Sample records for elastomeric half-facepiece air-purifying

  1. Home Air Purifiers Eradicate Harmful Pathogens (United States)


    Marshall Space Flight Center funded the University of Madison-Wisconsin to develop ethylene scrubbers to keep produce fresh in space. Akida Holdings of Jacksonville, Florida, licensed the technology and developed Airocide, an air purifier that can kill airborne pathogens. Previously designed for industrial spaces, there is now a specially designed unit for home use.

  2. Air Purifiers Eliminate Pathogens, Preserve Food (United States)


    NASA-funded researchers produced an ethylene reduction device for a plant growth unit. KES Science & Technology Inc., a Kennesaw, Georgia-based company specializing in sustaining perishable foods, licensed the ethylene scrubbing technology. KES partnered with Akida Holdings, of Jacksonville, Florida, which now markets the NASA-developed technology as AiroCide. According to the company, it is the only air purifier that completely destroys airborne bacteria, mold, fungi, mycotoxins, viruses, volatile organic compounds (like ethylene), and odors. What?s more, the devices have no filters that need changing and produce no harmful byproducts, such as the ozone created by some filtration systems.

  3. Respirators: Air Purifying, Self-Study, Course 40723

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Respirators: Air Purifying Self-Study (COURSE 40723) is designed for Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) workers, support services subcontractors, and other LANL subcontractors who work under the LANL Respiratory Protection Program (RPP). This course also meets the air-purifying respirators (APRs) retraining requirement.

  4. Evaluation of 9 health care organizations' respiratory protection programs and respiratory protective device practices: Implications for adoption of elastomerics. (United States)

    Brown, Linda Morris; Rogers, Bonnie; Buckheit, Kathleen; Curran, John Pat


    Interview, observational, and discussion group data at 9 health care organizations (HCOs) were collected to better understand elastomeric half-facepiece respirators' (EHFRs) use. We found that HCOs do not routinely use EHFRs as a respiratory protection device (RPD) for health care workers; compliance with other respirator types was less than expected. This finding has important training implications for proper use of all RPDs and EHFRs as an alternative RPD stockpiled for use during a respiratory infectious outbreak. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Ozone Air Purifiers: Can They Improve Asthma Symptoms? (United States)

    ... In fact, inhaled ozone can make asthma worse. Ozone generators sold as air purifiers intentionally produce the gas ... making the air seem fresher and cleaner. However, ozone generators don't actually filter out the small particles ...

  6. Full scale demonstration of air-purifying pavement. (United States)

    Ballari, M M; Brouwers, H J H


    Experiments concerning a full-scale demonstration of air purifying pavement in Hengelo, The Netherlands, are reported. The full width of the street was provided with concrete pavement containing TiO₂ over a length of 150 m ("DeNOx street"). Another part of the street, about 100 m, was paved with normal paving blocks ("Control street"). The outdoor monitoring was done during 26 days for a period exceeding one year, and measured parameters included traffic intensity, NO, NO₂ and ozone concentrations, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, and the visible and UV light irradiance. Prior and parallel to these field measurements, the used blocks were also measured in the lab to assess their performance. The NOx concentration was, on average, 19% (considering the whole day) and 28% (considering only afternoons) lower than the obtained values in the Control street. Under ideal weather conditions (high radiation and low relative humidity) a NOx concentration decrease of 45% could be observed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of streamer plasma air purifier on sbs symptoms and performance of office work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.J.; Fang, Lei; Wargocki, Pawel


    Subjective experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of a streamer plasma air purifier on perceived air quality, SBS symptoms and performance of office work during 5-hour exposure of 32 recruited subjects in field laboratory in which real materials were used to establishing a realistic...... level of air pollution. Intensity of SBS symptoms were indicated using visual-analogue scales. Subjects’ performance was evaluated with several computer tasks. The results show that operation of the air purifiers improved perceived air quality and reduced the odor intensity of indoor air. Eye dryness...... symptom was found significantly improved when the air purifiers were used but no other SBS symptoms or performance of office work were improved when the air purifiers were in operation compared to the condition when they were off....

  8. An Experiment with Air Purifiers in Delhi during Winter 2015-2016.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Vyas

    Full Text Available Particulate pollution has important consequences for human health, and is an issue of global concern. Outdoor air pollution has become a cause for alarm in India in particular because recent data suggest that ambient pollution levels in Indian cities are some of the highest in the world. We study the number of particles between 0.5μm and 2.5μm indoors while using affordable air purifiers in the highly polluted city of Delhi. Though substantial reductions in indoor number concentrations are observed during air purifier use, indoor air quality while using an air purifier is frequently worse than in cities with moderate pollution, and often worse than levels observed even in polluted cities. When outdoor pollution levels are higher, on average, indoor pollution levels while using an air purifier are also higher. Moreover, the ratio of indoor air quality during air purifier use to two comparison measures of air quality without an air purifier are also positively correlated with outdoor pollution levels, suggesting that as ambient air quality worsens there are diminishing returns to improvements in indoor air quality during air purifier use. The findings of this study indicate that although the most affordable air purifiers currently available are associated with significant improvements in the indoor environment, they are not a replacement for public action in regions like Delhi. Although private solutions may serve as a stopgap, reducing ambient air pollution must be a public health and policy priority in any region where air pollution is as high as Delhi's during the winter.

  9. Studying the fate of non-volatile organic compounds in a commercial plasma air purifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Stefan [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Seiler, Cornelia; Gerecke, Andreas C. [Swiss Federal Laboratories for Material Science and Technology (EMPA), CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Hächler, Herbert [University of Zürich, Institute for Food Safety and Hygiene, National Centre for Enteropathogenic Bacteria and Listeria (NENT), CH-8057 Zürich (Switzerland); Hilbi, Hubert [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München Max von Pettenkofer-Institut, D-80336 München (Germany); Frey, Joachim [University of Bern, Institute for Veterinary Bacteriology, CH-3001 Bern (Switzerland); Weidmann, Simon; Meier, Lukas; Berchtold, Christian [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Zenobi, Renato, E-mail: [ETH Zürich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland)


    Highlights: • Degradation of environmental toxins, a protein, and bioparticles were studied. • A commercial air purifier based on a cold plasma was used. • Passage through the device reduced the concentration of the compounds/particles. • Deposition inside the plasma air purifier was the main removal process. -- Abstract: Degradation of non-volatile organic compounds–environmental toxins (methyltriclosane and phenanthrene), bovine serum albumin, as well as bioparticles (Legionella pneumophila, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus anthracis)–in a commercially available plasma air purifier based on a cold plasma was studied in detail, focusing on its efficiency and on the resulting degradation products. This system is capable of handling air flow velocities of up to 3.0 m s{sup −1} (3200 L min{sup −1}), much higher than other plasma-based reactors described in the literature, which generally are limited to air flow rates below 10 L min{sup −1}. Mass balance studies consistently indicated a reduction in concentration of the compounds/particles after passage through the plasma air purifier, 31% for phenanthrene, 17% for methyltriclosane, and 80% for bovine serum albumin. L. pneumophila did not survive passage through the plasma air purifier, and cell counts of aerosolized spores of B. subtilis and B. anthracis were reduced by 26- and 15-fold, depending on whether it was run at 10 Hz or 50 Hz, respectively. However rather than chemical degradation, deposition on the inner surfaces of the plasma air purifier occured. Our interpretation is that putative “degradation” efficiencies were largely due to electrostatic precipitation rather than to decomposition into smaller molecules.

  10. Can a photocatalytic air purifier be used to improve the perceived air quality indoors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Jakub; Wargocki, Pawel


    The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on perceived air quality(PAQ) was examined in rooms polluted by typical sources of indoor pollution.The rooms were ventilated at three different outdoor air supply rates. The air quality was assessed by a sensory panel when the purifier was in operation...... that the photocatalytic air purifier can supplement ventilation when the indoor air is polluted by building- related sources, but should not be used in spaces where human bioeffluents constitute the main source of pollution....

  11. Experimental studies on removal of airborne haloanisoles by non-thermal plasma air purifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Hallam, David; Bermúdez, Raúl


    A laboratory study was conducted to test the performance of non-thermal plasma air purifiers on its removal effectiveness of two haloanisoles – 2,4,6-trichloroanisole (TCA) and 2,4,6-Tribromoanisole (TBA). TCA and TBA are the two major compounds found in wine cellars that can contaminate wine to ...

  12. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolarik, Barbara [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Danish Building Research Institute (SBi), Department of Construction and Health, Dr Neergaards Vej 15, 2970 Hoersholm (Denmark); Wargocki, Pawel [Technical University of Denmark, International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Skorek-Osikowska, Anna [Silesian University of Technology, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Wisthaler, Armin [Institute of Ion Physics and Applied Physics, University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck (Austria)


    The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h{sup -1}, 2.5 h{sup -1} and 6 h{sup -1}, in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate, additional measurements were made with no pollution sources present in the office. All conditions were tested with the photocatalytic air purifier turned on and off. The results show that operation of the air purifier in the presence of pollutants emitted by building materials and furniture improves indoor air quality, as documented by sensory assessments made by human subjects. It also reduces concentrations of many chemical compounds present in the air as documented by the PTR-MS technique. For the lowest ventilation, results from measurements using the chromatographic methods have similar tendency, however many of the 50 compounds that were targeted for analysis were not detected at all, independent of whether the purifier was on or off. For the two conditions with higher ventilation the results were inconclusive. (author)

  13. Effects of an ozone-generating air purifier on indoor secondary particles in three residential dwellings. (United States)

    Hubbard, H F; Coleman, B K; Sarwar, G; Corsi, R L


    The use of indoor ozone generators as air purifiers has steadily increased over the past decade. Many ozone generators are marketed to consumers for their ability to eliminate odors and microbial agents and to improve health. In addition to the harmful effects of ozone, recent studies have shown that heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between ozone and some unsaturated hydrocarbons can be an important source of indoor secondary pollutants, including free radicals, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and fine particles. Experiments were conducted in one apartment and two detached single-family dwellings in Austin, TX, to assess the effects of an ozone generator on indoor secondary organic aerosol concentrations in actual residential settings. Ozone was generated using a commercial ozone generator marketed as an air purifier, and particle measurements were recorded before, during, and after the release of terpenes from a pine oil-based cleaning product. Particle number concentration, ozone concentration, and air exchange rate were measured during each experiment. Particle number and mass concentrations increased when both terpenes and ozone were present at elevated levels. Experimental results indicate that ozone generators in the presence of terpene sources facilitate the growth of indoor fine particles in residential indoor atmospheres. Human exposure to secondary organic particles can be reduced by minimizing the intentional release of ozone, particularly in the presence of terpene sources. Past studies have shown that ozone-initiated indoor chemistry can lead to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter, but have generally been completed in controlled laboratory environments and office buildings. We explored the effects of an explicit ozone generator marketed as an air purifier on the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass in actual residential indoor settings. Results indicate significant increases in number and mass concentrations for particles

  14. Ozone generated by air purifier in low concentrations: friend or foe? (United States)

    Cestonaro, Larissa Vivan; Marcolan, Ana Maria; Rossato-Grando, Luciana Grazziotin; Anzolin, Ana Paula; Goethel, Gabriela; Vilani, Angélica; Garcia, Solange Cristina; Bertol, Charise Dallazem


    Ozone helps decontamination environments due to its oxidative power, however present toxicity when it is in high concentrations, by long periods of exposition. This study aimed to assess the safety of ozone generator air purifier at concentrations of 0.05 ppm in rats exposed to 3 and 24 h/day for 14 and 28 days. No significant differences are observed between groups in clinical signs, feed and water intake, relative body weight gain and relative weight of organs, macroscopy and microscopy of lungs, and oxidative plasma assay. In this exposure regime, ozone does not cause genotoxicity and no significant changes in pulmonary histology indicative of toxicity. Ozone generated in low concentrations, even in exposure regimes above the recommended is safe, both acute and sub-acute exposition.

  15. The effect of a photocatalytic air purifier on indoor air quality quantified using different measuring methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolarik, Barbara; Wargocki, Pawel; Skorek-Osikowska, A.


    The effect on indoor air quality of an air purifier based on photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) was determined by different measuring techniques: sensory assessments of air quality made by human subjects, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and chromatographic methods (Gas...... Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry and High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography with UV detection). The experiment was conducted in a simulated office, ventilated with 0.6 h(-1), 2.5 h(-1) and 6 h(-1), in the presence of additional pollution sources (carpet, chipboard and linoleum). At the lowest air change rate...... air quality, as documented by sensory assessments made by human subjects. It also reduces concentrations of many chemical compounds present in the air as documented by the PTR-MS technique. For the lowest ventilation, results from measurements using the chromatographic methods have similar tendency...

  16. 42 CFR 84.1143 - Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, and mist air-purifying filter tests; performance requirements; general. 84.1143 Section 84.1143 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF...

  17. Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Commercial Portable Air Purifier in Homes with Wood Burning Stoves: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie F. Hart


    Full Text Available Wood burning for residential heating is prevalent in the Rocky Mountain regions of the United States. Studies have shown that wood stoves can be a significant source of PM2.5 within homes. In this study, the effectiveness of an electrostatic filter portable air purifier was evaluated (1 in a home where a wood stove was the sole heat source and (2 in a home where a wood stove was used as a supplemental heat source. Particle count concentrations in six particle sizes and particle mass concentrations in two particle sizes were measured for ten 12-hour purifier on and ten purifier off trials in each home. Particle count concentrations were reduced by 61–85 percent. Similar reductions were observed in particle mass concentrations. These findings, although limited to one season, suggest that a portable air purifier may effectively reduce indoor particulate matter concentrations associated with wood combustion during home heating.

  18. Comparison of powered and conventional air-purifying respirators during simulated resuscitation of casualties contaminated with hazardous substances. (United States)

    Schumacher, J; Gray, S A; Weidelt, L; Brinker, A; Prior, K; Stratling, W M


    Advanced life support of patients contaminated with chemical, biological, radiological or nuclear (CBRN) substances requires adequate respiratory protection for medical first responders. Conventional and powered air-purifying respirators may exert a different impact during resuscitation and therefore require evaluation. This will help to improve major incident planning and measures for protecting medical staff. A randomised crossover study was undertaken to investigate the influence of conventional negative pressure and powered air-purifying respirators on the simulated resuscitation of casualties contaminated with hazardous substances. Fourteen UK paramedics carried out a standardised resuscitation algorithm inside an ambulance vehicle, either unprotected or wearing a conventional or a powered respirator. Treatment times, wearer mobility, ease of communication and ease of breathing were determined and compared. In the questionnaire, volunteers stated that communication and mobility were similar in both respirator groups while breathing resistance was significantly lower in the powered respirator group. There was no difference in mean (SD) treatment times between the groups wearing respiratory protection and the controls (245 (19) s for controls, 247 (17) s for conventional respirators and 250 (12) s for powered respirators). Powered air-purifying respirators improve the ease of breathing and do not appear to reduce mobility or delay treatment during a simulated resuscitation scenario inside an ambulance vehicle with a single CBRN casualty.

  19. Evaluation of Force Degradation Pattern of Elastomeric Ligatures and Elastomeric Separators in Active Tieback State

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mohammadi, Amir; Mahmoodi, Farhang


    Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial force and force decay of commercially available elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators in active tieback state in a simulated oral environment...

  20. Summary report, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection evaluation of full-face air-purifying respirators for wildland fire fighting use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beason, D.G.; Johnson, J.S.; Foote, K.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Weaver, W.A. [California Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    Wildland fire suppression personnel employed by the CDF do not currently have the equipment to protect themselves from the short-term acute affects of smoke from wildland fires. In addition, no regulations exist that specify appropriate respiratory protection and the current air-purifying respirator technology and carbon monoxide monitoring has not been adapted to fit wildland fire suppression requirements. This three-year limited study evaluated the ability of wildland fire fighters to perform their normal job function while wearing full-face air-purifying respirators. In the first two years of this study we designed, developed and field tested a prototype ``smart`` air-purifying respirator which incorporated a real-time carbon monoxide monitor into a commercial full-face respirator.` Data on carbon monoxide exposure while fighting wildland fires was collected. During the third year of this study we evaluated eight different commercially available full-face air-purifying respirators equipped with a variety of cartridges. Apparatus to aid the fire fighter in carrying the respirator and carbon monoxide personal monitor was designed and fabricated. A smoke exposure test method was developed and a laboratory study on the penetration of smoke through respirator cartridges was conducted.

  1. Effectiveness of air purifier on health outcomes and indoor particles in homes of children with allergic diseases in Fresno, California: A pilot study. (United States)

    Park, Hye-Kyung; Cheng, Kai-Chung; Tetteh, Afua O; Hildemann, Lynn M; Nadeau, Kari C


    Epidemiologic studies indicate that indoor air pollution is correlated with morbidity caused by allergic diseases. We evaluated the effectiveness of reducing the levels of indoor fine particulate matter air purifiers on health outcomes in children with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. The active group (with air purifiers) and the control group consisted of eight houses each. Air purifiers were installed in the living rooms and bedrooms of the subjects in the active group during the entire 12-week study duration. Childhood asthma control test, peak flow rate monitoring, and nasal symptom scores were evaluated at weeks 0, 6, and 12. At 12 weeks, the active group showed a trend toward an improvement of childhood asthma control test scores and mean evening peak flow rates, whereas the control group showed deterioration in the same measures. Total and daytime nasal symptoms scores significantly reduced in the active group (p = 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). The average indoor PM 2.5 concentrations reduced by 43% (7.42 to 4.28 μg/m 3 ) in the active group (p = 0.001). Intervention with air purifiers reduces indoor PM 2.5 levels with significant improvements in nasal symptoms in children with allergic rhinitis in Fresno.

  2. Effect of an ozone-generating air-purifying device on reducing concentrations of formaldehyde in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esswein, E.J. [Univ. of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Boeniger, M.F. [National Institute for Occupational Safety, Cincinnati, OH (United States)


    Formaldehyde, an air contaminant found in many indoor air investigations, poses distinct occupational exposure hazards in certain job categories (e.g., mortuary science) but is also of concern when found or suspected in office buildings and homes. A variety of air-purifying devices (APDs) are currently available or marketed for application to reduce or remove concentrations of a variety of indoor air pollutants through the use of ozone as a chemical oxidant. An investigation was conducted to determine if concentrations of formaldehyde similar to those found in industrial hygiene evaluations of funeral homes could be reduced with the use of an ozone-generating APD. An ozone-generating APD was placed in an exposure chamber and formaldehyde-containing embalming solution was allowed to evaporate naturally, creating peak and mean chamber concentrations of 2.5 and 1.3 ppm, respectively. Continuous-reading instruments were used to sample for formaldehyde and ozone. Active sampling methods were also used to sample simultaneously for formaldehyde and a possible reactant product, formic acid. Triplicate measurements were made in each of three evaluations: formaldehyde alone, ozone alone, and formaldehyde and ozone combined. Concentrations of formaldehyde were virtually identical with and without 0.5 ppm ozone. No reduction in formaldehyde concentration was found during a 90-minute evaluation using ozone at this concentration with peak and average concentrations of approximately 2.5 and 1.3 ppm formaldehyde, respectively. The results of this investigation suggest that the use of ozone is ineffective in reducing concentrations of formaldehyde. Because ozone has demonstrated health hazards, and is a regulated air contaminant in both the occupational and ambient environment, the use of ozone as an air purification agent in indoor air does not seem warranted. 25 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. Evaluation of Force Degradation Pattern of Elastomeric Ligatures and Elastomeric Separators in Active Tieback State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Mohammadi


    Full Text Available Background and aims. The purpose of this study was to evaluate initial force and force decay of commercially available elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators in active tieback state in a simulated oral environment. Materials and methods. A total of 288 elastomeric ligatures and elastomeric separators from three manufacturers (Dentaurum, RMO, 3M Unitek were stretched to 100% and 150% of their original inner diameter. Force levels were measured initially and at 3-minute, 24-hour, and 1-, 2-, 3- and 4-week intervals. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis of variance and a post hoc Tukey test. Results. The means of initial forces of elastomeric ligatures and separators from three above-mentioned companies, when stretched to 100% of their inner diameters, were 199, 305 and 284 g, and 330, 416, 330 g; when they were stretched to 150% of their inner diameters the values were 286, 422 and 375 g, and 433, 540 and 504 g, respectively. In active tieback state, 11‒18% of the initial force of the specimens was lost within the first 3 minutes and 29‒63% of the force decay occurred in the first 24 hours; then force decay rate decreased. 62‒81% of the initial force was lost in 4 weeks. Although force decay pattern was identical in all the products, the initial force and force decay of Dentaurum elastomeric products were less than the similar products of other companies (P<0.05. Under the same conditions, the force of elastomeric separators was greater than elastomeric ligatures of the same company. Conclusion. Regarding the force pattern of elastomeric ligatures and separators and optimal force for tooth movement, many of these products can be selected for applying orthodontic forces in active tieback state.

  4. Chemical Stability of Telavancin in Elastomeric Pumps

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    Patrick Sand, MSc


    Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that telavancin remains chemically stable when diluted in the Intermate Infusion System and the Homepump Eclipse elastomeric pumps and stored at 2°C to 8°C for up to 8 days protected from light at the concentration range and dilution schemes evaluated.

  5. Prediction of macroscopic properties of elastomeric networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-ghamdi, A.M.S.; Rayes, T.B.; Galiatsatos, V. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States)


    Monte Carlo simulations of amorphous elastomeric networks of polyisoprene and polybutadiene cured with sulfur have been prepared. The effect of molecular weight of the prepolymer, and the concentration and type of cross-links is studied. The affine modulus as a function of the extent of reaction is reported. Comparisons between the two polymers and reasons for their differing behavior are being attributed to their molecular characteristics.

  6. Cardiorespiratory responses of air filtration: A randomized crossover intervention trial in seniors living in Beijing: Beijing Indoor Air Purifier StudY, BIAPSY. (United States)

    Shao, Danqing; Du, Yipeng; Liu, Shuo; Brunekreef, Bert; Meliefste, Kees; Zhao, Qian; Chen, Jie; Song, Xiaoming; Wang, Meng; Wang, Juan; Xu, Hongbing; Wu, Rongshan; Wang, Tong; Feng, Baihuan; Lung, Candice Shih-Chun; Wang, Xian; He, Bei; Huang, Wei


    In this Beijing Indoor Air Purifier StudY (BIAPSY), we conducted a randomized crossover intervention trial in a panel of 35 non-smoking senior participants with free-living, with and without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Portable air filtration units were randomly allocated to active-(filter in) for 2weeks and sham-mode (filter out) for 2weeks in the households. We examined the differences in indoor air pollutant concentrations in 20 study homes and a suite of cardio-respiratory biomarker levels in study participants between filtration modes, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Following active filtration, we observed significant reductions from 60±45 to 24±15μg/m 3 in ten-day averages of indoor PM 2.5 and reductions from 3.87±1.65 to 1.81±1.19m -1 .10 -5 in ten-day averages of indoor BC, compared to sham-mode filtration. The major components of indoor PM 2.5 , including water soluble organics, NO 3 - , SO 4 2- , Zn 2+ , Pb 2+ and K + , were also reduced significantly by 42% to 63%. However, following active filtration, we only observed significant reductions on systemic inflammation measured as of IL-8 at 58.59% (95% CI: -76.31, -27.64) in the total group of participants and 70.04% (95% CI: -83.05, -47.05) in the subset of COPD patients, with adjustments. We were not able to detect improvements on lung function, blood pressure, and heart rate variability, following short-term intervention of two-week active air filtration. In conclusion, our results showed that indoor air filtration produced clear improvement on indoor air quality, but no demonstrable changes in the cardio-respiratory outcomes of study interest observed in the seniors living with real-world air pollution exposures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Frictional characteristics of the newer orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

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    A V Arun


    Full Text Available Introduction: Elastomeric ligatures reduce chairside time but increase friction. Polymeric coatings and 45° angulations have been introduced to the ligature modules to combat its disadvantages and reduce friction. This in vitro study compared the frictional characteristics of six different types of the most commonly used elastomeric modules. Materials and Methods: Thecoefficient of friction for six ligation methods: the non-coated Mini Stix† and coated Super Slick Mini Stix™ (TP Orthodontics, 45° angulated but non-coated Alastik Easy-To-Tie™ (3M Unitek elastomerics and non-angulated non-coated Alastik QuiK-StiK FNx01 , 0.110′- and 0.120′-diameter elastomerics™ (Reliance Orthodontics were measured in dry conditions utilizing a jig according to the protocol of Tidy. Results: A significant difference was observed between the various types of elastomeric ligatures (P<.01. Among the six types of elastomeric ligatures, the 45° angulated elastomeric ligatures produced the least friction, followed by the coated Super Slick† elastomers. No difference in the friction was noted when the diameter of the elastomeric ligatures was varied. Conclusions: Polymeric surface coatings and introduction of angulations into elastomeric ligatures reduce the friction during sliding; however, the diameter of the ligature made no difference to sliding friction.

  8. Tuneable elastomeric nanochannels for nanofluidic manipulation (United States)

    Huh, Dongeun; Mills, K. L.; Zhu, Xiaoyue; Burns, Mark A.; Thouless, M. D.; Takayama, Shuichi


    Fluidic transport through nanochannels offers new opportunities to probe fundamental nanoscale transport phenomena and to develop tools for manipulating DNA, proteins, small molecules and nanoparticles. The small size of nanofabricated devices and the accompanying increase in the effect of surface forces, however, pose challenges in designing and fabricating flexible nanofluidic systems that can dynamically adjust their transport characteristics according to the handling needs of various molecules and nanoparticles. Here, we describe the use of nanoscale fracturing of oxidized poly(dimethylsiloxane) to conveniently fabricate nanofluidic systems with arrays of nanochannels that can actively manipulate nanofluidic transport through dynamic modulation of the channel cross-section. We present the design parameters for engineering material properties and channel geometry to achieve reversible nanochannel deformation using remarkably small forces. We demonstrate the versatility of the elastomeric nanochannels through tuneable sieving and trapping of nanoparticles, dynamic manipulation of the conformation of single DNA molecules and in situ photofabrication of movable polymeric nanostructures.

  9. Unvulcanized elastomeric waterproofing materials for construction application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Karmanova


    Full Text Available In the construction was widespread elastomer profiles, which have the ability to swell in water. Such products should have a high capacity for swelling, elasticity, resistance to weathering. At the present time for these purposes are used materials, mostly of foreign origin. With the increasing pace of construction in Russia the problem of replacement of imported materials is particularly relevant. The work was dedicated to the creation of water-swellable elastomer materials using bentonite powders and study of their properties. Сomparative testing of imported and domestic hydrophilic sealants were held. Rationale and choice of components for the cords of bentonite was conducted. Polymer base is saturated ethylene-propylene rubber. Bentonite from different manufacturers used to increase the swelling of the samples. Filler added in an amount of 50–100 phr. The elastomeric compositions were prepared using laboratory roller at a temperature of 60 ± 5° C. Profiling was performed on a syringe-machine at a temperature of 120° C. Extrusion indicator of the mixtures were evaluated on a 10-point scale (German-Russian system. It is found that high swelling products provided using field Azerbaijan bentonite. It is noted that the dosage of bentonite than 150 w.p. deteriorates technological properties of bentonite cords. It has been shown that activation of the bentonite and sodium carbonate chloride can significantly improve product swelling, wherein the bentonite content of the composition was 150–200 w.p.

  10. Sterilizing elastomeric chains without losing mechanical properties. Is it possible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Melo Pithon


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different sterilization/disinfection methods on the mechanical properties of orthodontic elastomeric chains. METHODS: Segments of elastomeric chains with 5 links each were sent for sterilization by cobalt 60 (Co60 (20 KGy gamma ray technology. After the procedure, the elastomeric chains were contaminated with clinical samples of Streptococcus mutans. Subsequently, the elastomeric chains were submitted to sterilization/disinfection tests carried out by means of different methods, forming six study groups, as follows: Group 1 (control - without contamination, Group 2 (70°GL alcohol, Group 3 (autoclave, Group 4 (ultraviolet, Group 5 (peracetic acid and Group 6 (glutaraldehyde. After sterilization/disinfection, the effectiveness of these methods, by Colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL, and the mechanical properties of the material were assessed. Student's t-test was used to assess the number of CFUs while ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to assess elastic strength. RESULTS: Ultraviolet treatment was not completely effective for sterilization. No loss of mechanical properties occurred with the use of the different sterilization methods (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Biological control of elastomeric chains does not affect their mechanical properties.

  11. 40 CFR 427.40 - Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. (United States)


    ... asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. 427.40 Section 427.40 Protection of Environment... SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.40 Applicability; description of the asbestos paper (elastomeric binder) subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  12. Enhancing retention of partial dentures using elastomeric retention rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakkirala Revathi


    Full Text Available This report presents an alternative method for the retention of partial dentures that relies on the engagement of tooth undercuts by a lining material. The lab procedures are also presented. A new maxillary and mandibular acrylic partial dentures were fabricated using elastomeric retention technique for a partially dentate patient. A partially dentate man reported difficulty in retaining his upper removable partial denture (RPD. The maxillary RPD was designed utilizing elastomeric retention technique. During follow-up, it was necessary to replace the retention rings due to wear. The replacement of the retention rings, in this case, was done through a chairside reline technique. Elastomeric retention technique provides exceptionally good retention can be indicated to stabilize, cushion, splint periodontally involved teeth, no enough undercut for clasps, eliminate extractions, single or isolated teeth.

  13. Properties of Elastomeric Composites with Functionalized Carbon Nanomaterial (United States)

    Shashok, Zh. S.; Prokopchuk, N. R.; Vishnevskii, K. V.; Krauklis, A. V.; Borisevich, K. O.; Borisevich, I. O.; Zhdanok, S. A.


    The influence of two different nanomaterials on the properties of elastomeric composites based on general- and special-purpose rubbers has been investigated. For the elastomeric matrix, we used a combination of synthetic polyisopropene (SKI-3) and stereoregular butadiene (SKD) caoutchoucs in one case and butadiene-nitrile caoutchouc containing 27-30% of bound acrylic acid nitrile (BNKS-28) in the other case. For additives, nanomaterials of two types were used. To determine the degree of interaction of the additives with the elastomeric matrix, complex tests of rubber mixes and vulcanizates based on them were carried out, in which the following indices were determined: the Mooney viscosity, the relaxation and vulcanization characteristics of the mixes, the elastic-strength properties of the vulcanizates before and after thermal ageing, their resistance to thermal ageing, and the mechanical loss tangent.

  14. Evaluation of Four Elastomeric Interocclusal Recording Materials. (United States)

    Dua, P; Gupta, S H; Ramachandran, S; Sandhu, H S


    The fabrication of dental prosthesis requires the transfer of interocclusal records from patient's mouth to semi-adjustable articulators using different kinds of recording media. Any inaccuracy in these interocclusal records leads to occlusal errors in the final prosthesis. This study was conducted to evaluate the dimensional changes occurring in the interocclusal recording material over a given period of time and the material's resistance to compression during the cast mounting on the articulator. In this in vitro study, the linear dimensional change and compressive resistance of four commercially available elastomeric interocclusal recording media was tested. Three were addition silicones and the fourth was a polyether material. Cylindrical samples of 10mm diameter of each material were prepared in three different thicknesses of 2, 4 and 6mm. Ten samples each of thickness of 2, 4 and 6mm for all four materials were prepared (total of 120 samples). The linear dimensional changes of the samples were evaluated after 24 hours of fabrication. The compressive resistance was measured when each of these was subjected to a constant compressive load of 25 Newtons. The mean linear dimensional change in a horizontal plane was minimum for Kanibite Hard, an addition silicone. Ramitec showed the maximum linear dimensional change. The mean compression distance was least for Futar D Occlusion (an addition silicone) and maximum for Ramitec (a polyether). It was observed that the samples of thickness 2mm for all the materials underwent least compression. The compressive resistance of each elastomer was inversely proportional to the thickness of the sample. This implies that minimum thickness of the recording materials should be used for recording maxillomandibular relations without sacrificing the strength of the interocclusal record.

  15. Voltage-controlled surface wrinkling of elastomeric coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ende, D.A. van den; Kamminga, J.D.; Boersma, A.; Andritsch, T.; Steeneken, P.G.


    Wrinkling of elastomeric coatings by an electric field is reported. The associated changes in the coating's optical properties yield switchable mirrors and windows. The field Ec needed to induce wrinkling is a factor of 4.4 lower than the theoretically predicted value, which is attributed to

  16. A model of ideal elastomeric gels for polyelectrolyte gels. (United States)

    Li, Jianyu; Suo, Zhigang; Vlassak, Joost J


    The concept of the ideal elastomeric gel is extended to polyelectrolyte gels and verified using a polyacrylamide-co-acrylic acid hydrogel as a model material system. A comparison between mixing and ion osmosis shows that the mixing osmosis is larger than the ion osmosis for small swelling ratios, while the ion osmosis dominates for large swelling ratios. We show further that the non-Gaussian chain effect becomes important in the elasticity of the polymer network at the very large swelling ratios that may occur under certain conditions of pH and salinity. We demonstrate that the Gent model captures the non-Gaussian chain effect well and that it provides a good description of the free energy associated with the stretching of the network. The model of ideal elastomeric gels fits the experimental data very well.

  17. Magnetorheological Fluid and Elastomeric Lag Damper for Helicopter Stability Augmentation (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.

    The feasibility of utilizing a composite magnetorheological fluid plus elastomeric (MRFE) damper is assessed. To emulate the loading conditions for a helicopter lag damper, the MRFE damper emulation was subjected to single frequency (lag/rev) and dual frequency (lag/rev and 1/rev) sinusoidal loading, and equivalent viscous damping was used to compare the MRFE damping characteristics with a conventional elastomeric damper. The preliminary MRFE damper showed nonlinear behavior: damping was reduced as displacement amplitude increased. Upon application of a magnetic field, the damping level was controlled according to a specific damping objective as a function of the excitation amplitude. Under dual frequency conditions, damping degradation at lag frequency due to 1/rev motion was also mitigated by magnetic field input to the MR damper.

  18. Hybrid magnetorheological fluid elastomeric lag dampers for helicopter stability augmentation (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Wereley, Norman M.


    A laboratory demonstration of a hybrid magnetorheological fluid-elastomeric (MRFE) damper is investigated for adjustable or programmable lag mode damping in helicopters, so that damping requirements can be varied as a function of different flight conditions. The laboratory demonstration of this hybrid MRFE lag damper consists of a double lap shear elastomeric damper in parallel with two magnetorheological (MR) flow mode dampers. This is compared to a damper where only elastomeric materials are implemented, i.e., a double lap shear specimen. The relationship between the output force and the quasi-steady harmonic displacement input to a flow mode MR damper is exploited, where the output force can be adjusted as a function of applied magnetic field. Equivalent viscous damping is used to compare the damping characteristics of the hybrid damper to a conventional elastomeric damper under steady-state sinusoidal displacement excitation. To demonstrate feasibility, a hybrid MRFE damper test setup is designed, and single frequency (lag frequency or rotor in-plane bending frequency) and dual frequency (lag frequency and rotor frequency) tests are conducted under different magnetic fields. The hybrid MRFE damper exhibits amplitude-dependent damping behavior. However, with application of a magnetic field, the damping level is controlled to a specific damping level objective as a function of displacement amplitude. Similarly, under dual frequency conditions, damping degradation at the lag frequency, because of lag motion at the rotor frequency, can also be recovered by increasing magnetic field. A time-domain analysis is developed to study the nonlinear dynamic behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper. Using rate-dependent elasto-slides, the amplitude-dependent behavior of the hybrid MRFE damper is accurately reconstructed using both constant and current-dependent (i.e. controllable) parameters. The analysis is physically motivated and can be applied to the elastomer and MR fluid

  19. Interaction of Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings in Bridge Construction (United States)

    Nittmannová, Ľubica; Magura, Martin


    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of reinforced elastomeric bearings under various loads. They are made of special types of bearings. The experimental verification of these special bearings has been tested on various types of loading. The results of the experimental measurements are compared with the results of the numerical modeling and calculations according to the standard assumptions in STN EN 1337-3. In the conclusion, the results are summarized for the selected types of bearings.

  20. Pigment effect on the long term elasticity of elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érika de Oliveira Dias de Macêdo


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the response of elastomeric ligatures in several colors for a 4 mm traction over time. METHODS: Morelli® elastomeric ligatures, were submitted to traction forces using two rods of circular cross section, until a 4 mm distance was reached, matching the approximate diameter of an upper central incisor bracket of the same manufacturer. The ligatures were kept in artificial saliva immersion at 37 ºC. Forces levels were measured immediately (0 h, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 hours, 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks and results were submitted to two-way repeated-measures ANOVA statistical analysis. RESULTS: The gray samples showed the higher initial values of tensile strength. The lowest values were presented by purple, light pink, green, black and red groups. The greater tensile strength instability was presented by red, black, silver, green and gray groups. The greater tensile strength stability was presented by deep pink, dark blue, blue, purple and light pink groups. CONCLUSION: Elastomeric ligatures do not present stable behavior when suffering traction forces over time and different colors display different behaviors. Deep pink, dark blue, blue, purple and light pink groups, displayed the most stable forces, suggesting that they should be used during the treatment to obtain constant forces.

  1. Dielectric electroactive polymer comprising an elastomeric film in the form of a gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    Use of an elastomeric film in the form of a gel, wherein said gel is a non-conductive hydrogel or organogel, as a dielectric electroactive polymer.......Use of an elastomeric film in the form of a gel, wherein said gel is a non-conductive hydrogel or organogel, as a dielectric electroactive polymer....

  2. Performance testing of elastomeric seal materials under low and high temperature conditions: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The US Department of Energy Offices of Defense Programs and Civilian Radioactive Waste Management jointly sponsored a program to evaluate elastomeric O-ring seal materials for radioactive material shipping containers. The report presents the results of low- and high-temperature tests conducted on 27 common elastomeric compounds.

  3. Lateral Response Comparison of Unbonded Elastomeric Bearings Reinforced with Carbon Fiber Mesh and Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karimzadeh Naghshineh


    Full Text Available The vertical and horizontal stiffness used in design of bearings have been established in the last few decades. At the meantime, applicability of the theoretical approach developed to estimate vertical stiffness of the fiber-reinforced bearings has been verified in different academic studies. The suitability of conventional horizontal stiffness equation developed for elastomeric material, mainly for steel-reinforced elastomeric bearings, has not been tested in detail for use of fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings. In this research, lateral response of fiber mesh-reinforced elastomeric bearings has been determined through experimental tests and the results have been compared by corresponding values pertaining to the steel-reinforced bearings. Within the test program, eight pairs of fiber mesh-reinforced bearings and eight pairs of steel-reinforced bearings are subjected to different levels of compressive stress and cyclic shear strains. Fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings may be more favorable to be used in seismic regions due to lower horizontal stiffness that can result in mitigation of seismic forces for levels of 100% shear strain. Damping properties of these types of fiber mesh-reinforced bearings depend mostly on the selection of elastomeric material compounds. Suggestions have been made for the lateral response of fiber-reinforced elastomeric bearings. It has also been determined that the classical equation for lateral stiffness based on linear elastic behavior assumptions developed for elastomeric bearings does not always apply to the fiber-reinforced ones.

  4. Mechanical strengthening of fiberoptic microneedles using an elastomeric support. (United States)

    Kosoglu, Mehmet A; Hood, R Lyle; Rylander, Christopher G


    Microneedles made from silica fiberoptics permit transmission and collection of light, which is an important functional advantage over metal or silicon microneedles. This added functionality may enhance or even enable new percutaneous light-based clinical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Micron-diameter fiberoptic microneedles, created from solid fibers capable of light emission and detection, are designed to penetrate several millimeters into tissue while minimizing tissue invasion and disruption. The mechanical strength (critical buckling force) of high aspect ratio (length to diameter) microneedles is a potential problem, which has motivated our invention of an elastomeric support device. In this study, we have tested our hypothesis that embedding the microneedles in an elastomeric support medium may increase microneedle critical buckling force. The critical buckling force of silica microneedles with 55, 70, and 110 µm diameters and 3 mm lengths were measured with and without a surrounding elastomeric support (PDMS, polydimethylsiloxane). These experimental results were compared to theoretical calculations generated by the Rayleigh-Ritz buckling model. The insertion force required to penetrate ex vivo porcine skin was measured for microneedles with 55 and 70 µm diameters. Use of the PDMS support increased critical buckling force for microneedles of 55, 70, and 110 µm diameters by an average of 610%, 290%, and 33%, respectively. Theoretical calculations by the Rayleigh-Ritz model consistently overestimated the experimentally determined strengthening, but correlated highly with the greater enhancement offered to thinner microneedles. Aided by mechanical strengthening, microneedles 55 µm in diameter were able to repeatedly penetrate. The critical buckling force of microneedles can be increased substantially to allow extremely high-aspect ratio microneedles, 55-110 µm in diameter and 3 mm in length, to penetrate ex vivo porcine skin. By this strengthening

  5. Interaction of Reinforced Elastomeric Bearings in Bridge Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nittmannová Ľubica


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the behavior of reinforced elastomeric bearings under various loads. They are made of special types of bearings. The experimental verification of these special bearings has been tested on various types of loading. The results of the experimental measurements are compared with the results of the numerical modeling and calculations according to the standard assumptions in STN EN 1337-3. In the conclusion, the results are summarized for the selected types of bearings.

  6. Combined Technologies for Microfabricating Elastomeric Cardiac Tissue Engineering Scaffolds (United States)

    Guillemette, Maxime D.; Park, Hyoungshin; Hsiao, James C.; Jain, Saloni R.; Larson, Benjamin L.; Langer, Robert; Freed, Lisa E.


    Polymer scaffolds that direct elongation and orientation of cultured cells can enable tissue engineered muscle to act as a mechanically functional unit. We combined micromolding and microablation technologies to create muscle tissue engineering scaffolds from the biodegradable elastomer poly(glycerol sebacate). These scaffolds exhibited well defined surface patterns and pores and robust elastomeric tensile mechanical properties. Cultured C2C12 muscle cells penetrated the pores to form spatially controlled engineered tissues. Scanning electron and confocal microscopy revealed muscle cell orientation in a preferential direction, parallel to micromolded gratings and long axes of microablated anisotropic pores, with significant individual and interactive effects of gratings and pore design. PMID:20718054

  7. In vitro study of cytotoxicity of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Lacerda dos Santos


    Full Text Available This study investigated the cytotoxicity of crystal-coloured orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of polyurethane. Six ligatures from distinct manufactures were divided into 6 groups of 10 elastics each: Groups P1, P2, P3, P4, P5 and P6 (Polyurethane. The cytotoxicity essay was performed using L-929 line cells, which were submitted to the cell viability test with neutral red ("dye-uptake" at time intervals of 1, 2, 3, 7 and 28 days. Analysis of variance (ANOVA with multiple comparisons and Tukey's test were used (p < .05. There were statistical differences (p < .05 in cell viability between Groups P1, P4, P2 and P3, and Groups P5 and P6 at 1 and 2 days. All elastomeric ligatures were considered suitable for clinical use. The hypothesis was accepted, the P5 and P6 elastomers and the processing route of injection molding for these ligatures showed the lowest cell viability, due the temperature and pressure distinct in the processing of these elastomers.

  8. Force-Degradation Pattern of Six Different Orthodontic Elastomeric Chains (United States)

    Mirhashemi, AH.; Saffarshahroudi, A.; Sodagar, A.; Atai, M.


    Objective: An ideal orthodontic force system should exert continuous light force. Thus, many efforts have been made to improve the memory characteristics of elastomeric chains. The aim of this study was to compare elastomeric chains (ECs) claimed by their manufacturers to offer high memory with traditional ones according to their force-extension diagrams. Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, ECs were divided into six groups, each containing 40 pieces of chain, from three brands (American Orthodontics, GAC and Ortho-Technology). Each brand was divided into two groups with respect to their claimed characteristics (with or without memory). Each sample was stretched to twice its original length and kept constant in 37°C distilled water. Force-extension diagrams were drawn by universal testing machine at 0,1,8,24,72 hours and 1, 2, 4-week intervals. Additionally, the amounts of elongation required to deliver 200 g force were calculated. To compare the results, ANOVA and Tukey tests were performed. Results: Force-decay rate was significantly different between traditional and memory chains (pOrthodontics memory chains (61.9% after 24hr) and the minimum to Ortho-Technology ECs (23.4% initially). Conclusion: Memory chains exhibited superior mechanical properties compared to traditional ones. For delivering the same force, memory chains required more elongation. Memory chains of GAC and American Orthodontics showed better characteristics among all chains. PMID:23323182

  9. Dielectric elastomeric bimorphs using electrolessly deposited silver electrodes (United States)

    Goh, Simon Chun-Kiat; Lau, Gih-Keong


    Metallic thin films, which are widely used for micro-electronics circuits, are seldom used as the electrodes for dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA). This is because metalized film restrains the lateral strain of soft dielectric elastomer. In this paper, we demonstrated utilizing metalized elastomeric layers to make a bimorph capable of a large bending. A compliant silver electrode is deposited on onto a VHB tape (F-9469 PC) using electroless deposition method, as for mirror silvering. The deposited silver is 200 nm thick and highly conductively though having an uneven surface. A silvered DEA bimorph is made of an active layer of silvered VHB elastomers and a passive layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Experiments show that the silvered dielectric elastomer actuator is capable of producing a large bending, with a curvature of 32 mm for a 20 mm length at a driving voltage of 3000V. In addition, the electrolessly silvered elastomeric capacitor (130 μm thick VHB as dielectric) exhibits a breakdown voltage of 4kV, higher than 2kV of the silver-greased capacitor. In addition, the silvered VHB layer is found to be able to self clear after electrical breakdown. It remains functional at a lower voltage after surviving an electrical breakdown.

  10. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  11. New Elastomeric Materials and Functional Composites for Stretchable Electronics (United States)

    Vohra, Akhil

    This dissertation reports a diverse range of new components for the fabrication of soft flexible, stretchable and wearable electronic devices. The components investigated spans design and development of a new elastomer, layered elastomeric material, investigation and modification of surface chemistries, and development of new techniques for fabrication of stretchable, conductive composites using nanomaterials and metals. Simple, low-cost, benchtop techniques for the fabrication of the functional materials has been a strong focus of the work reported in this dissertation. Chapter 2 reports the development of a new transparent formulation of a renowned elastomer, butyl rubber, that enables its use in stretchable electronics applications. We design a new compression molding method to prepare highly smooth and transparent butyl rubber (T-IIR) substrates. We demonstrate the T-IIR protection to sensitive electronic materials from degradation and corrosion by oxygen and moisture to extend the lifetimes of stretchable devices. The demonstrated benefits positions T-IIR as an important elastomer for future generation of impermeable stretchable electronics. Chapter 3 examines the surface properties of T-IIR reported in Chapter 2 and reports methods to modify the surface chemistry of T-IIR to enable the deposition of electronic materials. This report advances the new elastomer from being a mere encapsulant to a substrate for direct device fabrication on its surface. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the deposition of stretchable gold films on the organosilane-modified surface of T-IIR. Chapter 4 expands upon the work presented in Chapter 3 and reports the fabrication of a multilayered elastomeric composite built upon T-IIR. The properties of the composite enables the deposition of stretchable metal films, while T-IIR prevents degradation from gases and water vapor when the composite/metal is used in electronic devices. We demonstrate the fabrication and long lifetime

  12. Selecting appropriate dynamic model for elastomeric engine mounts to approximate experimental FRF data of them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jahani K.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the capabilities of different dynamic analytical models to approximate experimentally measured FRFs of elastomeric engine mounts of a passenger car are investigated. Artificial neural networks is used in identifying the dynamic characteristics of each model. Impact hammer test is implemented to extract measured FRFs and harmonic analysis is used to get the counterpart response of the models. Here linear and orthotropic material properties are considered for elastomeric media. The frequency response functions of updated models are compared with experimentally detected ones and advantages and limitations of each model to simulate the real dynamic behaviour of elastomeric engine mounts are discussed

  13. Seismic isolation of nuclear power plants using elastomeric bearings (United States)

    Kumar, Manish

    Seismic isolation using low damping rubber (LDR) and lead-rubber (LR) bearings is a viable strategy for mitigating the effects of extreme earthquake shaking on safety-related nuclear structures. Although seismic isolation has been deployed in nuclear structures in France and South Africa, it has not seen widespread use because of limited new build nuclear construction in the past 30 years and a lack of guidelines, codes and standards for the analysis, design and construction of isolation systems specific to nuclear structures. The nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi in March 2011 has led the nuclear community to consider seismic isolation for new large light water and small modular reactors to withstand the effects of extreme earthquakes. The mechanical properties of LDR and LR bearings are not expected to change substantially in design basis shaking. However, under shaking more intense than design basis, the properties of the lead cores in lead-rubber bearings may degrade due to heating associated with energy dissipation, some bearings in an isolation system may experience net tension, and the compression and tension stiffness may be affected by the horizontal displacement of the isolation system. The effects of intra-earthquake changes in mechanical properties on the response of base-isolated nuclear power plants (NPPs) were investigated using an advanced numerical model of a lead-rubber bearing that has been verified and validated, and implemented in OpenSees and ABAQUS. A series of experiments were conducted at University at Buffalo to characterize the behavior of elastomeric bearings in tension. The test data was used to validate a phenomenological model of an elastomeric bearing in tension. The value of three times the shear modulus of rubber in elastomeric bearing was found to be a reasonable estimate of the cavitation stress of a bearing. The sequence of loading did not change the behavior of an elastomeric bearing under cyclic tension, and there was no

  14. Characterization of a Crosslinked Elastomeric-Protein Inspired Polypeptide. (United States)

    Bochicchio, Brigida; Bracalello, Angelo; Pepe, Antonietta


    Materials inspired by natural proteins have a great appeal in tissue engineering for their biocompatibility and similarity to extracellular matrix (ECM). Chimeric polypeptides inspired by elastomeric proteins such as silk, elastin, and collagen are of outstanding interest in the field. A recombinant polypeptide constituted of three different blocks, each of them having sequences derived from elastin, resilin, and collagen proteins, was demonstrated to be a good candidate as biomaterial for its self-assembling characteristics and biocompatibility. Herein, taking advantage of the primary amine functionalities present in the linear polypeptide, we crosslinked it with 1,6-hexamethylene-diisocyanate (HMDI). The characterization of the obtained polypeptide was realized by CD spectroscopy, AFM, and SEM microscopies. The obtained results, although not conclusive, demonstrate that the crosslinked polypeptide gave rise to porous networks, thin nanowires, and films not observable for the linear polypeptide. Chirality 28:606-611, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Hydraulic performance of elastomeric bonded permeable revetments and subsoil response to wave loads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oumeraci, H.; Staal, T.; Pfoertner, S.; Kudella, M.; Schimmels, S.; Verhagen, H.J.


    Elastomeric bonded permeable revetments, also called PBA (Polyurethane bonded aggregate) revetments, are highly porous structures made of mineral aggregates (e.g. crushed stones) which are durably and elastically bonded by polyurethane (PU). Despite their numerous advantages as compared to

  16. Flexible Connection Elastomeric Rubber as a Pounding Resisting Element between Two Adjacent Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuskar Lase


    Full Text Available To solve pounding problem of two adjacent buildings, structural designer usually employs a dilatation between the structures or make the two structures as a monolith structure. Other alternative is by using an elastomeric rubber as a pounding resisting element between the two structures. Effectiveness in applying elastomeric rubber component as flexible connection of two adjacent structures is the main focus of this paper. Various simulations such as structure models, earthquake excitations and openings in gap element are studied. Observation of maximum structural responses will be performed for structure model with elastomeric rubber in comparison with (1 monolith structure model and (2 structure model with rigid element (steel element. Simulation results show that application of elastomeric rubber component to prevent structures from pounding problem provides advantages especially in reducing internal forces in the shorter building. However, it slightly increases displacement of both structures.

  17. In vitro evaluation of force degradation of elastomeric chains used in Orthodontics


    André Weissheimer; Arno Locks; Luciane Macedo de Menezes; Adriano Ferreti Borgatto; Carla D'Agostini Derech


    OBJECTIVE: To analyze the in vitro force degradation of four different brands of elastomeric chains: American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ormco and TP Orthodontics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 80 gray elastomeric chains that were divided into four groups according to their respective manufacturers. Chain stretching was standardized at 21 mm with initial force release ranging from 300 g to 370 g. The samples were kept in artificial saliva at a constant temperature of 37°C and the degradation f...

  18. Lifetime Prediction and Durability of Elastomeric Seals for Fuel Cell Applications


    Singh, Hitendra Kumar


    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell (FC) stacks require elastomeric gaskets for each cell to keep the reactant gases within their respective regions[1]. If any gasket degrades or fails, the reactant gases can leak or mix with each other directly during operation or standby, affecting the overall operation and performance of the FC. The elastomeric gaskets used as FC seals are exposed to a range of environmental conditions, and concurrently, subjected to mechanical compression betwee...

  19. Nonthrombogenic, biodegradable elastomeric polyurethanes with variable sulfobetaine content. (United States)

    Ye, Sang-Ho; Hong, Yi; Sakaguchi, Hirokazu; Shankarraman, Venkat; Luketich, Samuel K; D'Amore, Antonio; Wagner, William R


    For applications where degradable polymers are likely to have extended blood contact, it is often important for these materials to exhibit high levels of thromboresistance. This can be achieved with surface modification approaches, but such modifications may be transient with degradation. Alternatively, polymer design can be altered such that the bulk polymer is thromboresistant and this is maintained with degradation. Toward this end a series of biodegradable, elastic polyurethanes (PESBUUs) containing different zwitterionic sulfobetaine (SB) content were synthesized from a polycaprolactone-diol (PCL-diol):SB-diol mixture (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75 and 0:100) reacted with diisocyanatobutane and chain extended with putrescine. The chemical structure, tensile mechanical properties, thermal properties, hydrophilicity, biodegradability, fibrinogen adsorption and thrombogenicity of the resulting polymers was characterized. With increased SB content some weakening in tensile properties occurred in wet conditions and enzymatic degradation also decreased. However, at higher zwitterionic molar ratios (50% and 75%) wet tensile strength exceeded 15 MPa and breaking strain was >500%. Markedly reduced thrombotic deposition was observed both before and after substantial degradation for both of these PESBUUs and they could be processed by electrospinning into a vascular conduit format with appropriate compliance properties. The mechanical and degradation properties as well as the acute in vitro thrombogenicity assessment suggest that these tunable polyurethanes could provide options appropriate for use in blood contacting applications where a degradable, elastomeric component with enduring thromboresistance is desired.

  20. Development and Evaluation of Elastomeric Materials for Geothermal Applications (United States)

    Mueller, W. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.; Reilly, W. W.; Yavrouian, A. H.; Mosesman, I. D.; Ingham, J. D.


    A material was formulated having about 250-350 psi tensile strength and 30-80 percent elongation at 260 C for at least 24 hours in simulated brine. The relationship between these laboratory test results and sealing performance in actual or simulated test conditions is not entirely clear; however, it is believed that no conventional formation or casing packer design is likely to perform well using these materials. The synthetic effort focused on high temperature block copolymers and development of curable polystyrene. Procedures were worked out for synthesizing these new materials. Initial results with heat-cured unfilled polystyrene 'gum' at 260 C indicate a tensile strength of about 50 psi. Cast films of the first sample of polyphenyl quinoxaline-polystyrene block copolymer, which has 'graft-block' structure consisting of a polystyrene chain with pendant polyphenyl quinoxaline groups, show elastomeric behavior in the required temperature range. Its tensile strength and elongation at 260 C were 220-350 psi and 18-36 percent, respectively. All of these materials also showed satisfactory hydrolytic stability.

  1. Biocide squirting from an elastomeric tri-layer film (United States)

    Sonntag, Philippe; Hoerner, Pierre; Cheymol, André; Argy, Gilles; Riess, Gérard; Reiter, Günter


    Protective layers typically act in a passive way by simply separating two sides. Protection is only efficient as long as the layers are intact. If a high level of protection has to be achieved by thin layers, complementary measures need to be in place to ensure safety, even after breakage of the layer-an important issue in medical applications. Here, we present a novel approach for integrating a biocide liquid into a protective film (about 300-500 μm thick), which guarantees that a sufficient amount of biocide is rapidly released when the film is punctured. The film is composed of a middle layer, containing the liquid in droplet-like compartments, sandwiched between two elastomeric boundary layers. When the film is punctured, the liquid squirts out of the middle layer. A theoretical model was used to determine the size and density of droplets that are necessary to ensure a sufficient quantity of biocide is expelled from an adequately elastic matrix to provide protection at the site of damage. We demonstrate the utility of this approach for the fabrication of surgical gloves.

  2. Microfluidic molding of photonic microparticles with engraved elastomeric membranes. (United States)

    Sim, Jae Young; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Lim, Jong-Min; Cho, Soojeong; Kim, Shin-Hyun; Yang, Seung-Man


    A microfluidic approach to prepare photonic microparticles by repeated molding of photocurable colloidal suspension is reported. An elastomeric membrane with negative relieves which vertically separates two microfluidic channels is integrated; bottom channel is used for suspension flow, whereas water-filled top channel is used for pneumatic actuation of the membrane. Upon pressurization of the top channel, membrane is deformed to confine the suspension into its negative relieves, which is then polymerized by UV irradiation, making microparticles with mold shape. The microparticles are released from the mold by relieving the pneumatic pressure and flows through the bottom channel. This one cycle of molding, polymerization, and release can be repeatedly performed in microfluidic device of which pneumatic valves are actuated in a programmed manner. The microparticles exhibit structural colors when the suspension contains high concentration of silica nanoparticles; the nanoparticles form regular arrays and the microparticles reflect specific wavelength of light as a photonic crystals. The silica nanoparticles can be selectively removed to make pronounced structural colors. In addition, the microparticles can be further functionalized by embedding magnetic particles in the matrix of the microparticles, enabling the remote control of rotational motion of microparticles. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Diffusion of nanoparticles in solution through elastomeric membrane (United States)

    Zemzem, Mohamed; Vinches, Ludwig; Hallé, Stéphane


    Diffusion phenomena encountered in mass transfer of liquids play an important role in many technological processes of polymer manufacturing and use. In addition and alongside the notable growth of nanoparticles use, particularly when in suspension in liquid solutions, it has become important to pay some attention to their interactions with polymeric structures. The aim of this work is to evaluate some diffusion parameters of gold nanoparticle solutions as well as of their liquid carrier (water) through elastomeric membranes. Gravimetric method was chosen as the main technique to quantify swelling phenomena and to assess kinetic properties. The dynamic liquid uptake measurements were conducted on gold nanoparticles (5 nm and 50 nm in diameter) in aqueous solutions when brought into contact with two types of nitrile material samples. Results showed that diffusion mechanism of the liquids lies between Fickian and sub-Fickian modes. Slight deviations were noticed with the gold nanoparticle solutions. A growth in liquid interaction with the rubbery structure in presence of the nanoparticles was also observed from comparison of K factor (characteristic of the elastomer-liquid interaction). Difference between the characteristics of the two membranes was also reported using this parameter. Besides, diffusion coefficients testified the impact of the membrane thickness on the penetration process, while no significant effect of the nature of the nanoparticle solution can be seen on this coefficient.

  4. Effect of Elastomeric Nanoparticles on Polystyrene/Organic Nanocomposites

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    Sungwon Ma


    Full Text Available The rheological behavior of nanosheet composites and the effect of morphology between elastomeric nanofiber and nanosheet composites were studied using a Cross-Williamson model and critical volume concentration was investigated by percolation threshold theory for fiber and sheet morphologies. Nanofiber and nanosheet particles were synthesized by a cold vulcanization process using a S2Cl2 cross-linking reagent resulting from self-assembly of a PS-PI block copolymer. Nanofiber and nanosheet characterization was done by SEM. Rheological properties were measured and analyzed in terms of varying nanofiller and nanosheet loading from 0.5 to 10 wt%. For the nanofiber and nanosheet composites, the moduli were increased with increasing filler loading, whereas moduli of SI23 and SI43 composite decreased with increasing content. Both nanofiber and nanosheet composites showed a nanosized filler effect and their structural changes were between 5 and 10 wt%. Cross-Williamson three-parameter model was used to find zero-shear viscosity and relaxation time. Percolation threshold theory was used to study structural changes and calculate values.

  5. A method for nanofluidic device prototyping using elastomeric collapse (United States)

    Park, Seung-min; Huh, Yun Suk; Craighead, Harold G.; Erickson, David


    Nanofluidics represents a promising solution to problems in fields ranging from biomolecular analysis to optical property tuning. Recently a number of simple nanofluidic fabrication techniques have been introduced that exploit the deformability of elastomeric materials like polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). These techniques are limited by the complexity of the devices that can be fabricated, which can only create straight or irregular channels normal to the direction of an applied strain. Here, we report a technique for nanofluidic fabrication based on the controlled collapse of microchannel structures. As is demonstrated, this method converts the easy to control vertical dimension of a PDMS mold to the lateral dimension of a nanochannel. We demonstrate here the creation of complex nanochannel structures as small as 60 nm and provide simple design rules for determining the conditions under which nanochannel formation will occur. The applicability of the technique to biomolecular analysis is demonstrated by showing DNA elongation in a nanochannel and a technique for optofluidic surface enhanced Raman detection of nucleic acids. PMID:19717418

  6. Thermal stability of the elastomeric anti-trauma pad

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    Olszewska Karolina


    Full Text Available The elastomeric anti-trauma pad (EA-TP based on shear thickening fluid (STF has been developed. Dynamic oscillatory shear experiment was conducted at constant strain amplitude of 5%. STF composed of 25% of volume fraction of 7 nm Fumed Silica, dispersed in polypropylene glycol with molar mass 400 gmol−1 shows elastic properties in entire investigated range of the frequency. Ballistic tests of EA-TP with 7.62 mm × 39 mm PS bullets were performed according to the PN-V-87000:2011 standard. The studies revealed about 60% reduction of the average backface signature depth (BSD for the EA-TP, when compared to the nowadays commonly used soft insert. The ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed slight impact of the elevated temperature and air (oxygen on the chemical degradation of the EA-TP surface. The UV-VIS spectroscopy has allowed to notice colour deviation of the aged samples towards green and yellow, as well as lack of dye resistance to accelerated aging process. Thermographic analysis has shown no visible changes of the EA-TP surface and sub-surface during accelerated aging process. The aforementioned small changes on the surface of EA-TP did not affect the ballistic properties of composite armour. EA-TP insert maintains ballistic properties after accelerated aging process which was simulating the period of 6 years according to ASTM F1980 – 07:2002 standard.

  7. Measurement of oil film thickness for application to elastomeric Stirling engine rod seals (United States)

    Krauter, A. I.


    The rod seal in the Stirling engine has the function of separating high pressure gas from low or ambient pressure oil. An experimental apparatus was designed to measure the oil film thickness distribution for an elastomeric seal in a reciprocating application. Tests were conducted on commercial elastomeric seals having a 76 mm rod and a 3.8 mm axial width. Test conditions included 70 and 90 seal durometers, a sliding velocity of 0.8 m/sec, and a zero pressure gradient across the seal. An acrylic cylinder and a typical synthetic base automotive lubricant were used. The experimental results showed that the effect of seal hardness on the oil film thickness is considerable. A comparison between analytical and experimental oil film profiles for an elastomeric seal during relatively high speed reciprocating motion showed an overall qualitative agreement.

  8. Elastomeric Seal Performance after Terrestrial Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.; Dunlap, Patrick H.


    Ultraviolet radiation was evaluated to determine its negative effects on the performance of elastomeric gas pressure seals. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 O-ring test articles were used to quantify the degradation of the seals after exposure to vacuum-ultraviolet and/or middle-to-near-ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Three groups of seals were exposed in terrestrial facilities to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation, 230-500 nm wavelength radiation, or both spectrums, for an orbital spaceflight equivalent of 125 hours. The leak rates of the silicone elastomer S0383-70 seals were quantified and compared to samples that received no radiation. Each lot contained six samples and statistical t-tests were used to determine the separate and combined influences of exposure to the two wavelength ranges. A comparison of the mean leak rates of samples exposed to 115-165 nm wavelength radiation to the control specimens showed no difference, suggesting that spectrum was not damaging. The 230-500 nm wavelength appeared to be damaging, as the mean leak rates of the specimens exposed to that range of wavelengths, and those exposed to the combined 115-165 nm and 230-500 nm spectrums, were significantly different from the leak rates of the control specimens. Most importantly, the test articles exposed to both wavelength spectrums exhibited mean leak rates two orders of magnitude larger than any other exposed specimens, which suggested that both wavelength spectrums are important when simulating the orbital environment.

  9. Effect of storage period on the accuracy of elastomeric impressions

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    Eduardo Batista Franco


    Full Text Available AIMS: To investigate the effect of the storage period on the accuracy of recently developed elastomeric materials. METHODS: Simultaneous impressions of a steel die were taken using a polyether (I: Impregum Soft Heavy and Light body, 3M ESPE and vinyl polysiloxane (P: Perfectim Blue Velvet and Flexi-Velvet, J.Morita. The trays were loaded with the heavy-bodied impression materials while the light-bodied impression materials were simultaneously spread on the steel die. The impressions were poured after 2 hours, 24 hours, and 7 days. Impressions were stored at approximately 55% relative humidity and room temperature. Ten replicas were produced for each experimental condition (n=60. Accuracy of the stone dies was assessed with a depth-measuring microscope. The difference in height between the surface of the stone die and a standard metallic ring was recorded in micrometers at four demarcated points, by two independent examiners. Data were submitted to two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (a = 0.05. RESULTS: Significant differences were found among the groups. Smaller discrepancies were observed when pouring was performed up to 24 hours (I-2h= 65.0 ± 15.68 µm; I-24h= 81.6 ± 11.13 µm for the polyether, and up to 7 days for the vinyl polysiloxane (P-2h= 79.1 ± 13.82 µm; P-24h= 96.8 ± 6.02 µm; P-7d= 81.4 ± 4.3 µm. Significant dimensional discrepancies, however, were observed when polyether was stored for 7 days (I-7d= 295.3 ± 17.4 µm. CONCLUSION: Storage may significantly affect the dimensional accuracy of impressions and, thus, a maximum period and storage condition should be specified for the recently developed materials.

  10. The effect of toothpastes with bleaching agents on the force decay of elastomeric orthodontic chains (United States)

    Behnaz, Mohammad; Dalaie, Kazem; Hosseinpour, Sepanta; Namvar, Fatemeh; Kazemi, Leila


    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of agents available in whitening toothpastes (Crest® and Sensodyne®) in vitro on the force decay of elastomeric chains used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 specimens of elastomeric chains were divided into five groups (n = 60) and were evaluated. These groups included (1) the regular Crest® toothpaste and distilled water solution, (2) whitening Crest® toothpaste and distilled water solution, (3) regular Sensodyne® toothpaste and distilled water solution, (4) whitening Sensodyne® toothpaste and distilled water solution, and (5) distilled water as a control group. The samples' force was measured using Instron at intervals of 0, 1, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Results: At the initial time point, the difference in the force values of elastomeric chain between any of the groups was not significant (P > 0.05). On the 1st day, there was a significant difference (P 0.05). On days 7, 14, and 28, the rate of decline for all groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions: According to the results obtained in the present study, it seems that toothpastes without whitening agents have less effect on force decay of elastomeric chain over time. PMID:29279666

  11. Using "click-e-bricks" to make 3D elastomeric structures. (United States)

    Morin, Stephen A; Shevchenko, Yanina; Lessing, Joshua; Kwok, Sen Wai; Shepherd, Robert F; Stokes, Adam A; Whitesides, George M


    Soft, 3D elastomeric structures and composite structures are easy to fabricate using click-e-bricks, and the internal architecture of these structures together with the capabilities built into the bricks themselves provide mechanical, optical, electrical, and fluidic functions. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. A multiaxial stretchable interconnect using liquid-alloy-filled elastomeric microchannels


    Hyun-Joong, Kim; Chulwoo, Son; Ziaie, B.


    We report on the fabrication and characterizations of a multiaxial stretchable interconnect using room-temperature liquid-alloy-filled elastomeric microchannels. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannels coated at the bottom with a gold wetting layer were used as the reservoirs which were subsequently filled by room-temperature liquid alloy using microfluidic injection technique. Using a diamond-shaped geometry to...

  13. Physical and Chemical Stability of Urapidil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride in Elastomeric Infusion Pump. (United States)

    Tomasello, Cristina; Leggieri, Anna; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco; Baietto, Lorena; Fulcheri, Chiara; De Nicolò, Amedeo; De Perri, Giovanni; D'Avolio, Antonio


    Urapidil is an antihypertensive agent, usually administered through intravenous bolus injection, slow-intravenous infusion, or continuous-drug infusion by perfusor. Since to date no evidences are available on drug stability in elastomeric pumps, patients have to be hospitalized. The purpose of this study was to validate an ultra-performance liquid chromatographic method to evaluate urapidil stability in an elastomeric infusion pump, in order to allow continuous infusion as home-care treatment. Analyses were conducted by diluting urapidil in an elastomeric pump. Two concentrations were evaluated: 1.6 mg/mL and 3.3 mg/mL. For the analyses, a reverse-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatographic- photodiode array detection instrument was used. Stressed degradation, pH changes, and visual clarity were used as stability indicators up to 10 days after urapidil solution preparation. The drug showed no more than 5% degradation during the test period at room temperature. No pH changes and no evidences of incompatibility were observed. Stress tests resulted in appreciable observation of degradation products. Considering the observed mean values, urapidil hydrochloride in sodium chloride 0.9% in elastomeric infusion pumps is stable for at least 10 days. These results indicate that this treatment could be administered at home for a prolonged duration (at least 7 days) with a satisfactory response. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  14. Pattern transfer printing by kinetic control of adhesion to an elastomeric stamp (United States)

    Nuzzo, Ralph G [Champaign, IL; Rogers, John A [Champaign, IL; Menard, Etienne [Urbana, IL; Lee, Keon Jae [Tokyo, JP; Khang, Dahl-Young [Urbana, IL; Sun, Yugang [Champaign, IL; Meitl, Matthew [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Zhengtao [Urbana, IL


    The present invention provides methods, systems and system components for transferring, assembling and integrating features and arrays of features having selected nanosized and/or microsized physical dimensions, shapes and spatial orientations. Methods of the present invention utilize principles of `soft adhesion` to guide the transfer, assembly and/or integration of features, such as printable semiconductor elements or other components of electronic devices. Methods of the present invention are useful for transferring features from a donor substrate to the transfer surface of an elastomeric transfer device and, optionally, from the transfer surface of an elastomeric transfer device to the receiving surface of a receiving substrate. The present methods and systems provide highly efficient, registered transfer of features and arrays of features, such as printable semiconductor element, in a concerted manner that maintains the relative spatial orientations of transferred features.

  15. Smart composites based on controllably grafted graphene oxide particles and elastomeric matrix with sensing capability (United States)

    Mrlik, Miroslav; Osicka, Josef; Ilcikova, Marketa; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Mosnacek, Jaroslav


    This study utilize the simple fabrication method for graphene oxide (GO) sheet preparation, their controllable modification using surface initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) technique and thus suitable interaction with elastomeric matrix for final enhancement and controlling of the sensing capability upon light stimulus. GO particles and their grafted analogues were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Thermogravimetric analysis and Raman spectroscopy to properly see the controllable coating as well as reduction of GO during the single-step synthesis. The composites containing various amounts of GO, controllably modified GO and elastomeric matrix poly(vinylidene-co-hexafluoropropylene) elastomer were characterized by dynamic mechanical analysis and thermal conductivity. The phenomenon how the GO and modified GO particles influence the mobility of the polymer chains and thermal conductivity will be investigated. The impact on change of the material properties with respect to the light-responsive and sensing capabilities is discussed.

  16. Investigation into the Impact of n-Decane, Decalin, and Isoparaffinic Solvent on Elastomeric Sealing Materials


    Yue Liu; Wilson, Christopher W.


    One of the crucial aspects in the adoption of alternative fuels (e.g., GtL fuel) in aviation industry is to investigate their compatibility with elastomeric materials used in current gas turbine engines. This study employed stress relaxation technique to investigate the effects of three solvents, namely, decalin (cycloparaffin), n-decane (normal paraffin), and ShellSol T solvent (isoparaffins) on O-rings made from different materials. Results indicated that both fluorosilicone and fluorocarbo...

  17. Seismic response analysis of coupled building involving MR damper and elastomeric base isolation

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    M.K. Shrimali


    The present study investigates the comparative performance of three proposed schemes of coupled building control involving Magnetorheological (MR damper and elastomeric base isolation, named as, Semiactive, Hybrid 1 and Hybrid 2. The results of numerical study showed that Hybrid controls are more effective in controlling the response as compared to Semiactive control. Further, influence of device parameters on control performance has been investigated through a parametric study.

  18. Process for the preparation of fluorine containing crosslinked elastomeric polytriazine and product so produced (United States)

    Rosser, R. W.; Korus, R. A. (Inventor)


    Crosslinking elastomeric polytriazines are prepared by a 4 step procedure which consists of (1) forming a poly(imidoylamidine) by the reaction, under reflux conditions, of anhydrous ammonia with certain perfluorinated alkyl or alkylether dinitriles; (2) forming a linear polytriazine by cyclizing the imidoylamidine linkages by reaction with certain perfluorinated alkyl or alkylether acid anhydrides or halides; (3) extending the linear polytriazine chain by further refluxing in anhydrous ammonia; and (4) heating to cyclize the new imidoylamidine and thereby crosslink the polymer.

  19. Evaluation of the effectiveness of elastomeric mount using vibration power flow and transmissibility methods (United States)

    Arib Rejab, M. N.; Shukor, S. A. Abdul; Sofian, M. R. Mohd; Inayat-Hussain, J. I.; Nazirah, A.; Asyraf, I.


    This paper presents the results of an experimental work to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of elastomeric mounts. It also presents the results of theoretical analysis to determine the transmissibility and vibration power flow of these mounts, which are associated with their contribution to structure-borne noise. Four types of elastomeric mounts were considered, where three of them were made from green natural rubber material (SMR CV60, Ekoprena and Pureprena) and one made from petroleum based synthetic rubber (EPDM). In order to determine the dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these elastomeric mounts, dynamic tests were conducted using MTS 830 Elastomer Test System. Dynamic stiffness and loss factor of these mounts were measured for a range of frequency between 5 Hz and 150 Hz, and with a dynamic amplitude of 0.2 mm (p-p). The transmissibility and vibration power flow were determined based on a simple 2-Degree-of-Freedom model representing a vibration isolation system with a flexible receiver. This model reprsents the three main parts of a vehicle, which are the powertrain and engine mounting, the flexible structure and the floor of the vehicle. The results revealed that synthetic rubber (EPDM) was only effective at high frequency region. Natural rubber (Ekoprena), on the other hand, was found to be effective at both low and high frequency regions due to its low transmissibility at resonant frequency and its ability to damp the resonance. The estimated structure-borne noise emission showed that Ekoprena has a lower contribution to structure-borne noise as compared to the other types of elastomeric mounts.

  20. Evaluation of the susceptibility to pigmentation of orthodontic esthetic elastomeric ligatures

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    Janine Soares Cavalcante


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this laboratory study was to evaluate changes in the pigmentation of esthetic elastomeric ligatures after immersion in a staining solution. METHODS: Sixty ligatures were selected and divided into 12 groups according to their brand and also considering their condition, i.e., unstretched or stretched. The groups were divided into: Morelli (clear, TP Orthodontics (clear, American Orthodontics (clear, 3M/Unitek (clear, American Orthodontics (pearl color and 3M/Unitek (pearl color, separated into groups of 5 unstretched and five stretched ligatures. Assessment of their color changes was performed by means of digital photograph and computer analysis using Adobe Photoshop. Standardized digital photographs were taken at T0 (before the staining process, with unstretched ligatures and at T1 (following the 5-days staining process. The staining solution was composed of artificial saliva and foods with staining potential. At T1 the ligatures were either stretched or unstretched. RESULTS: The results of this study showed that esthetic elastomeric ligatures are prone to staining. Among the evaluated brands, TP Orthodontics and American Orthodontics clear ligatures were the most stable. Moreover, 3M/Unitek pearl ligatures demonstrated statistically significant changes in all variables. CONCLUSIONS: Esthetic elastomeric ligatures are susceptible to staining and no statistically significant difference was found between unstretched or stretched ligatures, with the sole exception of the TP Orthodontics brand. The 3M/Unitek's pearl color ligatures displayed the greatest staining potential.

  1. Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds: influence of disinfectant solutions and elastomeric impression materials. (United States)

    Guiraldo, Ricardo D; Berger, Sandrine B; Siqueira, Ronaldo Mt; Grandi, Victor H; Lopes, Murilo B; Gonini-Júnior, Alcides; Caixeta, Rodrigo V; de Carvalho, Rodrigo V; Sinhoreti, Mário Ac


    This study compared the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds after disinfection using 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to those of molds that were not disinfected, for four elastomeric impression materials: polysulfide (Light Bodied Permlastic), polyether (Impregum Soft), polydimethylsiloxane (Oranwash L) andpolyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil Ultra LV). The molds were prepared on a matrix by applying pressure, using a perforated metal tray. The molds were removed following polymerization and either disinfected (by soaking in one of the solutions for 15 minutes) or not disinfected. The samples were thus divided into 16 groups (n=5). Surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy were evaluated using optical microscopy to assess the 20-μm line over its entire 25 mm length. The dimensional accuracy results (%) were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the means were compared by Tukey's test (a=5%). The 20-μm line was completely reproduced by all elastomeric impression materials, regardless of disinfection procedure. There was no significant difference between the control group and molds disinfected with peracetic acid for the elastomeric materials Impregum Soft (polyether) and Aquasil Ultra LV (polyvinylsiloxane). The high-level disinfectant peracetic acid would be the choice material for disinfection. Sociedad Argentina de Investigación Odontológica.

  2. COMMUNICATION: Multielectrode arrays with elastomeric microstructured overlays for extracellular recordings from patterned neurons (United States)

    Claverol-Tinturé, E.; Ghirardi, M.; Fiumara, F.; Rosell, X.; Cabestany, J.


    Multielectrode array technology constitutes a promising approach for the characterization of the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity underlying information processing in the nervous system. For this purpose, long-term monitoring and stimulation of cultured neuronal networks with one-to-one neuron-sensor interfacing is advantageous. Existing neurochips that meet these specifications have made use of custom 3D structures requiring clean-room intensive microfabrication techniques. Low-cost fabrication procedures with potential for mass production would facilitate progress in the area. To this end, we have developed a sandwich structure comprising an elastomeric film, microstructured by replica moulding and microhole punching, for neuronal patterning, and a standard planar microelectrode array (MEA), for stimulation and recording. The elastomeric film includes microwells for cell body confinement, and microchannels capable of guiding neurites for network topology specification. The device is formed by overlaying the elastomeric structures on planar arrays. The combination of replica moulding, rapid prototyping and planar MEAs results in low-cost neurochips accessible to most neurophysiology labs. Single neuron patterning and recordings of extracellular potentials are demonstrated.

  3. Long-term compression effects on elastomeric O-ring behavior (United States)

    Clinton, R. G.; Turner, J. E.


    This paper discusses the results of testing performed on elastomeric seal materials that had been under compression for extended periods of time. Elastomeric seals used in the Space Shuttle redesigned solid rocket motors can experience compression times of up to six months. These seals must be capable of sealing internal motor pressure upon ignition. The tests described herein were performed in order to verify that the seals, which had experienced long-term compression could seal throughout motor operation. Testing was divided into two phases: (1) dynamic high pressure testing, and (2) resiliency testing. Dynamic testing was performed using specialized test fixtures that allowed simulation of the field joint movements during initial motor operation along with high pressure gas. Resiliency testing was performed using specialized test fixtures that also simulated field joint movements and also had the ability to measure the sealing force of the O-ring. Results from all testing indicated that the current elastomeric seals used in the redesigned solid rocket motors will seal during motor operations in the currently defined launch environments.

  4. Elastomeric impression as a diagnostic method of cavitation in proximal dentin caries in primary molars

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    Adriela Azevedo Souza Mariath


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to validate the elastomeric impression after temporary tooth separation as a method of cavitation detection in proximal caries lesions in primary molars with outer half dentin radiolucency. Fifty-one children (4-10 years old, presenting radiolucency in the outer half of the dentin at the proximal surfaces of primary molars and proximal anatomic contact with the adjacent tooth (without restoration/cavitated caries lesion were enrolled in the study. Temporary tooth separation was performed with an orthodontic rubber ring placed around the contact point during 2-3 days. Thereafter, impression of the proximal surfaces was made. The elastomeric impressions were classified as "non-cavitated" or "cavitated" surfaces. Visual inspection after tooth separation was considered as the gold standard. Examiner reliability of visual inspection after tooth separation was determined (kappa 0.92. Impression examination was repeated every 5 participants to evaluate the reproducibility of the method. The frequency of cavitated lesions was 65%, and 67% of those were inactive. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 0.88% (95%CI 0.73-0.95, 0.89% (95%CI 0.67-0.97, 0.94% (95%CI 0.79-0.98 and 0.80% (95%CI 0.58-0.92, respectively. Impression examination showed total agreement regarding cavitation. The evaluation of elastomeric impression after tooth separation is a useful clinical resource in cavitation detection for clinicians and researchers when visual inspection is doubtful.

  5. Development of a snubber type magnetorheological fluid elastomeric lag damper for helicopter stability augmentation (United States)

    Ngatu, Grum T.

    Most advanced helicopter rotors are typically fitted with lag dampers, such as elastomeric or hybrid fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag dampers, which have lower parts counts, are lighter in weight, easier to maintain, and more reliable than conventional hydraulic dampers. However, the damping and stiffness properties of elastomeric and fluid elastomeric lag dampers are non-linear functions of lag/rev frequency, dynamic lag amplitude, and operating temperature. It has been shown that elastomeric damping and stiffness levels diminish markedly as amplitude of damper motion increases. Further, passive dampers tend to present severe damping losses as damper operating temperature increases either due to in-service self-heating or hot atmospheric conditions. Magnetorheological (MR) dampers have also been considered for application to helicopter rotor lag dampers to mitigate amplitude and frequency dependent damping behaviors. MR dampers present a controllable damping with little or no stiffness. Conventional MR dampers are similar in configuration to linear stroke hydraulic type dampers, which are heavier, occupy a larger space envelope, and are unidirectional. Hydraulic type dampers require dynamic seal to prevent leakage, and consequently, frequent inspections and maintenance are necessary to ensure the reliability of these dampers. Thus, to evaluate the potential of combining the simplicity and reliability of FE and smart MR technologies in augmenting helicopter lag mode stability, an adaptive magnetorheological fluid-elastomeric (MRFE) lag damper is developed in this thesis as a retrofit to an actual fluid-elastomeric (FE) lag damper. Consistent with the loading condition of a helicopter rotor system, single frequency (lag/rev) and dual frequency (lag/rev at 1/rev) sinusoidal loading were applied to the MRFE damper at varying temperature conditions. The complex modulus method was employed to linearly characterize and compare the performance of the MRFE damper with the

  6. An evaluation of the effect of various gloves on polymerization inhibition of elastomeric impression materials: An In vitro study

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    Vinuta Hiremath


    Full Text Available Background: Latex protective barriers such as gloves and rubber dam material have been used widely in restorative procedures for crown and bridge. However, the chemical used during latex glove fabrication is thought to inhibit the polymerization of elastomeric impression materials used for impression making which has a detrimental effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface definition of resultant casts used for restorative procedures. The objectives of the study were to examine the surface of different elastomeric impressions on contact with various gloves. Materials and Methods: This clinical study included a total of eighty specimens of two types of the putty elastomeric impression material were hand manipulated by wearing three different gloves materials and is placed on a marked area of a clean and alcohol-treated glass slab at room temperature. The specimens examined for any signs of polymerization inhibition. The specimen will be rated as being “inhibited” if any residue remains on the glass slab and absence of the above will result as “no inhibition.” Results: The results showed no interference with the polymerization inhibition of the selected elastomers followed by the nitrile glove. The latex gloves showed inhibited set of the elastomeric impression material but set after sometime confirming time-dependent inhibition of the impression material. Conclusion: This study shows that the use of latex and sometime nitrile gloves during crown and bridge procedures should be contraindicated and the use of vinyl gloves should be stressed when working with elastomeric impression materials.

  7. Influence of dispersants on aging and frost elastomeric compositions based on butadiene acrylonitrile rubbers

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    R. M. Dolinskaya


    Full Text Available The possibility of use of dispergators of various nature for production of rubber technical products with expanded temperature conditions of operation is studied. It is investigated influences of dispergators of Dispergator FL and INT 159 on properties of rubber mixes for receiving products with high resistance to thermal aging or frost resistance. Research of influence of modifiers was conducted for rubber mixes on the basis of butadienenitrile rubbers synthetic (BNRS-18 and BNRS-28. I’s established that at addition of a dispergator of Dispergator FL the indicator of relative deformatstion of compression (RDC and respectively heat stability of rubbers increases. Introduction to structure of elastomeric composition of a dispergator of INT 159 practically doesn’t influence frost resistance, and Dispergator FL worsens her (the coefficient of frost resistance decreases by 15.4–17.8%. Possibly it is connected with the fact that at the lowered temperatures in the presence of Dispergator FL there is a bigger delay of relaxation processes and decrease in energy of the thermal movement of links of macromolecules of rubbers. It becomes insufficient for overcoming of intermolecular interaction in the modified system and commission of conformational transitions of macromolecules under the influence of external loading. Mechanical energy is to a large extent mentioned not on change of a form of macromolecules, and on their mechanodestruction. However, it increases heat stability since it that is higher, than molecular mobility is lower. INT 159 dispergator components, settling down on borders of supramolecular formations of elastomers, increase mobility of links of macromolecules of rubbers, weaken chemical bonds in them, reduce thermal stability, but at the same time INT 159 dispergator practically doesn’t reduce frost resistance therefore it is expedient to apply it when receiving frost-resistant elastomeric composition. Thus, when receiving

  8. Elastomeric thermal interface materials with high through-plane thermal conductivity from carbon fiber fillers vertically aligned by electrostatic flocking. (United States)

    Uetani, Kojiro; Ata, Seisuke; Tomonoh, Shigeki; Yamada, Takeo; Yumura, Motoo; Hata, Kenji


    Electrostatic flocking is applied to create an array of aligned carbon fibers from which an elastomeric thermal interface material (TIM) can be fabricated with a high through-plane thermal conductivity of 23.3 W/mK. A high thermal conductivity can be achieved with a significantly low filler level (13.2 wt%). As a result, this material retains the intrinsic properties of the matrix, i.e., elastomeric behavior. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Study of the rare-earth metals magnetic powders filling influence on the basic properties of elastomeric materials (United States)

    Zhansakova, K. S.; Mitryaeva, N. S.; Russkikh, G. S.


    The work deals with the studying of technological, vulcanization and physical-mechanical properties of magnetic elastomeric compositions. Powders of rare-earth metals with different morphology of particles and different magnetic characteristics were used as fillers. Based on the results of the work performed, it was revealed that the applied technology of manufacturing magnetic elastomeric compositions based on synthetic rubber is optimal. The rationale for this is the balanced technological and physical-mechanical properties of vulcanizates. Morphology and magnetic characteristics of fillers also do not significantly change the vulcanization properties.

  10. Optical fiber sensor for pressure measurement based on elastomeric membrane and macrobending loss (United States)

    Ribeiro, Livia A.; Rosolem, Joao B.; Dini, Danilo C.; Floridia, Claudio; Bezerra, Edson W.; Cezar, Fabio A.; Loichate, Marcelo D.; Durelli, Anderson S.


    We propose a fiber optic sensor array based on bend loss assessed by optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR). The sensor mechanism is based on optical fiber bending loss compressed by external pressure. An elastomeric surface is applied to the sensor in order to communicate external pressure to the fiber coil and also, this make sensor able to deal with degradation coming from aggressive environments. The sensing system proposed is able to monitor liquid or gas pressure in different environments, such as water, oil, alcohols, some diluted acids and others, depending only of elastomeric membrane choice. In order to protect the sensor stage against environmental degradation a plastic packaging was chosen. Bend loss measurements is taken concerning the number of fiber loops involved in the sensor, pump signal wavelength and temporal width. This long for the best parameters in the sensor construction. The specific case of the sensor applied to water percolation monitoring from embankment damns is detailed in this paper; for this application the sensor array have a number of at least six stages totally independent each other, in such a way that each stage can be developed to monitor a specific environment. Sensors have shown good performance in field tests, reaching work range from 0.1 to 0.6 atm with 0.05 atm of precision.

  11. Locally-tailored structure of an elastomeric substrate for stretchable circuits (United States)

    Park, Chan Woo; Jung, Soon Won; Na, Bock Soon; Oh, Ji-Young; Park, Nae-Man; Lee, Sang Seok; Bon Koo, Jae


    We demonstrate a new process for fabricating a hybrid elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate, which can provide a high ratio (as large as ∼50) of the elastic modulus between the active device region and the interconnect area, as well as a locally tailored surface profile for each region. For this process, a Si master mold with a dual surface profile is prepared, where locally flat regions are distributed within a wavy-surfaced area. The stiffer elastomeric islands for active devices are formed on the flat regions by photolithography of a photo-patternable and hard PDMS layer (E ∼ 160 MPa), over which a soft PDMS layer (E ∼ 2 to 3 MPa) is casted. By releasing the whole PDMS layer from the mold, a hybrid silicone substrate with stiff and flat islands embedded within a soft and wavy matrix is obtained. In this hybrid structure, active devices located on the stiff regions can provide high reliability under stretched conditions, while most strain is accommodated by wavy interconnects within the soft area. Such beneficial effects are demonstrated by organic thin film transistors produced on the hybrid substrate.

  12. Applicability of base isolation made of elastomeric isolators for the protection of cultural heritage

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    Vojko Kilar


    Full Text Available This article briefly presents the applicability of base isolation made of elastomeric isolators for the protection of heritage architecture. The first part of the article gives an illustrative overview on the use of base isolation throughout the world, together with an analysis of guidelines for the protection and management of places of heritage architecture. The guidelines which are given through international agreements and resolutions on the conservation of monuments have to be considered when designing the base isolation of existing monuments. Generally, interventions into such structures should be minimal or visible as little as possible and should minimally affect the aesthetics and functionality of the object. In the second part of the article the general and some special requirements for base isolation design with elastomeric isolators are presented. The influence of the slenderness of the structure is analysed in more detail. The analysis is based on the corresponding rocking prevention criterion, upon the condition that the isolators cannot bear any tensile forces. The article concludes with a presentation of the maximum height-to-width ratios for objects that can be mounted on isolators, fulfilling the given rocking prevention criterion for different soil conditions. The maximum aspect ratios have also been determined by considering 5 appropriately scaled ground motions from the 1998 Posočje earthquake.

  13. A spring-mass system with elastomeric beams and stretchable interconnects (United States)

    Yang, Zining; Potekin, Randi; Vakakis, Alexander F.; Kim, Seok


    This paper presents a design construct of a spring-mass system involving a silicon seismic mass, elastomeric beams, and stretchable metallic interconnects which exhibits a mechanical strain-based tunable spring constant and resonance. Serpentine-shaped metallic conductors are encapsulated in polyimide to form the electrical interconnects, which are then integrated on a microfabricated silicon seismic mass with elastomeric beams. The interconnected beam undergoes a nearly 93% elongation with high electrical conductance before failure, which benefits microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices requiring large deflection and reliable signal transmission simultaneously. Moreover, the experimental results show that the spring constant of the beams increases by more than a factor of four under 30% axial strain. The tunable resonant frequency of the spring-mass system is also characterized, showing that the resonant frequency changes from 85–155 Hz when a 10% axial strain is applied to the beams. Because of these unique tunable mechanical properties, the presented design construct of the spring-mass system serves as a platform for potential applications including soft MEMS sensors and vibration energy harvesters especially for low frequency and broadband ambient vibration sources.

  14. A constrained maximization formulation to analyze deformation of fiber reinforced elastomeric actuators (United States)

    Singh, Gaurav; Krishnan, Girish


    Fiber reinforced elastomeric enclosures (FREEs) are soft and smart pneumatic actuators that deform in a predetermined fashion upon inflation. This paper analyzes the deformation behavior of FREEs by formulating a simple calculus of variations problem that involves constrained maximization of the enclosed volume. The model accurately captures the deformed shape for FREEs with any general fiber angle orientation, and its relation with actuation pressure, material properties and applied load. First, the accuracy of the model is verified with existing literature and experiments for the popular McKibben pneumatic artificial muscle actuator with two equal and opposite families of helically wrapped fibers. Then, the model is used to predict and experimentally validate the deformation behavior of novel rotating-contracting FREEs, for which no prior literature exist. The generality of the model enables conceptualization of novel FREEs whose fiber orientations vary arbitrarily along the geometry. Furthermore, the model is deemed to be useful in the design synthesis of fiber reinforced elastomeric actuators for general axisymmetric desired motion and output force requirement.

  15. Power turbine dynamics - An evaluation of a shear-mounted elastomeric damper (United States)

    Zorzi, E. S.; Walton, J.; Cunningham, R.


    As an alternative to the more conventional squeeze-film bearing damper designs, a Viton-70 shear-mounted, elastomeric damper was built and tested in a T-55 power turbine high-speed balancing rig. This application demonstrated, for the first time, the feasibility of using elastomers as the primary rotor damping source in production turbine engine hardware. The shear-mounted damper design was selected because of its compatibility with actual gas turbine engine radial space constraints, its accommodation of both the radial and axial thrust loads present in gas turbine engines, and its capability of controlled axial preload. Test results showed that the Viton-70 elastomeric damper operated successfully and provided excellent control of both synchronous and nonsynchronous vibrations through all phases of testing to the maximum rotor speed of 1676 rad/s (16,000 rpm). Excellent correlation between the predicted and experienced critical speeds, mode shapes, and log decrements for the power turbine rotor and elastomer damper assembly was also achieved.

  16. Experiment-Based Sensitivity Analysis of Scaled Carbon-Fiber-Reinforced Elastomeric Isolators in Bonded Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Hedayati Dezfuli


    Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced elastomeric isolators (FREIs are a new type of elastomeric base isolation systems. Producing FREIs in the form of long laminated pads and cutting them to the required size significantly reduces the time and cost of the manufacturing process. Due to the lack of adequate information on the performance of FREIs in bonded applications, the goal of this study is to assess the performance sensitivity of 1/4-scale carbon-FREIs based on the experimental tests. The scaled carbon-FREIs are manufactured using a fast cold-vulcanization process. The effect of several factors including the vertical pressure, the lateral cyclic rate, the number of rubber layers, and the thickness of carbon fiber-reinforced layers are explored on the cyclic behavior of rubber bearings. Results show that the effect of vertical pressure on the lateral response of base isolators is negligible. However, decreasing the cyclic loading rate increases the lateral flexibility and the damping capacity. Additionally, carbon fiber-reinforced layers can be considered as a minor source of energy dissipation.

  17. Glass interface effect on high-strain-rate tensile response of a soft polyurethane elastomeric polymer material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, J.T.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.


    The glass interface effect on dynamic tensile response of a soft polyurethane elastomeric polymer material has been investigated by subjecting a glass-polymer system of this polymer material matrix embedded a single 3 mm-diameter glass particle to impact loading in a split Hopkinson tension bar

  18. An in-vitro study to compare the force degradation of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palathottungal Joseph Antony


    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of the study was to compare the force delivery and force decay property of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains, widely used in orthodontic practice. Materials and Methods: Force delivered by the samples consisting of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains obtained from 3 manufacturers were tested at 3 time intervals (as received, after 24 hours and 21 days of stretching to measure the force delivered by the test samples, as well as the force decay over time. Results: The force delivered by the non-pigmented samples was significantly greater than the pigmented ones at all 3 time intervals irrespective of the brand. Force decay was more significant in case of pigmented samples. Force decay was greater noticed in first 24 hours of testing and a gradual decrease in force was observed from 24 hours to 21 days in all test samples irrespective of the brand or color. Conclusion: Non-pigmented elastomeric chains exhibited better force delivery and less force decay percentage when compared to pigmented chains. Though colored elastomeric chains are widely used in present day orthodontic practice to satisfy the younger age group patients, the study ascertains the prudential use of pigmented and non-pigmented chains for efficient and faster orthodontic treatment.

  19. Plaque accumulation and Streptococcus mutans levels around self-ligating bracket clips and elastomeric modules: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhaval Fadia


    Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effect of two different ligating systems that is, elastomeric modules and self-ligating (SL bracket systems (Smartclip - 3M Unitek with respect to harboring bacterial plaque in fixed orthodontic treatment. Objectives: To assess, evaluate, and compare the amount of plaque accumulation and Streptococcus mutans colonization around elastomeric ligation and SL clips in the smart clip appliance. Materials and Methods: A total of 111 orthodontic patients scheduled for fixed orthodontic treatments were selected for this split maxillary arch study. All the patients were bonded with smart-clip (3M Unitek SL brackets, and the wire was placed into the bracket slots, on the randomly selected hemi arch, elastomeric modules were placed for the study to be conducted. Microbial and periodontal plaque accumulation was recorded at 3-time intervals post ligation. Plaque index-by Silness and Loe, modified Quigely Hein index, bleeding on probing were evaluated, and biofilm was collected from the tooth surface after 30 days and placed in petri dishes containing Mitis Salivarius agar for bacterial culturing. Result: It was observed that the side where ligation was done with elastomeric modules accumulated more plaque and increase in S. mutans colony forming units as compared to the side without external ligation (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Reduced bacterial colonization and better plaque control was seen with SL orthodontic bracket appliance system as compared to conventional ligation method.

  20. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: a comparative in vitro study. (United States)

    Kumar, Kiran; Shetty, Sharath; Krithika, M J; Cyriac, Bobby


    The objective was to evaluate and compare the effect of Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash on the force delivered by elastomeric chain in vitro. Four specimen groups (distilled water, Coca-Cola®, tea, Listerine® mouthwash) with a total sample size of 480 specimens. A specimen is described as a four link grey close elastomeric chain. Jigs, each with a series of pins set 25 mm apart, was used to hold stretched elastomeric chains at a constant length. These jigs allowed for complete submersion of the elastomeric chain in a water bath throughout the test period, as well as the dipping of elastomeric chains in respective control and test solutions. For 60 s, twice a day, groups were exposed to the respective solutions, the two daily exposure was separated by 9 h and force measurements were taken at six time points during the experiment, that is, 1 h, 24 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days. Force measurements were made by Instron machine by a single blinded examiner with the help of a second examiner. It was found out that there was highly significant difference between groups control, Coca-Cola®, Listerine®, and tea as well as there was highly significant (p Coca-Cola® and the Listerine® group reached a plateau between 7 and 21 days then decrease between 21 and 28 days. The tea group showed plateau phase between 7 and 28 days. After 28 days in the control group, 25% force decay occurred while the test groups force decay of 30-50% occurred. Coca-Cola®, Listerine® mouthwash, and tea cause an increase in force decay of elastomeric chains over time. Tea caused highest force decay followed by Listerine® and Coca-Cola® when compared to control group. How to cite the article: Kumar K, Shetty S, Krithika MJ, Cyriac B. Effect of commonly used beverage, soft drink, and mouthwash on force delivered by elastomeric chain: A comparative in vitro study. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):7-10.

  1. Admicellar-polymerized thin elastomeric coatings for engineered interfaces for enhanced composite performance (United States)

    Barraza, Harry J.

    A surface-polymerization technique known as admicellar polymerization has been evaluated as an alternative method to tailor the interfacial properties of glass/epoxy composite parts molded by resin transfer molding (RTM). Initially, small-scale polymerization reactions were carried out to investigate the feasibility of covering glass fibers with a thin elastomeric film that would render them fairly hydrophobic. After the treatment, the admicellar-modified fibers not only exhibited a chemically heterogeneous surface with high contact angles with water (thetaa = 72 +/- 8); but also had statistically identical wetting characteristics to fibers coated with commercial sizings when probed with an epoxy resin (Epon 815C). In subsequent experiments, random-mat glass fibers modified with the same technique described above were used as the reinforcement for RTM-parts molded in a high-speed setup. These disk-shaped parts were mechanically tested, both under dry and wet conditions, to study the enhancement in structural integrity achieved with the insertion of controlled-thickness elastomeric interphases. It is worth noting that RTM composites containing woven fabrics coated with poly (styrene-co-isoprene), at different coverage levels, gave a similar dry-adhesion performance trend as the random-mat reinforcement. Firstly, tensile properties augmented in more than 50% for all cases; whereas, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) increased proportionally with the amount of elastomeric film present. For this particular admicellar sizing the ILSS level was only 9% lower than that observed with a silane-based commercial sizing, which signals the potential of admicellar sizings as alternative coatings for glass fiber reinforcements with comparatively similar performance as the proprietary organosilane treatments. Wet-adhesion properties of random-mat glass fibers with admicellar sizings were investigated by transient water sorption measurements carried out at constant temperature

  2. The Effect of Leather Fiber upon Vulcanization Characteristics and Physical-Mechanical Properties of Elastomeric Compounds

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    E. Shabani


    Full Text Available In this work, leather fibers were employed as a component of elastomeric compounds based on NBR, CR and EPDM and studied were made on their effects upon curing characteristics and mechanical properties of the prepared compounds. Evaluation of curing characteristics of the compounds demonstrated that leather fibers have no considerable effect on initial viscosity and curing time of the compounds. The study of mechanical properties of the vulcanized compounds showed that inclusion of leather fibers leads to increasing of tensile strength in NBR based compound due to compatibility between NBR and leather fibers. It is also found that increase in tensile strength in NBR compounds depends on the curing system of the compounds. The results of this work showed considerable increase in hardness for all of the prepared compounds. Abrasion resistance and resilience of the compounds were also measured and reported.

  3. Influence of particle arrangement on the permittivity of an elastomeric composite (United States)

    Tsai, Peiying J.; Nayak, Suchitra; Ghosh, Suvojit; Puri, Ishwar K.


    Elastomers are used as dielectric layers contained between the parallel conductive plates of capacitors. The introduction of filler particles into an elastomer changes its permittivity ɛ. When particle organization in a composite is intentionally varied, this alters its capacitance. Using numerical simulations, we examine how conductive particle chains introduced into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) alter ɛ. The effects of filler volume fraction ψ, interparticle d and interchain spacing a, zigzag angle θ between adjacent particles and overall chain orientation, particle size r, and clearance h between particles and the conductive plates are characterized. When filler particles are organized into chainlike structures rather than being just randomly distributed in the elastomer matrix, ɛ increases by as much as 85%. When particles are organized into chainlike forms, ɛ increases with increasing ψ and a, but decreases with increasing d and θ. A composite containing smaller particles has a higher ɛ when ψ additive manufacturing on electrical applications of elastomeric composites.

  4. Mechanics of nanowire/nanotube in-surface buckling on elastomeric substrates (United States)

    Xiao, J.; Ryu, S. Y.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, K.-C.; Paik, U.; Rogers, J. A.


    A continuum mechanics theory is established for the in-surface buckling of one-dimensional nanomaterials on compliant substrates, such as silicon nanowires on elastomeric substrates observed in experiments. Simple analytical expressions are obtained for the buckling wavelength, amplitude and critical buckling strain in terms of the bending and tension stiffness of the nanomaterial and the substrate elastic properties. The analysis is applied to silicon nanowires, single-walled carbon nanotubes, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, and carbon nanotube bundles. For silicon nanowires, the measured buckling wavelength gives Young's modulus to be 140 GPa, which agrees well with the prior experimental studies. It is shown that the energy for in-surface buckling is lower than that for normal (out-of-surface) buckling, and is therefore energetically favorable.

  5. The effect of rinsing time periods on wettability of elastomeric impression materials: in vitro study

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    Özlem Acar


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether different rinsing time periods affected the wettability of polymerized elastomeric impression materials. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Panasil Contact Plus (PCP, Panasil Contact Non-Surfactant (PCNS, Panasil Initial Contact (PIC, Express (EXP and Impregum (IMP impression materials were tested. Standardized samples were rinsed with water for 10 s, 15 s or 20 s, and the wettability was determined by contact angle measurement through an evaluation period of 60 seconds (n=7. Non-rinsed groups were used as control. Measurements were made at 5 time points (at 0, 6, 15, 30 and 60 seconds. Kruskal Wallis test and Conover’s multiple comparison tests were used for all multiple comparisons. Bonferroni adjustment was applied for controlling Type I error (p0.002. CONCLUSION: Rinsing the surfactant-containing polyvinylsiloxane impression materials decreased their wettability, whereas no such effect was seen for the surfactant free polyvinylsiloxane and polyether impression materials.

  6. Three-dimensional elastomeric scaffolds designed with cardiac-mimetic structural and mechanical features. (United States)

    Neal, Rebekah A; Jean, Aurélie; Park, Hyoungshin; Wu, Patrick B; Hsiao, James; Engelmayr, George C; Langer, Robert; Freed, Lisa E


    Tissue-engineered constructs, at the interface of material science, biology, engineering, and medicine, have the capacity to improve outcomes for cardiac patients by providing living cells and degradable biomaterials that can regenerate the native myocardium. With an ultimate goal of both delivering cells and providing mechanical support to the healing heart, we designed three-dimensional (3D) elastomeric scaffolds with (1) stiffnesses and anisotropy mimicking explanted myocardial specimens as predicted by finite-element (FE) modeling, (2) systematically varied combinations of rectangular pore pattern, pore aspect ratio, and strut width, and (3) structural features approaching tissue scale. Based on predicted mechanical properties, three scaffold designs were selected from eight candidates for fabrication from poly(glycerol sebacate) by micromolding from silicon wafers. Large 20×20 mm scaffolds with high aspect ratio features (5:1 strut height:strut width) were reproducibly cast, cured, and demolded at a relatively high throughput. Empirically measured mechanical properties demonstrated that scaffolds were cardiac mimetic and validated FE model predictions. Two-layered scaffolds providing fully interconnected pore networks were fabricated by layer-by-layer assembly. C2C12 myoblasts cultured on one-layered scaffolds exhibited specific patterns of cell elongation and interconnectivity that appeared to be guided by the scaffold pore pattern. Neonatal rat heart cells cultured on two-layered scaffolds for 1 week were contractile, both spontaneously and in response to electrical stimulation, and expressed sarcomeric α-actinin, a cardiac biomarker. This work not only demonstrated several scaffold designs that promoted functional assembly of rat heart cells, but also provided the foundation for further computational and empirical investigations of 3D elastomeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering.

  7. The mechanical characteristics and in vitro biocompatibility of poly(glycerol sebacate)-bioglass elastomeric composites. (United States)

    Liang, Shu-Ling; Cook, Wayne D; Thouas, George A; Chen, Qi-Zhi


    Biodegradable elastomeric materials have gained much recent attention in the field of soft tissue engineering. Poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is one of a new family of elastomers which are promising candidates used for soft tissue engineering. However, PGS has a limited range of mechanical properties and has drawbacks, such as cytotoxicity caused by the acidic degradation products of very soft PGS and degradation kinetics that are too fast in vivo to provide sufficient mechanical support to the tissue. However, the development of PGS/based elastomeric composites containing alkaline bioactive fillers could be a method for addressing these drawbacks and thus may pave the way towards wide clinical applications. In this study, we synthesized a new PGS composite system consisting of a micron-sized Bioglass filler. In addition to much improved cytocompatibility, the PGS/Bioglass composites demonstrated three remarkable mechanical properties. First, contrary to previous reports, the addition of microsized Bioglass increases the elongation at break from 160 to 550%, while enhancing the Young's modulus of the composites by up to a factor of four. Second, the modulus of the PGS/Bioglass composites drops abruptly in a physiological environment (culture medium), and the level of drop can be tuned such that the addition of Bioglass does not harden the composite in vivo and thus the desired compliance required for soft tissue engineering are maintained. Third, after the abrupt drop in modulus, the composites exhibited mechanical stability over an extended period. This latter observation is an important feature of the new composites, because they can provide reliable mechanical support to damaged tissues during the lag phase of the healing process. These mechanical properties, together with improved biocompatibility, make this family of composites better candidates than plastic and related composite biomaterials for the applications of tissue engineering. Copyright © 2010


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verst, C.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.


    A testing and analysis approach to predict the sealing behavior of elastomeric seal materials in dry storage casks and evaluate their ability to maintain a seal under thermal and radiation exposure conditions of extended storage and beyond was developed, and initial tests have been conducted. The initial tests evaluate the aging response of EPDM elastomer O-ring seals. The thermal and radiation exposure conditions of the CASTOR® V/21 casks were selected for testing as this cask design is of interest due to its widespread use, and close proximity of the seals to the fuel compared to other cask designs leading to a relatively high temperature and dose under storage conditions. A novel test fixture was developed to enable compression stress relaxation measurements for the seal material at the thermal and radiation exposure conditions. A loss of compression stress of 90% is suggested as the threshold at which sealing ability of an elastomeric seal would be lost. Previous studies have shown this value to be conservative to actual leakage failure for most aging conditions. These initial results indicate that the seal would be expected to retain sealing ability throughout extended storage at the cask design conditions, though longer exposure times are needed to validate this assumption. The high constant dose rate used in the testing is not prototypic of the decreasingly low dose rate that would occur under extended storage. The primary degradation mechanism of oxidation of polymeric compounds is highly dependent on temperature and time of exposure, and with radiation expected to exacerbate the oxidation.

  9. Utilization of the UV laser with picosecond pulses for the formation of surface microstructures on elastomeric plastics (United States)

    Antoszewski, B.; Tofil, S.; Scendo, M.; Tarelnik, W.


    Elastomeric plastics belong to a wide range of polymeric materials with special properties. They are used as construction material for seals and other components in many branches of industry and, in particular, in the biomedical industry, mechatronics, electronics and chemical equipment. The micromachining of surfaces of these materials can be used to build micro-flow, insulating, dispensing systems and chemical and biological reactors. The paper presents results of research on the effects of micro-machining of selected elastomeric plastics using a UV laser emitting picosecond pulses. The authors see the prospective application of the developed technology in the sealing technique in particular to shaping the sealing pieces co-operating with the surface of the element. The result of the study is meant to show parameters of the UV laser’s performance when producing typical components such as grooves, recesses for optimum ablation in terms of quality and productivity.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of zataria multiflora extract in comparison with chlorhexidine mouthwash on experimentally contaminated orthodontic elastomeric ligatures.

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    Hossein Aghili


    Full Text Available Long-term use of orthodontic appliances and fixation ligatures creates a favorable environment for the accumulation of oral normal microflora and increases the risk of enamel demineralization and periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to compare the antimicrobial effects of Zataria Multiflora extract and 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX mouthwash on experimentally contaminated orthodontic elastomeric ligatures.In this lab trial study, Iranian and foreign-made elastomeric ligatures were experimentally contaminated in Streptococcus mutans, Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans suspensions. Ligatures were then decontaminated using 0.2% CHX as the control, 0.5 mg/ml Zataria multiflora extract mouthwashes as the test and phosphate buffered saline (PBS as the negative control for one hour. Antimicrobial properties of both solutions were evaluated by comparing the mean viable bacterial cell count on both rings after decontamination, using SPSS version 15 software.The mean viable bacterial cell count on Iranian ligatures was greater than that on foreign-made ligatures before disinfection (P=0.001, however this difference for C. albicans was not statistically significant (P=0.061. Chlorhexidine mouthwash completely eliminated all tested microorganisms attached to both elastomeric rings, but Zataria extract was only capable of completely eliminating C. albicans from both ligatures. Statistically significant differences were found in viable bacterial counts on both ligatures before and after disinfection with Zataria extract (P=0.0001.Zataria multiflora extract has antimicrobial properties and can be used for disinfection of elastomeric ligatures. In vivo studies are required to evaluate the efficacy of the incorporation of this herbal extract in mouthwashes for orthodontic patients.

  11. Stretchable array of metal nanodisks on a 3D sinusoidal wavy elastomeric substrate for frequency tunable plasmonics (United States)

    Feng, Di; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Siyi; Tian, Limei; Song, Ningfang


    Metal nanostructures integrated with soft, elastomeric substrates provide an unusual platform with capabilities in plasmonic frequency tuning of mechanical strain. In this paper, we have prepared a tunable optical device, dense arrays of plasmonic nanodisks on a low-modulus, and high-elongation elastomeric substrate with a three-dimensional (3D) sinusoidal wavy, and their optical characteristics have been measured and analyzed in detail. Since surface plasmon is located and propagates along metal surfaces with sub-wavelength structures, and those dispersive properties are determined by the coupling strength between the individual structures, in this study, a 3D sinusoidal curve elastomeric substrate is used to mechanically control the inter-nanodisk spacing by applying straining and creating a frequency tunable plasmonic device. Here we study the optical resonance peak shifting generated by stretching this type of flexible device, and the role that 3D sinusoidal curve surface configuration plays in determining the tunable properties. Since only the hybrid dipolar mode has been observed in experiments, the coupled dipole approximation (CDA) method is employed to simulate the optical response of these devices, and the experimental and simulation results show that these devices have high tunability to shift optical resonance peaks at near-infrared wavelengths, which will provide strong potential for new soft optical sensors and wearable plasmonic sensors.

  12. Mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive for fetal membrane repair: a standardized ex vivo evaluation using elastomeric membranes. (United States)

    Haller, C M; Buerzle, W; Brubaker, C E; Messersmith, P B; Mazza, E; Ochsenbein-Koelble, N; Zimmermann, R; Ehrbar, M


    Iatrogenic preterm premature rupture of membranes (iPPROM), the main complication of invasive interventions in the prenatal period, seriously limits the benefit of diagnostic or surgical prenatal procedures. This study aimed to evaluate preventive plugging of punctured fetal membranes in an ex vivo situation using a new mussel-mimetic tissue adhesive (mussel glue) to inhibit leakage. A novel biomechanical test device that tests the closure of injured membranes under near-physiological conditions was used. Mussel glue, a poly(ethylene glycol)-based hydrogel, was used to seal membrane defects of up to 3 mm in mechanically well-defined elastomeric membranes with three different degrees of stiffness. Elastomeric test membranes were successfully employed for testing mussel glue under well-defined conditions. Mussel glue plugs were distended by up to 94%, which translated to an improved sealing efficiency on elastomeric membranes with high stiffness. For the stiffest membrane tested, a critical burst pressure of 48 mbar (36 mmHg) was accomplished in this ex vivo setting. Mussel glue appears to efficiently seal membrane defects under well-standardized ex vivo conditions. As repaired membranes resist pressures measured in amniotic cavities, mussel glue might represent a novel sealing method for iatrogenic membrane defects. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Moldable elastomeric polyester-carbon nanotube scaffolds for cardiac tissue engineering. (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Davenport Huyer, Locke; Estili, Mehdi; Yee, Bess; Smith, Nathaniel; Xu, Zhensong; Sun, Yu; Radisic, Milica


    Polymer biomaterials are used to construct scaffolds in tissue engineering applications to assist in mechanical support, organization, and maturation of tissues. Given the flexibility, electrical conductance, and contractility of native cardiac tissues, it is desirable that polymeric scaffolds for cardiac tissue regeneration exhibit elasticity and high electrical conductivity. Herein, we developed a facile approach to introduce carbon nanotubes (CNTs) into poly(octamethylene maleate (anhydride) 1,2,4-butanetricarboxylate) (124 polymer), and developed an elastomeric scaffold for cardiac tissue engineering that provides electrical conductivity and structural integrity to 124 polymer. 124 polymer-CNT materials were developed by first dispersing CNTs in poly(ethylene glycol) dimethyl ether porogen and mixing with 124 prepolymer for molding into shapes and crosslinking under ultraviolet light. 124 polymers with 0.5% and 0.1% CNT content (wt) exhibited improved conductivity against pristine 124 polymer. With increasing the CNT content, surface moduli of hybrid polymers were increased, while their bulk moduli were decreased. Furthermore, increased swelling of hybrid 124 polymer-CNT materials was observed, suggesting their improved structural support in an aqueous environment. Finally, functional characterization of engineered cardiac tissues using the 124 polymer-CNT scaffolds demonstrated improved excitation threshold in materials with 0.5% CNT content (3.6±0.8V/cm) compared to materials with 0% (5.1±0.8V/cm) and 0.1% (5.0±0.7V/cm), suggesting greater tissue maturity. 124 polymer-CNT materials build on the advantages of 124 polymer elastomer to give a versatile biomaterial for cardiac tissue engineering applications. Achieving a high elasticity and a high conductivity in a single cardiac tissue engineering material remains a challenge. We report the use of CNTs in making electrically conductive and mechanically strong polymeric scaffolds in cardiac tissue regeneration

  14. Correlation of impression removal force with elastomeric impression material rigidity and hardness. (United States)

    Walker, Mary P; Alderman, Nick; Petrie, Cynthia S; Melander, Jennifer; McGuire, Jacob


    Difficult impression removal has been linked to high rigidity and hardness of elastomeric impression materials. In response to this concern, manufacturers have reformulated their materials to reduce rigidity and hardness to decrease removal difficulty; however, the relationship between impression removal and rigidity or hardness has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a positive correlation between impression removal difficulty and rigidity or hardness of current elastomeric impression materials. Light- and medium-body polyether (PE), vinylpolysiloxane (VPS), and hybrid vinyl polyether siloxane (VPES) impression materials were tested (n = 5 for each material/consistency/test method). Rigidity (elastic modulus) was measured via tensile testing of dumbbell-shaped specimens (Die C, ASTM D412). Shore A hardness was measured using disc specimens according to ASTM D2240-05 test specifications. Impressions were also made of a custom stainless steel model using a custom metal tray that could be attached to a universal tester to measure associated removal force. Within each impression material consistency, one-factor ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc analyses (α = 0.05) were used to compare rigidity, hardness, and removal force of the three types of impression materials. A Pearson's correlation (α = 0.05) was used to evaluate the association between impression removal force and rigidity or hardness. With medium-body materials, VPS exhibited significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) rigidity and hardness than VPES or PE, while PE impressions required significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) removal force than VPS or VPES impressions. With light-body materials, VPS again demonstrated significantly higher (p ≤ 0.05) hardness than VPES or PE, while the rigidity of the light-body materials did not significantly differ between materials (p > 0.05); however, just as with the medium-body materials, light-body PE impressions required significantly higher (p

  15. In-use Stability of Ceftaroline Fosamil in Elastomeric Home Infusion Systems and MINI-BAG Plus Containers. (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sisir; Parekh, Satish; Dedhiya, Mahendra


    The objective of this study was to determine in-use stability of ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution of concentrations up to 12 mg/mL in elastomeric home infusion system prefilled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP or 5% Dextrose Injection USP and MINI-BAG Plus Container delivery devices prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. In-use ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution (12 mg/mL) was prepared for elastomeric home infusion systems (Homepump Eclipse, Baxter Intermate, and AccuRx Elastomeric Pump) pre-filled with either 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose; or Baxter MINI-BAG Plus Containers pre-filled with 0.9% Sodium Chloride Injection USP (4 mg/mL to 12 mg/mL ceftaroline fosamil in final solution). The systems were stored refrigerated for 24 hours followed by up to 6 hours of storage at room temperature. Samples were analyzed at various time points for assay and degradation product by a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. In-use ceftaroline fosamil infusion solution, ranging from 4-mg/mL to a maximum of 12-mg/mL concentration, in elastomeric home infusion systems prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose, and MINI-BAG Plus Containers prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection were chemically stable for up to 24 hours refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) and up to 6 hours at room temperature and had acceptable compatibility with material used. Ceftaroline fosamil (4 mg/mL to 12 mg/mL) maintains its potency for up to 24 hours refrigerated at 2°C to 8°C (36°F to 46°F) and up to 6 hours of storage at room temperature upon reconstitution in infusion solution with 0.9% sodium chloride or 5% dextrose when used in elastomeric home infusion system and MINI-BAG Plus Containers delivery devices prefilled with 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

  16. Highly Magneto-Responsive Elastomeric Films Created by a Two-Step Fabrication Process

    KAUST Repository

    Marchi, Sophie


    An innovative method for the preparation of elastomeric magnetic films with increased magneto-responsivity is presented. Polymeric films containing aligned magnetic microchains throughout their thickness are formed upon the magnetophoretic transport and assembly of microparticles during polymer curing. The obtained films are subsequently magnetized at a high magnetic field of 3 T directed parallel to the orientation of the microchains. We prove that the combination of both alignment of the particles along a favorable direction during curing and the subsequent magnetization of the solid films induces an impressive increase of the films’ deflection. Specifically, the displacements reach few millimeters, up to 85 times higher than those of the nontreated films with the same particle concentration. Such a process can improve the performance of the magnetic films without increasing the amount of magnetic fillers and, thus, without compromising the mechanical properties of the resulting composites. The proposed method can be used for the fabrication of magnetic films suitable as components in systems in which large displacements at relatively low magnetic fields are required, such as sensors and drug delivery or microfluidic systems, especially where remote control of valves is requested to achieve appropriate flow and mixing of liquids.

  17. The effect of immersion disinfection procedures on dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials. (United States)

    Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Cassaro, Angelo; Pizzo, Giuseppe


    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of immersion disinfection procedures on the dimensional stability of two elastomeric impression materials. Impressions of a stainless steel die were made with polyether (PE) and with addition-polymerized silicone rubber (PVS). The test specimens underwent disinfection treatment by immersion in two commercially available solutions containing quaternary ammonium compounds (Sterigum Powder, SP) and glutaraldehyde plus an amino derivative (MD520, MD), respectively. The impressions were measured at 4 different time points: before any disinfection treatment (T0); after the first disinfection (T1); 6 hours after the first disinfection (T2); after the second disinfection, carried out 6 hours after the first one (T3). Impressions which were not disinfected served as controls. When both impression materials were disinfected with SP, significant differences were detected among all measurements (P 0.05). On the other hand, when MD was used, significant differences were found when T0 measurement was compared to T1, T2 and T3 measurements (P = 0.0043 for PE, and P = 0.0014 for PVS). The dimensional change of all material/disinfectant combinations was always

  18. Investigation into the Impact of n-Decane, Decalin, and Isoparaffinic Solvent on Elastomeric Sealing Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Liu


    Full Text Available One of the crucial aspects in the adoption of alternative fuels (e.g., GtL fuel in aviation industry is to investigate their compatibility with elastomeric materials used in current gas turbine engines. This study employed stress relaxation technique to investigate the effects of three solvents, namely, decalin (cycloparaffin, n-decane (normal paraffin, and ShellSol T solvent (isoparaffins on O-rings made from different materials. Results indicated that both fluorosilicone and fluorocarbon O-rings showed excellent compatibility with all 25 blends tested. The stress relaxation characteristic of nitrile O-ring was highly dependent on the composition of the solvents; the more decalin (n-decane is in the blend, the better (worse its sealing performance becomes. Effects of the three solvents presented in the tests indicated aromatics are not the only compounds that can swell nitrile O-ring. It is also important to notice that although decalin presents good O-ring swelling ability, it does not mean all cycloparaffins have the same property. n-decane also showed certain O-ring swelling ability but its main effect during the polymer-fuel interaction process is to extract materials out of nitrile O-ring. Isoparaffins do not participate in the O-ring swelling process. They only extract polymer materials; however, its extraction ability is relatively weaker than n-decane.

  19. Elastomeric liners for people with transtibial amputation: Survey of prosthetists' clinical practices. (United States)

    Hafner, Brian J; Cagle, John C; Allyn, Katheryn J; Sanders, Joan E


    A diverse range of elastomeric liner products are available to people with transtibial amputation. However, little information is available about how prosthetists select the product best suited to each patient. To determine how prosthetists obtain information about liners, which features are most relevant to the selection process, and which products are used most for patients with transtibial amputation. Cross-sectional survey. A custom online survey was developed to solicit information about prosthetists' liner selection practices. Prosthetists with experience managing transtibial patients were recruited via advertisements posted in magazines, at conferences, and on a listserv. Responses were analyzed to characterize prosthetists' liner selection practices. Data from 106 experienced prosthetists (mean age: 44.4 years, mean experience: 15.7 years) were included. Most prosthetists (94%) obtained liner information from manufacturer representatives, websites, or literature. On average, respondents factored nine different liner characteristics into their selection processes. Prosthetists reported experience with 16 unique liner products with their transtibial patients, but routinely used fewer than 3. Although many different prosthetic liners are available, prosthetists regularly use only a few select liner products. Tools or strategies to objectively compare prosthetic liners across manufacturers are likely needed to facilitate more diverse prescription practices. Clinical relevance Knowledge of prosthetists' prosthetic liner selection practices may guide development of evidence-based resources or tools to facilitate matching patients with appropriate liners. Results of this study may also inform researchers and manufacturers about desirable liner characteristics and direct development of novel liner products to address prosthetists' clinical needs.

  20. Design and Fabrication of an Elastomeric Unit for Soft Modular Robots in Minimally Invasive Surgery. (United States)

    De Falco, Iris; Gerboni, Giada; Cianchetti, Matteo; Menciassi, Arianna


    In recent years, soft robotics technologies have aroused increasing interest in the medical field due to their intrinsically safe interaction in unstructured environments. At the same time, new procedures and techniques have been developed to reduce the invasiveness of surgical operations. Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) has been successfully employed for abdominal interventions, however standard MIS procedures are mainly based on rigid or semi-rigid tools that limit the dexterity of the clinician. This paper presents a soft and high dexterous manipulator for MIS. The manipulator was inspired by the biological capabilities of the octopus arm, and is designed with a modular approach. Each module presents the same functional characteristics, thus achieving high dexterity and versatility when more modules are integrated. The paper details the design, fabrication process and the materials necessary for the development of a single unit, which is fabricated by casting silicone inside specific molds. The result consists in an elastomeric cylinder including three flexible pneumatic actuators that enable elongation and omni-directional bending of the unit. An external braided sheath improves the motion of the module. In the center of each module a granular jamming-based mechanism varies the stiffness of the structure during the tasks. Tests demonstrate that the module is able to bend up to 120° and to elongate up to 66% of the initial length. The module generates a maximum force of 47 N, and its stiffness can increase up to 36%.

  1. An Overview of Advanced Elastomeric Seal Development and Testing Capabilities at NASA Glenn Research Center (United States)

    Dunlap, Patrick H.


    NASA is developing advanced space-rated elastomeric seals to support future space exploration missions to low Earth orbit, the Moon, near Earth asteroids, and other destinations. This includes seals for a new docking system and vehicle hatches. These seals must exhibit extremely low leak rates to ensure that astronauts have sufficient breathable air for extended missions. Seal compression loads must be below prescribed limits so as not to overload the mechanisms that compress them, and seal adhesion forces must be low to allow the sealed interface to be separated when required (e.g., during undocking or hatch opening). NASA Glenn Research Center has developed a number of unique test fixtures to measure the leak rates and compression and adhesion loads of candidate seal designs under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Tests can be performed on full-scale seals with diameters on the order of 50 in., subscale seals that are about 12 in. in diameter, and smaller specimens such as O-rings. Test conditions include temperatures ranging from -238 to 662 F (-150 to 350 C), operational pressure gradients, and seal-on-seal or seal-on-flange mating configurations. Nominal and off-nominal conditions (e.g., incomplete seal compression) can also be simulated. This paper describes the main design features and capabilities of each type of test apparatus and provides an overview of advanced seal development activities at NASA Glenn.

  2. Methodology for Evaluating Raw Material Changes to RSRM Elastomeric Insulation Materials (United States)

    Mildenhall, Scott D.; McCool, Alex (Technical Monitor)


    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) uses asbestos and silicon dioxide filled acrylonitrile butadiene rubber (AS-NBR) as the primary internal insulation to protect the case from heat. During the course of the RSRM Program, several changes have been made to the raw materials and processing of the AS-NBR elastomeric insulation material. These changes have been primarily caused by raw materials becoming obsolete. In addition, some process changes have been implemented that were deemed necessary to improve the quality and consistency of the AS-NBR insulation material. Each change has been evaluated using unique test efforts customized to determine the potential impacts of the specific raw material or process change. Following the evaluations, the various raw material and process changes were successfully implemented with no detectable effect on the performance of the AS-NBR insulation. This paper will discuss some of the raw material and process changes evaluated, the methodology used in designing the unique test plans, and the general evaluation results. A summary of the change history of RSRM AS-NBR internal insulation is also presented.

  3. An investigation on low-velocity impact response of elastomeric & crushable foams (United States)

    Sadighi, Mojtaba; Salami, Sattar


    The mechanical behavior of elastomeric foam, in particular, Ethylene Propylene Diene Methyle (EPDM) and crushable foams, in particular, Expanded Poly-Propylene (EPP) and Poly Urthane Rigid (PUR), under low-velocity impact are studied experimentally and numerically. At first, these foams were loaded under quasi-static loading in compression. In order to study the dependence of their behavior on strain rate, the loadings were performed in two rates, 3 mm/min and 100 mm/min. The low-velocity impact tests were applied using a drop hammer testing machine. The drop heights of projectile in all tests were 0.5 and 1 m. The thickness effect of specimens on absorption of energy and parameters such as, contact force and displacement of specimens are discussed. Then, the dynamic factors of force and energy for three types of foam are investigated. Since, EPP showed an insensitive property to the thickness of specimen in the impact tests, it is possible to define dynamic factors for different thickness of this type of foam. Finally, all test results are compared with numerical results through implementation of ABAQUS finite element package. Good agreements between numerical results and experimental data show the capability of numerical modeling to fulfill the experimental investigation.

  4. Static characterization of a soft elastomeric capacitor for non destructive evaluation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Hussam [Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University (United States); Laflamme, Simon [Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University (United States); Zhang, Huanhuan; Geiger, Randall [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University (United States); Kessler, Michael; Rajan, Krishna [Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University (United States)


    A large and flexible strain transducer consisting of a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) has been proposed by the authors. Arranged in a network setup, the sensing strategy offers tremendous potential at conducting non-destructive evaluation of large-scale surfaces. In prior work, the authors have demonstrated the performance of the sensor at tracking strain history, localizing cracks, and detecting vibration signatures. In this paper, we characterize the static performance of the proposed SEC. The characterization includes sensitivity of the signal, and temperature and humidity dependences. Tests are conducted on a simply supported aluminum beam subjected to bending as well as on a free standing sensor. The performance of the SEC is compared against off-the-shelf resistance-based strain gauges with resolution of 1 με. A sensitivity of 1190 pF/ε is obtained experimentally, in agreement with theory. Results also show the sensor linearity over the given level of strain, showing the promise of the SEC at monitoring of surface strain.

  5. Rubbery electronics and sensors from intrinsically stretchable elastomeric composites of semiconductors and conductors. (United States)

    Kim, Hae-Jin; Sim, Kyoseung; Thukral, Anish; Yu, Cunjiang


    A general strategy to impart mechanical stretchability to stretchable electronics involves engineering materials into special architectures to accommodate or eliminate the mechanical strain in nonstretchable electronic materials while stretched. We introduce an all solution-processed type of electronics and sensors that are rubbery and intrinsically stretchable as an outcome from all the elastomeric materials in percolated composite formats with P3HT-NFs [poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) nanofibrils] and AuNP-AgNW (Au nanoparticles with conformally coated silver nanowires) in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane). The fabricated thin-film transistors retain their electrical performances by more than 55% upon 50% stretching and exhibit one of the highest P3HT-based field-effect mobilities of 1.4 cm2/V∙s, owing to crystallinity improvement. Rubbery sensors, which include strain, pressure, and temperature sensors, show reliable sensing capabilities and are exploited as smart skins that enable gesture translation for sign language alphabet and haptic sensing for robotics to illustrate one of the applications of the sensors.

  6. Caterpillar locomotion-inspired valveless pneumatic micropump using a single teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane

    KAUST Repository

    So, Hongyun


    This paper presents a microfluidic pump operated by an asymmetrically deformed membrane, which was inspired by caterpillar locomotion. Almost all mechanical micropumps consist of two major components of fluid halting and fluid pushing parts, whereas the proposed caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump has only a single, bilaterally symmetric membrane-like teardrop shape. A teardrop-shaped elastomeric membrane was asymmetrically deformed and then consecutively touched down to the bottom of the chamber in response to pneumatic pressure, thus achieving fluid pushing. Consecutive touchdown motions of the teardrop-shaped membrane mimicked the propagation of a caterpillar\\'s hump during its locomotory gait. The initial touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane at the centroid worked as a valve that blocked the inlet channel, and then, the consecutive touchdown motions pushed fluid in the chamber toward the tail of the chamber connected to the outlet channel. The propagation of the touchdown motion of the teardrop-shaped membrane was investigated using computational analysis as well as experimental studies. This caterpillar locomotion-inspired micropump composed of only a single membrane can provide new opportunities for simple integration of microfluidic systems. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  7. Characterization of a soft elastomeric capacitive strain sensor for fatigue crack monitoring (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Laflamme, Simon; Bennett, Caroline; Matamoros, Adolfo


    Fatigue cracks have been one of the major factors for the deterioration of steel bridges. In order to maintain structural integrity, monitoring fatigue crack activities such as crack initiation and propagation is critical to prevent catastrophic failure of steel bridges due to the accumulation of fatigue damage. Measuring the strain change under cracking is an effective way of monitoring fatigue cracks. However, traditional strain sensors such as metal foil gauges are not able to capture crack development due to their small size, limited measurement range, and high failure rate under harsh environmental conditions. Recently, a newly developed soft elastomeric capacitive sensor has great promise to overcome these limitations. In this paper, crack detection capability of the capacitive sensor is demonstrated through Finite Element (FE) analysis. A nonlinear FE model of a standard ASTM compact tension specimen is created which is calibrated to experimental data to simulate its response under fatigue loading, with the goal to 1) depict the strain distribution of the specimen under the large area covered by the capacitive sensor due to cracking; 2) characterize the relationship between capacitance change and crack width; 3) quantify the minimum required resolution of data acquisition system for detecting the fatigue cracks. The minimum resolution serves as a basis for the development of a dedicated wireless data acquisition system for the capacitive strain sensor.

  8. Influence of particle arrangement on the permittivity of an elastomeric composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peiying J. Tsai


    Full Text Available Elastomers are used as dielectric layers contained between the parallel conductive plates of capacitors. The introduction of filler particles into an elastomer changes its permittivity ε. When particle organization in a composite is intentionally varied, this alters its capacitance. Using numerical simulations, we examine how conductive particle chains introduced into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS alter ε. The effects of filler volume fraction ψ, interparticle d and interchain spacing a, zigzag angle θ between adjacent particles and overall chain orientation, particle size r, and clearance h between particles and the conductive plates are characterized. When filler particles are organized into chainlike structures rather than being just randomly distributed in the elastomer matrix, ε increases by as much as 85%. When particles are organized into chainlike forms, ε increases with increasing ψ and a, but decreases with increasing d and θ. A composite containing smaller particles has a higher ε when ψ<9% while larger particles provide greater enhancement when ψ is larger than that value. To enhance ε, adjacent particles must be interconnected and the overall chain direction should be oriented perpendicular to the conductive plates. These results are useful for additive manufacturing on electrical applications of elastomeric composites.

  9. Validation of a Thermo-Ablative Model of Elastomeric Internal Insulation Materials (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    In thermo-ablative material modeling, as in many fields of analysis, the quality of the existing models significantly exceeds that of the experimental data required for their validation. In an effort to narrow this gap, a laboratory-scale internal insulation test bed was developed that exposes insulation samples to realistic solid rocket motor (SRM) internal environments while being instrumented to record real-time rates of both model inputs (i.e., chamber pressure, total surface heat flux, and radiative heat flux) as well as model outputs (i.e., material decomposition depths (MDDs) and in-depth material temperatures). In this work, the measured SRM internal environment parameters were used in conjunction with equilibrium thermochemistry codes as inputs to one-dimensional thermo-ablative models of the PBINBR and CFEPDM insulation samples used in the lab-scale test firings. The computed MDD histories were then compared with those deduced from real-time X-ray radiography of the insulation samples, and the calculated in-depth temperatures were compared with those measured by embedded thermocouples. The results of this exercise emphasize the challenges of modeling and testing elastomeric materials in SRM environments while illuminating the path forward to improved fidelity.

  10. Finite element analysis of artificial disc with an elastomeric core in the lumbar spine. (United States)

    Borkowski, P; Marek, P; Krzesiński, G; Ryszkowska, J; Waśniewski, B; Wymysłowski, P; Zagrajek, T


    This paper presents the application of finite element method in an artificial disc modelling. The prosthesis consisted of two metal plates and a flexible elastomeric core made of the nanocomposite polyurethane. Two types of connections between the plates and the core were compared: the device with an integral inlay and the device with a separate inlay coming into contact with the plates. The artificial disc with a separate inlay imitated better the human intervertebral disc. The main target of this paper was to evaluate the characteristics of force-displacement and moment-angle for the new design of the prosthesis with a separate inlay under compression, sagittal bending, shear and axial rotation. For some analyzed cases except the axial rotation and shear, where the prosthesis was too flexible, the results were roughly similar to those observed in the human spinal segment. The material effort in the prosthesis under compressive load was comparable in both types of connections between the plates and the core.

  11. Synthesis of polyester urethane urea and fabrication of elastomeric nanofibrous scaffolds for myocardial regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamadi, Elham Sadat; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh [Department of Textile engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Morshed, Mohammad, E-mail: [Department of Textile engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, Morteza [Department of Chemical Engineering, Isfahan university of technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Prabhakaran, Molamma P., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 2 Engineering Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Ramakrishna, Seeram [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 2 Engineering Drive 3, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore)


    Fabrication of bioactive scaffolds is one of the most promising strategies to reconstruct the infarcted myocardium. In this study, we synthesized polyester urethane urea (PEUU), further blended it with gelatin and fabricated PEUU/G nanofibrous scaffolds. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction were used for the characterization of the synthesized PEUU and properties of nanofibrous scaffolds were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ATR-FTIR, contact angle measurement, biodegradation test, tensile strength analysis and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). In vitro biocompatibility studies were performed using cardiomyocytes. DMA analysis showed that the scaffolds could be reshaped with cyclic deformations and might remain stable in the frequencies of the physiological activity of the heart. On the whole, our study suggests that aligned PEUU/G 70:30 nanofibrous scaffolds meet the required specifications for cardiac tissue engineering and could be used as a promising construct for myocardial regeneration. - Highlights: • PEUU was synthesized to fabricate elastomeric scaffolds for myocardial regeneration. • FTIR, DSC and XRD analysis showed that polymer synthesis was well. • PEUU/gelatin nanofibrous scaffolds could be reshaped with cyclic deformations of the heart. • Gelatin in structure of PEUU nanofibers improved proliferation of cardiomyocytes. • Aligned PEUU/gelatin 70:30 nanofibrous scaffold support the alignment of cardiomyocytes.

  12. In vitro evaluation of force degradation of elastomeric chains used in Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Weissheimer


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the in vitro force degradation of four different brands of elastomeric chains: American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ormco and TP Orthodontics. METHODS: The sample consisted of 80 gray elastomeric chains that were divided into four groups according to their respective manufacturers. Chain stretching was standardized at 21 mm with initial force release ranging from 300 g to 370 g. The samples were kept in artificial saliva at a constant temperature of 37°C and the degradation force was recorded at the following time intervals: initial, 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 hours, and 1, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 days. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the force degradation, mainly within the first day, as a force loss of 50-55% was observed during that time in relation to the initial force. The force delivered at 35 days ranged from 122 g to 148 g. CONCLUSION: All groups showed force degradation over time, regardless of their trademarks, a force loss of 59-69% was observed in the first hour compared to baseline. However, because the variation in force degradation depends on the trademark, studies such as the present one are important for guiding the clinical use of these materials.OBJETIVO: analisar, in vitro, a degradação de força, ao longo do tempo, de elastômeros das marcas comerciais American Orthodontics, Morelli, Ormco e TP Orthodontics. MÉTODOS: a amostra constituiu-se de 80 segmentos de elastômeros em cadeia fechada na cor cinza, divididos em quatro grupos, conforme o fabricante. A distensão foi padronizada em 21mm, com liberação de força inicial variando de 300 a 370g de força. As amostras foram mantidas em saliva artificial em temperatura constante de 37ºC, e a força avaliada nos seguintes intervalos: inicial, 1h, 3h, 5h, 7h, 9h, 1 dia, 7 dias, 14 dias, 21 dias, 28 dias e 35 dias. RESULTADOS: houve diferença estatisticamente significativa na degradação de força entre os

  13. Development and evaluation of elastomeric hollow fiber membranes as small diameter vascular graft substitutes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado-Pagán, Ángel E.; Kang, Yunqing [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Findlay, Michael W. [Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); University of Melbourne Department of Surgery, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Parkville, VIC (Australia); Yang, Yunzhi, E-mail: [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)


    Engineering of small diameter (< 6 mm) vascular grafts (SDVGs) for clinical use remains a significant challenge. Here, elastomeric polyester urethane (PEU)-based hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) are presented as an SDVG candidate to target the limitations of current technologies and improve tissue engineering designs. HFMs are fabricated by a simple phase inversion method. HFM dimensions are tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. The walls of HFMs are highly porous. The HFMs are very elastic, with moduli ranging from 1–4 MPa, strengths from 1–5 MPa, and max strains from 300–500%. Permeability of the HFMs varies from 0.5–3.5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s, while burst pressure varies from 25 to 35 psi. The suture retention forces of HFMs are in the range of 0.8 to 1.2 N. These properties match those of blood vessels. A slow degradation profile is observed for all HFMs, with 71 to 78% of the original mass remaining after 8 weeks, providing a suitable profile for potential cellular incorporation and tissue replacement. Both human endothelial cells and human mesenchymal stem cells proliferate well in the presence of HFMs up to 7 days. These results demonstrate a promising customizable PEU HFMs for small diameter vascular repair and tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: • Hollow fiber membranes (HFMs) were fabricated and evaluated. • HFM properties could be tailored through adjustments to fabrication parameters. • Properties could match or exceed those of blood vessels. • HFM showed excellent compatibility in vitro. • HFMs have the potential to be used for small diameter vascular grafts.

  14. An investigation into the improvement of adhesive strength of polyimides by incorporation of elastomeric nanoparticles. (United States)

    Khoee, Sepideh; Mahdavian, Ali Reza; Bairamy, Warahram; Ashjari, Mohsen


    Copoly(styrene-butyl acrylate-ethyleneglycoldimethacrylate) (St-BA-EGDMA) nanoparticles were prepared using miniemulsion polymerization technique. Then the dispersed nanoparticles in DMAc were added to in situ condensation polymerization media of pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) and oxydianiline (ODA) and consequently, homogenous polyamic acid solution containing the nanoparticles was obtained. Novel polymer-polymer nanocomposites were prepared by casting of PMDA-ODA polyamic acid solution with various content of the above elastomeric nanoparticle (ENP) on a glass plate followed by thermal imidization. All samples were characterized after preparation by FT-IR spectroscopy, transition electron microscopy (TEM), thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetery (DSC). To investigate the adhesion strength of polyimides filled with (St-BA-EGDMA) nanoparticles, lap shear strength (LSS) test was examined on different metallic surfaces. Effect of nanoparticles content on the adhesion properties of this polymer was considerable for aluminum surface. Lap-shear strength and adhesive energy of the bonded samples were found to initially increase with the increase in ENP wt%, but decrease after a critical value. It was shown that by increasing the nanoparticles amount up to 25 wt%, the adhesion strength of polyimides increased due to the good wetability of surfaces. After that and by increasing the nanoparticles amount, the adhesion strength decreased according to the diminished strength between polyimide chains. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) micrographs of the fractured surfaces were taken to determine the failure mode. They showed that by increasing the nanoparticle content in the polyimide matrix, failure mode was converted from adhesion failure to cohesion one.

  15. Elastomeric Thermal Insulation Design Considerations in Long, Aluminized Solid Rocket Motors (United States)

    Martin, Heath T.


    An all-new sounding rocket was designed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center that featured an aft finocyl, aluminized solid propellant grain and silica-filled ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (SFEPDM) internal insulation. Upon the initial static firing of the first of this new design, the solid rocket motor (SRM) case failed thermally just upstream of the aft closure early in the burn time. Subsequent fluid modeling indicated that the high-velocity combustion-product jets emanating from the fin-slots in the propellant grain were likely inducing a strongly swirling flow, thus substantially increasing the severity of the convective environment on the exposed portion of the SFEPDM insulation in this region. The aft portion of the fin-slots in another of the motors were filled with propellant to eliminate the possibility of both direct jet impingement on the exposed SFEPDM and the appearance of strongly swirling flow in the aft region of the motor. When static-fired, this motor's case still failed in the same axial location, and, though somewhat later than for the first static firing, still in less than 1/3rd of the desired burn duration. These results indicate that the extreme material decomposition rates of the SFEPDM in this application are not due to gas-phase convection or shear but rather to interactions with burning aluminum or alumina slag. Further comparisons with between SFEPDM performance in this design and that in other hot-fire tests provide insight into the mechanisms of SFEPDM decomposition in SRM aft domes that can guide the upcoming redesign effort, as well as other future SRM designs. These data also highlight the current limitations of modeling elastomeric insulators solely with diffusion-controlled, gas-phase thermochemistry in SRM regions with significant viscous shear and/or condense-phase impingement or flow.

  16. Elastomeric free-form blood vessels for interconnecting organs on chip systems. (United States)

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Bakht, Syeda Mahwish; Aleman, Julio; Shin, Su Ryon; Yue, Kan; Sica, Marco; Ribas, João; Duchamp, Margaux; Ju, Jie; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Atala, Anthony; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Conventional blood vessel-on-a-chip models are typically based on microchannel-like structures enclosed within bulk elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, these bulk vascular models largely function as individual platforms and exhibit limited flexibility particularly when used in conjunction with other organ modules. Oftentimes, lengthy connectors and/or tubes are still needed to interface multiple chips, resulting in a large waste volume counterintuitive to the miniaturized nature of organs-on-chips. In this work, we report the development of a novel form of a vascular module based on PDMS hollow tubes, which closely emulates the morphology and properties of human blood vessels to integrate multiple organs-on-chips. Specifically, we present two templating strategies to fabricate hollow PDMS tubes with adjustable diameters and wall thicknesses, where metal rods or airflow were employed as the inner templates, while plastic tubes were used as the outer template. The PDMS tubes could then be functionalized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in their interior surfaces to further construct elastomeric biomimetic blood vessels. The endothelium developed biofunctionality as demonstrated by the expression of an endothelial biomarker (CD31) as well as dose-dependent responses in the secretion of von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide upon treatment with pharmaceutical compounds. We believe that with their clear advantages including high optical transparency, gas permeability, and tunable elasticity matching those of native blood vessels, these free-form PDMS vascular modules can supplement bulk vascular organoids and likely replace inert plastic tubes in integrating multiple organoids into a single microfluidic circuitry.

  17. Elastomeric Free-Form Blood Vessels for Interconnecting Organs on Chip Systems † (United States)

    Zhang, Weijia; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Bakht, Syeda Mahwish; Aleman, Julio; Shin, Su-Ryon; Yue, Kan; Sica, Marco; Ribas, João; Duchamp, Margaux; Ju, Jie; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Kim, Duckjin; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Atala, Anthony; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Conventional blood vessel-on-a-chip models are typically based on microchannel-like structures enclosed within bulk elastomers such as polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). However, these bulk vascular models largely function as individual platforms and exhibit limited flexibility particularly when used in conjunction with other organ modules. Oftentimes lengthy connectors and/or tubes are still needed to interface multiple chips, resulting in a large waste volume counterintuitive to the miniaturized nature of the organs-on-chips. In this work, we report the development of a novel form of vascular module based on PDMS hollow tubes, which closely emulates the morphology and properties of the human blood vessels to integrate multiple organ-on-chips. Specifically, we present two templating strategies to fabricate hollow PDMS tubes with adjustable diameters and wall thicknesses, where metal rods or airflow were employed as the inner templates, while plastic tubes were used as the outer template. The PDMS tubes could then be functionalized by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in their interior surfaces to further construct the elastomeric biomimetic blood vessels. The endothelium developed biofunctionality as demonstrated by the expression of endothelial biomarker CD31 as well as dose-dependent responses in the secretion of von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide upon treatment with pharmaceutical compounds. We believe that, with their clear advantages including high optical transparency, gas permeability, and tunable elasticity matching those of native blood vessels, these free-form PDMS vascular modules can supplement the bulk vascular organoids and likely replace the inert plastic tubes in integrating multiple organoids into a single microfluidic circuitry. PMID:26999423

  18. Investigation of Pre- and Post-Swelling Behavior of Elastomeric Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Akhtar


    Full Text Available In the last ten years, a new type of modern polymer, known as swelling elastomer, has been used extensively as a sealing element in the oil and gas industry. These elastomers have been instrumental in various new applications such as water shut off, zonal isolation, and sidetracking. Though swell packers can significantly reduce costs and increase productivity, their failure can lead to serious losses. The integrity and reliability of swelling elastomer seals under different field conditions is a major concern. The investigation of changes in material behavior over a specified swelling period is a necessary first step for performance evaluation of elastomer seals. The current study is based on experimental analysis of changes in geometric and mechanical behavior (hardness, tensile, compressive, bulk of an elastomeric material due to swelling. Tests were carried out before and after various stages of swelling. Specimens were placed in saline water (0.6% and 12% concentrations at a temperature of 50°C, with the total swelling period being one month. Swelling, hardness, compression, and bulk tests were conducted using disc samples, while ring samples were used for tensile experiments. A small test rig was designed and constructed for determination of bulk modulus. Stress-strain curves under tension and compression, and pressure volumetric-strain curves were obtained for specimens subjected to different swelling periods. Due to the fast-swell nature of the elastomer, there were sharp changes in mechanical properties within the first few days of swelling for both salinities. Elastic modulus derived from tensile and compressive tests showed a 90% decrease in the first few days. Bulk modulus showed fluctuation in its variation with an increasing swelling period. There was a small effect of salinity only during the first 5 or 6 days.

  19. Effect of Microstructure Constraints on the Homogenized Elastic Constants of Elastomeric Sylgard/GMB Syntactic Foam.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Steck, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brown, Judith Alice [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Long, Kevin Nicholas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Previous numerical studies of Sylgard filled with glass microballoons (GMB) have relied on various microstructure idealizations to achieve a large range of volume fractions with high mesh quality. This study investigates how different microstructure idealizations and constraints affect the apparent homogenized elastic constants in the virgin state of the material, in which all GMBs are intact and perfectly bonded to the Sylgard matrix, and in the fully damaged state of the material in which all GMBs are destroyed. In the latter state, the material behaves as an elastomeric foam. Four microstructure idealizations are considered relating to how GMBs are packed into a representative volume element (RVE): (1) no boundary penetration nor GMB-GMB overlap, (2) GMB-GMB overlap, (3) boundary penetration, and (4) boundary penetration and GMB-GMB overlap. First order computational homogenization with kinematically uniform displacement boundary conditions (KUBCs) was employed to determine the homogenized (apparent) bulk and shear moduli for the four microstructure idealizations in the intact and fully broken GMB material states. It was found that boundary penetration has a significant effect on the shear modulus for microstructures with intact GMBs, but that neither boundary penetration nor GMB overlap have a significant effect on homogenized properties for microstructures with fully broken GMBs. The primary conclusion of the study is that future investigations into Sylgard/GMB micromechanics should either force GMBs to stay within the RVE fully and/or use periodic BCs (PBCs) to eliminate the boundary penetration issues. The implementation of PBCs requires the improvement of existing tools in Sandia’s Sierra/SM code.

  20. Linear dimensional changes in plaster die models using different elastomeric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Ricardo Pereira


    Full Text Available Dental impression is an important step in the preparation of prostheses since it provides the reproduction of anatomic and surface details of teeth and adjacent structures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the linear dimensional alterations in gypsum dies obtained with different elastomeric materials, using a resin coping impression technique with individual shells. A master cast made of stainless steel with fixed prosthesis characteristics with two prepared abutment teeth was used to obtain the impressions. References points (A, B, C, D, E and F were recorded on the occlusal and buccal surfaces of abutments to register the distances. The impressions were obtained using the following materials: polyether, mercaptan-polysulfide, addition silicone, and condensation silicone. The transfer impressions were made with custom trays and an irreversible hydrocolloid material and were poured with type IV gypsum. The distances between identified points in gypsum dies were measured using an optical microscope and the results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA (p < 0.05 and Tukey's test. The mean of the distances were registered as follows: addition silicone (AB = 13.6 µm, CD=15.0 µm, EF = 14.6 µm, GH=15.2 µm, mercaptan-polysulfide (AB = 36.0 µm, CD = 36.0 µm, EF = 39.6 µm, GH = 40.6 µm, polyether (AB = 35.2 µm, CD = 35.6 µm, EF = 39.4 µm, GH = 41.4 µm and condensation silicone (AB = 69.2 µm, CD = 71.0 µm, EF = 80.6 µm, GH = 81.2 µm. All of the measurements found in gypsum dies were compared to those of a master cast. The results demonstrated that the addition silicone provides the best stability of the compounds tested, followed by polyether, polysulfide and condensation silicone. No statistical differences were obtained between polyether and mercaptan-polysulfide materials.

  1. Thiol-ene functionalized siloxanes for use as elastomeric dental impression materials. (United States)

    Cole, Megan A; Jankousky, Katherine C; Bowman, Christopher N


    Thiol- and allyl-functionalized siloxane oligomers are synthesized and evaluated for use as a radical-mediated, rapid set elastomeric dental impression material. Thiol-ene siloxane formulations are crosslinked using a redox-initiated polymerization scheme, and the mechanical properties of the thiol-ene network are manipulated through the incorporation of varying degrees of plasticizer and kaolin filler. Formulations with medium and light body consistencies are further evaluated for their ability to accurately replicate features on both the gross and microscopic levels. We hypothesize that thiol-ene functionalized siloxane systems will exhibit faster setting times and greater detail reproduction than commercially available polyvinylsiloxane (PVS) materials of comparable consistencies. Thiol-ene functionalized siloxane mixtures formulated with varying levels of redox initiators, plasticizer, and kaolin filler are made and evaluated for their polymerization speed (FTIR), consistency (ISO4823.9.2), and surface energy (goniometer). Feature replication is evaluated quantitatively by SEM. The Tg, storage modulus, and creep behavior are determined by DMA. Increasing redox initiation rate increases the polymerization rate but at high levels also limits working time. Combining 0.86 wt% oxidizing agent with up to 5 wt% plasticizer gave a working time of 3 min and a setting time of 2 min. The selected medium and light body thiol-ene formulations also achieved greater qualitative detail reproduction than the commercial material and reproduced micrometer patterns with 98% accuracy. Improving detail reproduction and setting speed is a primary focus of dental impression material design and synthesis. Radical-mediated polymerizations, particularly thiol-ene reactions, are recognized for their speed, reduced shrinkage, and 'click' nature. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. An air-pressure-free elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis (United States)

    Jung, Wooseok; Barrett, Matthew; Brooks, Carla; Rivera, Andrew; Birdsell, Dawn N.; Wagner, David M.; Zenhausern, Frederic


    We present a new elastomeric valve for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis. The valve functions include metering to capture a designated volume of biological sample into a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) chamber, sealing to preserve the sample during PCR cycling, and transfer of the PCR-products and on-chip formamide post-processing for the analysis of DNA fragments by capillary gel electrophoresis. This new valve differs from prior art polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) valves in that the valve is not actuated externally by air-pressure or vacuum so that it simplifies a DNA analysis system by eliminating the need for an air-pressure or vacuum source, and off-cartridge solenoid valves, control circuit boards and software. Instead, the new valve is actuated by a thermal cycling peltier assembly integrated within the hardware instrument that tightly comes in contact with a microfluidic cartridge for thermal activation during PCR, so that it spontaneously closes the valve without an additional actuator system. The valve has bumps in the designated locations so that it has a self-alignment that does not require precise alignment of a valve actuator. Moreover, the thickness of the new valve is around 600 μm with an additional bump height of 400 μm so that it is easy to handle and very feasible to fabricate by injection molding compared to other PDMS valves whose thicknesses are around 30-100 μm. The new valve provided over 95% of metering performance in filling the fixed volume of the PCR chamber, preserved over 97% of the sample volume during PCR, and showed very comparable capillary electrophoresis peak heights to the benchtop assay tube controls with very consistent transfer volume of the PCR-product and on-chip formamide. The new valve can perform a core function for integrated nucleic acid analysis by capillary electrophoresis.

  3. Controle sismique d'un batiment en acier de 1 etage par amortisseurs elastomeres et contreventements en Chevron (United States)

    Girard, Olivier

    Actuellement, le principe de dimensionnement a la capacite est fortement utilise dans le domaine du genie parasismique. De maniere simplifiee, cette methode de dimensionnement consiste a dissiper l'energie injectee a une structure lors d'une secousse sismique par la deformation inelastique d'un element structural sacrificiel. Cette methode de dimensionne-ment permet d'obtenir des structures economiques, car cette dissipation d'energie permet de reduire substantiellement les efforts qui se retrouvent a l'interieur de la structure. Or, la consequence de ce dimensionnement est la presence de degats importants a la structure qui suivent a la secousse sismique. Ces degats peuvent engendrer des couts superieurs aux couts d'erection de la structure. Bien entendu, sachant que les secousses sismiques d'importances sont des phenomenes rares, l'ingenieur est pret a accepter ce risque afin de diminuer les couts initiaux de construction. Malgre que cette methode ait permis d'obtenir des constructions economiques et securitaires, il serait interessant de developper un systeme qui permettrait d'obtenir des performances de controle des efforts sismiques comparables a un systeme dimensionne selon un principe de dimensionnement a la capacite sans les consequences negatives de ces systemes. En utilisant les principes d'isolation a la base, il a ete possible de developper un systeme de reprise des forces sismiques (SRFS). qui permet d'obtenir un controle des efforts sismiques concurrentiels tout en gardant une structure completement elastique. Ce systeme consiste u inserer un materiel elastomere entre l'assemblage de la poutre et des contreventements a l'interieur d'un cadre contrevente conventionnel. Cette insertion permet de diminuer substantiellement la rigidite laterale du batiment, ce qui a pour consequence d'augmenter la valeur de la periode fondamentale du batiment dans lequel ces cadres sont inseres. Ce phenomene est appele le saut de periode. Ce saut de periode permet de

  4. An in vitro comparison of the force decay generated by different commercially available elastomeric chains and NiTi closed coil springs


    Santos,Ana Cristina Soares; TORTAMANO, ANDRÉ; Naccarato, Sandra Regina Frazatto; Dominguez-Rodriguez,Gladys Cristina; Vigorito,Julio Wilson


    This in vitro study was designed to compare the forces generated by commercially available elastomeric chains and NiTi closed coil springs, and to determine their force decay pattern. Forty elastomeric chains and forty NiTi closed coil springs were divided into 4 groups according to the following manufacturers: (1) Morelli®, (2) Abzil®, (3) TP Orthodontics® and (4) American Orthodontics®. The specimens were extended to twice their original length and stored in artificial saliva at 37°C. I...

  5. Biodegradable, Elastomeric, and Intrinsically Photoluminescent Poly(Silicon-Citrates) with high Photostability and Biocompatibility for Tissue Regeneration and Bioimaging. (United States)

    Du, Yuzhang; Xue, Yumeng; Ma, Peter X; Chen, Xiaofeng; Lei, Bo


    Biodegradable polymer biomaterials with intrinsical photoluminescent properties have attracted much interest, due to their potential advantages for tissue regeneration and noninvasive bioimaging. However, few of current biodegradable polymers possess tunable intrinsically fluorescent properties, such as high photostability, fluorescent lifetime, and quantum field, and strong mechanical properties for meeting the requirements of biomedical applications. Here, by a facile one-step thermal polymerization, elastomeric poly(silicone-citrate) (PSC) hybrid polymers are developed with controlled biodegradability and mechanical properties, tunable inherent fluorescent emission (up to 600 nm), high photostability (beyond 180 min for UV and six months for natural light), fluorescent lifetime (near 10 ns) and quantum yield (16%-35%), high cellular biocompatibility, and minimal inflammatory response in vivo, which provide advantages over conventional fluorescent dyes, quantum dots, and current fluorescent polymers. The promising applications of PSC hybrids for cell and implants imaging in vitro and in vivo are successfully demonstrated. The development of elastomeric PSC polymer may provide a new strategy in synthesizing new inorganic-organic hybrid photo-luminescent materials for tissue regeneration and bioimaging applications. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Low-level laser therapy effects on pain perception related to the use of orthodontic elastomeric separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel D'Aurea Furquim


    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Some patients refer to pre-banding orthodontic separation as a painful orthodontic procedure. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT has been reported to have local analgesic effect. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this single-blind study was to investigate the perception of pain caused by orthodontic elastomeric separators with and without a single LLLT application (6J. METHODS: The sample comprised 79 individuals aged between 13 and 34 years old at orthodontic treatment onset. Elastomeric separators were placed in first maxillary molars at mesial and distal surfaces and kept in place for three days. The volunteers scored pain intensity on a visual analogue scale (VAS after 6 and 12 hours, and after the first, second and third days. One third of patients received laser applications, whereas another third received placebo applications and the remaining ones were controls. Applications were performed in a split-mouth design. Thus, three groups (laser, placebo and control were assessed. RESULTS: No differences were found among groups considering pain perception in all periods observed. CONCLUSION: The use of a single-dose of LLLT did not cause significant reduction in orthodontic pain perception. Overall pain perception due to orthodontic separator placement varied widely and was usually mild.

  7. Elastomeric Structural Attachment Concepts for Aircraft Flap Noise Reduction - Challenges and Approaches to Hyperelastic Structural Modeling and Analysis (United States)

    Sreekantamurthy, Thammaiah; Turner, Travis L.; Moore, James B.; Su, Ji


    Airframe noise is a significant part of the overall noise of transport aircraft during the approach and landing phases of flight. Airframe noise reduction is currently emphasized under the Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) and Fixed Wing (FW) Project goals of NASA. A promising concept for trailing-edge-flap noise reduction is a flexible structural element or link that connects the side edges of the deployable flap to the adjacent main-wing structure. The proposed solution is distinguished by minimization of the span-wise extent of the structural link, thereby minimizing the aerodynamic load on the link structure at the expense of increased deformation requirement. Development of such a flexible structural link necessitated application of hyperelastic materials, atypical structural configurations and novel interface hardware. The resulting highly-deformable structural concept was termed the FLEXible Side Edge Link (FLEXSEL) concept. Prediction of atypical elastomeric deformation responses from detailed structural analysis was essential for evaluating feasible concepts that met the design constraints. The focus of this paper is to describe the many challenges encountered with hyperelastic finite element modeling and the nonlinear structural analysis of evolving FLEXSEL concepts. Detailed herein is the nonlinear analysis of FLEXSEL concepts that emerged during the project which include solid-section, foamcore, hollow, extended-span and pre-stressed concepts. Coupon-level analysis performed on elastomeric interface joints, which form a part of the FLEXSEL topology development, are also presented.

  8. Contact-mechanical studies on adhesion of bio-inspired elastomeric nanofiber to stiff and soft materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yun Lee


    Full Text Available The adhesion behavior of elastomeric nanofibers was examined by a contact-mechanical approach using a Johnson–Kendall–Roberts (JKR instrument. A nanofibrillar elastomer substrate was fabricated by replicating crosslinked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS from an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO template. The adhesion behavior of a regular hexagonal array of PDMS nanofibers formed over a wide range was investigated using soft and stiff hemispherical probes, which were prepared using PDMS and polystyrene (PS, respectively. The intrinsic work of adhesion (W of the elastomeric nanofibrillar substrate was observed to substantially decrease, which was more prominent for the less deformable PS probe, revealing a reduction in the real contact area. Meanwhile, the adhesion energy (G in the dynamic state with increasing separation rate was greatly affected by the deformation of nanofibers. The energy-dissipation factor for the nanofibrillar surface was far larger than that for the flat surface, and this difference was more significant for the case of contact with the deformable PDMS probe. This resulted in a great increase in the adhesion energy, making it even larger than that of the flat surface, overcoming the reduction in the real contact area.

  9. The Effect of Herbal Mouthwashes on the Force Decay of Elastomeric Chains: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nahidh


    Full Text Available Background: This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the effect of four herbal mouthwashes on the force decay of two types of clear short elastomeric chains (Regular and Extreme at various time intervals. Materials and methods: Four hundred forty pieces of both types of elastomeric chains with 19 mm length were utilized in this study. The force was measured, using digital scale immediately, after one-day immersion in distilled water and after 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks immersion in the specific mouthwash for one minute twice daily then washed and kept in distilled water at 37°C. Force decay was calculated and compared among different elastic types, mouthwashes and time intervals using t-test and one-way ANOVA then Tukey’s tests. Results: The force degradation of regular type was significantly higher than extreme one. With time, the force decay increased significantly in both types. There was non-significant difference among the mouthwashes in the first and second weeks while the opposite in the third and fourth especially with the control group. Conclusions: The extreme type is preferred over the regular one because of its low force decay and the tested mouthwashes have no clinical significant effect on the force degradation over time in comparison with distilled water.

  10. Home-based intravenous analgesia with elastomeric pump as an outpatient procedure for pain control after anterior cruciate ligament repair. (United States)

    Villalba, J; Peñalver, J; Torner, P; Serra, M; Planell, J

    To follow up pain in the immediate postoperative period, using an elastomeric pump in anterior cruciate ligament surgery. 309 patients who had undergone anterior cruciate ligament repair with bone-tendon-bone allograft. Pain control was assessed with a visual analogue scale (VAS) during the immediate postoperative period, in the postoperative care unit, in the recovery room, and after the first 24-48-72hours following home discharge. The need for rescue medication, adverse effects observed and emergency visits were also registered. 309 patients were assessed (264 males, 45 females), mean age 33 (range: 18 - 55). Postoperative pain was mild in 44.7% of patients, and 38.5% were pain-free. At discharge, 41.1% of patients reported mild pain and 57% were pain-free. At home, mild to moderate levels of pain were maintained and over 97% of patients presented VAS values ≤ 3. Fewer than 3% had adverse effects, 8.7% had to use analgesic medication at some point. Pruritus occurred in less than 1% of patients receiving intravenous analgesia at home, and fewer than 2% had device-related complications. There is no consensus regarding the postoperative management of anterior cruciate ligament lesions, although most surgeons use multimode anaesthesia and different combinations of analgesics to reduce postoperative pain. The use of an intravenous elastomeric pump as postoperative analgesia for anterior cruciate ligamentoplasty has yielded good results. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Comparative Evaluation of Dimensional Accuracy of Elastomeric Impression Materials when Treated with Autoclave, Microwave, and Chemical Disinfection. (United States)

    Kamble, Suresh S; Khandeparker, Rakshit Vijay; Somasundaram, P; Raghav, Shweta; Babaji, Rashmi P; Varghese, T Joju


    Impression materials during impression procedure often get infected with various infectious diseases. Hence, disinfection of impression materials with various disinfectants is advised to protect the dental team. Disinfection can alter the dimensional accuracy of impression materials. The present study was aimed to evaluate the dimensional accuracy of elastomeric impression materials when treated with different disinfectants; autoclave, chemical, and microwave method. The impression materials used for the study were, dentsply aquasil (addition silicone polyvinylsiloxane syringe and putty), zetaplus (condensation silicone putty and light body), and impregum penta soft (polyether). All impressions were made according to manufacturer's instructions. Dimensional changes were measured before and after different disinfection procedures. Dentsply aquasil showed smallest dimensional change (-0.0046%) and impregum penta soft highest linear dimensional changes (-0.026%). All the tested elastomeric impression materials showed some degree of dimensional changes. The present study showed that all the disinfection procedures produce minor dimensional changes of impression material. However, it was within American Dental Association specification. Hence, steam autoclaving and microwave method can be used as an alternative method to chemical sterilization as an effective method.

  12. Plaque retention by self-ligating vs elastomeric orthodontic brackets: quantitative comparison of oral bacteria and detection with adenosine triphosphate-driven bioluminescence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellegrini, P.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Finlayson, T.; McLeod, J.; Covell, D.A.; Maier, T.; Machida, C.A.


    INTRODUCTION: Enamel decalcification is a common problem in orthodontics. The objectives of this randomized clinical study were to enumerate and compare plaque bacteria surrounding 2 bracket types, self-ligating (SL) vs elastomeric ligating (E), and to determine whether adenosine triphosphate

  13. Sixteen-week analysis of unaltered elastomeric chain relating in-vitro force degradation with in-vivo extraction space tooth movement. (United States)

    Evans, Kristin S; Wood, Cory M; Moffitt, Allen H; Colgan, John A; Holman, J Kevin; Marshall, Steven D; Pope, D Spencer; Sample, Lew B; Sherman, Stephen L; Sinclair, Peter M; Trulove, Tim S


    The purposes of this study were to evaluate whether unaltered elastomeric chain can continue to move teeth for 16 weeks and to relate it to the amount of force remaining for the same batch of elastomeric chains. The in-vivo portion of the study had a sample of 30 paired extraction space sites from 22 subjects who were measured for closure of the space every 28 days. The altered side elastomeric chain served as the control and was replaced at 28-day intervals whereas the experimental side remained unaltered. In the in-vitro portion of the study, 100 each of 2-unit and 3-unit segments of the same batch of elastomeric chains were placed in a water bath, and the force was measured for 20 of each segment length at the 28-day measurement points. Statistically significant amounts of space closure occurred at both the altered and unaltered sites at all measurement time points. The mean space closure at the altered sites was minimally greater than that observed at the paired unaltered sites. The mean differences of space closure between the altered and unaltered sites ranged from a minimum of -0.05 mm at 4 weeks to a maximum of -0.14 mm at 8 weeks. The elastomeric chain force degraded rapidly by 4 weeks but continued a gradual diminution of force to 86 g at 16 weeks. Unaltered elastomeric chain continued to move teeth into extraction spaces for 16 weeks in this sample from both statistically and clinically significant standpoints. There were minimal and statistically insignificant differences in the mean space closure measurements between the paired altered and unaltered sites. The elastomeric chain force at 16 weeks was less than 100 g, yet at the same time point, teeth continued to move clinically. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiation resistance of elastomeric O-rings in mixed neutron and gamma fields: Testing methodology and experimental results (United States)

    Zenoni, A.; Bignotti, F.; Donzella, A.; Donzella, G.; Ferrari, M.; Pandini, S.; Andrighetto, A.; Ballan, M.; Corradetti, S.; Manzolaro, M.; Monetti, A.; Rossignoli, M.; Scarpa, D.; Alloni, D.; Prata, M.; Salvini, A.; Zelaschi, F.


    Materials and components employed in the presence of intense neutron and gamma fields are expected to absorb high dose levels that may induce deep modifications of their physical and mechanical properties, possibly causing loss of their function. A protocol for irradiating elastomeric materials in reactor mixed neutron and gamma fields and for testing the evolution of their main mechanical and physical properties with absorbed dose has been developed. Four elastomeric compounds used for vacuum O-rings, one fluoroelastomer polymer (FPM) based and three ethylene propylene diene monomer rubber (EPDM) based, presently available on the market have been selected for the test. One EPDM is rated as radiation resistant in gamma fields, while the other elastomers are general purpose products. Particular care has been devoted to dosimetry calculations, since absorbed dose in neutron fields, unlike pure gamma fields, is strongly dependent on the material composition and, in particular, on the hydrogen content. The products have been tested up to about 2 MGy absorbed dose. The FPM based elastomer, in spite of its lower dose absorption in fast neutron fields, features the largest variations of properties, with a dramatic increase in stiffness and brittleness. Out of the three EPDM based compounds, one shows large and rapid changes in the main mechanical properties, whereas the other two feature more stable behaviors. The performance of the EPDM rated as radiation resistant in pure gamma fields does not appear significantly better than that of the standard product. The predictive capability of the accelerated irradiation tests performed as well as the applicable concepts of threshold of radiation damage is discussed in view of the use of the examined products in the selective production of exotic species facility, now under construction at the Legnaro National Laboratories of the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare. It results that a careful account of dose rate effects

  15. Stability of penicillin G sodium diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in polyvinyl chloride bag containers and elastomeric pump containers. (United States)

    Hossain, Mirza Akram; Friciu, Mihaela; Aubin, Sebastien; Leclair, Grégoire


    The stability of penicillin G sodium solutions stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags or elastomeric pump containers was studied. Test samples were prepared by diluting powdered penicillin G sodium (10 million units/10-mL vial) to solutions of 2,500 or 50,000 units/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection. The preparations were transferred to 250-mL PVC bags and elastomeric pump containers. All samples were prepared in triplicate and stored at 5°C. Chemical stability was measured by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) assay and by pH evaluation. Particulate matter was evaluated according to compendial standards using a light-obscuration particle count test. Preparations were visually examined throughout the study. After 21 days of storage, all test samples remained chemically stable, with an HPLC assay recovery value of more than 90% of the initial value. After 28 days, all samples prepared with either diluent and stored in PVC bags, as well as the samples diluted to 2,500 units/mL with sodium chloride injection and stored in elastomeric pump containers, did not meet the recovery acceptance limit. For all test samples, the mean pH consistently decreased during storage, from about 6.4 to about 5.5. Particle counts remained acceptable throughout the study, and no change in appearance was observed. Penicillin G for injection (2,500 and 50,000 units/mL) diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored at 5°C in PVC containers or elastomeric pump containers was physically and chemically stable for a period of at least 21 days.

  16. Creep- and fatigue-resistant, rapid piezoresistive responses of elastomeric graphene-coated carbon nanotube aerogels over a wide pressure range. (United States)

    Tsui, Michelle N; Islam, Mohammad F


    Lightweight, flexible piezoresistive materials with wide operational pressure ranges are in demand for applications such as human physical activity and health monitoring, robotics, and for functional interfacing between living systems and wearable electronics. Piezoresistivity of many elastomeric foams of polymers and carbon allotropes satisfies much of the required characteristics for these applications except creep and fatigue resistance due to their viscoelasticity, critically limiting the reliability and lifetime of integrated devices. We report the piezoresistive responses from aerogels of graphene-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), made using a facile and versatile sol-gel method. Graphene crosslinks the junctions of the underlying random network of SWCNTs, generating lightweight elastomeric aerogels with a mass density of ≈11 mg mL-1 (volume fraction ≈7.7 × 10-3) and a Young's modulus of ≈0.4 MPa. The piezoresistivity of these aerogels spans wide compressive pressures up to at least 120 kPa with sensitivity that exhibit ultrafast temporal responses of <27 ms and <3% delay ratio over 104 compressive loading-unloading cycles at rates between 0.1-10 Hz. Most importantly, the piezoresistive responses do not show any creep at least for 1 hour and 80 kPa of compressive static loading. We suggest that the fatigue- and creep-resistant, ultrafast piezoresistive responses of these elastomeric aerogels are highly attractive for use in dynamic and static lightweight, pressure sensing applications such as human activity monitoring and soft robotics.

  17. Accuracy of a new ring-opening metathesis elastomeric dental impression material with spray and immersion disinfection. (United States)

    Kronström, Mats H; Johnson, Glen H; Hompesch, Richard W


    A new elastomeric impression material has been formulated with a ring-opening metathesis chemistry. In addition to other properties of clinical significance, the impression accuracy must be confirmed. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of the new elastomeric impression material with vinyl polysiloxane and polyether following both spray and immersion disinfection. Impressions of a modified dentoform with a stainless steel crown preparation in the lower right quadrant were made, and type IV gypsum working casts and dies were formed. Anteroposterior (AP), cross-arch (CA), buccolingual (BL), mesiodistal (MD), occlusogingivobuccal (OGB), and occlusogingivolingual (OGL) dimensions were measured using a microscope. Working cast and die dimensions were compared to those of the master model. The impression materials were a newly formulated, ring-opening metathesis-polymerization impression material (ROMP Cartridge Tray and ROMP Volume Wash), vinyl polysiloxane (VPS, Aquasil Ultra Monophase/LV), and a polyether (PE, Impregum Penta Soft/Permadyne Garant L). Fifteen impressions with each material were made, of which 5 were disinfected by spray for 10 minutes (CaviCide), 5 were disinfected by immersion for 90 minutes (ProCide D), and 5 were not disinfected. There were significant cross-product interactions with a 2-way ANOVA, so a 1-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 multiple comparison test were used to compare the dimensional changes of the 3 impression materials, by disinfection status and for each location (alpha=.05). For ROMP, there were no significant differences from the master, for any dimension, when comparing the control and 2 disinfectant conditions. No significant differences were detected among the 3 impression materials for CA, BL, and MD. The working die dimensions of OGB and OGL for VPS with immersion disinfection were significantly shorter than with PE and ROMP (Pimpression material were similar, for both spray and immersion disinfection. Judicious

  18. Atomic force microscopy and nanoindentation investigation of polydimethylsiloxane elastomeric substrate compliancy for various sputtered thin film morphologies. (United States)

    Maji, Debashis; Das, Soumen


    Crack free electrically continuous metal thin films over soft elastomeric substrates play an integral part in realization of modern day flexible bioelectronics and biosensors. Under nonoptimized deposition conditions, delamination, and/or cracking of the top film as well as the underlying soft substrate hinders optimal performance of these devices. Hence it is very important to understand and control not only the various deposition factors like power, time, or deposition pressure but also investigate the various interfacial physics playing a critical role in assuring thin film adhesion and substrate compliancy. In the present study, various nanomechanical information of the underlying substrate, namely, crack profile, average roughness, Young's modulus, and adhesion force were studied for uncracked and cracked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces along with pristine and conventional plasma treated PDMS samples as control. Quantification of the above parameters were done using three-dimensional surface profiler, scanning electron microscopy, nanoindentation, and atomic force microscopy techniques to elucidate the modulus range, average roughness, and adhesion force. Comparative analysis with control revealed remarkable similarity between increased modulus values, increased surface roughness, and reduced adhesion force accounting for reduced substrate compliancy and resulting in film cracking or buckling which are critical for development of various bioflexible devices. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 106A: 725-737, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Heat shrink ability of electron-beam-modified thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer and polyethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chattopadhyay, S.; Chaki, T.K.; Bhowmick, Anil K. E-mail:


    The heat shrink ability of electron-beam-irradiated thermoplastic elastomeric films from blends of ethylene-vinylacetate copolymer (EVA) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE) has been investigated in this paper. The effects of temperature, time and extent of stretching and shrinkage temperature and time have been reported. Based on the above data, the optimized conditions in terms of high heat shrinkage and low amnesia rating have been evaluated. Influence of radiation doses (0-500 kGy), multifunctional sensitizer levels (ditri methylol propane tetraacrylate, DTMPTA), and blend proportions on heat shrink ability has been explained with the help of gel fraction and X-ray data. With the increase in radiation dose, gel fraction increases, which in turn gives rise to low values of heat shrinkage and amnesia rating. At a constant radiation dose and blend ratio, percent heat shrinkage is found to decrease with increase in DTMPTA level. Gel content increases with the increase in EVA content of the blend at a constant radiation dose and monomer level, giving rise to decrease in heat shrink ability. Heat shrinkage increases with the increase in percent crystallinity, although the amnesia rating follows the reverse trend.

  20. High frequency, multi-axis dynamic stiffness analysis of a fractionally damped elastomeric isolator using continuous system theory (United States)

    Fredette, Luke; Singh, Rajendra


    A spectral element approach is proposed to determine the multi-axis dynamic stiffness terms of elastomeric isolators with fractional damping over a broad range of frequencies. The dynamic properties of a class of cylindrical isolators are modeled by using the continuous system theory in terms of homogeneous rods or Timoshenko beams. The transfer matrix type dynamic stiffness expressions are developed from exact harmonic solutions given translational or rotational displacement excitations. Broadband dynamic stiffness magnitudes (say up to 5 kHz) are computationally verified for axial, torsional, shear, flexural, and coupled stiffness terms using a finite element model. Some discrepancies are found between finite element and spectral element models for the axial and flexural motions, illustrating certain limitations of each method. Experimental validation is provided for an isolator with two cylindrical elements (that work primarily in the shear mode) using dynamic measurements, as reported in the prior literature, up to 600 Hz. Superiority of the fractional damping formulation over structural or viscous damping models is illustrated via experimental validation. Finally, the strengths and limitations of the spectral element approach are briefly discussed.

  1. Numerical study of effect of elastomeric stress absorbers on stress reduction in bone-dental implant interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalem MEHDI


    Full Text Available Objective This paper focused on optimal stress distribution in the mandibular bone surrounding a dental implant and is devoted to the development of a modified Osteoplant® implant type in order to minimize stress concentration in the bone-implant interface. Material and Methods This study investigated 0.4 mm thick layers of two elastomeric stress barriers incorporated into the dental implant using 3-D finite element analysis. Results Overall, this proposed implant provoked lower load transfer in bone-implant interface due to the effect of the elastomers as stress absorbers. The stress level in the bone was reduced between 28% and 42% for three load cases: 75 N, 60 N and 27 N in corono-apical, linguo-buccal and disto-mesial direction, respectively. Conclusion The proposed model provided an acceptable solution for load transfer reduction to the mandible. This investigation also permitted to choose how to incorporate two elastomers into the Osteoplant® implant system.

  2. Microdroplet-based On-Demand Drawing of High Aspect-Ratio Elastomeric Micropillar and Its Contact Sensing Application. (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Dhakal, Rabin; Kim, Jaeyoun


    High aspect-ratio elastomeric micropillars play important roles as the platform for microscale sensing and actuation. Many soft-lithographic techniques have been developed for their facile realization but most of the techniques are limited to build the micropillars only on totally flat, widely accessible substrate areas with the micropillar's structural characteristics completely predetermined, leaving little room for in situ control. Here we demonstrate a new technique which overcomes these limitations by directly drawing micropillars from pipette-dispensed PDMS microdroplets using vacuum-chucked microspheres. The combined utilization of PDMS microdroplets and microspheres not only enables the realization of microsphere-tipped PDMS micropillars on non-flat, highly space-constrained substrate areas at in situ controllable heights but also allows arraying of micropillars with dissimilar heights at a close proximity. To validate the new technique's utility and versatility, we realize PDMS micropillars on various unconventional substrate areas in various configurations. We also convert one of them, the optical fiber/micropillar hybrid, into a soft optical contact sensor. Both the fabrication technique and the resulting sensing scheme will be useful for future biomedical microsystems.

  3. A robust signal processing method for quantitative high-cycle fatigue crack monitoring using soft elastomeric capacitor sensors (United States)

    Kong, Xiangxiong; Li, Jian; Collins, William; Bennett, Caroline; Laflamme, Simon; Jo, Hongki


    A large-area electronics (LAE) strain sensor, termed soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC), has shown great promise in fatigue crack monitoring. The SEC is able to monitor strain changes over a mesoscale structural surface and endure large deformations without being damaged under cracking. Previous tests verified that the SEC is able to detect, localize, and monitor fatigue crack activities under low-cycle fatigue loading. In this paper, to examine the SEC's capability of monitoring high-cycle fatigue cracks, a compact specimen is tested under cyclic tension, designed to ensure realistic crack opening sizes representative of those in real steel bridges. To overcome the difficulty of low signal amplitude and relatively high noise level under high-cycle fatigue loading, a robust signal processing method is proposed to convert the measured capacitance time history from the SEC sensor to power spectral densities (PSD) in the frequency domain, such that signal's peak-to-peak amplitude can be extracted at the dominant loading frequency. A crack damage indicator is proposed as the ratio between the square root of the amplitude of PSD and load range. Results show that the crack damage indicator offers consistent indication of crack growth.

  4. Thermal performance of 625-kg/cu m elastomeric ablative materials on spherically blunted 0.44-radian cones (United States)

    Champman, A. J.


    Spherically blunted 0.44-radian (25 deg) half-angle conical models coated with elastomeric ablative materials were tested in supersonic arc-heated wind tunnels to evaluate performance of the ablators over a range of conditions typical of lifting entry. Four test conditions were combinations of stagnation point-heat transfer rates of 2.3 and 4.5 MW/m2 and stagnation pressures of 20 and 2kN/m2. Afterbody values of heat transfer rate and pressure were 0.05 to 0.20 of stagnation point values. Stagnation enthalpy varied from 4.4 to 25 MJ/kg (1900 to 11000 Btu/lbm) and free-stream Mach number was in a range from 3.5 to 4. Ablative materials retained the spherical nose shape throughout tests at the lower heat transfer level, but receded, assuming a flattened nose shape, during tests at the high heat transfer level. The residue layer that formed on the conical after-body was weak, friable, and extensively cracked. The reference ablative material, which contained phenolic microspheres, generally retained the conical shape on the model afterbody. However, a modified ablator, in which phenolic microspheres were replaced with silica microspheres, deformed and separated from the undegraded material, and thereby produced a very uneven surface. Substrate temperatures and ablator recession were in good agreement with values computed by a numerical analysis.

  5. Evaluation of the influence of the polymer-filler interaction on compounds based on epoxidized elastomeric matrix and precipitated silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana L. A. C. Rocha


    Full Text Available The introduction of epoxy groups into the main chain of elastomers has emerged as a promising alternative, considering the monitoring of polymer-filler interaction leading to changes in the properties of vulcanizates. The epoxidation reaction (in situ was chosen to modify elastomers, such as polybutadiene (BR and copolymer of styrene-butadiene-rubber (SBR, because it is a simple, easily controlled reaction, even considering the small epoxidation degree. The modification degree of the polymeric chain was studied with FT-IR and ¹H-NMR. The shift of the Tg to high temperatures with the increase of the epoxy group in the polymer chain was monitored through differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. An analysis of the dynamic modulus of the material in relation to its dependence on the amplitude and temperature was carried out. The interaction between epoxidized elastomeric matrix and silica as filler was extremely improved, even in the presence of very low content of epoxy groups into the polymer chain.

  6. The Significance of Pore Microarchitecture in a Multi-Layered Elastomeric Scaffold for Contractile Cardiac Muscle Constructs (United States)

    Park, H.; Larson, B.L.; Guillemette, M.D.; Jain, S.R.; Hua, C.; Engelmayr, G.C.; Freed, L.E.


    Multi-layered poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) scaffolds with controlled pore microarchitectures were fabricated, combined with heart cells, and cultured with perfusion to engineer contractile cardiac muscle constructs. First, one-layered (1L) scaffolds with accordion-like honeycomb shaped pores and elastomeric mechanical properties were fabricated by laser microablation of PGS membranes. Second, two-layered (2L) scaffolds with fully interconnected three dimensional pore networks were fabricated by oxygen plasma treatment of 1L scaffolds followed by stacking with off-set laminae to produce a tightly bonded composite. Third, heart cells were cultured on scaffolds with or without interstitial perfusion for 7 days. The laser-microablated PGS scaffolds exhibited ultimate tensile strength and strain-to-failure higher than normal adult rat left ventricular myocardium, and effective stiffnesses ranging from 220 to 290 kPa. The 7 day constructs contracted in response to electrical field stimulation. Excitation thresholds were unaffected by scaffold scale up from 1L to 2L. The 2L constructs exhibited reduced apoptosis, increased expression of connexin-43 (Cx-43) and matrix metalloprotease-2 (MMP-2) genes, and increased Cx-43 and cardiac troponin-I proteins when cultured with perfusion as compared to static controls. Together, these findings suggest that multi-layered, microfabricated PGS scaffolds may be applicable to myocardial repair applications requiring mechanical support, cell delivery and active implant contractility. PMID:21144580

  7. Smart timer for use in air purifiers; Temporizador inteligente para utilizacao em depuradores de ar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcelino, M.A.; Escudeiro, G.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FEG/UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia], Emails:,


    Currently, the air cleaner Suggar appliances has a key of three positions of different speeds, in addition to the off position. The motor has three windings, each one is responsible for a winding speed. The speed choice is made through the key. The objective of this work is the replacement of this motor with three windings by a single motor winding, with the velocity controlled electronically, and no longer using the key, lowering the costs of product. A signalling was implemented, through a diode LED, informing the user the end of the useful life of the debugger filter, in order to make possible the replacement at the right time, avoiding waste for the product user. The electronic system should be able to control the speed of engine and to count a total of 100 hours of operation of the debugger. When this is achieved, a signal is triggered on the front panel of product, indicating the need for replacing the filter. A key to reset the timer will used to reset the count after a filter change. To avoid the time counting due to the energy lack it is used an EEPROM memory to storage the counting. The control system counting is done by the PIC12F629 microcontroller.

  8. Analysis of Air Purifying Respirator Cartridges and Filters as a Determination of Occupational Exposure (United States)


    micrometers. The count median aerodymanic diameters (CMAD) were 0.716 microns and the mass median aerodynamic diameters ( MMAD ) were 5.44 microns. This result...agrees with the results by Chan, et al. [15] who measured MMAD of 4.7 - 6.6 microns for conventional air-atomized paint spray guns. Likewise, the...with a CMAD of 7.934 microns and MMAD of 52.1 microns. The approximate 10 fold Increase 25 in MMAD for sanding versus painting is anticipated because of

  9. Workplace performance of a loose-fitting powered air purifying respirator during nanoparticle synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koivisto, A.J.; Aromaa, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Fransman, W.; Jensen, K.A.; Mäkelä, J.M.; Hämeri, K.J.


    Nanoparticle (particles with diameter ≤100 nm) exposure is recognized as a potentially harmful size fraction for pulmonary particle exposure. During nanoparticle synthesis, the number concentrations in the process room may exceed 10 × 106 cm−3. During such conditions, it is essential that the

  10. 42 CFR 84.171 - Non-powered air-purifying particulate respirators; required components. (United States)


    ... HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY..., mouthpiece with noseclip, hood, or helmet; (2) Filter unit; (3) Harness; (4) Attached blower; and (5... minimum construction requirements set forth in subpart G of this part. ...

  11. Quasi-Static Behavior of Palm-Based Elastomeric Polyurethane: For Strengthening Application of Structures under Impulsive Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Chandima Chathuranga Somarathna


    Full Text Available In recent years, attention has been focused on elastomeric polymers as a potential retrofitting material considering their capability in contributing towards the impact resistance of various structural elements. A comprehensive understanding of the behavior and the morphology of this material are essential to propose an effective and feasible alternative to existing structural strengthening and retrofitting materials. This article presents the findings obtained from a series of experimental investigations to characterize the physical, mechanical, chemical and thermal behavior of eight types of palm-based polyurethane (PU elastomers, which were synthesized from the reaction between palm kernel oil-based monoester polyol (PKO-p and 4,4-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI with polyethylene glycol (PEG as the plasticizer via pre-polymerization. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy analysis was conducted to examine the functional groups in PU systems. Mechanical and physical behavior was studied with focus on elongation, stresses, modulus, energy absorption and dissipation, and load dispersion capacities by conducting hardness, tensile, flexural, Izod impact, and differential scanning calorimetry tests. Experimental results suggest that the palm-based PU has positive effects as a strengthening and retrofitting material against dynamic impulsive loadings both in terms of energy absorption and dissipation, and load dispersion. In addition, among all PUs with different plasticizer contents, PU2 to PU8 (which contain 2% to 8% (w/w PEG with respect to PKO-p content show the best correlation with mechanical response under quasi-static conditions focusing on energy absorption and dissipation and load dispersion characteristics.

  12. Behavior of a New Elastomeric material used as polyolefinic geo membrane in waterproofing; Comportamiento de un nuevo material elastomerico utilizado como geomembrana poliolefinica en impermeabilizacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, M.; Aguilar, E.; Vara, T. A; Soriano, J.; Garcia, F.; Castillo, F.


    Two decades ago that Balsas de Tenerife (BALTEN) and the Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), in its experimental field of the south of the Tenerife Island have installed a series of materials to known their behaviour over time. These products among which was placed over a dozen years ago, on an elastomeric polyolefin. This work presents the performance of this synthetic geo membrane, focusing on the evolution in the time of the tensile properties static puncture, low temperature folding, dynamic impact, joint strength (shear and peeling test), optical microscopy of reflection nd scanning electron microscopy. (Author) 11 refs.

  13. A summary of laboratory testing performed to characterize and select an elastomeric O-ring material to be used in the redesigned solid rocket motors of the space transportation system (United States)

    Turner, J. E.


    An elastomeric O-ring material is used in the joints of the redesigned solid motors (RSRM's) of the National Space Transportation System (NSTS). The selection of the O-ring material used in the RSRM's was a very thorough process that included efforts by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Langley Research Center, and the Thiokol Corporation. One of the efforts performed at MSFC was an extensive in-house laboratory test regime to screen potential O-ring materials and ultimately to characterize the elastomeric material that was chosen to be used in the RSRM's. The laboratory tests performed at MSFC are summarized.

  14. Experimental characterization of elastomeric O-rings as reusable seals for mass spectrometric measurements: Application to in situ K-Ar dating on Mars (United States)

    Cho, Yuichiro; Kameda, Shingo; Okuno, Mamoru; Horiuchi, Misa; Shibasaki, Kazuo; Wagatsuma, Ryo; Aida, Yusuke; Miura, Yayoi N.; Yoshioka, Kazuo; Okazaki, Ryuji; Sugita, Seiji


    Mass spectrometry has been widely used in lander missions to characterize the volatiles in rocks and soils on planetary surfaces. A good vacuum seal is very important for introducing such solid samples to a vacuum chamber and ejecting them. However, multiple measurements require many metal gaskets, leading to extra weight and complexity for the instruments. In this study, we investigate the capability of three kinds of elastomeric O-rings (Viton, Nexus-SLT, and Nexus-FV) as vacuum seals for mass spectrometric measurements, particularly for in situ K-Ar dating on Mars. First, thermal cycle tests revealed that low-temperature-resistant O-rings can maintain pressure rocks. The measured amounts were rock with 5000 ppm K2O and an age of 4.2 Ga would yield. These results suggest that a Viton O-ring can maintain the Ar blank low under the Mars atmospheric pressure when temperatures are higher than -25 °C. A double O-ring seal using the low-temperature-resistant elastomers would be an alternative approach at lower temperatures. The elastomeric O-rings would be useful for constructing a small and light-weighted mass spectrometric instrument for in situ K-Ar dating on Mars.

  15. Caracterisation de l'effet du vieillissement en milieu aqueux sur les proprietes mecaniques de composites a matrice elastomere (United States)

    Favre, Audrey

    Rubber composites are widely used in several engineering fields, such as automotive, and more recently for inflatable dams and other innovative underwater applications. These rubber materials are composed by an elastomeric matrix while the reinforcing phase is a synthetic fabric. Since these components are expected to operate several years in water environment, their durability must be guaranteed. The use of rubber materials immersed in water is not new, in fact, these materials have been studied for almost one century. However, the knowledge on reinforced rubber composites immersed several years in water is still limited. In this work, investigations on reinforced rubbers were carried out in the framework of a research project in partnership with Alstom and Hydro-Quebec. The objective of this study was to identify rubber composites that could be used under water for long periods. Various rubber composites with ethylene-propylene-diene monomer (EPDM), silicone, EPDM/silicone and polychloroprene (Neoprene) matrices reinforced with E-glass fabric were studied. Thus, these materials were exposed to an accelerated ageing at 85 °C underwater for periods varying from 14 to 365 days. For comparison purposes, they were also immersed and aged one year at room temperature (21 °C). The impact of accelerated aging was estimated through three different characterization methods. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was first used to assess the quality of fiber-matrix interface. Then, water absorption tests were performed to quantify the rate of water absorption during immersion. Finally the evolution of the mechanical properties was followed by the determination of Young's modulus (E) and ultimate stress (sigmau) using a dedicated traction test. This analysis allowed to point out that the quality of the fiber-matrix interface was the main factor influencing the drop of the mechanical properties and their durability. Moreover, it was noticed that this interface could be improved

  16. Elastomeric Cathode Binder (United States)

    Yen, S. P. S.; Shen, D. S.; Somoano, R. B.


    Soluble copolymer binder mixed with cathode material and solvent forms flexible porous cathode used in lithium and Ni/Cd batteries. Cathodes prepared by this process have lower density due to expanding rubbery binder and greater flexibility than conventional cathodes. Fabrication procedure readily adaptable to scaled-up processes.

  17. Evaluation of the Performance of O-rings Made with Different Elastomeric Polymers in Simulated Geothermal Environments at 300°C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, Toshifumi [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pyatina, Tatiana [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Redline, Erica Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); McElhanon, James R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blankenship, Douglas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    This paper aims to evaluate the survival of O-rings made with six different elastomeric polymers, EPDM, type I- and II-FKM, FEPM, FFKM, and FSR, in five different simulated geothermal environments at 300°C. It further defines the relative strengths and weaknesses of the materials in each environment. The environments tested were: 1) non-aerated steam-cooling cycles, 2) aerated steam-cooling cycles, 3) water-based drilling fluid, 4) CO2-rich geo-brine fluid, and, 5) heat-cool water quenching cycles. Following exposure, the extent of oxidation, oxidationinduced degradation, thermal behaviors, micro-defects, permeation depths of ionic species present in environments throughout the O-ring, silicate-related scale-deposition, and changes in mechanical properties were assessed.

  18. Growth factor release from a chemically modified elastomeric poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) thin film promotes angiogenesis in vivo. (United States)

    Sharma, Arun K; Bury, Matthew I; Fuller, Natalie J; Rozkiewicz, Dorota I; Hota, Partha V; Kollhoff, David M; Webber, Matthew J; Tapaskar, Natalie; Meisner, Jay W; Lariviere, Patrick J; Destefano, Samantha; Wang, Deli; Ameer, Guillermo A; Cheng, Earl Y


    The ultimate success of in vivo organ formation utilizing ex vivo expanded "starter" tissues relies heavily upon the level of vascularization provided by either endogenous or artificial induction of angiogenic or vasculogenic events. To facilitate proangiogenic outcomes and promote tissue growth, an elastomeric scaffold previously shown to be instrumental in the urinary bladder regenerative process was modified to release proangiogenic growth factors. Carboxylic acid groups on poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citrate) films (POCfs) were modified with heparan sulfate creating a heparan binding POCf (HBPOCf). Release of proangiogenic growth factors vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) from HBPOCfs demonstrated an approximate threefold increase over controls during a 30-day time course in vitro. Atomic force microscopy demonstrated significant topological differences between films. Subcutaneous implantation of POCf alone, HBPOCf, POCf-VEGF, and HBPOCf-VEGF within the dorsa of nude rats yielded increased vascular growth in HBPOCf-VEGF constructs. Vessel quantification studies revealed that POCfs alone contained 41.1 ± 4.1 vessels/mm², while HBPOCf, POCf-VEGF, and HBPOCF-VEGF contained 41.7 ± 2.6, 76.3 ± 9.4, and 167.72 ± 15.3 vessels/mm², respectively. Presence of increased vessel growth was demonstrated by CD31 and vWF immunostaining in HBPOCf-VEGF implanted areas. Data demonstrate that elastomeric POCfs can be chemically modified and possess the ability to promote angiogenesis in vivo. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [In vitro study of the flow duration of antibiotics solutions prepared in elastomeric infusion devices: effect of cold storage for 3 to 7days]. (United States)

    Grangeon-Chapon, C; Robein-Dobremez, M-J; Pin, I; Trouiller, P; Allenet, B; Foroni, L


    Within the cystic fibrosis patients' home care, EMERAA network ("Together against Cystic fibrosis in Rhone-Alpes and Auvergne") organizes parenteral antibiotics cures at home prepared in elastomeric infusion devices by hospital pharmacies. However, patients and nurses found that the durations of infusion with these devices were often longer than the nominal duration of infusion indicated by their manufacturer. This study aimed to identify the potential different causes in relation to these discordances. Three hundred and ninety devices of two different manufacturers are tested in different experimental conditions: three antibiotics each at two different doses, duration of cold storage (three days or seven days) or immediate tests without cold storage, preparation and storage of the solution in the device (protocol Device) or transfer in the device just before measurement (protocol Pocket). All tests highlighted a longer flow duration for devices prepared according to the protocol Device versus the protocol Pocket (P=0.004). Flow duration is increased in the case of high doses of antibiotics with high viscosity such as piperacilline/tazobactam. The results of this in vitro study showed the impact of: (1) the time between the filling of the device and the flow of the solution; (2) cold storage of elastomeric infusion devices; (3) concentration of antibiotics and therefore the viscosity of the solution to infuse. It is therefore essential that health care teams are aware of factors, which may lead to longer infusion durations with these infusion devices. When the additional time for infusion remain acceptable, it should be necessary to inform the patient and to relativize these lengthening compared to many benefits that these devices provide for home care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Spontaneous Enhancement of Packing Regularity of Spherical Microdomains in the Body-Centered Cubic Lattice upon Uniaxial Stretching of Elastomeric Triblock Copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichi Sakurai


    Full Text Available Block copolymers forming glassy spheres in the matrix of rubbery chains can exhibit elastomeric properties. It is well known that the spherical microdomains are arranged in the body-center cubic (bcc lattice. However, recently, we have found packing in the face-centered cubic (fcc lattice, which is easily transformed into the bcc lattice upon uniaxial stretching. In the same time, the packing regularity of the spheres in the bcc lattice was found to be enhanced for samples completely recovered from the stretched state. This reminds us that a cycle of stretching-and-releasing plays an important role from analogy of densification of the packing in granules upon shaking. In the current paper, we quantify the enhancement of packing regularity of spherical microdomains in the bcc lattice upon uniaxial stretching of the same elastomeric triblock copolymer as used in our previous work by conducting small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS measurements using high brilliant synchrotron radiation. Isotropically circular rings of the lattice peaks observed for the unstretched sample turned into deformed ellipsoidal rings upon the uniaxial stretching, with sharpening of the peaks in the direction parallel to the stretching direction and almost disappearing of the peaks in the perpendicular direction. By quantitatively analyzing the SAXS results, it was found that the packing regularity of the spherical microdomains was enhanced in the parallel direction while it was spoiled in the perpendicular direction under the stretched state. The enhanced regularity of packing was unchanged even if the stretching load was completely removed.

  1. Percentual de degradação das forças liberadas por ligaduras elásticas Force decay rate of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanoela Volles de Souza


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar ligaduras elásticas da marca Morelli, dos tipos modular e bengala, nas cores cinza e cristal para determinação do percentual de degradação das forças geradas pelas mesmas. METODOLOGIA: as ligaduras elásticas foram estiradas em estiletes de aço inoxidável com diâmetro de 4mm, imersas em solução de saliva artificial a 37ºC, sendo a intensidade das forças liberadas medidas nos tempos de zero hora, 24 horas, 1 semana, 2 semanas, 3 semanas e 4 semanas, em máquina de ensaios de tração. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: as ligaduras do tipo bengala liberaram, em média e no período de 4 semanas, maior intensidade de força que as do tipo modular. O percentual de degradação das forças liberadas por todas as ligaduras aumentou de forma acentuada entre zero e 24 horas e de forma gradativa após este período, com exceção do 28º dia quando, provavelmente, houve perda das propriedades elásticas das ligaduras. Não foi observado um comportamento constante das ligaduras bengala e modular em relação às cores cinza e cristal.PURPOSE: to evaluate gray and clear module and cane-loaded elastomeric ligatures of the brand Morelli to determine the percentage of decay of the forces they deliver. METHODS: the elastomeric ligatures were stretched over 4mm diameter stainless steel dowels and placed in synthetic saliva bath at 37ºC. The intensity of the forces delivered were taken at start, after 24 hours, one week, two weeks, three weeks and four weeks at a tensile test machine. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: the cane-loaded ligatures delivered, in a period of 4 weeks, in average, greater force intensity than the modules. The percentage of force decay of all ligatures increased rapidly between zero and 24 hours and gradually after that period, except for the 28th day, when probably there was a loss of elastic properties of the ligatures. The researchers did not note any constant behavior in the cane-loaded and module ligatures in relation

  2. Highly Sensitive, Flexible, and Wearable Pressure Sensor Based on a Giant Piezocapacitive Effect of Three-Dimensional Microporous Elastomeric Dielectric Layer. (United States)

    Kwon, Donguk; Lee, Tae-Ik; Shim, Jongmin; Ryu, Seunghwa; Kim, Min Seong; Kim, Seunghwan; Kim, Taek-Soo; Park, Inkyu


    We report a flexible and wearable pressure sensor based on the giant piezocapacitive effect of a three-dimensional (3-D) microporous dielectric elastomer, which is capable of highly sensitive and stable pressure sensing over a large tactile pressure range. Due to the presence of micropores within the elastomeric dielectric layer, our piezocapacitive pressure sensor is highly deformable by even very small amounts of pressure, leading to a dramatic increase in its sensitivity. Moreover, the gradual closure of micropores under compression increases the effective dielectric constant, thereby further enhancing the sensitivity of the sensor. The 3-D microporous dielectric layer with serially stacked springs of elastomer bridges can cover a much wider pressure range than those of previously reported micro-/nanostructured sensing materials. We also investigate the applicability of our sensor to wearable pressure-sensing devices as an electronic pressure-sensing skin in robotic fingers as well as a bandage-type pressure-sensing device for pulse monitoring at the human wrist. Finally, we demonstrate a pressure sensor array pad for the recognition of spatially distributed pressure information on a plane. Our sensor, with its excellent pressure-sensing performance, marks the realization of a true tactile pressure sensor presenting highly sensitive responses to the entire tactile pressure range, from ultralow-force detection to high weights generated by human activity.

  3. Cytotoxic Evaluation of Elastomeric Dental Impression Materials on a Permanent Mouse Cell Line and on a Primary Human Gingival Fibroblast Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Tiozzo


    Full Text Available The need for clinically relevant in vitro tests of dental materials is widely recognized. Nearly all dental impression materials are introduced into the mouth just after mixing and allowed to set in contact with the oral tissues. Under these conditions, the materials may be toxic to cells or may sensitize the tissues. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the potential cytotoxicity of new preparations of elastomeric dental impression materials: A four vinylpolysiloxanes: Elite H-D Putty and Elite H-D Light Body (Zhermack, Badia Polesine, Rovigo, Italy; Express Putty and Express Light Body (3M ESPE AG Seefeld, Germany and B two polyethers: Impregum Penta and Permadyne Penta L (3M ESPE AG Seefeld, Germany. The cytotoxicity of these impression materials were examined using two different cell lines: Balb/c 3T3 (permanent cell line and human gingival fibroblasts (primary cell line and their effects were studied by indirect and direct tests. The direct tests are performed by placing one sample of the impression materials in the centre of the Petri dishes at the time of the seeding of cells. The cell growth was evaluated at the 12th and 24th hours by cell number. The indirect tests were performed by incubating a square of 1 cm diameter impression material in 5 mL of medium at 37 °C for 24 hours (“eluates”. Subconfluent cultures are incubated with “eluates” for 24 hours. The MTT-formazan production is the method used for measuring the cell viability. The results indicate that: a polyether materials are cytotoxic under both experimental conditions; b among vinylpolysiloxanes, only Express Light Body (3M ESPE AG Seefeld, Germany induces clear inhibition of cellular viability of Balb/c 3T3 evaluated by direct and indirect tests and c the primary cell line is less sensitive to the toxic effect than the permanent cell line.

  4. 78 FR 54432 - Development of Inward Leakage Standards for Half-Mask Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators (United States)


    .... Registration is required for both in-person and video conferencing participation. Because this meeting is being... video conferencing participation. Information regarding participation via the video conferencing will be... NIOSH bivariate panel for certification testing of all classes of respirators? 2. Should NIOSH develop a...

  5. Advantages for passengers and cabin crew of operating a Gas-Phase Adsorption air purifier in 11-h simulated flights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Zukowska, Daria; Fang, Lei


    Experiments were carried out in a 3-row, 21-seat section of a simulated aircraft cabin installed in a climate chamber to evaluate the extent to which passengers’ perception of cabin air quality is affected by the operation of a Gas-Phase Adsorption (GPA) purification unit. A total of 68 subjects...

  6. Elastomeric Materials for Acoustical Applications (United States)


    COMPONENT PUR Smoked Sheet i00.0 100 100 Huber N-560 40.0 6 65 Protox 166 5.3 5.0 5.0 Circo LP Oil 3.0 3.0 3.0 Octamine 2.0 2.0 2.0 Sulfur 1.5 1.5 1.5 Altax...Thermax N-990 20 Protox 166 5.5 Circo LP Oil 18.0 Octamine 2.0 Sulfur 1.5 Altax i.0 Stearic Acid 1.0 Unads 0.3 Total parts by weight = 150.3 STATIC

  7. Development of Elastomeric Polypeptide Biomaterials (United States)


    lysyl oxidase could result in biomaterials with physical properties similar to elastin. Here we report the synthesis of the two polymers [XL-I-(VPGVG... lysyl oxidase treatment; study the various intermediate oxidation products and also the formation of final desmosine and isodesmosine structures; 5 420 ’ 1 3.37 0 4 a 12 1- 0 - 2.56 2.29 / .2. 02 "l.O 0 1 2 3 A lenglh (mm) Fig. 12- Effect ofa xanthine oxidase superoxide generating system on

  8. The use of dynamic elastomeric fabric orthosis suits as an orthotic intervention in the management of children with neuropathic onset scoliosis: A retrospective audit of routine clinical case notes. (United States)

    Matthews, Martin; Blandford, Suzanne; Marsden, Jonathan; Freeman, Jennifer


    To date the main treatment approach for neuropathic onset scoliosis has utilised thoracic lumbar sacral orthoses (TLSO) to stabilize the spine and enable stable sitting. Dynamic elastomeric fabric orthoses (DEFOs) may achieve both of these aims if used as an early intervention. Due to a lack of evidence in this area, a retrospective audit of case notes was undertaken to understand current orthotic practice investigating the usage, outcomes and clinical characteristics of treated children with neuropathic onset scoliosis. Clinical notes of 180 children at risk for, or identified with, scoliosis were audited using a search matrix to identify diagnostic group, spinal muscle tone, Gross Motor Functional Classification Scale (GMFCS) level, orthotic treatment modalities, scoliosis specific data, surgical interventions, adaptive technologies used, and outcome measurements reported. Of the 180 notes examined, 85 were male; mean age nine years one month [SD four years seven months]. Spinal muscle tone was reported in 137 cases: 122/137 presented as low tone, 4/137 high tone, 6/137 fluctuating tone and 5/137 typical tone. Scoliosis was confirmed in (77/180) of whom (39/77) used a DEFO. Another (43/180) had a spinal curve developing, of whom (22/43) used a DEFO. The remaining (60/180) had no report of spinal curvature, but used a DEFO as a preventative measure. GMFCS scores were reported for 49 children of whom 14/49 were graded as level 4 and 17/49 level 5. Of the children with scoliosis who had spinal curve shapes reported, 48/60 had a C-shape presentation and 12/60 had an S-shape. The findings confirm previously reported papers in children with neuropathic onset scoliosis in relation to curve shape and GMFCS levels. It provides some evidence of the role DEFOs may have in the management of these children, and highlights the need for further research in this area due to the lack of peer-reviewed publications.

  9. Domestic Preparedness: Phase 2 Sarin Vapor Challenge and Corn Oil Protection Factor (PF) Testing of Commercial Powered Air Purifying Respirator (PAPR) Systems and Cartridges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Lee E; Lins, Ray; Pappas, Alex G


    .... Results indicate that cartridges provide complete penetration resistance against 200 mg/m3 GB challenge concentrations for 60 minutes, but that unacceptably high levels of GB vapor and corn oil...

  10. Domestic Preparedness Program: Sarin Vapor Challenge and Corn Oil Protection Factor (PF) Testing of Commercial Air-Purifying Negative Pressure Respirators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Campbell, Lee


    ...) corn-oil protection factor determinations of NPR systems using human subjects. Results indicate that cartridges provide adequate resistance to GB breakthrough against high-concentration challenges...

  11. Magnetoactive elastomeric composites: Cure, tensile, electrical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the ASTM D 412 standard. For measuring the magnetic impedance an indigenous experimental set up was used. The samples were kept between the poles of two d.c. magnets, which can generate the d.c. magnetic field up to. 5 KOe. Electrical conductivity measurements were carried out using LCR Meter in the frequency ...

  12. System to Repair Deformations in Elastomeric Hoses (United States)


    steps such as providing an elongated container filled with a heated immersion liquid. Other steps may include unraveling a hose from a stored ...or oil . Liquid 24, preferably water, is preheated to the higher range of treatment temperatures to allow for some cooling caused to the insertion...compressed gas tank . Gas can be air or some other gas that is also substantially inert with respect to hose 12 material. Movable carts 18 can be

  13. Magnetoactive elastomeric composites: Cure, tensile, electrical and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cure characteristics, mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties were experimentally determined for different volume fractions of magnetoactive filler. The cure time decreases sharply for initial filler loading and the decrease is marginal for additional loading of filler. The tensile strength and modulus at 100% strain was ...

  14. Propriedades reométricas e mecânicas e morfologia de compósitos desenvolvidos com resíduos elastoméricos vulcanizados Cure characteristics, mechanical properties and morphology of composites developed with addition of elastomeric vulcanized ground scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Zanchet


    Full Text Available Uma alternativa para as empresas geradoras de resíduos elastoméricos é a incorporação dos mesmos em suas formulações. Esse trabalho tem como objetivo preparar compósitos a partir da incorporação de resíduos industriais de SBR (copolímero de butadieno-estireno e de EPDM (terpolímero de etileno-propileno-dieno, em formulação ASTM específica para cada tipo de elastômero. Foram avaliadas as propriedades reométricas, mecânicas e morfológicas dos compósitos desenvolvidos. A incorporação do resíduo permitiu a obtenção de produtos que vulcanizam em menores tempos quando comparados a composições sem resíduo. A quantidade de resíduo, para o melhor resultado de resistência à tração foi de 37 e de 196 phr para os compósitos com SBR e EPDM, respectivamente. As micrografias de MEV corroboraram os resultados mecânicos dessas composições, indicando melhor homogeneidade do resíduo na respectiva matriz elastomérica.One alternative for elastomeric scraps generation is its incorporation in conventional formulations in the industry itself. In this work, compositions with incorporation of SBR (styrene butadiene rubber and EPDM (ethylene propylene diene rubber industrial scraps, in specific ASTM formulation for each elastomer, were prepared. Rheometric characteristics, mechanical properties and the morphology of the compounds developed were evaluated. With the ground scraps incorporation the vulcanization time decreases, comparing with compounds without ground scraps. The amount of scraps for the best tensile strength properties was 37 and 196 phr for SBR and EPDM compositions, respectively. Micrographs corroborated the mechanical results, indicating the best homogeneity of the scraps in the elastomeric matrix for these compositions.

  15. Analysis of Liquid Propellant Exposed to Elastomeric Materials (United States)


    0.25 molarity. Sample sizes were approximately 0.30 grams. Fifty mL of distilled water and 2 mL of acetone were added to each sample. The acetone reacts...with HAN to form an oxime and nitric acid and is then titrated with base. Two end points are obtained, one for nitric acid and the other for TEAN. At

  16. New elastomeric silicone based networks applicable as electroactive systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Boll, Mads; Lotz, Mikkel Rønne


    . In this study we focus on optimization of the mechanical properties of the elastomer and show that it is possible to lower the elastic modulus and still not compromise the other required mechanical properties such as fast response, stability, low degree of viscous dissipation and high extensibility....... The elastomers are prepared from a vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) and a 4-functional crosslinker by a platinum-catalyzed hydrosilylation reaction between the two reactants. Traditionally, elastomers based on hydrosilylation are prepared via a ‘one-step two-pot’ procedure (with a mix A and a mix B...

  17. Encoding Gaussian curvature in glassy and elastomeric liquid crystal solids (United States)

    Mostajeran, Cyrus; Warner, Mark; Ware, Taylor H.; White, Timothy J.


    We describe shape transitions of thin, solid nematic sheets with smooth, preprogrammed, in-plane director fields patterned across the surface causing spatially inhomogeneous local deformations. A metric description of the local deformations is used to study the intrinsic geometry of the resulting surfaces upon exposure to stimuli such as light and heat. We highlight specific patterns that encode constant Gaussian curvature of prescribed sign and magnitude. We present the first experimental results for such programmed solids, and they qualitatively support theory for both positive and negative Gaussian curvature morphing from flat sheets on stimulation by light or heat. We review logarithmic spiral patterns that generate cone/anti-cone surfaces, and introduce spiral director fields that encode non-localized positive and negative Gaussian curvature on punctured discs, including spherical caps and spherical spindles. Conditions are derived where these cap-like, photomechanically responsive regions can be anchored in inert substrates by designing solutions that ensure compatibility with the geometric constraints imposed by the surrounding media. This integration of such materials is a precondition for their exploitation in new devices. Finally, we consider the radial extension of such director fields to larger sheets using nematic textures defined on annular domains.

  18. Dynamic Behavior of a Friction Pendulum with Elastomeric Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert-Rainer Gillich


    Full Text Available Transient dynamic characteristics of a friction pendulum can be determined using experimental ways. Nowadays, numerical simulation techniques allow obtaining these characteristics using mathematical models. The express advantage is represented by almost unlimited possibilities to extract and quantified in the regime of "post processing" regarding the results. In terms of efficiency this means increased performance regarding the research and product development.

  19. Differential accuracy of elastomeric recording materials and associated weight change. (United States)

    Millstein, P L; Hsu, C C


    Six interocclusal recording materials: COE Bite Creme, Blu-Mousse, Correct Bite, Blue Velvet, Memosil C.D. and Ramitec brands, were studied for evaluation of their dimensional stability and associated weight change. The materials were divided into six groups of 10 samples and tested between metal dental casts on the hydroptic test and measurement system. Dimensional changes among the materials were not significantly different. Weight changes among materials were significantly different but did not exceed 0.1%. All 6 brands were highly accurate and dimensionally stable.

  20. New Soft Polymeric Materials Applicable as Elastomeric Transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    . Dielectric elastomers (DEs) are part of electronic EAPs presenting a good combination of electromechanical properties such as high achievable strains and stresses, fast response speeds, long lifetime, high reliability and high efficiency1. Subjected to a voltage, a polymeric electroactive material sandwiched...... springs. The viscoelastic behavior as function of the applied frequency (LVE diagram) is shown for different hyperswollen networks with varying stoichiometric imbalance (r). The results are compared with results of similar un-swollen networks. The hyperswollen networks are significantly softer and still...

  1. Multiaxiale, thermomechanische Charakterisierung und Modellierung poröser Elastomere


    Seibert, Henning


    Die vorliegende Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der mechanischen Charakterisierung eines EPDM-Moosgummiwerkstoffs (EPDM - Ethylen-Propylen-Dien-Kautschuk), der vornehmlich im Bereich der Dichtungstechnik Anwendung findet. Die speziellen Anforderungen, die sich aus dieser hauptsächlichen Nutzungsart ergeben, werden dabei im Rahmen der experimentellen und theoretischen Untersuchungen in besonderem Maße berücksichtigt. Dazu zählen sowohl ratenabhängige und -unabhängige Experimente zur Ermittlung des...

  2. Use of acrylic sheet molds for elastomeric products (United States)

    Heisman, R. M.; Koerner, A. E.; Messineo, S. M.


    Molds constructed of acrylic sheet are more easily machined than metal, are transparent to ensure complete filling during injection, and have smooth surfaces free of contamination. Technique eliminates flashing on molded parts and mold release agents.

  3. Permeation of "Hydromer" Film: An Elastomeric Hydrogen-Capturing Biopolymer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnesky, Richard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Friddle, Raymond William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Whaley, Josh A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Smith, Geoffrey [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)


    This report analyzes the permeation resistance of a novel and proprietary polymer coating for hydrogen isotope resistance that was developed by New Mexico State University. Thermal gravimetric analysis and thermal desoprtion spectroscopy show the polymer is stable thermally to approximately 250 deg C. Deuterium gas-driven permeation experiments were conducted at Sandia to explore early evidence (obtained using Brunauer - Emmett - Teller) of the polymer's strong resistance to hydrogen. With a relatively small amount of the polymer in solution (0.15%), a decrease in diffusion by a factor of 2 is observed at 100 and 150 deg C. While there was very little reduction in permeability, the preliminary findings reported here are meant to demonstrate the sensitivity of Sandia's permeation measurements and are intended to motivate the future exploration of thicker barriers with greater polymer coverage.

  4. Novel Elastomeric Membranes Developed for Polymer Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries (United States)

    Tigelaar, Dean M.; Meador, Maryann B.; Kinder, James D.; Bennett, William R.


    Lithium-based polymer batteries for aerospace applications need to be highly conductive from -70 to 70 C. State-of-the-art polymer electrolytes are based on polyethylene oxide (PEO) because of the ability of its ether linkages to solvate lithium ions. Unfortunately, PEO has a tendency to form crystalline regions below 60 C, dramatically lowering conductivity below this temperature. PEO has acceptable ionic conductivities (10(exp -4) to 10(exp -3) S/cm) above 60 C, but it is not mechanically strong. The room-temperature conductivity of PEO can be increased by adding solvent or plasticizers, but this comes at the expense of thermal and mechanical stability. One of NASA Glenn Research Center s objectives in the Polymer Rechargeable System program (PERS) is to develop novel polymer electrolytes that are highly conductive at and below room temperature without added solvents or plasticizers.

  5. New injectable elastomeric biomaterials for hernia repair and their biocompatibility. (United States)

    Skrobot, J; Zair, L; Ostrowski, M; El Fray, M


    Complications associated with implantation of polymeric hernia meshes remain a difficult surgical challenge. We report here on our work, developing for the first time, an injectable viscous material that can be converted to a solid and elastic implant in vivo, thus successfully closing herniated tissue. In this study, long-chain fatty acids were used for the preparation of telechelic macromonomers end-capped with methacrylic functionalities to provide UV curable systems possessing high biocompatibility, good mechanical strength and flexibility. Two different systems, comprising urethane and ester bonds, were synthesized from non-toxic raw materials and then subjected to UV curing after injection of viscous material into the cavity at the abdominal wall during hernioplasty in a rabbit hernia model. No additional fixation or sutures were required. The control group of animals was treated with commercially available polypropylene hernia mesh. The observation period lasted for 28 days. We show here that artificially fabricated defect was healed and no reherniation was observed in the case of the fatty acid derived materials. Importantly, the number of inflammatory cells found in the surrounding tissue was comparable to these found around the standard polypropylene mesh. No inflammatory cells were detected in connective tissues and no sign of necrosis has been observed. Collectively, our results demonstrated that new injectable and photocurable systems can be used for minimally invasive surgical protocols in repair of small hernia defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Fracture mechanics and statistical mechanics of reinforced elastomeric blends

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Gert; Kaliske, Michael; Klüppel, Manfred; Schneider, Konrad; Vilgis, Thomas


    Elastomers are found in many applications ranging from technology to daily life applications for example in tires, drive systems, sealings and print rollers. Dynamical operation conditions put extremely high demands on the performance and stability of these materials and their elastic and flow properties can be easily adjusted by simple manipulations on their elastic and viscous properties. However, the required service life suffers often from material damage as a result of wear processes such as abrasion and wear fatigue, mostly caused by crack formation and propagation. This book covers interdisciplinary research between physics, physical chemistry, material sciences and engineering of elastomers within the range from nanometres to millimetres and connects these aspects with the constitutive material properties. The different chapters describe reliable lifetime and durability predictions based on new fracture mechanical testing concepts and advanced material-theoretical methods which are finally implemented...

  7. Photoresist Design for Elastomeric Light Tunable Photonic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Nocentini


    Full Text Available An increasing interest in tunable photonic structures is growing within the photonic community. The usage of Liquid Crystalline Elastomer (LCE structures in the micro-scale has been motivated by the potential to remotely control their properties. In order to design elastic photonic structures with a three-dimensional lithographic technique, an analysis of the different mixtures used in the micro-printing process is required. Previously reported LCE microstructures suffer damage and strong swelling as a limiting factor of resolution. In this article, we reported a detailed study on the writing process with four liquid crystalline photoresists, in which the percentage of crosslinker is gradually increased. The experiments reveal that exploiting the crosslinking degree is a possible means in which to obtain suspended lines with good resolution, quite good rigidity, and good elasticity, thereby preserving the possibility of deformation by light irradiation.

  8. Development and evaluation of elastomeric materials for geothermal applications (United States)

    Mueller, W. A.; Kalfayan, S. H.; Reilly, W. W.; Ingham, J. D.


    A material for a casing packer for service for 24 hours in a geothermal environment was developed by synthesis of new elastomers and formulation of available materials. Formulation included use of commercial elastomer gumstocks and also crosslinking of plastic (high Tg) materials. Fibrous reinforcement of fluorocarbon rubbers was emphasized. Organic fiber reinforcement did not increase hot properties significantly. Glass fiber reinforcement gave significant increase in tensile properties. Elongation was reduced, and the glass-reinforced composition examined so far did not hold up well in the geothermal environment. Colloidal asbestos fibers were also investigated. A few experiments with polyphenyl ether gave material with low tensile and high compression set. Available high styrene SBR compositions were studied. Work to date suggests that new synthetic polymers will be required for service in geothermal environments.

  9. Stiffness and damping of elastomeric O-ring bearing mounts (United States)

    Smalley, A. J.


    A test rig to measure the dynamic stiffness and damping of elastomer O rings was described. Test results for stiffness and loss coefficient in the frequency range from 50 Hz to 1000 Hz are presented. Results are given for three different materials, for five temperatures, for three amplitudes, for five values of squeeze for three values of stretch for three values of cross-section diameter and for three values of groove width. All test data points were plotted. In addition, trend summary plots were presented which compare the effect of material, temperature, amplitude, squeeze, stretch, cross-section diameter, and groove width. O ring deflections under a static load for different material were presented; and effective static stiffness values were compared with dynamic values.

  10. Viscoelastic properties of elastomeric materials for O-ring applications (United States)

    Bower, Mark V.


    Redesign of the Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster necessitated re-evaluation of the material used in the field joint O-ring seals. This research project was established to determine the viscoelastic characteristics of five candidate materials. The five materials are: two fluorocarbon compounds, two nitrile compounds, and a silicon compound. The materials were tested in a uniaxial compression test to determine the characteristic relaxation functions. These tests were performed at five different temperatures. A master material curve was developed for each material from the experimental data. The results of this study are compared to tensile relaxation tests. Application of these results to the design analysis is discussed in detail.

  11. Studies of new perfluoroether elastomeric sealants. [for aircraft fuel tanks (United States)

    Basiulis, D. I.; Salisbury, D. P.


    Channel and filleting sealants were developed successfully from cyano and diamidoxime terminated perfluoro alkylene ether prepolymers. The prepolymers were polymerized, formulated and tested. The polymers and/or formulations therefrom were evaluated as to their physical, mechanical and chemical properties (i.e., specific gravity, hardness, nonvolatile content, corrosion resistance, stress corrosion, pressure rupture resistance, low temperature flexibility, gap sealing efficiency, tensile strength and elongation, dynamic mechanical behavior, compression set, fuel resistance, thermal properties and processability). Other applications of the formulated polymrs and incorporation of the basic prepolymers into other polymeric systems were investigated. A cyano terminated perfluoro alkylene oxide triazine was formulated and partially evaluated. The channel sealant in its present formulation has excellent pressure rupture resistance and surpasses present MIL specifications before and after fuel and heat aging.

  12. Geometric characterization and simulation of planar layered elastomeric fibrous biomaterials. (United States)

    Carleton, James B; D'Amore, Antonio; Feaver, Kristen R; Rodin, Gregory J; Sacks, Michael S


    Many important biomaterials are composed of multiple layers of networked fibers. While there is a growing interest in modeling and simulation of the mechanical response of these biomaterials, a theoretical foundation for such simulations has yet to be firmly established. Moreover, correctly identifying and matching key geometric features is a critically important first step for performing reliable mechanical simulations. The present work addresses these issues in two ways. First, using methods of geometric probability, we develop theoretical estimates for the mean linear and areal fiber intersection densities for 2-D fibrous networks. These densities are expressed in terms of the fiber density and the orientation distribution function, both of which are relatively easy-to-measure properties. Secondly, we develop a random walk algorithm for geometric simulation of 2-D fibrous networks which can accurately reproduce the prescribed fiber density and orientation distribution function. Furthermore, the linear and areal fiber intersection densities obtained with the algorithm are in agreement with the theoretical estimates. Both theoretical and computational results are compared with those obtained by post-processing of scanning electron microscope images of actual scaffolds. These comparisons reveal difficulties inherent to resolving fine details of multilayered fibrous networks. The methods provided herein can provide a rational means to define and generate key geometric features from experimentally measured or prescribed scaffold structural data. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Efeito da amarração em Ortodontia, com ligaduras elastoméricas e de aço inoxidável, na saúde periodontal Effects of orthodontic ligation-using elastomeric and stainless steel ligatures-on periodontal health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clotilde Freitas Rodrigues


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: o presente estudo avaliou clinicamente as condições periodontais de um grupo teste e um grupo controle utilizando-se os seguintes três sistemas de indexação periodontal: índice de biofilme, índice de sangramento e profundidade de sondagem. MÉTODOS: o grupo teste foi composto por 20 indivíduos com média etária de 13,5 anos, submetido ao tratamento ortodôntico fixo, que recebeu duas formas de ligaduras: a elastomérica e a de aço inoxidável. Os resultados foram comparados entre si e com um grupo controle, sem tratamento ortodôntico, composto de 15 indivíduos com média etária de 15,3 anos. As mensurações foram realizadas previamente ao tratamento ortodôntico (T1 e seis meses após a colocação do aparelho ortodôntico fixo (T2; e, no grupo controle, após seis meses da mensuração inicial (T2. Ambos os grupos foram orientados quanto à higiene bucal, segundo a técnica de Bass, antes do início do tratamento. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os resultados das análises das faces dentárias demonstraram um aumento estatisticamente significativo nos índices de biofilme (P=0,000, sangramento gengival (P=0,000 e profundidade de sondagem (P=0,000, quando T1 e T2 e os grupos foram comparados; entretanto, não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas entre as ligaduras elastoméricas e de aço inoxidável na avaliação desses índices periodontais.OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to conduct a clinical evaluation of the periodontal conditions of a test group and a control group using three periodontal indexing systems, namely: dental biofilm index (DBI, bleeding index (BI and pocket probing depth (PPD. METHODS: The test group consisted of 20 subjects with a mean age of 13.5 years undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment involving the use of two types of ligature: elastomeric ligature (EL and stainless steel ligature (SSL. The results were compared with a control group without prior orthodontic treatment, comprising

  14. Protection of firefighters against combustion aerosol particles: simulated workplace protection factor of a half-mask respirator (pilot study). (United States)

    Dietrich, James; Yermakov, Michael; Reponen, Tiina; Kulkarni, Pramod; Qi, Chaolong; Grinshpun, Sergey A


    The present pilot study investigated the penetration of ultrafine particles originated by combustion of different materials into elastomeric half-mask respirators equipped with two P100 filters. We determined the Simulated Workplace Protection Factor (SWPF) for 11 firefighters wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators and performing activities simulating those conducted during fire overhaul operations. The tests were performed in a controlled laboratory setting. A newly-developed battery-operated Portable Aerosol Mobility Spectrometer (PAMS) was used to measure size-resolved aerosol particle concentrations outside (C(out)) and inside (Cin) of an air-purifying respirator donned on a firefighter, and the SWPF was calculated as C(out)/C(in). Based on the total aerosol concentration, the "total" SWPF ranged from 4,222 (minimum) to 35,534 (maximum) with values falling primarily in a range from 11,171 (25 percentile) to 26,604 (75 percentile) and a median value being ≈15,000. This is consistent with the recently reported fit factor (FF) data base.((1)) The size-resolved SWPF data revealed a dependency on the particle size. It was concluded that a portable device such as PAMS can be used on firefighters during overhaul operations (as well as on other workers wearing elastomeric half-mask respirators) to monitor the aerosol concentrations in real time and ultimately help prevent overexposure.

  15. Assessmentof seismic stability of buildings that have seismicprotection in the form of elastomeric isolators ОЦЕНКА СЕЙСМОСТОЙКОСТИ ЗДАНИЯ С СЕЙСМОЗАЩИТОЙ В ВИДЕ РЕЗИНОМЕТАЛЛИЧЕСКИХ ОПОР

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich


    Full Text Available Nowadays, various systems of seismic protection are applied to assure seismic protection of buildings and structures, located in earthquake areas. The greatest prevalence and popularity has been attained by the systems of active seismic protection.In this article, the authors study the efficiency of application of an active seismic protection system by taking high-damping rubber elastomeric isolators as an example. Calculations and their comparative analysis were made for a high-rise reinforced concrete building, and their exposure to the seismic impact was examined. Those calculations were made both with and without the application of the active seismic isolation system. Calculations were carried out by means of the linearly-spectral method using Lira software. Maximum relative horizontal moments arising on the top of the building and forces applied to the elements of walls and columns were compared. On the basis of the results of the calculations and their comparative analysis, the conclusion is drawn that elastomeric isolators may be efficiently applied as an active seismic protection system.Освещены вопросы применения различных систем активной сейсмозащиты, в т.ч. резинометаллические опоры (РМО, для защиты от землетрясений зданий и сооружений, расположенных в сейсмически опасных районах. Рассмотрен линейно-спектральный расчет железобетонного здания с применением системы активной сейсмоизоляции в виде РМО и без нее в программном комплексе «Лира». Произведен сравнительный анализ результатов расчета.

  16. Full Polymer Dielectric Elastomeric Actuators (DEA Functionalised with Carbon Nanotubes and High-K Ceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo Köckritz


    Full Text Available Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA are special devices which have a simple working and construction principle and outstanding actuation properties. The DEAs consist of a combination of different materials for the dielectric and electrode layers. The combination of these layers causes incompatibilities in their interconnections. Dramatic differences in the mechanical properties and bad adhesion of the layers are the principal causes for the reduction of the actuation displacement and strong reduction of lifetime. Common DEAs achieve actuation displacements of 2% and a durability of some million cycles. The following investigations represent a new approach to solving the problems of common systems. The investigated DEA consists of only one basic raw polymer, which was modified according to the required demands of each layer. The basic raw polymer was modified with single-walled carbon nanotubes or high-k ceramics, for example, lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate. The development of the full polymer DEA comprised the development of materials and technologies to realise a reproducible layer composition. It was proven that the full polymer actuator worked according to the theoretical rules. The investigated system achieved actuation displacements above 20% regarding thickness, outstanding interconnections at each layer without any failures, and durability above 3 million cycles without any indication of an impending malfunction.

  17. Elastomeric Polymer-by-Design for Blast-Induced Shock-Wave Management (United States)


    information not included elsewhere such as: prepared in cooperation with; translation of; report supersedes; old edition number, etc. 14. ABSTRACT. A...Presentation], Yesuk Song and Sia Nemat-Nasser, US Korea Conference on Science, Technology and Entrepreneurship , Park City, UTAH, Aug.11-12, (2011

  18. Concrete Masonry Unit Walls Retrofitted with Elastomeric Systems for Blast Loads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, C. F; Slawson, T. R; Cummins, T. K; Davis, J. L


    Concrete masonry units (CMU), commonly referred to as concrete blocks, are the most common construction material utilized throughout the United States and the world for exterior walls of conventional structures...

  19. Elastomeric phase masks and transfer stamps: fabrication methods for micro/nano optical systems (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Rogers, John A.


    Research over the last decade has led to the emergence of several powerful methods for micro/nanofabrication, with direct relevance to optics and optoelectronic systems. This talk summarizes some of our contributions to this field, through the development techniques that use (1) conformal phase masks for photodefining 3D structures with applications in photonic crystals, (2) rubber transfer stamps for integrating inorganic semiconductor materials on plastic substrates for solid state lighting, emissive displays and efficient photovoltaics, and (3) stretchable assembly platforms for controlled transformation of 2D precursor structures into well-defined, complex 3D architectures for optical MEMS. In each case, we review the basic operating principles and provide some examples of enabled applications in optics and optoelectronics.

  20. Resistance to disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of elastomeric dental impressions. (United States)

    Giammanco, Giovanni M; Melilli, Dario; Rallo, Antonio; Pecorella, Sonia; Mammina, Caterina; Pizzo, Giuseppe


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability to resist disinfection of a polymicrobial association contaminating the surface of dental impressions obtained with two different elastomers: a polyether (Impregum) and an addition-polymerized silicone (Elite). Impressions were contaminated with a mixture of three biofilm-forming microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans) and disinfected immediately after contamination, or after microbial layers were allowed to develop during a six-hour storage. Two commercial disinfectants were tested: MD 520 containing 0.5% glutaraldehyde and Sterigum Powder without glutaraldehyde. Residual contamination was recovered by mechanical rinsing immediately after disinfection and after a six-hour storage of disinfected impressions, and assessed by colony counting. Both disinfectants tested were shown to be effective in reducing the microbial presence on the impression materials, achieving at least a 102 reduction of microbial counts compared to water rinsing. However, Sterigum was generally less effective on the Elite elastomer and could not grant disinfection on six-hour aged P. aeruginosa and C. albicans microbial layers. The results of this study suggest that the materials used for the impressions influence the efficacy of disinfection. Disinfectants should be tested according to conditions encountered in everyday clinical practice and the need for immediate disinfection of impressions should be clearly indicated by manufacturers.

  1. Compression and shear properties of elastomeric bearing using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2Faculty of Science and Technology, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University, Muang, Chiang Mai, 50300 Thailand.


    Full Text Available Standard size samples of four natural rubber compounds, varying the amount of carbon black from 10 to 70 phr, were characterised under uniaxial compression and simple shear tests in order to obtain the strain energy function constants. These constants were then used as hyperelastic material constants for the Windows-based finite element package (COSMOS/M version 1.75. The investigated bearings, made with those NR compounds, had the approximate area and thickness of 50x106 mm2 and 50 mm respectively. Each compound of bearing consisted of four different values of shape factor ranging from about 0.33 to 1.70, according to the number of reinforcing plates in the bearing. Three deformation modes of compression, shear and compression-shear were predicted. Good agreement was found between twelve compression model predictions and the corresponding experimental values of bearings, containing 10, 20 and 40 phr of carbon black and each of which consisted of four different layers of reinforcing metal plates (0, 1, 2 and 3 layers. On the other hand, deviation from the predicted valve was clearly seen in the 70 phr black bearing case. The percentage difference increased with respect to the increasing number of reinforcing plates or the rising shape factor. Therefore, the improved FEA model was supplemented with an imaginary elastic glue layer between the rubber block and metal plate as glue failure compensation. The optimum value of the elastic layers modulus is 8 MPa while the thickness of the layer depends on the total thickness or total volume of rubber block. This model can predict the 70 phr carbon black bearings, having shape factor ranging from 0.5 to 2.35 for 11 cases. The FEA prediction of shear behaviour agrees well with the experimental data for all four bearing compounds and there is no effect of shape factor on shear stress. Moreover, shear stress does not depend on the compressive force applied to like bearing before shear and the FEA results agreed with the corresponding experimental results.

  2. Elastomeric networks based on trimethylene carbonate polymers for biomedical applications : physical properties and degradation behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bat, E.


    The number of applications for biomedical technologies is ever-increasing, and there is a need to develop new materials with properties that can conform to the requirements of a specific application. Synthetic polymers are of great importance in the biomedical field as they can be designed to

  3. Surface Coating of Gypsum-Based Molds for Maxillofacial Prosthetic Silicone Elastomeric Material: The Surface Topography. (United States)

    Khalaf, Salah; Ariffin, Zaihan; Husein, Adam; Reza, Fazal


    This study aimed to compare the surface roughness of maxillofacial silicone elastomers fabricated in noncoated and coated gypsum materials. This study was also conducted to characterize the silicone elastomer specimens after surfaces were modified. A gypsum mold was coated with clear acrylic spray. The coated mold was then used to produce modified silicone experimental specimens (n = 35). The surface roughness of the modified silicone elastomers was compared with that of the control specimens, which were prepared by conventional flasking methods (n = 35). An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used for surface roughness measurement of silicone elastomer (unmodified and modified), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the topographic conditions of coated and noncoated gypsum and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) groups. After the gypsum molds were characterized, the fabricated silicone elastomers molded on noncoated and coated gypsum materials were evaluated further. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis of gypsum materials (noncoated and coated) and silicone elastomer specimens (unmodified and modified) was performed to evaluate the elemental changes after coating was conducted. Independent t test was used to analyze the differences in the surface roughness of unmodified and modified silicone at a significance level of p silicone elastomers processed against coated gypsum materials (p silicone elastomers. Silicone elastomers with lower surface roughness of maxillofacial prostheses can be obtained simply by coating a gypsum mold. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  4. Effect of Compounding and Mixing Variables on the Physical Properties of Elastomeric Tank Pad Formulation. (United States)


    ram, and run the Banbury mixer for 1 min to break down the rubber. (2) Raise the ram and add all the -zinc oxide, stearic acid, antiozonants , and...through use of similar, more specific and exotic curing mechanisms. s. Alternate antioxidant/ antiozonant systems could be evaluated relative to their

  5. Designing Thin, Ultrastretchable Electronics with Stacked Circuits and Elastomeric Encapsulation Materials (United States)

    Xu, Renxiao; Lee, Jung Woo; Pan, Taisong; Ma, Siyi; Wang, Jiayi; Han, June Hyun; Ma, Yinji


    Many recently developed soft, skin-like electronics with high performance circuits and low modulus encapsulation materials can accommodate large bending, stretching, and twisting deformations. Their compliant mechanics also allows for intimate, nonintrusive integration to the curvilinear surfaces of soft biological tissues. By introducing a stacked circuit construct, the functional density of these systems can be greatly improved, yet their desirable mechanics may be compromised due to the increased overall thickness. To address this issue, the results presented here establish design guidelines for optimizing the deformable properties of stretchable electronics with stacked circuit layers. The effects of three contributing factors (i.e., the silicone inter-layer, the composite encapsulation, and the deformable interconnects) on the stretchability of a multilayer system are explored in detail via combined experimental observation, finite element modeling, and theoretical analysis. Finally, an electronic module with optimized design is demonstrated. This highly deformable system can be repetitively folded, twisted, or stretched without observable influences to its electrical functionality. The ultrasoft, thin nature of the module makes it suitable for conformal biointegration. PMID:29046624

  6. Molecular Based Temperature and Strain Rate Dependent Yield Criterion for Anisotropic Elastomeric Thin Films (United States)

    Bosi, F.; Pellegrino, S.


    A molecular formulation of the onset of plasticity is proposed to assess temperature and strain rate effects in anisotropic semi-crystalline rubbery films. The presented plane stress criterion is based on the strain rate-temperature superposition principle and the cooperative theory of yielding, where some parameters are assumed to be material constants, while others are considered to depend on specific modes of deformation. An orthotropic yield function is developed for a linear low density polyethylene thin film. Uniaxial and biaxial inflation experiments were carried out to determine the yield stress of the membrane via a strain recovery method. It is shown that the 3% offset method predicts the uniaxial elastoplastic transition with good accuracy. Both the tensile yield points along the two principal directions of the film and the biaxial yield stresses are found to obey the superposition principle. The proposed yield criterion is compared against experimental measurements, showing excellent agreement over a wide range of deformation rates and temperatures.

  7. Tuning of a cavity in a silicon photonic crystal by thermal expansion of an elastomeric infill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erdamar, A.K.; Van Leest, M.M.; Picken, S.J.; Caro, J.


    We use an elastomer as infill material for a photonic crystal. As a result of the thermal-expansion-induced strongly negative thermal optical coefficient, this material is highly suitable for thermal tuning of the transmission of a cavity. This is demonstrated by global infilling of a hole-type

  8. Smart structure with elastomeric contact surface for prosthetic fingertip sensitivity development (United States)

    Gu, Chunxin; Liu, Weiting; Yu, Ping; Cheng, Xiaoying; Fu, Xin


    Current flexible/compliant tactile sensors suffer from low sensitivity and high hysteresis introduced by the essential viscosity characteristic of soft material, either used as compliant sensing element or as flexible coverage. To overcome these disadvantages, this paper focuses on developing a tactile sensor with a smart hybrid structure to obtain comprehensive properties in terms of size, compliance, robustness and pressure sensing ability so as to meet the requirements of limited space applications such as prosthetic fingertips. Employing micro-fabricated tiny silicon-based pressure die as the sensing element, it is easy to have both small size and good mechanical performance. To protect it from potential damage and maintain the compliant surface, a rigid base and a soft layer form a sealed chamber and encapsulate the fixed die together with fluid. The fluid serves as highly efficient pressure propagation media of mechanical stimulus from the compliant skin to the pressure die without any hazard impacting the vulnerable connecting wires. To understand the pressure transmission mechanism, a simplified and concise analytic model of a spring system is proposed. Using easy fabrication technologies, a prototype of a 3 × 3 sensor array with total dimensions of 14 mm × 14 mm × 6.5 mm was developed. Based on the quasi-linear relationship between fluid volume and pressure, finite element modeling was developed to analyze the chamber deformation and pressure output of the sensor cell. Experimental tests of the sensor prototype were implemented. The results showed that the sensor cell had good sensing performance with sensitivity of 19.9 mV N-1, linearity of 0.998, repeatability error of 3.41%, and hysteresis error of 3.34%. The force sensing range was from 5 mN to 1.6 N.

  9. Chemical Sensing Systems that Utilize Soft Electronics on Thin Elastomeric Substrates with Open Cellular Designs (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Kyeung; Jang, Kyung-In; Ma, Yinji; Koh, Ahyeon; Chen, Hang; Jung, Han Na; Kim, Yerim; Kwak, Jean Won; Wang, Liang; Xue, Yeguang; Yang, Yiyuan; Tian, Wenlong; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yihui; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang


    A collection of materials and device architectures are introduced for thin, stretchable arrays of ion sensors that mount on open cellular substrates to facilitate solution exchange for use in biointegrated electronics. The results include integration strategies and studies of fundamental characteristics in chemical sensing and mechanical response. The latter involves experimental measurements and theoretical simulations that establish important considerations in the design of low modulus, stretchable properties in cellular substrates, and in the realization of advanced capabilities in spatiotemporal mapping of chemicals' gradients. As the chemical composition of extracellular fluids contains valuable information related to biological function, the concepts introduced here have potential utility across a range of skin- and internal-organ-integrated electronics where soft mechanics, fluidic permeability, and advanced chemical sensing capabilities are key requirements. PMID:28989338

  10. Chemical Sensing Systems that Utilize Soft Electronics on Thin Elastomeric Substrates with Open Cellular Designs. (United States)

    Lee, Yoon Kyeung; Jang, Kyung-In; Ma, Yinji; Koh, Ahyeon; Chen, Hang; Jung, Han Na; Kim, Yerim; Kwak, Jean Won; Wang, Liang; Xue, Yeguang; Yang, Yiyuan; Tian, Wenlong; Jiang, Yu; Zhang, Yihui; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A


    A collection of materials and device architectures are introduced for thin, stretchable arrays of ion sensors that mount on open cellular substrates to facilitate solution exchange for use in biointegrated electronics. The results include integration strategies and studies of fundamental characteristics in chemical sensing and mechanical response. The latter involves experimental measurements and theoretical simulations that establish important considerations in the design of low modulus, stretchable properties in cellular substrates, and in the realization of advanced capabilities in spatiotemporal mapping of chemicals' gradients. As the chemical composition of extracellular fluids contains valuable information related to biological function, the concepts introduced here have potential utility across a range of skin- and internal-organ-integrated electronics where soft mechanics, fluidic permeability, and advanced chemical sensing capabilities are key requirements.

  11. An All-Elastomeric Transparent and Stretchable Temperature Sensor for Body-Attachable Wearable Electronics. (United States)

    Trung, Tran Quang; Ramasundaram, Subramaniyan; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Nae-Eung


    A transparent stretchable (TS) gated sensor array with high optical transparency, conformality, and high stretchability of up to 70% is demonstrated. The TS-gated sensor array has high responsivity to temperature changes in objects and human skin. This unprecedented TS-gated sensor array, as well as the integrated platform of the TS-gated sensor with a transparent and stretchable strain sensor, show great potential for application to wearable skin electronics for recognition of human activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Encoding Gaussian Curvature in Glassy and Elastomeric Liquid Crystal Solids (Postprint) (United States)


    response to stimulus was found to be robust and reproducible. We hope that our results will encourage and stimulate further experimental research in...0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing...curvature of prescribed sign and magnitude. We present the first experimental results for such programmed solids, and they qualitatively support theory

  13. Elastomeric Polymers for Retrofitting of Reinforced Concrete Structures against the Explosive Effects of Blast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Raman


    Full Text Available The main distinction of blast load from other types of dynamic loadings is its impulsive nature, where the loads usually act for a very short duration but transmit very high impulsive pressures. This paper presents an overview of the present retrofitting techniques in use to enhance the capacity of structural elements to withstand the effects of blast loads, and introduces an alternative retrofitting approach by utilizing polymer coatings. The authors have demonstrated the positive effects of this approach by conducting a numerical investigation on the behavior of an unretrofitted reinforced concrete panel subjected to the blast load from a 2 kg charge at 1.6 m stand-off distance, and subsequently comparing its performance with several polymer coated panels. The analysis was performed by using an explicit nonlinear finite element (FE code. The results demonstrate the contributions of this technique in terms of panel displacement control and energy dissipation. Considering that the polymer coating can also act as a protective layer in improving the durability of structural materials, this technique can also be optimized favorably to enhance the overall sustainability of structures.

  14. Integrated elastomeric components for autonomous regulation of sequential and oscillatory flow switching in microfluidic devices (United States)

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Kuo, Chuan-Hsien; Tung, Yi-Chung; Torisawa, Yu-Suke; Bersano-Begey, Tommaso; Tavana, Hossein; Takayama, Shuichi


    A critical need for enhancing the usability and capabilities of microfluidic technologies is the development of standardized, scalable and versatile control systems. Electronically controlled valves and pumps typically used for dynamic flow regulation, although useful, can limit convenience, scalability and robustness. This shortcoming has motivated the development of device-embedded non-electrical flow-control systems. Existing approaches to regulate operation timing on-chip, however, still require external signals such as timed generation of fluid flow, bubbles, liquid plugs or droplets or an alteration of chemical compositions or temperature. Here, we describe a strategy to provide device-embedded flow switching and clocking functions. Physical gaps and cavities interconnected by holes are fabricated into a three-layer elastomer structure to form networks of fluidic gates that can spontaneously generate cascading and oscillatory flow output using only a constant flow of Newtonian fluids as the device input. The resulting microfluidic substrate architecture is simple, scalable and should be applicable to various materials. This flow-powered fluidic gating scheme brings the autonomous signal processing ability of microelectronic circuits to microfluidics where there is the added diversity in current information of having distinct chemical or particulate species and richness in current operation of having chemical reactions and physical interactions.

  15. Flight and ground tests of a very low density elastomeric ablative material (United States)

    Olsen, G. C.; Chapman, A. J., III


    A very low density ablative material, a silicone-phenolic composite, was flight tested on a recoverable spacecraft launched by a Pacemaker vehicle system; and, in addition, it was tested in an arc heated wind tunnel at three conditions which encompassed most of the reentry heating conditions of the flight tests. The material was composed, by weight, of 71 percent phenolic spheres, 22.8 percent silicone resin, 2.2 percent catalyst, and 4 percent silica fibers. The tests were conducted to evaluate the ablator performance in both arc tunnel and flight tests and to determine the predictability of the albator performance by using computed results from an existing one-dimensional numerical analysis. The flight tested ablator experienced only moderate surface recession and retained a smooth surface except for isolated areas where the char was completely removed, probably following reentry and prior to or during recovery. Analytical results show good agreement between arc tunnel and flight test results. The thermophysical properties used in the analysis are tabulated.

  16. Enhanced electroactive response of unidirectional elastomeric composites with high-dielectric-constant fibers. (United States)

    Subramani, Krishna Bala; Cakmak, Enes; Spontak, Richard J; Ghosh, Tushar K


    A fiber-elastomer composite design with a vastly improved and directional actuation response is proposed for dielectric elastomer actuators. The all-elastomer composites are capable of achieving remarkably high actuation stresses, directional strains, electromechanical coupling efficiencies, and energy densities at relatively low electric fields. Their electromechanical metrics are among the highest reported for this class of electroactive materials. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Elastomeric Nanocomposite Based on Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Its Characteristics without Vulcanization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nasser Abdullah Habib; Buong Woei Chieng; Norkhairunnisa Mazlan; Umer Rashid; Robiah Yunus; Suraya Abdul Rashid


    ...) and investigate the characteristics of GO/NBR nanocomposite without vulcanization. A suitable solvent was found to dissolve dry NBR while GO was exfoliated completely in an aqueous base solution using sonication...

  18. Elastomeric Nanocomposite Based on Exfoliated Graphene Oxide and Its Characteristics without Vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Abdullah Habib


    Full Text Available Rubber nanocomposites have emerged as one of the advanced materials in recent years. The aim of this work was to homogeneously disperse graphene oxide (GO sheets into Nitrile Butadiene Rubber (NBR and investigate the characteristics of GO/NBR nanocomposite without vulcanization. A suitable solvent was found to dissolve dry NBR while GO was exfoliated completely in an aqueous base solution using sonication. GO was dispersed into NBR at different loadings by solution mixing to produce unvulcanized GO/NBR nanocomposites. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were used to characterize the samples. Furthermore, mechanical and electrical properties of unvulcanized GO/NBR nanocomposites were carried out to determine the influence of GO on the NBR properties. The results showed that the modulus of GO/NBR nanocomposite at 1 wt% of GO was enhanced by about 238% compared with unfilled NBR. These results provide insight into the properties of unvulcanized GO/NBR nanocomposite for application as coatings or adhesives.

  19. The usage of oil refining industry waste as vulcanization active ingredient of elastomeric composition


    Kachkurkina, Iryna; Ovcharov, Valery; Schevchenko, Olena


    The influence of composite component perlite DPh-Zn, that is the waste of oil refining industry, on the formation of properties complex of rubber mixes and their vulcanizates on the basis of apolar cis-1,4-polyisoprene and butadiene-nitrile rubbers of various polarity has been investigated. It has been established that perlite DPh-Zn is the effective vulcanization active component of multifunctional action capable at 10.0 mass frac. concentration to replace in full or in part traditional acce...

  20. Spatially Nonuniform Heating and the Nonlinear Transient Response of Elastomeric Photomechanical Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W. Cohn


    Full Text Available Recently various nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes and graphene, have been added to rubbery elastomers, such as poly dimethyl siloxane (PDMS, to enable generation of stress and displacement in response to remote illumination. While the response is primarily due to heat-induced generation of stress; i.e., the thermoelastic effect in rubbers, illuminated samples have shown unexpected deviations between the transient waveforms of sample temperature and induced stress. In this report we have created a new and simple lumped element model to explain the stress behavior of these photomechanical nanocomposites. The model consists of two parameters that describe the spatially averaged steady state temperature rise due to optical absorption of the structure (typically a long strip of pre-strained elastomer and the spatially averaged convective cooling rate of the strip, together with a time-varying function that effectively represents the temperature distribution and thermal convection along the length of the strip. The model is used to compare two actuators that each have a thin embedded layer of carbon nanotubes, in which the one film consists of randomly aligned nanotubes and the other has a much more ordered alignment. The model not only fits both transient responses, but the differences between the parameters suggests that the ordered film conducts heat across the strip more rapidly than the disordered film, leading to it more rapidly reaching the steady state level of maximum stress. This model should be helpful in future experimental studies that work to observe, delineate and identify possible nanoscale and molecular contributions to photomechanical stress.

  1. To boost elastomer vulcanization through ionization; Pousser la vulcanisation des elastomeres par ionisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouif, S. [Ionisos, 01 - Dagneux (France); Noireaux, P. [Centre de Transfert de Technologies du Mans (CTTM), 72 - Le Mans (France)


    The beta and gamma irradiation of elastomers makes easier the handling of the reticulation process in room temperature conditions and in adequate depth inside the material. The irradiation generates free radicals along the polymer chains, these radicals by combining form new chemical bonds (reticulation reaction). The irradiation of an elastomer is featured by the formation of covalent carbon-carbon type bonds while sulfur vulcanization leads to chain bridging based on sulfur-sulfur bonds. The reticulation process entails a rise of the ramification rate of the polymer. These modifications confer to the irradiated material a higher dimensional stability in high temperature conditions and in aggressive environment that may lead, in certain conditions to no need for the usual extra coating. The gamma irradiation facilities of the Ionisos company allow the treatment of molded plastic materials directly in their packaging and in bulk quantity. (A.C.)

  2. On-demand tuned hazard free elastomeric composites: A green approach. (United States)

    Manoharan, Partheban; Chandra Das, Narayan; Naskar, Kinsuk


    Rising ecological concerns and depletion of the potentially harmful environmental impacts caused by rubber products, are of prime importance in the industry. Therefore, implementation of sustainable greener materials is required to minimize the detrimental influences. In this research, we investigated the beneficial influence of naturally derived bio-resin toward the effects of association with Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in highly dispersible silica (HDS) reinforced Natural rubber (NR)/Epoxidized Natural Rubber (ENR)-based composites. This novel green composite offers impressive properties which were analyzed based on bound rubber content, transmission electron microscopy, physico-mechanical, dynamic mechanical, and cure characteristics. Nanoindentation studies demonstrated the enhanced hysteresis phenomenon of the green composites. The small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) characterization has been studied by using a Beaucage model and results corroborates that the insertion of bio-resin exhibits ameliorated state of silica dispersion in the green composites. Overall, the study with the bio-resin has provided the impetus in employing it as an alternative to the expensive synthetic route of silane coupling agent and toxic process oil. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Novel thermoplastic elastomeric gels as high-performance actuators with no mechanical pre-strain (United States)

    Vargantwar, Pruthesh H.; Ghosh, Tushar K.; Spontak, Richard J.


    Nanostructured organic materials derived from block copolymers solvated by block-selective solvents have shown considerable potential as versatile dielectric elastomers. These materials can easily be tuned to achieve the mechanical and electrical properties required for actuator applications. They are lightweight and attractive due to their facile processing, robust properties and reliable performance. Their superb actuation behavior is realized when they are used as dielectric materials under actuation conditions promoting Maxwell compression, which produces large mechanical displacements, coupling efficiencies, and energy densities. These properties generally improve when the material is subjected to mechanical pre-strain. In most cases, mechanical pre-strain is needed to safely achieve application of a desired electrical field. Requisite pre-strain generally necessitates additional overhead in terms of weight and space for the device, and promotes changes in mechanical properties. In this study a new electroactive nanostructured polymer (ENP) is prepared from a triblock copolymer and a nonvolatile block-selective solvent, and evaluated as an actuator candidate. The copolymer exhibits reasonably high actuation strains (up to 70 area%) at relatively low electric fields and energy densities up to 50 kJ/m3 without pre-strain. These performance metrics exceed those reported for conventional dielectric materials such as the VHB acrylic elastomer, as well as those of ENPs derived from styrenic triblock copolymers under no pre-strain.

  4. Elastomeric degradable biomaterials by photopolymerization-based CAD-CAM for vascular tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudis, Stefan; Nehl, Franziska; Ligon, S Clark; Liska, Robert [Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/163MC, A-1060 Vienna (Austria); Nigisch, Anneliese; Bernhard, David [Department of Surgery, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Bergmeister, Helga [Core Unit for Biomedical Research, Medical University Vienna, Waehringer Guertel 18-20, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Stampfl, Juergen, E-mail: [Institute of Material Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstrasse 9-11, A-1040 Vienna (Austria)


    A predominant portion of mortalities in industrial countries can be attributed to diseases of the cardiovascular system. In the last decades great efforts have been undertaken to develop materials for artificial vascular constructs. However, bio-inert materials like ePTFE or PET fail as material for narrow blood vessel replacements (coronary bypasses). Therefore, we aim to design new biocompatible materials to overcome this. In this paper we investigate the use of photoelastomers for artificial vascular constructs since they may be precisely structured by means of additive manufacturing technologies. Hence, 3D computer aided design and manufacturing technologies (CAD-CAM) offer the possibility of creating cellular structures within the grafts that might favour ingrowth of tissue. Different monomer formulations were screened concerning their suitability for this application but all had drawbacks, especially concerning the suture tear resistance. Therefore, we chose to modify the original network architecture by including dithiol chain transfer agents which effectively co-react with the acrylates and reduce crosslink density. A commercial urethane diacrylate was chosen as base monomer. In combination with reactive diluents and dithiols, the properties of the photopolymers could be tailored and degradability could be introduced. The optimized photoelastomers were in good mechanical accordance with native blood vessels, showed good biocompatibility in in vitro tests, degraded similar to poly(lactic acid) and were successfully manufactured with the 3D CAD-CAM technology.

  5. Failure processes in polymers: Environmental stress crack growth and adhesion of elastomeric copolymers to polypropylene (United States)

    Ayyer, Ravishankar

    In CHAPTER 1 slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe was studied in air and Igepals at 50°C to determine the possibility for fatigue to creep correlation in environmental liquids. The stepwise fatigue crack growth in air was preserved in Igepal solutions. Lifetime in Igepal was affected to a much smaller extent as compared to air. The correlation in air was previously established primarily for tests at 21°C. The stepwise mechanism was verified in air at 50°C. The crack growth rate under various loading conditions was related to the maximum stress and R-ratio by a power law relationship. Alternatively a strain rate approach reliably correlated fatigue and creep in air at 50°C except at R=0.1 and frequency less than 1 Hz. In CHAPTER 2 the effect of concentration of Igepal CO 630 on slow crack propagation in MDPE pipe was investigated to determine whether the mechanism was conserved in creep and fatigue as required for the fatigue-to-creep correlation. The mechanism of crack propagation and lifetimes in creep and fatigue at R=0.1 at 50°C were compared to those in air and water. The fatigue and creep behavior followed the same stepwise crack growth mechanism as in air at all the concentrations used. As the concentration increased to 0.01 vol. %, the creep lifetime decreased significantly whereas the lifetime in fatigue gradually increased. At higher concentrations the lifetime was similar in creep and fatigue. In CHAPTER 3 effect of R-ratio on kinetics and mechanism of environmental fatigue and creep crack growth was analyzed in an attempt to predict the environmental stress crack resistance at 50°C. Same methodology was used as previously established for fatigue to creep formulation in air at 50°C. The stepwise mechanism of crack growth in air was conserved in Igepal solutions as R-ratio approached to unity (creep) with few exceptions. At higher R-ratio, the lifetime decreased systematically in Igepal solutions relative to air and was defined as 'Igepal transition time (ITT)'. It depended on concentration and molecular weight of Igepal. Both fatigue and creep crack growth rate in Igepal showed significantly higher crack growth rate after 'ITT' relative to air. To probe the Igepal effect on kinetics, fracture processes involved in first craze failure were compared to that in air.

  6. Elastomeric Dampers derived from First-Principles-Based Analytical Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Lead-lag motions of rotor blades in helicopters require damping to stabilize them. In practice, this has necessitated the use of external hydraulic dampers which...

  7. Elastomeric Dampers Derived From First-Principles-Based Analytical Simulation Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The lead-lag motions of rotor blades in a helicopter require damping to stabilize them. In practice, this has necessitated the use of external hydraulic dampers...

  8. Ten-Year Aging of Elastomeric Vulcanizates in Panama, Alaska, and Illinois (United States)


    1227-176-2 ( Alfin Rubber) plus 5 parts U.O.P. 88 and 1 part wax >l8M^2UM 30M — S223-^ HYTRANS 1227-176-1 ( Alfin Rubber) plus 5 parts U.O.P. 88 and...B33-)+ HYTRANS 1227-176-2 ( Alfin Rubber) plus 5 parts U.O.P. 88 and 1 part wax 8223-4 HYTRANS 1227-176-1 ( Alfin Rubber) plus 5 parts U.O.P. 88

  9. [Measuring the accuracy of various elastomeric impression materials using a CNC coordinate measuring device (Part 1)]. (United States)

    Wichmann, M; Borchers, L; Limmroth, E


    This study compares the accuracy of 23 impression materials. With each material seven impressions of a stainless steel master die were taken under standardized conditions. Characteristical dimensions of the master die and of the stone dies as well were determined by means of a CNC coordinate measuring device. Differences in prepared tooth heights ranged between -36 and +19 microns. The occlusal distances between prepared teeth were 2 to 54 microns greater on the stone dies than on the master die. Diameters differed by -89 to +52 microns. The two phase impressions tended to result in stone dies of reduced size, whereas single phase and double mix impression techniques produced larger stone dies than the master die.

  10. Intrinsically stretchable and transparent thin-film transistors based on printable silver nanowires, carbon nanotubes and an elastomeric dielectric (United States)

    Liang, Jiajie; Li, Lu; Chen, Dustin; Hajagos, Tibor; Ren, Zhi; Chou, Shu-Yu; Hu, Wei; Pei, Qibing


    Thin-film field-effect transistor is a fundamental component behind various mordern electronics. The development of stretchable electronics poses fundamental challenges in developing new electronic materials for stretchable thin-film transistors that are mechanically compliant and solution processable. Here we report the fabrication of transparent thin-film transistors that behave like an elastomer film. The entire fabrication is carried out by solution-based techniques, and the resulting devices exhibit a mobility of ~30 cm2 V-1 s-1, on/off ratio of 103-104, switching current >100 μA, transconductance >50 μS and relative low operating voltages. The devices can be stretched by up to 50% strain and subjected to 500 cycles of repeated stretching to 20% strain without significant loss in electrical property. The thin-film transistors are also used to drive organic light-emitting diodes. The approach and results represent an important progress toward the development of stretchable active-matrix displays.

  11. Surface Coating of Gypsum-Based Molds for Maxillofacial Prosthetic Silicone Elastomeric Material: Evaluating Different Microbial Adhesion. (United States)

    Khalaf, Salah; Ariffin, Zaihan; Husein, Adam; Reza, Fazal


    To compare the adhesion of three microorganisms on modified and unmodified silicone elastomer surfaces with different surface roughnesses and porosities. Candida albicans, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus aureus were incubated with modified and unmodified silicone groups (N = 35) for 30 days at 37°C. The counts of viable microorganisms in the accumulating biofilm layer were determined and converted to cfu/cm 2 unit surface area. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to evaluate the microbial adhesion. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test, one-way ANOVA, and post hoc tests as indicated. Significant differences in microbial adhesion were observed between modified and unmodified silicone elastomers after the cells were incubated for 30 days (p silicone elastomer compared with unmodified silicone elastomer. Surface modification of silicone elastomer yielding a smoother and less porous surface showed lower adhesion of different microorganisms than observed on unmodified surfaces. © 2017 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  12. Fabrication, characterization, and biocompatibility assessment of a novel elastomeric nanofibrous scaffold: A potential scaffold for soft tissue engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamirzaei Jeshvaghani, Elham; Ghasemi-Mobarakeh, Laleh; Mansurnezhad, Reza


    , respectively, and dynamic mechanical analysis results revealed elasticity of nanofibers. MTS assay showed biocompatibility of PCLF:PCL (70:30) nanofibrous scaffolds. Our overall results showed that electrospun PCLF:PCL nanofibrous scaffold could be considered as a candidate for further in vitro and in vivo...

  13. Cardiogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on elastomeric poly (glycerol sebacate)/collagen core/shell fibers. (United States)

    Ravichandran, Rajeswari; Venugopal, Jayarama Reddy; Sundarrajan, Subramanian; Mukherjee, Shayanti; Ramakrishna, Seeram


    To facilitate engineering of suitable biomaterials to meet the challenges associated with myocardial infarction. Poly (glycerol sebacate)/collagen (PGS/collagen) core/shell fibers were fabricated by core/shell electrospinning technique, with core as PGS and shell as collagen polymer; and the scaffolds were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), contact angle and tensile testing for cardiac tissue engineering. Collagen nanofibers were also fabricated by electrospinning for comparison with core/shell fibers. Studies on cell-scaffold interaction were carried out using cardiac cells and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) co-culture system with cardiac cells and MSCs separately serving as positive and negative controls respectively. The co-culture system was characterized for cell proliferation and differentiation of MSCs into cardiomyogenic lineage in the co-culture environment using dual immunocytochemistry. The co-culture cells were stained with cardiac specific marker proteins like actinin and troponin and MSC specific marker protein CD 105 for proving the cardiogenic differentiation of MSCs. Further the morphology of cells was analyzed using SEM. PGS/collagen core/shell fibers, core is PGS polymer having an elastic modulus related to that of cardiac fibers and shell as collagen, providing natural environment for cellular activities like cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. SEM micrographs of electrospun fibrous scaffolds revealed porous, beadless, uniform fibers with a fiber diameter in the range of 380 ± 77 nm and 1192 ± 277 nm for collagen fibers and PGS/collagen core/shell fibers respectively. The obtained PGS/collagen core/shell fibrous scaffolds were hydrophilic having a water contact angle of 17.9 ± 4.6° compared to collagen nanofibers which had a contact angle value of 30 ± 3.2°. The PGS/collagen core/shell fibers had mechanical properties comparable to that of native heart muscle with a young's modulus of 4.24 ± 0.7 MPa, while that of collagen nanofibers was comparatively higher around 30.11 ± 1.68 MPa. FTIR spectrum was performed to confirm the functional groups present in the electrospun scaffolds. Amide I and amide II of collagen were detected at 1638.95 cm(-1) and 1551.64 cm(-1) in the electrospun collagen fibers and at 1646.22 cm(-1) and 1540.73 cm(-1) for PGS/collagen core/shell fibers respectively. Cell culture studies performed using MSCs and cardiac cells co-culture environment, indicated that the cell proliferation significantly increased on PGS/collagen core/shell scaffolds compared to collagen fibers and the cardiac marker proteins actinin and troponin were expressed more on PGS/collagen core/shell scaffolds compared to collagen fibers alone. Dual immunofluorescent staining was performed to further confirm the cardiogenic differentiation of MSCs by employing MSC specific marker protein, CD 105 and cardiac specific marker protein, actinin. SEM observations of cardiac cells showed normal morphology on PGS/collagen fibers and providing adequate tensile strength for the regeneration of myocardial infarction. Combination of PGS/collagen fibers and cardiac cells/MSCs co-culture system providing natural microenvironments to improve cell survival and differentiation, could bring cardiac tissue engineering to clinical application.

  14. A survey of perception of pain and discomfort with elastomeric separators in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment in Western Maharashtra region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Ashok Kumar Bapna


    Conclusion: The pain associated peaks within 4–48 hr from separator placement, and then declines to reach its lowest level on the 5th day. Since pain of moderate intensity occurs during the treatment, analgesics and soft food are recommended.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    High molecular weight copolymers of L-lactide and epsilon-caprolactone have been synthesized by ring opening copolymerization with stannous octoate as catalyst. The good mechanical properties of the 50/50 copolymers make it a suitable material for biomedical applications such as nerve guides etc.,

  16. 76 FR 13434 - In the Matter of Certain Devices Having Elastomeric Gel and Components Thereof; Notice of a... (United States)


    ... investigation in its entirety. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mark B. Rees, Office of the General Counsel, U.S..., 210.42 (19 CFR 210.21, 210.42). By order of the Commission. Issued: February 17, 2011. William R...

  17. 75 FR 64742 - In the Matter of Certain Devices Having Elastomeric Gel and Components Thereof; Notice of... (United States)


    .... Rees, Office of the General Counsel, U.S. International Trade Commission, 500 E Street, SW., Washington... 210.21, 210.42. By order of the Commission. Issued: October 14, 2010. William R. Bishop, Acting...

  18. Influence of premade and in-situ compatibilizers in PP/EPDM thermoplastic elastomeric olefins and thermoplastic vulcanizates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kinsuk Naskar, K.N.; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.


    During dynamic vulcanization of polypropylene (PP)/ethylene-propylene-diene terpolymer (EPDM) blends with dicumyl peroxide/triallyl cyanurate, there is a possibility of the generation of in situ graft links at the interface. Three potential compatibilizers (PP-grafted EPDM,

  19. Compatibility Study for Plastic, Elastomeric, and Metallic Fueling Infrastructure Materials Exposed to Aggressive Formulations of Ethanol-blended Gasoline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL


    In 2008 Oak Ridge National Laboratory began a series of experiments to evaluate the compatibility of fueling infrastructure materials with intermediate levels of ethanol-blended gasoline. Initially, the focus was elastomers, metals, and sealants, and the test fuels were Fuel C, CE10a, CE17a and CE25a. The results of these studies were published in 2010. Follow-on studies were performed with an emphasis on plastic (thermoplastic and thermoset) materials used in underground storage and dispenser systems. These materials were exposed to test fuels of Fuel C and CE25a. Upon completion of this effort, it was felt that additional compatibility data with higher ethanol blends was needed and another round of experimentation was performed on elastomers, metals, and plastics with CE50a and CE85a test fuels. Compatibility of polymers typically relates to the solubility of the solid polymer with a solvent. It can also mean susceptibility to chemical attack, but the polymers and test fuels evaluated in this study are not considered to be chemically reactive with each other. Solubility in polymers is typically assessed by measuring the volume swell of the polymer exposed to the solvent of interest. Elastomers are a class of polymers that are predominantly used as seals, and most o-ring and seal manufacturers provide compatibility tables of their products with various solvents including ethanol, toluene, and isooctane, which are components of aggressive oxygenated gasoline as described by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) J1681. These tables include a ranking based on the level of volume swell in the elastomer associated with exposure to a particular solvent. Swell is usually accompanied by a decrease in hardness (softening) that also affects performance. For seal applications, shrinkage of the elastomer upon drying is also a critical parameter since a contraction of volume can conceivably enable leakage to occur. Shrinkage is also indicative of the removal of one or more components of the elastomers (by the solvent). This extraction of additives can negatively change the properties of the elastomer, leading to reduced performance and durability. For a seal application, some level of volume swell is acceptable, since the expansion will serve to maintain a seal. However, the acceptable level of swell is dependent on the particular application of the elastomer product. It is known that excessive swell can lead to unacceptable extrusion of the elastomer beyond the sealed interface, where it becomes susceptible to damage. Also, since high swell is indicative of high solubility, there is a heightened potential for fluid to seep through the seal and into the environment. Plastics, on the other hand, are used primarily in structural applications, such as solid components, including piping and fluid containment. Volume change, especially in a rigid system, will create internal stresses that may negatively affect performance. In order to better understand and predict the compatibility for a given polymer type and fuel composition, an analysis based on Hansen solubility theory was performed for each plastic and elastomer material. From this study, the solubility distance was calculated for each polymer material and test fuel combination. Using the calculated solubility distance, the ethanol concentration associated with peak swell and overall extent of swell can be predicted for each polymer. The bulk of the material discussion centers on the plastic materials, and their compatibility with Fuel C, CE25a, CE50a, and CE85a. The next section of this paper focuses on the elastomer compatibility with the higher ethanol concentrations with comparison to results obtained previously for the lower ethanol levels. The elastomers were identical to those used in the earlier study. Hansen solubility theory is also applied to the elastomers to provide added interpretation of the results. The final section summarizes the performance of the metal coupons.

  20. Synthesis and characterizations of high permittivity ultraviolet cured soft elastomeric networks and composites applicable as dielectric electroactive polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav

    siloxane) (PDMS) and polyurethanes are designed with the requirements specific for DEAPs. Thus there is a need to develop elastomers with low elastic modulus, low viscous and dielectric losses and high relative permittivity. Interpenetrating networks and fumed silica reinforced composites of poly...

  1. Analysis of the electrical and magnetic properties of elastomeric composites and their applicability in small flexible wearable antennas (United States)

    Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Dishovsky, Nikolay T.; Malinova, Petrunka A.; Atanasov, Nikolay T.; Atanasova, Gabriela L.


    The aim of the research is to obtain conductive elastomer based composites with different degree of filling and specific properties that are applicable for manufacturing of small flexible wearable antennas. The mechanical, electrical and magnetic properties of the composites based on butadiene-acrylonitrile rubber and conductive carbon black have been determined and the possibilities for their use have been analyzed. It has been found that regarding the requirements for elastomer composites application as substrates in such kind of antennas for the 2.4-2.5 GHz frequency range (in respect to the tensile strength, elasticity, volume resistivity, real part of permittivity and permeability, tangent of dielectric and magnetic losses), the most suitable composites are those containing conductive carbon black at 5-10 phr. The prepared composites have been used as monolayered or multilayered substrates for manufacturing prototypes of small flexible wearable antennas for medical, sport and military applications for the 2.4-2.5 GHz frequency range, which demonstrate reliable performance and meet the requirements of the Federal Communication Commission.

  2. Manipulation of mechanical compliance of elastomeric PGS by incorporation of halloysite nanotubes for soft tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Chen, Qi-Zhi; Liang, Shu-Ling; Wang, Jiang; Simon, George P


    Poly (glycerol sebacate) (PGS) is a promising elastomer for use in soft tissue engineering. However, it is difficult to achieve with PGS a satisfactory balance of mechanical compliance and degradation rate that meet the requirements of soft tissue engineering. In this work, we have synthesised a new PGS nanocomposite system filled with halloysite nanotubes, and mechanical properties, as well as related chemical characters, of the nanocomposites were investigated. It was found that the addition of nanotubular halloysite did not compromise the extensibility of material, compared with the pure PGS counterpart; instead the elongation at rupture was increased from 110 (in the pure PGS) to 225% (in the 20 wt% composite). Second, Young's modulus and resilience of 3-5 wt% composites were ∼0.8 MPa and >94% respectively, remaining close to the level of pure PGS which is desired for applications in soft tissue engineering. Third, an important feature of the 1-5 wt% composites was their stable mechanical properties over an extended period, which could allow the provision of reliable mechanical support to damaged tissues during the lag phase of the healing process. Finally, the in vitro study indicated that the addition of halloysite slowed down the degradation rate of the composites. In conclusion, the good compliance, enhanced stretchability, stable mechanical behavior over an extended period, and reduced degradation rates make the 3-5 wt% composites promising candidates for application in soft tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pilot scale production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) biopolymers with high molecular weight and elastomeric properties. (United States)

    Huong, Kai-Hee; Azuraini, Mat Junoh; Aziz, Nursolehah Abdul; Amirul, Al-Ashraf Abdullah


    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [(P(3HB-co-4HB)] copolymer receives attention as next generation biomaterial in medical application. However, the exploitation of the copolymer is still constrained since such copolymer has not yet successfully been performed in industrial scale production. In this work, we intended to establish pilot production system of the copolymer retaining the copolymer quality which has recently discovered to have novel characteristic from lab scale fermentation. An increase of agitation speed has significantly improved the copolymer accumulation efficiency by minimizing the utilization of substrates towards cell growth components. This is evidenced by a drastic increase of PHA content from 28 wt% to 63 wt% and PHA concentration from 3.1 g/L to 6.5 g/L but accompanied by the reduction of residual biomass from 8.0 g/L to 3.8 g/L. Besides, fermentations at lower agitation and aeration have resulted in reduced molecular weight and mechanical strength of the copolymer, suggesting the role of sufficient oxygen supply efficiency in improving the properties of the resulting copolymers. The KLa-based scale-up fermentation was performed successfully in maintaining the yield and the quality of the copolymers produced without a drastic fluctuation. This suggests that the scale-up based on the KLa values supported the fermentation system of P(3HB-co-4HB) copolymer production in single-stage using mixed-substrate cultivation strategy. Copyright © 2017 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Elastomeric enriched biodegradable polyurethane sponges for critical bone defects: a successful case study reducing donor site morbidity. (United States)

    Lavrador, Catarina; Mascarenhas, Ramiro; Coelho, Paulo; Brites, Cláudia; Pereira, Alfredo; Gogolewski, Sylwester


    Bone substitutes have been a critical issue as the natural source can seldom provide enough bone to support full healing. No bone substitute complies with all necessary functions and characteristics that an autograft does. Polyurethane sponges have been used as a surgical alternative to cancellous bone grafts for critical bone defect donor sites. Critical bone defects were created on the tibial tuberosity and iliac crest using an ovine model. In group I (control-untreated), no bone regeneration was observed in any animal. In group II (defects left empty but covered with a microporous polymeric membrane), the new bone bridged the top ends in all animals. In groups III and IV, bone defects were implanted with polyurethane scaffolds modified with biologically active compounds, and bone regeneration was more efficient than in group II. In groups III and IV there were higher values of bone regeneration specific parameters used for evaluation (P substances may offer an alternative to bone graft, reducing donor site morbidity associated with autogenous cancellous bone harvesting.

  5. Light-induced and sensing capabilities of SI-ATRP modified graphene oxide particles in elastomeric matrix (United States)

    Osicka, Josef; Cvek, Martin; Mrlik, Miroslav; Ilcikova, Marketa; Pavlinek, Vladimir; Mosnacek, Jaroslav


    Photoactuators can concern light stimuli in appropriate wavelength into mechanical response. Such reversible changes in the material shape are highly promising in their applications as remote controllers, or safety sensors. In this work we were focused on light-induced actuation and sensing performance of the prepared materials. In this case poly(dimethyl siloxane) PDMS with various amounts of silicone oil and curing agent was used as matrix. Graphene oxide (GO) as filler in its neat form as well as its modified analogue were used in concentration of 0.1 vol. %. Modified GO particles were controllably coated with poly(methyl methacrylate) polymer chains using surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) approach in order improve interactions between the filler and matrix which consequently lead to the enhanced light-induced actuation performance. Generally, the both, GO particles as well as modified ones were characterized using FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and finally conductivity measurement to confirm the controllable coating and simultaneously proceeded reduction. By studying of dielectric properties (activation energies), viscoelastic properties, which were investigated using dynamic mechanical analysis, the interactions between the filler and matrix were evaluated with connection to their light-responsive and sensing capabilities.

  6. 77 FR 6476 - Modification of Significant New Uses of Tris Carbamoyl Triazine (United States)


    ...-face) equipped with a HEPA filter; (D) Supplied-air respirator operated in pressure demand or... filter (N100 if oil aerosols are absent, R100, or P100); (B) Air purifying, tight-fitting full-face... include a particulate filter (N100 if oil aerosols are absent, R100, or P100); (C) Powered air-purifying...

  7. Compliant layer bearings in artificial joints. Part 2: simulator and fatigue testing to assess the durability of the interface between an elastomeric layer and a rigid substrate. (United States)

    Jones, E; Scholes, S C; Burgess, I C; Ash, H E; Unsworth, A


    Artificial joints have been much improved since their introduction but they still have a limited lifetime. In an attempt to increase their life by improving the lubrication acting within these prostheses, compliant layered polyurethane (PU) joints have been devised. These joints mimic the natural synovial joint more closely by promoting fluid film lubrication. In this study, tests were performed on compliant layer joints to determine their ability to function under a range of conditions. Both static and dynamic compression tests were undertaken on compliant artificial hip joints of two different radial clearances. Friction tests were also performed before and after static loading. In addition to this, knee wear tests were conducted to determine the suitability of a compliant layer in these applications. In the knee tests, variations in experimental testing conditions were investigated using both active and passive rotation and severe malalignment of the tibial inserts. The static compression tests together with the friction studies suggest that a small radial clearance is likely to result in 'grabbing' contact between the head and cup. The larger radial clearance (0.33 microm) did not exhibit these problems. The importance of the design of the compliant layer joints was highlighted with delamination occurring on the lateral bearings during the knee wear studies. The bearings with a layer 2 mm thick performed better than the bearings with a layer 3 mm thick. Tests conducted on flat PU bearings resulted in no delamination; therefore, it was concluded that the layer separation was caused by design issues rather than by material issues. It was found that, with careful material choice, consideration of design, and effective manufacturing techniques, the compliant layer joint functioned well and demonstrated durability of the union between the hard and soft layers. These results give encouragement for the suitability of these joints for clinical use.

  8. Reologia de polietileno de alta densidade tenacificado com polietileno elastomérico Rheology of high density polyethylene toughened with elastomeric polyethylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José O. C. Guimarães


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foram estudadas as propriedades reológicas de polietileno de alta densidade (HDPE tenacificado com dois tipos de elastômeros metalocênicos à base de poli(etileno-co-octeno (EOC. Estes elastômeros são polímeros comerciais com diferenças quanto ao peso molecular, índice de fluidez e índice Dow de reologia (DRI. Misturas físicas de HDPE e EOC foram processadas em extrusora monorosca Wortex (L/D=32, à 230 °C e 50 rpm, utilizando percentagem mássica dos EOCs de 5% a 80%. As propriedades reológicas foram avaliadas em experimentos estacionários e dinâmicos a 190 °C e taxas de cisalhamento na faixa de 90 s-1 a 1500 s-1 e freqüências na faixa de 10-1 rad/s a 10² rad/s. As misturas HDPE/EOC exibiram pseudoplasticidade e comportamento reológico complexo. A complexidade do comportamento reológico foi acentuada com o aumento do peso molecular e da concentração de ramificações de cadeia longa (DRI do EOC.In this work rheological properties of high density polyethylene toughened with two different grades of metallocene elastomers based on poly(ethylene-co-octene were studied. These elastomers were commercial polymers differing in molecular weight, and Dow Rheology Index (DRI. Blends were processed in a Wortex single screw extruder (L/D=32, at 230 °C and 50 rpm, using mass fractions of EOC in the range from 5% to 80%. The rheological properties were evaluated in steady and dynamic experiments at 190 °C and shear rates in the range from 90 s-1 to 1500 s-1 with frequencies from 10-1 s-1 to 10-2 s-1. The blends exhibited pseudoplasticity and complex rheological behavior. The complex rheological behavior was intensified with increasing molecular weight and long chain branching proportion (DRI in the EOC elastomers.

  9. Fillers influence on mechanical properties of elastomers during their ageing by irradiation; Influence des charges sur les proprietes mecaniques des elastomeres lors de leur vieillissement par irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planes, E.; Chazeau, L.; Vigier, G. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), MATEIS, UMR CNRS 5510, 69 - Villeurbanne (France); Planes, E. [NEXANS Research Center, 69 - Lyon (France); Stevenson, I. [Laboratoire des Materiaux Polymeres et Biomateriaux (IMP/LMPB) UMR CNRS 5627, UCBL, 69 - Villeurbanne (France)


    This paper presents the study of ageing under irradiation of filled elastomers, particularly aluminium tri-hydrate ATH or nano-scopic silica filled EPDM. The materials have been physico-chemically, micro-structurally and mechanically characterised at various levels of ageing: here only results for physical and mechanical properties (at small (DMA) and large deformations) have been presented. From these analyses, the competition between crosslinking and chains scissions during irradiation was highlighted. Moreover, a strong influence of fillers on mechanical properties during ageing was observed. (authors)

  10. MEMS-based contact stress field measurements at a rough elastomeric layer: local test of Amontons’ friction law in static and steady sliding regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrégeas G.


    Full Text Available We present the results of recent friction experiments in which a MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure both the normal and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in frictional contact with smooth, rigid, glass indentors. We consider successively multicontacts under (i static normal loading by a spherical indentor and (ii frictional steady sliding conditions against a cylindrical indentor, for an increasing normal load. In both cases, the measured fields are compared to elastic calculations assuming (i a smooth interface and (ii Amontons’ friction law. In the static case, significant deviations are observed which decrease with increasing load and which vanish when a lubricant is used. In the steady sliding case, Amontons’ law reproduces rather satisfactorily the experiments provided that the normal/tangential coupling at the contact interface is taken into account. We discuss the origin of the difference between the Amontons fields and the measured ones, in particular the effect of the finite normal and tangential compliances of the multicontact interface.

  11. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions. (United States)

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad


    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In moist condition, aquasil performed significantly better than impregum. Regarding gypsum compatibility according to ADA specification, in dry condition both the materials performed almost equally, and in moist condition aquasil performed better than impregum. When tested by macroscopic evaluation, impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions.

  12. In situ heart valve tissue engineering using a bioresorbable elastomeric implant - From material design to 12 months follow-up in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluin, Jolanda; Talacua, Hanna; Smits, Anthal I P M; Emmert, Maximilian Y; Brugmans, Marieke C P; Fioretta, Emanuela S; Dijkman, Petra E; Söntjens, Serge H M; Duijvelshoff, Renée; Dekker, Sylvia; Janssen-van den Broek, Marloes W J T; Lintas, Valentina; Vink, Aryan; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Janssen, Henk M; Dankers, Patricia Y W; Baaijens, Frank P T; Bouten, Carlijn V C


    The creation of a living heart valve is a much-wanted alternative for current valve prostheses that suffer from limited durability and thromboembolic complications. Current strategies to create such valves, however, require the use of cells for in vitro culture, or decellularized human- or

  13. Factors that influence elastomeric coating performance: the effect of coating thickness on basal plate morphology, growth and critical removal stress of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. (United States)

    Wendt, D E; Kowalke, G L; Kim, J; Singer, I L


    Silicone coatings are currently the most effective non-toxic fouling release surfaces. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to the performance of silicone coatings is necessary to further improve their design. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of coating thickness on basal plate morphology, growth, and critical removal stress of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. Barnacles were grown on silicone coatings of three thicknesses (0.2, 0.5 and 2 mm). Atypical ("cupped") basal plate morphology was observed on all surfaces, although there was no relationship between coating thickness and i) the proportion of individuals with the atypical morphology, or ii) the growth rate of individuals. Critical removal stress was inversely proportional to coating thickness. Furthermore, individuals with atypical basal plate morphology had a significantly lower critical removal stress than individuals with the typical ("flat") morphology. The data demonstrate that coating thickness is a fundamental factor governing removal of barnacles from silicone coatings.

  14. Comparison of a Lyophilized Drug Product to Other Solid and Liquid Media for the Extraction of Elastomeric Oligomers from a Butyl Rubber Stopper. (United States)

    Zdravkovic, Steven A


    Lyophilization is commonly used to extend the shelf life of pharmaceutical products which are otherwise unstable when stored as a liquid formulation. However, the ability of a lyophilized drug, or other solid medium, to leach or extract substances from a pharmaceutical packaging material is not well characterized. To provide insight into this area of uncertainty, the extraction properties of a lyophilized drug product, the lyophilized drug product reconstituted in water, and several other solid and liquid media of varying polarity were determined using a glass vial with a butyl rubber stopper as a representative pharmaceutical packaging system. The results obtained in this study show that the extracting power of a medium, whether solid or liquid, was primarily a function of polarity. Thus, the amount of each extractable observed for the lyophilized and reconstituted drug product were in-trend with the other solid and liquid media, respectively. Nevertheless, it was notable that the lyophilized drug product was able to leach substances from the stopper in quantifiable amounts, whereas the reconstituted drug product contained no detectable leachables. Using a mathematical relationship, it was determined that the extraction power of the lyophilized drug product was equivalent to a 50/50 isopropanol/water solution. Copyright © 2017, Parenteral Drug Association.

  15. Etude de faisabilite de l'insertion d'une membrane elastomere a renfort textile dans l'aspirateur d'une centrale hydroelectrique (United States)

    Delorme, Rolland

    The generation of electrical energy in Quebec, estimated to 200 TWh, comes from hydroelectric generating stations for 96 % which are at the heart of provincial ecological and economic challenges. An important amount of research has been devoted to improving the hydrodynamic profile of hydraulic turbines to maximize their energy efficiency. However, few studies have focused on the draft tube in hydroelectric power plants, which is the duct where water flows out after crossing the turbine. Recent calculations performed by Alstom Power & Transport Canada Inc. revealed that the shape modulation of the draft tube could increase the hydroelectric generating station performance. The goal of this research was to assess the feasibility of this shape modification in existing draft tubes with inflatable composite membranes. The study consisted first of building an experimental setup to test the inflation of at membranes made up of a fiberglass-reinforced rubber composite. The inflated membranes were digitized with an optical equipment enabling 3D representations of their deflections. The second part of the study aimed at building finite element models reproducing the same experiments and enabling the design of more complicated membranes. The study confirmed the technical feasibility of designing and manufacturing such a membrane for the targeted application. However the large-scale roll-out will require to manufacture 3D membranes with the proper anchoring system. Keywords: reinforced rubber composite, reinforced elastomer composite, textile reinforcement, finite element modeling, mechanical behavior.

  16. Determination of the Viscoelastic Properties of elastomeric Materials by the dynamic indentification method (on line: http:/

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Nathalie M.; Kren, Alexander P.


    In this paper the dynamic indentation test method, which is not often used, is discussed. The goal of the paper is to consider the possibility of applying a dynamic indentation test method to investigate rubber materials. The basic equations for the determination of the viscoelastic characteristics

  17. Sharp claims new technology can combat bird flu virus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library


      Tests byjapanese electronics maker Sharp Corp. have found an air-purifier using plasmacluster ion technology was 99 percent effective in killing off the bird flu virus in a controlled environment, a company spokeswoman said...

  18. Particle Size-Selective Assessment of Protection of European Standard FFP Respirators and Surgical Masks against Particles-Tested with Human Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-An Lee


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the protection of disposable filtering half-facepiece respirators of different grades against particles between 0.093 and 1.61 μm. A personal sampling system was used to particle size-selectively assess the protection of respirators. The results show that about 10.9% of FFP2 respirators and 28.2% of FFP3 respirators demonstrate assigned protection factors (APFs below 10 and 20, which are the levels assigned for these respirators by the British Standard. On average, the protection factors of FFP respirators were 11.5 to 15.9 times greater than those of surgical masks. The minimum protection factors (PFs were observed for particles between 0.263 and 0.384 μm. No significant difference in PF results was found among FFP respirator categories and particle size. A strong association between fit factors and protection factors was found. The study indicates that FFP respirators may not achieve the expected protection level and the APFs may need to be revised for these classes of respirators.

  19. Particle Size-Selective Assessment of Protection of European Standard FFP Respirators and Surgical Masks against Particles-Tested with Human Subjects. (United States)

    Lee, Shu-An; Hwang, Dong-Chir; Li, He-Yi; Tsai, Chieh-Fu; Chen, Chun-Wan; Chen, Jen-Kun


    This study was conducted to investigate the protection of disposable filtering half-facepiece respirators of different grades against particles between 0.093 and 1.61  μm. A personal sampling system was used to particle size-selectively assess the protection of respirators. The results show that about 10.9% of FFP2 respirators and 28.2% of FFP3 respirators demonstrate assigned protection factors (APFs) below 10 and 20, which are the levels assigned for these respirators by the British Standard. On average, the protection factors of FFP respirators were 11.5 to 15.9 times greater than those of surgical masks. The minimum protection factors (PFs) were observed for particles between 0.263 and 0.384  μm. No significant difference in PF results was found among FFP respirator categories and particle size. A strong association between fit factors and protection factors was found. The study indicates that FFP respirators may not achieve the expected protection level and the APFs may need to be revised for these classes of respirators.

  20. Study of immobilization of radioactive wastes in asphaltic matrices and elastomeric residues by using microwave technique; Estudo da imobilizacao de rejeitos radioativos em matrizes asfalticas e residuos elastomericos utilizando a tecnica de microondas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caratin, Reinaldo Leonel


    In the present work, the technique of microwave heating was used to study the immobilization of low and intermediate activity level radioactive waste, such as spent ion exchange resin used to remove undesirable ions of primary circuits of refrigeration in water refrigerated nuclear reactors, and those used in chemical and radionuclide separation columns in the quality control of radioisotopes. Bitumen matrices reinforced with some kinds of rubber (Neoprene{sup R}, silicon and ethylene-vinyl-acetate), from production leftovers or scraps, were used for incorporation of radioactive waste. The samples irradiation was made in a home microwave oven that operates at a frequency of 2.450 MHZ with 1.000 W power. The samples were characterized by developing assays on penetration, leaching resistance, softening, flash and combustion points, thermogravimetry and optical microscopy. The obtained results were compatible with the pattern of matrices components, which shows that technique is a very useful alternative to conventional immobilization methods and to those kinds of radioactive waste. (author)

  1. Poliamidas, poliésteres e termoplásticos elastoméricos: uma perspectiva sustentável na indústria moderna Polyamides, polyesters and elastomeric thermoplastics: a sustainable perspective in modern industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroldo Marcos


    Full Text Available Polímeros extraídos de fontes fósseis, não biodegradáveis, são assunto cada vez mais em pauta. Seja por conta de descartes incorretos, do longo tempo que levam para se decompor no meio ambiente ou até mesmo pelo impacto socioambiental que esse tipo de material pode causar às gerações futuras. Isso nos faz indagar: como as tecnologias utilizadas por empresas do setor de polímeros têm feito surgir novos materiais? É possível oferecer soluções de menor impacto ambiental, mais resistência, mais segurança e custo menor? Ao longo deste artigo, exibiremos novos produtos e modelos de fabricação que podem tornar mais saudável e sustentável todo o caminho, que leva das grandes empresas até o consumidor final, os elementos presentes no dia-a-dia de pessoas no mundo todo.Polymers extracted from fossile sources are an issue highlighted among debates in industry, for its incorrect discard, for the long period of time this material takes to decompose or even due to its unsustainable environmental footprint. This scenario makes the industry of polymers question how the available technology can be used to create new materials, and if it would be possible to offer safer and cheaper solutions with less environmental impact and more resistance. This article will expose new products and new industrial development models that can make the chain that leads from the companies to the consumer the elements present into present-day society worldwide more sustainable.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and biocompatibility of biodegradable elastomeric poly(ether-ester urethane)s Based on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) and Poly(ethylene glycol) via melting polymerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zibiao; Yang, Xiaodi; Wu, Linping


    . The segments compositions evaluated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) two-step thermal decomposition profiles suggested that MP enhanced the reactivity of PEG compared with the SP process. It was in good agreement with those calculated from (1)H-NMR, as well as the precursor feed ratio, respectively. Water...... agent for the first time. The PHBHHx segments and PEG segments in the multiblock co-polymers behaved as a hard, hydrophobic and a soft, hydrophilic part, respectively. Their chemical structures and molecular characteristics were studied by gel-permeation chromatography (GPC), (1)H-NMR and Fourier...... contact angle measurements revealed that surface hydrophilicity of the PUs was enhanced by incorporating the PEG segment into PHBHHx polymer backbone. The mechanical properties assessment of the PUs recorded an improved and adjustable ductility and toughness than pure PHBHHx while preserving the tensile...

  3. Airborne Microorganism Disinfection by Photocatalytic HEPA Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotruedee Chotigawin


    Full Text Available This study determined the efficacy of photocatalytic HEPA filters on microorganism disinfection in a closed-loop chamber and later applied it in an air purifier and tested its efficacy in an 8-m3 chamber and in a hospital. The photocatalytic filters were made by dip-coating a HEPA filter in a TiO2 slurry. In order to disinfect the microorganisms retained on the filter, UV-A light was irradiated onto the filter to create strong oxidative radicals which can destroy microorganisms. The findings showed that disinfection efficiency of the photocatalytic filters with high TiO2 loading was insignificantly higher than with lower loading. S. epidermidis was completely eliminated within 2 hours, while 86.8% of B. subtilis, 77.1% of A. niger, and 82.7% of P. citrinum were destroyed within 10 hours. When applying the photocatalytic filters into an air purifier in a 8-m3 chamber, it was found that as soon as the air purifier was turned on, 83.4% of S. epidermidis, 81.4% of B. subtilis, 88.5% of A. niger, and 75.8% of P. citrinum were removed from the air. In a hospital environment, the PCO air purifier efficacy was lower than that in the chamber. Besides, relative humidity, distances from the air purifier and room size were suspected to affect the efficacy of the photocatalytic filters.

  4. Radiation data definitions and compilation for equipment qualification data bank (United States)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Winslow, J. W.


    Dose definitions, physical properties, mechanical properties, electrical properties, and particle definitions are listed for insulators and dielectrics, elastomeric seals and gaskets, lubricants, adhesives, and coatings.

  5. Magnetic Microposts as an Approach to Apply Forces to Living Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nathan J. Sniadecki; Alexandre Anguelouch; Michael T. Yang; Corinne M. Lamb; Zhijun Liu; Stuart B. Kirschner; Yaohua Liu; Daniel H. Reich; Christopher S. Chen


    .... To study the cellular response to forces separately, we applied external forces to cells via microfabricated magnetic posts containing cobalt nanowires interspersed among an array of elastomeric...

  6. A method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking into an el......The present invention relates to a method of providing a barrier in a fracture-containing system, comprising: i) Providing a treatment fluid comprising: a) a base fluid; b) an elastomeric material, wherein said elastomeric material comprises at least one polymer capable of crosslinking...

  7. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)


    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are disclosed which are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Heat sealable coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are produced by dissolving the elastomeric composition to form a solution, casting the solution onto a release paper and drying it to form an elastomeric film. The film is then bonded to a woven, knitted, or felted fabric.

  8. Use of elastomers in regenerative braking systems (United States)

    The storage of potential energy as strain energy in elastomers was investigated. The evolution of the preferred stressing scheme is described, and test results on full-size elastomeric energy storage units sized for an automotive regenerative braking system application are presented. The need for elastomeric material improvements is also discussed.

  9. Graphite fiber surface treatment to improve impact strength and fracture resistance in subsequent composites (United States)

    Paul, J. T., Jr.; Buntin, G. A.


    Graphite (or carbon) fiber composite impact strength improvement was attempted by modifying the fiber surface. Elastomeric particles were made into lattices and deposited ionically on surface treated graphite fiber in an attempt to prepare a surface containing discrete rubber particles. With hard, nonelastomeric polystyrene discrete particle coverage was achieved. All the elastomeric containing lattices resulted in elastomer flow and filament agglomeration during drying.

  10. The fractal characteristic of facial anthropometric data for developing PCA fit test panels for youth born in central China. (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Wei, Ran; Shen, Henggen


    New principal component analysis (PCA) respirator fit test panels had been developed for current American and Chinese civilian workers based on anthropometric surveys. The PCA panels used the first two principal components (PCs) obtained from a set of 10 facial dimensions. Although the PCA panels for American and Chinese subjects adopted the bivairate framework with two PCs, the number of the PCs retained in the PCA analysis was different between Chinese subjects and Americans. For the Chinese youth group, the third PC should be retained in the PCA analysis for developing new fit test panels. In this article, an additional number label (ANL) is used to explain the third PC in PCA analysis when the first two PCs are used to construct the PCA half-facepiece respirator fit test panel for Chinese group. The three-dimensional box-counting method is proposed to estimate the ANLs by calculating fractal dimensions of the facial anthropometric data of the Chinese youth. The linear regression coefficients of scale-free range R2 are all over 0.960, which demonstrates that the facial anthropometric data of the Chinese youth has fractal characteristic. The youth subjects born in Henan province has an ANL of 2.002, which is lower than the composite facial anthropometric data of Chinese subjects born in many provinces. Hence, Henan youth subjects have the self-similar facial anthropometric characteristic and should use the particular ANL (2.002) as the important tool along with using the PCA panel. The ANL method proposed in this article not only provides a new methodology in quantifying the characteristics of facial anthropometric dimensions for any ethnic/racial group, but also extends the scope of PCA panel studies to higher dimensions.

  11. 10 CFR Appendix A to Part 20 - Assigned Protection Factors for Respirators a (United States)


    ...-purifying respirators 50 Facepiece, full Powered air-purifying respirators 1000 Helmet/hood Powered air..., full Pressure Demand 1000 Helmet/hood Continuous Flow 1000 Facepiece, loose-fitting Continuous Flow 25... effective positive or negative pressure pre-use user seal check on this type of device. All other...

  12. 42 CFR Appendix - Tables to Subpart KK of Part 84 (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tables to Subpart KK of Part 84 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks Dust, fume, and...

  13. 42 CFR 84.1101 - Definitions. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 84.1101 Section 84.1101 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1101...

  14. 42 CFR 84.1153 - Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench tests; gas masks canisters containing filters... (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dust, fume, mist, and smoke tests; canister bench... Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH...; Paint Spray; Powered Air-Purifying High Efficiency Respirators and Combination Gas Masks § 84.1153 Dust...

  15. 42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...

  16. 76 FR 46678 - Tris carbamoyl triazine; Proposed Modification of Significant New Uses (United States)


    ... or helmet equipped with a High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; powered air-purifying... Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter; (D) Supplied-air respirator operated in pressure demand or... substance-specific cartridge) and should include a particulate filter (N100 if oil aerosols are absent, R100...

  17. (CI 42053) from an aqueous solution using Azadirachta indica leaf

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Nov 5, 2008 ... treatment processes are not very effective for treating a dye wastewater owing to low biodegradability of dyes. They are usually ... pesticide. The trees are also known as an air purifier. The medicinal and germicidal properties of the neem tree have been put to use in a variety of applications. The mature ...

  18. 42 CFR 84.173 - Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum requirements. (United States)


    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harnesses; installation and construction; minimum... SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Non-Powered Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.173 Harnesses; installation and...

  19. Respirators: APR Issuer Self Study 33461

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chochoms, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Respirators: APR Issuer Self-Study (course 33461) is designed to introduce and familiarize employees selected as air-purifying respirator (APR) issuers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with the responsibilities, limitations, procedures, and resources for issuing APRs at LANL. The goal is to enable these issuers to consistently provide proper, functioning APRs to authorized users

  20. 75 FR 20533 - Interpretation of “Children's Product” (United States)


    ... new skills to approximate adult performances in activities like playing sports, working with hand..., televisions, digital music players, ceiling fans, humidifiers, air purifiers, window curtains, tissue boxes..., video games, or music were specifically aimed at and marketed to children 12 years of age or younger and...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Manak


    Full Text Available Developed the device for determining the physical and mechanical properties of elastomeric materials. In contrast to the well-known device that operates on the method of Shore, used to measure only the hardness of elastomeric materials, developed the device can measure not only hardness, but also the relative deformation of the samples made of elastomeric materials, as well as the ability of these materials to restore the original dimensions after deformation. The device has a simple design includes coaxial with the direction of the force transducer strain into an electrical signal that provides a sensitivity of at least 3 mV/μm.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Pereira de Almeida ANTUNES


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar um estudo comparativo entre diferentes sistemas de materiais de moldagem, tais como o polissulfeto, a silicona de condensação e a silicona de adição, através de uma nova técnica de avaliação não destrutiva e, conseqüentemente, aplicável clinicamente. A partir da confecção de próteses fixas de três elementos, fundidas em liga de níquel-cromo, obtiveram-se réplicas tridimensionais do espaço entre a restauração e o preparo cavitário, utilizando-se uma silicona de condensação. Essas réplicas foram avaliadas microscopicamente. Os resultados indicaram que, embora alguns materiais tenham apresentado comportamento superior, como o Permlastic e o Extrude, os outros materiais estudados tiveram comportamento clinicamente aceitável, desde que seus moldes sejam convenientemente manipulados, principalmente em relação ao tempo de vazamento do gessoThe purpose of this research was to make a comparative study between different systems of impression materials, such as polysulfide, condensation and addition-curing silicones, using a new non-destructive technique of evaluation, and consequently clinically applicable. After obtaining three element nickel-chromium prosthesis, three-dimensional replicas of the space between the restoration and the prepared tooth were made, using a condensation curing silicone. These replicas were microscopically evaluated. The results showed that, although some materials presented a superior behavior, as Permlastic and Extrude, other tested materials had an acceptable clinical behavior provided that their molds had been properly manipulated, specially regarding the time of cast pouring

  3. Caracterização de artefatos elastoméricos obtidos por revulcanização de resíduo industrial de SBR (copolímero de butadieno e estireno Characterization of elastomeric artifacts obtained by revulcanization of SBR industrial waste (Styrene-butadiene Rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Weber


    Full Text Available A reciclagem de resíduos de borracha é de extrema importância nos dias de hoje, tanto em relação aos impactos ambientais quanto à conservação de energia. Considerando que a maioria dos trabalhos publicados atualmente se refere à reciclagem de pneus, o objetivo deste trabalho foi desenvolver e caracterizar formulações contendo um tipo de resíduo industrial, proveniente da fabricação de perfis automotivos, à base de copolímero de butadieno e estireno (SBR para possível aplicação na própria empresa. As composições foram preparadas e caracterizadas pela determinação das propriedades térmicas (calorimetria diferencial de varredura, reológicas (analisador de processamento de borracha, reométricas (reômetria de disco oscilatório, mecânicas (resistência à tração e ao rasgamento, químicas (densidade de ligações cruzadas e morfológicas (microscopia eletrônica de varredura. Os resultados obtidos para as composições foram comparados aos de uma amostra controle, de mesma composição, que foi fornecida pela empresa geradora do resíduo de SBR. Os resultados mecânicos indicaram que o processo de revulcanização proposto foi efetivo. Os valores dos parâmetros de tensão na ruptura e resistência ao rasgamento foram de 70 e 50%, respectivamente, em relação aos valores encontrados para a amostra controle, indicando a possibilidade do uso desse resíduo em artefatos de menor exigência técnica.The recycling of waste rubber has very important significances, such as protection of the environment and conservation of energy. Considering that most of published works concerning this subject are about tire recycling, the objective of this work was to develop and characterize formulations containing a type of industrial waste, from the manufacture of automotive profiles, based on styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR for possible application in the industry. The compositions were formulated and characterized by thermal (differential scanning calorimetry, rheological (rubber processor analyzer, rheometrical (oscillatory disc rheomether, mechanical (tensile strength and tear resistance, chemical (cross-link density and morphological properties (scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained for these compositions were compared to a control sample purchased for the industry, with the same formulation of the SBR scraps. Obtained results show that the revulcanization process was effective. Values for tensile strength and tear resistance were 70 and 50%, respectively, compared to values found for the control sample, indicating the possibility of using this residue as artifacts of lower technical requirement.

  4. Radio-oxidation of an EPDM elastomer under weak or strong ionising radiations: measurement and modelling of dioxygen consumption; Radio-oxydation d'un elastomere de type EPDM lors d'irradiations faiblement ou fortement ionisantes: mesure et modelisation de la consommation de dioxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dely, N


    Usually, the irradiation of polymers under ionising radiations occurs in air that is in the presence of oxygen. This leads to a radio oxidation process and to oxygen consumption. Our material is an EPDM elastomer (ethylene propylene 1,4 hexadiene) used as insulator in control-command cables in nuclear plants (Pressurised Water Reactor). A specific device has been conceived and built up during this PhD work for measuring very small oxygen consumptions with an accuracy of around 10%. Ionising radiations used are electrons at 1 MeV and carbon ions at 11 MeV per nucleon. Under both electron and ion irradiations, the influence of oxygen pressure on oxygen consumption has been studied in a very large range: between 1 and 200 mbar. In both cases, the yield of oxygen consumption is constant in-between 200 and 5 mbar. Then, at lower pressures, it decreases appreciably. On the other hand, the oxygen consumption during ion irradiation is four times smaller than during electron irradiation. This emphasizes the role of the heterogeneity of the energy deposition at a nano-metric scale. The adjustment of the experimental results obtained during electron irradiation with the general homogeneous steady-state kinetic model has allowed extracting all the values of the kinetic parameters for the chosen mechanism of radio oxidation. The knowledge of these numbers will allow us to face our results obtained during ion irradiation with a heterogeneous kinetic model under development. (author)

  5. Stretchable, weavable coiled carbon nanotube/MnO2/polymer fiber solid-state supercapacitors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Choi, Changsoon; Kim, Shi Hyeong; Sim, Hyeon Jun; Lee, Jae Ah; Choi, A Young; Kim, Youn Tae; Lepró, Xavier; Spinks, Geoffrey M; Baughman, Ray H; Kim, Seon Jeong


    Fiber and yarn supercapacitors that are elastomerically deformable without performance loss are sought for such applications as power sources for wearable electronics, micro-devices, and implantable medical devices...

  6. Plastic molds reduce cost of encapsulating electric cable connectors (United States)

    Knott, D.


    Resin casting of the aluminum master pattern forms a plastic mold for encapsulating a cable connector. An elastomer is injected into the mold and cured. The mold is disassembled leaving an elastomeric encapsulation around the connector.

  7. Silicone Adhesives for High Temperature Inflatable Fabrics and Polymer Films Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Thin films, elastomeric materials, high temperature fabrics and adhesives that are capable of withstanding thermal extremes (-130oC to 500oC) are highly desirable...

  8. Thermally-Stable High Strain Deployable Structures Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed innovation is for the development of a thermally-stable composite made of carbon fibers and elastomeric resin. This combination of materials will allow...

  9. Soft Smart Garments for Lower Limb Joint Position Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Massimo Totaro; Tommaso Poliero; Alessio Mondini; Chiara Lucarotti; Giovanni Cairoli; Jesùs Ortiz; Lucia Beccai


    ... electronics are embedded for retrieving movement of the specific joint. Stretchable capacitive sensors with a three-electrode configuration are built combining conductive textiles and elastomeric layers, and distributed around knee and ankle...

  10. Difunctional polyisobutylene prepared by polymerization of monomer on molecular sieve (United States)

    Midler, J. A., Jr.


    Process yields difunctional isobutylene polymers ranging in molecular weight from 1150 to 3600. These polymers have the potential for copolymerization and cross-linking with other monomers to form elastomeric materials.

  11. Determination of brace forces caused by construction loads and wind loads during bridge construction : [summary]. (United States)


    Bridges are constructed in stages as pilings, : columns, girders, decks, and other components : are added. At each stage, the structure must be : stable. Girders, which add significant weight to : the developing structure, rest on elastomeric : beari...

  12. Cold. A fairytale from Orient: Burj al Arab, the new landmark of Dubai; Kaelte. Ein Maerchen aus tausend + einer Nacht: Burj al Arab, das neue Wahrzeichen Dubais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eleftheriadis, G.


    The air conditioning for this hotel plays an important role. To protect coolant water lines safely from dew water and hold down energy losses as low as possible, an elastomere insulating material has been selected. (orig/GL) [German] Der Klimatisierung des Hotels kam im unwirtlichen Wuestenklima natuerlich eine besondere Bedeutung zu. Um die Kuehlwasserleitungen der Klimaanlage sicher vor Tauwasser zu schuetzen und die Energieverluste so gering wie moeglich zu halten, wurde ein elastomerer Daemmstoff gewaehlt. (orig.)

  13. Robust Soft Textile Transfer Case for Contaminated Materials (United States)


    requirements. Silicone and other materials options exist, including thermoplastic urethane. [0039] After molding , the open end of the bladder 14 is...air leakage during operation, the soft transfer case has a molded elastomeric bladder containable within the outer circular woven preform. The fabric...liquid crystal polymer). [0037] The bladder 14 is molded by using an elastomeric material in a pouch-shaped form having a single open end and is

  14. Heat sealable, flame and abrasion resistant coated fabric. [clothing and containers for space exploration (United States)

    Tschirch, R. P.; Sidman, K. R. (Inventor)


    Flame retardant, abrasion resistant elastomeric compositions are comprised of thermoplastic polyurethane polymer and flame retarding amounts of a filler selected from decabromodiphenyloxide and antimony oxide in a 3:1 weight ratio, and decabromodiphenyloxide, antimony oxide, and ammonium polyphosphate in a 3:1:3 weight ratio respectively. Coated fabrics employing such elastomeric compositions as coating film are flexible, lightweight, and air impermeable and can be made using heat or dielectric sealing procedures.

  15. PTR-MS Assessment of Photocatalytic and Sorption-Based Purification of Recirculated Cabin Air during Simulated 7-h Flights with High Passenger Density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wisthaler, Armin; Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Fang, Lei


    flights with 17 occupants. Protontransfer reaction mass spectrometry was used to assess organic gas-phase pollutants and the performance of each air purifier. The concentration of most organic pollutants present in aircraft cabin air was effi-ciently reduced by all three units. The photocatalytic units...... were found to incompletely oxidize ethanol released by the wet wipes commonly supplied with airline meals to produce unacceptably high levels of acetaldehyde and formalde-hyde....

  16. The Reaction of Oxygen-Nitrogen Mixtures with Granular Activated Carbons Below the Spontaneous Ignition Temperature. (United States)


    of a coconut shell charcoal . In contrast to the above sparse oxygen coverage, later measurements (3) with ozone and oxygen formed surface Figure 2 as a function of time. The sample in this case was a coconut shell charcoal and the inlet gas flow was air purified of CO2 and CO. The...300 CTEMPERATURE, 0C 6 200 i r 0 IFig. 5: � LU to ... Thermometric analysis from a • the programmed heating of *- -* coconut shell charcoal *(G

  17. Thermal and rheological behavior of reactive blends from metallocene olefin elastomers and polypropylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nei S. Domingues Junior


    Full Text Available Reactive blends of metallocene polyolefin elastomers (POE/polypropylene (PP with 60/40 composition were prepared with an organic peroxide, 2,5-dimethyl-2,5-di-(t-butylperoxyhexane, and a bis-azide derivative, diphenyloxid-4,4'-bis(sulfonylazide (BSA. Ethylene-1-butene (EB and ethylene-1-octene (EO copolymers and elastomeric polypropylene (ePP were used as the elastomeric phase. The effect of elastomeric phase on the thermal, rheological, morphological and mechanical properties of the thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs or dynamic vulcanizates were studied. All TPVs depicted pseudoplastic behavior and blends cured with azide curative showed higher viscosities. The TPVs showed both dispersed and continuous phase morphology that depends on the elastomeric phase type revealing a limited degree of compatibility between PP and the elastomers EO or EB. On the other hand, the TPV PP/ePP showed a uniform morphology suggesting an improved compatibility. Substantial changes observed in physical properties were explained on the basis of blends' morphology and dynamic vulcanization. The results confirm that the mechanical properties are more influenced by the elastomeric phase than by the curative agent. This study revealed a broad new range of opportunities for POE-based TPVs.

  18. Sliding resistance with esthetic ligatures: an in-vitro study. (United States)

    Bortoly, Thaís Gelatti; Guerrero, Ariana Pulido; Rached, Rodrigo Nunes; Tanaka, Orlando; Guariza-Filho, Odilon; Rosa, Edvaldo Antônio Ribeiro


    This study was developed to evaluate in vitro the properties related to sliding resistance of esthetic ligatures. Frictional force of 6 ligatures--2 conventional, 2 specially coated elastomeric, Teflon-coated (Dupont, Wilmington, Del) stainless steel, and stainless steel (control) ligatures--were studied by sliding 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel wire through the 0.22-in slot of stainless steel bracket. Elastomeric ligatures were tested for frictional and tensile forces under 3 experimental conditions: recent stretching, after 21 days of simulated stretching in artificial saliva, and a demineralizing/remineralizing regimen. Statistical analysis was conducted with ANOVA and Games-Howell tests. There was high correlation between frictional and tensile forces of elastomeric ligatures, with reduction of both after 21 days. The demineralizing/remineralizing regimen reduced the frictional forces of ligatures to the same level as the ligatures in artificial saliva. Teflon-coated and stainless steel ligatures showed the lowest initial frictional forces, but there was no difference in friction of stainless steel and post-stretched elastomeric ligatures. Frictional forces generated by esthetic elastomeric ligatures under simulated oral environments are not stable and are more related to tensile force than to surface characteristics of the ligatures.

  19. Effect of Nanoclay on Mechanical Properties and Ablation Behavior of a Nitrile-Based Heat Insulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Arabgol


    Full Text Available Thermal insulation of rocket motor chamber is one of the most important functions of elastomeric ablative material. Combustion of solid rocket motor propellant produces turbulent media containing gases with a velocity more than 1000 m/s, temperature and pressure more than 3000°C and 10 MPa, respectively,which destroys all metallic alloys. Elastomeric nanocomposite heat insulators are more attractive subjects in comparison to their non-elastomeric counterparts, due to their excellent thermal stresses and larger deformation bearing capacity. Nitrile rubber with high thermal properties is a proper candidate in such applications. Development in ablation performance of these heat shields is considered as an important challenge nowadays. A few works have been recently carried out using organoclay to enhancethe ablation and mechanical properties of heat insulators. In this work, an elastomeric heat insulator with superior ablative and mechanical properties was presented using nanotechnology. The results showed that an elastomeric nanocomposite heat insulator containing 15 wt% organoclay exhibits superior characteristics compared to its composite counterpart such as: 46% more tensile strength, 60% more elongationat-break, 1.7 times higher modulus (at 100% strain, 62% higher “insulating index number” and 36% lower mass ablation and erosion rates under a standard test with a heat flux of 2500 kW/m2 for 15 s.

  20. A Study of the Preload Force in Metal-Elastomer Torsion Springs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikora Wojciech


    Full Text Available Neidhart type suspension units composed of metal-elastomer torsion springs can be a good alternative to steel helical springs in applications such as vibration absorbers or vehicle suspension systems. Assembling this type of spring requires initial preload of the elastomeric working elements, which determines their operating properties. The results of experimental tests and numerical simulations concerning the preload of elastomeric working elements in Neidhart type suspension units are presented in the paper. The performed research made it possible to propose a new calculation model for determining the preload force value acting on the elastomeric cylindrical elements applied in this type of suspension unit. The results obtained using the proposed model exhibit good convergence with FEM simulation results within the range of the tested geometrical and material properties.

  1. Numerical analysis and experimental verification of elastomer bending process with different material models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kut Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests in order to verifying the effectiveness of the nine selected elastomeric material models (Neo-Hookean, Mooney with two and three constants, Signorini, Yeoh, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, Gent and Marlow, which the material constants were determined in one material test - the uniaxial tension testing. The convergence assessment of nine analyzed models were made on the basis of their performance from an experimental bending test of the elastomer samples from the results of numerical calculations FEM for each material models. To calculate the material constants for the analyzed materials, a model has been generated by the stressstrain characteristics created as a result of experimental uniaxial tensile test with elastomeric dumbbell samples, taking into account the parameters received in its 18th cycle. Using such a calculated material constants numerical simulation of the bending process of a elastomeric, parallelepipedic sampleswere carried out using MARC / Mentat program.

  2. Comparação in vitro da degradação da força gerada por cadeias elastoméricas e por molas fechadas de NiTi de diferentes marcas comerciais


    Ana Cristina Soares Santos; André Tortamano; Sandra Regina Frazatto Naccarato; Gladys Cristina Dominguez-Rodriguez; Julio Wilson Vigorito


    This in vitro study was designed to compare the forces generated by commercially available elastomeric chains and NiTi closed coil springs, and to determine their force decay pattern. Forty elastomeric chains and forty NiTi closed coil springs were divided into 4 groups according to the following manufacturers: (1) Morelli®, (2) Abzil®, (3) TP Orthodontics® and (4) American Orthodontics®. The specimens were extended to twice their original length and stored in artificial saliva at 37°C. I...

  3. Study of rheological, viscoelastic and vulcanization behavior of sponge EPDM/NR blended nano- composites (United States)

    Arshad Bashir, M.; Shahid, M.; Ahmed, Riaz; Yahya, A. G.


    In this research paper the effect of blending ratio of natural rubber (NR) with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM) were investigated. Different samples of EPDM/NR ratio were prepared to study the variation of NR in EPDM on rheology, curing characteristics, tangent δ, and viscosity variation during vulcanization of sponge nano composites.The main aim of present research is to develop elastomeric based sponge composites with the blending ratio of base elastomers along with the carbon nano particles for high energy absorbing and damping applications. The curing characteristics, rheology and viscoelastic nature of the composite is remarkably influenced with the progressive blending ratio of the base elastomeric matrix.

  4. One-pot preparation of gold-elastomer nanocomposites using PDMS-graft-PEO copolymer micelles as nanoreactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoppe, C.E.; Lazzari, M.; Lopez-Quintela, M.A. [Laboratory of Magnetism and Nanotechnology, Institute of Technological Investigations and Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Rodriguez-Abreu, C.; Solans, C. [Institut d' Investigacions Quimiques i Ambientals de Barcelona (IIQAB/CSIC), Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)


    PDMS/gold elastomeric nanocomposites were obtained in a one-pot process based on the use of micelles of a random graft amphiphilic copolymer as reducing nanoreactors for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles within the elastomeric matrix. Optical characteristics of the nanocomposites were very dependent on the composition of the sample, which affected the size and aggregation level of the nanoparticles. Homogeneous dispersions of spherical nanoparticles were obtained for high copolymer/metal solution ratios and low copolymer concentrations. The optical clarity of the materials was retained after polymerization, which is fundamental for optical applications. (copyright 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Home interventions are effective at decreasing indoor nitrogen dioxide concentrations. (United States)

    Paulin, L M; Diette, G B; Scott, M; McCormack, M C; Matsui, E C; Curtin-Brosnan, J; Williams, D L; Kidd-Taylor, A; Shea, M; Breysse, P N; Hansel, N N


    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2 ), a by-product of combustion produced by indoor gas appliances such as cooking stoves, is associated with respiratory symptoms in those with obstructive airways disease. We conducted a three-armed randomized trial to evaluate the efficacy of interventions aimed at reducing indoor NO2 concentrations in homes with unvented gas stoves: (i) replacement of existing gas stove with electric stove; (ii) installation of ventilation hood over existing gas stove; and (iii) placement of air purifiers with high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) and carbon filters. Home inspection and NO2 monitoring were conducted at 1 week pre-intervention and at 1 week and 3 months post-intervention. Stove replacement resulted in a 51% and 42% decrease in median NO2 concentration at 3 months of follow-up in the kitchen and bedroom, respectively (P = 0.01, P = 0.01); air purifier placement resulted in an immediate decrease in median NO2 concentration in the kitchen (27%, P nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and higher NO2 concentrations, are associated with worse respiratory morbidity in people with obstructive lung disease. A handful of studies have modified the indoor environment by replacing unvented gas heaters; this study, to our knowledge, is the first randomized study to target unvented gas stoves. The results of this study show that simple home interventions, including replacement of an unvented gas stove with an electric stove or placement of HEPA air purifiers with carbon filters, can significantly decrease indoor NO2 concentrations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Fabrication Techniques for Unusual Electronic Systems: Silicon Microstructures for Photovoltaic Modules (United States)

    Baca, Alfred


    Electronics that can cover large areas, often referred to as macroelectronics, has received increasing attention over the past decade mainly due to it use in display systems, but increasingly due to certain forms of macroelectronics that can be integrated with thin plastic sheets or elastomeric substrates to yield mechanically flexible and…

  7. An in vivo Study on Bacterial Colonization with Metal, Ceramic and Self-ligating Brackets: A Scanning Electron Microscopy Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aravind S Raju


    Conclusion: This study highlights that higher retention of plaque in ceramic brackets ligated with elastomeric ring followed with metal brackets ligated with steel ligatures and comparatively less plaque retention in self-ligating brackets. Excess composite around the bracket base is the critical site of plaque accumulation associated with fixed appliances due to its rough surface texture.

  8. Optical Fiber Sensors For Monitoring Joint Articulation And Chest Expansion Of A Human Body (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Allison, Stephen W.


    Fiber-optic sensors employing optical fibers of elastomeric material are incorporated in devices adapted to be worn by human beings in joint and chest regions for the purpose of monitoring and measuring the extent of joint articulation and chest expansion especially with respect to time.

  9. Preparation of degradable porous structures based on 1,3-trimethylene carbonate and D,L-lactide (co)polymers for heart tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pego, AP; Siebum, B; Van Luyn, MJA; Van Seijen, XJGY; Poot, AA; Grijpma, DW; Feijen, J


    Biodegradable porous scaffolds for heart tissue engineering were prepared from amorphous elastomeric (co)polymers of 1,3-trimethylene carbonate (TMC) and D,L-lactide (DLLA). Leaching of salt from compression-molded polymer-salt composites allowed the preparation of highly porous structures in a

  10. Asbestos free friction composition for brake linings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An asbestos free friction material composite for brake linings is synthesized containing fibrous reinforcing constituents, friction imparting and controlling additives, elastomeric additives, fire retarding components and a thermosetting resin. The composite shows exemplary friction characteristics and has great resistance to ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Shabunina


    Full Text Available Application liquid oligodienes as a part of polymeric compositions on the basis of 1,4-cispolyisoprene SKI-5 rubber is investigated. Extent of influence of quantity of an entered oligomer and his functionality on rheological and elastic and strength properties of elastomeric compositions is established. Nature of dispersing action functional and nonfunctional oligodienes is defined.

  12. Large Amplitude Oscillatory Extension of Soft Polymeric Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Skov, Anne Ladegaard


    sing a filament stretching rheometer (FSR) surrounded by a thermostatic chamber and equipped with a micrometric laser it is possible to measure large amplitude oscillatory elongation (LAOE) on elastomeric based networks with no base flow as in the LAOE method for polymer melts. Poly...

  13. Electric-hybrid-vehicle simulation (United States)

    Pasma, D. C.

    The simulation of electric hybrid vehicles is to be performed using experimental data to model propulsion system components. The performance of an existing ac propulsion system will be used as the baseline for comparative purposes. Hybrid components to be evaluated include electrically and mechanically driven flywheels, and an elastomeric regenerative braking system.

  14. A High Performance Fiber Optic Pressure Penetrator for Use in the Deep Ocean. (United States)


    effort. Historically, epoxy-filled hypodermic needles , epoxy pottinos, and elastomeric soueeze bushinos (references 1 & 2) have been employed when it is just barel-y po~ssible ( in theory ) to achieve the req(ui red 11 .0 micron peak tolePrance ( on the average) necessary to exhibit less than I

  15. A comparative study on the influence of the platinum catalyst in poly(dimethylsiloxane) based networks synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela; Poulsen, Julie Øblom; Skov, Anne Ladegaard


    The aim of the project is to find the best of three Pt catalysts and their appropriate quantity in order to obtain soft networks in one hour at room temperature. How the choice of catalyst influences the final elastomeric properties is also evaluated. The differences between the catalysts are the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Popov


    Full Text Available Improvement of quality is inseparably linked with development of new approaches to increase of stability of operational properties of elastomeric composites. One of such ways is use of carbon nanomaterials as the modifier of properties of a polymeric matrix.

  17. 76 FR 22017 - Implementation of the Understandings Reached at the 2010 Australia Group (AG) Plenary Meeting and... (United States)


    ... ``polymeric or elastomeric materials with more than 35% fluorine by weight.'' This rule also adds a.... This collection has been approved by OMB under Control Number 0694-0088 (Multi-Purpose Application...% fluorine by weight)'' immediately following the word ``Fluoropolymers'', where it appears in paragraphs a.3...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Polyuga


    Full Text Available In the article the description of structural bearing types for roadway bridges and their classification is given. Special attention is paid to effective bearings with elastomeric materials – rubber, pot, spherical ones. Characteristic defects of structural bearings and demands of serviceability are noticed.

  19. Efficacy of Vancomycin-based Continuous Triple Antibiotic Irrigation in Immediate, Implant-based Breast Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Hunsicker, MD, FACS


    Conclusions:. Continuous breast irrigation with a vancomycin-based triple antibiotic solution is a safe and effective accompaniment for immediate implant reconstruction. Use of intramuscular anesthetic injection for postoperative pain control allows the elastomeric infusion pump to be available for local tissue antibiotic irrigation.

  20. Flexible 2D RF Nanoelectronics based on Layered Semiconductor Transistor (NBIT III) (United States)


    we investigated temperature distribution during laser annealing process by 3-dimensional (3D) finite-difference methods (FDM) using COMSOL ...nonlinear stress analysis is performed through COMSOL Multiphysics. It is generally known that when an elastomeric slab is bent with arbitrary radius r

  1. Experimental and analytical tools for evaluation of Stirling engine rod seal behavior (United States)

    Krauter, A. I.; Cheng, H. S.


    The first year of a two year experimental and analytical program is reported. The program is directed at the elastohydrodynamic behavior of sliding elastomeric rod seals for the Stirling engine. During the year, experimental and analytical tools were developed for evaluating seal leakage, seal friction, and the fluid film thickness at the seal/cylinder interface.

  2. Load-release of small and macromolecules from elastomers with reversible gyroid mesoporosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Fengxiao; Schulte, Lars; Ndoni, Sokol


    A collapsed elastomeric matrix of lightly cross-linked 1,2-polybutadiene (1,2-PB) was prepared from a self-assembled 1,2-polybutadiene-b- polydimethylsiloxane (1,2-PB-b-PDMS) of gyroid morphology after the removal of the PDMS block. No mesoporosity could be observed in the material in the dry state...

  3. Environmental and Sustainable Technology Evaluation: Mold-Resistant Armacell Insulation--Armacell LLC, AP Armaflex Black (United States)

    The ESTE test program measured the mold resistance of Armacell AP Armaflex Black insulation. Tests for emissions of VOCs and formaldehyde were also performed. AP Armaflex Roll Insulation is a black flexible closed-cell, fiber-free elastomeric thermal insulation. The expanded clos...

  4. 24 CFR 200.946 - Building product standards and certification program for exterior finish and insulation systems... (United States)


    ...) ASTM G 26-93 Standard Practice for Operating Light-Exposure Apparatus (Xenon-Arc Type) With and Without... Engineers—Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures. (ii) ASTM C 150-94 Standard Specification for Portland Cement. (iii) ASTM C 920-87 Standard Specification for Elastomeric Joint Sealants. (iv...

  5. Adhesive Micropatterns for Cells: A Microcontact Printing Protocol




    Authors: Manuel Théry and Matthieu Piel Corresponding authors ([](); []()) ### INTRODUCTION This protocol describes a simple, fast, and efficient method for making adhesive micropatterns that can be used to control individual cell shape and adhesion patterns. It is based on the use of an elastomeric stamp containing microfeatures to print proteins on the substrate of choice. The process can be subdiv...

  6. Compressive response of a glass-polymer system at various strain rates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, J.T.; Weerheijm, J.; Sluys, L.J.


    A glass-polymer system of a polyurethane elastomeric matrix with a single 3 mm-diameter glass particle was investigated using a split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) setup for revealing the dynamic compressive mechanical response. This study produced the characteristics of the dynamic stress-strain

  7. Bimodal Networks as Candidates for Electroactive Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahrt, Frederikke; Daugaard, Anders Egede; Bejenariu, Anca Gabriela

    An alternative network formulation method was adopted in order to obtain a different type of silicone based elastomeric systems - the so-called bimodal networks - using two vinyl-terminated polydimethyl siloxanes (PDMS) of different molecular weight, a labelled crosslinker (3 or 4-functional...

  8. 49 CFR 571.116 - Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids. (United States)


    ... use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles. In addition, S5.3 applies to passenger cars.... This standard specifies requirements for fluids for use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles... vehicle hydraulic brake system in which it will contact elastomeric components made of styrene and...

  9. Ultrastretchable Analog/Digital Signal Transmission Line with Carbon Nanotube Sheets. (United States)

    Lee, Yourack; Joo, Min-Kyu; Le, Viet Thong; Ovalle-Robles, Raquel; Lepró, Xavier; Lima, Márcio D; Suh, Daniel G; Yu, Han Young; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok


    Stretchable conductors can be used in various applications depending on their own characteristics. Here, we demonstrate simple and robust elastomeric conductors that are optimized for stretchable electrical signal transmission line. They can withstand strains up to 600% without any substantial change in their resistance (≤10% as is and ≤1% with passivation), and exhibit suppressed charge fluctuations in the medium. The inherent elasticity of a polymeric rubber and the high conductivity of flexible, highly oriented carbon nanotube sheets were combined synergistically, without losing both properties. The nanoscopic strong adhesion between aligned carbon nanotube arrays and strained elastomeric polymers induces conductive wavy folds with microscopic bending of radii on the scale of a few micrometers. Such features enable practical applications such as in elastomeric length-changeable electrical digital and analog signal transmission lines at above MHz frequencies. In addition to reporting basic direct current, alternating current, and noise characterizations of the elastomeric conductors, various examples as a stretchable signal transmission line up to 600% strains are presented by confirming the capability of transmitting audio and video signals, as well as low-frequency medical signals without information distortion.

  10. Permeation of atmospheric gases through polymer O-rings used in flasks for air sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, P.; Leuenberger, M.; Sirignano, C.; Neubert, R.E.M.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Langenfelds, R.; Brand, W.A.; Tohjiama, Y.


    [1] Permeation of various gases through elastomeric O-ring seals can have important effects on the integrity of atmospheric air samples collected in flasks and measured some time later. Depending on the materials and geometry of flasks and valves and on partial pressure differences between sample

  11. Measuring the Rebound Resilience of a Bouncing Ball (United States)

    Wadhwa, Ajay


    Some balls which are made of high-quality rubber (an elastomeric) material, such as tennis or squash balls, could be used for the determination of an important property of such materials called resilience. Since a bouncing ball involves a single impact we call this property "rebound resilience" and express it as the ratio of the rebound height to…

  12. Perspiration Thresholds and Secure Suspension for Lower Limb Amputees in Demanding Environments (United States)


    VAPSHCS) site, fabricating custom, moisture-wicking textile sock with a proximal elastomeric seal, fabricating prosthetic sockets, fabricating electronic...Aims: This research has two specific aims: (1) determine if lower limb amputees are willing to use smart activity monitors as part of their daily life

  13. Processing and characterization of recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate) blends with chain extenders, thermoplastic elastomer, and/or poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (United States)

    Yottha Srithep; Alireza Javadi; Srikanth Pilla; Lih-Sheng Turng; Shaoqin Gong; Craig Clemons; Jun Peng


    Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) resin is one of the most widely used thermoplastics, especially in packaging. Because thermal and hydrolytic degradations, recycled PET (RPET) exhibits poor mechanical properties and lacks moldability. The effects of adding elastomeric modifiers, chain extenders (CE), and poly(butylenes adipate-co-terephthalate), PBAT, as a toughener...

  14. Dielectric Elastomer Actuated Systems and Methods (United States)

    Dubowsky, Steven (Inventor); Hafez, Moustapha (Inventor); Lichter, Matthew (Inventor); Weiss, Peter (Inventor); Wingert, Andreas (Inventor)


    The system of the present invention includes an actuator having at least two electrodes, an elastomeric dielectric film disposed between the two electrodes, and a frame attached to the elastomeric dielectric film. The frame provides a linear actuation force characteristic over a displacement range. The displacement range is preferably the stroke of the actuator. The displacement range can be about 5 mm and greater. Further, the frame can include a plurality of configurations, for example, at least a rigid members coupled to a flexible member wherein the frame provides an elastic restoring force. In preferred embodiments, the rigid member can be, but is not limited to, curved beams, parallel beams, rods and plates. In a preferred embodiment the actuator can further include a passive element disposed between two flexible members such as, for example, links to tune a stiffness characteristic of the actuator. The passive element can be a bi-stable element. Further, the actuator can include a plurality of layers of the elastomeric dielectric film integrated into the frame. The elastomeric film can be made of different materials such as, for example, acrylic, silicone and latex.

  15. Leading edge erosion of coated wind turbine blades: Review of coating life models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, H.M.; Gelinck, E.R.M.; Rentrop, C.; Heider, E. van der


    Erosion of the leading edge of wind turbine blades by droplet impingement wear, reduces blade aerodynamic efficiency and power output. Eventually, it compromises the integrity of blade surfaces. Elastomeric coatings are currently used for erosion resistance, yet the life of such coatings cannot be

  16. 40 CFR 82.70 - Nonessential Class II products and exceptions. (United States)


    ... in the production of plastic and elastomeric materials, which contain class II substances for solvent... a propellant where evidence of good faith efforts to secure alternatives indicates that, other than a class I substance, there are no suitable alternatives; (v) Spinnerette lubricants/cleaning sprays...

  17. Microfluidics in the Undergraduate Laboratory: Device Fabrication and an Experiment to Mimic Intravascular Gas Embolism (United States)

    Jablonski, Erin L.; Vogel, Brandon M.; Cavanagh, Daniel P.; Beers, Kathryn L.


    A method to fabricate microfluidic devices and an experimental protocol to model intravascular gas embolism for undergraduate laboratories are presented. The fabrication process details how to produce masters on glass slides; these masters serve as molds to pattern channels in an elastomeric polymer that can be adhered to a substrate, resulting in…

  18. Plasma modification of polymeric single end cords as an alternative to RFL treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louis, Andre; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Dierkes, Wilma K.; Blume, Anke


    Adhesion between reinforcing fibers and the matrix is crucial for a good performance of a wide variety of elastomeric products. RFL treatment is most commonly used to achieve rubber-fiber adhesion for decades; however, there are health concerns related to this method. Therefore, alternative methods

  19. Traditional elastic ligatures versus slide ligation system. A morphological evaluation. (United States)

    Condò, R; Casaglia, A; Armellin, E; Condò, S G; Cerroni, L


    Elastomeric materials play an important role in the orthodontic practice, including the retraction force to move teeth into extraction sites, closing diastemas, selective shifting of the midline and generalized space closure. Frictional resistance and ligating strength of archwire-bracket-ligature complex occurs during utilization of elastomeric and metallic ligatures when orthodontic forces are applicated. The aim of this study was to analyze elastic deformation of three types of elastomeric ligatures, after clinical use. ELASTOMERIC LIGATURES: ring-shape, transparent, latex ligatures (Leone® S.p.A.), ring-shape, grey, polyurethane ligatures (Micerium® S.p.A.) and grey, polyurethane, Slide low-friction ligatures (Leone® S.p.A.). A total of 9 orthodontic patients undergoing fixed orthodontic therapy were selected. Three specimens were applied, one for each types of ligature, inside the oral cavity of each subject. Samples were kept in the oral cavity for 28 days, ligating 0.16 X 0.22 inches stainless steel archwires to stainless steel premolars brackets (Leone® S.p.A., Sesto Fiorentino, FI, Italy) for Bidimensional technique. After the pre-established time, the systems of ligature were removed and washed. Control group consisted of 9 unused specimens of each ligation type. Each elastomeric ligature was observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to determine variations in size. The archwire-bracket-ligature complex was also analyzed. Transparent O-ring ligatures showed significant volumetric and structural changes. The external rounded shape was rather maintained, while the internal shape tended to appear square. Both external and internal diameter significantly increased (pO-ring ligatures endure significant volumetric and structural changes, after clinical use, index of a greater degree of friction and early loss in functionality. Grey, polyurethane Slide low-friction ligatures presented limited variation in size after clinical use.

  20. Plant leaves as indoor air passive samplers for volatile organic compounds (VOCs). (United States)

    Wetzel, Todd A; Doucette, William J


    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) enter indoor environments through internal and external sources. Indoor air concentrations of VOCs vary greatly but are generally higher than outdoors. Plants have been promoted as indoor air purifiers for decades, but reports of their effectiveness differ. However, while air-purifying applications may be questionable, the waxy cuticle coating on leaves may provide a simple, cost-effective approach to sampling indoor air for VOCs. To investigate the potential use of plants as indoor air VOC samplers, a static headspace approach was used to examine the relationship between leaf and air concentrations, leaf lipid contents and octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) for six VOCs and four plant species. The relationship between leaf and air concentrations was further examined in an actual residence after the introduction of several chlorinated VOC emission sources. Leaf-air concentration factors (LACFs), calculated from linear regressions of the laboratory headspace data, were found to increase as the solvent extractable leaf lipid content and Koa value of the VOC increased. In the studies conducted in the residence, leaf concentrations paralleled the changing air concentrations, indicating a relatively rapid air to leaf VOC exchange. Overall, the data from the laboratory and residential studies illustrate the potential for plant leaves to be used as cost effective, real-time indoor air VOC samplers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fully Printed Stretchable Thin-Film Transistors and Integrated Logic Circuits. (United States)

    Cai, Le; Zhang, Suoming; Miao, Jinshui; Yu, Zhibin; Wang, Chuan


    This paper reports intrinsically stretchable thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated logic circuits directly printed on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates. The printed devices utilize carbon nanotubes and a type of hybrid gate dielectric comprising PDMS and barium titanate (BaTiO3) nanoparticles. The BaTiO3/PDMS composite simultaneously provides high dielectric constant, superior stretchability, low leakage, as well as good printability and compatibility with the elastomeric substrate. Both TFTs and logic circuits can be stretched beyond 50% strain along either channel length or channel width directions for thousands of cycles while showing no significant degradation in electrical performance. This work may offer an entry into more sophisticated stretchable electronic systems with monolithically integrated sensors, actuators, and displays, fabricated by scalable and low-cost methods for real life applications.

  2. Compression resistance of four interocclusal recording materials. (United States)

    Breeding, L C; Dixon, D L


    Elastomeric impression materials are popular for making interocclusal records to mount casts on dental articulators. The resistance of these materials to compressive forces is critical, because any deformation during the recording or mounting process could result in inaccurate articulation of casts and faulty fabrication of restorations. This investigation compared the deformation of designated thicknesses (2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm) for four elastomeric interocclusal recording materials (Blu-Mousse, Stat BR, Ramitec, and Regisil) when subjected to a 25 N compressive load. Compressive distortions of clinical significance were recorded for all of the materials with various thicknesses. The Blu-Mousse vinyl polysiloxane registration material exhibited the greatest resistance to compression for the designated thicknesses, and these resistance values were significantly lower than those of the other recording materials with thicknesses of 5, 10, and 20 mm (alpha < 0.05).

  3. Artificial heart for humanoid robot using coiled SMA actuators (United States)

    Potnuru, Akshay; Tadesse, Yonas


    Previously, we have presented the design and characterization of artificial heart using cylindrical shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for humanoids [1]. The robotic heart was primarily designed to pump a blood-like fluid to parts of the robot such as the face to simulate blushing or anger by the use of elastomeric substrates for the transport of fluids. It can also be used for other applications. In this paper, we present an improved design by using high strain coiled SMAs and a novel pumping mechanism that uses sequential actuation to create peristalsis-like motions, and hence pump the fluid. Various placements of actuators will be investigated with respect to the silicone elastomeric body. This new approach provides a better performance in terms of the fluid volume pumped.

  4. The Effect of Surface Contamination on Adhesive Forces as Measured by Contact Mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The contact adhesive forces between two surfaces, one being a soft hemisphere and the other being a hard plate, can readily be determined by applying an external compressive load to mate the two surfaces and subsequently applying a tensile load to peel the surfaces apart. The contact region is assumed the superposition of elastic Hertzian pressure and of the attractive surface forces that act only over the contact area. What are the effects of the degree of surface contamination on adhesive forces? Clean aluminum surfaces were coated with hexadecane as a controlled contaminant. The force required to pull an elastomeric hemisphere from a surface was determined by contact mechanics, via the JKR model, using a model siloxane network for the elastomeric contact sphere. Due to the dispersive nature of the elastomer surface, larger forces were required to pull the sphere from a contaminated surface than a clean aluminum oxide surface.

  5. Silicon nanomembranes for fingertip electronics (United States)

    Ying, Ming; Bonifas, Andrew P.; Lu, Nanshu; Su, Yewang; Li, Rui; Cheng, Huanyu; Ameen, Abid; Huang, Yonggang; Rogers, John A.


    We describe the use of semiconductor nanomaterials, advanced fabrication methods and unusual device designs for a class of electronics capable of integration onto the inner and outer surfaces of thin, elastomeric sheets in closed-tube geometries, specially formed for mounting on the fingertips. Multifunctional systems of this type allow electrotactile stimulation with electrode arrays multiplexed using silicon nanomembrane (Si NM) diodes, high-sensitivity strain monitoring with Si NM gauges, and tactile sensing with elastomeric capacitors. Analytical calculations and finite element modeling of the mechanics quantitatively capture the key behaviors during fabrication/assembly, mounting and use. The results provide design guidelines that highlight the importance of the NM geometry in achieving the required mechanical properties. This type of technology could be used in applications ranging from human-machine interfaces to ‘instrumented’ surgical gloves and many others.

  6. A Coating-Free Nonfouling Polymeric Elastomer. (United States)

    Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Jain, Priyesh; Zhang, Peng; Sun, Fang; Sinclair, Andrew; Bai, Tao; Li, Bowen; Wu, Kan; Tsao, Caroline; Liu, Erik J; Sundaram, Harihara S; Lin, Xiaojie; Farahani, Payam; Fujihara, Timothy; Jiang, Shaoyi


    Medical devices face nonspecific biofouling from proteins, cells, and microorganisms, which significantly contributes to complications and device failure. Imparting these devices with nonfouling capabilities remains a major challenge, particularly for those made from elastomeric polymers. Current strategies, including surface coating and copolymerization/physical blending, necessitate compromise among nonfouling properties, durability, and mechanical strength. Here, a new strategy is reported to achieve both high bulk mechanical strength and excellent surface nonfouling properties, which are typically contradictory, in one material. This is realized through a nonfouling polymeric elastomer based on zwitterionic polycarboxybetaine derivatives. By hiding both charged moieties of the zwitterionic compounds with hydrocarbon ester and tertiary amine groups, the bulk polymer itself is elastomeric and hydrophobic while its superhydrophilic surface properties are restored upon hydrolysis. This coating-free nonfouling elastomer is a highly promising biomaterial for biomedical and engineering applications. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Stretchable electronics based on Ag-PDMS composites (United States)

    Larmagnac, Alexandre; Eggenberger, Samuel; Janossy, Hanna; Vörös, Janos


    Patterned structures of flexible, stretchable, electrically conductive materials on soft substrates could lead to novel electronic devices with unique mechanical properties allowing them to bend, fold, stretch or conform to their environment. For the last decade, research on improving the stretchability of circuits on elastomeric substrates has made significant progresses but designing printed circuit assemblies on elastomers remains challenging. Here we present a simple, cost-effective, cleanroom-free process to produce large scale soft electronic hardware where standard surface-mounted electrical components were directly bonded onto all-elastomeric printed circuit boards, or soft PCBs. Ag-PDMS tracks were stencil printed onto a PDMS substrate and soft PCBs were made by bonding the top and bottom layers together and filling punched holes with Ag-PDMS to create vias. Silver epoxy was used to bond commercial electrical components and no mechanical failure was observed after hundreds of stretching cycles. We also demonstrate the fabrication of a stretchable clock generator.

  8. The influence of carbon black on curing kinetics and thermal aging of acrylonitrile–butadiene rubber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Budinski-Simendić


    Full Text Available Elastomers based on a copolymer of butadiene and acrylonitrile (NBR have excellent oil resistance but are very sensitive for degradation at very high temperatures. The aim of this applicative contribution was to determine the effect of high abrasion furnace carbon black with primary particle size 46 nm on aging properties of elastomeric materials based on NBR as network precursor. The curing kinetics was determined using the rheometer with an oscillating disk, in which the network formation process is registered by the torque variation during time. The vulcanizates were obtained in a hydraulic press at 150 °C. The mechanical properties of elastomeric composites were determined before and after thermal aging in an air circulating oven. The reinforcing effect of the filler particles was assessed according to mechanical properties before and after aging.

  9. Correlation of Respirator Fit Measured on Human Subjects and a Static Advanced Headform (United States)


    an elastomeric half- mask respirator fitted with an N95-rated filter cartridge and incorporates a pressure sensor to digitally log changes of in...particulate respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: Two pathways for particle penetration. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2009; 6(10):593–603. [PubMed...Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. J Occup Environ Hyg. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2015 June 17. A uthor M anuscript A uthor M anuscript A uthor M

  10. Seal for fluid forming tools (United States)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey Fedorovich [Beverly Hills, MI; Bonnen, John Joseph Francis [Milford, MI


    An electro-hydraulic forming tool for forming a sheet metal blank in a one-sided die has first and second rigid rings that engage opposite sides of a sheet metal blank. The rigid rings are contained within slots on a die portion and a hydraulic force applicator portion of the forming tool. The seals are either resiliently biased by an elastomeric member or inherently resiliently biased into contact with the blank.

  11. Tropical Engineering. Design Manual-11.1. (United States)


    of the project, and the least lifecycle cost of the item and within the available funds. Where possible, the better quality material shall be specified...Polyethylene (Hypalon*) (d) Polyvinyl Chloride ( PVC ) (b) Ethylene Propylene Diene (e) Butyl Terpolymer (EPDM) (3) Selection of Elastomeric Roofing. The...conforming to ASTM B88 with flared brass or solder-type bronze or wrought copper fittings conforming to ANSI B16.26 or B16.22. Poly- vinyl chloride ( PVC

  12. Defense Small Business Innovation Research Program (SBIR), Volume 4, Defense Agencies Abstracts of Phase 1 Awards 1991 (United States)



  13. Modification of PVC compounds with butadiene-acrylonitrile elastomers


    J. Stabik; M. Rojek


    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to present the research programme on influence of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers on properties of plasticized polyvinylchloride as window gaskets material.Design/methodology/approach: Short literature review concerning application of modified PVC as gasket material was presented. In experimental part two types of acrylonitrile-butadiene copolymers were used as elastomeric plasticizers. Compounds with fifteen different levels of modifiers content (up to...

  14. Department of Defense Operational Range Sustainability through Management of Munitions Constituents (United States)


    from Fuller and Schafer, 2009). 78 Figure 5-4. Straw placement at Plum Brook Ordnance Works, Sandusky, Ohio. 88 Figure 5-5. Example of burning excess...compounds such as DNT, NG, NQ (nitroguanidine), and HMX. Also included are compounds that modify burn rate—binders or plasticizers (both energetic inorganic perchlorate or nitrate) in a matrix of plastic , resinous, or elastomeric material that serves as a fuel (DoD, 1998). Often, other

  15. Study by three techniques of the elastic response of Al(6061) matrix composite material with a high content (40 % vol) of SIC; Estudio mediante tres tecnicas del modulo elastico de un material compuesto de Al(6061) con un alto contenido (40%vol) de SiC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, R.; Hunicke, U. D.; Mundt, K. H.; Acosta, P.; Kowalski, W.; Schulz, G.; Gonzalez-Doncel, G.


    The purpose of this investigation is to study the elastic behavior of a discontinuously reinforced composite material, Al(6061)-40vol%SiC, by using three different procedures; Extensometry in uniaxial testing, pendulum elastomeric, and propagation of acoustic signals in the materials. The high ceramic content of this material provides it with a high stiffness without a significant increase in density. Because of this, the material is suitable as structural component in the automotive and aerospace industry. (Author) 8 refs.

  16. The use of plasticizing additives based on recycled raw materials in the petrochemical rubber mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Shashok


    Full Text Available At present, the development of alternative products for elastomers based on recycling petrochemical raw materials is a new trend of the rubber industry progress. Petrochemical raw materials include spent lubricants and motor oils are among such recycling products. In this context, the influence of the products of recycling waste engine oil (DVCH and RA in comparison with industrial oil (I-20 on the technological properties of filled elastomeric compositions was investigated. The elastomeric compositions were based on poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers. The plasticizing components were manufactured by IOOO “DVCH-Menedzhment”. They are mixture of hydro-carbons, C16–C20 and differ from each other in the content of linear and branched paraffin. Plastic-elastic properties of rubber compounds on the shear disk viscometer MV2000 in accordance with GOST 10722–76 was carried out. Kinetics of vulcanization on the rheometer ODR2000 according to GOST 12535–84 was defined. It is shown that the introduction of RA test plasticizing component provides a significant effect on Mooney viscosity, as compared to elastomeric compositions containing a plasticizer and I-20 and plasticizing additive DVCH. It revealed that the administration of all components in the studied plasticizing elastomer compositions based on a combination poly isoprene and divinyl rubbers has no significant effect on the rate of relaxation of stress of rubber compounds. It is found that elastomeric compositions containing as additives investigated processing waste oil products (DVCH and RA are characterized by a slightly smaller value of time to reach an optimal degree of vulcanization.

  17. Flexible and Stretchable Microneedle Patches with Integrated Rigid Stainless Steel Microneedles for Transdermal Biointerfacing


    M. Rajabi; Roxhed, N; Shafagh, R. Z.; Haraldson, T.; Fischer, A. C.; van der Wijngaart, W.; Stemme, G.; Niklaus, F.


    This paper demonstrates flexible and stretchable microneedle patches that combine soft and flexible base substrates with hard and sharp stainless steel microneedles. An elastomeric polymer base enables conformal contact between the microneedle patch and the complex topography and texture of the underlying skin, while robust and sharp stainless steel microneedles reliably pierce the outer layers of the skin. The flexible microneedle patches have been realized by magnetically assembling short s...

  18. Surface roughness of polyvinyl siloxane impression materials following chemical disinfection, autoclave and microwave sterilization. (United States)

    Al Kheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah


    Autoclave sterilization and microwave sterilization has been suggested as the effective methods for the disinfection of elastomeric impressions, but subjecting elastomeric impressions to extreme temperature may have adverse effects on critical properties of the elastomers. To evaluate the effect of chemical disinfection as well as autoclave and microwave sterilization on the surface roughness of elastomeric impression materials. The surface roughness of five commercially available polyvinyl siloxane impression materials (Coltene President, Affinis Perfect impression, Aquasil, 3M ESPE Express and GC Exafast) were evaluated after subjecting them to chemical disinfection, autoclaving and microwave sterilization using a Talysurf Intra 50 instrument. Twenty specimens from each material were fabricated and divided into four equal groups, three experimental and one control (n=25). The differences in the mean surface roughness between the treatment groups were recorded and statistically analyzed. No statistically significant increase in the surface roughness was observed when the specimens were subjected to chemical disinfection and autoclave sterilization, increase in roughness and discoloration was observed in all the materials when specimens were subjected to microwave sterilization. Chemical disinfection did not have a significant effect but, since it is less effective, autoclave sterilization can be considered effective and autoclaving did not show any specimen discoloration as in microwave sterilization. Microwave sterilization may be considered when impressions are used to make diagnostic casts. A significant increase in surface roughness may produce rougher casts, resulting in rougher tissue surfaces for denture and cast restorations. Autoclave sterilization of vinyl polysiloxane elastomeric impressions for 5 minutes at 134°C at 20 psi may be considered an effective method over chemical disinfection and microwave sterilization, because chemical disinfection does

  19. Acoustic Microfluidics for Bioanalytical Application (United States)

    Lopez, Gabriel


    This talk will present new methods the use of ultrasonic standing waves in microfluidic systems to manipulate microparticles for the purpose of bioassays and bioseparations. We have recently developed multi-node acoustic focusing flow cells that can position particles into many parallel flow streams and have demonstrated the potential of such flow cells in the development of high throughput, parallel flow cytometers. These experiments show the potential for the creation of high throughput flow cytometers in applications requiring high flow rates and rapid detection of rare cells. This talk will also present the development of elastomeric capture microparticles and their use in acoustophoretic separations. We have developed simple methods to form elastomeric particles that are surface functionalized with biomolecular recognition reagents. These compressible particles exhibit negative acoustic contrast in ultrasound when suspended in aqueous media, blood serum or diluted blood. These particles can be continuously separated from cells by flowing them through a microfluidic device that uses an ultrasonic standing wave to align the blood cells, which exhibit positive acoustic contrast, at a node in the acoustic pressure distribution while aligning the negative acoustic contrast elastomeric particles at the antinodes. Laminar flow of the separated particles to downstream collection ports allows for collection of the separated negative contrast particles and cells. Separated elastomeric particles were analyzed via flow cytometry to demonstrate nanomolar detection for prostate specific antigen in aqueous buffer and picomolar detection for IgG in plasma and diluted blood samples. This approach has potential applications in the development of rapid assays that detect the presence of low concentrations of biomarkers (including biomolecules and cells) in a number of biological sample types. We acknowledge support through the NSF Research Triangle MRSEC.

  20. Deformation-Induced Crystallization In Rubber-Like Materials


    Saidan, Motasem


    Deformation induced crystallization is crucial for determining the final mechanical properties of elastomers-rubber. Elastomeric networks show high upturn in the stress-strain curves with a significant hysteresis, this is attributed to the deformation induced crystallization phenomenon. Thermodynamics of rubber-like high polymers have been studied, and uniaxial extension with some approximations is discussed to obtain an overview of the proposed thermodynamic constitutive theory. A thermodyna...

  1. Fuel cell ion-exchange membrane investigation (United States)

    Toy, M. S.


    The present deficiencies in the fluorocarbon sulfonic acid membrane used as the solid polymer electrolyte in the H2/O2 fuel cell are studied. Considered are: Adhesives selection, elastomeric formulations, scavenger exploration, and membrane characterization. The significant data are interpreted and recommendations are given for both short and long range further investigations in two of the four major areas: membrane adhesives and membrane stabilization.

  2. Sikorsky Aircraft Advanced Rotorcraft Transmission (ART) Program - Final Report (United States)


    188 Inductive Debris Monitor (IDM) ....................... ....... 194 Acoustic Emission (AE) Accelerometers...20K 0 Frmftu.ry - Kif 20K Steel Isolator/ Composite Housing Elastomeric Isolator/ Composte Housing Figure 165. Couparizon rf Typical Vibration Levels...e of Louil i (hgisitiC Is is sovoti iv/4 it~t ’tal 0 arquisition system. Ther one a a(Iuiid i t.o(-i( i4 tit I, P ais je. 11h. til, gei I-Ol 1i

  3. Signatures of hydrophobic collapse in extended proteins captured with force spectroscopy


    Walther, Kirstin A.; Gräter, Frauke; Dougan, Lorna; Badilla, Carmen L.; Berne, Bruce J.; Fernandez, Julio M.


    We unfold and extend single proteins at a high force and then linearly relax the force to probe their collapse mechanisms. We observe a large variability in the extent of their recoil. Although chain entropy makes a small contribution, we show that the observed variability results from hydrophobic interactions with randomly varying magnitude from protein to protein. This collapse mechanism is common to highly extended proteins, including nonfolding elastomeric proteins like PEVK from titin. O...

  4. Report of NPSAT1 Battery Thermal Contact Resistance Testing, Modeling and Simulation (United States)


    environment (sunlight and eclipse portions of the orbit, earth albedo , etc.) and duty cycling of the electronics for internal heat generation. A network of...polycarbonate sheets and stainless steel fasteners. A thermally conductive elastomeric material, Chotherm®, is used between the housing and the...polycarbonate sheets to help distribute heat among the battery cells. The Chotherm® comes in direct contact with the leads of the battery cells. A 5-Watt

  5. Influence of matching solubility parameter of polymer matrix and CNT on electrical conductivity of CNT/rubber composite


    Seisuke Ata; Takaaki Mizuno; Ayumi Nishizawa; Chandramouli Subramaniam; Futaba, Don N.; Kenji Hata


    We report a general approach to fabricate elastomeric composites possessing high electrical conductivity for applications ranging from wireless charging interfaces to stretchable electronics. By using arbitrary nine kinds of rubbers as matrices, we experimentally demonstrate that the matching the solubility parameter of CNTs and the rubber matrix is important to achieve higher electrical conductivity in CNT/rubber composite, resulting in continuous conductive pathways leading to electrical co...

  6. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Related Techniques (United States)


    imaged the spiral structure, based on n-reverse turns, of the elastomeric wheat gluten proteins (D401). Masai et al. observed the sheet-type paracrystal 23...88, 68-71. (D402) Masai , J.; Shibata, T.; Kondo, S.; Isbiwata, S. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 1ŕ, 9, 1177-9. (D403) Heckl, W.M.; Smith, D.P.E.; Binnig, G

  7. A robust smart window: reversibly switching from high transparency to angle-independent structural color display. (United States)

    Ge, Dengteng; Lee, Elaine; Yang, Lili; Cho, Yigil; Li, Min; Gianola, Daniel S; Yang, Shu


    A smart window is fabricated from a composite consisting of elastomeric poly(dimethylsiloxane) embedded with a thin layer of quasi-amorphous silica nanoparticles. The smart window can be switched from the initial highly transparent state to opaqueness and displays angle-independent structural color via mechanical stretching. The switchable optical property can be fully recovered after 1000 stretching/releasing cycles. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Proceedings of the Army Symposium on Solid Mechanics. Advances in Solid Mechanics for Design and Analysis Held at Newport, Rhode Island on 1-3 October 1984. (United States)


    with an intumescent ablator scoring highest. This work was sponsored by the Natick Army Research and Development Center. INTRODUCTION Mobile tactical...Martin Marietta Elastomeric Ablative Char Silicone Former 17. E-68 B.F. Goodrich EPDM Rubber Ablative Char Former 18. Syncore 9822 Dexter/Hysol Syntactic...59, an intumescing ablator , scoring highest. EXPERIMENTAL Approximately 178 4.4 x 3.8 inch 6061-T6 aluminum and 48 AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy

  9. Wave-Wind Current Research Facility (United States)


    elastomeric linings and polyester resin fiberglass. A lining composed of two layers of fiberglass cloth laminated with ar. Aromatic-Amine cured epoxy...bodies; and measurement of moments on bottle -shaped platform leg 1/100 scale models. The channel has a length of 146 feet, a width of 7 feet - 10... resin was finally selected because of its dimensional stability, superior strength and elasticity, and impermeability to water. The liner is

  10. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip with integrated microheater and thermal sensor (United States)

    Wu, Jinbo; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia; Chang, Donald Choy; Sheng, Ping


    A microheater and a thermal sensor were fabricated inside elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane microchannels by injecting silver paint (or other conductive materials) into the channels. With a high-precision control scheme, microheaters can be used for rapid heating, with precise temperature control and uniform thermal distribution. Using such a microheater and feedback system, a polymerase chain reaction experiment was carried out whereas the DNA was successfully amplified in 25 cycles, with 1 min per cycle. PMID:19693386

  11. Polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic chip with integrated microheater and thermal sensor. (United States)

    Wu, Jinbo; Cao, Wenbin; Wen, Weijia; Chang, Donald Choy; Sheng, Ping


    A microheater and a thermal sensor were fabricated inside elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane microchannels by injecting silver paint (or other conductive materials) into the channels. With a high-precision control scheme, microheaters can be used for rapid heating, with precise temperature control and uniform thermal distribution. Using such a microheater and feedback system, a polymerase chain reaction experiment was carried out whereas the DNA was successfully amplified in 25 cycles, with 1 min per cycle.

  12. Page 1 436 Inderjit Chopra lb /in. x10" 2.000 1,500 Ç (d) 0.35 O 2 5 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Figure 10. Variation of elastomeric stiffness with 1/rev (a) and 0.6/rev (b) lag amplitude (Bir & Chopra 1981). Damping of the regressive lag mode as a function. (c) of 0.6/rev lag motion amplitude (u = 0, CT = 0.08), and (d) of advance ratio. (Cr = 0.08, Č = 0.20°) (Bir & Chopra 1981). for static and vibration characteristics ...

  13. Harnessing Deformation to Switch On and Off the Propagation of Sound. (United States)

    Babaee, Sahab; Viard, Nicolas; Wang, Pai; Fang, Nicholas X; Bertoldi, Katia


    A new class of architected materials is designed to control the propagation of sound. The proposed system comprises an array of elastomeric helices in background air and is characterized by frequency ranges of strong wave attenuation (bandgaps) in the undeformed configuration. Upon axially stretching the helices, such bandgaps are suppressed, enabling the design of a new class of acoustic switch. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Self-healing elastomer system (United States)

    Keller, Michael W. (Inventor); Sottos, Nancy R. (Inventor); White, Scott R. (Inventor)


    A composite material includes an elastomer matrix, a set of first capsules containing a polymerizer, and a set of second capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer. The polymerizer may be a polymerizer for an elastomer. The composite material may be prepared by combining a first set of capsules containing a polymerizer, a second set of capsules containing a corresponding activator for the polymerizer, and a matrix precursor, and then solidifying the matrix precursor to form an elastomeric matrix.

  15. Device For Testing Compatibility Of An O-Ring (United States)

    Davis, Dennis D.


    Fixture designed for use in exposing compressed elastomeric O-ring or other ring seal to test fluid. Made of metal or plastic, with threaded recess into which O-ring placed. Opposite threaded end is opening through which test fluid introduced and placed in contact with O-ring. After exposure, compression set and swell or shrinkage of ring measured. Fixture set to compress ring by selected amount, providing for reproducible compression.

  16. Poroelastic Foams for Simple Fabrication of Complex Soft Robots. (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C; An, Xintong; Robinson, Sanlin S; van Meerbeek, Ilse M; O'Brien, Kevin W; Zhao, Huichan; Shepherd, Robert F


    Open-celled, elastomeric foams allow the simple design of fully 3D pneumatic soft machines using common forming techniques. This is demonstrated through the fabrication of simple actuators and an entirely soft, functional fluid pump formed in the shape of the human heart. The device pumps at physiologically relevant frequencies and pressures and attains a flow rate higher than all previously reported soft pumps. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The Vibro-Acoustic Modelling of Slab Track with Embedded Rails (United States)

    VAN LIER, S.


    The application of concrete slab track in railways has certain advantages compared with conventional ballasted track, but conventional slab track structures generally produce more noise than ballasted track. For this reason a “silent slab track” has been developed in the Dutch ICES “Stiller Treinverkeer” project (silent railway traffic) by optimizing the track. In the design, the rails are embedded in a cork-filled elastomeric material. The paper discusses the vibro-acoustic modelling of this track using the simulation package “TWINS”, combined with finite element techniques. The model evaluates the one-third octave band sound power spectrum radiated by train wheels and track, and provides for a tool to optimize the track design. Three track types are compared using the vibro-acoustic model: an existing slab track with embedded UIC54 rails, a newly designed, acoustically optimized slab track with a less stiff rail embedded in a stiffer elastomere, and, as a reference, a ballasted track. The models of the existing tracks have been validated with measurements. Calculations indicate that the optimized slab track will emit between 4 and 6 dB(A) less noise than the ballasted track. The existing slab track produces between 1·5 and 3 dB(A) more noise than the ballasted track; this is caused by resonances in the elastomeric moulding material in the frequency range determining the dB(A)-level.

  18. Color changes of esthetic orthodontic ligatures evaluated by orthodontists and patients: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilene Kawabata

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate in vivo changes in the color of esthetic elastomeric ligatures from different manufacturers. Methods: Four widely used commercial brands of elastomeric ligatures were selected and used in 20 adult patients in a split-mouth design. The ligatures were evaluated by orthodontists and patients in a double-blind manner on the day the ligatures were placed (T0 and 30 days after intraoral exposure (T1 by means of a system of staining scores. Groups were compared by Friedman test with p 0.05. Results showed that all brands underwent significant staining when exposed to the intraoral environment. Modular-crystal MorelliTM (Sorocaba, SP, Brazil showed the highest degree of staining with the median reaching the maximum value (3; while the other brands (3M UnitekTM, American OrthodonticsTM and GAC DentsplyTM showed the median equal to 1 (p < 0.001. A large individual variability in the degree of staining was also found for all brands. Conclusions: All four brands of esthetic ligatures showed significant staining, which appeared to be more pronounced for the MorelliTM brand. Changes in color of the elastomeric ligatures were perceived similarly by patients and orthodontists. The industry needs to improve the color stability of esthetic ligatures.

  19. Evaluation of deflection forces of orthodontic wires with different ligation types. (United States)

    Henriques, José Fernando Castanha; Higa, Rodrigo Hitoshi; Semenara, Nayara Thiago; Janson, Guilherme; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Sathler, Renata


    The aim of this study was to evaluate deflection forces of orthodontic wires of different alloys engaged into conventional brackets using several ligation types. Stainless steel, conventional superelastic nickel-titanium and thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires tied into conventional brackets by a ring-shaped elastomeric ligature (RSEL), a 8-shaped elastomeric ligature (8SEL) and a metal ligature (ML) were tested. A clinical simulation device was created especially for this study and forces were measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine. For the testing procedure, the block representing the maxillary right central incisor was moved 0.5 and 1 mm bucco-lingually at a constant speed of 2 mm/min, and the forces released by the wires were recorded, in accordance with the ISO 15841 guidelines. In general, the RSEL showed lighter forces, while 8SEL and ML showed higher values. At the 0.5 mm deflection, the 8SEL presented the greatest force, but at the 1.0 mm deflection the ML had a statistically similar force. Based on our evaluations, to obtain lighter forces, the thermally activated nickel-titanium wire with the RSEL are recommended, while the steel wire with the 8SEL or the ML are recommended when larger forces are desired. The ML exhibited the highest force increase with increased deflections, compared with the elastomeric ligatures.

  20. Development of Bioactive Patch for Maintenance of Implanted Cells at the Myocardial Infarcted Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castells-Sala


    Full Text Available Ischemia produced as a result of myocardial infarction might cause moderate or severe tissue death. Studies under development propose grafting stem cells into the affected area and we hypothesize that this mechanism could be enhanced by the application of a “bioactive implant.” The implant herein proposed consists of a thin porous elastomeric membrane, filled with self-assembling nanofibers and human subcutaneous adipose tissue derived progenitor cells. We describe the development and characterization of two elastomeric membranes: poly(ethyl acrylate (PEA and poly(caprolactone 2-(methacryloyloxyethyl ester (PCLMA. Both are a good material support to deliver cells within a soft self-assembling peptide and are elastic enough to withstand the stresses arising from the heartbeat. Both developed composites (PEA and PCLMA, combined with self-assembling peptide equally facilitate the propagation of electrical pulses and maintain their genetic profile of the seeded cells. Preliminary studies with small animal models suggest that, at short times, the bioimplant shows good adhesion with the myocardium. After three days cells loaded in the patch remain alive at the implanted site. We propose that the bioactive patch (elastomeric membranes with self-assembling peptide and cells could increase the efficacy of future cardiac cell therapy by improving cell immobilization and survival at the affected site.

  1. Fusible core molding for the fabrication of branched, perfusable, three-dimensional microvessels for vascular tissue engineering. (United States)

    Martin, Cristina; Sofla, Aarash; Zhang, Boyang; Nunes, Sara S; Radisic, Milica


    A novel method for fabrication of branched, tubular, perfusable microvessels for use in vascular tissue engineering is reported. A tubular, elastomeric, biodegradable scaffold is first fabricated via a new, double fusible injection molding technique that uses a ternary alloy with a low melting temperature, Field's metal, and paraffin as sacrificial components. A cylindrical core metal of 500 μm or lower dia-meter with the target branching scaffold geometry is first constructed, then the metal structure is coated with paraffin and, finally, the metal-paraffin construct is embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The paraffin layer is then removed by heating and replaced by a biodegradable elastomeric pre-polymer that is subsequently UV-cured inside the PDMS. Next, the metal core is melted away and the PDMS is removed to attain the branched tubular elastomeric biodegradable scaffold. Finally, it is also demonstrated that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were able to spread on the surface of the scaffold and form a confluent monolayer, confirming the potential of this new technique for making engineered blood vessels.

  2. 3D customized and flexible tactile sensor using a piezoelectric nanofiber mat and sandwich-molded elastomer sheets (United States)

    Bit Lee, Han; Kim, Young Won; Yoon, Jonghun; Lee, Nak Kyu; Park, Suk-Hee


    We developed a skin-conformal flexible sensor in which three-dimensional (3D) free-form elastomeric sheets were harmoniously integrated with a piezoelectric nanofiber mat. The elastomeric sheets were produced by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) molding via using a 3D printed mold assembly, which was adaptively designed from 3D scanned skin surface geometry. The mold assembly, fabricated using a multi-material 3D printer, was composed of a pair of upper/lower mold parts and an interconnecting hinge, with material properties are characterized by different flexibilities. As a result of appropriate deformabilites of the upper mold part and hinge, the skin-conformal PDMS structures were successfully sandwich molded and demolded with good repeatability. An electrospun poly(vinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene) nanofiber mat was prepared as the piezoelectric active layer and integrated with the 3D elastomeric parts. We confirmed that the highly responsive sensing performances of the 3D integrated sensor were identical to those of a flat sensor in terms of sensitivity and the linearity of the input-output relationship. The close 3D conformal skin contact of the flexible sensor enabled discernable perception of various scales of physical stimuli, such as tactile force and even minute skin deformation caused by the tester’s pulse. Collectively from the 3D scanning design to the practical application, our achievements can potentially meet the needs of tailored human interfaces in the field of wearable devices and human-like robots.

  3. The Influence of Material Model of the Polyurethane Elastomer on the FEM Calculations Quality for the Various Modes of Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kut S.


    Full Text Available The paper presents research to verify the effectiveness of nine selected material models of elastomeric materials based on uniaxial tension test. Basing on the cyclic uniaxial tension test of elastomers sample, the stress-strain characteristic for the 18th load cycle was prepared. On the basis of the obtained characteristic, the values of material constants were calculated for the studied models (Neo-Hookean, Mooney with two and three constants, Signorini, Yeoh, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, Gent and Marlow and simulation of tensile, upsetting and bending processes was performed with the usage of the software MARC/Mentat. The effectiveness of the selected models was determined based on a comparison of results obtained in the experimental tensile test, upsetting test and bending test of an elastomeric samples with the results of numerical FEM calculations for each models. The research has shown that, for modeling of the elastomeric cylinder upsetting in the range of deformation of 62%, the best results with the comparison of the experiment were obtained by using the Yeoh model. In the bending process none of the analyzed models indicate a high convergence of results from an experiment. Analyzing the characteristics of the experimental and numerical tensile test it can be seen that in the entire range of punch movement (0 to 55 mm, models Signorini, Marlow, Ogden(N3 and Mooney(3 give the best results.

  4. Construction and application of an intelligent air quality monitoring system for healthcare environment. (United States)

    Yang, Chao-Tung; Liao, Chi-Jui; Liu, Jung-Chun; Den, Walter; Chou, Ying-Chyi; Tsai, Jaw-Ji


    Indoor air quality monitoring in healthcare environment has become a critical part of hospital management and policy. Manual air sampling and analysis are cost-inhibitive and do not provide real-time air quality data and response measures. In this month-long study over 14 sampling locations in a public hospital in Taiwan, we observed a positive correlation between CO(2) concentration and population, total bacteria, and particulate matter concentrations, thus monitoring CO(2) concentration as a general indicator for air quality could be a viable option. Consequently, an intelligent environmental monitoring system consisting of a CO(2)/temperature/humidity sensor, a digital plug, and a ZigBee Router and Coordinator was developed and tested. The system also included a backend server that received and analyzed data, as well as activating ventilation and air purifiers when CO(2) concentration exceeded a pre-set value. Alert messages can also be delivered to offsite users through mobile devices.

  5. An Innovative Reactor Technology to Improve Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rempel, Jane [TIAX LLC., Lexington, MA (United States)


    As residential buildings achieve tighter envelopes in order to minimize energy used for space heating and cooling, accumulation of indoor air pollutants such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), becomes a major concern causing poor air quality and increased health risks. Current VOC removal methods include sorbents, ultraviolet photocatalytic oxidation (UVPCO), and increased ventilation, but these methods do not capture or destroy all VOCs or are prohibitively expensive to implement. TIAX's objective in this program was to develop a new VOC removal technology for residential buildings. This novel air purification technology is based on an innovative reactor and light source design along with UVPCO properties of the chosen catalyst to purify indoor air and enhance indoor air quality (IAQ). During the program we designed, fabricated and tested a prototype air purifier to demonstrate its feasibility and effectiveness. We also measured kinetics of VOC destruction on photocatalysts, providing deep insight into reactor design.

  6. Efficiencies and Dust Holding Capacities of Textiles Used For Air Filter Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Alan


    Full Text Available In recent years due to the increasing population and developing technology, air pollution has become a serious problem for living organisms which threatens their health. Quality and purity of indoor and outdoor air have great importance on the health of human beings. To breathe clean air, purified from different types of contaminants, air filtering applications are essential in our daily lives. Hence, measurement of filtration efficiency, concerned standarts of efficiency measurement methods have attracted great attention of researchers considering the determination of the quality of filtering processes and providing optimum construction parameters for filtering material. In this paper, efficiency measurement methods and standarts of air filtering processes are mentioned in details and major air filter application areas are presented.

  7. Modified Polymer Materials for Use in Selected Personal Protective Equipment Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irzmańska Emilia


    Full Text Available The paper discusses the methods of modification of melt-blown polymer materials by the addition of a bactericidal agent or superabsorbent directly to the fibre-forming area during the melt-blown production process. It also presents tests of textile composites designed for use in selected types of personal protective equipment worn in the workplace. One example of the application of textile composites is the protective footwear insole. The insole composites contain specially developed variants of melt-blown nonwovens made from PP, PC, and PA fibres. Microbiological, hygienic, and mechanical tests have shown that the optimum insoles for all-rubber protective footwear are those made of bioactive composites containing a PC melt-blown nonwoven. Another example of composite application is the air-purifying half mask. Filter composites contain polymer nonwovens with the addition of different quantities of a superabsorbent. They have been tested for particle penetration, airflow resistance, and moisture sorption.

  8. Controlled interactions between silanol groups at the surface of sepiolite and an acrylate matrix: Consequences on the thermal and mechanical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volle, Nicolas, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condense, LPMC (UMR 7336), Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Giulieri, Francoise, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condense, LPMC (UMR 7336), Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Burr, Alain, E-mail: [Mines ParisTech, CEMEF (UMR 7635), BP 207, F-06904 Sophia Antipolis (France); Pagnotta, Sophie, E-mail: [Centre Commun de Microscopie Appliquee, Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France); Chaze, Anne Marie, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condense, LPMC (UMR 7336), Universite Nice-Sophia Antipolis, 06108 Nice Cedex 2 (France)


    Graphical abstract: (a) Pure PHEA elastomer; sepiolite-PHEA nanocomposites with the sepiolite surface presenting (b) limited H-bonds. (c) H-bonds and (d) covalent-bonds. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coupling of sepiolite silanols with an elastomeric matrix (PHEA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Protection of sepiolite silanols against PHEA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interface effect of sepiolite/PHEA on the nanocomposite reinforcement. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlled reinforcement due to sepiolite/PHEA interactions. - Abstract: Elastomer filled with fibrous clay (sepiolite) was manufactured using a hydrophilic elastomer matrix, poly 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (PHEA). The surface silanol groups located onto the channel sides of the sepiolite were functionalized with both octyltrimethoxysilane (OTMS) and 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS), which form covalent bonds with the mineral surface and modify their properties. After the grafting of OTMS, PHEA is in contact with a non-polar chain, which prevents matrix-filler interactions. After the grafting of MPTMS, covalent bonds are formed between the acrylate groups of PHEA and MPTMS, which increase the matrix-filler interactions. After functionalization, there is no change in the structural and zeolitic water of the sepiolite which conserves its hydrophilic character. So, an equivalent distribution of the pristine and modified sepiolite is detected in the elastomeric matrices on transmission electron microscopy views of ultramicrotome cuts. The elastomeric macroscopic behavior is therefore related to the PHEA-sepiolite interactions. We show that the stronger the host-matrix interactions, the more important is the reinforcement effect. A direct relation between the interaction strength and the improvement of the mechanical properties was established. The control of the nature, quantity, and localization of the molecules grafted on the sepiolite surface allows us to manage the mechanical

  9. The use of polyurethane materials in the surgery of the spine: a review. (United States)

    St John, Kenneth R


    The spine contains intervertebral discs and the interspinous and longitudinal ligaments. These structures are elastomeric or viscoelastic in their mechanical properties and serve to allow and control the movement of the bony elements of the spine. The use of metallic or hard polymeric devices to replace the intervertebral discs and the creation of fusion masses to replace discs and/or vertebral bodies changes the load transfer characteristics of the spine and the range of motion of segments of the spine. The purpose of the study was to survey the literature, regulatory information available on the Web, and industry-reported device development found on the Web to ascertain the usage and outcomes of the use of polyurethane polymers in the design and clinical use of devices for spine surgery. A systematic review of the available information from all sources concerning the subject materials' usage in spinal devices was conducted. A search of the peer-reviewed literature combining spinal surgery with polyurethane or specific types and trade names of medical polyurethanes was performed. Additionally, information available on the Food and Drug Administration Web site and for corporate Web sites was reviewed in an attempt to identify pertinent information. The review captured devices that are in testing or have entered clinical practice that use elastomeric polyurethane polymers as disc replacements, dynamic stabilization of spinal movement, or motion limitation to relieve nerve root compression and pain and as complete a listing as possible of such devices that have been designed or tested but appear to no longer be pursued. This review summarizes the available information about the uses to which polyurethanes have been tested or are being used in spinal surgery. The use of polyurethanes in medicine has expanded as modifications to the stability of the polymers in the physiological environment have been improved. The potential for the use of elastomeric materials to more

  10. Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates from Sludge Palm Oil Using Pseudomonas putida S12. (United States)

    Kang, Du-Kyeong; Lee, Cho-Ryong; Lee, Sun Hee; Bae, Jung-Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon; Rhee, Young Ha; Sung, Bong Hyun; Sohn, Jung-Hoon


    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are biodegradable plastics produced by bacteria, but their use in diverse applications is prohibited by high production costs. To reduce these costs, the conversion by Pseudomonas strains of P HAs from crude s ludge p alm oil ( SPO) a s an inexpensive renewable raw material was tested. Pseudomonas putida S12 was found to produce the highest yield (~41%) of elastomeric medium-chain-length (MCL)-PHAs from SPO. The MCL-PHA characteristics were analyzed by gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry, gel permeation chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. These findings may contribute to more widespread use of PHAs by reducing PHA production costs.

  11. Running functional sport vest and short for e-textile applications (United States)

    Baskan, H.; Acikgoz, H.; Atakan, R.; Eryuruk, H.; Akalın, N.; Kose, H.; Li, Y.; Kursun Bahadir, S.; Kalaoglu, F.


    Sports garments with functional properties have become crucial as well as comfort properties since they improve the wearer performance. For this reason, sport vest and short having high elastic recovery with fall detection sensor, were designed and produced by using flat-bed knitting machine. Comfort properties of short and vest were tested with several test instruments and; tensile strength of elastomeric yarn, air permeability, moisture management, drape and objective handle (FAST tests) of garments were achieved. It was proved that short and vest samples have good comfort properties as a functional sport garment. It was also tested that fall-detection sensor can work efficiently by using a mobile phone application.

  12. Blends of ground tire rubber devulcanized by microwaves/HDPE - Part A: influence of devulcanization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiula Danielli Bastos de Sousa


    Full Text Available AbstractThe main objective of this work is the study of the influence of microwaves devulcanization of the elastomeric phase on dynamically revulcanized blends based on Ground Tire Rubber (GTR/High Density Polyethylene (HDPE. The devulcanization of the GTR was performed in a system comprised of a conventional microwave oven adapted with a motorized stirring at a constant microwaves power and at various exposure times. The influence of the devulcanization process on the final properties of the blends was evaluated in terms of mechanical, viscoelastic, thermal and rheological properties. The morphology was also studied.

  13. Elastomer Spacers in Fire Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roszkowski Paweł


    Full Text Available In the paper, fire resistance of linear joints seal made of elastomer spacers under standard fire conditions, and thermal degradation range of EPDM elastomeric spacers are investigated. The geometry of elastomer spacer joints is important not only for their load capacity under normal conditions - thickness, width, and cavity depth can also influence fire resistance performance. Linear joints of different thicknesses and widths have been tested. The fire insulation and fire integrity were verified for various arrangements. Relatively low thermal degradation rates have been measured, given that EPDM is a combustible material.

  14. Force and deflection sensor with shell membrane and optical gratings and method of manufacture (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lae (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Black, Richard James (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Chau, Kelvin K (Inventor)


    A sensor for force is formed from an elastomeric cylinder having a region with apertures. The apertures have passageways formed between them, and an optical fiber is introduced into these passageways, where the optical fiber has a grating for measurement of tension positioned in the passageways between apertures. Optionally, a temperature measurement sensor is placed in or around the elastomer for temperature correction, and if required, a copper film may be deposited in the elastomer for reduced sensitivity to spot temperature variations in the elastomer near the sensors.

  15. Soft Wire Seals For High Temperatures And Pressures (United States)

    Tsou, Peter


    Soft metal wires used to make O-ring and similar seals for vessels, flanges, and fittings subject to pressures equal to or greater than 1,000 psi and temperatures equal to or greater than 100 degrees C. Seals containing soft metal wires made inexpensively because fabricated to looser tolerances like those of lower-temperature, lower-pressure elastomeric-O-ring seals, which they resemble. Seals also made with noncircular grooves and with soft metals other than aluminum. For example, gold performs well, though expensive. For other applications, silver good choice.

  16. Wrist-arthrography for the determination of the prosthetic bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuttge, R.; Kueffer, G.; Hahn, D.; Bauer, J.; Wilhelm, K.


    Arthrography was performed during the last 12 months in 14 patients who had 2 months to 10 years after implantation of a silicone-elastomere- or fascia-lata-prosthesis recurrent complaints in their operated wrists. Following an extensive radiological native examination either midcarpal or radiocarpal arthrography was performed in dependence of the site of carpal-bone-substitute. Inflammatory changes of the prosthetic bed, missing penetration of contrast medium into the periprosthetic space and other less common additional findings showed the advantages of the relatively handsome procedure.

  17. Investigation of chlorinated modifier content influence on the physical-mechanical properties and vulcanizing characteristics of rubber and rubber mixture (United States)

    Sukhareva, K. V.; Mikhailov, I. A.; Andriasyan, Yu O.; Popov, A. A.


    Present paper is devoted to the novel solution for the chlorination technology of polyolefin and diene rubbers – mechanochemical halide modification, as a more efficient way to obtain halogenated elastomers with a wide range of halogen content (from 3 to 7 %). The vulcanizing characteristics of elastomeric compounds based on the chlorinated rubber compounds as well as the production conditions of vulcanization process have been studied by the methods of dynamic mechanical rheometry. The performed investigation revealed the influence of chlorine content in different types of rubber compounds on rheological and physical-mechanical properties. New halogen-containing polyolefins rubbers produced by this technology proved themselves in the conditions of the rubber production.

  18. Properties of Natural Rubber-Based Composites Containing Fullerene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar A. Al-Hartomy


    Full Text Available In this study the influence of fullerenes in concentrations from 0.5 to 1.5 phr on both the vulcanization characteristics of the compounds and physicomechanical, dynamic, and dielectric properties and thermal aging resistance of nanocomposites on the basis of natural rubber has been investigated. The effect of the filler dispersion in the elastomeric matrix has been also investigated. Neat fullerene and the composites comprising it have been studied and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM.

  19. Magnetorheological composites as semi-active elements of dampers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaleta, Jerzy; Lewandowski, Daniel; Zajac, Piotr; Kustron, Pawel [Institute of Materials Science and Applied Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Wroclaw University of Technology, ul. Mariana Smoluchowskiego 25, 50-370, Wroclaw (Poland)], E-mail:


    An original magnetorheological composite (MRC) with porous elastomeric matrix and filled with magnetorheological fluid was created at the work. It was used later on to build a damper working in the shearing mode without friction against external surfaces of the so-called skid. This prototype construction was used for damping free vibrations in the beam. An analysis of the effectiveness in the magnetic field function steering the damper was performed. As a result an important relationship between the change of damping in the material under the influence of the magnetic field and the length of time needed for damping the vibrations in the beam was demonstrated.

  20. Self-similar and fractal design for stretchable electronics (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Fan, Jonathan; Yeo, Woon-Hong; Su, Yewang; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui


    The present invention provides electronic circuits, devices and device components including one or more stretchable components, such as stretchable electrical interconnects, electrodes and/or semiconductor components. Stretchability of some of the present systems is achieved via a materials level integration of stretchable metallic or semiconducting structures with soft, elastomeric materials in a configuration allowing for elastic deformations to occur in a repeatable and well-defined way. The stretchable device geometries and hard-soft materials integration approaches of the invention provide a combination of advance electronic function and compliant mechanics supporting a broad range of device applications including sensing, actuation, power storage and communications.

  1. Advanced turbodrills for geothermal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, W.C.; Rowley, J.C.; Carwile, C.


    The development of a new high-temperature, 350/sup 0/C advanced turbodrill for use in drilling geothermal wells is underway. Existing downhole drilling motors are temperature limited because of elastomeric degradation at elevated temperature. The new turbodrill contains high-torque turbine blades and improved seals which allow higher bit pressure drops. This new geothermal turbodrill which is designed for improved directional drilling offers economic alternatives for completing geothermal wells. The advanced turbodrill will be tested in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's hot dry rock geothermal wells.

  2. Materials and mechanics for stretchable electronics. (United States)

    Rogers, John A; Someya, Takao; Huang, Yonggang


    Recent advances in mechanics and materials provide routes to integrated circuits that can offer the electrical properties of conventional, rigid wafer-based technologies but with the ability to be stretched, compressed, twisted, bent, and deformed into arbitrary shapes. Inorganic and organic electronic materials in microstructured and nanostructured forms, intimately integrated with elastomeric substrates, offer particularly attractive characteristics, with realistic pathways to sophisticated embodiments. Here, we review these strategies and describe applications of them in systems ranging from electronic eyeball cameras to deformable light-emitting displays. We conclude with some perspectives on routes to commercialization, new device opportunities, and remaining challenges for research.

  3. Viscoelastic machine elements elastomers and lubricants in machine systems

    CERN Document Server

    MOORE, D F


    Viscoelastic Machine Elements, which encompass elastomeric elements (rubber-like components), fluidic elements (lubricating squeeze films) and their combinations, are used for absorbing vibration, reducing friction and improving energy use. Examplesinclude pneumatic tyres, oil and lip seals, compliant bearings and races, and thin films. This book sets out to show that these elements can be incorporated in machine analysis, just as in the case of conventional elements (e.g. gears, cogs, chaindrives, bearings). This is achieved by introducing elementary theory and models, by describing new an

  4. Phase separation and disorder in doped nematic elastomers

    KAUST Repository

    Köpf, M. H.


    We formulate and analyse a model describing the combined effect of mechanical deformation, dynamics of the nematic order parameter, and concentration inhomogeneities in an elastomeric mixture of a mesogenic and an isotropic component. The uniform nematic state may exhibit a long-wave instability corresponding to nematic-isotropic demixing. Numerical simulations starting from either a perfectly ordered nematic state or a quenched isotropic state show that coupling between the mesogen concentration and the nematic order parameter influences the shape and orientation of the domains formed during the demixing process. © EDP Sciences/ Società Italiana di Fisica/ Springer-Verlag 2013.

  5. Apparatus for reduction of shunt current in bipolar electrochemical cell assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balko, E.N.; Moulthrop, L.C.


    Shunt currents which flow between the electrodes of adjacent cells through the moving conductive fluid and the fluid pool in the manifold of a bipolar cell assembly are minimized by introducing the conductive fluid at the top of an elongated outlet manifold. This results in cascaded flow which interrupts the current path. Shunt currents between the fluid manifold walls of the conductive bipolar elements in the series connected electrochemical cell assemblies are minimized by insulating the manifold walls with insulating, elastomeric sealing grommets. This prevents current flow between the manifold walls through the electrically conductive fluid in the manifold and provides an edgeseal between bipolar plates.

  6. Elastomer Spacers in Fire Conditions (United States)

    Roszkowski, Paweł; Sędłak, Bartłomiej; Sulik, Paweł


    In the paper, fire resistance of linear joints seal made of elastomer spacers under standard fire conditions, and thermal degradation range of EPDM elastomeric spacers are investigated. The geometry of elastomer spacer joints is important not only for their load capacity under normal conditions - thickness, width, and cavity depth can also influence fire resistance performance. Linear joints of different thicknesses and widths have been tested. The fire insulation and fire integrity were verified for various arrangements. Relatively low thermal degradation rates have been measured, given that EPDM is a combustible material.

  7. Comparison of different final impression techniques for management of resorbed mandibular ridge: a case report. (United States)

    Yadav, Bhupender; Jayna, Manisha; Yadav, Harish; Suri, Shrey; Phogat, Shefali; Madan, Reshu


    The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the highest mean value of retention followed by elastomeric, all green, and admixed, while cocktail and green stick compound showed the lowest mean value. However, on clinical examination, the retention produced by the six techniques was satisfactory.

  8. Insulation for sanitary and heating systems. Manufacturing of elastomer insulation materials; Daemmung von Anlagen im Sanitaer- und Heizungsbereich. Was ist bei der Verarbeitung von elastomeren Daemmstoffen zu beachten?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, H.; Weber, M. [Armacell (Germany)


    The following article presents the insulation of sanitary and heating systems and what is mentionable. Elastomer materials like from manufacturer SH/Armaflex offer good physical properties and due to their extraordinary flexibility are installed properly and quickly. [German] Bei Daemmungen von Anlagen im Sanitaer- und Heizungsbereich sind einige grundsaetzliche Dinge zu beachten, die im folgenden Artikel dargestellt werden. Elastomere Daemmstoffe, wie das vom Hersteller angebotene Produkt SH/Armaflex, bieten gute physikalischtechnische Werte und sind aufgrund ihrer ausserordentlichen Flexibilitaet sauber und schnell zu verarbeiten. (orig.)

  9. Helicopter internal noise control: Three case histories (United States)

    Edwards, B. D.; Cox, C. R.


    Case histories are described in which measurable improvements in the cabin noise environments of the Bell 214B, 206B, and 222 were realized. These case histories trace the noise control efforts followed in each vehicle. Among the design approaches considered, the addition of a fluid pulsation damper in a hydraulic system and the installation of elastomeric engine mounts are highlighted. It is concluded that substantial weight savings result when the major interior noise sources are controlled by design, both in altering the noise producing mechanism and interrupting the sound transmission paths.

  10. Helicopter Aeromechanics (United States)


    34, NASA TN D-1548, October 1982. 1975. 96. SHEEHY T.W., "A General Review of Helicopter 113. GALLOT J., "Am6lioration du bilan propulsif Rotor Hub Drag...bearingless rotor (CBR). The rotor used a flat flexbeam of carbon -epoxy, and a torque rod behind the flexbeam. A cantilever torque rod configuration...and low stress) with a midchord torque rod. A damper, consisting of an elastomeric layer bonded to the flex- beam and covered by a stiff carbon fiber

  11. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong [Electrical and Computer Engineering, Wayne State University, 5050 Anthony Wayne Dr., Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing, E-mail: [School for Engineering of Matter, Transport and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Yu, Hongyu, E-mail: [School of Electrical, Computer and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)


    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  12. Deployment Testing of Flexible Composite Hinges in Bi-Material Beams (United States)

    Sauder, Jonathan F.; Trease, Brian


    Composites have excellent properties for strength, thermal stability, and weight. However, they are traditionally highly rigid, and when used in deployable structures require hinges bonded to the composite material, which increases complexity and opportunities for failure. Recent research in composites has found by adding an elastomeric soft matrix, often silicone instead of an epoxy, the composite becomes flexible. This work explores the deployment repeatability of silicone matrix composite hinges which join rigid composite beams. The hinges were found to have sub-millimeter linear deployment repeatability, and sub-degree angular deployment repeatability. Also, an interesting relaxation effect was discovered, as a hinges deployment error would decrease with time.

  13. Reinforced poly(propylene oxide)- a very soft and extensible dielectric electroactive polymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goswami, Kaustav; Galantini, F.; Mazurek, Piotr Stanislaw


    Poly(propylene oxide) (PPO), a novel soft elastomeric material, and its composites were investigated as a new dielectric electroactive polymer (EAP). The PPO networks were obtained from thiol-ene chemistry by photochemical crosslinking of ,!-diallyl PPO with a tetra-functional thiol. The elastomer...... of the otherwise mechanically weak pure PPO network. Dielectric spectroscopy revealed high relative dielectric permittivity of PPO at 103 Hz of 5.6. The relative permittivity was decreased slightly upon addition of fillers, but remained higher than the commonly used acrylic EAP material VHB4910...

  14. Materials and fractal designs for 3D multifunctional integumentary membranes with capabilities in cardiac electrotherapy. (United States)

    Xu, Lizhi; Gutbrod, Sarah R; Ma, Yinji; Petrossians, Artin; Liu, Yuhao; Webb, R Chad; Fan, Jonathan A; Yang, Zijian; Xu, Renxiao; Whalen, John J; Weiland, James D; Huang, Yonggang; Efimov, Igor R; Rogers, John A


    Advanced materials and fractal design concepts form the basis of a 3D conformal electronic platform with unique capabilities in cardiac electrotherapies. Fractal geometries, advanced electrode materials, and thin, elastomeric membranes yield a class of device capable of integration with the entire 3D surface of the heart, with unique operational capabilities in low power defibrillation. Co-integrated collections of sensors allow simultaneous monitoring of physiological responses. Animal experiments on Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts demonstrate the key features of these systems. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Apertureless cantilever-free pen arrays for scanning photochemical printing. (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Xie, Zhuang; Brown, Keith A; Park, Daniel J; Zhou, Xiaozhu; Chen, Peng-Cheng; Hirtz, Michael; Lin, Qing-Yuan; Dravid, Vinayak P; Schatz, George C; Zheng, Zijian; Mirkin, Chad A


    A novel, apertureless, cantilever-free pen array can be used for dual scanning photochemical and molecular printing. Serial writing with light is enabled by combining self-focusing pyramidal pens with an opaque backing between pens. The elastomeric pens also afford force-tuned illumination and simultaneous delivery of materials and optical energy. These attributes make the technique a promising candidate for maskless high-resolution photopatterning and combinatorial chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Dynamic and structural correlations in nanocomposites of silica with modified surface and carboxylated nitrile rubber. (United States)

    Sala, Renata L; Oliveira Xavier, Tatielih P; Venâncio, Tiago; Arantes, Tatiane Moraes; Paranhos, Caio M; Camargo, Emerson R


    Distinct affinities between the organic and inorganic phases were observed in nanocomposites prepared through a colloidal route with carboxylated nitrile rubber and modified silica nanoparticles, which resulted in variable mechanical properties and improved thermal stability. Nanoparticles with modified surface affected the macromolecular arrangements of the elastomeric matrix, changing the final mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite, which could be predicted by the spin-lattice relaxation time measured by solid-state NMR. It was also possible to identify how each different nanoparticle affected the molecular dynamic of nanocomposite, correlating the dynamic-mechanical analysis with the NMR data of the saturated carbons of the elastomer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Flexible liquid metal-filled metamaterial absorber on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). (United States)

    Ling, Kenyu; Kim, Kyeoungseob; Lim, Sungjoon


    In this paper, we propose a novel flexible metamaterial (MM) absorber. The conductive pattern consists of liquid metal eutectic gallium indium alloy (EGaIn) enclosed in elastomeric microfluidic channels. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) material is used as a supporting substrate. The proposed MM absorber is flexible because of its liquid metal and PDMS substrate. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented when the microfluidic channels are filled with liquid metal. In order to evaluate the proposed MM absorber's performance, the fabricated absorber prototype is tested with rectangular waveguides. Almost perfect absorptivity is achieved at a resonant frequency of 8.22 GHz.

  18. Micropatterning of a stretchable conductive polymer using inkjet printing and agarose stamping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Steen; Hassager, Ole; Larsen, Niels Bent


    A highly conducting stretchable polymer material has been patterned using additive inkjet printing and by subtractive agarose stamping of a deactivation agent (hypochlorite). The material consisted of elastomeric polyurethane combined in an interpenetrating network with a conductive polymer, poly(3....... Inkjet printing of the material was only possible if a short-chain polyurethane was used as elastomer to overcome strain hardening at the neck of the droplets produced for printing. Reproducible line widths down to 200 μm could be achieved by inkjet printing. Both methods were used to fabricate test...

  19. Comparison of Different Final Impression Techniques for Management of Resorbed Mandibular Ridge: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupender Yadav


    Full Text Available The history of complete denture impression procedures has been influenced largely by the development of impression materials from which new techniques and ideas arose. The purpose of this study was to compare the retention of complete dentures made by using different impression techniques like conventional, admixed, all green, and functional techniques. The results showed that there was significant difference in retention between the six techniques where functional technique showed the highest mean value of retention followed by elastomeric, all green, and admixed, while cocktail and green stick compound showed the lowest mean value. However, on clinical examination, the retention produced by the six techniques was satisfactory.

  20. Multigait soft robot. (United States)

    Shepherd, Robert F; Ilievski, Filip; Choi, Wonjae; Morin, Stephen A; Stokes, Adam A; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Chen, Xin; Wang, Michael; Whitesides, George M


    This manuscript describes a unique class of locomotive robot: A soft robot, composed exclusively of soft materials (elastomeric polymers), which is inspired by animals (e.g., squid, starfish, worms) that do not have hard internal skeletons. Soft lithography was used to fabricate a pneumatically actuated robot capable of sophisticated locomotion (e.g., fluid movement of limbs and multiple gaits). This robot is quadrupedal; it uses no sensors, only five actuators, and a simple pneumatic valving system that operates at low pressures (robot to navigate a difficult obstacle. This demonstration illustrates an advantage of soft robotics: They are systems in which simple types of actuation produce complex motion.

  1. Mechanics and thermal management of stretchable inorganic electronics (United States)

    Song, Jizhou; Feng, Xue; Huang, Yonggang


    Stretchable electronics enables lots of novel applications ranging from wearable electronics, curvilinear electronics to bio-integrated therapeutic devices that are not possible through conventional electronics that is rigid and flat in nature. One effective strategy to realize stretchable electronics exploits the design of inorganic semiconductor material in a stretchable format on an elastomeric substrate. In this review, we summarize the advances in mechanics and thermal management of stretchable electronics based on inorganic semiconductor materials. The mechanics and thermal models are very helpful in understanding the underlying physics associated with these systems, and they also provide design guidelines for the development of stretchable inorganic electronics. PMID:27547485

  2. Green silicone elastomer obtained from a counterintuitively stable mixture of glycerol and PDMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazurek, P.; Hvilsted, S.; Skov, A. L.


    A green and cheap silicone-based elastomer has been developed. Through the simple mixing-in of biodiesel-originating glycerol into commercially available polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) pre-polymer, a glycerol-in-PDMS emulsion was produced. This counterintuitively stable mixture became a basis...... for obtaining elastomeric composites with uniformly distributed glycerol droplets. Various compositions, containing from 0 to 140 parts of glycerol per 100 parts of PDMS by weight, were prepared and investigated in terms of ATR-FTIR, broadband dielectric spectroscopy, mechanical properties as well as optical...

  3. Influence of welding fume on systemic iron status. (United States)

    Casjens, Swaantje; Henry, Jana; Rihs, Hans-Peter; Lehnert, Martin; Raulf-Heimsoth, Monika; Welge, Peter; Lotz, Anne; Gelder, Rainer Van; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Stiegler, Hugo; Eisele, Lewin; Weiss, Tobias; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas; Pesch, Beate


    Iron is the major metal found in welding fumes, and although it is an essential trace element, its overload causes toxicity due to Fenton reactions. To avoid oxidative damage, excess iron is bound to ferritin, and as a result, serum ferritin (SF) is a recognized biomarker for iron stores, with high concentrations linked to inflammation and potentially also cancer. However, little is known about iron overload in welders. Within this study, we assessed the iron status and quantitative associations between airborne iron, body iron stores, and iron homeostasis in 192 welders not wearing dust masks. Welders were equipped with personal samplers in order to determine the levels of respirable iron in the breathing zone during a working shift. SF, prohepcidin and other markers of iron status were determined in blood samples collected after shift. The impact of iron exposure and other factors on SF and prohepcidin were estimated using multiple regression models. Our results indicate that respirable iron is a significant predictor of SF and prohepcidin. Concentrations of SF varied according to the welding technique and respiratory protection used, with a median of 103 μg l(-1) in tungsten inert gas welders, 125 μg l(-1) in those wearing air-purifying respirators, and 161 μg l(-1) in other welders. Compared to welders with low iron stores (SF < 25 μg l(-1)), those with excess body iron (SF ≥ 400 μg l(-1)) worked under a higher median concentration of airborne iron (60 μg m(-3) versus 148 μg m(-3)). Even though air concentrations of respirable iron and manganese were highly correlated, and low iron stores have been reported to increase manganese uptake in the gastrointestinal tract, no correlation was seen between SF and manganese in blood. In conclusion, monitoring SF may be a reasonable method for health surveillance of welders. Respiratory protection with air-purifying respirators can decrease iron exposure and avoid chronically higher SF in welders working with

  4. Airborne Isocyanate Exposures in the Collision Repair Industry and a Comparison to Occupational Exposure Limits (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn; Whittaker, Stephen G.; Ceballos, Diana M.; Weiland, Elisa C.; Flack, Sheila L.; Fent, Kenneth W.; Thomasen, Jennifer M.; Gaines, Linda G. Trelles; Nylander-French, Leena A.


    Isocyanate exposure was evaluated in 33 spray painters from 25 Washington State autobody shops. Personal breathing zone samples (n = 228) were analyzed for isophorone diisocyanate (IPDI) monomer, 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) monomer, IPDI polyisocyanate, and three polyisocyanate forms of HDI. The objective was to describe exposures to isocyanates while spray painting, compare them with short-term exposure limits (STELs), and describe the isocyanate composition in the samples. The composition of polyisocyanates (IPDI and HDI) in the samples varied greatly, with maximum amounts ranging from up to 58% for HDI biuret to 96% for HDI isocyanurate. There was a significant inverse relationship between the percentage composition of HDI isocyanurate to IPDI and to HDI uretdione. Two 15-min STELs were compared: (1) Oregon's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OR-OSHA) STEL of 1000 μg/m3 for HDI polyisocyanate, and (2) the United Kingdom's Health and Safety Executive (UK-HSE) STEL of 70 μg NCO/m3 for all isocyanates. Eighty percent of samples containing HDI polyisocyanate exceeded the OR-OSHA STEL while 98% of samples exceeded the UKHSE STEL. The majority of painters (67%) wore half-face air-purifying respirators while spray painting. Using the OROSHA and the UK-HSE STELs as benchmarks, 21% and 67% of painters, respectively, had at least one exposure that exceeded the respirator's OSHA-assigned protection factor. A critical review of the STELs revealed the following limitations: (1) the OR-OSHA STEL does not include all polyisocyanates, and (2) the UK-HSE STEL is derived from monomeric isocyanates, whereas the species present in typical spray coatings are polyisocyanates. In conclusion, the variable mixtures of isocyanates used by autobody painters suggest that an occupational exposure limit is required that includes all polyisocyanates. Despite the limitations of the STELs, we determined that a respirator with an assigned protection factor of 25 or

  5. Biomimetic myocardial patches fabricated with poly(ɛ-caprolactone) and polyethylene glycol-based polyurethanes. (United States)

    Silvestri, Antonella; Sartori, Susanna; Boffito, Monica; Mattu, Clara; Di Rienzo, Anna M; Boccafoschi, Francesca; Ciardelli, Gianluca


    The production of efficient heart patches for myocardium repair requires the use of biomaterials with high elastomeric properties and controllable biodegradability. To fulfil these design criteria we propose biodegradable poly(ester urethanes) and poly(ether ester urethanes) from poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) as macrodiols, 1,4-diisocyanatobutane as diisocyanate, l-Lysine Ethyl Ester and Alanine-Alanine-Lysine (AAK) as chain extenders. This peptide was used to tune biodegradability properties, since the Alanine-Alanine sequence is a target for the elastase enzyme. Enzymatic degradation tests demonstrated the feasibility of tuning biodegradability properties due to the introduction of AAK peptide in polyurethane backbone. Two formulations have been processed into porous scaffolds by Thermally-Induced Phase Separation (TIPS). Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs revealed promising microstructures, which were characterized by stretched and unidirectional pores and mimicked the striated muscle tissue. Tensile tests showed that, although scaffolds are characterized by lower mechanical properties than films, these substrates have suitable elastomeric behaviors and elastic moduli for contractile and soft tissue regeneration. Viability tests on cardiomyocytes revealed the best cell response for dense film and porous scaffold obtained from PCL and Lysine Ethyl Ester-based polyurethane, with an increased viability for the porous substrate, which is ascribable to the morphological features of its microstructure. Future works will be addressed to study the in vivo behavior of these constructs and to confirm their applicability for myocardial tissue engineering. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Investigation on Alteration of Compression of Knitted Orthopaedic Supports during Exploitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available One of the areas of medical textile is the spacer knitted orthopaedic products. The concept of compression therapy of orthopaedic supports lies on a simple and efficient mechanical principle – it consists of applying elastic garment around the limb. Spacer orthopaedic supports are knitted on flat knitting machines equipped with especial elastomeric thread feeder. Compression made by the support depends on the support area, shape and characteristics of knitting. Because of orthopaedic supports are intended for durable wearing and need to vouchsafe compression of fixed value, it is very important to known how processes acting during exploitation influence alteration of compression values. The aim of this study was to establish the alteration of compression of knitted support during exploitation, i. e. after multifold extension, washing and drying. The samples were knitted on a flat double needle bed knitting machine in combined jacquard-laid-in pattern with elastomeric weft threads. It was established that compressive properties of knits after cyclic tensile load changed slightly, i. e. range between margins of error. It was measured that knitted orthopaedic supports dimensions and density after washing and drying cycles changes significant, i. e. knitted supports shrinks and thickens and their compression decreases.DOI:

  7. Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy Reveals that Electrostatic Interactions Affect the Mechanical Stability of Proteins (United States)

    Zheng, Peng; Cao, Yi; Bu, Tianjia; Straus, Suzana K.; Li, Hongbin


    It is well known that electrostatic interactions play important roles in determining the thermodynamic stability of proteins. However, the investigation into the role of electrostatic interactions in mechanical unfolding of proteins has just begun. Here we used single molecule atomic force microscopy techniques to directly evaluate the effect of electrostatic interactions on the mechanical stability of a small protein GB1. We engineered a bi-histidine motif into the force-bearing region of GB1. By varying the pH, histidine residues can switch between protonated and deprotonated states, leading to the change of the electrostatic interactions between the two histidine residues. We found that the mechanical unfolding force of the engineered protein decreased by ∼34% (from 115 pN to 76 pN) on changing the pH from 8.5 to 3, due to the increased electrostatic repulsion between the two positively charged histidines at acidic pH. Our results demonstrated that electrostatic interactions can significantly affect the mechanical stability of elastomeric proteins, and modulating the electrostatic interactions of key charged residues can become a promising method for regulating the mechanical stability of elastomeric proteins. PMID:21402036

  8. Nuclear magnetic resonance at 310 MHz in a superconducting solenoid; Resonance magnetique nucleaire a 310 MHz dans un solenoide supra-conducteur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunand, J.J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The realisation of an NMR spectrometer with a superconducting magnet is presented in the first section. The methods to attain the best possible homogeneity of the magnetic field and to minimize the error in the spectrometer are described. The second section is devoted to the study of elastomers and nitr-oxides free radicals. A shift of the transition temperature with the magnetic field appears for the elastomers. The increasing paramagnetic shift has allowed a complete study by NMR of piperidinic and pyrrolidinic nitroxide free radicals. (author) [French] Dans la premiere partie est exposee la realisation d'un spectrometre de RMN utilisant un solenoide supraconducteur. Des solutions sont donnees pour obtenir la meilleure homogeneite possible du champ magnetique et pour minimiser les sources d'erreur apportees par le spectrometre. La deuxieme partie est consacree a l'etude d'elastomeres et de radicaux libres nitroxydes. Une variation de la temperature de transition avec le champ magnetique est mise en evidence pour les elastomeres. L'accroissement du deplacement paramagnetique a permis une etude complete par RMN des radicaux libres nitroxydes piperidiniques et pyrrolidiniques. (auteur)

  9. Development of a new seal for use on large openings of pressurized spacecraft (United States)

    Weddendorf, B.


    The goal of this project was to design, build, and test an example of the seal invented by the author for use on Space Station Freedom and patented in 1991. The seal features a metallic spring core and replaceable elastomeric sealing elements. The metallic spring is designed to retain the sealing force of the elastomeric element against both sides of face seal gland for any specified amount of waviness or separation of the glands. A seal able to tolerate at least 1.3 mm (0.05 in) of flange distortion or separation and a test fixture of this seal which allowed direct comparison testing of O-rings were built. These designs were tested to compare leakage at different amounts of flange deflection. Results of the testing show the development seal exceeded its requirement to seal 1.3 mm of flange separation by 1 mm. This compared with the O-ring leakage, increasing dramatically at 0.5 mm of separation. The development seal also leaked at a lower rate than the O-ring seals in all tests.

  10. Volume growth during uniaxial tension of particle-filled elastomers at various temperatures - Experiments and modelling (United States)

    Ilseng, Arne; H. Skallerud, Bjørn; H. Clausen, Arild


    A common presumption for elastomeric material behaviour is incompressibility, however, the inclusion of filler particles might give rise to matrix-particle decohesion and subsequent volume growth. In this article, the volumetric deformation accompanying uniaxial tension of particle-filled elastomeric materials at low temperatures is studied. An experimental set-up enabling full-field deformation measurements is outlined and novel data are reported on the significant volume growth accompanying uniaxial tension of two HNBR and one FKM compounds at temperatures of - 18 , 0, and 23 °C. The volumetric deformation was found to increase with reduced temperature for all compounds. To explain the observed dilatation, in situ scanning electron microscopy was used to inspect matrix-particle debonding occurring at the surface of the materials. A new constitutive model, combining the Bergström-Boyce visco-hyperelastic formulation with a Gurson flow potential function is outlined to account for the observed debonding effects in a numerical framework. The proposed model is shown to provide a good correspondence to the experimental data, including the volumetric response, for the tested FKM compound at all temperature levels.


    Relvas, Carlos; Reis, Joana; Potes, José Alberto Caeiro; Fonseca, Fernando Manuel Ferreira; Simões, José Antonio Oliveira


    This study, aimed the development of a methodology for rapid manufacture of orthopedic implants simultaneously with the surgical intervention, considering two potential applications in the fields of orthopedics: the manufacture of anatomically adapted implants and implants for bone loss replacement. This work innovation consists on the capitation of the in situ geometry of the implant by direct capture of the shape using an elastomeric material (polyvinylsiloxane) which allows fine detail and great accuracy of the geometry. After scanning the elastomeric specimen, the implant is obtained by machining using a CNC milling machine programmed with a dedicated CAD/CAM system. After sterilization, the implant is able to be placed on the patient. The concept was developed using low cost technology and commercially available. The system has been tested in an in vivo hip arthroplasty performed on a sheep. The time increase of surgery was 80 minutes being 40 minutes the time of implant manufacturing. The system developed has been tested and the goals defined of the study achieved enabling the rapid manufacture of an implant in a time period compatible with the surgery time.

  12. Manufacture of Partially Biodegradable Composite Materials Based on PLA-Tires Powder: Process and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rolando Rios-Soberanis


    Full Text Available This research work focuses on the processability and mechanical characterization of blends of polylactic acid (PLA and tire (elastomeric part. Wasted tires used as filler in the PLA matrix were reduced by two different processes (thermal shock and pyrolysis in order to acquire the solid residuals in powder to be characterized and compared. Elastomeric solids obtained from scraped tires were used as filler in the PLA matrix and mixed in a Brabender 60 cc mixer at different concentrations ranging from 0% to 60% of filler volume fraction. The blend was laminated, and then samples were obtained in order to undertake mechanical properties at tension and Izod impact tests. A fully detailed analysis on the solid powders by Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, infrared analysis (IR, and scanning electron microscopy analysis (SEM identified them as a rich source of carbon. Blends were characterized thermally and mechanically showing a direct effect due to the tire nature (thermoset rubber and concentration. Fracture mechanisms were also identified.

  13. Morphology of Thermoplastic Elastomers:Stereoblock Polypropylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pople, John A


    The morphologies of low-density (0.86 g/cm{sup 3}), elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) derived from bis(2-arylindenyl) hafnium dichloride were investigated using a combination of polarized optical microscopy (OM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TMAFM). These low-crystallinity polypropylenes, when crystallized isothermally from the melt, exhibit morphologies reminiscent of classical semi-crystalline polymers. The presence of lamellae, cross-hatching, hedrites, and spherulites was revealed by high resolution TM-AFM. These elastomeric polypropylenes can be fractionated into components of different average tacticities and crystallinities, but similar molecular mass. The analysis of the morphologies of all of the fractions revealed both large hierarchical structures and cross-hatching typical of the {alpha}-modification of crystalline isotactic polypropylene for all but the lowest crystalline ether soluble fraction. Evidence for high-melting crystals in all of the fractions are most consistent with a stereoblock microstructure of atactic and isotactic sequences.

  14. Electrical conductivity, dielectric response and space charge dynamics of an electroactive polymer with and without nanofiller reinforcement (United States)

    Kochetov, R.; Tsekmes, I. A.; Morshuis, P. H. F.


    Electroactive polymers have gained considerable attention over the last 20 years for exhibiting a large displacement in response to electrical stimulation. The promising fields of application include wave energy converters, muscle-like actuators, sensors, robotics, and biomimetics. For an electrical engineer, electroactive polymers can be seen as a dielectric elastomer film or a compliant capacitor with a highly deformable elastomeric medium. If the elastomer is pre-stretched and pre-charged, a reduction of the tensile force lets the elastomer revert to its original form and increases the electrical potential. The light weight of electroactive polymers, low cost, high intrinsic breakdown strength, cyclical way of operation, reliable performance, and high efficiency can be exploited to utilize the elastomeric material as a transducer. The energy storage for a linear dielectric polymer is determined by its relative permittivity and the applied electric field. The latter is limited by the dielectric breakdown strength of the material. Therefore, to generate a high energy density of a flexible capacitor, the film must be used at the voltage level close to the material’s breakdown or inorganic particles with high dielectric permittivity which can be introduced into the polymer matrix. In the present study, silicone-titania elastomer nanocomposites were produced and the influence of nanoparticles on the macroscopic dielectric properties of the neat elastomer including space charge dynamics, complex permittivity, and electrical conductivity, were investigated.

  15. Soft Elastomers with Ionic Liquid-Filled Cavities as Strain Isolating Substrates for Wearable Electronics. (United States)

    Ma, Yinji; Pharr, Matt; Wang, Liang; Kim, Jeonghyun; Liu, Yuhao; Xue, Yeguang; Ning, Rui; Wang, Xiufeng; Chung, Ha Uk; Feng, Xue; Rogers, John A; Huang, Yonggang


    Managing the mechanical mismatch between hard semiconductor components and soft biological tissues represents a key challenge in the development of advanced forms of wearable electronic devices. An ultralow modulus material or a liquid that surrounds the electronics and resides in a thin elastomeric shell provides a strain-isolation effect that enhances not only the wearability but also the range of stretchability in suitably designed devices. The results presented here build on these concepts by (1) replacing traditional liquids explored in the past, which have some nonnegligible vapor pressure and finite permeability through the encapsulating elastomers, with ionic liquids to eliminate any possibility for leakage or evaporation, and (2) positioning the liquid between the electronics and the skin, within an enclosed, elastomeric microfluidic space, but not in direct contact with the active elements of the system, to avoid any negative consequences on electronic performance. Combined experimental and theoretical results establish the strain-isolating effects of this system, and the considerations that dictate mechanical collapse of the fluid-filled cavity. Examples in skin-mounted wearable include wireless sensors for measuring temperature and wired systems for recording mechano-acoustic responses. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Performance of bolted closure joint elastomers under cask aging conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verst, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Sindelar, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Skidmore, E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Daugherty, W. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    The bolted closure joint of a bare spent fuel cask is susceptible to age-related degradation and potential loss of confinement function under long-term storage conditions. Elastomeric seals, a component of the joint typically used to facilitate leak testing of the primary seal that includes the metallic seal and bolting, is susceptible to degradation over time by several mechanisms, principally via thermo-oxidation, stress-relaxation, and radiolytic degradation under time and temperature condition. Irradiation and thermal exposure testing and evaluation of an ethylene-propylene diene monomer (EPDM) elastomeric seal material similar to that used in the CASTOR® V/21 cask for a matrix of temperature and radiation exposure conditions relevant to the cask extended storage conditions, and development of semiempirical predictive models for loss of sealing force is in progress. A special insert was developed to allow Compressive Stress Relaxation (CSR) measurements before and after the irradiation and/or thermal exposure without unloading the elastomer. A condition of the loss of sealing force for the onset of leakage was suggested. The experimentation and modeling being performed could enable acquisition of extensive coupled aging data as well as an estimation of the timeframe when loss of sealing function under aging (temperature/radiation) conditions may occur.

  17. Self-Healing and Damage Resilience for Soft Robotics: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Adam Bilodeau


    Full Text Available Advances in soft robotics will be crucial to the next generation of robot–human interfaces. Soft material systems embed safety at the material level, providing additional safeguards that will expedite their placement alongside humans and other biological systems. However, in order to function in unpredictable, uncontrolled environments alongside biological systems, soft robotic systems should be as robust in their ability to recover from damage as their biological counterparts. There exists a great deal of work on self-healing materials, particularly polymeric and elastomeric materials that can self-heal through a wide variety of tools and techniques. Fortunately, most emerging soft robotic systems are constructed from polymeric or elastomeric materials, so this work can be of immediate benefit to the soft robotics community. Though the field of soft robotics is still nascent as a whole, self-healing and damage resilient systems are beginning to be incorporated into three key support pillars that are enabling the future of soft robotics: actuators, structures, and sensors. This article reviews the state-of-the-art in damage resilience and self-healing materials and devices as applied to these three pillars. This review also discusses future applications for soft robots that incorporate self-healing capabilities.

  18. Measurement of rod seal lubrication for Stirling engine (United States)

    Krauter, A. I.


    The elastohydrodynamic behavior of sliding elastomeric seals for the Stirling engine, was analyzed using an experimental apparatus to determine the instantaneous oil film thickness throughout the cyclic reciprocating motion. Tests were conducted on two commercial elastomeric seals: a "T" seal (76 mm O.D. and 3.8 mm between backing rings) and an "O" ring (76 mm O.D. and 5.3 mm diameter). Testing conditions included seal durometers of 70 and 90, sliding velocities of 0.8, 2.0, and 3.6 m/s, and no pressure gradient across the seal. Both acrylic and aluminum cylinders were used. Measured oil film thickness profiles were compared to results of the elastohydrodynamic analysis. The comparison shows an overall qualitative agreement. Friction and oil leakage measurements were also made at these sliding speeds. The fluid used was a typical synthetic base automotive lubricant. It is concluded that this first time experimental analytical comparison for oil film thickness indicates the need for some improvements in the analytical model and in the experimental technique.

  19. Development of a new seal for use on large openings of pressurized spacecraft (United States)

    Weddendorf, B.


    The goal of this project was to design, build, and test an example of the seal invented by the author for use on Space Station Freedom and patented in 1991. The seal features a metallic spring core and replaceable elastomeric sealing elements. The metallic spring is designed to retain the sealing force of the elastomeric element against both sides of face seal gland for any specified amount of waviness or separation of the glands. A seal able to tolerate at least 1.3 mm (0.05 in) of flange distortion or separation and a test fixture of this seal which allowed direct comparison testing of O-rings were built. These designs were tested to compare leakage at different amounts of flange deflection. Results of the testing show the development seal exceeded its requirement to seal 1.3 mm of flange separation by 1 mm. This compared with the O-ring leakage, increasing dramatically at 0.5 mm of separation. The development seal also leaked at a lower rate than the O-ring seals in all tests.

  20. Infrared actuation-induced simultaneous reconfiguration of surface color and morphology for soft robotics. (United States)

    Banisadr, Seyedali; Chen, Jian


    Cephalopods, such as cuttlefish, demonstrate remarkable adaptability to the coloration and texture of their surroundings by modulating their skin color and surface morphology simultaneously, for the purpose of adaptive camouflage and signal communication. Inspired by this unique feature of cuttlefish skins, we present a general approach to remote-controlled, smart films that undergo simultaneous changes of surface color and morphology upon infrared (IR) actuation. The smart film has a reconfigurable laminated structure that comprises an IR-responsive nanocomposite actuator layer and a mechanochromic elastomeric photonic crystal layer. Upon global or localized IR irradiation, the actuator layer exhibits fast, large, and reversible strain in the irradiated region, which causes a synergistically coupled change in the shape of the laminated film and color of the mechanochromic elastomeric photonic crystal layer in the same region. Bending and twisting deformations can be created under IR irradiation, through modulating the strain direction in the actuator layer of the laminated film. Furthermore, the laminated film has been used in a remote-controlled inchworm walker that can directly couple a color-changing skin with the robotic movements. Such remote-controlled, smart films may open up new application possibilities in soft robotics and wearable devices.

  1. Control of soft machines using actuators operated by a Braille display. (United States)

    Mosadegh, Bobak; Mazzeo, Aaron D; Shepherd, Robert F; Morin, Stephen A; Gupta, Unmukt; Sani, Idin Zhalehdoust; Lai, David; Takayama, Shuichi; Whitesides, George M


    One strategy for actuating soft machines (e.g., tentacles, grippers, and simple walkers) uses pneumatic inflation of networks of small channels in an elastomeric material. Although the management of a few pneumatic inputs and valves to control pressurized gas is straightforward, the fabrication and operation of manifolds containing many (>50) independent valves is an unsolved problem. Complex pneumatic manifolds-often built for a single purpose-are not easily reconfigured to accommodate the specific inputs (i.e., multiplexing of many fluids, ranges of pressures, and changes in flow rates) required by pneumatic systems. This paper describes a pneumatic manifold comprising a computer-controlled Braille display and a micropneumatic device. The Braille display provides a compact array of 64 piezoelectric actuators that actively close and open elastomeric valves of a micropneumatic device to route pressurized gas within the manifold. The positioning and geometries of the valves and channels in the micropneumatic device dictate the functionality of the pneumatic manifold, and the use of multi-layer soft lithography permits the fabrication of networks in a wide range of configurations with many possible functions. Simply exchanging micropneumatic devices of different designs enables rapid reconfiguration of the pneumatic manifold. As a proof of principle, a pneumatic manifold controlled a soft machine containing 32 independent actuators to move a ball above a flat surface.

  2. Fabrication of a Lab-on-Chip Device Using Material Extrusion (3D Printing and Demonstration via Malaria-Ab ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bauer


    Full Text Available Additive manufacturing, such as fused deposition modeling (FDM, has been increasingly employed to produce microfluidic platforms due to ease of use, wide distribution of affordable 3D printers and relatively inexpensive materials for printing. In this work, we discuss fabrication and testing of an FDM-printed fully automated colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA designed to detect malaria. The detection platform consists of a disposable 3D-printed fluidic cartridge (with elastomeric silicone domes on top of reagent-storage reservoirs and a nondisposable frame with servomotors and electronic controls such as an Arduino board and a rechargeable battery. The system is controlled by a novel interface where a music file (so-called “song” is sent to the Arduino board, where the onboard program converts the set of frequencies into action of individual servomotors to rotate their arms a certain amount, thus depressing specific elastomeric domes atop reagent reservoirs and displacing the specific reagents into the detection wells, where bioassay steps are executed. Another of the distinguished characteristics of the demonstrated system is its ability to aspirate the fluid from the detection wells into the waste reservoir. Therefore, the demonstrated automated platform has the ability to execute even the most complex multi-step assays where dilution and multiple washes are required. Optimization of 3D-printer settings and ways to control leakages typical of FDM-printed fluidic systems are also discussed.

  3. Relative hardness measurement of soft objects by a new fiber optic sensor (United States)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Ashtaputre, Pranav; Abou Ziki, Jana; Dargahi, Javad; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran


    The measurement of relative hardness of soft objects enables replication of human finger tactile perception capabilities. This ability has many applications not only in automation and robotics industry but also in many other areas such as aerospace and robotic surgery where a robotic tool interacts with a soft contact object. One of the practical examples of interaction between a solid robotic instrument and a soft contact object occurs during robotically-assisted minimally invasive surgery. Measuring the relative hardness of bio-tissue, while contacting the robotic instrument, helps the surgeons to perform this type of surgery more reliably. In the present work, a new optical sensor is proposed to measure the relative hardness of contact objects. In order to measure the hardness of a contact object, like a human finger, it is required to apply a small force/deformation to the object by a tactile sensor. Then, the applied force and resulting deformation should be recorded at certain points to enable the relative hardness measurement. In this work, force/deformation data for a contact object is recorded at certain points by the proposed optical sensor. Recorded data is used to measure the relative hardness of soft objects. Based on the proposed design, an experimental setup was developed and experimental tests were performed to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric materials. Experimental results verify the ability of the proposed optical sensor to measure the relative hardness of elastomeric samples.

  4. Fully Stretchable Optoelectronic Sensors Based on Colloidal Quantum Dots for Sensing Photoplethysmographic Signals. (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Lee, Chang-Seok; Kim, Sangwon; Hur, Jaehyun; Lee, Sangmin; Shin, Keun Wook; Yoon, Young-Zoon; Choi, Moon Kee; Yang, Jiwoong; Kim, Dae-Hyeong; Hyeon, Taeghwan; Park, Seongjun; Hwang, Sungwoo


    Flexible and stretchable optoelectronic devices can be potentially applied in displays, biosensors, biomedicine, robotics, and energy generation. The use of nanomaterials with superior optical properties such as quantum dots (QDs) is important in the realization of wearable displays and biomedical devices, but specific structural design as well as selection of materials should preferentially accompany this technology to realize stretchable forms of these devices. Here, we report stretchable optoelectronic sensors manufactured using colloidal QDs and integrated with elastomeric substrates, whose optoelectronic properties are stable under various deformations. A graphene electrode is adopted to ensure extreme bendability of the devices. Ultrathin QD light-emitting diodes and QD photodetectors are transfer-printed onto a prestrained elastomeric layout to form wavy configurations with regular patterns. The layout is mechanically stretchable until the structure is converted to a flat configuration. The emissive and active area itself can be stretched or compressed by buckled structures, which are applicable to wearable electronic devices. We demonstrate that these stretchable optoelectronic sensors can be used for continuous monitoring of blood waves via photoplethysmography signal recording. These and related systems create important and unconventional opportunities for stretchable and foldable optoelectronic devices with health-monitoring capability and, thus, meet the demand for wearable and body-integrated electronics.

  5. Three-dimensional mesostructures as high-temperature growth templates, electronic cellular scaffolds, and self-propelled microrobots (United States)

    Yan, Zheng; Han, Mengdi; Shi, Yan; Badea, Adina; Yang, Yiyuan; Kulkarni, Ashish; Hanson, Erik; Kandel, Mikhail E.; Wen, Xiewen; Zhang, Fan; Luo, Yiyue; Lin, Qing; Zhang, Hang; Guo, Xiaogang; Huang, Yuming; Nan, Kewang; Jia, Shuai; Oraham, Aaron W.; Mevis, Molly B.; Lim, Jaeman; Guo, Xuelin; Gao, Mingye; Ryu, Woomi; Yu, Ki Jun; Nicolau, Bruno G.; Petronico, Aaron; Rubakhin, Stanislav S.; Lou, Jun; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Thornton, Katsuyo; Popescu, Gabriel; Fang, Daining; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Braun, Paul V.; Zhang, Haixia; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Huang, Yonggang; Zhang, Yihui; Rogers, John A.


    Recent work demonstrates that processes of stress release in prestrained elastomeric substrates can guide the assembly of sophisticated 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced materials. Reported application examples include soft electronic components, tunable electromagnetic and optical devices, vibrational metrology platforms, and other unusual technologies, each enabled by uniquely engineered 3D architectures. A significant disadvantage of these systems is that the elastomeric substrates, while essential to the assembly process, can impose significant engineering constraints in terms of operating temperatures and levels of dimensional stability; they also prevent the realization of 3D structures in freestanding forms. Here, we introduce concepts in interfacial photopolymerization, nonlinear mechanics, and physical transfer that bypass these limitations. The results enable 3D mesostructures in fully or partially freestanding forms, with additional capabilities in integration onto nearly any class of substrate, from planar, hard inorganic materials to textured, soft biological tissues, all via mechanisms quantitatively described by theoretical modeling. Illustrations of these ideas include their use in 3D structures as frameworks for templated growth of organized lamellae from AgCl–KCl eutectics and of atomic layers of WSe2 from vapor-phase precursors, as open-architecture electronic scaffolds for formation of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neural networks, and as catalyst supports for propulsive systems in 3D microswimmers with geometrically controlled dynamics. Taken together, these methodologies establish a set of enabling options in 3D micro/nanomanufacturing that lie outside of the scope of existing alternatives.

  6. Stretchable, Transparent, and Stretch-Unresponsive Capacitive Touch Sensor Array with Selectively Patterned Silver Nanowires/Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes. (United States)

    Choi, Tae Young; Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Kim, Bo-Yeong; Trung, Tran Quang; Nam, Yun Hyoung; Kim, Do-Nyun; Eom, Kilho; Lee, Nae-Eung


    Stretchable and transparent touch sensors are essential input devices for future stretchable transparent electronics. Capacitive touch sensors with a simple structure of only two electrodes and one dielectric are an established technology in current rigid electronics. However, the development of stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensors has been limited due to changes in capacitance resulting from dimensional changes in elastomeric dielectrics and difficulty in obtaining stretchable transparent electrodes that are stable under large strains. Herein, a stretch-unresponsive stretchable and transparent capacitive touch sensor array was demonstrated by employing stretchable and transparent electrodes with a simple selective-patterning process and by carefully selecting dielectric and substrate materials with low strain responsivity. A selective-patterning process was used to embed a stretchable and transparent silver nanowires/reduced graphene oxide (AgNWs/rGO) electrode line into a polyurethane (PU) dielectric layer on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate using oxygen plasma treatment. This method provides the ability to directly fabricate thin film electrode lines on elastomeric substrates and can be used in conventional processes employed in stretchable electronics. We used a dielectric (PU) with a Poisson's ratio smaller than that of the substrate (PDMS), which prevented changes in the capacitance resulting from stretching of the sensor. The stretch-unresponsive touch sensing capability of our transparent and stretchable capacitive touch sensor has great potential in wearable electronics and human-machine interfaces.

  7. Cyclic stress-strain behavior of polymeric nonwoven structures for the use as artificial leaflet material for transcatheter heart valve prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbeiter Daniela


    Full Text Available Xenogenic leaflet material, bovine and porcine pericardium, is widely used for the fabrication of surgically implanted and transcatheter heart valve prostheses. As a biological material, long term durability of pericardium is limited due to calcification, degeneration and homogeneity. Therefore, polymeric materials represent a promising approach for a next generation of artificial heart valve leaflets with improved durability. Within the current study we analyzed the mechanical performance of polymeric structures based on elastomeric materials. Polymeric cast films were prepared and nonwovens were manufactured in an electrospinning process. Analysis of cyclic stress-strain behavior was performed, using a universal testing machine. The uniaxial cyclic tensile experiments of the elastomeric samples yielded a non-linear elastic response due to viscoelastic behavior with hysteresis. Equilibrium of stress-strain curves was found after a specific number of cycles, for cast films and nonwovens, respectively. In conclusion, preconditioning was found obligatory for the evaluation of the mechanical performance of polymeric materials for the use as artificial leaflet material for heart valve prostheses.

  8. Improved mechanical and functional properties of elastomer/graphite nanocomposites prepared by latex compounding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Jian [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Tian Ming [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Jia Qingxiu [Key Laboratory on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Shi Junhong [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Zhang Liqun [Key Laboratory for Nano-materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Ministry of Education of China, Beijing 100029 (China); Key Laboratory on Preparation and Processing of Novel Polymer Materials, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)], E-mail:; Lim Szuhui; Yu Zhongzhen [Centre for Advanced Materials Technology (CAMT), School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (J07), University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Mai Yiuwing [Centre for Advanced Materials Technology (CAMT), School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (J07), University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)], E-mail:


    The facile latex approach has been adopted to finely incorporate graphite nanosheets into elastomeric polymer matrix to obtain high-performance elastomeric nanocomposites with improved mechanical properties and functional properties. Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction experiments show that the nanostructures of the final nanocomposites exhibit a high degree of exfoliation and intercalation of graphite in the nitrile-butadiene rubber (NBR) matrix. Mechanical and dynamic-mechanical tests demonstrate that the NBR/graphite nanocomposites possess greatly increased elastic modulus and tensile strength, and desirably strong interfaces. The unexpected self-crosslinking of elastomer/graphite nanocomposites was discovered and then verified by oscillating disc rheometry and equilibrium swelling experiments. After critically examining various polymer types by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin resonance and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, a radical initiation mechanism was proposed to explain the self-crosslinking reaction. These NBR/graphite nanocomposites possess significantly improved wear resistance and gas barrier properties, and superior electrical/thermal conductivity. Such versatile functional properties make NBR nanocomposites a promising new class of advanced materials.

  9. Pitch Control of Hexagonal Non-Close-Packed Nanosphere Arrays Using Isotropic Deformation of an Elastomer. (United States)

    Huang, Xiaolu; Bjork, Matthew; Ratchford, Daniel C; Yeom, Junghoon


    Self-assembly of colloidal nanospheres combined with various nanofabrication techniques produces an ever-increasing range of two-dimensional (2D) ordered nanostructures, although the pattern periodicity is typically bound to the original interparticle spacing. Deformable soft lithography using controlled deformation of elastomeric substrates and subsequent contact printing transfer offer a versatile method to systematically control the lattice spacing and arrangements of the 2D nanosphere array. However, the anisotropic nature of uniaxial and biaxial stretching as well as the strain limit of solvent swelling makes it difficult to create well-separated, ordered 2D nanosphere arrays with large-area hexagonal arrangements. In this paper, we report a simple, facile approach to fabricate such arrays of polystyrene nanospheres using a custom-made radial stretching apparatus. The maximum stretchability and spatial uniformity of the poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) elastomeric substrate is systematically investigated. A pitch increase as large as 213% is demonstrated using a single stretching-and-transfer process, which is at least 3 times larger than the maximum pitch increase achievable using a single swelling-and-transfer process. Unlike the colloidal arrays generated by the uniaxial and biaxial stretching, the isotropic expansion of radial stretching allows the hexagonal array to retain its original structure across the entire substrate. Upon radial strain applied to the PDMS sheet, the nanosphere array with modified pitch is transferred to a variety of target substrates, exhibiting different optical behaviors and serving as an etch mask or a template for molding.

  10. Effect of temperature and gap opening rate on the resiliency of candidate solid rocket booster O-ring materials (United States)

    Lach, Cynthia L.


    In the redesign of the Space Shuttle solid rocket motor following the Challenger accident, the field and nozzle-to-case joints were designed to minimize gap opening caused by internal motor pressurization during ignition. The O-ring seals and glands for these joints were designed both to accommodate structural deflections and to promote pressure assisted sealing. The resiliency behavior of several candidate O-ring materials was evaluated for the effects of temperature and gap opening rates. The performance of three of the elastomeric materials was tested under the specific redesign gap opening requirement. Dynamic flexure conditions unique to launch produce low frequency vibrations in the gap opening. The effect of these vibrations on the ability of the O-ring to maintain contact with the sealing surface was addressed. The resiliency of the O-ring materials was found to be extremely sensitive to variations in temperature and gap opening rate. The top three elastomeric materials tracked the simulated solid rocket booster (SRB) field joint deflection at 75 and 120 F. The external tank/SRB attach strut load vibrations had a negligible effect on the ability of the O-ring to track the simulated SRB field joint deflection.

  11. Sustainable Triblock Copolymers for Application as Thermoplastic Elastomers (United States)

    Ding, Wenyue; Wang, Shu; Ganewatta, Mitra; Tang, Chuanbing; Robertson, Megan

    Thermoplastic elastomers (TPEs), combining the processing advantages of thermoplastics with the flexibility and extensibility of elastomeric materials, have found versatile applications in industry, including electronics, clothing, adhesives, and automotive components. ABA triblock copolymers, in which A represents glassy endblocks and B the rubbery midblock, are commercially available as TPEs, such as poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) or poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) (SIS). However, the commercial TPEs are derived from fossil fuels. The finite availability of fossil fuels and the environmental impact of the petroleum manufacturing have led to the increased interest in the development of alternative polymeric materials from sustainable sources. Rosin acids are promising replacement for the petroleum source due to their abundance in conifers, rigid molecular structures, and ease of functionalization. In this study, we explored the utilization of a rosin acid derivative, poly(dehydroabietic ethyl methacrylate) (PDAEMA), as a sustainable alternative for the glassy domain. The triblock copolymer poly(dehydroabietic ethyl methacrylate-b-n-butyl acylate-b-dehydroabietic ethyl methacrylate) (DnBD) was synthesized and characterized. DnBD exhibited tunable morphological and thermal properties. Tensile testing revealed elastomeric behavior.

  12. Engineering Protein Hydrogels Using SpyCatcher-SpyTag Chemistry. (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoye; Fang, Jie; Xue, Bin; Fu, Linglan; Li, Hongbin


    Constructing hydrogels from engineered proteins has attracted significant attention within the material sciences, owing to their myriad potential applications in biomedical engineering. Developing efficient methods to cross-link tailored protein building blocks into hydrogels with desirable mechanical, physical, and functional properties is of paramount importance. By making use of the recently developed SpyCatcher-SpyTag chemistry, we successfully engineered protein hydrogels on the basis of engineered tandem modular elastomeric proteins. Our resultant protein hydrogels are soft but stable, and show excellent biocompatibility. As the first step, we tested the use of these hydrogels as a drug carrier, as well as in encapsulating human lung fibroblast cells. Our results demonstrate the robustness of the SpyCatcher-SpyTag chemistry, even when the SpyTag (or SpyCatcher) is flanked by folded globular domains. These results demonstrate that SpyCatcher-SpyTag chemistry can be used to engineer protein hydrogels from tandem modular elastomeric proteins that can find applications in tissue engineering, in fundamental mechano-biological studies, and as a controlled drug release vehicle.

  13. Propagation characteristics of shock waves from a plane carbon-nanotube-coated optoacoustic transducer in water (United States)

    Fan, Xiaofeng; Baek, Yonggeun; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon; Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Duckjong; Kang, Hyun Wook; Oh, Junghwan


    An optoacoustic transducer made of light-absorbing and elastomeric materials can generate high-pressure wide-band ultrasound waves in water when it is illuminated by a pulse laser. To generate such waves with high efficiency, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) are widely used as the light-absorbing and elastomeric materials, respectively. It was previously reported that an optoacoustic concave transducer made of these materials can produce strong shock waves, namely, blast waves, within its focal zone. In this study, we have shown that these waves can also be generated by a plane optoacoustic transducer fabricated by coating CNTs-PDMS on a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) plate. Some propagation characteristics of the blast wave generated were measured and compared with the calculated results. It was found that the propagation speed and attenuation of the wave are different from those of usual sounds. From the comparison of the measured and the calculated acoustic fields, it is assumed that every point on the transducer surface produces almost the same blast wave.

  14. Towards nanopatterning by femtosecond laser ablation of pre-stretched elastomers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surdo, Salvatore; Piazza, Simonluca; Ceseracciu, Luca; Diaspro, Alberto; Duocastella, Martí, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We present a new approach to increase the focusing capabilities of optical systems. • Laser patterning is performed over a stretched elastomeric membrane. • After releasing stress, patterns shrink according to the applied strain. • Minimum feature size is controlled by strain, enabling sub-diffraction patterning. - Abstract: Diffraction limits the focusing capabilities of an optical system seriously constraining the use of lasers for nanopatterning. In this work, we present a novel and simple approach to reduce the minimum feature size of a laser-direct write system by ablating a pre-stretched material. In particular, by focusing and scanning a femtosecond laser beam on the surface of a uniaxially pre-stretched elastomeric membrane we are able to obtain microstructures according to a desired pattern. After removing the stress applied to the elastomer, the membrane relaxes to its original size and the ablated patterns shrink while preserving their shape. In this way, the minimum feature size that is typically determined by the optical properties of the focusing system can be now controlled by the strain applied to the elastomer during the ablation process. We demonstrate this approach by ablating lines on a stretchable polymeric membrane at different strain conditions. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. The proposed method opens up new interesting possibilities for the rapid prototyping of micro- and nano-structures suitable for a wide range of applications such as soft-lithography, micro-/nano-fluidics and lab-on-chip.

  15. Knitted strain sensors: impact of design parameters on sensing properties. (United States)

    Atalay, Ozgur; Kennon, William Richard


    This paper presents a study of the sensing properties exhibited by textile-based knitted strain sensors. Knitted sensors were manufactured using flat-bed knitting technology, and electro-mechanical tests were subsequently performed on the specimens using a tensile testing machine to apply strain whilst the sensor was incorporated into a Wheatstone bridge arrangement to allow electrical monitoring. The sensing fabrics were manufactured from silver-plated nylon and elastomeric yarns. The component yarns offered similar diameters, bending characteristics and surface friction, but their production parameters differed in respect of the required yarn input tension, the number of conductive courses in the sensing structure and the elastomeric yarn extension characteristics. Experimental results showed that these manufacturing controls significantly affected the sensing properties of the knitted structures such that the gauge factor values, the working range and the linearity of the sensors varied according to the knitted structure. These results confirm that production parameters play a fundamental role in determining the physical behavior and the sensing properties of knitted sensors. It is thus possible to manipulate the sensing properties of knitted sensors and the sensor response may be engineered by varying the production parameters applied to specific designs.

  16. Knitted Strain Sensors: Impact of Design Parameters on Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Atalay


    Full Text Available This paper presents a study of the sensing properties exhibited by textile-based knitted strain sensors. Knitted sensors were manufactured using flat-bed knitting technology, and electro-mechanical tests were subsequently performed on the specimens using a tensile testing machine to apply strain whilst the sensor was incorporated into a Wheatstone bridge arrangement to allow electrical monitoring. The sensing fabrics were manufactured from silver-plated nylon and elastomeric yarns. The component yarns offered similar diameters, bending characteristics and surface friction, but their production parameters differed in respect of the required yarn input tension, the number of conductive courses in the sensing structure and the elastomeric yarn extension characteristics. Experimental results showed that these manufacturing controls significantly affected the sensing properties of the knitted structures such that the gauge factor values, the working range and the linearity of the sensors varied according to the knitted structure. These results confirm that production parameters play a fundamental role in determining the physical behavior and the sensing properties of knitted sensors. It is thus possible to manipulate the sensing properties of knitted sensors and the sensor response may be engineered by varying the production parameters applied to specific designs.

  17. Cerebral Aneurysm Clipping Surgery Simulation Using Patient-Specific 3D Printing and Silicone Casting. (United States)

    Ryan, Justin R; Almefty, Kaith K; Nakaji, Peter; Frakes, David H


    Neurosurgery simulator development is growing as practitioners recognize the need for improved instructional and rehearsal platforms to improve procedural skills and patient care. In addition, changes in practice patterns have decreased the volume of specific cases, such as aneurysm clippings, which reduces the opportunity for operating room experience. The authors developed a hands-on, dimensionally accurate model for aneurysm clipping using patient-derived anatomic data and three-dimensional (3D) printing. Design of the model focused on reproducibility as well as adaptability to new patient geometry. A modular, reproducible, and patient-derived medical simulacrum was developed for medical learners to practice aneurysmal clipping procedures. Various forms of 3D printing were used to develop a geometrically accurate cranium and vascular tree featuring 9 patient-derived aneurysms. 3D printing in conjunction with elastomeric casting was leveraged to achieve a patient-derived brain model with tactile properties not yet available from commercial 3D printing technology. An educational pilot study was performed to gauge simulation efficacy. Through the novel manufacturing process, a patient-derived simulacrum was developed for neurovascular surgical simulation. A follow-up qualitative study suggests potential to enhance current educational programs; assessments support the efficacy of the simulacrum. The proposed aneurysm clipping simulator has the potential to improve learning experiences in surgical environment. 3D printing and elastomeric casting can produce patient-derived models for a dynamic learning environment that add value to surgical training and preparation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Drop Fluidics Enabled by Magnetic Field Mediated Elasto-Capillary Transduction

    CERN Document Server

    Biswas, Saheli; Chaudhury, Manoj K


    This research introduces a new drop fluidics, which uses a deformable and stretchable elastomeric film as the platform, instead of the commonly used rigid supports. Such a soft film impregnated with magnetic particles can be modulated with an external electromagnetic field that produces a vast array of topographical landscapes with varying surface curvature, which, in conjunction with capillarity, can direct and control motion of water droplets efficiently and accurately. When a thin layer of oil is present on this film that is deformed locally, a centrosymmetric wedge is formed. A water droplet placed on this oil laden film becomes asymmetrically deformed thus producing a gradient of Laplace pressure within the droplet setting it to motion. A simple theory is presented that accounts for the droplet speed in terms of such geometric variables as the volume of the droplet and the thickness of the oil film covering the soft elastomeric film, as well as such material variables as the viscosity of the oil and inte...

  19. Choice of rotatable plug seals for prototype fast breeder reactor: Review of historical perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, N.K., E-mail:; Raj, Baldev, E-mail:


    Highlights: • Choice and arrangement of elastomeric inflatable and backup seals as primary and secondary barriers. • With survey (mid-1930s onwards) of reactor, sealing, R&D and rubber technology. • Load, reliability, safety, life and economy of seals and reactors are key factors. • PFBR blends concepts and experience of MOX fuelled FBRs with original solutions. • R&D indicates inflatable seal advanced fluoroelastomer pivotal in unifying nuclear sealing. - Abstract: Choice and arrangement of elastomeric primary inflatable and secondary backup seals for the rotatable plugs (RPs) of 500 MW (e), sodium cooled, pool type, 2-loop, mixed oxide (MOX) fuelled Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) is depicted with review of various historical perspectives. Static and dynamic operation, largest diameters (PFBR: ∼6.4 m, ∼4.2 m), widest gaps and variations (5 ± 2 mm) and demanding operating requirements make RP openings on top shield (TS) the most difficult to seal which necessitated extensive development from 1950s to early 1990s. Liquid metal freeze seals with life equivalent to reactor prevailed as primary barrier (France, Japan, U.S.S.R.) during pre-1980s in spite of bulk, cost and complexity due to the abilities to meet zero leakage and resist core disruptive accident (CDA). Redefinition of CDA as beyond design basis accident, tolerable leakage and enhanced economisation drive during post-1980s established elastomeric inflatable seal as primary barrier excepting in U.S.S.R. (MOX fuel, freeze seal) and U.S.A. (metallic fuel). Choice of inflatable seal for PFBR RPs considers these perspectives, inherent advantages of elastomers and those of inflatable seals which maximise seal life. Choice of elastomeric backup seal as secondary barrier was governed by reliability and minimisation as well as distribution of load (temperature, radiation, mist) to maximise seal life. The compact sealing combination brings the hanging RPs at about the same elevation to reduce

  20. Exposure to inhalable, respirable, and ultrafine particles in welding fume. (United States)

    Lehnert, Martin; Pesch, Beate; Lotz, Anne; Pelzer, Johannes; Kendzia, Benjamin; Gawrych, Katarzyna; Heinze, Evelyn; Van Gelder, Rainer; Punkenburg, Ewald; Weiss, Tobias; Mattenklott, Markus; Hahn, Jens-Uwe; Möhlmann, Carsten; Berges, Markus; Hartwig, Andrea; Brüning, Thomas


    This investigation aims to explore determinants of exposure to particle size-specific welding fume. Area sampling of ultrafine particles (UFP) was performed at 33 worksites in parallel with the collection of respirable particles. Personal sampling of respirable and inhalable particles was carried out in the breathing zone of 241 welders. Median mass concentrations were 2.48 mg m(-3) for inhalable and 1.29 mg m(-3) for respirable particles when excluding 26 users of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs). Mass concentrations were highest when flux-cored arc welding (FCAW) with gas was applied (median of inhalable particles: 11.6 mg m(-3)). Measurements of particles were frequently below the limit of detection (LOD), especially inside PAPRs or during tungsten inert gas welding (TIG). However, TIG generated a high number of small particles, including UFP. We imputed measurements welding fume. Concentrations were mainly predicted by the welding process and were significantly higher when local exhaust ventilation (LEV) was inefficient or when welding was performed in confined spaces. Substitution of high-emission techniques like FCAW, efficient LEV, and using PAPRs where applicable can reduce exposure to welding fume. However, harmonizing the different exposure metrics for UFP (as particle counts) and for the respirable or inhalable fraction of the welding fume (expressed as their mass) remains challenging.

  1. Multifunctional hybrid functionalization of cellulose fabrics with AgNWs and TiO2. (United States)

    Giesz, Patrycja; Mackiewicz, Ewelina; Grobelny, Jarosław; Celichowski, Grzegorz; Cieślak, Małgorzata


    A study on the hybrid functionalization of cotton and viscose fabrics using silver nanowires (AgNWs) colloid and titanium dioxide (TiO2) sol prepared in sol-gel technique was carried out. The microwave treatment was applied to change amorphous form of TiO2 to anatase. The photocatalytic activity of both cellulose fabrics was evaluated by decomposition of nicotine using new method on the basis of infrared spectroscopy. The AgNWs/TiO2 modification caused 3 and 4 times (cotton fabric) and 1.8 and 1.5 (viscose fabric) faster decomposition of nicotine under respectively UV and VIS light than for unmodified fabrics. The AgNWs/TiO2 modified cotton showed the surface resistance 1.5×10(3)Ω and antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria. The same modification method gives various effects for cotton and viscose fabrics. Our study demonstrates that AgNWs/TiO2 modified cotton fabric with protective properties against bacteria can be used as conductive and air purifying materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. BSL-3 laboratory practices in the United States: comparison of select agent and non-select agent facilities. (United States)

    Richards, Stephanie L; Pompei, Victoria C; Anderson, Alice


    New construction of biosafety level 3 (BSL-3) laboratories in the United States has increased in the past decade to facilitate research on potential bioterrorism agents. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention inspect BSL-3 facilities and review commissioning documentation, but no single agency has oversight over all BSL-3 facilities. This article explores the extent to which standard operating procedures in US BSL-3 facilities vary between laboratories with select agent or non-select agent status. Comparisons are made for the following variables: personnel training, decontamination, personal protective equipment (PPE), medical surveillance, security access, laboratory structure and maintenance, funding, and pest management. Facilities working with select agents had more complex training programs and decontamination procedures than non-select agent facilities. Personnel working in select agent laboratories were likely to use powered air purifying respirators, while non-select agent laboratories primarily used N95 respirators. More rigorous medical surveillance was carried out in select agent workers (although not required by the select agent program) and a higher level of restrictive access to laboratories was found. Most select agent and non-select agent laboratories reported adequate structural integrity in facilities; however, differences were observed in personnel perception of funding for repairs. Pest management was carried out by select agent personnel more frequently than non-select agent personnel. Our findings support the need to promote high quality biosafety training and standard operating procedures in both select agent and non-select agent laboratories to improve occupational health and safety.

  3. Inhibition of various gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria growth on selenium nanoparticle coated paper towels. (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Larese-Casanova, Philip; Webster, Thomas J


    There are wide spread bacterial contamination issues on various paper products, such as paper towels hanging in sink splash zones or those used to clean surfaces, filter papers used in water and air purifying systems, and wrappings used in the food industry; such contamination may lead to the potential spread of bacteria and consequent severe health concerns. In this study, selenium nanoparticles were coated on normal paper towel surfaces through a quick precipitation method, introducing antibacterial properties to the paper towels in a healthy way. Their effectiveness at preventing biofilm formation was tested in bacterial assays involving Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The results showed significant and continuous bacteria inhibition with about a 90% reduction from 24 to 72 hours for gram-positive bacteria including S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The selenium coated paper towels also showed significant inhibition of gram-negative bacteria like P. aeruginosa and E. coli growth at about 57% and 84%, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Therefore, this study established a promising selenium-based antibacterial strategy to prevent bacterial growth on paper products, which may lead to the avoidance of bacteria spreading and consequent severe health concerns.

  4. Preparation of Bismuth Oxide Photocatalyst and Its Application in White-light LEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chang Chu


    Full Text Available Bismuth oxide photocatalysts were synthesized and coated on the front surface of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes to produce a safe and environmentally benign lighting source. Bismuth oxide photocatalyst powders were synthesized with a spray pyrolysis method at 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, and 800°C. Using the absorption spectrum in the blue and UV regions of the bismuth oxide photocatalysts, the blue light and UV leakage problems of phosphor-converted white LEDs can be significantly reduced. The experimental results showed that bismuth oxide photocatalyst synthesized at 700°C exhibited the most superior spectrum inhibiting ability. The suppressed ratio reached 52.33% in the blue and UV regions from 360 to 420 nm. Related colorimetric parameters and the photocatalyst decomposition ability of fabricated white-light LEDs were tested. The CIE chromaticity coordinates (x,y were (0.349, 0.393, and the correlated color temperature was 4991 K. In addition, the coating layer of photocatalyst can act as an air purifier and diffuser to reduce glare. A value of 66.2±0.60 ppmv of molecular formaldehyde gas can be decomposed in 120 mins.

  5. Evaluation of ozone emissions and exposures from consumer products and home appliances. (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Jenkins, P L


    Ground-level ozone can cause serious adverse health effects and environmental impacts. This study measured ozone emissions and impacts on indoor ozone levels and associated exposures from 17 consumer products and home appliances that could emit ozone either intentionally or as a by-product of their functions. Nine products were found to emit measurable ozone, one up to 6230 ppb at a distance of 5 cm (2 inches). One use of these products increased room ozone concentrations by levels up to 106 ppb (mean, from an ozone laundry system) and personal exposure concentrations of the user by 12-424 ppb (mean). Multiple cycles of use of one fruit and vegetable washer increased personal exposure concentrations by an average of 2550 ppb, over 28 times higher than the level of the 1-h California Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone (0.09 ppm). Ozone emission rates ranged from 1.6 mg/h for a refrigerator air purifier to 15.4 mg/h for a fruit and vegetable washer. The use of some products was estimated to contribute up to 87% of total daily exposures to ozone. The results show that the use of some products may result in potential health impacts. © 2016 The Authors. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Experiments in the EMRP project KEY-VOCs: Adsorption/desorption effects of VOCs in different tubing materials and preparation and analysis of a zero gas (United States)

    Englert, Jennifer; Claude, Anja; Kubistin, Dagmar; Tensing, Erasmus; Michl, Katja; Plass-Duelmer, Christian


    Atmospheric chemistry and composition are influenced by volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from natural and anthropogenic sources. Due to their toxicity and their crucial role in ozone and aerosol formation VOCs impact air quality and climate change and high quality observations are demanded. The European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project KEY-VOCs has targeted the improvement of VOC measurement capabilities with the focus on VOCs relevant for indoor air as well as for air quality and climate monitoring programmes. One major uncertainty is the influence of surface effects of the measurement devices. By developing a test system the adsorption/desorption effects of certain VOCs can be systematically examined. Different tubing materials e.g. stainless steel and PFA were analysed with the oxygenated VOC methanol and results of these experiments will be presented. In air quality monitoring very low levels of VOCs have to be measured. Purified air or nitrogen is widely used as a zero gas to characterize measurement systems and procedures as well as for instrument calibration. A high quality zero gas is an important contributor to the quality of the measurements and generally achieved by using state-of-the-art purification technologies. The efficiency of several air purifiers was assessed and the results have been analysed.

  7. Measurement of Secondary Products During Oxidation Reactions of Terpenes and Ozone Based on the PTR-MS Analysis: Effects of Coexistent Carbonyl Compounds

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    Yukio Yanagisawa


    Full Text Available Continuous measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS can be used to describe the production processes of secondary products during ozone induced oxidation of terpenes. Terpenes are emitted from woody building materials, and ozone is generated from ozone air purifiers and copy machines in indoor environments. Carbonyl compounds (CCs are emitted by human activities such as smoking and drinking alcohol. Moreover, CCs are generated during ozone oxidation of terpenes. Therefore, coexistent CCs should affect the ozone oxidation. This study has focused on the measurement of secondary products during the ozone oxidation of terpenes based on the use of PTR-MS analysis and effects of coexistent CCs on oxidized products. Experiments were performed in a fluoroplastic bag containing α-pinene or limonene as terpenes, ozone and acetaldehyde or formaldehyde as coexistent CCs adjusted to predetermined concentrations. Continuous measurements by PTR-MS were conducted after mixing of terpenes, ozone and CCs, and time changes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs concentrations were monitored. Results showed that, high-molecular weight intermediates disappeared gradually with elapsed time, though the production of high-molecular weight intermediates was observed at the beginning. This phenomenon suggested that the ozone oxidation of terpenes generated ultrafine particles. Coexistent CCs affected the ozone oxidation of α-pinene more than limonene.

  8. Aerosol Generation During Bone-Sawing Procedures in Veterinary Autopsies. (United States)

    Wenner, L; Pauli, U; Summermatter, K; Gantenbein, H; Vidondo, B; Posthaus, H


    Bone-sawing procedures are routinely performed during veterinary and human autopsies and represent an important source for infectious aerosols. Here we investigate the generation of aerosols during bone-sawing procedures using 5 different saws regularly used in veterinary and human pathology. In particular, the electrical bone band saw produced vast amounts of aerosolized particles less than 5 µm in diameter, which spread rapidly throughout the entire autopsy hall, leading to an exposure of all personnel. Other sawing devices tested were a diamond-coated cut grinder, an oscillating saw, a reciprocating saw, and a hand bone saw. Although these saws, especially the handsaw, generated fewer aerosolized particles than the band saw, the level of exposure of the saw operator would still be of concern in cases where infectious material would require sawing. Contamination of the entire autopsy area was successfully prevented by the construction of a separately ventilated sawing cabin inside the existing autopsy room. Saw operators in this cabin, however, were exposed to even higher aerosol concentrations. Protection of saw operators was achieved by using a powered air-purifying respirator. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that all bone-sawing procedures applied in veterinary and human pathology can generate aerosols that are of concern for the health of autopsy personnel. To reduce the risk of aerosol infections from bone-sawing procedures, efficient and properly designed ventilation systems to limit the spread of aerosols and appropriate personal protective equipment against aerosols for exposed personnel should be implemented.

  9. Measurement of Secondary Products During Oxidation Reactions of Terpenes and Ozone Based on the PTR-MS Analysis: Effects of Coexistent Carbonyl Compounds (United States)

    Ishizuka, Yusuke; Tokumura, Masahiro; Mizukoshi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Miyuki; Yanagisawa, Yukio


    Continuous measurements using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) can be used to describe the production processes of secondary products during ozone induced oxidation of terpenes. Terpenes are emitted from woody building materials, and ozone is generated from ozone air purifiers and copy machines in indoor environments. Carbonyl compounds (CCs) are emitted by human activities such as smoking and drinking alcohol. Moreover, CCs are generated during ozone oxidation of terpenes. Therefore, coexistent CCs should affect the ozone oxidation. This study has focused on the measurement of secondary products during the ozone oxidation of terpenes based on the use of PTR-MS analysis and effects of coexistent CCs on oxidized products. Experiments were performed in a fluoroplastic bag containing α-pinene or limonene as terpenes, ozone and acetaldehyde or formaldehyde as coexistent CCs adjusted to predetermined concentrations. Continuous measurements by PTR-MS were conducted after mixing of terpenes, ozone and CCs, and time changes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) concentrations were monitored. Results showed that, high-molecular weight intermediates disappeared gradually with elapsed time, though the production of high-molecular weight intermediates was observed at the beginning. This phenomenon suggested that the ozone oxidation of terpenes generated ultrafine particles. Coexistent CCs affected the ozone oxidation of α-pinene more than limonene. PMID:21139865

  10. Industrial Hygiene Group annual research report, FY 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, J.O.; Ettinger, H.J. (comps.)


    Field studies have been performed at several oil shale facilities to identify unique industrial hygiene problems and provide input to inhalation toxicology studies aimed at evaluating the hazards of materials associated with this developing technology. Aerosol physics support has also been provided to develop aerosol generation and animal exposure techniques for evaluating the toxicity of oil shale materials and manmade mineral fibers. As part of the effort to assure a safe, orderly, and timely development of various synfuels, field evaluation of indicator-sampling procedures was perfomed, and industrial hygiene work practices for two synfuel technologies are being prepared. Respirator studies are used to evaluate the performances of special devices (some of which are not in the existing government approval schedules) and of a proposed test procedures for self-contained breathing apparatus. An approval procedure is being developed for air-purifying respirators required for protection against radioiodine, evaluating the adequacy of respirator programs at the Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensee facilities, and developing a program for respirator use under emergency situations. A new aerosol size-characterization stack sampler has been designed, and potential instrument changes to aerosol size monitoring for filter testing are being evaluated. Material permeability tests have identified the protection afforded by protective clothing materials, and improved analytical procedures have been developed for pentachlorophenol and plutonium.

  11. In vivo color changes of esthetic orthodontic ligatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Viana Martins da Silva


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the color changes that occur in four commercial brands of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures after exposure to the oral environment. METHODS: The four elastomeric ligatures manufacturers mostly mentioned by orthodontists were investigated: Morelli, Uniden, American Orthodontics (AO and TP. The sample comprised 25 patients. The elastomeric ligatures were randomly distributed and arranged in the four dental quadrants of each patient, r for 30 days. After this period, two units of each brand were photographed in a standardized manner. Subsequently, color changes were visually evaluated and assigned a score (0, 1, 2 or 3 by a panel of four examiners. The mean scores assigned by the examiners were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p OBJETIVO: avaliar as alterações de cor ocorridas em elastômeros estéticos de quatro marcas comerciais, quando expostos ao meio bucal. MÉTODOS: foram examinadas as quatro marcas comerciais mais citadas por ortodontistas - Morelli, Uniden, American Orthodontics (AO e TP -, em 25 pacientes consecutivos. Os elastômeros foram distribuídos de forma aleatória e ordenados nas quatro hemiarcadas de cada paciente, permanecendo no meio bucal por 30 dias. Após esse período, duas unidades de cada marca em todos os pacientes foram fotografadas de forma padronizada para, posteriormente, serem analisadas através de avaliação visual quanto à variação de cor, por escores (0, 1, 2, 3, por um painel de quatro examinadores. Os escores médios dos examinadores foram analisados estatisticamente por meio da ANOVA e teste de Tukey, com p<0,05. RESULTADOS: os escores médios de pigmentação, após 30 dias no meio intrabucal, obtidos para os elastômeros Morelli (1,80±0,78 e Uniden (1,92±0,66 não foram estatisticamente diferentes entre si. Entretanto, essas marcas estavam significativamente mais pigmentadas após 30 dias no meio intrabucal (p<0,01 quando comparadas às marcas

  12. A new model of protein adsorption kinetics derived from simultaneous measurement of mass loading and changes in surface energy. (United States)

    Clark, Alison J; Kotlicki, Andrzej; Haynes, Charles A; Whitehead, Lorne A


    We describe a novel technology based on changes in the resonant frequency of an acoustically actuated surface and use it to measure temporal changes in the surface energy gamma (N m(-1)) of an elastomeric polymer membrane due to the adsorption of macromolecules from aqueous solution. The resonant elastomeric surface-tension (REST) sensor permits simultaneous determination of mass loading kinetics and gamma(t) for a given adsorption process, thereby providing a multivariable data set from which to build and test models of the kinetics of adsorption at solid-liquid interfaces. The technique is used to measure gamma(t) during the adsorption of either sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) onto an acrylic polymer membrane. The adsorption of SDS is reversible and is characterized by a decrease in gamma over a time period that coincides with that required for the mass loading of the membrane. For the adsorption of HEWL labeled with Alexa Fluor 532 dye, gamma continues to change long after the surface concentration of labeled HEWL, measured by using the elastomeric polymer membrane as an optical waveguide, reaches steady state. Gradual but significant changes in gamma(t) are observed as long as the concentration of protein in the bulk solution, c(b), remains nonzero. HEWL remains adsorbed to the membrane when c(b) = 0, but changes in gamma(t) are not observed under this condition, indicating that the interaction of bound protein molecules with those free in solution contribute to the prolonged change in the surface energy. This observation has been used to define a new model for the kinetics of globular protein adsorption to a solid-liquid interface that includes a mechanism by which the molecules in the bulk can facilitate the desorption of a sorbate molecule or change the energetic states of adsorbed molecules and, thus, the overall surface energy. The model is shown to capture the unique features of protein adsorption kinetics, including the

  13. Nitric Oxide-Releasing Silica Nanoparticle-Doped Polyurethane Electrospun Fibers (United States)

    Koh, Ahyeon; Carpenter, Alexis W.; Slomberg, Danielle L.; Schoenfisch, Mark H.


    Electrospun polyurethane fibers doped with nitric oxide (NO)-releasing silica particles are presented as novel macromolecular scaffolds with prolonged NO-release and high porosity. Fiber diameter (119–614 nm) and mechanical strength (1.7–34.5 MPa of modulus) were varied by altering polyurethane type and concentration, as well as the NO-releasing particle composition, size, and concentration. The resulting NO-releasing electrospun nanofibers exhibited ~83% porosity with flexible plastic or elastomeric behavior. The use of N-diazeniumdiolate- or S-nitrosothiol-modified particles yielded scaffolds exhibiting a wide range of NO release totals and durations (7.5 nmol mg−1–0.12 μmol mg−1 and 7 h to 2 weeks, respectively). The application of NO-releasing porous materials as coating for subcutaneous implants may improve tissue biocompatibility by mitigating the foreign body response and promoting cell integration. PMID:23915047

  14. Effective modern methods of protecting metal road structures from corrosion (United States)

    Panteleeva, Margarita


    In the article the ways of protection of barrier road constructions from various external influences which cause development of irreversible corrosion processes are considered. The author studied modern methods of action on metal for corrosion protection and chose the most effective of them: a method of directly affecting the metal structures themselves. This method was studied in more detail in the framework of the experiment. As a result, the article describes the experiment of using a three-layer polymer coating, which includes a thermally activated primer, an elastomeric thermoplastic layer with a spatial structure, and a strong outer polyolefin layer. As a result of the experiment, the ratios of the ingredients for obtaining samples of the treated metal having the best parameters of corrosion resistance, elasticity, and strength were revealed. The author constructed a regression equation describing the main properties of the protective polymer coating using the simplex-lattice planning method in the composition-property diagrams.

  15. Development and fabrication of an advanced liquid cooling garment (United States)

    Leith, J. R.; Hixon, C. W.


    The elastomeric film fin/tube concept which was developed is a composite of polyurethane film, fine expanded silver mesh, a serpentine pattern polyurethane transport tubing and an integral comfort liner, all bonded via adhesive application and vacuum-bagged for final cure. As demonstrated by thermal analysis, the composite garment material is capable of removing a 293 watt (1000 BTU/hr) metabolic load through a head and torso cooling area of .46 sq m (5 sq ft) with tube spacing of slightly under one inch. A total of 60 test elements, each .15m x .15m (6 in. x 6 in.) were fabricated in support of the liquid cooling garment concept development. In parallel with the fabrication of these elements a continuing series of laboratory tests to support the fabrication techniques was carried out. The elements and supporting tests are described.

  16. Robust Control of a Cable-Driven Soft Exoskeleton Joint for Intrinsic Human-Robot Interaction. (United States)

    Jarrett, C; McDaid, A J


    A novel, cable-driven soft joint is presented for use in robotic rehabilitation exoskeletons to provide intrinsic, comfortable human-robot interaction. The torque-displacement characteristics of the soft elastomeric core contained within the joint are modeled. This knowledge is used in conjunction with a dynamic system model to derive a sliding mode controller (SMC) to implement low-level torque control of the joint. The SMC controller is experimentally compared with a baseline feedback-linearised proportional-derivative controller across a range of conditions and shown to be robust to un-modeled disturbances. The torque controller is then tested with six healthy subjects while they perform a selection of activities of daily living, which has validated its range of performance. Finally, a case study with a participant with spastic cerebral palsy is presented to illustrate the potential of both the joint and controller to be used in a physiotherapy setting to assist clinical populations.

  17. Shape Memory Polymers from Blends of Elastomers and Crystalline Small Molecules (United States)

    Cavicchi, Kevin; Brostowitz, Nicole; Hukill, Brent; Fairbairn, Heather


    This talk will present work on the fabrication of shape memory polymers (SMPs) by swelling natural with molten fatty acids. By this method a SMPs with excellent shape fixity and recovery can be obtained during free recovery after uniaxial deformation to 100% strain. Experiments to measure the shape memory properties under both stress and strain controlled conditions will be reported and compared. This fabrication method offers a number of advantages for preparing SMPs. First, it utilizes natural rubber as the base material for the SMP, which capitalizes on a high performance, commodity elastomer. Second, by blending a commercial polymer with a small molecule additive no additional chemistry is needed for the preparation of the SMP. Third, this route inverts the typically processing steps by crosslinking the permanent network prior to formation of the physically crosslinked reversible network. This offers a means to potentially generate a SMP from any preformed elastomeric article.

  18. A força de atrito em braquetes plásticos e de aço inoxidável com a utilização de quatro diferentes tipos de amarração Frictional forces in stainless steel and plastic brackets using four types of wire ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Nínia Correia Lima


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a finalidade deste estudo in vitro foi avaliar e comparar a resistência friccional em braquetes de aço inoxidável e de policarbonato compósito amarrados com fio metálico e elastômeros. MÉTODOS: foram utilizados quatro braquetes de aço inoxidável e quatro de policarbonato compósito (PC para pré-molares levados à máquina universal de ensaio mecânico para a tração de um segmento de fio de aço inoxidável 0,019" x 0,025" na velocidade de 0,5mm/min, com 8mm de deslocamento total. A forma de amarração variou entre as seguintes possibilidades: amarração metálica com pinça de Steiner, metálica com pinça Mathieu, elastômero da marca Morelli e elastômero da marca TP Orthodontics. RESULTADOS E CONCLUSÕES: os módulos elastoméricos geraram mais atrito do que os metálicos e a amarração com pinça Mathieu provocou menor atrito quando comparada a todas as situações avaliadas. Os braquetes de PC geraram menor atrito do que os metálicos, porém, na escolha do material a ser utilizado na clínica, outras variáveis - tais como a resistência ao cisalhamento e à fratura, a estabilidade de cor e a aderência por microrganismos - devem ser consideradas.OBJECTIVE: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the frictional resistance of stainless steel and polycarbonate (PC composite brackets tied with metal wire and elastomeric ligation. METHODS: Four stainless steel and four polycarbonate composite brackets for premolars were placed in a universal testing machine for the traction of a piece of 0.019 x 0.025-in wire at 0.5 mm/min and total displacement of 8 mm. Ligations were performed according to the following alternatives: metal ligation with Steiner tying pliers; metal ligation using Mathieu tying pliers; Morelli™ elastomeric ligation; and TP Orthodontics™ elastomeric ligation. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Elastomeric modules generated more friction than the metal ligations, and the ligation with the Mathieu tying

  19. A nonlinear theory for fibre-reinforced magneto-elastic rods (United States)

    Ciambella, Jacopo; Favata, Antonino; Tomassetti, Giuseppe


    We derive a model for the finite motion of a fibre-reinforced magneto-elastic rod. The reinforcing particles are assumed weakly and uniformly magnetized, rigid and firmly embedded into the elastomeric matrix. We deduce closed-form expressions of the quasi-static motion of the rod in terms of the external magnetic field and of the body forces. The dependences of the motion on the shape of the inclusions, their orientation, their anisotropic magnetic properties and the Young modulus of the matrix are analysed and discussed. Two case studies are presented, in which the rod is used as an actuator suspended in a cantilever configuration. This work can foster new applications in the field of soft-actuators.

  20. Fabrication of a Miniature Paper-Based Electroosmotic Actuator

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    Deepa Sritharan


    Full Text Available A voltage-controlled hydraulic actuator is presented that employs electroosmotic fluid flow (EOF in paper microchannels within an elastomeric structure. The microfluidic device was fabricated using a new benchtop lamination process. Flexible embedded electrodes were formed from a conductive carbon-silicone composite. The pores in the layer of paper placed between the electrodes served as the microchannels for EOF, and the pumping fluid was propylene carbonate. A sealed fluid-filled chamber was formed by film-casting silicone to lay an actuating membrane over the pumping liquid. Hydraulic force generated by EOF caused the membrane to bulge by hundreds of micrometers within fractions of a second. Potential applications of these actuators include soft robots and biomedical devices.