoothness. The cutting parameters were demonstrated with the following combinations: 20,000 rpm spindle speed, 50 mm/min feed rate, depth of cut 5 µm with tool size 200 µm or less; this gives a fine resolution microstructure with the minimum surface roughness and strong bonding strength between PDMS–PDMS and PDMS–glass.

  4. Facile Fabrication of a PDMS@Stearic Acid-Kaolin Coating on Lignocellulose Composites with Superhydrophobicity and Flame Retardancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The disadvantages such as swelling after absorbing water and flammability restrict the widespread applications of lignocellulose composites (LC. Herein, a facile and effective method to fabricate superhydrophobic surfaces with flame retardancy on LC has been investigated by coating polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS and stearic acid (STA modified kaolin (KL particles. The as-prepared coatings on the LC exhibited a good repellency to water (a contact angle = 156°. Owing to the excellent flame retardancy of kaolin particles, the LC coated with PDMS@STA-KL displayed a good flame retardancy during limiting oxygen index and cone calorimeter tests. After the coating treatment, the limiting oxygen index value of the LC increased to 41.0. Cone calorimetry results indicated that the ignition time of the LC coated with PDMS@STA-KL increased by 40 s compared with that of uncoated LC. Moreover, the peak heat release rate (PHRR and the total heat release (THR of LC coated with PDMS@STA-KL reduced by 18.7% and 19.2% compared with those of uncoated LC, respectively. This LC coating with improved water repellency and flame retardancy can be considered as a potential alternative to protect the lignocellulose composite.

  5. ZnO–PDMS Nanohybrids: A Novel Optical Sensing Platform for Ethanol Vapor Detection at Room Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Klini, Argyro; Pissadakis, Stavros; Das, Rabindra N.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.; Anastasiadis, Spiros H.; Anglos, Demetrios

    2015-01-01

    O-PDMS system as an optical gas sensing device. The interaction of the ZnO nanoparticles with molecular oxygen plays an essential role on the overall performance of the sensor, as shown in comparative experiments performed in the presence and absence

  6. Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) Affects Gene Expression in PC12 Cells Differentiating into Neuronal-Like Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lopacinska, Joanna M.; Emnéus, Jenny; Dufva, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Microfluidics systems usually consist of materials like PMMA - poly(methyl methacrylate) and PDMS - poly(dimethylsiloxane) and not polystyrene (PS), which is usually used for cell culture. Cellular and molecular responses in cells grown on PS are well characterized due to decades...

  7. Fabrication of Graphene Oxide Dispersed DLC/PDMS Substrates and Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Culture(Researches)

    OpenAIRE

    伴, 雅人; Masahito, Ban

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) dispersed DLC (diamond-like carbon) thin film deposited PDMS substrates were fabricated with plasma treatments and dip coating methods. It was found from cell culture tests using the substrates as scaffolds human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) indicated larger F-actin areas compared with the substrates without GO and/or DLC.

  8. Facile Fabrication and Characterization of a PDMS-Derived Candle Soot Coated Stable Biocompatible Superhydrophobic and Superhemophobic Surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, R; Majhy, B; Sen, A K

    2017-09-13

    We report a simple, inexpensive, rapid, and one-step method for the fabrication of a stable and biocompatible superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface. The proposed surface comprises candle soot particles embedded in a mixture of PDMS+n-hexane serving as the base material. The mechanism responsible for the superhydrophobic behavior of the surface is explained, and the surface is characterized based on its morphology and elemental composition, wetting properties, mechanical and chemical stability, and biocompatibility. The effect of %n-hexane in PDMS, the thickness of the PDMS+n-hexane layer (in terms of spin coating speed) and sooting time on the wetting property of the surface is studied. The proposed surface exhibits nanoscale surface asperities (average roughness of 187 nm), chemical compositions of soot particles, very high water and blood repellency along with excellent mechanical and chemical stability and excellent biocompatibility against blood sample and biological cells. The water contact angle and roll-off angle is measured as 160° ± 1° and 2°, respectively, and the blood contact angle is found to be 154° ± 1°, which indicates that the surface is superhydrophobic and superhemophobic. The proposed superhydrophobic and superhemophobic surface offers significantly improved (>40%) cell viability as compared to glass and PDMS surfaces.

  9. Solving the shrinkage-induced PDMS alignment registration issue in multilayer soft lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moraes, Christopher; Sun, Yu; Simmons, Craig A

    2009-01-01

    Shrinkage of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) complicates alignment registration between layers during multilayer soft lithography fabrication. This often hinders the development of large-scale microfabricated arrayed devices. Here we report a rapid method to construct large-area, multilayered devices with stringent alignment requirements. This technique, which exploits a previously unrecognized aspect of sandwich mold fabrication, improves device yield, enables highly accurate alignment over large areas of multilayered devices and does not require strict regulation of fabrication conditions or extensive calibration processes. To demonstrate this technique, a microfabricated Braille display was developed and characterized. High device yield and accurate alignment within 15 µm were achieved over three layers for an array of 108 Braille units spread over a 6.5 cm 2 area, demonstrating the fabrication of well-aligned devices with greater ease and efficiency than previously possible

  10. Analysis of using PDMS polymer as the sensors of the pressure or weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jargus, Jan; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Novak, Martin; Mec, Pavel; Cvejn, Daniel; Bujdos, David; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) can be used for its optical properties, and its composition offers the possibility of use in the diverse environments (industry, photonics, medicine applications, security devices and etc.). Therefore authors of this article focused on more detailed working with this material. This material could be use for the sensory applications such as the sensor of pressure or weight, which may find use also in the field of security and defense. The article describes the process of making the prototype of the sensor and its verification based on laboratory results. Measurement methodology is based on the determination of the change of optical power at the output of the sensor prototype depending on the change in pressure or weight. We estimate the maximum load of the sensor on the basis of the laboratory results in the units of tons. Using a calibration measurement can determine the amount of pressure and weight with an accuracy of +/- 2 %.

  11. A superhydrophobic EP/PDMS nanocomposite coating with high gamma radiation stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ren, Fule; Liu, Yujian

    2018-04-01

    The superhydrophobic coatings with high gamma radiation stability were prepared by using epoxy/polydimethylsiloxane (EP/PDMS) resins as the matrix and silica nanoparticles as the fillers. The nanocomposite coatings exhibit superhydrophobicity with a high water contact angle (WCA) of 154° and a low sliding angle of 7°. With the amount of SiO2 increasing from 0 to 30%, the surface shows the hierarchically structure gradually and its roughness raised from 4 nm to 278 nm. And little change in the WCA of the coatings (from 155° to 149°) was observed when the pH of the droplets varied from 2 to 14. In addition, the coatings also show good adhesion grade (5B), high hardness (6H) and outstanding stability for high dose gamma radiation.

  12. Manufacturing PDMS micro lens array using spin coating under a multiphase system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Rongrong; Yang, Hanry; Rock, D Mitchell; Danaei, Roozbeh; Panat, Rahul; Kessler, Michael R; Li, Lei

    2017-01-01

    The development of micro lens arrays has garnered much interest due to increased demand of miniaturized systems. Traditional methods for manufacturing micro lens arrays have several shortcomings. For example, they require expensive facilities and long lead time, and traditional lens materials (i.e. glass) are typically heavy, costly and difficult to manufacture. In this paper, we explore a method for manufacturing a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micro lens array using a simple spin coating technique. The micro lens array, formed under an interfacial tension dominated system, and the influence of material properties and process parameters on the fabricated lens shape are examined. The lenses fabricated using this method show comparable optical properties—including surface finish and image quality—with a reduced cost and manufacturing lead time. (paper)

  13. Patterned Fibers Embedded Microfluidic Chips Based on PLA and PDMS for Ag Nanoparticle Safety Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaowen Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A new method to integrate poly-dl-lactide (PLA patterned electrospun fibers with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS microfluidic chip was successfully developed via lithography. Hepatocyte behavior under static and dynamic conditions was investigated. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated good hepatocyte survival under the dynamic culture system with effective hepatocyte spheroid formation in the patterned microfluidic chip vs. static culture conditions and tissue culture plate (TCP. In particular, hepatocytes seeded in this microfluidic chip under a flow rate of 10 μL/min could re-establish hepatocyte polarity to support biliary excretion and were able to maintain high levels of albumin and urea secretion over 15 days. Furthermore, the optimized system could produce sensitive and consistent responses to nano-Ag-induced hepatotoxicity during culture. Thus, this microfluidic chip device provides a new means of fabricating complex liver tissue-engineered scaffolds, and may be of considerable utility in the toxicity screening of nanoparticles.

  14. A PDMS-based cylindrical hybrid lens for enhanced fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bor-Shyh; Yang, Yu-Ching; Ho, Chong-Yi; Yang, Han-Yu; Wang, Hsiang-Yu

    2014-02-13

    Microfluidic systems based on fluorescence detection have been developed and applied for many biological and chemical applications. Because of the tiny amount of sample in the system; the induced fluorescence can be weak. Therefore, most microfluidic systems deploy multiple optical components or sophisticated equipment to enhance the efficiency of fluorescence detection. However, these strategies encounter common issues of complex manufacturing processes and high costs. In this study; a miniature, cylindrical and hybrid lens made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to improve the fluorescence detection in microfluidic systems is proposed. The hybrid lens integrates a laser focusing lens and a fluorescence collecting lens to achieve dual functions and simplify optical setup. Moreover, PDMS has advantages of low-cost and straightforward fabrication compared with conventional optical components. The performance of the proposed lens is first examined with two fluorescent dyes and the results show that the lens provides satisfactory enhancement for fluorescence detection of Rhodamine 6G and Nile Red. The overall increments in collected fluorescence signal and detection sensitivity are more than 220% of those without lens, and the detection limits of Rhodamine 6G and Nile red are lowered to 0.01 μg/mL and 0.05 μg/mL, respectively. The hybrid lens is further applied to the detection of Nile red-labeled Chlorella vulgaris cells and it increases both signal intensity and detection sensitivity by more than 520%. The proposed hybrid lens also dramatically reduces the variation in detected signal caused by the deviation in incident angle of excitation light.

  15. Mechanical properties and filler distribution as a function filler content in silica filled PDMS samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, Marilyn E.; Wrobleski, Debra A.; Orler, E. Bruce; Houlton, Robert J.; Chitanvis, Kiran E.; Brown, Geoffrey W.; Hanson, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) phase imaging and tensile stress-strain measurements are used to study a series of model compression molded fumed silica filled polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) samples with filler content of zero, 20, 35, and 50 parts per hundred (phr) to determine the relationship between filler content and stress-strain properties. AFM phase imaging was used to determine filler size, degree of aggregation, and distribution within the soft PDMS matrix. A small tensile stage was used to measure mechanical properties. Samples were not pulled to break in order to study Mullins and aging effects. Several identical 35 phr samples were subjected to an initial stress, and then one each was reevaluated over intervals up to 26 weeks to determine the degree to which these samples recovered their initial stress-strain behavior as a function of time. One sample was tested before and after heat treatment to determine if heating accelerated recovery of the stress-strain behavior. The effect of filler surface treatment on mechanical properties was examined for two samples containing 35 phr filler treated or untreated with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ), respectively. Fiduciary marks were used on several samples to determine permanent set. 35 phr filler samples were found to give the optimum mechanical properties. A clear Mullins effect was seen. Within experimental error, no change was seen in mechanical behavior as a function of time or heat-treatment. The mechanical properties of the sample containing the HDMZ treated silica were adversely affected. AFM phase images revealed aggregation and nonuniform distribution of the filler for all samples. Finally, a permanent set of about 3 to 6 percent was observed for the 35 phr samples.

  16. A multi-scale PDMS fabrication strategy to bridge the size mismatch between integrated circuits and microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, Melaku; Issadore, David

    2014-12-07

    In recent years there has been great progress harnessing the small-feature size and programmability of integrated circuits (ICs) for biological applications, by building microfluidics directly on top of ICs. However, a major hurdle to the further development of this technology is the inherent size-mismatch between ICs (~mm) and microfluidic chips (~cm). Increasing the area of the ICs to match the size of the microfluidic chip, as has often been done in previous studies, leads to a waste of valuable space on the IC and an increase in fabrication cost (>100×). To address this challenge, we have developed a three dimensional PDMS chip that can straddle multiple length scales of hybrid IC/microfluidic chips. This approach allows millimeter-scale ICs, with no post-processing, to be integrated into a centimeter-sized PDMS chip. To fabricate this PDMS chip we use a combination of soft-lithography and laser micromachining. Soft lithography was used to define micrometer-scale fluid channels directly on the surface of the IC, allowing fluid to be controlled with high accuracy and brought into close proximity to sensors for highly sensitive measurements. Laser micromachining was used to create ~50 μm vias to connect these molded PDMS channels to a larger PDMS chip, which can connect multiple ICs and house fluid connections to the outside world. To demonstrate the utility of this approach, we built and demonstrated an in-flow magnetic cytometer that consisted of a 5 × 5 cm(2) microfluidic chip that incorporated a commercial 565 × 1145 μm(2) IC with a GMR sensing circuit. We additionally demonstrated the modularity of this approach by building a chip that incorporated two of these GMR chips connected in series.

  17. Mechanical, spectral, and luminescence properties of ZnS:Mn doped PDMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fontenot, Ross S. [University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Department of Physics, PO Box 44210, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Allison, Stephen W., E-mail: steve.allison@emergingmeasurements.com [Emerging Measurements, Collierville, TN 38017 (United States); Lynch, Kyle J, E-mail: kjlynch@memphis.edu [Department of Physics, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Hollerman, William A. [University of Louisiana at Lafayette, Department of Physics, PO Box 44210, Lafayette, LA 70504 (United States); Sabri, Firouzeh, E-mail: fsabri@memphis.edu [Department of Physics, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Zinc sulfide doped with manganese (ZnS:Mn) is one of the brightest triboluminescent materials known and has been studied for a variety of applications. The powder form of this material restricts its safe handling and utilization, which limits the range of applications that can take advantage of its unique properties. In this study, the tribo- and photo-luminescent properties as well as the mechanical properties of ZnS:Mn encapsulated in an inert and optically transparent elastomer – Sylgard 184, have been investigated and fully characterized. ZnS:Mn particles of 8.5 µm diameter were incorporated into the Sylgard 184 polymer matrix prior to the curing stage with increasing amounts targeting a final (mass) concentration of 5%, 15%, and 50%. Additionally, the effect of the ZnS:Mn particles on the overall surface properties of the encapsulating elastomer was investigated and reported here. It was observed that the triboluminescent emission from impact scales with phosphor concentration and was not affected by the encapsulating medium. - Highlights: • Polymer encapsulation effects on the luminescent properties of ZnS:Mn was investigated. • Sylgard 184 encapsulated with ZnS:Mn (5, 15, 50 wt%) were characterized. • The triboluminescent emission from impact, scales with phosphor concentration. • Effect of the elastomeric medium on luminescent properties of ZnS:Mn was determined. • The work presented here demonstrates the feasibility of ZnS:Mn-based flexible sensors.

  18. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah; Zhang, Jiaming; Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2015-01-01

    relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D

  19. Forces released during alignment with a preadjusted appliances with SPEED supercable wire and different types of elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suruchi Jatol-Tekade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate a new combination of wire and ligature to reduce friction further by combining slide ligatures and supercable wires. Materials and Methods: The testing model consisted of five stainless steel 0.022 inch preadjusted brackets for second premolar, first premolar, canine, lateral incisor, and central incisor. The canine bracket was welded to a sliding bar that allowed different vertical positions. The forces generated by five sizes of wires superelastic nickel-titanium (SE Ni-Ti (Unitek Nitinol Super-Elastic Archwire of diameter 0.012", 0.014", 0.016", 0.018", and 0.020" inch and three sizes of SPEED supercable wires (0.016", 0.018", and 0.022" inch with the two types of elastomeric ligatures; conventional elastomeric ligatures (CELs (Unitek, silver mini modules, with inside diameter of 1.3 mm and thickness of 0.9 mm and nonconventional elastomeric ligatures (NCELs (Slide, Leone Orthodontic Products, Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze, Italy at different amounts of upward canine misalignment (CM (1.5, 3, 4.5, and 6 mm were recorded. Results and Conclusions: Significant differences between CEL and NCEL were found for all tested variables (P - 0.01 a noticeable amount of force was generated with the NCEL at all four canine positions with all three wire sizes (from about 50 to about 150 g. With 4.5 mm of CM or more, the average amount of released force with the CEL was approximately zero.

  20. Summary of experimental tests of elastomeric seismic isolation bearings for use in nuclear reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, R.W.; Chang, Y.W.; Kulak, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental test program for isolator bearings which was developed to help establish the viability of using laminated elastomer bearings for base isolation of nuclear reactor plants. The goal of the test program is to determine the performance characteristics of laminated seismic isolation bearings under a wide range of loadings. Tests were performed on scale-size laminated seismic isolators both within the design shear strain range to determine the response of the bearing under expected earthquake loading conditions, and beyond the design range to determine failure modes and to establish safety margins. Three types of bearings, each produced from a different manufacturer, have been tested: (1) high shape factor-high damping-high shear modulus bearings; (2) medium shape factor-high damping-high shear modulus bearings; and (3) medium shape factor-high damping-low shear modulus bearings. All of these tests described in this report were performed at the Earthquake Engineering Research Center at the University of California, Berkeley, with technical assistance from ANL. The tests performed on the three types of bearings have confirmed the high performance characteristics of the high damping-high and low shear modulus elastomeric bearings. The bearings have shown that they are capable of having extremely large shear strains before failure occurs. The most common failure mechanism was the debonding of the top steel plate from the isolators. This failure mechanism can be virtually eliminated by improved manufacturing quality control. The most important result of the failure test of the isolators is the fact that bearings can sustain large horizontal displacement, several times larger than the design value, with failure. Their performance in moderate and strong earthquakes will be far superior to conventional structures

  1. Development and evaluation of elastomeric hollow fiber membranes as small diameter vascular graft substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Kang, Yunqing [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Findlay, Michael W. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); University of Melbourne Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Yang, Yunzhi, E-mail: ypyang@stanford.edu [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Engineering of small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts (SDVGs) for clinical use remains a significant challenge. Here, elastomeric polyester urethane (PEU)-based hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are presented as an SDVG candidate to target the limitations of current technologies and improve tissue engineering designs. HFMs are fabricated by a simple phase inversion method. HFM dimensions are tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. The walls of HFMs are highly porous. The HFMs are very elastic, with moduli ranging from 1–4 MPa, strengths from 1–5 MPa, and max strains from 300–500%. Permeability of the HFMs varies from 0.5–3.5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s, while burst pressure varies from 25 to 35 psi. The suture retention forces of HFMs are in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 N. These properties match those of blood vessels. A slow degradation profile is observed for all HFMs, with 71 to 78% of the original mass remaining after 8 weeks, providing a suitable profile for potential cellular incorporation and tissue replacement. Both human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells proliferate well in the presence of HFMs up to 7 days. These results demonstrate a promising customizable PEU HFMs for small diameter vascular repair and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated and evaluated. • HFM properties could be tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. • Properties could match or exceed those of blood vessels. • HFM showed excellent compatibility in vitro. • HFMs have the potential to be used for small diameter vascular grafts.

  2. Linear dimensional changes in plaster die models using different elastomeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Ricardo Pereira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Dental impression is an important step in the preparation of prostheses since it provides the reproduction of anatomic and surface details of teeth and adjacent structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional alterations in gypsum dies obtained with different elastomeric materials, using a resin coping impression technique with individual shells. A master cast made of stainless steel with fixed prosthesis characteristics with two prepared abutment teeth was used to obtain the impressions. References points (A, B, C, D, E and F were recorded on the occlusal and buccal surfaces of abutments to register the distances. The impressions were obtained using the following materials: polyether, mercaptan-polysulfide, addition silicone, and condensation silicone. The transfer impressions were made with custom trays and an irreversible hydrocolloid material and were poured with type IV gypsum. The distances between identified points in gypsum dies were measured using an optical microscope and the results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p < 0.05 and Tukey's test. The mean of the distances were registered as follows: addition silicone (AB = 13.6 µm, CD=15.0 µm, EF = 14.6 µm, GH=15.2 µm, mercaptan-polysulfide (AB = 36.0 µm, CD = 36.0 µm, EF = 39.6 µm, GH = 40.6 µm, polyether (AB = 35.2 µm, CD = 35.6 µm, EF = 39.4 µm, GH = 41.4 µm and condensation silicone (AB = 69.2 µm, CD = 71.0 µm, EF = 80.6 µm, GH = 81.2 µm. All of the measurements found in gypsum dies were compared to those of a master cast. The results demonstrated that the addition silicone provides the best stability of the compounds tested, followed by polyether, polysulfide and condensation silicone. No statistical differences were obtained between polyether and mercaptan-polysulfide materials.

  3. Effect of Microstructure Constraints on the Homogenized Elastic Constants of Elastomeric Sylgard/GMB Syntactic Foam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steck, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Previous numerical studies of Sylgard filled with glass microballoons (GMB) have relied on various microstructure idealizations to achieve a large range of volume fractions with high mesh quality. This study investigates how different microstructure idealizations and constraints affect the apparent homogenized elastic constants in the virgin state of the material, in which all GMBs are intact and perfectly bonded to the Sylgard matrix, and in the fully damaged state of the material in which all GMBs are destroyed. In the latter state, the material behaves as an elastomeric foam. Four microstructure idealizations are considered relating to how GMBs are packed into a representative volume element (RVE): (1) no boundary penetration nor GMB-GMB overlap, (2) GMB-GMB overlap, (3) boundary penetration, and (4) boundary penetration and GMB-GMB overlap. First order computational homogenization with kinematically uniform displacement boundary conditions (KUBCs) was employed to determine the homogenized (apparent) bulk and shear moduli for the four microstructure idealizations in the intact and fully broken GMB material states. It was found that boundary penetration has a significant effect on the shear modulus for microstructures with intact GMBs, but that neither boundary penetration nor GMB overlap have a significant effect on homogenized properties for microstructures with fully broken GMBs. The primary conclusion of the study is that future investigations into Sylgard/GMB micromechanics should either force GMBs to stay within the RVE fully and/or use periodic BCs (PBCs) to eliminate the boundary penetration issues. The implementation of PBCs requires the improvement of existing tools in Sandia’s Sierra/SM code.

  4. Investigation of Pre- and Post-Swelling Behavior of Elastomeric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akhtar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last ten years, a new type of modern polymer, known as swelling elastomer, has been used extensively as a sealing element in the oil and gas industry. These elastomers have been instrumental in various new applications such as water shut off, zonal isolation, and sidetracking. Though swell packers can significantly reduce costs and increase productivity, their failure can lead to serious losses. The integrity and reliability of swelling elastomer seals under different field conditions is a major concern. The investigation of changes in material behavior over a specified swelling period is a necessary first step for performance evaluation of elastomer seals. The current study is based on experimental analysis of changes in geometric and mechanical behavior (hardness, tensile, compressive, bulk of an elastomeric material due to swelling. Tests were carried out before and after various stages of swelling. Specimens were placed in saline water (0.6% and 12% concentrations at a temperature of 50°C, with the total swelling period being one month. Swelling, hardness, compression, and bulk tests were conducted using disc samples, while ring samples were used for tensile experiments. A small test rig was designed and constructed for determination of bulk modulus. Stress-strain curves under tension and compression, and pressure volumetric-strain curves were obtained for specimens subjected to different swelling periods. Due to the fast-swell nature of the elastomer, there were sharp changes in mechanical properties within the first few days of swelling for both salinities. Elastic modulus derived from tensile and compressive tests showed a 90% decrease in the first few days. Bulk modulus showed fluctuation in its variation with an increasing swelling period. There was a small effect of salinity only during the first 5 or 6 days.

  5. Model calibration for a soft elastomeric capacitor sensor considering slippage under fatigue cracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Bennett, Caroline; Collins, William; Laflamme, Simon

    2016-04-01

    A newly-developed soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) strain sensor has shown promise in fatigue crack monitoring. The SECs exhibit high levels of ductility and hence do not break under excessive strain when the substrate cracks due to slippage or de-bonding between the sensor and epoxy. The actual strain experienced by a SEC depends on the amount of slippage, which is difficult to simulate numerically, making it challenging to accurately predict the response of a SEC near a crack. In this paper, a two-step approach is proposed to simulate the capacitance response of a SEC. First, a finite element (FE) model of a steel compact tension specimen was analyzed under cyclic loading while the cracking process was simulated based on an element removal technique. Second, a rectangular boundary was defined near the crack region. The SEC outside the boundary was assumed to have perfect bond with the specimen, while that inside the boundary was assumed to deform freely due to slippage. A second FE model was then established to simulate the response of the SEC within the boundary subject to displacements at the boundary from the first FE model. The total simulated capacitance was computed from the model results by combining the computed capacitance inside and outside the boundary. The performance of the simulation incorporating slippage was evaluated by comparing the model results with the experimental data from the test performed on a compact tension specimen. The FE model considering slippage showed results that matched the experimental findings more closely than the FE model that did not consider slippage.

  6. Force decay evaluation of thermoplastic and thermoset elastomeric chains: A mechanical design comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Ahmed I; Tsay, T Peter; BeGole, Ellen; Bedran-Russo, Ana K

    2014-11-01

    To compare the following over a period of 8 weeks: (1) force decay between thermoplastic (TP) and thermoset (TS) elastomeric chains; (2) force decay between light (200-g) and heavy (350-g) initial forces; and (3) force decay between direct chains and chain loops (stretched from one pin around the second pin and back to the first pin). TP and TS chains were obtained from American Orthodontics™ (AOTP, AOTS) and ORMCO™ (OrTP, OrTS). Each of the four chain groups was subdivided into four subgroups with 10 specimens per subgroup: (1) direct chains light force, (2) direct chains heavy force, (3) chain loops light force, and (4) chain loops heavy force. The experiment was performed in artificial saliva (pH of 6.75) at 37°C. A significant difference was found between TP and TS chains, with an average mean difference of around 20% more force decay found in the TP chains (P < .001, α  =  .05). There was no significant difference between direct chains and chain loops except in OrTP, in which direct chains showed more force decay. There was also no significant difference in force decay identified when using light vs heavy forces. TS chains decayed less than TP chains, and chain loop retraction was beneficial only when using OrTP chains. Contrary to the interchangeable use of TP and TS chains in the published literature and in clinical practice, this study demonstrates that they perform differently under stress and that a clear distinction should be made between the two.

  7. On propagation of axisymmetric waves in pressurized functionally graded elastomeric hollow cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Su, Yipin; Liu, Dongying; Chen, Weiqiu; Zhang, Chuanzeng

    2018-05-01

    Soft materials can be designed with a functionally graded (FG) property for specific applications. Such material inhomogeneity can also be found in many soft biological tissues whose functionality is only partly understood to date. In this paper, we analyze the axisymmetric guided wave propagation in a pressurized FG elastomeric hollow cylinder. The cylinder is subjected to a combined action of axial pre-stretch and pressure difference applied to the inner and outer cylindrical surfaces. We consider both torsional waves and longitudinal waves propagating in the FG cylinder made of incompressible isotropic elastomer, which is characterized by the Mooney-Rivlin strain energy function but with the material parameters varying with the radial coordinate in an affine way. The pressure difference generates an inhomogeneous deformation field in the FG cylinder, which dramatically complicates the superimposed wave problem described by the small-on-large theory. A particularly efficient approach is hence employed which combines the state-space formalism for the incremental wave motion with the approximate laminate or multi-layer technique. Dispersion relations for the two types of axisymmetric guided waves are then derived analytically. The accuracy and convergence of the proposed approach is validated numerically. The effects of the pressure difference, material gradient, and axial pre-stretch on both the torsional and the longitudinal wave propagation characteristics are discussed in detail through numerical examples. It is found that the frequency of axisymmetric waves depends nonlinearly on the pressure difference and the material gradient, and an increase in the material gradient enhances the capability of the pressure difference to adjust the wave behavior in the FG cylinder. This work provides a theoretical guidance for characterizing FG soft materials by in-situ ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation and for designing tunable waveguides via material tailoring along

  8. Elastomeric Thermal Insulation Design Considerations in Long, Aluminized Solid Rocket Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.

    2017-01-01

    An all-new sounding rocket was designed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that featured an aft finocyl, aluminized solid propellant grain and silica-filled ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (SFEPDM) internal insulation. Upon the initial static firing of the first of this new design, the solid rocket motor (SRM) case failed thermally just upstream of the aft closure early in the burn time. Subsequent fluid modeling indicated that the high-velocity combustion-product jets emanating from the fin-slots in the propellant grain were likely inducing a strongly swirling flow, thus substantially increasing the severity of the convective environment on the exposed portion of the SFEPDM insulation in this region. The aft portion of the fin-slots in another of the motors were filled with propellant to eliminate the possibility of both direct jet impingement on the exposed SFEPDM and the appearance of strongly swirling flow in the aft region of the motor. When static-fired, this motor's case still failed in the same axial location, and, though somewhat later than for the first static firing, still in less than 1/3rd of the desired burn duration. These results indicate that the extreme material decomposition rates of the SFEPDM in this application are not due to gas-phase convection or shear but rather to interactions with burning aluminum or alumina slag. Further comparisons with between SFEPDM performance in this design and that in other hot-fire tests provide insight into the mechanisms of SFEPDM decomposition in SRM aft domes that can guide the upcoming redesign effort, as well as other future SRM designs. These data also highlight the current limitations of modeling elastomeric insulators solely with diffusion-controlled, gas-phase thermochemistry in SRM regions with significant viscous shear and/or condense-phase impingement or flow.

  9. Development and evaluation of elastomeric hollow fiber membranes as small diameter vascular graft substitutes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Kang, Yunqing; Findlay, Michael W.; Yang, Yunzhi

    2015-01-01

    Engineering of small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts (SDVGs) for clinical use remains a significant challenge. Here, elastomeric polyester urethane (PEU)-based hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are presented as an SDVG candidate to target the limitations of current technologies and improve tissue engineering designs. HFMs are fabricated by a simple phase inversion method. HFM dimensions are tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. The walls of HFMs are highly porous. The HFMs are very elastic, with moduli ranging from 1–4 MPa, strengths from 1–5 MPa, and max strains from 300–500%. Permeability of the HFMs varies from 0.5–3.5 × 10 −6 cm/s, while burst pressure varies from 25 to 35 psi. The suture retention forces of HFMs are in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 N. These properties match those of blood vessels. A slow degradation profile is observed for all HFMs, with 71 to 78% of the original mass remaining after 8 weeks, providing a suitable profile for potential cellular incorporation and tissue replacement. Both human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells proliferate well in the presence of HFMs up to 7 days. These results demonstrate a promising customizable PEU HFMs for small diameter vascular repair and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated and evaluated. • HFM properties could be tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. • Properties could match or exceed those of blood vessels. • HFM showed excellent compatibility in vitro. • HFMs have the potential to be used for small diameter vascular grafts

  10. The thermal and mechanical properties of a low-density glass-fiber-reinforced elastomeric ablation material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelke, W. T.; Robertson, R. W.; Bush, A. L.; Pears, C. D.

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of the thermal and mechanical properties was performed on a molded low-density elastomeric ablation material designated as Material B. Both the virgin and charred states were examined to provide meaningful inputs to the design of a thermal protection system. Chars representative of the flight chars formed during ablation were prepared in a laboratory furnace from 600 K to 1700 K and properties of effective thermal conductivity, heat capacity, porosity and permeability were determined on the furnace chars formed at various temperature levels within the range. This provided a boxing of the data which will enable the prediction of the transient response of the material during flight ablation.

  11. Ultrasonic and dielectric studies of polymer PDMS composites with ZnO and onion-like carbons nanoinclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samulionis, V; Macutkevic, J; Banys, J; Belovickis, J; Shenderova, O

    2015-01-01

    The ultrasonic and dielectric temperature investigations were performed in polydi- methylsiloxane (PDMS) with zinc oxide (ZnO) and onion-like carbon (OLC) nanocomposites. In the glass transition region, the ultrasonic velocity dispersion and large ultrasonic attenuation maxima were observed. The positions of ultrasonic attenuation peaks were slightly shifted to higher temperatures after doping PDMS with OLC and ZnO nanoparticles. The ultrasonic relaxation was compared to that of dielectric and such behaviour was described by Vogel- Fulcher law. The upshift of the glass transition temperature with addition of nanoparticles was confirmed by both methods. The additional increase of ultrasonic attenuation in composites doped with OLC and ZnO was observed at room temperature and such behaviour we attributed to ultrasound-nanofiller interaction in polymer matrix. (paper)

  12. Ultrasonic and dielectric studies of polymer PDMS composites with ZnO and onion-like carbons nanoinclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samulionis, V.; Macutkevic, J.; Banys, J.; Belovickis, J.; Shenderova, O.

    2015-07-01

    The ultrasonic and dielectric temperature investigations were performed in polydi- methylsiloxane (PDMS) with zinc oxide (ZnO) and onion-like carbon (OLC) nanocomposites. In the glass transition region, the ultrasonic velocity dispersion and large ultrasonic attenuation maxima were observed. The positions of ultrasonic attenuation peaks were slightly shifted to higher temperatures after doping PDMS with OLC and ZnO nanoparticles. The ultrasonic relaxation was compared to that of dielectric and such behaviour was described by Vogel- Fulcher law. The upshift of the glass transition temperature with addition of nanoparticles was confirmed by both methods. The additional increase of ultrasonic attenuation in composites doped with OLC and ZnO was observed at room temperature and such behaviour we attributed to ultrasound-nanofiller interaction in polymer matrix.

  13. Comparison of three different scales techniques for the dynamic mechanical characterization of two polymers (PDMS and SU8)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Rouzic, J.; Delobelle, P.; Vairac, P.; Cretin, B.

    2009-10-01

    In this article the dynamic mechanical characterization of PDMS and SU8 resin using dynamic mechanical analysis, nanoindentation and the scanning microdeformation microscope have been presented. The methods are hereby explained, extended for viscoelastic behaviours, and their compatibility underlined. The storage and loss moduli of these polymers over a wide range of frequencies (from 0.01 Hz to somekHz) have been measured. These techniques are shown fairly matching and the two different viscoelastic behaviours of these two polymers have been exhibited. Indeed, PDMS shows moduli which still increase at 5kHz whereas SU8 ones decrease much sooner. From a material point of view, the Havriliak and Negami model to estimate instantaneous, relaxed moduli and time constant of these materials has been identified.

  14. The Effect of Filler-Polymer Interactions on Cold-Crystallization Kinetics in Crosslinked, Silica Filled PDMS/PDPS Copolymer Melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chien, A; DeTeresa, S; Thompson, L; Cohenour, R; Balazs, B; Maxwell, R S

    2006-01-01

    Crystallization in a series of variable crosslink density poly(dimethyl-diphenyl) siloxanes random block copolymers reinforced through a mixture of precipitated and fumed silica fillers has been studied by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The silicone composite studied was composed of 94.6 mol% Dimethoylsiloxane, 5.1 mol% diphenylsiloxane, and 0.3 mol% methyl-vinyl siloxane (which formed crosslinking after a peroxide cure). The polymer was filled with a mixture of 21.6 wt. % fumed silica and 4.0 wt. % precipitated silica previously treated with 6.8 wt. % ethoxy-endblocked siloxane processing aid. The base composite was characterized by a molecular weight between crosslinks in the polymer network of ∼24 kDa and an overall molecular weight (including the influence of the silica fillers) between crosslinks of ∼11 kDa. Molecular weight between crosslinks and filler-polymer interaction strength were then modified by exposure to γ-irradiation in either air or vacuum. The unirradiated material exhibited crystallization at -80 C as measured by DSC with a 16% crystallization as measured by XRD. Isothermal DMA experiments illustrated that crystallization at -85 C occurred over a 1.8 hour period in silica-filled systems and 2.2-2.6 hours in unfilled systems. The onset of crystallization typically occurred after a 30-minute incubation/nucleation period. The crystallization kinetics were dependent on crosslink density. Changes in molecular weight of a factor of two did not, however, change the amount of crystallization. Irradiation in vacuum resulted in faster overall crystallization rates compared to air irradiation for the same crosslink density, likely due to a reduction in the interaction between the polymer chains and the silica filler surface. Modulated differential scanning calorimetry contrasted the crystallization and melting behavior of pure PDMS versus the PDMS/PDPS base copolymer and helped

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju

    2015-09-01

    Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer's instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (-0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (-0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method.

  16. Elastomeric Structural Attachment Concepts for Aircraft Flap Noise Reduction - Challenges and Approaches to Hyperelastic Structural Modeling and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Turner, Travis L.; Moore, James B.; Su, Ji

    2014-01-01

    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise of transport aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Airframe noise reduction is currently emphasized under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Fixed Wing (FW) Project goals of NASA. A promising concept for trailing-edge-flap noise reduction is a flexible structural element or link that connects the side edges of the deployable flap to the adjacent main-wing structure. The proposed solution is distinguished by minimization of the span-wise extent of the structural link, thereby minimizing the aerodynamic load on the link structure at the expense of increased deformation requirement. Development of such a flexible structural link necessitated application of hyperelastic materials, atypical structural configurations and novel interface hardware. The resulting highly-deformable structural concept was termed the FLEXible Side Edge Link (FLEXSEL) concept. Prediction of atypical elastomeric deformation responses from detailed structural analysis was essential for evaluating feasible concepts that met the design constraints. The focus of this paper is to describe the many challenges encountered with hyperelastic finite element modeling and the nonlinear structural analysis of evolving FLEXSEL concepts. Detailed herein is the nonlinear analysis of FLEXSEL concepts that emerged during the project which include solid-section, foamcore, hollow, extended-span and pre-stressed concepts. Coupon-level analysis performed on elastomeric interface joints, which form a part of the FLEXSEL topology development, are also presented.

  17. The Effect of Herbal Mouthwashes on the Force Decay of Elastomeric Chains: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nahidh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of four herbal mouthwashes on the force decay of two types of clear short elastomeric chains (Regular and Extreme at various time intervals. Materials and methods: Four hundred forty pieces of both types of elastomeric chains with 19 mm length were utilized in this study. The force was measured, using digital scale immediately, after one-day immersion in distilled water and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks immersion in the specific mouthwash for one minute twice daily then washed and kept in distilled water at 37°C. Force decay was calculated and compared among different elastic types, mouthwashes and time intervals using t-test and one-way ANOVA then Tukey’s tests. Results: The force degradation of regular type was significantly higher than extreme one. With time, the force decay increased significantly in both types. There was non-significant difference among the mouthwashes in the first and second weeks while the opposite in the third and fourth especially with the control group. Conclusions: The extreme type is preferred over the regular one because of its low force decay and the tested mouthwashes have no clinical significant effect on the force degradation over time in comparison with distilled water.

  18. Low-level laser therapy effects on pain perception related to the use of orthodontic elastomeric separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D'Aurea Furquim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Some patients refer to pre-banding orthodontic separation as a painful orthodontic procedure. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been reported to have local analgesic effect. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this single-blind study was to investigate the perception of pain caused by orthodontic elastomeric separators with and without a single LLLT application (6J. METHODS: The sample comprised 79 individuals aged between 13 and 34 years old at orthodontic treatment onset. Elastomeric separators were placed in first maxillary molars at mesial and distal surfaces and kept in place for three days. The volunteers scored pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS after 6 and 12 hours, and after the first, second and third days. One third of patients received laser applications, whereas another third received placebo applications and the remaining ones were controls. Applications were performed in a split-mouth design. Thus, three groups (laser, placebo and control were assessed. RESULTS: No differences were found among groups considering pain perception in all periods observed. CONCLUSION: The use of a single-dose of LLLT did not cause significant reduction in orthodontic pain perception. Overall pain perception due to orthodontic separator placement varied widely and was usually mild.

  19. The research and development of module 3D designing system for nuclear power project based on the PDMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qinwu; Li Yi; Wu Xiangyong

    2012-01-01

    In order to meet the demand of implementing Modularization design in CPR1000 nuclear power projects, this study aims to develop, relying on CPR1000 nuclear power project, the self-reliant module 3D design system based on the PDMS. so as to offer a convenient and effective module 3D design tool for the designers. Satisfactory results have been achieved through the test and application of two design projects. The research and application have entered the domestic advanced level. (authors)

  20. Micro-patterned ZnO semiconductors for high performance thin film transistors via chemical imprinting with a PDMS stamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Kieun; Kim, Kyongjun; Park, Si Yun; Kim, Youn Sang

    2013-04-07

    Chemical imprinting was conducted on ZnO semiconductor films via a chemical reaction at the contact regions between a micro-patterned PDMS stamp and ZnO films. In addition, we applied the chemical imprinting on Li doped ZnO thin films for high performance TFTs fabrication. The representative micro-patterned Li doped ZnO TFTs showed a field effect mobility of 4.2 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) after sintering at 300 °C.

  1. Friction and adhesion of gecko-inspired PDMS flaps on rough surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jing; Chary, Sathya; Das, Saurabh; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly L; Israelachvili, Jacob N

    2012-08-07

    Geckos have developed a unique hierarchical structure to maintain climbing ability on surfaces with different roughness, one of the extremely important parameters that affect the friction and adhesion forces between two surfaces. Although much attention has been paid on fabricating various structures that mimic the hierarchical structure of a gecko foot, yet no systematic effort, in experiment or theory, has been made to quantify the effect of surface roughness on the performance of the fabricated structures that mimic the hierarchical structure of geckos. Using a modified surface forces apparatus (SFA), we measured the adhesion and friction forces between microfabricated tilted PDMS flaps and optically smooth SiO(2) and rough SiO(2) surfaces created by plasma etching. Anisotropic adhesion and friction forces were measured when sliding the top glass surface along (+y) and against (-y) the tilted direction of the flaps. Increasing the surface roughness first increased the adhesion and friction forces measured between the flaps and the rough surface due to topological matching of the two surfaces but then led to a rapid decrease in both of these forces. Our results demonstrate that the surface roughness significantly affects the performance of gecko mimetic adhesives and that different surface textures can either increase or decrease the adhesion and friction forces of the fabricated adhesives.

  2. Characterization of PDMS samples with variation of its synthesis parameters for tunable optics applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez-Garcia, Josimar; Cruz-Félix, Angel S.; Santiago-Alvarado, Agustin; González-García, Jorge

    2017-09-01

    Nowadays the elastomer known as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS, Sylgard 184), due to its physical properties, low cost and easy handle, have become a frequently used material for the elaboration of optical components such as: variable focal length liquid lenses, optical waveguides, solid elastic lenses, etc. In recent years, we have been working in the characterization of this material for applications in visual sciences; in this work, we describe the elaboration of PDMSmade samples, also, we present physical and optical properties of the samples by varying its synthesis parameters such as base: curing agent ratio, and both, curing time and temperature. In the case of mechanical properties, tensile and compression tests were carried out through a universal testing machine to obtain the respective stress-strain curves, and to obtain information regarding its optical properties, UV-vis spectroscopy is applied to the samples to obtain transmittance and absorbance curves. Index of refraction variation was obtained through an Abbe refractometer. Results from the characterization will determine the proper synthesis parameters for the elaboration of tunable refractive surfaces for potential applications in robotics.

  3. A planar PDMS micropump using in-contact minimized-leakage check valves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Junhui; Li, Beizhi; Huang, Fengliang; Wang, Bin; Lin, Qiao

    2010-01-01

    We present a micropump with a simple planar design featuring compliant in-contact check valves in a single layer, which allows for a simple structure and easy system integration. The micropump, based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), primarily consists of a pneumatically driven thin membrane, a pump chamber, and two in-plane check valves. The pair of check valves is based on an in-contact flap–stopper configuration and is able to minimize leakage flow, greatly enhancing the reliability and performance of the micropump. Systematic experimental characterization of the micropump has been performed in terms of the frequency response of the pumping flow rate with respect to factors including device geometry (e.g. chamber height) and operating parameters (e.g. pneumatic driving pressure and backpressure). The results demonstrate that this micropump is capable of reliably generating a maximum flow rate of 41 µL min −1 and operating against a high backpressure of up to 25 kPa. In addition, a lumped-parameter theoretical model for the planar micropump is also developed for accurate analysis of the device behavior. These results demonstrate the capability of this micropump for diverse applications in lab-on-a-chip systems.

  4. An agar gel membrane-PDMS hybrid microfluidic device for long term single cell dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Ieong; Atsumi, Shota; Huang, Wei-Chih; Wu, Tung-Yun; Hanai, Taizo; Lam, Miu-Ling; Tang, Ping; Yang, Jian; Liao, James C; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2010-10-21

    Significance of single cell measurements stems from the substantial temporal fluctuations and cell-cell variability possessed by individual cells. A major difficulty in monitoring surface non-adherent cells such as bacteria and yeast is that these cells tend to aggregate into clumps during growth, obstructing the tracking or identification of single-cells over long time periods. Here, we developed a microfluidic platform for long term single-cell tracking and cultivation with continuous media refreshing and dynamic chemical perturbation capability. The design highlights a simple device-assembly process between PDMS microchannel and agar membrane through conformal contact, and can be easily adapted by microbiologists for their routine laboratory use. The device confines cell growth in monolayer between an agar membrane and a glass surface. Efficient nutrient diffusion through the membrane and reliable temperature maintenance provide optimal growth condition for the cells, which exhibited fast exponential growth and constant distribution of cell sizes. More than 24 h of single-cell tracking was demonstrated on a transcription-metabolism integrated synthetic biological model, the gene-metabolic oscillator. Single cell morphology study under alcohol toxicity allowed us to discover and characterize cell filamentation exhibited by different E. coli isobutanol tolerant strains. We believe this novel device will bring new capabilities to quantitative microbiology, providing a versatile platform for single cell dynamic studies.

  5. A crossed dodecagonal deployable polarizer on textile and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Hidayath; Soh, Ping Jack; Jamlos, Mohd Faizal; Hossain, Toufiq Md; Ramli, Muhammad Nazrin; Al-Hadi, Azremi Abdullah; Sheikh, R. Ahmad; Hassan, Emad S.; Yan, Sen

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents the design of a flexible using two set of flexible material classes: polymer and textiles. ShieldIt Super conductive fabric and felt are used as the textile material, and its performance is compared with another version designed on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymeric substrate. They are both built using a 4 × 4 dodecagonal unit element array backed by a rectangular patch, each sized at 54 × 64 × 3.34 mm3 (0.40 λ × 0.34 λ × 0.02λ) and 62 × 52 × 3.34 mm3 (0.35λ × 0.41λ × 0.02 λ). Both of them are validated to be operational centered at 2.2 GHz with a measured conversion efficiency of more than 90% from 1.578 to 2.578 GHz (48.12%) for the textile prototype. The results of the bending investigations suggest that the deployment mechanism must ensure a flat polarizer condition to enable its optimal performance.

  6. Fabrication and characterization of artificial hair cell sensor based on MWCNT-PDMS composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chi Yeon; Lee, Hyun Sup; Cho, Yo Han; Joh, Cheeyoung; Choi, Pyung; Park, Seong Jin

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this work is to design and fabricate a flow sensor using an artificial hair cell (AHC) inspired by biological hair cells of fish. The sensor consists of a single cilium structure with high aspect ratio and a mechanoreceptor using force sensitive resistor (FSR). The cilium structure is designed for capturing a drag force with direction due to flow field around the sensor and the mechanoreceptor is designed for sensing the drag force with direction from the cilium structure and converting it into an electric signal. The mechanoreceptor has a symmetric four electrodes to sense the drag force and its direction. To fabricate the single cilium structure with high aspect ratio, we have proposed a new design concept using a separated micro mold system (SMS) fabricated by the LIGA process. For a successful replication of the cilium structure, we used the hot embossing process with the help of a double-sided mold system. We used a composite of multiwall carbon nanotube and polydimethylsiloxane (MWCNT-PDMS). The performance of the mechanoreceptors was measured by a computer-controlled nanoindenter. We carried out several experiments with the sensor in the different flow rate and direction using the experimental test apparatus. To calibrate the sensor and calculate the velocity with direction based the signal from the sensor, we analyzed the coupled phenomena between flow field and the cilium structure to calculate the deflection of the cilium structure and the drag force applying to the cilium structure due to the flow field around sensor.

  7. Three-dimensional spheroid culture targeting versatile tissue bioassays using a PDMS-based hanging drop array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Te; Wang, Jong-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Fen; Wo, Andrew M; Chen, Benjamin P C; Lee, Hsinyu

    2017-06-29

    Biomaterial-based tissue culture platforms have emerged as useful tools to mimic in vivo physiological microenvironments in experimental cell biology and clinical studies. We describe herein a three-dimensional (3D) tissue culture platform using a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based hanging drop array (PDMS-HDA) methodology. Multicellular spheroids can be achieved within 24 h and further boosted by incorporating collagen fibrils in PDMS-HDA. In addition, the spheroids generated from different human tumor cells exhibited distinct sensitivities toward drug chemotherapeutic agents and radiation as compared with two-dimensional (2D) cultures that often lack in vivo-like biological insights. We also demonstrated that multicellular spheroids may enable key hallmarks of tissue-based bioassays, including drug screening, tumor dissemination, cell co-culture, and tumor invasion. Taken together, these results offer new opportunities not only to achieve the active control of 3D multicellular spheroids on demand, but also to establish a rapid and cost-effective platform to study anti-cancer therapeutics and tumor microenvironments.

  8. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar; Grunwald, Ingo

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  9. Nanoparticle-Incorporated PDMS Film as an Improved Performance SPME Fiber for Analysis of Volatile Components of Eucalyptus Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Aberoomand Azar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new fabrication strategy was proposed to prepare polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS- coated solid-phase microextraction (SPME on inexpensive and unbreakable Cu fiber. PDMS was covalently bonded to the Cu substrate using self-assembled monolayer (SAM of (3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (3MPTS as binder. To increase the performance of the fiber, the incorporation effect of some nanomaterials including silica nanoparticles (NPs, carbon nanotubes (CNTs, and carboxylated carbon nanotubes (CNT-COOH to PDMS coating was compared. The surface morphology of the prepared fibers was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and their applicability was evaluated through the extraction of some volatile organic compounds (VOCs of Eucalyptus leaf in headspace mode, and parameters affecting the extraction efficiency including extraction temperature and extraction time were optimized. Extracted compounds were analyzed by GC-MS instrument. The results obtained indicated that prepared fibers have some advantages relative to previously prepared SPME fibers, such as higher thermal stability and improved performance of the fiber. Also, results showed that SPME is a fast, simple, quick, and sensitive technique for sampling and sample introduction of Eucalyptus VOCs.

  10. Design and fabrication of PMMA-micromachined fluid lens based on electromagnetic actuation on PMMA–PDMS bonded membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, June Kyoo; Park, Kyung-Woo; Choi, Ju Chan; Kim, Hak-Rin; Kong, Seong Ho

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication of a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA)-micromachined fluid lens with an optimally designed built-in electromagnetic actuator was demonstrated in this study. Through a finite element method, the number of winding turns and the distance between magnetic moments were estimated to design an effective and miniaturized electromagnetic actuator. The lens body composed of PMMA structures was simply and rapidly micromachined using computer numerical control micro-milling. The poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) membranes for electromagnetic actuation were bonded to the PMMA structures by using the proposed PMMA–PDMS bonding technique, which uses an SiO 2 intermediate layer. A physical repulsive force produced by the electromagnetic actuator applies a controllable fluidic pressure to a fluidic chamber that is sealed with the PDMS membrane, thus allowing dynamic focusing. The focus tunability of the fabricated lens was 67 diopters with a focus hysteresis of less than 1 mm and a response time of 2 ms. The solenoid of the built-in actuator showed negligible thermal crosstalk to the lens. (paper)

  11. Functionalization of PDMS modified and plasma activated two-component polyurethane coatings by surface attachment of enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreider, Alexej; Richter, Katharina; Sell, Stephan; Fenske, Mandus; Tornow, Christian; Stenzel, Volkmar [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Grunwald, Ingo, E-mail: ingo.grunwald@ifam.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials - IFAM, Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    This article describes a new strategy for coupling the enzyme horseradish peroxidase to a two-component polyurethane (2C-PUR) coating. A stable polymer conjugate was achieved by combining the enzyme and the 2C-PUR coating which was modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), located at the surface. An atmospheric pressure plasma jet system was used to convert alkyl groups from the PDMS into polar silanol functionalities. This conversion was proven by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and dynamic contact angle measurements. In addition, the stability of the activated 2C-PUR surface containing silanol groups was determined by measuring the contact angle as a function of time. Compared to the non-modified 2C-PUR systems the one with PDMS displayed a higher stability over a time period over 28 h. In a silanization process the coating was treated with (3-aminopropyl) trimethoxysilane and the enzyme was subsequently immobilized to the coating via the cross linker glutaraldehyde to receive new biomimetic catalytic/enzymatic functions. The chemical immobilization (chemisorption) of the enzyme to the surface showed statistically significant higher biological activity as compared to references samples without using a cross linker (physisorption). The presented technique offers the opportunity to design new and smart multifunctional surface coatings which employ biomimetic capabilities.

  12. Fabrication of a roller type PDMS stamp using SU-8 concave molds and its application for roll contact printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongho; Kim, Beomjoon

    2016-01-01

    Continuous fabrication of micropatterns at low-cost is attracting attention in various applications within industrial fields. To meet such demands, we have demonstrated a roll contact printing technique, using roller type polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Roller type PDMS stamps for roll contact printing were fabricated using a custom-made metal support and SU-8 microstructures fabricated on concave substrates as a mold. The molding/casting method which we developed here provided faster and easier fabrication than conventional methods for roller type stamps. Next, roll contact printing was performed using fabricated roller type PDMS stamps with roll-to-flat and roll-to-roll stages. Patterns with minimum widths of 3 μm and 2.1 μm were continuously fabricated for each stage, respectively. In addition, the relationship between applied pressures and dimensional changes of roll contact printed patterns was investigated. Finally, we confirmed that roll contact printing and the new fabrication method for roller stamps presented in this study demonstrated the feasibility for industrial applications. (paper)

  13. Synthesis and electrochemical study of a hybrid structure based on PDMS-TEOS and titania nanotubes for biomedical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, António G B; Bastos, Alexandre C; Miranda Salvado, Isabel M; Galstyan, Vardan; Faglia, Guido; Sberveglieri, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    Metallic implants and devices are widely used in the orthopedic and orthodontic clinical areas. However, several problems regarding their adhesion with the living tissues and inflammatory responses due to the release of metallic ions to the medium have been reported. The modification of the metallic surfaces and the use of biocompatible protective coatings are two approaches to solve such issues. In this study, in order to improve the adhesion properties and to increase the corrosion resistance of metallic Ti substrates we have obtained a hybrid structure based on TiO 2 nanotubular arrays and PDMS-TEOS films. TiO 2 nanotubes have been prepared with two different diameters by means of electrochemical anodization. PDMS-TEOS films have been prepared by the sol–gel method. The morphological and the elemental analysis of the structures have been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and polarization curves have been performed during immersion of the samples in Kokubo’s simulated body fluid (SBF) at 37 °C to study the effect of structure layers and tube diameter on the protective properties. The obtained results show that the modification of the surface structure of TiO 2 and the application of PDMS-TEOS film is a promising strategy for the development of implant materials. (paper)

  14. Fabrication of a 3D active mixer based on deformable Fe-doped PDMS cones with magnetic actuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riahi, Mohammadreza; Alizadeh, Elaheh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an active 3D mixer for lab-on-chip applications is presented. The micrometer size cone shape holes are ablated on a PMMA sheet utilizing a CO 2 laser. The holes are filled with Fe micro-particles and the whole structure is molded with PDMS which cause the Fe micro-particles to be trapped in a PDMS cone structure. These Fe-doped PDMS cones are placed in a PMMA micro-channel structure fabricated by CO 2 laser machining. By applying an external periodic magnetic field, the cones periodically bend in the micro-channel and stir the fluid. The fabrication method and the effect of the magnetic field on the bending of the cones with different aspect ratios is also discussed utilizing computer simulation. Doping the polymers with micro- and nano-metallic particles has been carried out by different research groups before, but according to our knowledge, application of such structures for the fabrication of a 3D active mixer has not been presented before. (paper)

  15. Plaque retention by self-ligating vs elastomeric orthodontic brackets: quantitative comparison of oral bacteria and detection with adenosine triphosphate-driven bioluminescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, P.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Finlayson, T.; McLeod, J.; Covell, D.A.; Maier, T.; Machida, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Enamel decalcification is a common problem in orthodontics. The objectives of this randomized clinical study were to enumerate and compare plaque bacteria surrounding 2 bracket types, self-ligating (SL) vs elastomeric ligating (E), and to determine whether adenosine triphosphate

  16. Sixteen-week analysis of unaltered elastomeric chain relating in-vitro force degradation with in-vivo extraction space tooth movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristin S; Wood, Cory M; Moffitt, Allen H; Colgan, John A; Holman, J Kevin; Marshall, Steven D; Pope, D Spencer; Sample, Lew B; Sherman, Stephen L; Sinclair, Peter M; Trulove, Tim S

    2017-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether unaltered elastomeric chain can continue to move teeth for 16 weeks and to relate it to the amount of force remaining for the same batch of elastomeric chains. The in-vivo portion of the study had a sample of 30 paired extraction space sites from 22 subjects who were measured for closure of the space every 28 days. The altered side elastomeric chain served as the control and was replaced at 28-day intervals whereas the experimental side remained unaltered. In the in-vitro portion of the study, 100 each of 2-unit and 3-unit segments of the same batch of elastomeric chains were placed in a water bath, and the force was measured for 20 of each segment length at the 28-day measurement points. Statistically significant amounts of space closure occurred at both the altered and unaltered sites at all measurement time points. The mean space closure at the altered sites was minimally greater than that observed at the paired unaltered sites. The mean differences of space closure between the altered and unaltered sites ranged from a minimum of -0.05 mm at 4 weeks to a maximum of -0.14 mm at 8 weeks. The elastomeric chain force degraded rapidly by 4 weeks but continued a gradual diminution of force to 86 g at 16 weeks. Unaltered elastomeric chain continued to move teeth into extraction spaces for 16 weeks in this sample from both statistically and clinically significant standpoints. There were minimal and statistically insignificant differences in the mean space closure measurements between the paired altered and unaltered sites. The elastomeric chain force at 16 weeks was less than 100 g, yet at the same time point, teeth continued to move clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of wettability and surface roughness on the adhesion properties of collagen on PDMS films treated by capacitively coupled oxygen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juárez-Moreno, J.A. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Ávila-Ortega, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Química—UADY, Periférico Norte Kilómetro 33.5, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo Inn, C.P. , 97203 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN–Unidad Mérida, Km. 6 Antigua carretera a Progreso Apdo. Postal 73, Cordemex, 97310 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Avilés, F. [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico); Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V., E-mail: jvcr@cicy.mx [Centro de Investigación Científica de Yucatán, Calle 43 No. 130, Col. Chuburna de Hidalgo C.P., 97200 Mérida, Yucatán (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Plasma treatment was used as an adhesive tool for PDMS/collagen composite preparation. • Response surface methodology was used for statistical optimization. • A microscopic roughness can also lead to a mechanical interlocking between materials. • Hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface contribute to the enhanced chemical interactions. • PDMS/collagen composite obtained by plasma treatment exhibited higher peel strength. - Abstract: Direct chemical bonding of biomolecules to the surface of chemically inert polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is not easily achieved. Therefore, pre-activation of such materials, followed by attachment of the biomolecule is necessary. This paper describes a procedure to functionalize a PDMS surface by oxygen-based plasma followed by the adhesion of collagen type I for the preparation of adhesive-free bilayer composite intended as skin substitute. Plasma treatments between 40 and 120 W for 5 to 15 min were used and the extent of surface modification was followed by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion test. It was found that as the plasma power and time were increased, PDMS contact angle decreased while surface roughness increased as revealed by SEM and AFM. The formation of oxygen-containing functional groups at the surface was detected by FTIR. T-peel tests, performed on PDMS treated at 80 W/13 min and covered with collagen showed maximum peel strength of 0.1 N/mm which was 3 times higher than that measured for the untreated bilayer composite. The observed enhancement in the adhesion strength was attributed to the increased mechanical interlocking driven by the increased roughness and the formation of hydrophilic functional groups.

  18. Effect of wettability and surface roughness on the adhesion properties of collagen on PDMS films treated by capacitively coupled oxygen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juárez-Moreno, J.A.; Ávila-Ortega, A.; Oliva, A.I.; Avilés, F.; Cauich-Rodríguez, J.V.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma treatment was used as an adhesive tool for PDMS/collagen composite preparation. • Response surface methodology was used for statistical optimization. • A microscopic roughness can also lead to a mechanical interlocking between materials. • Hydroxyl groups on the PDMS surface contribute to the enhanced chemical interactions. • PDMS/collagen composite obtained by plasma treatment exhibited higher peel strength. - Abstract: Direct chemical bonding of biomolecules to the surface of chemically inert polymers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is not easily achieved. Therefore, pre-activation of such materials, followed by attachment of the biomolecule is necessary. This paper describes a procedure to functionalize a PDMS surface by oxygen-based plasma followed by the adhesion of collagen type I for the preparation of adhesive-free bilayer composite intended as skin substitute. Plasma treatments between 40 and 120 W for 5 to 15 min were used and the extent of surface modification was followed by contact angle, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and adhesion test. It was found that as the plasma power and time were increased, PDMS contact angle decreased while surface roughness increased as revealed by SEM and AFM. The formation of oxygen-containing functional groups at the surface was detected by FTIR. T-peel tests, performed on PDMS treated at 80 W/13 min and covered with collagen showed maximum peel strength of 0.1 N/mm which was 3 times higher than that measured for the untreated bilayer composite. The observed enhancement in the adhesion strength was attributed to the increased mechanical interlocking driven by the increased roughness and the formation of hydrophilic functional groups

  19. The influence of the PDMS technique in the study of the induced modifications of polymers used in nuclear environment; Apport de la technique PDMS a l`etude des modifications induites dans des polymeres utilises en ambiance nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsouli, B [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire

    1995-07-20

    The PDMS technique (Particle Induced Desorption Mass Spectrometry) combined with a TOF detection (Time of Flight) is the main tool used in this study of polymer degradation in nuclear environment. Ar{sup 3+} ions with a 9 MeV energy have been used to induce the secondary ion emission, and the study was devoted to two stresses typical of this type of environment. The first part of the work concerned with the structural modifications induced by gamma irradiation on ion exchange resin, used for nuclear effluents reprocessing, namely the poly(4-vinylpyridine), or P-4PV. For such a material, the negative fragment emission is particularly sensitive to structural modifications. Difficult physical measurements in such an insoluble and infusible material (IR, UV - Vis, EPR, TGA, dielectric measurements) became consistent after the degradation mechanisms were elucidated. These effects, interpreted in terms of scissions and recombinations, enabled us to explicit different modes of energy deposition, and shed light on some discrepancies between SIMS and PDMS. The second part of the study is devoted to the thermal ageing of an elastomer, used in fabrication of valve gaskets submitted to high temperatures. First of all, we studied the constituents of the polymeric material, i. e. copolymer, homo polymers, and also additives. This last component proved useful to analyze, as a superficial lubricant layer can mask the conformational rearrangements which seem to occur after few hours of thermal treatment (PE blocks are prevailing at the surface). Here too, the PDMS information is important to account for static SIMS and ESCA results, as its probed layer thickness lies in-between. (author) 187 refs.

  20. Radiation resistance of elastomeric O-rings in mixed neutron and gamma fields: Testing methodology and experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenoni, A.; Bignotti, F.; Donzella, A.; Donzella, G.; Ferrari, M.; Pandini, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Ballan, M.; Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Scarpa, D.; Alloni, D.; Prata, M.; Salvini, A.; Zelaschi, F.

    2017-11-01

    Materials and components employed in the presence of intense neutron and gamma fields are expected to absorb high dose levels that may induce deep modifications of their physical and mechanical properties, possibly causing loss of their function. A protocol for irradiating elastomeric materials in reactor mixed neutron and gamma fields and for testing the evolution of their main mechanical and physical properties with absorbed dose has been developed. Four elastomeric compounds used for vacuum O-rings, one fluoroelastomer polymer (FPM) based and three ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) based, presently available on the market have been selected for the test. One EPDM is rated as radiation resistant in gamma fields, while the other elastomers are general purpose products. Particular care has been devoted to dosimetry calculations, since absorbed dose in neutron fields, unlike pure gamma fields, is strongly dependent on the material composition and, in particular, on the hydrogen content. The products have been tested up to about 2 MGy absorbed dose. The FPM based elastomer, in spite of its lower dose absorption in fast neutron fields, features the largest variations of properties, with a dramatic increase in stiffness and brittleness. Out of the three EPDM based compounds, one shows large and rapid changes in the main mechanical properties, whereas the other two feature more stable behaviors. The performance of the EPDM rated as radiation resistant in pure gamma fields does not appear significantly better than that of the standard product. The predictive capability of the accelerated irradiation tests performed as well as the applicable concepts of threshold of radiation damage is discussed in view of the use of the examined products in the selective production of exotic species facility, now under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. It results that a careful account of dose rate effects

  1. Comparison of frictional resistance between self-ligating and conventional brackets tied with elastomeric and metal ligature in orthodontic archwires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Vanessa Vieira; Lopes, Murilo Baena; Gonini Júnior, Alcides; Almeida, Marcio Rodrigues de; Moura, Sandra Kiss; Almeida, Renato Rodrigues de

    2014-01-01

    To compare the frictional resistance between self-ligating and conventional brackets tied to different types of wire. Abzil Kirium Capelozza (Pattern I) and Easy Clip (Roth prescription) incisor brackets were used. An elastomeric ligature or a 0.10-in ligating wire was used to ligate the wire to the Abzil bracket. Three types of orthodontic archwire alloys were assessed: 0.016-in NiTi wire, 0.016 x 0.021-in NiTi wire and 0.019 x 0.025-in steel wire. Ten observations were carried out for each bracket-archwire angulation combination. Brackets were mounted in a special appliance, positioned at 90 degrees in relation to the wire and tested in two angulations. Frictional test was performed in a Universal Testing Machine at 5 mm/min and 10 mm of displacement. The means (MPa) were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's test set at 5% of significance. The surfaces of wires and brackets were observed at SEM. Steel-tied brackets (16.48 ± 8.31) showed higher means of frictional resistance than elastomeric-tied brackets (4.29 ± 2.16 ) and self-ligating brackets (1.66 ± 1.57) (P 0.05). No statistical differences (P > 0.05) were found between zero (7.76 ± 8.46) and five-degree (7.19 ± 7.93) angulations. Friction was influenced not only by the type of bracket, but also by the ligating systems. Different morphological aspects were observed for the brackets and wires studied.

  2. The influence of the PDMS technique in the study of the induced modifications of polymers used in nuclear environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nsouli, B.

    1995-01-01

    The PDMS technique (Particle Induced Desorption Mass Spectrometry) combined with a TOF detection (Time of Flight) is the main tool used in this study of polymer degradation in nuclear environment. Ar 3+ ions with a 9 MeV energy have been used to induce the secondary ion emission, and the study was devoted to two stresses typical of this type of environment. The first part of the work concerned with the structural modifications induced by gamma irradiation on ion exchange resin, used for nuclear effluents reprocessing, namely the poly(4-vinylpyridine), or P-4PV. For such a material, the negative fragment emission is particularly sensitive to structural modifications. Difficult physical measurements in such an insoluble and infusible material (IR, UV - Vis, EPR, TGA, dielectric measurements) became consistent after the degradation mechanisms were elucidated. These effects, interpreted in terms of scissions and recombinations, enabled us to explicit different modes of energy deposition, and shed light on some discrepancies between SIMS and PDMS. The second part of the study is devoted to the thermal ageing of an elastomer, used in fabrication of valve gaskets submitted to high temperatures. First of all, we studied the constituents of the polymeric material, i. e. copolymer, homo polymers, and also additives. This last component proved useful to analyze, as a superficial lubricant layer can mask the conformational rearrangements which seem to occur after few hours of thermal treatment (PE blocks are prevailing at the surface). Here too, the PDMS information is important to account for static SIMS and ESCA results, as its probed layer thickness lies in-between. (author)

  3. In vitro blood flow in a rectangular PDMS microchannel: experimental observations using a confocal micro-PIV system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rui; Wada, Shigeo; Tanaka, Shuji; Takeda, Motohiro; Ishikawa, Takuji; Tsubota, Ken-ichi; Imai, Yohsuke; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2008-04-01

    Progress in microfabricated technologies has attracted the attention of researchers in several areas, including microcirculation. Microfluidic devices are expected to provide powerful tools not only to better understand the biophysical behavior of blood flow in microvessels, but also for disease diagnosis. Such microfluidic devices for biomedical applications must be compatible with state-of-the-art flow measuring techniques, such as confocal microparticle image velocimetry (PIV). This confocal system has the ability to not only quantify flow patterns inside microchannels with high spatial and temporal resolution, but can also be used to obtain velocity measurements for several optically sectioned images along the depth of the microchannel. In this study, we investigated the ability to obtain velocity measurements using physiological saline (PS) and in vitro blood in a rectangular polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) microchannel (300 microm wide, 45 microm deep) using a confocal micro-PIV system. Applying this combination, measurements of trace particles seeded in the flow were performed for both fluids at a constant flow rate (Re = 0.02). Velocity profiles were acquired by successive measurements at different depth positions to obtain three-dimensional (3-D) information on the behavior of both fluid flows. Generally, the velocity profiles were found to be markedly blunt in the central region, mainly due to the low aspect ratio (h/w = 0.15) of the rectangular microchannel. Predictions using a theoretical model for the rectangular microchannel corresponded quite well with the experimental micro-PIV results for the PS fluid. However, for the in vitro blood with 20% hematocrit, small fluctuations were found in the velocity profiles. The present study clearly shows that confocal micro-PIV can be effectively integrated with a PDMS microchannel and used to obtain blood velocity profiles along the full depth of the microchannel because of its unique 3-D optical sectioning ability

  4. Synthesis and characterizations of high permittivity ultraviolet cured soft elastomeric networks and composites applicable as dielectric electroactive polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav

    (propylene oxide) (PPO) were prepared which showed marked improvements in properties compared to the acrylic elastomers. But difficulties in curing by industrial processes and handling of these elastomers posed as limitations. So the focus was on optimizing UV induced thiol-ene reactions for curing...

  5. Engineering of PDMS surfaces for use in microsystems for capture and isolation of complex and biomedically important proteins: epidermal growth factor receptor as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Aaron M; Ozer, Byram H; Wiepz, Gregory J; Bertics, Paul J; Abbott, Nicholas L

    2008-08-01

    Elastomers based on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are promising materials for fabrication of a wide range of microanalytical systems due to their mechanical and optical properties and ease of processing. To date, however, quantitative studies that demonstrate reliable and reproducible methods for attachment of binding groups that capture complex receptor proteins of relevance to biomedical applications of PDMS microsystems have not been reported. Herein we describe methods that lead to the reproducible capture of a transmembrane protein, the human epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor, onto PDMS surfaces presenting covalently immobilized antibodies for EGF receptor, and subsequent isolation of the captured receptor by mechanical transfer of the receptor onto a chemically functionalized surface of a gold film for detection. This result is particularly significant because the physical properties of transmembrane proteins make this class of proteins a difficult one to analyze. We benchmark the performance of antibodies to the human EGF receptor covalently immobilized on PDMS against the performance of the same antibodies physisorbed to conventional surfaces utilized in ELISA assays through the use of EGF receptor that was (32)P-radiolabeled in its autophosphorylation domain. These results reveal that two pan-reactive antibodies for the EGF receptor (clones H11 and 111.6) and one phosphospecific EGF receptor antibody (clone pY1068) capture the receptor on both PDMS and ELISA plates. When using H11 antibody to capture EGF receptor and subsequent treatment with a stripping buffer (NaOH and sodium dodecylsulfate) to isolate the receptor, the signal-to-background obtained using the PDMS surface was 82 : 1, exceeding the signal-to-background measured on the ELISA plate (<48 : 1). We also characterized the isolation of captured EGF receptor by mechanical contact of the PDMS surface with a chemically functionalized gold film. The efficiency of mechanical transfer of the

  6. Separación de mezclas agua-propanol usando membranas de preevaporación PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahacine Amrani

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available La recuperación y purificación de disolventes orgánicos en la química farmacéutica resulta de gran importancia pa-ra la economía y el medio ambiente. La separación de mezclas de agua/alcohol por el proceso de pervaporación se llevó a cabo a través de membranas hidrofóbicas. En este trabajo se estudia el rendimiento de las membranas de polidimetilsiloxano (PDMS para la deshidratación de mezclas agua/propanol por el proceso de preevaporación. El PDMS es reconocido por su selectividad de permeabilidad al alcohol preferentemente en mezclas de agua/alcohol durante el preevaporación debido a su tamaño molecular, aunque aún se presente penetración de agua a través de la membrana hidrofóbica. Se utilizó una unidad de preevaporación a escala de laboratorio para el estudio de esta membrana de separación evaluando características en términos de pervaporación como el flujo y la selectivi-dad de los canales con un contenido máximo de masa de agua y de 30 °C a 50 °C. El flujo de propanol/agua fue observado al variar la temperatura. A pesar que el PDMS presentó buenas características para la separación de mezclas de agua/propanol, el factor de separación y el flujo de pervaporación disminuyen a medida que el contenido de agua en la carga aumenta. La membrana PDMS resultó ser muy eficiente para concentraciones de a-gua de menos de 0.3, lo que corresponde al total del flujo de transferencia máxima.

  7. Assessment of PDMS-water partition coefficients: implications for passive environmental sampling of hydrophobic organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiFilippo, Erica L.; Eganhouse, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has shown potential as an in situ passive-sampling technique in aquatic environments. The reliability of this method depends upon accurate determination of the partition coefficient between the fiber coating and water (Kf). For some hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), Kf values spanning 4 orders of magnitude have been reported for polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and water. However, 24% of the published data examined in this review did not pass the criterion for negligible depletion, resulting in questionable Kf values. The range in reported Kf is reduced to just over 2 orders of magnitude for some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) when these questionable values are removed. Other factors that could account for the range in reported Kf, such as fiber-coating thickness and fiber manufacturer, were evaluated and found to be insignificant. In addition to accurate measurement of Kf, an understanding of the impact of environmental variables, such as temperature and ionic strength, on partitioning is essential for application of laboratory-measured Kf values to field samples. To date, few studies have measured Kf for HOCs at conditions other than at 20 degrees or 25 degrees C in distilled water. The available data indicate measurable variations in Kf at different temperatures and different ionic strengths. Therefore, if the appropriate environmental variables are not taken into account, significant error will be introduced into calculated aqueous concentrations using this passive sampling technique. A multiparameter linear solvation energy relationship (LSER) was developed to estimate log Kf in distilled water at 25 degrees C based on published physicochemical parameters. This method provided a good correlation (R2 = 0.94) between measured and predicted log Kf values for several compound classes. Thus, an LSER approach may offer a reliable means of predicting log Kf for HOCs whose experimental log Kf values are presently unavailable. Future

  8. Increased adhesion of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to acrylic adhesive tape for medical use by surface treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre-Reche, José Antonio; Martín-Martínez, José Miguel; Pulpytel, Jérôme; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2016-01-01

    The surface properties of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) were modified by treatment with an atmospheric pressure rotating plasma jet (APPJ) and the surface modifications were studied to assess its hydrophilicity and adhesion to acrylic adhesive tape intended for medical applications. Furthermore, the extent of hydrophobic recovery under different storage conditions was studied. The surface treatment of PDMS with the APPJ under optimal conditions noticeably increased the oxygen content and most of the surface silicon species were fully oxidized. A brittle silica-like layer on the outermost surface was created showing changes in topography due to the formation of grooves and cracks. A huge improvement in T-peel and the shear adhesive strength of the APPJ-treated PDMS surface/acrylic tape joints was obtained. On the other hand, the hydrophilicity of the PDMS surface increased noticeably after the APPJ treatment, but 24 h after treatment almost 80% hydrophobicity was recovered and the adhesive strength was markedly reduced with time after the APPJ treatment. However, the application of an acrylic adhesive layer on the just-APPJ-treated PDMS surface retained the adhesive strength, limiting the extent of hydrophobic recovery. (paper)

  9. Flexible, Highly Sensitive, and Wearable Pressure and Strain Sensors with Graphene Porous Network Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Tian, He; Tao, Luqi; Li, Yuxing; Wang, Xuefeng; Deng, Ningqin; Yang, Yi; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-10-03

    A mechanical sensor with graphene porous network (GPN) combined with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) is demonstrated by the first time. Using the nickel foam as template and chemically etching method, the GPN can be created in the PDMS-nickel foam coated with graphene, which can achieve both pressure and strain sensing properties. Because of the pores in the GPN, the composite as pressure and strain sensor exhibit wide pressure sensing range and highest sensitivity among the graphene foam-based sensors, respectively. In addition, it shows potential applications in monitoring or even recognize the walking states, finger bending degree, and wrist blood pressure.

  10. Relationship of Cure Temperature to Mechanical, Physical, and Dielectric Performance of PDMS Glass Composite for Electric Motor Insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Sandi G.; Becker, Kathleen; Williams, Tiffany S.; Scheiman, Daniel A.; McCorkle, Linda S.; Heimann, Paula J.; Ring, Andrew; Woodworth, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Achieving NASAs aggressive fuel burn and emission reduction for N-plus-3 aircraft will require hybrid electric propulsion system in which electric motors driven by either power generated from turbine or energy storage system will power the fan for propulsion. Motors designed for hybrid electric aircraft are expected to operate at medium to high voltages over long durations in a high altitude service environment. Such conditions have driven research toward the development of wire insulation with improved mechanical strength, thermal stability and increased breakdown voltage. The silicone class of materials has been considered for electric wire insulation due to its inherent thermal stability, dielectric strength and mechanical integrity. This paper evaluates the dependence of these properties on the cure conditions of a polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS) elastomer; where both cure temperature and base-to-catalyst ratio were varied. The PDMS elastomer was evaluated as a bulk material and an impregnation matrix within a lightweight glass veil support. The E-glass support was selected for mechanical stiffness and dielectric strength. This work has shown a correlation between cure conditions and material physical properties. Tensile strength increased with cure temperature whereas breakdown voltage tended to be independent of process variations. The results will be used to direct material formulation based on specific insulation requirements.

  11. ZnO–PDMS Nanohybrids: A Novel Optical Sensing Platform for Ethanol Vapor Detection at Room Temperature

    KAUST Repository

    Klini, Argyro

    2015-01-08

    © 2014 American Chemical Society. A new optical gas sensor platform based on highly luminescent ZnO-polymer nanohybrids is demonstrated. The nanohybrids consist of ZnO nanoparticles, typically 125 (±25) nm in size, dispersed in an inert cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. Upon exposure to ethanol-enriched air at room temperature, the nanocomposites exhibit a clear increase in their photoluminescence (PL) emission, which shows a nearly Langmuir dependence on the alcohol vapor pressure. The response time is on the order of 50 s, particularly at low ethanol concentrations. The limit of ethanol vapor detection (LOD) is as low as 0.4 Torr, while the sensor remains unaffected by the presence of water vapor, demonstrating the potential of the ZnO-PDMS system as an optical gas sensing device. The interaction of the ZnO nanoparticles with molecular oxygen plays an essential role on the overall performance of the sensor, as shown in comparative experiments performed in the presence and absence of atmospheric air. Notably, O2 was found to be quite effective in accelerating the sensor recovery process compared to N2 or vacuum.

  12. Fabrication of Photonic Crystal Structures on Flexible Organic Light-Emitting Diodes by Using Nano-Imprint and PDMS Mold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Ting-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, nanoimprint lithography was used to create a photonic crystals structure film in organic light-emitting diode (OLED component, and then compare the efficiency of components whether with nanostructure or not. By using two different kinds of mold, such as silicon mold and PDMS mold, the nano structures in PMMA (molecular weight of 350K were fabricated. Nanostructures in period of 403.53nm with silicon mold and nano structures in period of 385.64nm with PDMS mold as photonic crystal films were fabricated and were integrated into OLED. In experimental results, the OLED without photonic crystal films (with packing behaves 193.3cd/m2 for luminous intensity, 3.481cd/A for lightening efficiency (ηL and 0.781 lm/W for lightening power (ηP where V is 14V and I is 5.5537mA; the OLED with photonic crystal films (with packing behaves 241.6cd/m2 for luminous intensity, 4.173cd/A for lightening efficiency (ηL and 0.936 lm/W for lightening power (ηP where voltage of 14V and current (I of 5.7891mA, which shows that the latter perform is well.

  13. Assembly of live micro-organisms on microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for AFM bio-experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dague, E; Jauvert, E; Laplatine, L; Thibault, C; Viallet, B; Ressier, L

    2011-01-01

    Immobilization of live micro-organisms on solid substrates is an important prerequisite for atomic force microscopy (AFM) bio-experiments. The method employed must immobilize the cells firmly enough to enable them to withstand the lateral friction forces exerted by the tip during scanning but without denaturing the cell interface. In this work, a generic method for the assembly of living cells on specific areas of substrates is proposed. It consists in assembling the living cells within the patterns of microstructured, functionalized poly-dimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps using convective/capillary deposition. This versatile approach is validated by applying it to two systems of foremost importance in biotechnology and medicine: Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeasts and Aspergillus fumigatus fungal spores. We show that this method allows multiplexing AFM nanomechanical measurements by force spectroscopy on S. cerevisiae yeasts and high-resolution AFM imaging of germinated Aspergillus conidia in buffer medium. These two examples clearly demonstrate the immense potential of micro-organism assembly on functionalized, microstructured PDMS stamps by convective/capillary deposition for performing rigorous AFM bio-experiments on living cells.

  14. A minimally invasive micro sampler for quantitative sampling with an ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microneedle and a PDMS actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Long; Wang, Yan; Yao, Jinyuan; Yang, Cuijun; Ding, Guifu

    2016-08-01

    This study describes a novel micro sampler consisting of an ultrahigh-aspect-ratio microneedle and a PDMS actuator. The microneedle was fabricated by a new method which introduced reshaped photoresist technology to form a flow channel inside. The microneedle includes two parts: shaft and pedestal. In this study, the shaft length is 1500 μm with a 45° taper angle on the tip and pedestal is 1000 μm. Besides, the shaft and pedestal are connected by an arc connection structure with a length of 600 μm. The microneedles have sufficient mechanical strength to insert into skin with a wide safety margin which was proved by mechanics tests. Moreover, a PDMS actuator with a chamber inside was designed and fabricated in this study. The chamber, acting as a reservoir in sampling process as well as providing power, was optimized by finite element analysis (FEA) to decrease dead volume and improve sampling precision. The micro sampler just needs finger press to activate the sampling process as well as used for quantitative micro injection to some extent. And a volume of 31.5 ± 0.8 μl blood was successfully sampled from the ear artery of a rabbit. This micro sampler is suitable for micro sampling for diagnose or therapy in biomedical field.

  15. Methodical evaluation and improvement of matrix compatible PDMS-overcoated coating for direct immersion solid phase microextraction gas chromatography (DI-SPME-GC)-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Érica A; Gionfriddo, Emanuela; Shirey, Robert; Sidisky, Len; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2016-05-12

    The main quest for the implementation of direct SPME to complex matrices has been the development of matrix compatible coatings that provide sufficient sensitivity towards the target analytes. In this context, we present here a thorough evaluation of PDMS-overcoated fibers suitable for simultaneous extraction of different polarities analytes, while maintaining adequate matrix compatibility. For this, eleven analytes were selected, from various application classes (pesticides, industrial chemicals and pharmaceuticals) and with a wide range of log P values (ranging from 1.43 to 6). The model matrix chosen was commercial Concord grape juice, which is rich in pigments such as anthocyanins, and contains approximately 20% of sugar (w/w). Two types of PDMS, as well as other intrinsic factors associated with the PDMS-overcoated fiber fabrication are studied. The evaluation showed that the PDMS-overcoated fibers considerably slowed down the coating fouling process during direct immersion in complex matrices of high sugar content. Longevity differences could be seen between the two types of PDMS tested, with a proprietary Sylgard(®) giving superior performance because of lesser amount of reactive groups and enhanced hydrophobicity. Conversely, the thickness of the outer layer did not seem to have a significant effect on the fiber lifetime. We also demonstrate that the uniformity of the overcoated PDMS layer is paramount to the achievement of reliable data and extended fiber lifetime. Employing the optimum overcoated fiber, limits of detection (LOD) in the range of 0.2-1.3 ng/g could be achieved. Additional improvement is attainable by introducing washing of the coatings after desorption, so that any carbon build-up (fouling) left on the coating surface after thermal desorption can be removed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire

    2014-04-15

    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  17. Accuracy of a new ring-opening metathesis elastomeric dental impression material with spray and immersion disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronström, Mats H; Johnson, Glen H; Hompesch, Richard W

    2010-01-01

    A new elastomeric impression material has been formulated with a ring-opening metathesis chemistry. In addition to other properties of clinical significance, the impression accuracy must be confirmed. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new elastomeric impression material with vinyl polysiloxane and polyether following both spray and immersion disinfection. Impressions of a modified dentoform with a stainless steel crown preparation in the lower right quadrant were made, and type IV gypsum working casts and dies were formed. Anteroposterior (AP), cross-arch (CA), buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), occlusogingivobuccal (OGB), and occlusogingivolingual (OGL) dimensions were measured using a microscope. Working cast and die dimensions were compared to those of the master model. The impression materials were a newly formulated, ring-opening metathesis-polymerization impression material (ROMP Cartridge Tray and ROMP Volume Wash), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS, Aquasil Ultra Monophase/LV), and a polyether (PE, Impregum Penta Soft/Permadyne Garant L). Fifteen impressions with each material were made, of which 5 were disinfected by spray for 10 minutes (CaviCide), 5 were disinfected by immersion for 90 minutes (ProCide D), and 5 were not disinfected. There were significant cross-product interactions with a 2-way ANOVA, so a 1-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 multiple comparison test were used to compare the dimensional changes of the 3 impression materials, by disinfection status and for each location (alpha=.05). For ROMP, there were no significant differences from the master, for any dimension, when comparing the control and 2 disinfectant conditions. No significant differences were detected among the 3 impression materials for CA, BL, and MD. The working die dimensions of OGB and OGL for VPS with immersion disinfection were significantly shorter than with PE and ROMP (P<.05). Overall, the AP dimension was more accurate than CA, and the BL of working dies

  18. Nonlinear analysis of r.c. framed buildings retrofitted with elastomeric and friction bearings under near-fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazza, Mirko

    2015-12-01

    Reinforced concrete (r.c.) framed buildings designed in compliance with inadequate seismic classifications and code provisions present in many cases a high vulnerability and need to be retrofitted. To this end, the insertion of a base isolation system allows a considerable reduction of the seismic loads transmitted to the superstructure. However, strong near-fault ground motions, which are characterised by long-duration horizontal pulses, may amplify the inelastic response of the superstructure and induce a failure of the isolation system. The above considerations point out the importance of checking the effectiveness of different isolation systems for retrofitting a r.c. framed structure. For this purpose, a numerical investigation is carried out with reference to a six-storey r.c. framed building, which, primarily designed (as to be a fixed-base one) in compliance with the previous Italian code (DM96) for a medium-risk seismic zone, has to be retrofitted by insertion of an isolation system at the base for attaining performance levels imposed by the current Italian code (NTC08) in a high-risk seismic zone. Besides the (fixed-base) original structure, three cases of base isolation are studied: elastomeric bearings acting alone (e.g. HDLRBs); in-parallel combination of elastomeric and friction bearings (e.g. high-damping-laminated-rubber bearings, HDLRBs and steel-PTFE sliding bearings, SBs); friction bearings acting alone (e.g. friction pendulum bearings, FPBs). The nonlinear analysis of the fixed-base and base-isolated structures subjected to horizontal components of near-fault ground motions is performed for checking plastic conditions at the potential critical (end) sections of the girders and columns as well as critical conditions of the isolation systems. Unexpected high values of ductility demand are highlighted at the lower floors of all base-isolated structures, while re-centring problems of the base isolation systems under near-fault earthquakes are

  19. Influence of tip indentation on the adhesive behavior of viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane networks studied by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, J.P.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2001-01-01

    A commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) outfitted with a custom control and data acquisition system was used to investigate the adhesive nature of a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network. Due to the complex dependence of the adhesion of this sample on factors such as indentation,

  20. Phase separation and mechanical properties of an elastomeric biomaterial from spider wrapping silk and elastin block copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiznieks, Lisa D; Keeley, Fred W

    2016-10-01

    Elastin and silk spidroins are fibrous, structural proteins with elastomeric properties of extension and recoil. While elastin is highly extensible and has excellent recovery of elastic energy, silks are particularly strong and tough. This study describes the biophysical characterization of recombinant polypeptides designed by combining spider wrapping silk and elastin-like sequences as a strategy to rationally increase the strength of elastin-based materials while maintaining extensibility. We demonstrate a thermo-responsive phase separation and spontaneous colloid-like droplet formation from silk-elastin block copolymers, and from a 34 residue disordered region of Argiope trifasciata wrapping silk alone, and measure a comprehensive suite of tensile mechanical properties from cross-linked materials. Silk-elastin materials exhibited significantly increased strength, toughness, and stiffness compared to an elastin-only material, while retaining high failure strains and low energy loss upon recoil. These data demonstrate the mechanical tunability of protein polymer biomaterials through modular, chimeric recombination, and provide structural insights into mechanical design. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 105: 693-703, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Evaluation of the performance of elastomeric pumps in practice: are we under-delivering on chemotherapy treatments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Dahlia; Biliune, Jurga; Kayyali, Reem; Ashton, Jane; Brown, Peter; McCarthy, Tim; Vikman, Elin; Barton, Stephen; Swinden, Julian; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen

    2017-12-01

    Elastomeric pumps are widely used to facilitate ambulatory chemotherapy, and studies have shown that they are safe and well received by patients. Despite these advantages, their end of infusion time can fluctuate significantly. The aim of this research was to observe the performance of these pumps in real practice and to evaluate patients' satisfaction. This was a two-phase study conducted at three cancer units over 6 months. Phase-1 was an observational study recording the status of pumps at the scheduled disconnection time and noting remaining volume of infusion. Phase-2 was a survey of patients and their perception/satisfaction. Ethical approval was granted. A total of 92 cases were observed covering 50 cases disconnected at hospital and 42 disconnected at home. The infusion in 40% of hospital disconnection cases was slow, with patients arriving at hospital with unfinished pumps; 58% of these had an estimated remaining volume which exceeded 10 mL with 35% exceeded 20 mL. In 73% of these cases, and regardless of the remaining volume, the patient was disconnected and the pump was discarded. The performance of pumps varied, which affected nurse workload and patients' waiting-times. A smart system is an option to monitor the performance of pumps and to predict their accuracy.

  2. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K.

    2000-01-01

    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  3. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K. E-mail: anilkb@rtc.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2000-11-01

    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  4. Replacement of thermal column elastomeric gasket in pool type research reactors based on ageing and radiation degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garai, S.K.

    2006-01-01

    Pool type research reactors are designed with Thermal column facilities to irradiate samples at different flux levels of thermal neutrons. The sealing of demineralised pool water between stainless steel lined pool wall and the Aluminium Thermal column plate is achieved by an elastomeric gasket. The gasket joint is subjected to pool water temperature ranging from 25degC to 45degC and radiation field of the order of 104 -106 R/hr. The gasket loses its sealing properties due to ageing and radiation degradation after a few years, leading to the leakage and loss of the pool water. Though degradation of the gasket is, generally, predictable, some amount of uncertainty always remains in the leakage rate. The paper describes the study of a few elastomers in radiation environment and replacement of the Thermal column gasket of a swimming pool type research reactor. It includes the details of features like planning and scheduling, the actual sequential execution of the job, various problems encountered and corrective measures applied, engineering and radiological safety measures adopted, development of remote tools, disassembly and reassembly procedure and finally satisfactory completion of the site job in high radiation environment with minimum time and man rem consumption. (author)

  5. Post Curing as an Effective Means of Ensuring the Long-term Reliability of PDMS Thin Films for Dielectric Elastomer Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Madsen, Frederikke Bahrt; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    ’s moduli at 5% strain increase with post curing. Furthermore, the determined dielectric breakdown parameters from Weibull analyses showed that greater electrical stability and reliability could be achieved by post curing the PDMS films before usage, and this method therefore paves a way toward more...

  6. Self-diffusion investigations on a series of PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers with different morphologies by pulsed field gradient NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittig, F.; Karger, J.; Papadakis, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    We report on temperature-dependent self-diffusion measurements of compositionally different and non-entangled poly(ethylene-co-propylene)-b-poly(dimethylsiloxane) PEP-PDMS diblock copolymers in the melt above and below the order-to-disorder transition temperature. Depending on the dimensionality...

  7. Fabrication of PDMS through-holes using the MIMIC method and the surface treatment by atmospheric-pressure CH4/He RF plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jongchan; Lee, Kyeong-Hwan; Yang, Sung

    2011-09-01

    This note presents a simple fabrication process for patterning micro through-holes in a PDMS layer by a combination of the micromolding in capillaries (MIMIC) method and the surface treatment by atmospheric-pressure CH4/He RF plasma. The fabrication process is confirmed by forming micro through-holes with various shapes including circle, C-shape, open microfluidic channel and hemisphere. All micro through-holes of various shapes in a wide range of diameters and heights are well fabricated by the proposed method. Also, a 3D micromixer containing a PDMS micro through-hole layer formed by the proposed method is built and its performance is tested as another practical demonstration of the proposed fabrication method. Therefore, we believe that the proposed fabrication process will build a PDMS micro through-hole layer in a simple and easy way and will contribute to developing highly efficient multi-layered microfluidic systems, which may require PDMS micro through-hole layers.

  8. Morphology evolution of PS-b-PDMS block copolymer and its hierarchical directed self-assembly on block copolymer templates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasappa, Sozaraj; Schulte, Lars; Borah, Dipu

    2018-01-01

    Cylinder-forming polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS, 27.2k-b-11.7k, SD39) block copolymer having a total molecular weight of 39 kg mol−1 was exploited to achieve in-plane morphologies of lines, dots and antidots. Brush-free self-assembly of the SD39 on silicon substrates was invest...... substrates provides a simplified method for surface nanopatterning, templated growth of nanomaterials and nanofabrication....... the pattern into the underlying substrate. Directed self-assembly and hierarchical directed self-assembly on block copolymer templates for confinement of dots was successfully demonstrated. The strategy for achieving multiple morphologies using one BCP by mere choice of the annealing solvents on unmodified...

  9. Fast selective trapping and release of picoliter droplets in a 3D microfluidic PDMS multi-trap system with bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambach, Richard W; Biswas, Preetika; Yadav, Ashutosh; Garstecki, Piotr; Franke, Thomas

    2018-02-12

    The selective manipulation and incubation of individual picoliter drops in high-throughput droplet based microfluidic devices still remains challenging. We used a surface acoustic wave (SAW) to induce a bubble in a 3D designed multi-trap polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device to manipulate multiple droplets and demonstrate the selection, incubation and on-demand release of aqueous droplets from a continuous oil flow. By controlling the position of the acoustic actuation, individual droplets are addressed and selectively released from a droplet stream of 460 drops per s. A complete trapping and releasing cycle can be as short as 70 ms and has no upper limit for incubation time. We characterize the fluidic function of the hybrid device in terms of electric power, pulse duration and acoustic path.

  10. Modeling the electrical resistance of gold film conductors on uniaxially stretched elastomeric substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Wenzhe; Görrn, Patrick; Wagner, Sigurd

    2011-05-01

    The electrical resistance of gold film conductors on polydimethyl siloxane substrates at stages of uniaxial stretching is measured and modeled. The surface area of a gold conductor is assumed constant during stretching so that the exposed substrate takes up all strain. Sheet resistances are calculated from frames of scanning electron micrographs by numerically solving for the electrical potentials of all pixels in a frame. These sheet resistances agree sufficiently well with values measured on the same conductors to give credence to the model of a stretchable network of gold links defined by microcracks.

  11. An investigation into UV light exposure as an experimental model for artificial aging on tensile strength and force delivery of elastomeric chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, Siti Waznah; Bister, Dirk; Sherriff, Martyn

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of ultraviolet type A light (UVA) exposure on the tensile properties of elastomeric chain. UVA light exposure was used as model for artificial aging, simulating prolonged storage of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength (n = 60) was measured after exposing Ormco, Forestadent and 3M chains to UVA light for 0, 2, 3, and 4 weeks. Force decay was measured (n = 60) using chain exposed for 5, 10, and 14 days. The chains were subsequently stretched at a constant distance and the resulting forces measured at 0, 1, 24 hours and 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. This test simulated a clinical scenario of pre-stretching and subsequent shortening of elastomeric chain. Tensile strength had statistically significant difference and was directly related to the duration of ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Forestadent chain, which had the second highest value for the 'as received' product, showed the most consistent values over time with the lowest degradation. Ormco showed the lowest values for 'as received' as well as after UV exposure; 3M chain had the highest loss of tensile strength. Force decay was also significantly different. UV light exposure of 10 days or more appears to mark a 'watershed' between products: 3M had most survivors, Forestadent chain had some survivors, depending on the time the chain was stretched for. None of the Ormco product survived UV light exposure for more than 5 days. UVA light exposure may be used as a model for artificial aging as it reduces force delivery and tensile strength of exposed chains.

  12. Effects of breathing frequency and flow rate on the total inward leakage of an elastomeric half-mask donned on an advanced manikin headform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinjian; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Bergman, Michael S; Zhuang, Ziqing

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of breathing frequency and flow rate on the total inward leakage (TIL) of an elastomeric half-mask donned on an advanced manikin headform and challenged with combustion aerosols. An elastomeric half-mask respirator equipped with P100 filters was donned on an advanced manikin headform covered with life-like soft skin and challenged with aerosols originated by burning three materials: wood, paper, and plastic (polyethylene). TIL was determined as the ratio of aerosol concentrations inside (C in) and outside (C out) of the respirator (C in/C out) measured with a nanoparticle spectrometer operating in the particle size range of 20-200nm. The testing was performed under three cyclic breathing flows [mean inspiratory flow (MIF) of 30, 55, and 85 l/min] and five breathing frequencies (10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 breaths/min). A completely randomized factorial study design was chosen with four replicates for each combination of breathing flow rate and frequency. Particle size, MIF, and combustion material had significant (P plastic aerosol produced higher mean TIL values than wood and paper aerosols. The effect of the breathing frequency was complex. When analyzed using all combustion aerosols and MIFs (pooled data), breathing frequency did not significantly (P = 0.08) affect TIL. However, once the data were stratified according to combustion aerosol and MIF, the effect of breathing frequency became significant (P plastic combustion aerosol. The effect of breathing frequency on TIL is less significant than the effects of combustion aerosol and breathing flow rate for the tested elastomeric half-mask respirator. The greatest TIL occurred when challenged with plastic aerosol at 30 l/min and at a breathing frequency of 30 breaths/min.

  13. Effectiveness of nickel-titanium springs vs elastomeric chains in orthodontic space closure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, H; Rizk, M Z; Wafaie, K; Almuzian, M

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of nickel titanium closing springs (NiTi-CS) and elastomeric power chains (EPC) in orthodontic space closure and to assess the adverse periodontal effects, cost efficiency and patient-centred outcomes between both of these methods. An electronic search of online databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, LILACS and Web of Science), reference lists and grey literature as well as hand search were conducted without language restriction up to November/2017. Two authors blindly and in duplicate were involved in study selection, quality assessment and the extraction of data. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. The quality of the studies was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool. 95% confidence intervals and mean difference for continuous data were calculated. A meta-analysis that generated a random-effect model for the comparable outcomes was conducted, and heterogeneity was measured using I 2 statistic. Of 187 records, 4 RCTs met the criteria and were included in the quantitative synthesis featuring 290 test quadrants. Faster space closure with NiTi-CS was observed with a mean difference of (0.20 mm/month, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.28). Loss of anchorage appears to be similar within both groups when synthesized qualitatively. With exception to anchorage loss, secondary outcomes could not be investigated in the included trials. There is a moderate quality of evidence suggesting a faster orthodontic space closure with the NiTi-CS when compared to EPC. A comparable amount of anchorage loss was observed regardless of the utilized method of space closure. Further high-quality RCTs with parallel-groups, reporting on the adverse effects and patient-centred values, are recommended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Quasi-Static Behavior of Palm-Based Elastomeric Polyurethane: For Strengthening Application of Structures under Impulsive Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Chandima Chathuranga Somarathna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been focused on elastomeric polymers as a potential retrofitting material considering their capability in contributing towards the impact resistance of various structural elements. A comprehensive understanding of the behavior and the morphology of this material are essential to propose an effective and feasible alternative to existing structural strengthening and retrofitting materials. This article presents the findings obtained from a series of experimental investigations to characterize the physical, mechanical, chemical and thermal behavior of eight types of palm-based polyurethane (PU elastomers, which were synthesized from the reaction between palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p and 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI with polyethylene glycol (PEG as the plasticizer via pre-polymerization. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy analysis was conducted to examine the functional groups in PU systems. Mechanical and physical behavior was studied with focus on elongation, stresses, modulus, energy absorption and dissipation, and load dispersion capacities by conducting hardness, tensile, flexural, Izod impact, and differential scanning calorimetry tests. Experimental results suggest that the palm-based PU has positive effects as a strengthening and retrofitting material against dynamic impulsive loadings both in terms of energy absorption and dissipation, and load dispersion. In addition, among all PUs with different plasticizer contents, PU2 to PU8 (which contain 2% to 8% (w/w PEG with respect to PKO-p content show the best correlation with mechanical response under quasi-static conditions focusing on energy absorption and dissipation and load dispersion characteristics.

  15. Behavior of a New Elastomeric material used as polyolefinic geo membrane in waterproofing; Comportamiento de un nuevo material elastomerico utilizado como geomembrana poliolefinica en impermeabilizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Aguilar, E.; Vara, T. A; Soriano, J.; Garcia, F.; Castillo, F.

    2011-07-01

    Two decades ago that Balsas de Tenerife (BALTEN) and the Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), in its experimental field of the south of the Tenerife Island have installed a series of materials to known their behaviour over time. These products among which was placed over a dozen years ago, on an elastomeric polyolefin. This work presents the performance of this synthetic geo membrane, focusing on the evolution in the time of the tensile properties static puncture, low temperature folding, dynamic impact, joint strength (shear and peeling test), optical microscopy of reflection nd scanning electron microscopy. (Author) 11 refs.

  16. Elastomeric degradable biomaterials by photopolymerization-based CAD-CAM for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Stefan; Nehl, Franziska; Ligon, S Clark; Liska, Robert [Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163MC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Nigisch, Anneliese; Bernhard, David [Department of Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergmeister, Helga [Core Unit for Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Stampfl, Juergen, E-mail: robert.liska@tuwien.ac.at [Institute of Material Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2011-10-15

    A predominant portion of mortalities in industrial countries can be attributed to diseases of the cardiovascular system. In the last decades great efforts have been undertaken to develop materials for artificial vascular constructs. However, bio-inert materials like ePTFE or PET fail as material for narrow blood vessel replacements (coronary bypasses). Therefore, we aim to design new biocompatible materials to overcome this. In this paper we investigate the use of photoelastomers for artificial vascular constructs since they may be precisely structured by means of additive manufacturing technologies. Hence, 3D computer aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) offer the possibility of creating cellular structures within the grafts that might favour ingrowth of tissue. Different monomer formulations were screened concerning their suitability for this application but all had drawbacks, especially concerning the suture tear resistance. Therefore, we chose to modify the original network architecture by including dithiol chain transfer agents which effectively co-react with the acrylates and reduce crosslink density. A commercial urethane diacrylate was chosen as base monomer. In combination with reactive diluents and dithiols, the properties of the photopolymers could be tailored and degradability could be introduced. The optimized photoelastomers were in good mechanical accordance with native blood vessels, showed good biocompatibility in in vitro tests, degraded similar to poly(lactic acid) and were successfully manufactured with the 3D CAD-CAM technology.

  17. A vacuum manifold for rapid world-to-chip connectivity of complex PDMS microdevices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooksey, Gregory A; Plant, Anne L; Atencia, Javier

    2009-05-07

    The lack of simple interfaces for microfluidic devices with a large number of inlets significantly limits production and utilization of these devices. In this article, we describe the fabrication of a reusable manifold that provides rapid world-to-chip connectivity. A vacuum network milled into a rigid manifold holds microdevices and prevents leakage of fluids injected into the device from ports in the manifold. A number of different manifold designs were explored, and all performed similarly, yielding an average of 100 kPa (15 psi) fluid holding pressure. The wide applicability of this manifold concept is demonstrated by interfacing with a 51-inlet microfluidic chip containing 144 chambers and hundreds of embedded pneumatic valves. Due to the speed of connectivity, the manifolds are ideal for rapid prototyping and are well suited to serve as "universal" interfaces.

  18. Self-standing elastomeric composites based on lithium ferrites and their dielectric behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soreto Teixeira, S.; Graça, M. P. F.; Costa, L. C. [I3N and Physics Department, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Dionisio, M. [REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Ilcíkova, M.; Mosnacek, J.; Spitalsky, Z. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Krupa, I. [Polymer Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Dúbravská cesta 9, Bratislava (Slovakia); Center for Advanced Materials, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha (Qatar)

    2014-12-14

    Lithium ferrite (LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8}) is an attractive material for technological applications due to its physical properties, which are significantly dependent on the preparation method and raw materials. In this work, LiFe{sub 5}O{sub 8} crystallites were obtained by controlled heat-treatment process at 1100 °C, of a homogeneous mixture of Li{sub 2}O-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders, prepared by wet ball-milling and using lithium and iron nitrates as raw materials. The main goal was the preparation of a flexible and self-standing tick composite film by embedding lithium ferrite particles in a polymeric matrix, taking advantage of the good mechanical properties of the polymer and of the electrical and dielectric properties of the ferrite. The selected polymer matrix was styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene copolymer. To prepare the composites, the lithium ferrite particles were chemically modified in order to functionalize their surface. To analyse the influence of the particles surface modification, different composites were made, with modified and unmodified particles. The structure of the obtained composites was studied by FTIR, XRD, TGA, and DSC techniques. The dielectric properties were analysed, in the frequency range between 10 Hz and 1 MHz and in function of temperature in the range between −73 °C and 127 °C. These properties were related with the structure and concentration of the particles in the matrix network. The composites with the modified particles present higher dielectric constant, maintaining values of loss tangent sufficiently low (<10{sup −2}) that can be considered interesting for technological applications.

  19. Synthesis, morphological, electromechanical characterization of (CaMgFex)Fe1-xTi3O12-δ/PDMS nanocomposite thin films for energy storage application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, Ashis; Sharma, Priyaranjan; Sahoo, Narayan

    2018-03-01

    At the present time, flexible and stretchable electronics has intended to use the new cutting-edge technologies for advanced electronic application. Currently, Polymers are being employed for such applications but they are not effective due to their low dielectric constant. To enhance the dielectric properties of polymer for energy storage application, it is necessary to add ceramic material of high dielectric constant to synthesize a polymer-ceramic composite. Therefore, a novel attempt has been made to enhance the dielectric properties of the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer by adding (CaMgFex)Fe1-xTi3O12-δ(0ceramic powder. The newly developed CMFTO2/PDMS composite based thin film shows a higher dielectric constant (ε‧) value (~350), extremely low tangent loss (tanδ) ( 90%), which can make it a potential material for advanced flexible electronic devices, energy storage and biomedical applications.

  20. Simple and cost-effective fabrication of microvalve arrays in PDMS using laser cut molds with application to C. elegans manipulation in microfluidics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, R; Gale, B K; Thacker, C M; Maricq, A V

    2014-01-01

    We present a new fabrication protocol for fabricating pneumatically controlled microvalve arrays (consisting of 100 s of microvalves) in PDMS substrates. The protocol utilizes rapid and cost-effective fabrication of molds using laser cutting of adhesive vinyl tapes and replica molding of PDMS. Hence the protocol is fast, simple and avoids cleanroom use. The results show that effective doormat-style microvalves can be easily fabricated in arrays by manipulating the stiffness of the actuating membrane through varying the valve-chamber area/shape. Three frequently used valve-chamber shapes (circle, square and capsule) were tested and all showed advantages in different situations. Circular valve chambers were best for small valves, square valves were best for medium-sized valves, and the capsule valves were best for larger valves. An application of this protocol has been demonstrated in the fabrication of a microfluidic 32-well plate for high-throughput manipulation of C. elegans for biomedical research. (paper)

  1. Fabrication and characterization of a magnetic micro-actuator based on deformable Fe-doped PDMS artificial cilium using 3D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fengli; Alici, Gursel; Zhang, Binbin; Beirne, Stephen; Li, Weihua

    2015-03-01

    This paper proposes the use of a 3D extrusion printer to fabricate artificial magnetic cilium. The cilia are fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with iron particles so that they remain slender and flexible. They can be driven by a magnetic field to closely mimic the behaviour of biological cilia. Doping iron particles to the polymers has already been done; however, to the best of our knowledge, printing such active and soft magnetic structures has not. The existing methods for manufacturing magnetic polymeric structures are complex and difficult to use for the fabrication of micro-sized high-aspect-ratio cilia. The 3D printing technique we propose here is simple and inexpensive compared to previously suggested fabrication methods. In this study, free-standing magnetic PDMS cilia were fabricated in different sizes up to 5 mm in length and 1 mm in width. The stress-strain curves of the PDMS cilia were experimentally obtained to quantify the effect of the concentration of the iron particles on the modulus of elasticity of the cilia. The higher the iron concentration, the higher the modulus of elasticity. We have quantified the characteristics of the cilia made of 40% w/w iron particles in PDMS. A single cilium (5 × 1 × 0.0035 mm) can output up to 27 μN blocking force under a magnetic field of 160 mT. These cilia can be used as a mixer in lap-on-chip applications and as the anchoring and propulsion legs of endoscopic capsule robots operating within the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Analytical expressions estimating the blocking force are established and compared with the experimental results.

  2. Fabrication and characterization of a magnetic micro-actuator based on deformable Fe-doped PDMS artificial cilium using 3D printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Fengli; Alici, Gursel; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Binbin; Beirne, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of a 3D extrusion printer to fabricate artificial magnetic cilium. The cilia are fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) doped with iron particles so that they remain slender and flexible. They can be driven by a magnetic field to closely mimic the behaviour of biological cilia. Doping iron particles to the polymers has already been done; however, to the best of our knowledge, printing such active and soft magnetic structures has not. The existing methods for manufacturing magnetic polymeric structures are complex and difficult to use for the fabrication of micro-sized high-aspect-ratio cilia. The 3D printing technique we propose here is simple and inexpensive compared to previously suggested fabrication methods. In this study, free-standing magnetic PDMS cilia were fabricated in different sizes up to 5 mm in length and 1 mm in width. The stress-strain curves of the PDMS cilia were experimentally obtained to quantify the effect of the concentration of the iron particles on the modulus of elasticity of the cilia. The higher the iron concentration, the higher the modulus of elasticity. We have quantified the characteristics of the cilia made of 40% w/w iron particles in PDMS. A single cilium (5 × 1 × 0.0035 mm) can output up to 27 μN blocking force under a magnetic field of 160 mT. These cilia can be used as a mixer in lap-on-chip applications and as the anchoring and propulsion legs of endoscopic capsule robots operating within the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Analytical expressions estimating the blocking force are established and compared with the experimental results. (paper)

  3. A PDMS/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic biochip integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide nano-biosensors for one-step multiplexed pathogen detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Peng; Li, XiuJun; Dominguez, Delfina C.; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-01-01

    Infectious pathogens often cause serious public health concerns throughout the world. There is an increasing demand for simple, rapid and sensitive approaches for multiplexed pathogen detection. In this paper we have developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic system integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nano-biosensors for simple, one-step, multiplexed pathogen detection. The paper substrate used in this hybrid microfluidic system facilitated ...

  4. Rapid and high throughput fabrication of high temperature stable structures through PDMS transfer printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohenberger, Erik; Freitag, Nathan; Korampally, Venumadhav

    2017-07-01

    We report on a facile and low cost fabrication approach for structures—gratings and enclosed nanochannels, through simple solution processed chemistries in conjunction with nanotransfer printing techniques. The ink formulation primarily consisting of an organosilicate polymeric network with a small percentage of added 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane crosslinker allows one to obtain robust structures that are not only stable towards high temperature processing steps as high as 550 °C but also exhibit exceptional stability against a host of organic solvent washes. No discernable structure distortion was observed compared to the as-printed structures (room temperature processed) when printed structures were subjected to temperatures as high as 550 °C. We further demonstrate the applicability of this technique towards the fabrication of more complex nanostructures such as enclosed channels through a double transfer method, leveraging the exceptional room temperature cross-linking ability of the printed structures and their subsequent resistance to dissolution in organic solvent washes. The exceptional temperature and physico-chemical stability of the nanotransfer printed structures makes this a useful fabrication tool that may be applied as is, or integrated with conventional lithographic techniques for the large area fabrication of functional nanostructures and devices.

  5. A novel assessment of the traction forces upon settlement of two typical marine fouling invertebrates using PDMS micropost arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine biofouling poses a severe threat to maritime and aquaculture industries. To prevent the attachment of marine biofouling organisms on man-made structures, countless cost and effort was spent annually. In particular, most attention has been paid on the development of efficient and environmentally friendly fouling-resistant coatings, as well as larval settlement mechanism of several major biofouling invertebrates. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS micropost arrays were utilized as the settlement substrata and opposite tractions were identified during early settlement of the barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. The settling A. amphitrite pushed the periphery microposts with an average traction force of 376.2 nN, while settling B. neritina pulled the periphery microposts with an average traction force of 205.9 nN. These micropost displacements are consistent with the body expansion of A. amphitrite during early post-settlement metamorphosis stage and elevation of wall epithelium of B. neritina during early pre-ancestrula stage, respectively. As such, the usage of micropost array may supplement the traditional histological approach to indicate the early settlement stages or even the initiation of larval settlement of marine fouling organisms, and could finally aid in the development of automatic monitoring platform for the real-time analysis on this complex biological process.

  6. Facile fabrication of functional PDMS surfaces with tunable wettablity and high adhesive force via femtosecond laser textured templating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanlei Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Femtosecond laser processing is emerged as a promising tool to functionalize surfaces of various materials, including metals, semiconductors, and polymers. However, the productivity of this technique is limited by the low efficiency of laser raster scanning. Here we report a facile approach for efficiently producing large-area functional polymer surfaces, by which metal is firstly textured by a femtosecond laser, and the as-prepared hierarchical structures are subsequently transferred onto polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS surfaces. Aluminum pieces covered by laser induced micro/nano-structures act as template masters and their performance of displaying diverse colors are investigated. Polymer replicas are endowed with tunable wetting properties, which are mainly attributed to the multi-scale surface structures. Furthermore, the surfaces are found to have extremely high adhesive force for water drops because of the high water penetration depth and the resultant high contact angle hysteresis. This characteristic facilitates many potential applications like loss-free tiny water droplets transportation. The reusability of metal master and easiness of soft lithography make it to be a very simple, fast and cost-efficient way for mass production of functional polymeric surfaces.

  7. Quasi-static motion of microparticles at the depinning contact line of an evaporating droplet on PDMS surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying-Song; Xia, Xue-Lian; Zheng, Xu; Huang, Xianfu; Zhou, Jin-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, evaporation of sessile water droplets containing fluorescent polystyrene (PS) microparticles on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces with different curing ratios was studied experimentally using laser confocal microscopy. At the beginning, there were some microparticles located at the contact line and some microparticles moved towards the line. Due to contact angle hysteresis, at first both the contact line and the microparticles were pinned. With the depinning contact line, the microparticles moved together spontaneously. Using the software ImageJ, the location of contact lines at different time were acquired and the circle centers and radii of the contact lines were obtained via the least square method. Then the average distance of two neighbor contact lines at a certain time interval was obtained to characterize the motion of the contact line. Fitting the distance-time curve at the depinning contact line stage with polynomials and differentiating the polynomials with time, we obtained the velocity and acceleration of both the contact line and the microparticles located at the line. The velocity and the maximum acceleration were, respectively, of the orders of 1 μm/s and 20-200 nm/s2, indicating that the motion of the microparticles located at the depinning contact line was quasi-static. Finally, we presented a theoretical model to describe the quasi-static process, which may help in understanding both self-pinning and depinning of microparticles.

  8. Low-cost fabrication and performance testing of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromixers using an improved print-and-Peel (PAP) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagon, Ma. Victoria; Buendia, Neil Daniel; Jasper Caracas, Corine; July Yap, Kristian

    2018-03-01

    The research presents different configurations of microfluidic mixers made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated using an improved, low-cost print-and-peel (PAP) method. Processes, such as mixing, operated in the micro scale allow decreased equipment size-to-production capacity ratio and decreased energy consumption per unit product. In the study, saturated solutions of blue and yellow food dyes were introduced inside the channels using a LEGO® improvised microsyringe pump. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the average depth of the fabricated micromixers which was found to be around 14 ¼m. The flows were observed and images were taken using a light microscope. The color intensities of the images were then measured using MATLAB®. From the relationship between color intensity and concentration, the mixing indices were calculated and found to be 0.9435 to 0.9941, which falls within the standard mixing index range (0.8 - 1.0) regardless of the flow rate and the configuration of the micromixer as verified through the two-way ANOVA. From the cost analysis, the cost of the device fabricated in this study is a hundred-fold less than expenses from standard fabrication procedures. Hence, the fabricated device provides an alternative for micromixers produced from expensive and conventional lithographic methods.

  9. Evaluation and comparison of dimensional accuracy of newly introduced elastomeric impression material using 3D laser scanners: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandita, Amrita; Jain, Teerthesh; Yadav, Naveen S; Feroz, S M A; Pradeep; Diwedi, Akankasha

    2013-03-01

    Aim of the present study was to comparatively evaluate dimensional accuracy of newely introduced elastomeric impression material after repeated pours at different time intervals. In the present study a total of 20 (10 + 10) impressions of master model were made from vinyl polyether silicone and vinyl polysiloxane impression material. Each impression was repeatedly poured at 1, 24 hours and 14 days. Therefore, a total of 60 casts were obtained. Casts obtained were scanned with three-dimensional (3D) laser scanner and measurements were done. Vinyl polyether silicone produced overall undersized dies, with greatest change being 0.14% only after 14 days. Vinyl polysiloxane produced smaller dies after 1 and 24 hours and larger dies after 14 days, differing from master model by only 0.07% for the smallest die and to 0.02% for the largest die. All the deviations measured from the master model with both the impression materials were within a clinically acceptable range. In a typical fixed prosthodontic treatment accuracy of prosthesis is critical as it determines the success, failure and the prognosis of treatment including abutments. This is mainly dependent upon fit of prosthesis which in turn is dependent on dimensional accuracy of dies, poured from elastomeric impressions.

  10. Rumen metabolism and absorption of a 14C-labelled elastomeric copolymer and its value as a roughage substitute for cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartley, E.E.; Meyer, R.M.; Call, E.P.

    1981-01-01

    Several synthetic elastomeric and plastomeric polymers were tested for suitability as artificial roughages. They were fed to rumenfistulated cattle fed grain only. Several of the polymers were regurgitated, remasticated and reswallowed, and they formed thin strands of intermeshed fiber that produced a large, loosely woven hay-like mass that floated on the rumen contents. An elastomeric polymer consisting of copolymers of 80 to 90% ethylene and 10 to 20% propylene, with a tensile strength at yield of 45.7 kg/cm2, a hardness of 30 units (Shore D hardness scale) and a tensile strength at 300% elongation of 51.0 kg/cm2, was selected for further testing. The copolymer was fed at about 90 g/head daily for 127 days to cattle fed grain only. At slaughter, rumens contained an average of 8.0 kg copolymer (dry basis). Cattle fed the copolymer had healthier rumen papillae and epithelia of the abomasum and small intestines than did control animals fed grain only. Using 14 C-labeled copolymer, we found that the copolymer was not degraded by rumen microorganisms or acid-pepsin solution. When 14 C-labeled copolymer was fed to milking cows, no 14 C activity was found in milk, blood or urine. Upon slaughter, about 100% of the 14 C activity was recovered from digesta and feces. We concluded that the copolymer was not absorbed from the digestive tract

  11. Fracto-mechanoluminescent light emission of EuD4TEA-PDMS composites subjected to high strain-rate compressive loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Donghyeon; Castaño, Nicolas; Bhakta, Raj; Kimberley, Jamie

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study is to understand light emission characteristics of fracto-mechanoluminescent (FML) europium tetrakis(dibenzoylmethide)-triethylammonium (EuD4TEA) crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. As a sensing material that can play a pivotal role for the self-powered impact sensor technology, it is important to understand transformative light emission characteristics of the FML EuD4TEA crystals under high strain-rate compressive loading. First, EuD4TEA crystals were synthesized and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer to fabricate EuD4TEA-PDMS composite test specimens. Second, the prepared EuD4TEA-PDMS composites were tested using the modified Kolsky bar setup equipped with a high-speed camera. Third, FML light emission was captured to yield 12 bit grayscale video footage, which was processed to quantify the FML light emission. Finally, quantitative parameters were generated by taking into account pixel values and population of pixels of the 12 bit grayscale images to represent FML light intensity. The FML light intensity was correlated with high strain-rate compressive strain and strain rate to understand the FML light emission characteristics under high strain-rate compressive loading that can result from impact occurrences.

  12. Effects of strain rate, mixing ratio, and stress-strain definition on the mechanical behavior of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material as related to its biological applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanafer, Khalil; Duprey, Ambroise; Schlicht, Marty; Berguer, Ramon

    2009-04-01

    Tensile tests on Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) materials were conducted to illustrate the effects of mixing ratio, definition of the stress-strain curve, and the strain rate on the elastic modulus and stress-strain curve. PDMS specimens were prepared according to the ASTM standards for elastic materials. Our results indicate that the physiological elastic modulus depends strongly on the definition of the stress-strain curve, mixing ratio, and the strain rate. For various mixing ratios and strain rates, true stress-strain definition results in higher stress and elastic modulus compared with engineering stress-strain and true stress-engineering strain definitions. The elastic modulus increases as the mixing ratio increases up-to 9:1 ratio after which the elastic modulus begins to decrease even as the mixing ratio continues to increase. The results presented in this study will be helpful to assist the design of in vitro experiments to mimic blood flow in arteries and to understand the complex interaction between blood flow and the walls of arteries using PDMS elastomer.

  13. A simple and cost-effective method for fabrication of integrated electronic-microfluidic devices using a laser-patterned PDMS layer

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Ming

    2011-12-03

    We report a simple and cost-effective method for fabricating integrated electronic-microfluidic devices with multilayer configurations. A CO 2 laser plotter was employed to directly write patterns on a transferred polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, which served as both a bonding and a working layer. The integration of electronics in microfluidic devices was achieved by an alignment bonding of top and bottom electrode-patterned substrates fabricated with conventional lithography, sputtering and lift-off techniques. Processes of the developed fabrication method were illustrated. Major issues associated with this method as PDMS surface treatment and characterization, thickness-control of the transferred PDMS layer, and laser parameters optimization were discussed, along with the examination and testing of bonding with two representative materials (glass and silicon). The capability of this method was further demonstrated by fabricating a microfluidic chip with sputter-coated electrodes on the top and bottom substrates. The device functioning as a microparticle focusing and trapping chip was experimentally verified. It is confirmed that the proposed method has many advantages, including simple and fast fabrication process, low cost, easy integration of electronics, strong bonding strength, chemical and biological compatibility, etc. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

  14. A High-Performance Recycling Solution for Polystyrene Achieved by the Synthesis of Renewable Poly(thioether) Networks Derived from d-Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Landon D.; Rodriguez, Jennifer N.; Lonnecker, Alexander T.; Raymond, Jeffery E.; Wilson, Thomas S.; Wooley, Karen L.; Maitland, Duncan J.

    2014-01-01

    Nanocomposite polymers have been prepared using a new sustainable materials synthesis process in which d-Limonene functions simultaneously both as a solvent for recycling polystyrene (PS) waste and as a monomer that undergoes UV-catalyzed thiol-ene polymerization reactions with polythiol co-monomers to afford polymeric products comprised of precipitated PS phases dispersed throughout elastomeric poly(thioether) networks. These blended networks exhibit mechanical properties that greatly exceed those of either polystyrene or the poly(thioether) network homopolymers alone. PMID:24249666

  15. Seguimiento por espectroscopia infrarroja (FT-IR de la copolimerización de TEOS (tetraetilortosilicato y PDMS (polidimetilsiloxano en presencia de tbt (tetrabutiltitanio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téllez, L.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid materials have been prepared in this work through the reactions of Si and Ti alkoxides (TEOS and TBT, respectively and polydimethil siloxane (PDMS. These reactions have been studied by means of FT-IR spectroscopy during the whole reaction time. The hydrolysis of TEOS molecule has been followed by the 880 cm-1 band, and the self-condensation reactions through the 1180 and 1150 cm-1 bands. Polycondesation reaction between Si-OH groups and PDMS molecules has been followed by the 850 cm-1 band. On the other hand, the hydrolysis reaction of TBT and the self-condensation of Ti-OH groups have been followed by the 1130 and 770-510 cm-1 bands, respectively. Finally the condensation reaction between Si-OH and Ti-OH groups have been studied by the 936 cm-1 band. Results have shown that hydrolysis and condensation reactions are depending on TBT concentration. The formation of Si-O-Si cross-linked structures increases with the TBT concentrations in the reaction. The selfcondensation reaction of Si-OH grups or Ti-OH grous is very reapid forming Si-O-Si and Ti-O-Ti bonds, respectively. However, the Si-O-Ti bonds which are formed during the first moments of reaction are also rapidly broken due to H2O molecules or the reaction medium. The evolution of PDMS linear and cyclic molecules is also studied.

    Se han preparado materiales híbridos por medio de reacciones de hidrólisis y condensación de alcóxidos de Si y Ti (TEOS y TBT, respectivamente y de reacciones de copolimerización de éstos con polidimetilsiloxano (PDMS. Se han estudiado las citadas reacciones mediante espectroscopia FT-IR, desde el mismo comienzo hasta la obtención del material final. La hidrólisis del TEOS así como la autocondensación del os grupos Si-OH generados tanto para formar cadenas entrecruzadas como lineales se han seguido mediante las bandas situadas a 880, 1180 y 1150 cm-1, respectivamente. La policondensación de dichos grupos con PDMS se ha seguido por la banda a

  16. A new water absorbable mechanical Epidermal skin equivalent: the combination of hydrophobic PDMS and hydrophilic PVA hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Hurtado, M; Zeng, X; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, P; Ten Elshof, J E; van der Heide, E

    2015-06-01

    Research on human skin interactions with healthcare and lifestyle products is a topic continuously attracting scientific studies over the past years. It is possible to evaluate skin mechanical properties based on human or animal experimentation, yet in addition to possible ethical issues, these samples are hard to obtain, expensive and give rise to highly variable results. Therefore, the design of a skin equivalent is essential. This paper describes the design and characterization of a new Epidermal Skin Equivalent (ESE). The material resembles the properties of epidermis and is a first approach to mimic the mechanical properties of the human skin structure, variable with the length scale. The ESE is based on a mixture of Polydimethyl Siloxane (PDMS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) hydrogel cross-linked with Glutaraldehyde (GA). It was chemically characterized by XPS and FTIR measurements and its cross section was observed by macroscopy and cryoSEM. Confocal Microscope analysis on the surface of the ESE showed an arithmetic roughness (Ra) between 14-16 μm and contact angle (CA) values between 50-60°, both of which are close to the values of in vivo human skins reported in the literature. The Equilibrium Water Content (ECW) was around 33.8% and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) confirmed the composition of the ESE samples. Moreover, the mechanical performance was determined by indentation tests and Dynamo Thermo Mechanical Analysis (DTMA) shear measurements. The indentation results were in good agreement with that of the target epidermis reported in the literature with an elastic modulus between 0.1-1.5 MPa and it showed dependency on the water content. According to the DTMA measurements, the ESE exhibits a viscoelastic behavior, with a shear modulus between 1-2.5MPa variable with temperature, frequency and the hydration of the samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Biomimetic PDMS-hydroxyurethane terminated with catecholic moieties for chemical grafting on transition metal oxide-based surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguiar, Kelen R.; Rischka, Klaus; Gätjen, Linda; Noeske, Paul-Ludwig Michael; Cavalcanti, Welchy Leite; Rodrigues-Filho, Ubirajara P.

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this work was to synthesize a non-isocyanate poly(dimethylsiloxane) hydroxyurethane with biomimetic terminal catechol moieties, as a candidate for inorganic and metallic surface modification. Such surface modifier is capable to strongly attach onto metallic and inorganic substrates forming layers and, in addition, providing water-repellent surfaces. The non-isocyanate route is based on carbon dioxide cycloaddition into bis-epoxide, resulting in a precursor bis(cyclic carbonate)-polydimethylsiloxane (CCPDMS), thus fully replacing isocyanate in the manufacture process. A biomimetic approach was chosen with the molecular composition being inspired by terminal peptides present in adhesive proteins of mussels, like Mefp (Mytilus edulis foot protein), which bear catechol moieties and are strong adhesives even under natural and saline water. The catechol terminal groups were grafted by aminolysis reaction into a polydimethylsiloxane backbone. The product, PDMSUr-Dopamine, presented high affinity towards inhomogeneous alloy surfaces terminated by native oxide layers as demonstrated by quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D), as well as stability against desorption by rinsing with ethanol. As revealed by QCM-D, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and computational studies, the thickness and composition of the resulting nanolayers indicated an attachment of PDMSUr-Dopamine molecules to the substrate through both terminal catechol groups, with the adsorbate exposing the hydrophobic PDMS backbone. This hypothesis was investigated by classical molecular dynamic simulation (MD) of pure PDMSUr-Dopamine molecules on SiO2 surfaces. The computationally obtained PDMSUr-Dopamine assembly is in agreement with the conclusions from the experiments regarding the conformation of PDMSUr-Dopamine towards the surface. The tendency of the terminal catechol groups to approach the surface is in agreement with proposed model for the attachment PDMSUr-Dopamine. Remarkably, the versatile

  18. Sticky or Slippery Wetting: Network Formation Conditions Can Provide a One-Way Street for Water Flow on Platinum-cured Silicone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenyu; Nair, Sithara S; Veeravalli, Sharon; Moseh, Patricia; Wynne, Kenneth J

    2016-06-08

    In the course of studies on Sylgard 184 (S-PDMS), we discovered strong effects on receding contact angles (CAs), θrec, while cure conditions have little effect on advancing CAs. Network formation at high temperatures resulted in high θadv of 115-120° and high θrec ≥ 80°. After network formation at low temperatures (≤25 °C), θadv was still high but θrec was 30-50°. Uncertainty about compositional effects on wetting behavior resulted in similar experiments with a model D(V)D(H) silicone elastomer (Pt-PDMS) composed of a vinyl-terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) base and a polymeric hydromethylsilane cross-linker. Again, network formation at high temperature (∼100 °C) resulted in high CAs, while low-temperature curing retained high advancing CAs but gave low receding CAs (θrec 30-50°). These changes in receding CAs translate to strong effects on water adhesion, wp, which is the actual work required to separate a liquid (water) from a surface: wp ∝ (1 + θrec). When the values θrec 84° for high-temperature and θrec 50° for low-temperature network formation are used, wp is ∼1.5 times higher for curing at low temperature. The origin of low receding contact angles was investigated by attenuated total reflectance IR spectroscopy. Absorptions for Si-OH hydrogen-bonded to water (3350 cm(-1)) were stronger for low- versus high-temperature curing. This result is attributed to faster hydrosilylation during curing at higher temperatures that consumes Si-H before autoxidation to Si-OH. Sharp bands at 3750 and 3690 cm(-1) due to isolated -Si-OH are more prominent for Pt-PDMS than those for S-PDMS, which may be due to an effect of functionalized nanofiller. To explore the impact of wp on water droplet flow, gradient coatings of S-PDMS and Pt-PDMS elastomers were prepared by coating a slide, maintaining opposite ends at high and low temperatures and thus forming a thermal gradient. When the slide was tilted, a droplet moved easily on the high

  19. Evaluation of the Performance of O-rings Made with Different Elastomeric Polymers in Simulated Geothermal Environments at 300°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pyatina, Tatiana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Redline, Erica Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McElhanon, James R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the survival of O-rings made with six different elastomeric polymers, EPDM, type I- and II-FKM, FEPM, FFKM, and FSR, in five different simulated geothermal environments at 300°C. It further defines the relative strengths and weaknesses of the materials in each environment. The environments tested were: 1) non-aerated steam-cooling cycles, 2) aerated steam-cooling cycles, 3) water-based drilling fluid, 4) CO2-rich geo-brine fluid, and, 5) heat-cool water quenching cycles. Following exposure, the extent of oxidation, oxidationinduced degradation, thermal behaviors, micro-defects, permeation depths of ionic species present in environments throughout the O-ring, silicate-related scale-deposition, and changes in mechanical properties were assessed.

  20. Bio-Inspired Wide-Angle Broad-Spectrum Cylindrical Lens Based on Reflections from Micro-Mirror Array on a Cylindrical Elastomeric Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chieh Huang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We present a wide-angle, broad-spectrum cylindrical lens based on reflections from an array of three-dimensional, high-aspect-ratio micro-mirrors fabricated on a cylindrical elastomeric substrate, functionally inspired by natural reflecting superposition compound eyes. Our device can perform one-dimensional focusing and beam-shaping comparable to conventional refraction-based cylindrical lenses, while avoiding chromatic aberration. The focal length of our cylindrical lens is 1.035 mm, suitable for micro-optical systems. Moreover, it demonstrates a wide field of view of 152° without distortion, as well as modest spherical aberrations. Our work could be applied to diverse applications including laser diode collimation, barcode scanning, holography, digital projection display, microlens arrays, and optical microscopy.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the particle size effect on the performance of an elastomeric half-mask respirator against ultrafine combustion particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xinjian; Grinshpun, Sergey A; Reponen, Tiina; Yermakov, Michael; McKay, Roy; Haruta, Hiroki; Kimura, Kazushi

    2013-08-01

    This study quantified the particle size effect on the performance of elastomeric half-mask respirators, which are widely used by firefighters and first responders exposed to combustion aerosols. One type of elastomeric half-mask respirator equipped with two P-100 filters was donned on a breathing manikin while challenged with three combustion aerosols (originated by burning wood, paper, and plastic). Testing was conducted with respirators that were fully sealed, partially sealed (nose area only), or unsealed to the face of a breathing manikin to simulate different faceseal leakages. Three cyclic flows with mean inspiratory flow (MIF) rates of 30, 85, and 135 L/min were tested for each combination of sealing condition and combustion material. Additional testing was performed with plastic combustion particles at other cyclic and constant flows. Particle penetration was determined by measuring particle number concentrations inside and outside the respirator with size ranges from 20 to 200 nm. Breathing flow rate, particle size, and combustion material all had significant effects on the performance of the respirator. For the partially sealed and unsealed respirators, the penetration through the faceseal leakage reached maximum at particle sizes >100 nm when challenged with plastic aerosol, whereas no clear peaks were observed for wood and paper aerosols. The particles aerosolized by burning plastic penetrated more readily into the unsealed half-mask than those aerosolized by the combustion of wood and paper. The difference may be attributed to the fact that plastic combustion particles differ from wood and paper particles by physical characteristics such as charge, shape, and density. For the partially sealed respirator, the highest penetration values were obtained at MIF = 85 L/min. The unsealed respirator had approximately 10-fold greater penetration than the one partially sealed around the bridge of the nose, which indicates that the nose area was the primary leak

  2. Interpenetrated polymer networks based on commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks with high dielectric permittivity and self-healing properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliani, Elisa; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    the applicability. One method used to avoid this limitation is to increase the dielectric permittivity of the material in order to improve the actuation response at a given field. Recently, interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) based on covalently cross-linked commercial silicone elastomers and ionic networks...... from amino- and carboxylic acid- functional silicones have been designed[2] (Figure 1). This novel system provides both the mechanical stability and the high breakdown strength given by the silicone part of the IPNs and the high permittivity and the softening effect of the ionic network. Thus......,1 Hz), and the commercial elastomers RT625 and LR3043/30 provide thebest viscoelastic properties to the systems, since they maintain low viscous losses upon addition of ionic network. The values ofthe breakdown strength in all cases remain higher than that of the reference pure PDMS network (ranging...

  3. The Effectiveness of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) As Compatibilizer on the Preparation of Betel Nut Fiber (BNF) and Polypropylene (PP) /Polystyrene (PS) Wood Composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nurul Izzaty Khalid; Azizah Baharum; Siti Sarah Ramli; Siti Norhana Mohd Nor

    2014-01-01

    This research was carried out to investigate the effectiveness of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as compatibilizing agent in producing wood composites of betel nut fiber/ polypropylene (BNF/ PP) and betel nut fiber/ polystyrene (BNF/ PS). Wood composite was prepared by blending 40 % of matrix polymer and 60 % of treated and untreated BNF using internal mixer Brabender Plasticoder at 170 degree Celsius with 50 rpm rotor speed for 13 minutes. The treatment was done prior to blending the materials by immersing the BNF in PDMS and HMDSO solutions with 1 %, 3 % and 5 % of concentrations for 24 hours. The effects of 1 % HMDSO treatment on BNF/ PP composite contributed to high flexure strength and impact strength which are 19.2 MPa and 7.9 kJ/M2 respectively while the percentage of water absorption showed the minimum value of 6.7%. The impact strength of BNF/ PS composite treated with 3% HMDSO showed maximum value that is 4.7 kJ/ M 2 and minimum percentage of water absorption, 6.8 %. However, the flexure strength of untreated BNF/ PS composite is higher than treated BNF/ PS composite with value of 4.7 MPa. The morphology of treated BNF/ PP composites from SEM micrographs showed better interface interaction between fibers and matrices. FTIR spectra showed the presence of siloxane groups such as Si-O, Si-CH 3 , Si-(CH 3 ) and Si(CH 3 ) as a result of HMDSO and PDMS treatment. Based on the characterization analysis, HMDSO treated composite of BNF/ PP showed more effective interfacial interaction between BNF and matrices. (author)

  4. Photoelastic studies of some polybutadiene networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark, J E; Llorente, M A [Cincinnati Univ., OH (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1981-06-01

    Two butadiene polymers were used in this investigation, one with 98.5% cis-1,4 units and the other with an approximately equibinary mixture of cis and trans units. Elastomeric networks prepared from these polymers were studied in elongation, in both the swollen and unswollen states over the temperature range -30 to 95/sup 0/C. There is evidence for crystallization in these networks, particularly as manifested by marked increases in birefringence at relatively low elongation and at temperatures as high as 40/sup 0/C. As expected, the birefringence and related quantities were found to be more sensitive to crystallization than the force, with the optical-configuration parameter and the stress-optical coefficient showing the greatest sensitivity. In the case of the cis-trans copolymer, the crystallization involves trans sequences, which are of relatively high melting point, and thus occurs at a temperature higher than for the lower melting cis sequences in the high-cis networks. The results which were free from the effects of network crystallization were used to calculate values of the temperature coefficient of the unperturbed dimensions of the chains, and values of the optical-configuration parameter. These configuration-dependent properties were found to be in satisfactory agreement with previously published theoretical results based on a rotational isomeric state model of these chain molecules.

  5. A novel DC microplasma sensor constructed in a cavity PDMS chamber with needle electrodes for fast detection of methanol-containing spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Dai-bing; Duan, Yi-xiang; He, Yi; Gao, Bo

    2014-12-12

    A novel microplasma device, for the first time, was constructed in a cavity Poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) chamber with two normal syringe needles serve as both the gas channels and the electrodes. This device employs argon plasma with direct current for molecular fragmentation and excitation. The microplasma is generated at atmospheric pressure in the PDMS chamber of 0.5 mL (5 × 10 × 10 mm(3)) volume with a sealable plug. Since the microplasma is maintained in a chamber by separation of the discharge zone and the substrate, stability for a long time of the microplasma is realized which could be observed by argon background emission fluctuation and SEM characterization. This property is beneficial for spectrometric detection of many volatile organics in this chamber. Besides, this kind of microplasma sensor has advantages such as flexibility in replacement of electrodes, convenience in clearance of the discharge chamber, small instrument volume, simple structure, and ease of operation. In addition, methanol-containing spirit samples were chosen to estimate the detecting performance of this microplasma for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) analysis by molecular emission spectrometry. Significant differences are observed upon the introduction of the spirit and the methanol-containing spirit samples. A detection limit of 0.3% is obtained on this microplasma device.

  6. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic membranes based on Pdms/SiC containing phosphotungstic acid as electrolytes for PEM-FC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Guimaraes, Danilo Hansen; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede; Barbosa, Diego Augusto Batista; Paschoal, Carlos William de Araujo; Almeida, Rafael Mendonca; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the development of membranes with potential use in Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (PEM-FC), consisting of hybrid materials based on poly(dimethylsiloxane), crosslinked with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and reinforced with silicon carbide and phosphotungstic acid. The membrane series PDMS/TEOS/SiC/PWA were prepared by the reaction of PDMS and TEOS, 70/30% proportions in mass, catalyzed by dibutyltin dilaurate. SiC was incorporated in a 25% proportion, and PWA in varied proportions (5, 10, 15 and 20%), by weight. The membranes were characterized by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. SiC and PWA addition to the membrane increased both structure organization and material crystallinity. The insertion of PWA provided an increase in the conductivity. However, maximum conductivity was obtained with concentration levels above 10%. The insertion of SiC associated with the PWA did not influence the conductivity for concentrations between 10 and 20%. (author)

  7. A PDMS/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic biochip integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide nano-biosensors for one-step multiplexed pathogen detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Peng; Li, XiuJun; Dominguez, Delfina C; Ye, Bang-Ce

    2013-10-07

    Infectious pathogens often cause serious public health concerns throughout the world. There is an increasing demand for simple, rapid and sensitive approaches for multiplexed pathogen detection. In this paper we have developed a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)/paper/glass hybrid microfluidic system integrated with aptamer-functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nano-biosensors for simple, one-step, multiplexed pathogen detection. The paper substrate used in this hybrid microfluidic system facilitated the integration of aptamer biosensors on the microfluidic biochip, and avoided complicated surface treatment and aptamer probe immobilization in a PDMS or glass-only microfluidic system. Lactobacillus acidophilus was used as a bacterium model to develop the microfluidic platform with a detection limit of 11.0 cfu mL(-1). We have also successfully extended this method to the simultaneous detection of two infectious pathogens - Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella enterica. This method is simple and fast. The one-step 'turn on' pathogen assay in a ready-to-use microfluidic device only takes ~10 min to complete on the biochip. Furthermore, this microfluidic device has great potential in rapid detection of a wide variety of different other bacterial and viral pathogens.

  8. Sponge-Templated Macroporous Graphene Network for Piezoelectric ZnO Nanogenerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinda; Chen, Yi; Kumar, Amit; Mahmoud, Ahmed; Nychka, John A; Chung, Hyun-Joong

    2015-09-23

    We report a simple approach to fabricate zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowire based electricity generators on three-dimensional (3D) graphene networks by utilizing a commercial polyurethane (PU) sponge as a structural template. Here, a 3D network of graphene oxide is deposited from solution on the template and then is chemically reduced. Following steps of ZnO nanowire growth, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) backfilling and electrode lamination completes the fabrication processes. When compared to conventional generators with 2D planar geometry, the sponge template provides a 3D structure that has a potential to increase power density per unit area. The modified one-pot ZnO synthesis method allows the whole process to be inexpensive and environmentally benign. The nanogenerator yields an open circuit voltage of ∼0.5 V and short circuit current density of ∼2 μA/cm(2), while the output was found to be consistent after ∼3000 cycles. Finite element analysis of stress distribution showed that external stress is concentrated to deform ZnO nanowires by orders of magnitude compared to surrounding PU and PDMS, in agreement with our experiment. It is shown that the backfilled PDMS plays a crucial role for the stress concentration, which leads to an efficient electricity generation.

  9. Novel amphiphilic poly(dimethylsiloxane) based polyurethane networks tethered with carboxybetaine and their combined antibacterial and anti-adhesive property

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingxian; Fu, Yuchen; Zhang, Qinghua; Zhan, Xiaoli; Chen, Fengqiu

    2017-08-01

    The traditional nonfouling materials are powerless against bacterial cells attachment, while the hydrophobic bactericidal surfaces always suffer from nonspecific protein adsorption and dead bacterial cells accumulation. Here, amphiphilic polyurethane (PU) networks modified with poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and cationic carboxybetaine diol through simple crosslinking reaction were developed, which had an antibacterial efficiency of 97.7%. Thereafter, the hydrolysis of carboxybetaine ester into zwitterionic groups brought about anti-adhesive properties against bacteria and proteins. The surface chemical composition and wettability performance of the PU network surfaces were investigated by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle analysis. The surface distribution of PDMS and zwitterionic segments produced an obvious amphiphilic heterogeneous surface, which was demonstrated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were used to test the nonspecific protein adsorption behaviors. With the advantages of the transition from excellent bactericidal performance to anti-adhesion and the combination of fouling resistance and fouling release property, the designed PDMS-based amphiphilic PU network shows great application potential in biomedical devices and marine facilities.

  10. Percentual de degradação das forças liberadas por ligaduras elásticas Force decay rate of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Volles de Souza

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar ligaduras elásticas da marca Morelli, dos tipos modular e bengala, nas cores cinza e cristal para determinação do percentual de degradação das forças geradas pelas mesmas. METODOLOGIA: as ligaduras elásticas foram estiradas em estiletes de aço inoxidável com diâmetro de 4mm, imersas em solução de saliva artificial a 37ºC, sendo a intensidade das forças liberadas medidas nos tempos de zero hora, 24 horas, 1 semana, 2 semanas, 3 semanas e 4 semanas, em máquina de ensaios de tração. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: as ligaduras do tipo bengala liberaram, em média e no período de 4 semanas, maior intensidade de força que as do tipo modular. O percentual de degradação das forças liberadas por todas as ligaduras aumentou de forma acentuada entre zero e 24 horas e de forma gradativa após este período, com exceção do 28º dia quando, provavelmente, houve perda das propriedades elásticas das ligaduras. Não foi observado um comportamento constante das ligaduras bengala e modular em relação às cores cinza e cristal.PURPOSE: to evaluate gray and clear module and cane-loaded elastomeric ligatures of the brand Morelli to determine the percentage of decay of the forces they deliver. METHODS: the elastomeric ligatures were stretched over 4mm diameter stainless steel dowels and placed in synthetic saliva bath at 37ºC. The intensity of the forces delivered were taken at start, after 24 hours, one week, two weeks, three weeks and four weeks at a tensile test machine. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: the cane-loaded ligatures delivered, in a period of 4 weeks, in average, greater force intensity than the modules. The percentage of force decay of all ligatures increased rapidly between zero and 24 hours and gradually after that period, except for the 28th day, when probably there was a loss of elastic properties of the ligatures. The researchers did not note any constant behavior in the cane-loaded and module ligatures in relation

  11. SANS from interpenetrating polymer networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markotsis, M.G.; Burford, R.P.; Knott, R.B.; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW; Hanley, T.L.; CRC for Polymers,; Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, NSW; Papamanuel, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) have been formed by combining two polymeric systems in order to gain enhanced material properties. IPNs are a combination of two or more polymers in network form with one network polymerised and/or crosslinked in the immediate presence of the other(s).1 IPNs allow better blending of two or more crosslinked networks. In this study two sets of IPNs were produced and their microstructure studied using a variety of techniques including small angle neutron scattering (SANS). The first system combined a glassy polymer (polystyrene) with an elastomeric polymer (SBS) with the glassy polymer predominating, to give a high impact plastic. The second set of IPNs contained epichlorohydrin (CO) and nitrile rubber (NBR), and was formed in order to produce novel materials with enhanced chemical and gas barrier properties. In both cases if the phase mixing is optimised the probability of controlled morphologies and synergistic behaviour is increased. The PS/SBS IPNs were prepared using sequential polymerisation. The primary SBS network was thermally crosslinked, then the polystyrene network was polymerised and crosslinked using gamma irradiation to avoid possible thermal degradation of the butadiene segment of the SBS. Tough transparent systems were produced with no apparent thermal degradation of the polybutadiene segments. The epichlorohydrin/nitrile rubber IPNs were formed by simultaneous thermal crosslinking reactions. The epichlorohydrin network was formed using lead based crosslinker, while the nitrile rubber was crosslinked by peroxide methods. The use of two different crosslinking systems was employed in order to achieve independent crosslinking thus resulting in an IPN with minimal grafting between the component networks. SANS, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to examine the size and shape of the phase domains and investigate any variation with crosslinking level and

  12. Continuous Acetone–Butanol–Ethanol (ABE) Fermentation with in Situ Solvent Recovery by Silicalite-1 Filled PDMS/PAN Composite Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jing; Chen, Xiangrong; Qi, Benkun

    2014-01-01

    The pervaporation (PV) performance of a thin-film silicalite-1 filled PDMS/PAN composite membrane was investigated in the continuous acetone–butanol–ethanol (ABE) production by a fermentation–PV coupled process. Results showed that continuous removal of ABE from the broth at three different...... dilution rates greatly increased both the solvent productivity and the glucose utilization rate, in comparison to the control batch fermentation. The high solvent productivity reduced the acid accumulation in the broths because most acids were reassimilated by cells for ABE production. Therefore, a higher...... total solvent yield of 0.37 g/g was obtained in the fermentation–PV coupled process, with a highly concentrated condensate containing 89.11–160.00 g/L ABE. During 268 h of the fermentation–PV coupled process, the PV membrane showed a high ABE separation factor of more than 30 and a total flux of 486...

  13. Fabrication of FDTS-modified PDMS-ZnO nanocomposite hydrophobic coating with anti-fouling capability for corrosion protection of Q235 steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arukalam, Innocent O; Oguzie, Emeka E; Li, Ying

    2016-12-15

    Perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane-based poly(dimethylsiloxane)-ZnO (FDTS-based PDMS-ZnO) nanocomposite coating with anti-corrosion and anti-fouling capabilities has been prepared using a one-step fabrication technique. XPS analysis and contact angle measurements showed the fluorine content to increase, while the hydrophobicity of the coatings decreased with addition of FDTS. XRD analysis revealed existence of ZnO nanoparticles of dimensions ranging from 11.45 to 93.01nm on the surface of coatings, with the mean particle size decreasing with FDTS addition, and was confirmed by SEM and TEM observations. Interestingly, the anti-corrosion performance and mechanical properties of the coatings increased remarkably on addition of FDTS. Indeed, the observed low adhesion strength, surface energies and the outstanding anti-corrosive properties imply that the obtained coating would be useful in anti-fouling applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contact behavior analysis of elastomeric x-ring under uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure before and after forcing-out using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, Alunda Ouma [Dedan Kimathi University of Technology, Nyeri (Kenya); Hawong, Jai Sug; Dong, Bai [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dong Chul [Koje College, Geoje (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Many different types of elastomeric rings have been developed to suit various needs in industry. The X-ring was introduced as a result of the limitations of O-rings that twist, especially during dynamic application. A better understanding of the behavior and the stress distribution of the X-ring under a uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure is needed. We analyzed the contact stresses and internal stresses developed in an X-ring before and after forcing-out by using the photoelastic experimental hybrid method, ascertained the packing ability of an X-ring, and studied the failure criterion of an X-ring under uniform squeeze rate and internal pressure. Forcing-out in the X-ring occurred when the internal pressure was 3.92 MPa. After forcing-out, at an internal pressure of 5.88 MPa, the two lobes on the upper contact surface merged one contact side of the upper side immensely. Even after extrusion of the X-ring, the X-ring can be used to effectively contain the fluid. This is because the effects of extrusion on the X-ring affected the stress distribution of only two lobes close to the assembly gap and the two lobes are merge into one lobe. In addition, our experimental results show that the maximum shear failure criterion is suitable for the prediction of failure in X-ring seals.

  15. Evaluation and characterization of ceramic membranes based on Pdms/SiC containing phosphotungstic acid as electrolytes for PEM-FC; Avaliacao e caracterizacao de membranas ceramicas condutoras a base de PDMS/SiC contendo acido fosfotungstico como eletrolito para PEM-FC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Marcelo de Oliveira; Guimaraes, Danilo Hansen; Boaventura Filho, Jaime Soares; Jose, Nadia Mamede [Universidade Federal da Bahia (IQ/UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Grupo de Energia e Ciencias dos Materiais; Barbosa, Diego Augusto Batista; Paschoal, Carlos William de Araujo [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (DF/UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Almeida, Rafael Mendonca; Tanaka, Auro Atsushi [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (DQ/UFMA), Sao Luis, MA (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the development of membranes with potential use in Proton Exchange Fuel Cells (PEM-FC), consisting of hybrid materials based on poly(dimethylsiloxane), crosslinked with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and reinforced with silicon carbide and phosphotungstic acid. The membrane series PDMS/TEOS/SiC/PWA were prepared by the reaction of PDMS and TEOS, 70/30% proportions in mass, catalyzed by dibutyltin dilaurate. SiC was incorporated in a 25% proportion, and PWA in varied proportions (5, 10, 15 and 20%), by weight. The membranes were characterized by Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy and impedance spectroscopy. SiC and PWA addition to the membrane increased both structure organization and material crystallinity. The insertion of PWA provided an increase in the conductivity. However, maximum conductivity was obtained with concentration levels above 10%. The insertion of SiC associated with the PWA did not influence the conductivity for concentrations between 10 and 20%. (author)

  16. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  17. Estudio por espectroscopía infrarroja de la reacción de hidrólisis y policondensación del IEOS en presencia de PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velasco, M. J.

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we have studied, by FT-IR Spectroscopy, the influence of the molecular weight of organic polymers (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS in the hydrolysis and polycondensation reactions of tetraethylortosilicate (TEOS in acid medium. Following of the bands located at 880, 1180 and 850 cm- 1, the hydrolysis and selfcondensation of TEOS process and copolymerization between TEOS and PDMS respectively can be studied. The rates of hydrolysis and self-condensation of TEOS are not affected by the presence of the polymer. However , the reaction of copolymerization between TEOS and PDMS decreases when the molecular weight of polymer increase, and this is due to both the diferences in the concentration of silanol end groups of polymer and polymer viscosity. The materials obtained from high molecular weight (18000 and 26000 g/mol have gelification times as TEOS. On the other hand the gelification time decreases when polymers of lower molecular weight ( 550 and 1700 g/mol are used. This work shows that FT-IR Spectroscopy can be applied to investigate the sol-gel reactions.

    En este trabajo se ha estudiado mediante Espectroscopía Infrarroja por transformada de Fourier la influencia del peso molecular de polímeros orgánicos (PDMS en la velocidad de hidrólisis y policondensación de Tetraetilortosilicato (TEOS en medio acuoso ácido. La evolución de las bandas situadas a 880, 1180 y 850 cm- 1 permite estudiar los procesos de hidrólisis, autocondensación y copolimerización respectivamente. La velocidad de hidrólisis y la autocondensación de TEOS no se afecta por la presencia de polímero. Sin embargo la reacción de copolimerización TEOS-PDMS disminuye al aumentar el peso molecular del polímero lo que es debido a diferencias en la concentración de grupos -OH de final de cadena del polímero y a la viscosidad de dichos polímeros. Los materiales obtenidos a partir de PDMS de alto peso molecular (18000 y 26000 g/mol presentan tiempos de

  18. Protocol for a randomised crossover trial to evaluate patient and nurse satisfaction with electronic and elastomeric portable infusion pumps for the continuous administration of antibiotic therapy in the home: the Comparing Home Infusion Devices (CHID) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Jodie G; Ryan, Melissa K; Ritchie, Brett; Sluggett, Janet K; Sluggett, Andrew J; Ralton, Lucy; Reynolds, Karen J

    2017-07-31

    Previous studies comparing satisfaction with electronic and elastomeric infusion pumps are limited, and improvements in size and usability of electronic pumps have since occurred. The Comparing Home Infusion Devices (CHID) study plans to assess patient and nurse satisfaction with an elastomeric and electronic pump for delivering intravenous antibiotic treatment in the home. Secondary objectives are to determine pump-related complications and actual antibiotic dose administered, evaluate temperature variation and compare pump operating costs. The CHID study will be a randomised, crossover trial. A trained research nurse will recruit patients with infectious disease aged ≥18 years and prescribed ≥8 days of continuous intravenous antibiotic therapy from the Royal Adelaide Hospital (RAH) (Adelaide, Australia). Patients will be randomised to receive treatment at home via an elastomeric (Baxter Infusor) or an electronic (ambIT Continuous) infusion pump for 4-7 days, followed by the other for a further 4-7 days. Patient satisfaction will be assessed by a 10-item survey to be completed at the end of each arm. Nurse satisfaction will be assessed by a single 24-item survey. Patient logbooks and case notes from clinic visits will be screened to identify complications. Pumps/infusion bags will be weighed to estimate the volume of solution delivered. Temperature sensors will record skin and ambient temperatures during storage and use of the pumps throughout the infusion period. Costs relating to pumps, consumables, antibiotics and servicing will be determined. Descriptive statistics will summarise study data. This study has been approved by the RAH Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC/16/RAH/133 R20160420, version 6.0, 5 September 2016). Study results will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. The CHID study will provide key insights into patient and provider satisfaction with elastomeric and electronic infusion pumps and inform

  19. New Elastomeric Materials Based on Natural Rubber Obtained by Electron Beam Irradiation for Food and Pharmaceutical Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Craciun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of polyfunctional monomers as cross-linking co-agents on the chemical properties of natural rubber vulcanized by electron beam irradiation was studied. The following polyfunctional monomers were used: trimethylolpropane-trimethacrylate, zinc-diacrylate, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, triallylcyanurate and triallylisocyanurate. The electron beam treatment was done using irradiation doses in the range of 75 kGy–300 kGy. The gel fraction, crosslink density and effects of different aqueous solutions, by absorption tests, have been investigated as a function of polyfunctional monomers type and absorbed dose. The samples gel fraction and crosslink density were determined on the basis of equilibrium solvent-swelling measurements by applying the modified Flory–Rehner equation for tetra functional networks. The absorption tests were done in accordance with the SR ISI 1817:2015 using distilled water, acetic acid (10%, sodium hydroxide (1%, ethylic alcohol (96%, physiological serum (sodium chloride 0.9% and glucose (glucose monohydrate 10%. The samples structure and morphology were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy techniques.

  20. Model Amphiphilic Block Copolymers with Tailored Molecular Weight and Composition in PDMS-Based Films to Limit Soft Biofouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenning, Brandon M. [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Pisa 56124, Italy; Martinelli, Elisa [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Pisa 56124, Italy; Mieszkin, Sophie [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 5TT, U.K.; Finlay, John A. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 5TT, U.K.; Fischer, Daniel [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States; Callow, James A. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 5TT, U.K.; Callow, Maureen E. [School of Biosciences, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 5TT, U.K.; Leonardi, Amanda K.; Ober, Christopher K.; Galli, Giancarlo [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Università di Pisa, Pisa 56124, Italy

    2017-05-02

    A set of controlled surface composition films was produced utilizing amphiphilic block copolymers dispersed in a cross-linked poly(dimethylsiloxane) network. These block copolymers contained oligo(ethylene glycol) (PEGMA) and fluoroalkyl (AF6) side chains in selected ratios and molecular weights to control surface chemistry including antifouling and fouling-release performance. Such properties were assessed by carrying out assays using two algae, the green macroalga Ulva linza (favors attachment to polar surfaces) and the unicellular diatom Navicula incerta (favors attachment to nonpolar surfaces). All films performed well against U. linza and exhibited high removal of attached sporelings (young plants) under an applied shear stress, with the lower molecular weight block copolymers being the best performing in the set. The composition ratios from 50:50 to 60:40 of the AF6/PEGMA side groups were shown to be more effective, with several films exhibiting spontaneous removal of the sporelings. The cells of N. incerta were also removed from several coating compositions. All films were characterized by surface techniques including captive bubble contact angle, atomic force microscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy to correlate surface chemistry and morphology with biological performance.

  1. Developed a needle trap device with PDMS sorbent for microextraction of toluene and methyl ethyl ketone from aquatic samples using dynamic headspace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Karimi Zeverdegani

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to the widespread use of toxic chemicals in most workplaces that can lead to toxic effects on human, various chemical extraction technique have been defined for analysis these toxic substances in air, water and biological samples. The purpose of this research is extraction of  toluene and methyl ethyl ketone from aquatic samples with needle trap device and  one commercial sorbent. Methods: In this research, needle trap device was used to extraction of  toluene and methyl ethyl ketone in aquatic samples, so needles(size 20 were packed with PDMS and extraction was done with dynamic headspace needle trap device. Gas chromatography with - flame ionization detector was used to analysis and optimized extraction of two substances were obtained. Results: Results show that the optimum temperature and time extraction was similar for toluene and methyl ethyl ketone (30 ° C, 30 min, but the reproducibility of results and calibration curve that obtained for toluene was better than methyl ethyl ketone. Conclusion: Needle trap technique is inexpensive, sensitive and portable also this method has good recovery to extract small amounts of  toluene and methyl ethyketon from aquatic samples with polydimethylsiloxane.

  2. Low-temperature plasma etching of high aspect-ratio densely packed 15 to sub-10 nm silicon features derived from PS-PDMS block copolymer patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zuwei; Sassolini, Simone; Olynick, Deirdre L; Gu, Xiaodan; Hwu, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The combination of block copolymer (BCP) lithography and plasma etching offers a gateway to densely packed sub-10 nm features for advanced nanotechnology. Despite the advances in BCP lithography, plasma pattern transfer remains a major challenge. We use controlled and low substrate temperatures during plasma etching of a chromium hard mask and then the underlying substrate as a route to high aspect ratio sub-10 nm silicon features derived from BCP lithography. Siloxane masks were fabricated using poly(styrene-b-siloxane) (PS-PDMS) BCP to create either line-type masks or, with the addition of low molecular weight PS-OH homopolymer, dot-type masks. Temperature control was essential for preventing mask migration and controlling the etched feature’s shape. Vertical silicon wire features (15 nm with feature-to-feature spacing of 26 nm) were etched with aspect ratios up to 17 : 1; higher aspect ratios were limited by the collapse of nanoscale silicon structures. Sub-10 nm fin structures were etched with aspect ratios greater than 10 : 1. Transmission electron microscopy images of the wires reveal a crystalline silicon core with an amorphous surface layer, just slightly thicker than a native oxide. (paper)

  3. PDMS-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-CaO hybrid materials – Cytocompatibility and nanoscale surface features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, J. Carlos [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Wacha, András [Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok körútja 2, Budapest 1117 (Hungary); Gomes, Pedro S.; Fernandes, M. Helena R. [Laboratory for Bone Metabolism and Regeneration, Faculdade de Medicina Dentária, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Fernandes, M. Helena Vaz [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt [CICECO - Aveiro Institute of Materials, Department of Materials and Ceramic Engineering, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-07-01

    Two PDMS-SiO{sub 2}-TiO{sub 2}-CaO porous hybrid materials were prepared using the same base composition, precursors, and solvents, but following two different sol-gel procedures, based on the authors' previous works where for the first time, in this hybrid system, calcium acetate was used as calcium source. The two different procedures resulted in monolithic materials with different structures, microstructures, and surface wettability. Even though both are highly hydrophobic (contact angles of 127.2° and 150.6°), and present different filling regimes due to different surface topographies, they have demonstrated to be cytocompatible when tested with human osteoblastic cells, against the accepted idea that high-hydrophobic surfaces are not suitable to cell adhesion and proliferation. At the nanoscale, the existence of hydrophilic silica domains containing calcium, where water molecules are physisorbed, is assumed to support this capability, as discussed. - Highlights: • Two hybrid materials were prepared following two different sol-gel procedures. • Both are highly hydrophobic but demonstrated to be cytocompatible. • Different filling regimes were observed.

  4. Estudo comparativo entre as diferentes cores de ligaduras elásticas Comparative study of different colors of molded elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Martins e Martins

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar as diversas cores de ligaduras elásticas do tipo modular da marca Morelli. METODOLOGIA: estas ligaduras foram estiradas em cilindros de aço inoxidável com diâmetro aproximado de um braquete de incisivo central superior, imersas em saliva artificial a 37ºC e tiveram suas forças medidas em uma máquina de ensaios de tração, antes da colocação nos estiletes (0h e após 24 horas de imersão em saliva artificial. Os resultados foram obtidos através de um computador que opera conectado à máquina de tração e foram submetidos a testes estatísticos (ANOVA e Tuckey com pAIM: the purpose of this study was to evaluate the different colors of molded elastomerics ligatures from Morelli trademark. METHODS: the ligatures were stretched over stainless dowels with a circumference approximating that of upper central incisor bracket. They were immersed in a synthetic saliva bath at 37ºC and had force levels measured at initial (0h and after 24 hours of immersion. The results were obtained from a computer connected to a traction machine and were submitted to statistical analysis (ANOVA e Tuckey with p<0.05. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: the medium values were md=0.3792KgF for 0h and md=0.1286KgF for 24h and the percentage of force decay were 66.07% ± 2.31%. The results revealed statically differences between forces delivered in 0h and 24h. At 0h, there were differences statistically significance between some colors of ligatures before the action of the time and the immersion in artificial saliva bath, with higher values for the pearl (md=0.4024KgF and minors values for the slight green (md=0.3511KgF. At 24h, it was also find differences statistically significances between some colors, but the distribution was different than the observed at 0h. The slight green, red, yellow and white colors had the minor percentage of force decay, in which slight green showed the best behavior (62.60%. However, the pearl, silver and gray had the highest

  5. Non-Gaussian theory of rubberlike elasticity based on rotational isomeric state simulations of network chain configurations. II. Bimodal poly(dimethylsiloxane) networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curro, J.G.; Mark, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Bimodal, poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) networks containing a large mole fraction of very short chains have been shown to be unusually tough elastomers. The purpose of this investigation is to understand the rubber elasticity behavior of these bimodal networks. As a first approach, we have assumed that the average chain deformation is affine. This deformation, however, is partitioned nonaffinely between the long and short chains so that the free energy is minimized. Gaussian statistics are used for the long chains. The distribution function for the short chains is found from Monte Carlo calculations. This model predicts an upturn in the stress-strain curve, the steepness depending on the network composition, as is observed experimentally

  6. Photometric flow injection determination of phosphate on a PDMS microchip using an optical detection system assembled with an organic light emitting diode and an organic photodiode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rong; Ishimatsu, Ryoichi; Yahiro, Masayuki; Adachi, Chihaya; Nakano, Koji; Imato, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    A compact photometric detector was constructed from an organic light emitting diode (OLED) based on a europium complex, europium(diben-zoylmethanato)3(bathophenanthroline) (Eu(DBM)3bath), as the light source and an organic photodiode (OPD) fabricated from a hetero-junction of two layers of copper phthalocyanine (CuPc)/fullerene (C60) as the photo-detector on a microchip prepared from poly(dimethylsiloxan) (PDMS) and was applied to the determination of phosphate. The OLED and the OPD were fabricated by a vapor deposition method on an indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrate with the following layered structure; Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/4,4'-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenyl amino]-biphenyl (α-NPD) (30 nm)/4,4'-di(N-carbazolyl)biphenyl (CBP): Eu(3+) (8 wt%, 30 nm)/bathocuproine (BCP) (30 nm)/aluminum tris(8-hydroxyquinoline) (Alq3) (25 nm)/magnesium and silver (MgAg) (100 nm)/Ag (10nm) and Glass (0.7 mm)/ITO (110 nm)/CuPc (35 nm)/C60 (50 nm)/BCP (10 nm)/Ag (50 nm), respectively. The OLED based on the europium complex emitted a sharp light at the wavelength of 612 nm with a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 8 nm. The performance of the photometric detector assembled was evaluated based on measurements of the absorbance of different concentrations of malachite green (MG) solutions for a batch system with 1cm long path length. The molar absorptive coefficient of the MG solution, calculated from the photocurrent of the OPD, was in good agreement with the value reported in the literature. A microchip with two inlets and one outlet U-shaped channel was prepared by a conventional photolithograph method. The OLED and the OPD were configured so as to face each other through the PDMS microchip in parallel in order to align the light axis of the OLED and the OPD with the flow cell (optical path length of 5mm), which was located at the end of outlet. For the determination of phosphate, an ion-association reaction between MG and a molybdenum-phosphate complex was utilized

  7. Declarative Networking

    CERN Document Server

    Loo, Boon Thau

    2012-01-01

    Declarative Networking is a programming methodology that enables developers to concisely specify network protocols and services, which are directly compiled to a dataflow framework that executes the specifications. Declarative networking proposes the use of a declarative query language for specifying and implementing network protocols, and employs a dataflow framework at runtime for communication and maintenance of network state. The primary goal of declarative networking is to greatly simplify the process of specifying, implementing, deploying and evolving a network design. In addition, decla

  8. Elastomeric Materials for Acoustical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-15

    fluorine . The classes of materials marketed as Fluorel and Viton by 3M and DuPont, respectively, are copolymers of vinylidene fluoride and...Street Sullivan Varnish Co. Chicago, IL 60632 420 N. Hiart Street- (312) 523-1412 Chicago, IL 60622 (312) 666-8080 Testworth Laboratories, Inc. 139

  9. Development of Elastomeric Polypeptide Biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    opposite of what is found for the polyelectrolyte mechanochemical system: polymethacrylic acid , (-(COOH)C(CH 3 )-CH 2 - 4 In (10). In this...linked polymethacrylic acid and poly[4(VPGVG),(VPGEG)i systems contract to about one-half their extended length and since both can pick up weights that...mechanical work. For polymethacrylic acid it takes the conversion of some 50 O carboxyfates to carboxyts to do the work, whereas for poty[4(VPGVG

  10. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago Vanderlei; Giannitsarou, Chrysi; Johnson, CR

    2017-01-01

    We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and define a network aggregator that preserves network cohesion.

  11. The network researchers' network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Stephan C.; Jiang, Zhizhong; Naudé, Peter

    2009-01-01

    The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987). In thi......The Industrial Marketing and Purchasing (IMP) Group is a network of academic researchers working in the area of business-to-business marketing. The group meets every year to discuss and exchange ideas, with a conference having been held every year since 1984 (there was no meeting in 1987......). In this paper, based upon the papers presented at the 22 conferences held to date, we undertake a Social Network Analysis in order to examine the degree of co-publishing that has taken place between this group of researchers. We identify the different components in this database, and examine the large main...

  12. Network cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Kitsak, Maksim; Sinkovits, Robert S; Rideout, David; Meyer, David; Boguñá, Marián

    2012-01-01

    Prediction and control of the dynamics of complex networks is a central problem in network science. Structural and dynamical similarities of different real networks suggest that some universal laws might accurately describe the dynamics of these networks, albeit the nature and common origin of such laws remain elusive. Here we show that the causal network representing the large-scale structure of spacetime in our accelerating universe is a power-law graph with strong clustering, similar to many complex networks such as the Internet, social, or biological networks. We prove that this structural similarity is a consequence of the asymptotic equivalence between the large-scale growth dynamics of complex networks and causal networks. This equivalence suggests that unexpectedly similar laws govern the dynamics of complex networks and spacetime in the universe, with implications to network science and cosmology.

  13. Engineering the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Networks with Precise Doping of Primary Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Doreen; Ding, Yichuan; Dauskardt, Reinhold H; Appel, Eric A

    2017-12-06

    Polymer networks are extensively utilized across numerous applications ranging from commodity superabsorbent polymers and coatings to high-performance microelectronics and biomaterials. For many applications, desirable properties are known; however, achieving them has been challenging. Additionally, the accurate prediction of elastic modulus has been a long-standing difficulty owing to the presence of loops. By tuning the prepolymer formulation through precise doping of monomers, specific primary network defects can be programmed into an elastomeric scaffold, without alteration of their resulting chemistry. The addition of these monomers that respond mechanically as primary defects is used both to understand their impact on the resulting mechanical properties of the materials and as a method to engineer the mechanical properties. Indeed, these materials exhibit identical bulk and surface chemistry, yet vastly different mechanical properties. Further, we have adapted the real elastic network theory (RENT) to the case of primary defects in the absence of loops, thus providing new insights into the mechanism for material strength and failure in polymer networks arising from primary network defects, and to accurately predict the elastic modulus of the polymer system. The versatility of the approach we describe and the fundamental knowledge gained from this study can lead to new advancements in the development of novel materials with precisely defined and predictable chemical, physical, and mechanical properties.

  14. Fabrication and characterization of bending and pressure sensors for a soft prosthetic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rui Pedro; Alhais Lopes, Pedro; de Almeida, Anibal T.; Tavakoli, Mahmoud; Majidi, Carmel

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate fabrication, characterization, and implementation of ‘soft-matter’ pressure and bending sensors for a soft robotic hand. The elastomer-based sensors are embedded in a robot finger composed of a 3D printed endoskeleton and covered by an elastomeric skin. Two types of sensors are evaluated, resistive pressure sensors and capacitive pressure sensors. The sensor is fabricated entirely out of insulating and conductive rubber, the latter composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer embedded with a percolating network of structured carbon black (CB). The sensor-integrated fingers have a simple materials architecture, can be fabricated with standard rapid prototyping methods, and are inexpensive to produce. When incorporated into a robotic hand, the CB-PDMS sensors and PDMS carrier medium function as an ‘artificial skin’ for touch and bend detection. Results show improved response with a capacitive sensor architecture, which, unlike a resistive sensor, is robust to electromechanical hysteresis, creep, and drift in the CB-PDMS composite. The sensorized fingers are integrated in an anthropomorphic hand and results for a variety of grasping tasks are presented.

  15. Telecommunication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Iannone, Eugenio

    2011-01-01

    Many argue that telecommunications network infrastructure is the most impressive and important technology ever developed. Analyzing the telecom market's constantly evolving trends, research directions, infrastructure, and vital needs, Telecommunication Networks responds with revolutionized engineering strategies to optimize network construction. Omnipresent in society, telecom networks integrate a wide range of technologies. These include quantum field theory for the study of optical amplifiers, software architectures for network control, abstract algebra required to design error correction co

  16. Temporal networks

    CERN Document Server

    Saramäki, Jari

    2013-01-01

    The concept of temporal networks is an extension of complex networks as a modeling framework to include information on when interactions between nodes happen. Many studies of the last decade examine how the static network structure affect dynamic systems on the network. In this traditional approach  the temporal aspects are pre-encoded in the dynamic system model. Temporal-network methods, on the other hand, lift the temporal information from the level of system dynamics to the mathematical representation of the contact network itself. This framework becomes particularly useful for cases where there is a lot of structure and heterogeneity both in the timings of interaction events and the network topology. The advantage compared to common static network approaches is the ability to design more accurate models in order to explain and predict large-scale dynamic phenomena (such as, e.g., epidemic outbreaks and other spreading phenomena). On the other hand, temporal network methods are mathematically and concept...

  17. Interconnected networks

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This volume provides an introduction to and overview of the emerging field of interconnected networks which include multi layer or multiplex networks, as well as networks of networks. Such networks present structural and dynamical features quite different from those observed in isolated networks. The presence of links between different networks or layers of a network typically alters the way such interconnected networks behave – understanding the role of interconnecting links is therefore a crucial step towards a more accurate description of real-world systems. While examples of such dissimilar properties are becoming more abundant – for example regarding diffusion, robustness and competition – the root of such differences remains to be elucidated. Each chapter in this topical collection is self-contained and can be read on its own, thus making it also suitable as reference for experienced researchers wishing to focus on a particular topic.

  18. Gold Wire-networks: Particle Array Guided Evaporation Lithograpy

    KAUST Repository

    Lone, Saifullah

    2015-06-29

    We exploited the combination of dry deposition of monolayer of 2D (two dimensional) templates, lift-up transfer of 2D template onto flat surfaces and evaporation lithography [1] to fabricate gold micro- and submicron size wire networks. The approach relies upon the defect free dry deposition of 2D monolayer of latex particles [2] on patterned silicon template and flat PDMS-substrate to create square centered and honey-comb wire networks respectively. The process is followed by lift-up transfer of 2D latex crystal on glass substrate. Subsequently, a small amount of AuNP-suspension is doped on top of the transferred crystal; the suspension is allowed to spread instantaneously and dried at low temperature. The liquid evaporates uniformly to the direction perpendicular to glass substrate. During evaporation, AuNPs are de-wetted along with the movement of liquid to self-assemble in-between the inter-particle spaces and therefore, giving rise to liquid-bridge networks which upon delayed evaporation, transforms into wire networks. The approach is used to fabricate both micro- and submicron wire-networks by simply changing the template dimensions. One of the prime motives behind this study is to down-scale the existing particle array template-based evaporation lithography process to fabricate connected gold wire networks at both micro- and submicron scale. Secondly, the idea of combining the patterned silicon wafer with lifted latex particle template creates an opportunity to clean and res-use the patterned wafer more often and thereby, saving fabrication time and resources. Finally, we illustrated the validity of this approach by creating an easy and high-speed approach to develop gold wire networks on a flexible substrate with a thin deposited adhesive. These advances will not only serve as a platform to scale up the production, but also demonstrated that the fabrication method can produce metallic wire networks of different scale and onto a variety of substrates.

  19. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A site-wide network maintenance operation has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the general purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites throughout the day. This upgrade will not affect the Computer Centre itself, Building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments, dedicated networks at the pits. For further details of this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or e-mail mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  20. Network maintenance

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    A site wide network maintenance has been scheduled for Saturday 28 February. Most of the network devices of the General Purpose network will be upgraded to a newer software version, in order to improve our network monitoring capabilities. This will result in a series of short (2-5 minutes) random interruptions everywhere on the CERN sites along this day. This upgrade will not affect: the Computer centre itself, building 613, the Technical Network and the LHC experiments dedicated networks at the pits. Should you need more details on this intervention, please contact Netops by phone 74927 or email mailto:Netops@cern.ch. IT/CS Group

  1. Reconstruction of in-plane strain maps using hybrid dense sensor network composed of sensing skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downey, Austin; Laflamme, Simon; Ubertini, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The authors have recently developed a soft-elastomeric capacitive (SEC)-based thin film sensor for monitoring strain on mesosurfaces. Arranged in a network configuration, the sensing system is analogous to a biological skin, where local strain can be monitored over a global area. Under plane stress conditions, the sensor output contains the additive measurement of the two principal strain components over the monitored surface. In applications where the evaluation of strain maps is useful, in structural health monitoring for instance, such signal must be decomposed into linear strain components along orthogonal directions. Previous work has led to an algorithm that enabled such decomposition by leveraging a dense sensor network configuration with the addition of assumed boundary conditions. Here, we significantly improve the algorithm’s accuracy by leveraging mature off-the-shelf solutions to create a hybrid dense sensor network (HDSN) to improve on the boundary condition assumptions. The system’s boundary conditions are enforced using unidirectional RSGs and assumed virtual sensors. Results from an extensive experimental investigation demonstrate the good performance of the proposed algorithm and its robustness with respect to sensors’ layout. Overall, the proposed algorithm is seen to effectively leverage the advantages of a hybrid dense network for application of the thin film sensor to reconstruct surface strain fields over large surfaces. (paper)

  2. Network Ambivalence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Jagoda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The language of networks now describes everything from the Internet to the economy to terrorist organizations. In distinction to a common view of networks as a universal, originary, or necessary form that promises to explain everything from neural structures to online traffic, this essay emphasizes the contingency of the network imaginary. Network form, in its role as our current cultural dominant, makes scarcely imaginable the possibility of an alternative or an outside uninflected by networks. If so many things and relationships are figured as networks, however, then what is not a network? If a network points towards particular logics and qualities of relation in our historical present, what others might we envision in the future? In  many ways, these questions are unanswerable from within the contemporary moment. Instead of seeking an avant-garde approach (to move beyond networks or opting out of networks (in some cases, to recover elements of pre-networked existence, this essay proposes a third orientation: one of ambivalence that operates as a mode of extreme presence. I propose the concept of "network aesthetics," which can be tracked across artistic media and cultural forms, as a model, style, and pedagogy for approaching interconnection in the twenty-first century. The following essay is excerpted from Network Ambivalence (Forthcoming from University of Chicago Press. 

  3. Network workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Evans, Robert Harry

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the background for, realisation of and author reflections on a network workshop held at ESERA2013. As a new research area in science education, networks offer a unique opportunity to visualise and find patterns and relationships in complicated social or academic network data....... These include student relations and interactions and epistemic and linguistic networks of words, concepts and actions. Network methodology has already found use in science education research. However, while networks hold the potential for new insights, they have not yet found wide use in the science education...... research community. With this workshop, participants were offered a way into network science based on authentic educational research data. The workshop was constructed as an inquiry lesson with emphasis on user autonomy. Learning activities had participants choose to work with one of two cases of networks...

  4. Network Convergence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Network Convergence. User is interested in application and content - not technical means of distribution. Boundaries between distribution channels fade out. Network convergence leads to seamless application and content solutions.

  5. Industrial Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer

    2015-01-01

    Companies organize in a way that involves many activities that are external to the traditional organizational boundaries. This presents challenges to operations management and managing operations involves many issues and actions dealing with external networks. Taking a network perspective changes...

  6. Network Science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leland, Will

    2006-01-01

    OVERVIEW: (1) A committee of technical experts, military officers and R&D managers was assembled by the National Research Council to reach consensus on the nature of networks and network research. (2...

  7. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krigslund, Jeppe; Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2015-01-01

    Software Defined Networking (SDN) and Network Coding (NC) are two key concepts in networking that have garnered a large attention in recent years. On the one hand, SDN's potential to virtualize services in the Internet allows a large flexibility not only for routing data, but also to manage....... This paper advocates for the use of SDN to bring about future Internet and 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The inherent flexibility of both SDN and NC provides a fertile ground to envision more efficient, robust, and secure networking designs, that may also...

  8. Network Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Fujimoto, Richard

    2006-01-01

    "Network Simulation" presents a detailed introduction to the design, implementation, and use of network simulation tools. Discussion topics include the requirements and issues faced for simulator design and use in wired networks, wireless networks, distributed simulation environments, and fluid model abstractions. Several existing simulations are given as examples, with details regarding design decisions and why those decisions were made. Issues regarding performance and scalability are discussed in detail, describing how one can utilize distributed simulation methods to increase the

  9. Technical Network

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    In order to optimise the management of the Technical Network (TN), to facilitate understanding of the purpose of devices connected to the TN and to improve security incident handling, the Technical Network Administrators and the CNIC WG have asked IT/CS to verify the "description" and "tag" fields of devices connected to the TN. Therefore, persons responsible for systems connected to the TN will receive e-mails from IT/CS asking them to add the corresponding information in the network database at "network-cern-ch". Thank you very much for your cooperation. The Technical Network Administrators & the CNIC WG

  10. Spatial networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthélemy, Marc

    2011-02-01

    Complex systems are very often organized under the form of networks where nodes and edges are embedded in space. Transportation and mobility networks, Internet, mobile phone networks, power grids, social and contact networks, and neural networks, are all examples where space is relevant and where topology alone does not contain all the information. Characterizing and understanding the structure and the evolution of spatial networks is thus crucial for many different fields, ranging from urbanism to epidemiology. An important consequence of space on networks is that there is a cost associated with the length of edges which in turn has dramatic effects on the topological structure of these networks. We will thoroughly explain the current state of our understanding of how the spatial constraints affect the structure and properties of these networks. We will review the most recent empirical observations and the most important models of spatial networks. We will also discuss various processes which take place on these spatial networks, such as phase transitions, random walks, synchronization, navigation, resilience, and disease spread.

  11. Network science

    CERN Document Server

    Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Networks are everywhere, from the Internet, to social networks, and the genetic networks that determine our biological existence. Illustrated throughout in full colour, this pioneering textbook, spanning a wide range of topics from physics to computer science, engineering, economics and the social sciences, introduces network science to an interdisciplinary audience. From the origins of the six degrees of separation to explaining why networks are robust to random failures, the author explores how viruses like Ebola and H1N1 spread, and why it is that our friends have more friends than we do. Using numerous real-world examples, this innovatively designed text includes clear delineation between undergraduate and graduate level material. The mathematical formulas and derivations are included within Advanced Topics sections, enabling use at a range of levels. Extensive online resources, including films and software for network analysis, make this a multifaceted companion for anyone with an interest in network sci...

  12. Fabrication of Three Dimensional Tissue Engineering Polydimethylsiloxane ( PDMS) Microporous Scaffolds Integrated in a Bioreactor Using a 3D Printed Water Dissolvable Sacrificial Mould

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Mantis, Ioannis; Chetan, Aradhya Mallikarjunaiah

    2015-01-01

    We present a new scalable and general approach for manufacturing structured pores/channels in 3D polymer based scaffolds. The method involves 3D printing of a sacrificial polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) mould whose geometrical features are designed according to the required vascular channel network. Poly...

  13. Vulnerability of network of networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlin, S.; Kenett, D. Y.; Bashan, A.; Gao, J.; Stanley, H. E.

    2014-10-01

    Our dependence on networks - be they infrastructure, economic, social or others - leaves us prone to crises caused by the vulnerabilities of these networks. There is a great need to develop new methods to protect infrastructure networks and prevent cascade of failures (especially in cases of coupled networks). Terrorist attacks on transportation networks have traumatized modern societies. With a single blast, it has become possible to paralyze airline traffic, electric power supply, ground transportation or Internet communication. How, and at which cost can one restructure the network such that it will become more robust against malicious attacks? The gradual increase in attacks on the networks society depends on - Internet, mobile phone, transportation, air travel, banking, etc. - emphasize the need to develop new strategies to protect and defend these crucial networks of communication and infrastructure networks. One example is the threat of liquid explosives a few years ago, which completely shut down air travel for days, and has created extreme changes in regulations. Such threats and dangers warrant the need for new tools and strategies to defend critical infrastructure. In this paper we review recent advances in the theoretical understanding of the vulnerabilities of interdependent networks with and without spatial embedding, attack strategies and their affect on such networks of networks as well as recently developed strategies to optimize and repair failures caused by such attacks.

  14. Conservation of Monuments by a Three-Layered Compatible Treatment of TEOS-Nano-Calcium Oxalate Consolidant and TEOS-PDMS-TiO2 Hydrophobic/Photoactive Hybrid Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrysi Kapridaki

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the conservation of monuments, research on innovative nanocomposites with strengthening, hydrophobic and self-cleaning properties have attracted the interest of the scientific community and promising results have been obtained as a result. In this study, stemming from the need for the compatibility of treatments in terms of nanocomposite/substrate, a three-layered compatible treatment providing strengthening, hydrophobic, and self-cleaning properties is proposed. This conservation approach was implemented treating lithotypes and mortars of different porosity and petrographic characteristics with a three-layered treatment comprising: (a a consolidant, tetraethoxysilane (TEOS-nano-Calcium Oxalate; (b a hydrophobic layer of TEOS-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS; and (c a self-cleaning layer of TiO2 nanoparticles from titanium tetra-isopropoxide with oxalic acid as hole-scavenger. After the three-layered treatment, the surface hydrophobicity was improved due to PDMS and nano-TiO2 in the interface substrate/atmosphere, as proven by the homogeneity and the Si–O–Ti hetero-linkages of the blend protective/self-cleaning layers observed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR. The aesthetic, microstructural, mechanical and permeabile compatibility of the majority of treated substrates ranged within acceptability limits. The improved photocatalytic activity, as proven by the total discoloration of methylene blue in the majority of cases, was attributed to the anchorage of TiO2, through the Si–O–Ti bonds to SiO2, in the interface with the atmosphere, thus enhancing photoactivation.

  15. Network Coded Software Defined Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani; Krigslund, Jeppe

    2015-01-01

    Software defined networking has garnered large attention due to its potential to virtualize services in the Internet, introducing flexibility in the buffering, scheduling, processing, and routing of data in network routers. SDN breaks the deadlock that has kept Internet network protocols stagnant...... for decades, while applications and physical links have evolved. This article advocates for the use of SDN to bring about 5G network services by incorporating network coding (NC) functionalities. The latter constitutes a major leap forward compared to the state-of-the- art store and forward Internet paradigm...

  16. Stretchable Electronic Sensors of Nanocomposite Network Films for Ultrasensitive Chemical Vapor Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong; Zhong, Mengjuan; Lv, Ze; Wan, Pengbo

    2017-11-01

    A stretchable, transparent, and body-attachable chemical sensor is assembled from the stretchable nanocomposite network film for ultrasensitive chemical vapor sensing. The stretchable nanocomposite network film is fabricated by in situ preparation of polyaniline/MoS 2 (PANI/MoS 2 ) nanocomposite in MoS 2 suspension and simultaneously nanocomposite deposition onto prestrain elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The assembled stretchable electronic sensor demonstrates ultrasensitive sensing performance as low as 50 ppb, robust sensing stability, and reliable stretchability for high-performance chemical vapor sensing. The ultrasensitive sensing performance of the stretchable electronic sensors could be ascribed to the synergistic sensing advantages of MoS 2 and PANI, higher specific surface area, the reliable sensing channels of interconnected network, and the effectively exposed sensing materials. It is expected to hold great promise for assembling various flexible stretchable chemical vapor sensors with ultrasensitive sensing performance, superior sensing stability, reliable stretchability, and robust portability to be potentially integrated into wearable electronics for real-time monitoring of environment safety and human healthcare. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Neural network approach to modelling the behaviour of quantum tunnelling composites as multifunctional sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lantada, Andrés Díaz; Morgado, Pilar Lafont; Otero, Javier Echavarri; Munoz-Guijosa, Juan Manuel; Sanz, José Luis Muñoz

    2010-01-01

    Quantum tunnelling composites, or 'QTCs', are composites with an elastomeric polymer matrix and a metal particle filling (usually nickel). At rest, these metal particles do not touch each other and the polymer acts as an insulator. When the material is suitably deformed, however, the particles come together (without actually touching) and the quantum tunnelling effect is promoted, which causes the electrical resistance to fall drastically. This paper contains a detailed description of neural networks for a faster, simpler and more accurate modelling and simulation of QTC behaviour that is based on properly training these neural models with the help of data from characterization tests. Instead of using analytical equations that integrate different quantum and thermomechanical effects, neural networks are used here due to the notable nonlinearity of the aforementioned effects, which involve developing analytical models that are too complex to be of practical use. By conducting tests under different pressures and temperatures that encompass a wide range of operating conditions for these materials, different neural networks are trained and compared as the number of neurons is increased. The results of these tests have also enabled certain previously described phenomena to be simulated with more accuracy, especially those involving the response of QTCs to changes in pressure and temperature

  18. Networked Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg, Thomas; Larsen, Malene Charlotte

    2008-01-01

    of CoPs we shall argue that the metaphor or theory of networked learning is itself confronted with some central tensions and challenges that need to be addressed. We then explore these theoretical and analytic challenges to the network metaphor, through an analysis of a Danish social networking site. We......In this article we take up a critique of the concept of Communities of Practice (CoP) voiced by several authors, who suggest that networks may provide a better metaphor to understand social forms of organisation and learning. Through a discussion of the notion of networked learning and the critique...... argue that understanding meaning-making and ‘networked identities’ may be relevant analytic entry points in navigating the challenges....

  19. Network security

    CERN Document Server

    Perez, André

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces the security mechanisms deployed in Ethernet, Wireless-Fidelity (Wi-Fi), Internet Protocol (IP) and MultiProtocol Label Switching (MPLS) networks. These mechanisms are grouped throughout the book according to the following four functions: data protection, access control, network isolation, and data monitoring. Data protection is supplied by data confidentiality and integrity control services. Access control is provided by a third-party authentication service. Network isolation is supplied by the Virtual Private Network (VPN) service. Data monitoring consists of applying

  20. Network cohesion

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalcanti, Tiago V. V.; Giannitsarou, Chryssi; Johnson, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from Springer via http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00199-016-0992-1 We define a measure of network cohesion and show how it arises naturally in a broad class of dynamic models of endogenous perpetual growth with network externalities. Via a standard growth model, we show why network cohesion is crucial for conditional convergence and explain that as cohesion increases, convergence is faster. We prove properties of network cohesion and d...