WorldWideScience

Sample records for elastic modes frequencies

  1. Stochastic reduced-order model for an automotive vehicle in presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range

    OpenAIRE

    Arnoux , A.; Batou , Anas; Soize , Christian; Gagliardini , L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This paper is devoted to the construction of a stochastic reduced-order model for dynamical structures having a high modal density in the low-frequency range, such as an automotive vehicle. This type of structure is characterized by the fact that it exhibits, in the low-frequency range, not only the classical global elastic modes but also numerous local elastic modes which cannot easily be separated from the global elastic modes. An approach has recently been proposed ...

  2. Guided wave mode selection for inhomogeneous elastic waveguides using frequency domain finite element approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J

    2016-04-01

    This article describes the use of the frequency domain finite element (FDFE) technique for guided wave mode selection in inhomogeneous waveguides. Problems with Rayleigh-Lamb and Shear-Horizontal mode excitation in isotropic homogeneous plates are first studied to demonstrate the application of the approach. Then, two specific cases of inhomogeneous waveguides are studied using FDFE. Finally, an example of guided wave mode selection for inspecting disbonds in composites is presented. Identification of sensitive and insensitive modes for defect inspection is demonstrated. As the discretization parameters affect the accuracy of the results obtained from FDFE, effect of spatial discretization and the length of the domain used for the spatial fast Fourier transform are studied. Some recommendations with regard to the choice of the above parameters are provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Nonlinear surface elastic modes in crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorentsveig, V. I.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Kosevich, A. M.; Syrkin, E. S.

    1990-03-01

    The influence of nonlinearity on shear horizontal surface elastic waves in crystals is described on the basis of the effective nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is shown that the corresponding solutions form a set of surface modes and the simplest mode coincides with the solution proposed by Mozhaev. The higher order modes have internal frequencies caused by the nonlinearity. All these modes decay in the crystal as uoexp(- z/ zo) atz≫ zo- u o-1 ( z is the distance from the crystal surface, uo the wave amplitude at the surface). The creation of the modes from a localized surface excitation has a threshold. The stability of the modes is discussed.

  4. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batou, A.; Soize, C.; Brie, N.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading

  5. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: anas.batou@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: christian.soize@univ-paris-est.fr [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: nicolas.brie@edf.fr [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  6. Boundary modes in quasiperiodic elastic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Matheus I. N.; Pal, Raj K.; Arruda, José R. F.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2018-03-01

    Topological metamaterials are a new class of materials that support topological modes such as edge modes and interface modes, which are commonly immune to scattering and imperfections. This novelty has been the subject of extensive research in many branches of physics such as electronics, photonics, phononics, and acoustics. The nontrivial topological properties related to the presence of topological modes are tipically found in periodic media. However, it was recently demonstrated that structures called quasicrystals may also exhibit nontrivial topological behavior attributed to dimensions higher than that of the quasicrystal. While quasiperiodicity has received a lot of attention in the fields of crystallography and photonics, research into quasiperiodic elastic structures has been scarce. In this paper, we show how the concepts of quasiperiodicity may be applied to the design of topological mechanical metamaterials. We start by investigating the boundary modes present in quasiperiodic 1D phononic lattices. These modes have the interesting property of being localized at either one of the two different boundaries depending on the value of an additional parameter, which is remnant of the higher dimension. A smooth variation of this parameter in either time or a spatial dimension can lead to a robust transfer of energy between two sites of the structure. We present an idealized mechanical system composed by an array of coupled rods that may be used as a platform for realizing this kind of robust transfer of energy. These are preliminary investigations into a entirely new class of structures which may lead to novel engineering applications.

  7. Suppression of an acoustic mode by an elastic mode of a liquid-filled spherical shell resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonzaga, Joel B; Raymond, Jason L; Mobley, Joel; Gaitan, D Felipe

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on the suppression of an approximately radial (radially symmetric) acoustic mode by an elastic mode of a water-filled, spherical shell resonator. The resonator, which has a 1-in. wall thickness and a 9.5-in. outer diameter, was externally driven by a small transducer bolted to the external wall. Experiments showed that for the range of drive frequencies (19.7-20.6 kHz) and sound speeds in water (1520-1570 m/s) considered in this paper, a nonradial (radially nonsymmetric) mode was also excited, in addition to the radial mode. Furthermore, as the sound speed in the liquid was changed, the resonance frequency of the nonradial mode crossed with that of the radial one and the amplitude of the latter was greatly reduced near the crossing point. The crossing of the eigenfrequency curves of these two modes was also predicted theoretically. Further calculations demonstrated that while the radial mode is an acoustic one associated with the interior fluid, the nonradial mode is an elastic one associated with the shell. Thus, the suppression of the radial acoustic mode is apparently caused by the overlapping with the nonradial elastic mode near the crossing point.

  8. Frequency and wavenumber selective excitation of spin waves through coherent energy transfer from elastic waves

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Yusuke; Bossini, Davide; Johansen, Tom H.; Saitoh, Eiji; Kirilyuk, Andrei; Rasing, Theo

    2017-01-01

    Using spin-wave tomography (SWaT), we have investigated the excitation and the propagation dynamics of optically-excited magnetoelastic waves, i.e. hybridized modes of spin waves and elastic waves, in a garnet film. By using time-resolved SWaT, we reveal the excitation dynamics of magnetoelastic waves through coherent-energy transfer between optically-excited pure-elastic waves and spin waves via magnetoelastic coupling. This process realizes frequency and wavenumber selective excitation of s...

  9. Elastic Modulus at High Frequency of Polymerically Stabilized Suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nommensen, P.A.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.

    2000-01-01

    The elastic moduli of polymerically stabilized suspensions consisting of colloidal silica particles coated with endgrafted PDMS (Mn = 80 000) in heptane, were measured as a function of concentration. And the elastic modulus at high frequency G'.. was quantitatively described by model calculations

  10. Whispering gallery modes for elastic waves in disk resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kaproulias

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The resonant modes of elastic waves in disk resonators are computationally studied with the finite difference time domain method. Different materials examined for the disk such as platinum and silicon. The effect of a glass substrate is also important especially in the case of silicon disks because of the similarity of sound velocities and mass densities between the two materials. The possibility of using those structures as sensors is also considered.

  11. Alfven frequency modes and global Alfven eigenmodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villard, L.; Vaclavik, J.

    1996-07-01

    The spectrum of n=0 Alfven modes is calculated analytically and numerically in cylindrical and toroidal geometries. It includes Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE) and Surface Modes (SM) of the fast magnetoacoustic wave. These modes are not induced by toroidicity. The n=0 GAEs owe their existence to the shear. The frequency spacing between different radial and poloidal modes and the correlation of eigenfrequencies with changes in the edge density are examined and found in complete agreement with experimental observations of what has been named the 'Alfven Frequency Mode' (AFM) so far. Although the eigenfrequency is related to the edge density, the n=0 GAE (AFM) is not necessarily edge-localized. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  12. Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the A(sub 0), A(sub 1), S(sub 0), and S(sub 2)Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along, and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.

  13. Elasticity analysis by MR elastography using the instantaneous frequency method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Osamu; Suga, Mikio; Minato, Kotaro; Okamoto, Jun; Takizawa, Osamu; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Komori, Masaru; Takahashi, Takashi

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a calculation method for estimating the elasticity of human organs using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) images. The method is based on the instantaneous frequency method, which is very sensitive to noise. Therefore, the proposed method also incorporates a noise-reduction function. In the instantaneous frequency method, Fourier transform is applied to the measurement signal. Then, inverse Fourier transform is performed after the negative frequency component is set to zero. In the proposed method, noise is reduced by processing in which the positive higher frequency component is also set to zero before inverse Fourier transform is performed. First, we conducted a simulation study and confirmed the applicability of this method and the noise reduction function. Next, we carried out a phantom experiment and demonstrated that elasticity images could be generated, with the gray level corresponding to the local frequency in MRE images. (author)

  14. Improved measurements of elastic properties at acoustic resonant frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.; Shillinglaw, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    The choice of specimens of rectangular cross section for determination of dynamic elastic moduli by the resonant bar technique is often dictated by specimen fabrication problems. The specimen of rectangular cross section lends itself to accurate determination of elastic vibration shapes by a method in which a simple noncontacting optical transducer is used. The unequivocal indexing of the various vibration modes obtained in this way more than compensates for the added computational difficulties associated with rectangular geometry. The approximations used in the calculations of Young's modulus and the shear modulus for bars of rectangular cross section are tested experimentally and it is shown that high precision can be obtained. Determinations of changes in dynamic elastic moduli with temperature or stress are also described. (author)

  15. Resonant frequency and elastic modulus measurements on hardened cement pastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.J.

    1982-12-01

    A new technique for measuring resonant frequency and elastic modulus is described. This has been used on specimens of hardened cement paste containing water with no simulated waste, and the results compared with measurements of ultrasonic pulse velocity, dimensional movements and compressive strength made on the same formulations. In addition, measurements were made on a specimen containing simulated waste which demonstrated the applicability of the new technique for following the development of the mechanical properties of cemented simulant radioactive waste in the laboratory. (U.K.)

  16. Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martin-Garcia, Jose M.; Tiglio, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (l=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (l=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that--in contrast to previous predictions in the literature--the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.

  17. Low-frequency elastic vibrations localized near fracture in solid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosevich, Yu.A.; Syrkin, E.S.

    1994-11-01

    We propose a consistent macroscopic description of the thermodynamic and dynamical properties of two-dimensional surface layers on the interface between two crystals or between different media. Such description enables one to elucidate the effect of two-dimensional defects (fracture) on the frequency, dispersion and polarization characteristics of surface waves and scattered on two-dimensional defects bulk waves of various nature, starting from rather general assumptions and without using of the microscopic models of surface or interface layers. A new thermodynamic variable for two-dimensional defect with an internal dynamical degree of freedom is introduced. The coupled long-wavelength and low-frequency equations of motion of the defect layer are obtained as a set of nontraditional boundary conditions for the bulk equations of the theory of elasticity. New types of surface and pseudo-surface (resonance) waves caused by two-dimensional absorbed or segregated layers with different strength of bonding with elastic substrate are analyzed. (author). 31 refs, 4 figs

  18. Elastic flexibility, fast-ion conduction, boson and floppy modes in AgPO3-AgI glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novita, Deassy I.; Boolchand, P.; Malki, M.; Micoulaut, Matthieu

    2009-05-01

    Raman scattering, IR reflectance and modulated-DSC measurements are performed on specifically prepared dry (AgI)x(AgPO3)1-x glasses over a wide range of compositions 0%37.8% are elastically flexible. Raman optical elasticity power laws, trends in the nature of the glass transition endotherms, corroborate the three elastic phase assignments. Ionic conductivities reveal a step-like increase when glasses become stress-free at x>xc(1) = 9.5% and a logarithmic increase in conductivity (σ~(x-xc(2))μ) once they become flexible at x>xc(2) = 37.8% with a power law μ = 1.78. The power law is consistent with percolation of 3D filamentary conduction pathways. Traces of water doping lower Tg and narrow the reversibility window, and can also completely collapse it. Ideas on network flexibility promoting ion conduction are in harmony with the unified approach of Ingram et al (2008 J. Phys. Chem. B 112 859), who have emphasized the similarity of process compliance or elasticity relating to ion transport and structural relaxation in decoupled systems. Boson mode frequency and scattering strength display thresholds that coincide with the two elastic phase boundaries. In particular, the scattering strength of the boson mode increases almost linearly with glass composition x, with a slope that tracks the floppy mode fraction as a function of mean coordination number r predicted by mean-field rigidity theory. These data suggest that the excess low frequency vibrations contributing to the boson mode in flexible glasses come largely from floppy modes.

  19. Dissipative elastic metamaterial with a low-frequency passband

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongquan Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We design and experimentally demonstrate a dissipative elastic metamaterial structure that functions as a bandpass filter with a low-frequency passband. The mechanism of dissipation in this structure is well described by a mass-spring-damper model that reveals that the imaginary part of the wavenumber is non-zero, even in the passband of dissipative metamaterials. This indicates that transmittance in this range can be low. A prototype for this viscoelastic metamaterial model is fabricated by 3D printing techniques using soft and hard acrylics as constituent materials. The transmittance of the printed metamaterial is measured and shows good agreement with theoretical predictions, demonstrating its potential in the design of compact waveguides, filters and other advanced devices for controlling mechanical waves.

  20. Nonlinear normal vibration modes in the dynamics of nonlinear elastic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhlin, Yu V; Perepelkin, N V; Klimenko, A A; Harutyunyan, E

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) are a generalization of the linear normal vibrations. By the Kauderer-Rosenberg concept in the regime of the NNM all position coordinates are single-values functions of some selected position coordinate. By the Shaw-Pierre concept, the NNM is such a regime when all generalized coordinates and velocities are univalent functions of a couple of dominant (active) phase variables. The NNMs approach is used in some applied problems. In particular, the Kauderer-Rosenberg NNMs are analyzed in the dynamics of some pendulum systems. The NNMs of forced vibrations are investigated in a rotor system with an isotropic-elastic shaft. A combination of the Shaw-Pierre NNMs and the Rauscher method is used to construct the forced NNMs and the frequency responses in the rotor dynamics.

  1. Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator for low frequency absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frank

    2018-05-01

    Passive acoustic liners, used in aeronautic engine nacelles to reduce radiated fan noise, have a quarter-wavelength behavior, because of perforated sheets backed by honeycombs (with one or two degrees of freedom). However, their acoustic absorption ability is naturally limited to medium and high frequencies because of constraints in thickness. The low ratio "plate thickness/hole diameter" generates impedance levels dependent on the incident sound pressure level and the grazing mean flow (by a mechanism of nonlinear dissipation through vortex shedding), which penalises the optimal design of liners. The aim of this paper is to overcome this problem by a concept called LEONAR ("Long Elastic Open Neck Acoustic Resonator"), in which a perforated plate is coupled with tubes of variable lengths inserted in a limited volume of a back cavity. To do this, experimental and theoretical studies, using different types of liners (material nature, hole diameter, tube length, cavity thickness) are described in this paper. It is shown that the impedance can be precisely determined with an analytical approach based on parallel transfer matrices of tubes coupled to the cavity. Moreover, the introduction of tubes in a cavity of a conventional resonator generates a significant shift in the frequency range of absorption towards lower frequencies or allows a reduction of cavity thickness. The impedance is practically independent of sound pressure level because of a high ratio "tube length/tube hole diameter". Finally, a test led in an aeroacoustic bench suggests that a grazing flow at a bulk Mach number of 0.3 has little impact on the impedance value. These first results allow considering these resonators with linear behavior as an alternative to classical resonators, in particular, as needed for future Ultra High Bypass Ratio engines with shorter and thinner nacelles.

  2. Seismic transmission operator reciprocity - II: impedance-operator symmetry via elastic lateral modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C. J.

    2015-08-01

    The properties of the overburden transmission response are of particular interest for the analysis of reflectivity illumination or blurring in seismic depth imaging. The first step to showing a transmission-operator reciprocity property is to identify the symmetry of the so-called displacement-to-traction operators. The latter are analogous to Dirichlet-to-Neumann operators and they may also be called impedance operators. Their symmetry is deduced here after development of a formal spectral or modal theory of lateral wavefunctions in a laterally heterogeneous generally anisotropic elastic medium. The elastic lateral modes are displacement-traction 6-vectors and they are built from two auxiliary 3-vector lateral-mode bases. These auxiliary modes arise from Hermitian and anti-Hermitian operators, so they have familiar properties such as orthogonality. There is no assumption of down/up symmetry of the elasticity tensor, but basic assumptions are made about the existence and completeness of the elastic modes. A point-symmetry property appears and plays a central role. The 6-vector elastic modes have a symplectic orthogonality property, which facilitates the development of modal expansions for 6-vector functions of the lateral coordinates when completeness is assumed. While the elastic modal theory is consistent with the laterally homogeneous case, numerical work would provide confidence that it is correct in general. An appendix contains an introductory overview of acoustic lateral modes that were studied by other authors, given from the perspective of this new work. A distinction is drawn between unit normalization of scalar auxiliary modes and a separate energy-flux normalization of 2-vector acoustic modes. Neither is crucial to the form of acoustic pressure-to-velocity or impedance operators. This statement carries over to the elastic case for the 3-vector auxiliary- and 6-vector elastic-mode normalizations. The modal theory is used to construct the kernel of the

  3. Evaluation of elastic constants of materials using the frequency spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Ramiro J. da; Baroni, Douglas B.; Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q.

    2015-01-01

    The characterization of materials made with the support of non-destructive techniques has great importance in industrial applications. The ultrasonic techniques are distinguished by good resolution to measure small variations of wave velocities as a result of changes in the character suffered by a particular material. In general these ultrasonic techniques are studied in the time domain, which represents an experimental difficulties when thin materials are analyzed, as well as to attenuate the ultrasonic signal drastically. An ultrasonic technique that uses the frequency domain is used in this study aiming to provide good time measurements to calculate the elastic constants of the first order in an aluminum alloy 6351. With the aid of a statistical approach was possible to have good results of tests performed when compared by a time domain technique already well explored in Ultrasound works produced in the Nuclear Engineering Institute Laboratory (LABUS / IEN) and also presented in most of the package, in good agreement with the theoretical model established in literature and used to validate the experiment, which was found in the results with good approximation. The relevance of this work in the nuclear area is associated with the interest to know the mechanical properties of structural components of the nuclear industry, which is currently studied as a rule, resorting to the computer simulations or previously during the operation of the system. (author)

  4. Evaluation of elastic constants of materials using the frequency spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Ramiro J. da; Baroni, Douglas B.; Bittencourt, Marcelo de S.Q., E-mail: ramirobd@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Departamento de Materiais Nucleares. Laboratorio de Ultrassom

    2015-07-01

    The characterization of materials made with the support of non-destructive techniques has great importance in industrial applications. The ultrasonic techniques are distinguished by good resolution to measure small variations of wave velocities as a result of changes in the character suffered by a particular material. In general these ultrasonic techniques are studied in the time domain, which represents an experimental difficulties when thin materials are analyzed, as well as to attenuate the ultrasonic signal drastically. An ultrasonic technique that uses the frequency domain is used in this study aiming to provide good time measurements to calculate the elastic constants of the first order in an aluminum alloy 6351. With the aid of a statistical approach was possible to have good results of tests performed when compared by a time domain technique already well explored in Ultrasound works produced in the Nuclear Engineering Institute Laboratory (LABUS / IEN) and also presented in most of the package, in good agreement with the theoretical model established in literature and used to validate the experiment, which was found in the results with good approximation. The relevance of this work in the nuclear area is associated with the interest to know the mechanical properties of structural components of the nuclear industry, which is currently studied as a rule, resorting to the computer simulations or previously during the operation of the system. (author)

  5. Frequency tuning, nonlinearities and mode coupling in circular mechanical graphene resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A M; Midtvedt, D; Croy, A; Isacsson, A

    2013-01-01

    We study circular nanomechanical graphene resonators by means of continuum elasticity theory, treating them as membranes. We derive dynamic equations for the flexural mode amplitudes. Due to the geometrical nonlinearity the mode dynamics can be modeled by coupled Duffing equations. By solving the Airy stress problem we obtain analytic expressions for the eigenfrequencies and nonlinear coefficients as functions of the radius, suspension height, initial tension, back-gate voltage and elastic constants, which we compare with finite element simulations. Using perturbation theory, we show that it is necessary to include the effects of the non-uniform stress distribution for finite deflections. This correctly reproduces the spectrum and frequency tuning of the resonator, including frequency crossings. (paper)

  6. Exploiting elastic anharmonicity in aluminum nitride matrix for phase-synchronous frequency reference generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatge, Mayur; Tabrizian, Roozbeh

    2018-03-01

    A matrix of aluminum-nitride (AlN) waveguides is acoustically engineered to realize electrically isolated phase-synchronous frequency references through nonlinear wave-mixing. AlN rectangular waveguides are cross-coupled through a periodically perforated plate that is engineered to have a wide acoustic bandgap around a desirable frequency ( f1≈509 MHz). While the coupling plate isolates the matrix from resonant vibrations of individual waveguide constituents at f1, it is transparent to the third-order harmonic waves (3f1) that are generated through nonlinear wave-mixing. Therefore, large-signal excitation of the f1 mode in a constituent waveguide generates acoustic waves at 3f1 with an efficiency defined by elastic anharmonicity of the AlN film. The phase-synchronous propagation of the third harmonic through the matrix is amplified by a high quality-factor resonance mode at f2≈1529 MHz, which is sufficiently close to 3f1 (f2 ≅ 3f1). Such an architecture enables realization of frequency-multiplied and phase-synchronous, yet electrically and spectrally isolated, references for multi-band/carrier and spread-spectrum wireless communication systems.

  7. Low frequency energy scavenging using sub-wave length scale acousto-elastic metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaz U. Ahmed

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This letter presents the possibility of energy scavenging (ES utilizing the physics of acousto-elastic metamaterial (AEMM at low frequencies (<∼3KHz. It is proposed to use the AEMM in a dual mode (Acoustic Filter and Energy Harvester, simultaneously. AEMM’s are typically reported for filtering acoustic waves by trapping or guiding the acoustic energy, whereas this letter shows that the dynamic energy trapped inside the soft constituent (matrix of metamaterials can be significantly harvested by strategically embedding piezoelectric wafers in the matrix. With unit cell AEMM model, we experimentally asserted that at lower acoustic frequencies (< ∼3 KHz, maximum power in the micro Watts (∼35µW range can be generated, whereas, recently reported phononic crystal based metamaterials harvested only nano Watt (∼30nW power against 10KΩ resistive load. Efficient energy scavengers at low acoustic frequencies are almost absent due to large required size relevant to the acoustic wavelength. Here we report sub wave length scale energy scavengers utilizing the coupled physics of local, structural and matrix resonances. Upon validation of the argument through analytical, numerical and experimental studies, a multi-frequency energy scavenger (ES with multi-cell model is designed with varying geometrical properties capable of scavenging energy (power output from ∼10µW – ∼90µW between 0.2 KHz and 1.5 KHz acoustic frequencies.

  8. FRICTION ANALYSIS ON SCRATCH DEFORMATION MODES OF VISCO-ELASTIC-PLASTIC MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Setiyana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding of abrasion resistance and associated surfaces deformation mechanisms is of primary importance in materials engineering and design. Instrumented scratch testing has proven to be a useful tool for characterizing the abrasion resistance of materials. Using a conical indenter in a scratch test may result in different deformation modes, like as elastic deformation, ironing, ductile ploughing and cutting. This paper presents the friction analysis of some deformation modes of visco-elastic-plastic behaving polymer materials, especially PEEK (poly ether ether ketone.In general, it is accepted that the friction consist of an adhesion and a deformation component, which can be assumed to be independent to each others. During a scratch test, the friction coefficient is influenced by some parameters, such as the sharpness of indenter, the deformation modes and the degree of elastic recovery. Results show that the adhesion component strongly influences the friction in the elastic and ironing deformation mode (scratching with a blunt cone, friction for the cutting deformation mode (scratching with a sharp cone is dominantly influenced by the deformation component. From the analysis, it can be concluded that the adhesion friction model is suitable for ironing - elastic deformation mode and the deformation friction model with elastic recovery is good for cutting mode. Moreover, the ductile ploughing mode is combination of the adhesion and plastic deformation friction model. ANALISIS FRIKSI PADA BENTUK DEFORMASI AKIBAT GORESAN PADA MATERIAL VISKO-ELASTIK-PLASTIK. Pemahaman tentang ketahanan abrasi dan deformasi permukaan  yang  menyertainya merupakan hal yang penting dalam rekayasa dan disain material. Peralatan uji gores terbukti ampuh untuk menyatakan ketahanan abrasi dari material. Pemakaian indenter kerucut dalam uji gores akan menghasilkan beberapa bentuk deformasi seperti halnya deformasi elastik, penyetrikaan, plowing dan pemotongan

  9. Constant-frequency, clamped-mode resonant converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Materu, Peter; Lee, Fred C.

    1987-01-01

    Two novel clamped-mode resonant converters are proposed which operate at a constant frequency while retaining many desired features of conventional series- and parallel-resonant converters. State-plane analysis techniques are used to identify all possible operating modes and define their mode boundaries. Control-to-output characteristics are derived that specify the regions for natural and forced commutation. The predicted operating modes are verified using a prototype circuit.

  10. Low frequency electrostatic modes in a magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1991-09-01

    The dispersion properties of low frequency electrostatic modes in a dusty plasma in the presence of a static homogeneous magnetic field are examined. It is found that the presence of the dust particles and the static magnetic field have significant effects on the dispersion relations. For the parallel propagation the electrostatic mode is slightly modified by the magnetic field for the ion acoustic branch. A new longitudinal mode arises at the extreme low frequency limit, which is unaffected by the magnetic field for the parallel propagation. For the transverse propagation the ion acoustic mode is not affected by the magnetic field. However, the undamped extreme low frequency mode is significantly modified by the presence of the magnetic field for the propagation transverse to the direction of the magnetic field. (author). 23 refs

  11. High frequency single mode traveling wave structure for particle acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanyan, M.I.; Danielyan, V.A.; Grigoryan, B.A.; Grigoryan, A.H. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Tsakanian, A.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Institut TEMF, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Tsakanov, V.M., E-mail: tsakanov@asls.candle.am [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia); Vardanyan, A.S.; Zakaryan, S.V. [CANDLE Synchrotron Research Institute, 0040 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2016-09-01

    The development of the new high frequency slow traveling wave structures is one of the promising directions in accomplishment of charged particles high acceleration gradient. The disc and dielectric loaded structures are the most known structures with slowly propagating modes. In this paper a large aperture high frequency metallic two-layer accelerating structure is studied. The electrodynamical properties of the slowly propagating TM{sub 01} mode in a metallic tube with internally coated low conductive thin layer are examined.

  12. Toroidal coupling and frequency spectrum of tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edery, D.; Samain, A.

    1989-05-01

    The frequency spectrum of tearing modes is analyzed with the help of a mode coupling model including toroidal effects in the MHD regions and various non linear effects in the resonant layers. In particular it is shown that the sudden damping of the mode rotation and the simultaneous enhancement of the growth rate observed in tokamak, could be explained as a bifurcating solution of the dispersion equation

  13. Localized radio frequency communication using asynchronous transfer mode protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzke, Edward L.; Robertson, Perry J.; Pierson, Lyndon G.

    2007-08-14

    A localized wireless communication system for communication between a plurality of circuit boards, and between electronic components on the circuit boards. Transceivers are located on each circuit board and electronic component. The transceivers communicate with one another over spread spectrum radio frequencies. An asynchronous transfer mode protocol controls communication flow with asynchronous transfer mode switches located on the circuit boards.

  14. A hierarchy of high-order theories for modes in an elastic layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.; Chapman, C. John

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchy of high-order theories for symmetric and skew-symmetric modes in an infinitely long elastic layer of the constant thickness is derived. For each member of the hierarchy, boundary conditions for layers of the finite length are formulated. The forcing problems at several approximation...

  15. A high-switching-frequency flyback converter in resonant mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jianting; van Horck, Frank B.M.; Daniel, Bobby J.; Bergveld, Henk Jan

    2017-01-01

    The demand of miniaturization of power systems has accelerated the research on high-switching-frequency power converters. A flyback converter in resonant mode that features low switching losses, less transformer losses, and low switching noise at high switching frequency is investigated in this

  16. Suppression of tunnel modes of hydrogen in α-Mn by elastic stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, V.E.; Fedotov, V.K.; Glazkov, V.P.; Somenkov, V.A.; Kozlenko, D.P.; Savenko, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    By means of inelastic incoherent scattering of neutrons one investigated into behavior of hydrogen tunnel mode in MnH 0.04 and MnH 0.07 under high pressure values in sapphire anvils. Peak of inelastic scattering relevant to hydrogen tunnelling in a two-hole potential was determined to vanish at 0.8 GPa pressure under quasi-hydrostatic mode and to survive with no visible changes under standard hydrostatics. The detected effect of suppression of tunnel modes by inhomogeneous elastic stresses is explained by interruption of levels in neighboring holes by static shifts [ru

  17. Low-frequency modes with high toroidal mode numbers. A general formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegoraro, F.; Schep, T.J.

    1979-09-01

    Low-frequency waves with high toroidal mode numbers in an axisymmetric toroidal configuration are studied. In particular, the relationship between the periodicity constraints imposed by the geometry, magnetic shear and the spatial structure of eigenmodes is investigated. By exploiting the radial translational invariance and the poloidal periodicity of the gyrokinetic and Maxwell equations, the two-dimensional problem can be converted into a one-dimensional one and the mode structure can be expressed in terms of a single extended poloidal variable. This representation is used in the description of electromagnetic modes with phase velocities larger than the ion thermal velocity and with frequencies below the ion gyro-frequency. Trapped particle, curvature and compressional effects are retained. The dispersion equations for drift mode and Alfven-type modes are given in general geometry and simplified solutions are presented in the configuration of a double periodic plane slab. (Auth.)

  18. Mode Identification of Guided Ultrasonic Wave using Time- Frequency Algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Byung Sik; Yang, Seung Han; Cho, Yong Sang; Kim, Yong Sik; Lee, Hee Jong

    2007-01-01

    The ultrasonic guided waves are waves whose propagation characteristics depend on structural thickness and shape such as those in plates, tubes, rods, and embedded layers. If the angle of incidence or the frequency of sound is adjusted properly, the reflected and refracted energy within the structure will constructively interfere, thereby launching the guided wave. Because these waves penetrate the entire thickness of the tube and propagate parallel to the surface, a large portion of the material can be examined from a single transducer location. The guided ultrasonic wave has various merits like above. But various kind of modes are propagating through the entire thickness, so we don't know the which mode is received. Most of applications are limited from mode selection and mode identification. So the mode identification is very important process for guided ultrasonic inspection application. In this study, various time-frequency analysis methodologies are developed and compared for mode identification tool of guided ultrasonic signal. For this study, a high power tone-burst ultrasonic system set up for the generation and receive of guided waves. And artificial notches were fabricated on the Aluminum plate for the experiment on the mode identification

  19. Coupled modes, frequencies and fields of a dielectric resonator and a cavity using coupled mode theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.; Tervo, Richard; Mattar, Saba M.

    2014-01-01

    Probes consisting of a dielectric resonator (DR) inserted in a cavity are important integral components of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometers because of their high signal-to-noise ratio. This article studies the behavior of this system, based on the coupling between its dielectric and cavity modes. Coupled-mode theory (CMT) is used to determine the frequencies and electromagnetic fields of this coupled system. General expressions for the frequencies and field distributions are derived for both the resulting symmetric and anti-symmetric modes. These expressions are applicable to a wide range of frequencies (from MHz to THz). The coupling of cavities and DRs of various sizes and their resonant frequencies are studied in detail. Since the DR is situated within the cavity then the coupling between them is strong. In some cases the coupling coefficient, κ, is found to be as high as 0.4 even though the frequency difference between the uncoupled modes is large. This is directly attributed to the strong overlap between the fields of the uncoupled DR and cavity modes. In most cases, this improves the signal to noise ratio of the spectrometer. When the DR and the cavity have the same frequency, the coupled electromagnetic fields are found to contain equal contributions from the fields of the two uncoupled modes. This situation is ideal for the excitation of the probe through an iris on the cavity wall. To verify and validate the results, finite element simulations are carried out. This is achieved by simulating the coupling between a cylindrical cavity's TE011 and the dielectric insert's TE01δ modes. Coupling between the modes of higher order is also investigated and discussed. Based on CMT, closed form expressions for the fields of the coupled system are proposed. These expressions are crucial in the analysis of the probe's performance.

  20. Elastic-plastic response characteristics during frequency nonstationary waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyama, T.; Kanda, J.; Iwasaki, R.; Sunohara, H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study fundamental effects of the frequency nonstationarity on the inelastic responses. First, the inelastic response characteristics are examined by applying stationary waves. Then simple representation of nonstationary characteristics is considered to general nonstationary input. The effects for frequency nonstationary response are summarized for inelastic systems. The inelastic response characteristics under white noise and simple frequency nonstationary wave were investigated, and conclusions can be summarized as follows. 1) The maximum response values for both BL model and OO model corresponds fairly well with those estimated from the energy constant law, even when R is small. For the OO model, the maximum displacement response forms a unique curve except for very small R. 2) The plastic deformation for the BL model is affected by wide frequency components, as R decreases. The plastic deformation for the OO model can be determined from the last stiffness. 3). The inelastic response of the BL model is considerably affected by the frequency nonstationarity of the input motion, while the response is less affected by the nonstationarity for OO model. (orig./HP)

  1. Frequency resolved transverse mode instability in rod fiber amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mette Marie; Laurila, Marko; Maack, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    Frequency dynamics of transverse mode instabilities (TMIs) are investigated by testing three 285/100 rod fibers in a single-pass amplifier setup reaching up to ~200W of extracted output power without beam instabilities. The pump power is increased well above the TMI threshold to uncover output dy...

  2. Present and Future Modes of Low Frequency Climate Variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cane, Mark A.

    2014-02-20

    This project addressed area (1) of the FOA, “Interaction of Climate Change and Low Frequency Modes of Natural Climate Variability”. Our overarching objective is to detect, describe and understand the changes in low frequency variability between model simulations of the preindustrial climate and simulations of a doubled CO2 climate. The deliverables are a set of papers providing a dynamical characterization of interannual, decadal, and multidecadal variability in coupled models with attention to the changes in this low frequency variability between pre-industrial concentrations of greenhouse gases and a doubling of atmospheric concentrations of CO2. The principle mode of analysis, singular vector decomposition, is designed to advance our physical, mechanistic understanding. This study will include external natural variability due to solar and volcanic aerosol variations as well as variability internal to the climate system. An important byproduct is a set of analysis tools for estimating global singular vector structures from the archived output of model simulations.

  3. Thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Eligiusz

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents new type of thermal flow converter with the pulse frequency output. The integrating properties of the temperature sensor have been used, which allowed for realization of pulse frequency modulator with thermal feedback loop, stabilizing temperature of sensor placed in the flowing medium. The system assures balancing of heat amount supplied in impulses to the sensor and heat given up by the sensor in a continuous way to the flowing medium. Therefore the frequency of output impulses is proportional to the heat transfer coefficient from sensor to environment. According to the King's law, the frequency of those impulses is a function of medium flow velocity around the sensor. The special feature of presented solution is total integration of thermal sensor with the measurement signal conditioning system. Sensor and conditioning system are not the separate elements of the measurement circuit, but constitute a whole in form of thermal heat-balance mode flow-to-frequency converter. The advantage of such system is easiness of converting the frequency signal to the digital form, without using any additional analogue-to-digital converters. The frequency signal from the converter may be directly connected to the microprocessor input, which with use of standard built-in counters may convert the frequency into numerical value of high precision. Moreover, the frequency signal has higher resistance to interference than the voltage signal and may be transmitted to remote locations without the information loss.

  4. A second, low-frequency mode of vibration in the intact mammalian cochlea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukashkin, Andrei N; Russell, Ian J

    2003-03-01

    The mammalian cochlea is a structure comprising a number of components connected by elastic elements. A mechanical system of this kind is expected to have multiple normal modes of oscillation and associated resonances. The guinea pig cochlear mechanics was probed using distortion components generated in the cochlea close to the place of overlap between two tones presented simultaneously. Otoacoustic emissions at frequencies of the distortion components were recorded in the ear canal. The phase behavior of the emissions reveals the presence of a nonlinear resonance at a frequency about a half octave below that of the high-frequency primary tone. The location of the resonance is level dependent and the resonance shifts to lower frequencies with increasing stimulus intensity. This resonance is thought to be associated with the tectorial membrane. The resonance tends to minimize input to the cochlear receptor cells at frequencies below the high-frequency primary and increases the dynamic load to the stereocilia of the receptor cells at the primary frequency when the tectorial membrane and reticular lamina move in counterphase.

  5. Using strong nonlinearity and high-frequency vibrations to control effective properties of discrete elastic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Thomsen, Jon Juel; Snaeland, Sveinn Orri

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how highfrequency (HF) excitation, combined with strong nonlinear elastic material behavior, influences the effective material or structural properties for low-frequency excitation and wave propagation. The HF effects are demonstrated on discrete linear s...

  6. Natural frequencies of Euler-Bernoulli beam with open cracks on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Young Jae; Yun, Jong Hak; Seong, Kyeong Youn; Kim, Jae Ho; Kang, Sung Hwang

    2006-01-01

    A study of the natural vibrations of beam resting on elastic foundation with finite number of transverse open cracks is presented. Frequency equations are derived for beams with different end restraints. Euler-Bernoulli beam on Winkler foundation and Euler-Bernoulli beam on Paster nak foundation are investigated. The cracks are modeled by massless substitute spring. The effects of the crack location, size and its number and the foundation constants, on the natural frequencies of the beam, are investigated

  7. Elastic Wave-equation Reflection Traveltime Inversion Using Dynamic Warping and Wave Mode Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, T.

    2017-05-26

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) provides high-resolution parameter estimation of the subsurface but requires good initial guess of the true model. The traveltime inversion only minimizes traveltime misfits which are more sensitive and linearly related to the low-wavenumber model perturbation. Therefore, building initial P and S wave velocity models for EFWI by using elastic wave-equation reflections traveltime inversion (WERTI) would be effective and robust, especially for the deeper part. In order to distinguish the reflection travletimes of P or S-waves in elastic media, we decompose the surface multicomponent data into vector P- and S-wave seismogram. We utilize the dynamic image warping to extract the reflected P- or S-wave traveltimes. The P-wave velocity are first inverted using P-wave traveltime followed by the S-wave velocity inversion with S-wave traveltime, during which the wave mode decomposition is applied to the gradients calculation. Synthetic example on the Sigbee2A model proves the validity of our method for recovering the long wavelength components of the model.

  8. Sensibility to Changes of Vibrational Modes of Excited Electron: Sum Frequency Signals Versus Difference Frequency Signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Anna; Liang Xianting

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate a two electronic level system with vibrational modes coupled to a Brownian oscillator bath. The difference frequency generation (DFG) signals and sum frequency generation (SFG) signals are calculated. It is shown that, for the same model, the SFG signals are more sensitive than the DFG signals to the changes of the vibrational modes of the electronic two-level system. Because the SFG conversion efficiency can be improved by using the time-delay method, the findings in this paper predict that the SFG spectrum may probe the changes of the microstructure more effectively. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  9. Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre

    The importance of technology and electronics in our daily life is constantly increasing. At the same time portability and energy efficiency are currently some of the hottest topics. This creates a huge need for power converters in a compact form factor and with high efficiency, which can supply...... these electronic devices. This calls for new technologies in order to miniaturize the power electronics of today. One way to do this is by increasing the switching frequency dramatically and develop very high frequency switch mode power supplies. If these converters can be designed to operate efficiently, a huge...... size, weight and cost reduction can be achieved due to the smaller energy storing elements needed at these frequencies. The research presented in this thesis focuses on exactly this. First various technologies for miniaturization of power supplies are studied, e.g. piezo electric transformers, wide...

  10. Studies of elasticity, sound propagation and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makse, Hernan A. [City College of New York, NY (United States). Levich Inst., Dept. of Physcis; Johnson, David L. [Schlumberger-Doll Research, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-09-03

    This is the final report describing the results of DOE Grant # DE-FG02-03ER15458 with original termination date of April 31, 2013, which has been extended to April 31, 2014. The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical and experimental understanding of sound propagation, elasticity and dissipation in granular materials. The topic is relevant for the efficient production of hydrocarbon and for identifying and characterizing the underground formation for storage of either CO2 or nuclear waste material. Furthermore, understanding the basic properties of acoustic propagation in granular media is of importance not only to the energy industry, but also to the pharmaceutical, chemical and agricultural industries. We employ a set of experimental, theoretical and computational tools to develop a study of acoustics and dissipation in granular media. These include the concept effective mass of granular media, normal modes analysis, statistical mechanics frameworks and numerical simulations based on Discrete Element Methods. Effective mass measurements allow us to study the mechanisms of the elastic response and attenuation of acoustic modes in granular media. We perform experiments and simulations under varying conditions, including humidity and vacuum, and different interparticle force-laws to develop a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms of damping and acoustic propagation in granular media. A theoretical statistical approach studies the necessary phase space of configurations in pressure, volume fraction to classify granular materials.

  11. Low frequency elastic properties of glasses at low temperatures - implications on the tunneling model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raychaudhuri, A.K.; Hunklinger, S.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the low frequency elastic properties of dielectric, normal conducting and superconducting metallic glasses at audio-frequencies (fapprox.=1 kHz) and temperatures down to 10 mK. Our results are discussed in the framework of the tunneling model of glasses. The major assumption of the tunneling model regarding the tunneling states with long relaxation time has been verified, but discrepancies to high frequency measurements have been found. In addition, our experiments on superconducting metallic glasses seem to indicate that the present treatment of the electron-tunneling state interaction is not sufficient. (orig.)

  12. In-plane modal frequencies and mode shapes of two stay cables interconnected by uniformly distributed cross-ties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Haiquan; He, Xuhui; Zou, Yunfeng; Wang, Hanfeng

    2018-03-01

    Stay cables are important load-bearing structural elements of cable-stayed bridges. Suppressing the large vibrations of the stay cables under the external excitations is of worldwide concern for the bridge engineers and researchers. Over the past decade, the use of crosstie has become one of the most practical and effective methods. Extensive research has led to a better understanding of the mechanics of cable networks, and the effects of different parameters, such as length ratio, mass-tension ratio, and segment ratio on the effectiveness of the crosstie have been investigated. In this study, uniformly distributed elastic crossties serve to replace the traditional single, or several cross-ties, aiming to delay "mode localization." A numerical method is developed by replacing the uniformly distributed, discrete elastic cross-tie model with an equivalent, continuously distributed, elastic cross-tie model in order to calculate the modal frequencies and mode shapes of the cable-crosstie system. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by comparing the elicited results with those obtained using the previous method. The uniformly distributed elastic cross-ties are shown to significantly delay "mode localization."

  13. Electron heating mode transition induced by mixing radio frequency and ultrahigh frequency dual frequency powers in capacitive discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahu, B. B.; Han, Jeon G.

    2016-01-01

    Electron heating mode transitions induced by mixing the low- and high-frequency power in dual-frequency nitrogen discharges at 400 mTorr pressure are presented. As the low-frequency (13.56 MHz) power decreases and high-frequency (320 MHz) power increases for the fixed power of 200 W, there is a transition of electron energy distribution function (EEDF) from Druyvesteyn to bi-Maxwellian type characterized by a distinguished warm electron population. It is shown that this EEDF evolution is attributed to the transition from collisional to collisionless stochastic heating of the low-energy electrons.

  14. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of Statically Deformed Inclined Risers

    KAUST Repository

    Alfosail, Feras

    2016-10-15

    We investigate numerically the linear vibrations of inclined risers using the Galerkin approach. The riser is modeled as an Euler-Bernoulli beam accounting for the nonlinear mid-plane stretching and self-weight. After solving for the initial deflection of the riser due to self-weight, we use a Galerkin expansion employing 15 axially loaded beam mode shapes to solve the eigenvalue problem of the riser around the static equilibrium configuration. This yields the riser natural frequencies and corresponding exact mode shapes for various values of inclination angles and tension. The obtained results are validated against a boundary-layer analytical solution and are found to be in good agreement. This constitutes a basis to study the nonlinear forced vibrations of inclined risers.

  15. Softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66} in iron-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehmer, Anna; Burger, Philipp [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Fakultaet fuer Physik, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Hardy, Frederic; Schweiss, Peter; Fromknecht, Rainer; Wolf, Thomas; Meingast, Christoph [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Reinecker, Marius; Schranz, Wilfried [Universitaet Wien, Fakultaet fuer Physik, A-1090 Wien, Vienna (Austria)

    2013-07-01

    The structural phase transition of underdoped iron-based superconductors is accompanied by a large softening of the elastic shear mode C{sub 66}, which has attracted considerable attention. This softening has been discussed both in terms of orbital and spin-nematic fluctuations which would be responsible for the structural phase transition and, possibly, superconductivity. However, sample requirements have so far restricted experimental investigations of C{sub 66} (via measurements of the ultrasound velocity) to the Ba(Fe,Co){sub 2}As{sub 2} system. Here, we report on a new technique, based on a three-point bending setup, to probe the Young's modulus of a sample with a capacitance dilatometer. For certain orientations, the Young's modulus is related to the elastic constant C{sub 66} whose effective temperature dependence can be obtained. Platelet-like samples, as frequently encountered for iron-based systems, are easily studied with our setup. Data on several systems are presented and discussed.

  16. Modeling and advanced sliding mode controls of crawler cranes considering wire rope elasticity and complicated operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Le Anh; Lee, Soon-Geul

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a new mathematical model of crawler cranes is developed for heavy working conditions, with payload-lifting and boom-hoisting motions simultaneously activated. The system model is built with full consideration of wind disturbances, geometrical nonlinearities, and cable elasticities of cargo lifting and boom luffing. On the basis of this dynamic model, three versions of sliding mode control are analyzed and designed to control five system outputs with only two inputs. When used in complicated operations, the effectiveness of the controllers is analyzed using analytical investigation and numerical simulation. Results indicate the effectiveness of the control algorithms and the proposed dynamic model. The control algorithms asymptotically stabilize the system with finite-time convergences, remaining robust amid disturbances and parametric uncertainties.

  17. Spectral element method for elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Linlin; Zhou, Yuanguo; Wang, Jia-Min; Zhuang, Mingwei [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Na, E-mail: liuna@xmu.edu.cn [Institute of Electromagnetics and Acoustics, and Department of Electronic Science, Xiamen, 361005 (China); Liu, Qing Huo, E-mail: qhliu@duke.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC, 27708 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Numerical techniques in time domain are widespread in seismic and acoustic modeling. In some applications, however, frequency-domain techniques can be advantageous over the time-domain approach when narrow band results are desired, especially if multiple sources can be handled more conveniently in the frequency domain. Moreover, the medium attenuation effects can be more accurately and conveniently modeled in the frequency domain. In this paper, we present a spectral-element method (SEM) in frequency domain to simulate elastic and acoustic waves in anisotropic, heterogeneous, and lossy media. The SEM is based upon the finite-element framework and has exponential convergence because of the use of GLL basis functions. The anisotropic perfectly matched layer is employed to truncate the boundary for unbounded problems. Compared with the conventional finite-element method, the number of unknowns in the SEM is significantly reduced, and higher order accuracy is obtained due to its spectral accuracy. To account for the acoustic-solid interaction, the domain decomposition method (DDM) based upon the discontinuous Galerkin spectral-element method is proposed. Numerical experiments show the proposed method can be an efficient alternative for accurate calculation of elastic and acoustic waves in frequency domain.

  18. Investigation on Locking and Pulling Modes in Analog Frequency Dividers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Buonomo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We compare the main analytical results available to estimate the locking range, which is the key figure-of-merit of LC frequency dividers based on the injection locking phenomenon. Starting from the classical result by Adler concerning injection-locked oscillators, we elucidate the merits and the shortcomings of the different approaches to study injection-locked frequency dividers, with particular emphasis on divider-by-2. In particular, we show the potential of a perturbation approach which enables a more complete analysis of frequency dividers, making it possible to calculate not only the amplitude and the phase of the locked oscillation, but also the region where it exists and is stable, which defines the locking region. Finally, we analyze the dynamical behaviour of the dividers in the vicinity of the boundary of the locking region, showing that there exists a border region where the occurrence of the locking or the pulling operation mode is possible, depending on the initial conditions of the system.

  19. Whispering gallery mode resonators for frequency metrology applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartel, Lukas

    This dissertation describes an investigation into the use of whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators for applications towards frequency reference and metrology. Laser stabilization and the measurement of optical frequencies have enabled myriad technologies of both academic and commercial interest. A technology which seems to span both motivations is optical atomic clocks. These devices are virtually unimaginable without the ultra stable lasers plus frequency measurement and down-conversion afforded by Fabry Perot (FP) cavities and model-locked laser combs, respectively. However, WGM resonators can potentially perform both of these tasks while having the distinct advantages of compactness and simplicity. This work represents progress towards understanding and mitigating the performance limitations of WGM cavities for such applications. A system for laser frequency stabilization to a the cavity via the Pound-Drever-Hall (PDH) method is described. While the laser lock itself is found to perform at the level of several parts in 1015, a variety of fundamental and technical mechanisms destabilize the WGM frequency itself. Owing to the relatively large thermal expansion coefficients in optical crystals, environmental temperature drifts set the stability limit at time scales greater than the thermal relaxation time of the crystal. Uncompensated, these drifts pull WGM frequencies about 3 orders of magnitude more than they would in an FP cavity. Thus, two temperature compensation schemes are developed. An active scheme measures and stabilizes the mode volume temperature to the level of several nK, reducing the effective temperature coefficient of the resonator to 1.7x10-7 K-1; simulations suggest that the value could eventually be as low as 3.5x10-8 K-1, on par with the aforementioned FP cavities. A second, passive scheme is also described, which employs a heterogeneous resonator structure that capitalizes on the thermo-mechanical properties of one material and the optical

  20. Multi-frequency modes in superconducting resonators: Bridging frequency gaps in off-resonant couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christian Kraglund; Mølmer, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    A SQUID inserted in a superconducting waveguide resonator imposes current and voltage boundary conditions that makes it suitable as a tuning element for the resonator modes. If such a SQUID element is subject to a periodically varying magnetic flux, the resonator modes acquire frequency side bands. We calculate the multi-frequency eigenmodes and these can couple resonantly to physical systems with different transition frequencies and this makes the resonator an efficient quantum bus for state transfer and coherent quantum operations in hybrid quantum systems. As an example of the application, we determine their coupling to transmon qubits with different frequencies and we present a bi-chromatic scheme for entanglement and gate operations. In this calculation, we obtain a maximally entangled state with a fidelity F = 95 % . Our proposal is competitive with the achievements of other entanglement-gates with superconducting devices and it may offer some advantages: (i) There is no need for additional control lines and dephasing associated with the conventional frequency tuning of qubits. (ii) When our qubits are idle, they are far detuned with respect to each other and to the resonator, and hence they are immune to cross talk and Purcell-enhanced decay.

  1. Observation of the low frequency vibrational modes of bacteriophage M13 in water by Raman spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsen Shaw-Wei D

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, a technique which departs radically from conventional approaches has been proposed. This novel technique utilizes biological objects such as viruses as nano-templates for the fabrication of nanostructure elements. For example, rod-shaped viruses such as the M13 phage and tobacco mosaic virus have been successfully used as biological templates for the synthesis of semiconductor and metallic nanowires. Results and discussion Low wave number (≤ 20 cm-1 acoustic vibrations of the M13 phage have been studied using Raman spectroscopy. The experimental results are compared with theoretical calculations based on an elastic continuum model and appropriate Raman selection rules derived from a bond polarizability model. The observed Raman mode has been shown to belong to one of the Raman-active axial torsion modes of the M13 phage protein coat. Conclusion It is expected that the detection and characterization of this low frequency vibrational mode can be used for applications in nanotechnology such as for monitoring the process of virus functionalization and self-assembly. For example, the differences in Raman spectra can be used to monitor the coating of virus with some other materials and nano-assembly process, such as attaching a carbon nanotube or quantum dots.

  2. Elastic frequency-domain finite-difference contrast source inversion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Qinglong; Chen, Yong; Han, Bo; Li, Yang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we extend the finite-difference contrast source inversion (FD-CSI) method to the frequency-domain elastic wave equations, where the parameters describing the subsurface structure are simultaneously reconstructed. The FD-CSI method is an iterative nonlinear inversion method, which exhibits several strengths. First, the finite-difference operator only relies on the background media and the given angular frequency, both of which are unchanged during inversion. Therefore, the matrix decomposition is performed only once at the beginning of the iteration if a direct solver is employed. This makes the inversion process relatively efficient in terms of the computational cost. In addition, the FD-CSI method automatically normalizes different parameters, which could avoid the numerical problems arising from the difference of the parameter magnitude. We exploit a parallel implementation of the FD-CSI method based on the domain decomposition method, ensuring a satisfactory scalability for large-scale problems. A simple numerical example with a homogeneous background medium is used to investigate the convergence of the elastic FD-CSI method. Moreover, the Marmousi II model proposed as a benchmark for testing seismic imaging methods is presented to demonstrate the performance of the elastic FD-CSI method in an inhomogeneous background medium. (paper)

  3. Stick–slip boundary friction mode as a second-order phase transition with an inhomogeneous distribution of elastic stress in the contact area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iakov A. Lyashenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an investigation of the dynamical contact between two atomically flat surfaces separated by an ultrathin lubricant film. Using a thermodynamic approach we describe the second-order phase transition between two structural states of the lubricant which leads to the stick–slip mode of boundary friction. An analytical description and numerical simulation with radial distributions of the order parameter, stress and strain were performed to investigate the spatial inhomogeneity. It is shown that in the case when the driving device is connected to the upper part of the friction block through an elastic spring, the frequency of the melting/solidification phase transitions increases with time.

  4. Multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) for normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Kelin

    2017-12-20

    In this paper, a multiscale virtual particle based elastic network model (MVP-ENM) is proposed for the normal mode analysis of large-sized biomolecules. The multiscale virtual particle (MVP) model is proposed for the discretization of biomolecular density data. With this model, large-sized biomolecular structures can be coarse-grained into virtual particles such that a balance between model accuracy and computational cost can be achieved. An elastic network is constructed by assuming "connections" between virtual particles. The connection is described by a special harmonic potential function, which considers the influence from both the mass distributions and distance relations of the virtual particles. Two independent models, i.e., the multiscale virtual particle based Gaussian network model (MVP-GNM) and the multiscale virtual particle based anisotropic network model (MVP-ANM), are proposed. It has been found that in the Debye-Waller factor (B-factor) prediction, the results from our MVP-GNM with a high resolution are as good as the ones from GNM. Even with low resolutions, our MVP-GNM can still capture the global behavior of the B-factor very well with mismatches predominantly from the regions with large B-factor values. Further, it has been demonstrated that the low-frequency eigenmodes from our MVP-ANM are highly consistent with the ones from ANM even with very low resolutions and a coarse grid. Finally, the great advantage of MVP-ANM model for large-sized biomolecules has been demonstrated by using two poliovirus virus structures. The paper ends with a conclusion.

  5. Natural Frequencies and Mode Shapes of a Nonlinear, Uniform Cantilevered Beam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marquez-Chisolm, Daniel J

    2006-01-01

    A series of experiments in 1975, referred to as the Princeton Beam Experiments, were performed to measure natural frequencies and create a nonlinear elastic deformation model to improve helicopter main beam designs...

  6. Mode coupling analysis of coherent quasi-elastic neutron scattering from fluorite-type materials approaching the superionic transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, D.K.; Tosi, M.P.

    1987-08-01

    Neutron scattering experiments on SrCl 2 , CaF 2 and PbF 2 have shown that intensity and width of the coherent diffuse quasi-elastic spectrum increase rapidly with temperature into the fast-ion conducting phase, the main feature in the integrated quasi-elastic intensity being a peak just beyond the (200) point along the (100) direction in scattering wave vector space. The Zwanzig-Mori memory function formalism is used in this work to analyze the quasi-elastic scattering cross section from charge density fluctuations in terms of anharmonic couplings between the vibrational modes of the crystal. The two- and three-mode channels are examined for compatibility with the quasi-elastic neutron scattering evidence, on the basis of (i) energy and momentum conservation and van Hove singularity arguments and (ii) measured phonon dispersion curves along the main symmetry directions in SrCl 2 , CaF 2 , SrF 2 and BaF 2 . The analysis identifies a specific microscopic role for the Raman-active optic branches. The eigenvectors of the relevant Raman-active and partner modes in the three-mode channel describe relative displacements of the two halogens in the unit cell superposed on relative displacements of the halogen and alkaline earth components. This microscopic picture is thus consistent with the superionic transition being associated with the onset of dynamic disorder in the anionic component of the crystal. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  7. An Experimental Study on the Impact of Different-frequency Elastic Waves on Water Retention Curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J. H.; Dai, J. Y.; Lee, J. W.; Lo, W. C.

    2017-12-01

    ABSTEACTOver the past few decades, theoretical and experimental studies on the connection between elastic wave attributes and the physical properties of a fluid-bearing porous medium have attracted the attention of many scholars in fields of porous medium flow and hydrogeology. It has been previously determined that the transmission of elastic waves in a porous medium containing two immiscible fluids will have an effect on the water retention curve, but it has not been found that the water retention curve will be affected by the frequency of elastic vibration waves or whether the effect on the soil is temporary or permanent. This research is based on a sand box test in which the soil is divided into three layers (a lower, middle, and upper layer). In this case, we discuss different impacts on the water retention curve during the drying process under sound waves (elastic waves) subject to three frequencies (150Hz, 300Hz, and 450Hz), respectively. The change in the water retention curve before and after the effect is then discussed. In addition, how sound waves affect the water retention curve at different depths is also observed. According to the experimental results, we discover that sound waves can cause soil either to expand or to contract. When the soil is induced to expand due to sound waves, it can contract naturally and return to the condition it was in before the influence of the sound waves. On the contrary, when the soil is induced to contract, it is unable to return to its initial condition. Due to the results discussed above, it is suggested that sound waves causing soil to expand have a temporary impact while those causing soil to contract have a permanent impact. In addition, our experimental results show how sound waves affect the water retention curve at different depths. The degree of soil expansion and contraction caused by the sound waves will differ at various soil depths. Nevertheless, the expanding or contracting of soil is only subject to the

  8. Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a nonuniform magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.K.; Duha, S.S.; Mamun, A.A.

    2004-07-01

    A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a inhomogeneous, magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift mode, dust-cyclotron mode, dust-lower-hybrid mode, and other associated modes (such as, accelerated and retarded dust-acoustic modes, accelerated and retarded dust-lower-hybrid modes, etc.), have also been investigated. It has been shown that the effects of obliqueness and inhomogeneities in plasma particle number densities introduce new electrostatic dust modes as well as significantly modify the dispersion properties of the other low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. (author)

  9. The boundary integral equations method for analysis of high-frequency vibrations of an elastic layer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sorokin, S.; Kolman, Radek; Kopačka, Ján

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2017), s. 737-750 ISSN 0939-1533 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-03823S; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : an elastic layer * symmetric and skew-symmetric waves * the Green’s matrix * boundary integral equations * eigen frequencies Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 1.490, year: 2016 https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00419-016-1220-y

  10. A mixed finite element domain decomposition method for nearly elastic wave equations in the frequency domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Xiaobing [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    A non-overlapping domain decomposition iterative method is proposed and analyzed for mixed finite element methods for a sequence of noncoercive elliptic systems with radiation boundary conditions. These differential systems describe the motion of a nearly elastic solid in the frequency domain. The convergence of the iterative procedure is demonstrated and the rate of convergence is derived for the case when the domain is decomposed into subdomains in which each subdomain consists of an individual element associated with the mixed finite elements. The hybridization of mixed finite element methods plays a important role in the construction of the discrete procedure.

  11. Low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A self-consistent and general description of obliquely propagating low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes in a non-uniform magnetized dusty plasma system has been presented. A number of different situations, which correspond to different low-frequency electrostatic dust-modes, namely, dust-acoustic mode, dust-drift ...

  12. Frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion using encoded simultaneous sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, W.; Son, W.; Pyun, S.; Min, D.

    2011-12-01

    Currently, numerous studies have endeavored to develop robust full waveform inversion and migration algorithms. These processes require enormous computational costs, because of the number of sources in the survey. To avoid this problem, the phase encoding technique for prestack migration was proposed by Romero (2000) and Krebs et al. (2009) proposed the encoded simultaneous-source inversion technique in the time domain. On the other hand, Ben-Hadj-Ali et al. (2011) demonstrated the robustness of the frequency-domain full waveform inversion with simultaneous sources for noisy data changing the source assembling. Although several studies on simultaneous-source inversion tried to estimate P- wave velocity based on the acoustic wave equation, seismic migration and waveform inversion based on the elastic wave equations are required to obtain more reliable subsurface information. In this study, we propose a 2-D frequency-domain elastic full waveform inversion technique using phase encoding methods. In our algorithm, the random phase encoding method is employed to calculate the gradients of the elastic parameters, source signature estimation and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix. The crosstalk for the estimated source signature and the diagonal entries of approximate Hessian matrix are suppressed with iteration as for the gradients. Our 2-D frequency-domain elastic waveform inversion algorithm is composed using the back-propagation technique and the conjugate-gradient method. Source signature is estimated using the full Newton method. We compare the simultaneous-source inversion with the conventional waveform inversion for synthetic data sets of the Marmousi-2 model. The inverted results obtained by simultaneous sources are comparable to those obtained by individual sources, and source signature is successfully estimated in simultaneous source technique. Comparing the inverted results using the pseudo Hessian matrix with previous inversion results

  13. A note on modeling road accident frequency: a flexible elasticity model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, António; Ferreira, Sara

    2011-11-01

    Count data models and their variants have been widely applied in accident modeling. The traditional log-linear function is used to represent the relationship between explanatory variables and the dependent variable (accident frequency). However, this function assumes constant elasticity for the estimation parameters, which is a limitation in the analysis of the effects of explanatory variables on accident risk. Although interaction effects between explanatory variables have been studied in the road safety context (where they are normally assessed by logistic regression), no one has yet examined the possibility of using a flexible function form allowing non-constant elasticity values. This paper seeks to explore the use of the translog function usually used in the economics context to allow the elasticity to vary with the values of other explanatory variables. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the application of the translog function to accident modeling and to compare the results with those of the traditional log-linear function negative binomial (NB) model. The results show that, in terms of goodness-of-fit statistics and residual analysis, the NB model with the translog function performs better than the traditional NB model. Additional evaluations in terms of predictive performance, hotspot identification and uncertainty associated with the estimated values were taken into account. Although this study is exploratory in nature, it suggests that the translog function has considerable potential for modeling accident observations. It is hoped that this novel accident modeling methodology will open the door to the reliable interpretation and evaluation of the influence of explanatory variables on accident frequency. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Low-frequency wave propagation in an elastic plate loaded by a two-layer fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Indeitsev, Dmitrij; Sorokin, Sergey

    2012-01-01

    concern is propagation of low-frequency waves in such a coupled waveguide. In the present paper, we assume that an inhomogeneous fluid may be modelled as two homogeneous, inviscid and incompressible layers with slightly different densities. The lighter layer of fresh water lies on top of the heavier layer......In several technical applications, for example, in the Arctic off-shore oil industry, it is necessary to predict waveguide properties of floating elastic plates in contact with a relatively thin layer of water, which has a non-uniform density distribution across its depth. The issue of particular...... formulation, such as depths of the layers, stiffness and inertia of the plate, are assessed in several frequency ranges. Dispersion diagrams obtained from approximate dispersion relations are compared with their exact counterparts....

  15. Peculiarities of glow modes of argon atmospheric pressure radio-frequency capacitive discharge with isolated electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazhenov, V.Yu.; Tsiolko, V.V.; Piun, V.M.; Chaplinskiy, R.Yu.; Kuzmichev, A.I.

    2013-01-01

    Glow characteristics of capacitive radio frequency discharge with isolated electrodes in low-current α and highcurrent gamma modes are determined experimentally. It is shown that transition from α mode to gamma mode occurs through a phase of coexistence of both modes in different parts of the discharge gap.

  16. Time-frequency analysis : mathematical analysis of the empirical mode decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Invented over 10 years ago, empirical mode : decomposition (EMD) provides a nonlinear : time-frequency analysis with the ability to successfully : analyze nonstationary signals. Mathematical : Analysis of the Empirical Mode Decomposition : is a...

  17. Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Sidsel Rübner; Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2014-01-01

    Frequency conversion through spontaneous degenerate four wave mixing (FWM) is investigated in large mode area hybrid photonic crystal fibers. Different FWM processes are observed, phasematching between fiber modes of orthogonal polarization, intermodal phasematching across bandgaps, and intramodal...

  18. Nanoelectronics «bottom – up»: current generation, generalized Ohm’s law, elastic resistors, conductivity modes, thermoelectricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юрій Олексійович Кругляк

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available General questions of electronic conductivity, current generation with the use of electrochemical potentials and Fermi functions, elastic resistor model, ballistic and diffusion transport, conductivity modes, n- and p-conductors and graphene, formulation of the generalized Ohm’s law, thermoelectric phenomena of Seebeck and Peltier, quality indicators and thermoelectric optimization, ballistic and diffusive phonon heat current are discussed in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics

  19. Minimum component high frequency current mode rectifier | Sampe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper a current mode full wave rectifier circuit is proposed. The current mode rectifier circuit is implemented utilizing a floating current source (FCS) as an active element. The minimum component full wave rectifier utilizes only a single floating current source, two diodes and two grounded resistors. The extremely ...

  20. Second order elasticity at hypersonic frequencies of reactive polyurethanes as seen by generalized Cauchy relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philipp, M; Vergnat, C; Mueller, U; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Krueger, J K; Possart, W; Alnot, P

    2009-01-01

    The non-equilibrium process of polymerization of reactive polymers can be accompanied by transition phenomena like gelation or the chemical glass transition. The sensitivity of the mechanical properties at hypersonic frequencies-including the generalized Cauchy relation-to these transition phenomena is studied for three different polyurethanes using Brillouin spectroscopy. As for epoxies, the generalized Cauchy relation surprisingly holds true for the non-equilibrium polymerization process and for the temperature dependence of polyurethanes. Neither the sol-gel transition nor the chemical and thermal glass transitions are visible in the representation of the generalized Cauchy relation. Taking into account the new results and combining them with general considerations about the elastic properties of the isotropic state, an improved physical foundation of the generalized Cauchy relation is proposed.

  1. Second order elasticity at hypersonic frequencies of reactive polyurethanes as seen by generalized Cauchy relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, M; Vergnat, C; Müller, U; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Possart, W; Alnot, P; Krüger, J K

    2009-01-21

    The non-equilibrium process of polymerization of reactive polymers can be accompanied by transition phenomena like gelation or the chemical glass transition. The sensitivity of the mechanical properties at hypersonic frequencies-including the generalized Cauchy relation-to these transition phenomena is studied for three different polyurethanes using Brillouin spectroscopy. As for epoxies, the generalized Cauchy relation surprisingly holds true for the non-equilibrium polymerization process and for the temperature dependence of polyurethanes. Neither the sol-gel transition nor the chemical and thermal glass transitions are visible in the representation of the generalized Cauchy relation. Taking into account the new results and combining them with general considerations about the elastic properties of the isotropic state, an improved physical foundation of the generalized Cauchy relation is proposed.

  2. Second order elasticity at hypersonic frequencies of reactive polyurethanes as seen by generalized Cauchy relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philipp, M; Vergnat, C; Mueller, U; Sanctuary, R; Baller, J; Krueger, J K [Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Universite du Luxembourg, 162A, avenue de la Faiencerie, L-1511 Luxembourg (Luxembourg); Possart, W [Fachbereich Werkstoffwissenschaften, Universitaet des Saarlandes, D-66123 Saarbruecken (Germany); Alnot, P [LPMI, Universite Nancy (France)], E-mail: martine.philipp@uni.lu

    2009-01-21

    The non-equilibrium process of polymerization of reactive polymers can be accompanied by transition phenomena like gelation or the chemical glass transition. The sensitivity of the mechanical properties at hypersonic frequencies-including the generalized Cauchy relation-to these transition phenomena is studied for three different polyurethanes using Brillouin spectroscopy. As for epoxies, the generalized Cauchy relation surprisingly holds true for the non-equilibrium polymerization process and for the temperature dependence of polyurethanes. Neither the sol-gel transition nor the chemical and thermal glass transitions are visible in the representation of the generalized Cauchy relation. Taking into account the new results and combining them with general considerations about the elastic properties of the isotropic state, an improved physical foundation of the generalized Cauchy relation is proposed.

  3. Non-resonant energy harvester with elastic constraints for low rotating frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Sebastián P.; Febbo, Mariano; Gatti, Claudio D.; Ramirez, José M.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a non-resonant piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH) which is designed to capture energy from low frequency rotational vibration. The proposed device works out of the plane of rotation where the motion of a mass-spring system is transferred to a piezoelectric layer with the intention to generate energy to power wireless structural monitoring systems or sensors. The mechanical structure is formed by two beams with rigid and elastic boundary conditions at the clamped end. On the free boundaries, heavy masses connected by a spring are placed in order to increase voltage generation and diminish the natural frequency. A mathematical framework and the equations governing the energy-harvesting system are presented. Numerical simulations and experimental verifications are performed for different rotation speeds ranging from 0.7 to 2.5 Hz. An output power of 125 μW is obtained for maximum rotating frequency demonstrating that the proposed design can collect enough energy for the suggested application.

  4. Effects of corrugation shape on frequency band-gaps for longitudinal wave motion in a periodic elastic layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    The paper concerns determining frequency band-gaps for longitudinal wave motion in a periodic waveguide. The waveguide may be considered either as an elastic layer with variable thickness or as a rod with variable cross section. As a result, widths and locations of all frequency band-gaps are det......The paper concerns determining frequency band-gaps for longitudinal wave motion in a periodic waveguide. The waveguide may be considered either as an elastic layer with variable thickness or as a rod with variable cross section. As a result, widths and locations of all frequency band......, harmonic in the corrugation series. The revealed insights into the mechanism of band-gap formation can be used to predict locations and widths of all frequency band-gaps featured by any corrugation shape. These insights are general and can be valid also for other types of wave motion in periodic structures...

  5. Elastic Wave-equation Reflection Traveltime Inversion Using Dynamic Warping and Wave Mode Decomposition

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, T.; Cheng, J.B.; Guo, Qiang; Wang, C.L.

    2017-01-01

    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) provides high-resolution parameter estimation of the subsurface but requires good initial guess of the true model. The traveltime inversion only minimizes traveltime misfits which are more sensitive

  6. Seismic response of elastically restrained single bellows expansion joint in lateral mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswara Rao, C.; Radhakrishna, M.

    2003-01-01

    The present paper attempts to derive an exact solution for the seismic response of U type of single bellows that are considered elastically restrained against rotation to classical fixed-fixed case considered by Morishita et al. (author)

  7. The effect of dust charge inhomogeneity on low-frequency modes in a strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farid, T.; Mamun, A.A.; Shukla, P.K.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis of low-frequency modes accounting for dust grain charge fluctuation and equilibrium grain charge inhomogeneity in a strongly coupled dusty plasma is presented. The existence of an extremely low frequency mode, which is due to the inhomogeneity in the equilibrium dust grain charge, is reported. Besides, the equilibrium dust grain charge inhomogeneity makes the dust-acoustic mode unstable. The strong correlations in the dust fluid significantly drive a new mode as well as the existing dust-acoustic mode. The applications of these results to recent experimental and to some space and astrophysical situations are discussed

  8. Near-surface elastic changes in the Ross Ice Shelf arising from transient storm and melt forcing observed with high-frequency ambient seismic noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaput, J.; Aster, R. C.; Baker, M. G.; Gerstoft, P.; Bromirski, P. D.; Nyblade, A.; Stephen, R. A.; Wiens, D.

    2017-12-01

    Ice shelf collapse can herald subsequent grounded ice instability. However, robust understanding of external mechanisms capable of triggering rapid changes remains elusive. Improved understanding therefore requires improved remote and in-situ measurements of ice shelf properties. Using nearly three years of continuous data from a recently deployed 34-station broadband seismic array on the Ross Ice Shelf, we analyze persistent temporally varying, anisotropic near-surface resonant wave modes at frequencies above 1 Hz that are highly sensitive to small changes in elastic shelf properties to depths of tens of m. We further find that these modes exhibit both progressive (on the scale of months) and rapid (on the scale of hours) changes in frequency content. The largest and most rapid excursions are associated with forcing from local storms, and with a large regional ice shelf melt event in January 2016. We hypothesize that temporally variable behavior of the resonance features arises from wind slab formation during storms and/or to porosity changes, and to the formation of percolation-related refrozen layers and thinning in the case of surface melting. These resonance variations can be reproduced and inverted for structural changes using numerical wave propagation models, and thus present an opportunity for 4-D structural monitoring of shallow ice shelf elasticity and structure using long-duration seismic recordings.

  9. Natural Frequencies and Vibrating Modes for a Magnetic Planetary Gear Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizhong Xu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dynamic model for a magnetic planetary gear drive is proposed. Based on the model, the dynamic equations for the magnetic planetary gear drive are given. From the magnetic meshing forces and torques between the elements for the drive system, the tangent and radial magnetic meshing stiffness is obtained. Using these equations, the natural frequencies and the modes of the magnetic planetary gear drive are investigated. The sensitivity of the natural frequencies to the system parameters is discussed. Results show that the pole pair number and the air gap have obvious effects on the natural frequencies. For the planetary gear number larger than two, the vibrations of the drive system include the torsion mode of the center elements, the translation mode of the center elements, and the planet modes. For the planetary gear number equal to two, the planet mode does not occur, the crown mode and the sun gear mode occur.

  10. Hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for the 2-D frequency-domain elastic wave equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnasse-Gahot, Marie; Calandra, Henri; Diaz, Julien; Lanteri, Stéphane

    2018-04-01

    Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods are nowadays actively studied and increasingly exploited for the simulation of large-scale time-domain (i.e. unsteady) seismic wave propagation problems. Although theoretically applicable to frequency-domain problems as well, their use in this context has been hampered by the potentially large number of coupled unknowns they incur, especially in the 3-D case, as compared to classical continuous finite element methods. In this paper, we address this issue in the framework of the so-called hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) formulations. As a first step, we study an HDG method for the resolution of the frequency-domain elastic wave equations in the 2-D case. We describe the weak formulation of the method and provide some implementation details. The proposed HDG method is assessed numerically including a comparison with a classical upwind flux-based DG method, showing better overall computational efficiency as a result of the drastic reduction of the number of globally coupled unknowns in the resulting discrete HDG system.

  11. Narrow-band modulation of semiconductor lasers at millimeter wave frequencies (7100 GHz) by mode locking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the possibility of mode locking a semiconductor laser at millimeter wave frequencies approaching and beyond 100 GHz which was investigated theoretically and experimentally. It is found that there are no fundamental theoretical limitations in mode locking at frequencies below 100 GHz. AT these high frequencies, only a few modes are locked and the output usually takes the form of a deep sinusoidal modulation which is synchronized in phase with the externally applied modulation at the intermodal heat frequency. This can be regarded for practical purposes as a highly efficient means of directly modulating an optical carrier over a narrow band at millimeter wave frequencies. Both active and passive mode locking are theoretically possible. Experimentally, predictions on active mode locking have been verified in prior publications up to 40 GHz. For passive mode locking, evidence consistent with passive mode locking was observed in an inhomogeneously pumped GaAIAs laser at a frequency of approximately 70 GHz. A large differential gain-absorption ratio such as that present in an inhomogeneously pumped single quantum well laser is necessary for pushing the passive mode-locking frequency beyond 100 GHz

  12. Scaling law to determine peak forces in tapping-mode AFM experiments on finite elastic soft matter systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Horacio V

    2017-01-01

    Analytical equations to estimate the peak force will facilitate the interpretation and the planning of amplitude-modulation force microscopy (tapping mode) experiments. A closed-form analytical equation to estimate the tip-sample peak forces while imaging soft materials in liquid environment and within an elastic deformation regime has been deduced. We have combined a multivariate regression method with input from the virial-dissipation equations and Tatara's bidimensional deformation contact mechanics model. The equation enables to estimate the peak force based on the tapping mode observables, probe characteristics and the material properties of the sample. The accuracy of the equation has been verified by comparing it to numerical simulations for the archetypical operating conditions to image soft matter with high spatial resolution in tapping-mode AFM.

  13. On Interactions of Oscillation Modes for a Weakly Non-Linear Undamped Elastic Beam with AN External Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOERTJENS, G. J.; VAN HORSSEN, W. T.

    2000-08-01

    In this paper an initial-boundary value problem for the vertical displacement of a weakly non-linear elastic beam with an harmonic excitation in the horizontal direction at the ends of the beam is studied. The initial-boundary value problem can be regarded as a simple model describing oscillations of flexible structures like suspension bridges or iced overhead transmission lines. Using a two-time-scales perturbation method an approximation of the solution of the initial-boundary value problem is constructed. Interactions between different oscillation modes of the beam are studied. It is shown that for certain external excitations, depending on the phase of an oscillation mode, the amplitude of specific oscillation modes changes.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of the stiffness between the frame structure and the frequency and vibration mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenyuan

    2018-03-01

    The modal parameters such as natural frequency and vibration mode of the frame structure of the layer stiffness sensitivity is inconsistent. This article focuses on the theoretical derivation of the frequency and mode of the frame structure layer stiffness of the first-order sensitivity. The numerical examples show that the frame structure of layer stiffness higher than with the first order sensitivity vibration frequency.

  15. Refractive-index-sensing radio-frequency comb with intracavity multi-mode interference fibre sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Oe, Roy; Taue, Shuji; Minamikawa, Takeo; Nagai, Kosuke; Mizutani, Yasuhiro; Iwata, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hirotsugu; Fukano, Hideki; Nakajima, Yoshiaki; Minoshima, Kaoru; Yasui, Takeshi

    2018-01-01

    Optical frequency combs have attracted attention as optical frequency rulers due to their tooth-like discrete spectra together with their inherent mode-locking nature and phase-locking control to a frequency standard. Based on this concept, their applications until now have been demonstrated in the fields of optical frequency metrology and optical distance metrology. However, if the utility of optical combs can be further expanded beyond their optical-frequency-ruler-based application by expl...

  16. Low-Frequency Interlayer Breathing Modes in Few-Layer Black Phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Huang, Shengxi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-06-10

    As a new two-dimensional layered material, black phosphorus (BP) is a very promising material for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. We use Raman spectroscopy and first-principles theory to characterize and understand the low-frequency (LF) interlayer breathing modes (<100 cm(-1)) in few-layer BP for the first time. Using a laser polarization dependence study and group theory analysis, the breathing modes are assigned to Ag symmetry. Compared to the high-frequency (HF) Raman modes, the LF breathing modes are considerably more sensitive to interlayer coupling and, thus, their frequencies show a stronger dependence on the number of layers. Hence, they constitute an effective means to probe both the crystalline orientation and thickness of few-layer BP. Furthermore, the temperature dependence shows that in the temperature range -150 to 30 °C, the breathing modes have a weak anharmonic behavior, in contrast to the HF Raman modes that exhibit strong anharmonicity.

  17. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-02-01

    The feasibility of calculating natural frequencies and mode shapes of major equipment in a CANDU reactor from the measurements of their response to background excitation has been studied. A review of vibration data measured at various locations in CANDU plants shows that structures responded to a combination of random and harmonic background excitation. Amplitude of measured vibration is sufficient to allow meaningful data analysis. Frequency content in the 0 to 50-Hz range, which is of interest for earthquake response, is present in some of the vibration measurements studied. Spectral techniques have been developed for determining the response function of structures from measured vibration response to background excitation. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are then evaluated graphically from the frequency function plots. The methodology has been tested on a simple cantilever beam with known natural frequencies and mode shapes. The comparison between the theoretical and the computed natural frequencies and mode shapes is good for the lower modes. However, better curve-fitting techniques will be required in future, especially for higher modes. Readily available equipment necessary for the measurement of background vibration in a CANDU plant (which is commercially available) has been identified. An experimental program has been proposed to verify the methodology developed in this study. Recommendations are also made to study methods to improve the accuracy of the mode shape and natural frequency prediction

  18. Bendable Electro-Acoustic Transducer Fabricated Utilizing Frequency Dispersion of Elastic Modulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Tetsu; Ohga, Juro

    2013-09-01

    To realize the speaker diaphragm that can be united with a flexible display without deteriorating lightweight properties and flexibility, a novel bendable electro-acoustic transducer (BEAT) based on 0-3-type piezoelectric composites has been developed. To overcome the trade-off between flexibility and the transmission efficiency of vibration energy, a viscoelastic polymer that has local maximum points in the loss factor as well as large frequency dispersion in the storage modulus near room temperature was employed as the matrix of the piezoelectric composite layer. Against the comparatively slow (10 Hz or less) deformation from the outside, the viscoelastic matrix is viscous enough to prevent cracking and delamination. On the other hand, in the audible range (20 Hz to 20 kHz), the matrix is elastic enough to transmit piezoelectric vibration energy, maintaining a moderately large loss factor as well as a high sound velocity. For the first time, we successfully demonstrated a rollable speaker that can continue to generate a high-quality sound while being rolled and unrolled repeatedly onto a cylinder with a curvature radius of 4 mm.

  19. Integrated Very High Frequency Switch Mode Power Supplies: Design Considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Jens Christian; Nour, Yasser; Knott, Arnold

    2017-01-01

    simulations. The required spiral inductors was modeled, and simulations show Q values of as high as 14 at a switching frequency of 250 MHz. Simulations of the converter show an efficiency of 55 % with a self oscillating gate drive. However the modeled inductor was not adequate for operating with the self...

  20. UNUSUAL TRENDS IN SOLAR P-MODE FREQUENCIES DURING THE CURRENT EXTENDED MINIMUM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.; Leibacher, J. W.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of the intermediate-degree mode frequencies of the Sun during the current extended minimum phase to explore the time-varying conditions in the solar interior. Using contemporaneous helioseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), we find that the changes in resonant mode frequencies during the activity minimum period are significantly greater than the changes in solar activity as measured by different proxies. We detect a seismic minimum in MDI p-mode frequency shifts during 2008 July-August but no such signature is seen in mean shifts computed from GONG frequencies. We also analyze the frequencies of individual oscillation modes from GONG data as a function of latitude and observe a signature of the onset of the solar cycle 24 in early 2009. Thus, the intermediate-degree modes do not confirm the onset of the cycle 24 during late 2007 as reported from the analysis of the low-degree Global Oscillations at Low Frequency frequencies. Further, both the GONG and MDI frequencies show a surprising anti-correlation between frequencies and activity proxies during the current minimum, in contrast to the behavior during the minimum between cycles 22 and 23.

  1. Frequency-shaped and observer-based discrete-time sliding mode control

    CERN Document Server

    Mehta, Axaykumar

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that the sliding mode control strategy provides an effective and robust method of controlling the deterministic system due to its well-known invariance property to a class of bounded disturbance and parameter variations. Advances in microcomputer technologies have made digital control increasingly popular among the researchers worldwide. And that led to the study of discrete-time sliding mode control design and its implementation. This brief presents, a method for multi-rate frequency shaped sliding mode controller design based on switching and non-switching type of reaching law. In this approach, the frequency dependent compensator dynamics are introduced through a frequency-shaped sliding surface by assigning frequency dependent weighing matrices in a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) design procedure. In this way, the undesired high frequency dynamics or certain frequency disturbance can be eliminated. The states are implicitly obtained by measuring the output at a faster rate than th...

  2. Solar g-modes? Comparison of detected asymptotic g-mode frequencies with solar model predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Suzannah Rebecca; Guzik, Joyce Ann; Mussack, Katie; Bradley, Paul A.

    2018-06-01

    After many years of searching for solar gravity modes, Fossat et al. (2017) reported detection of the nearly equally spaced high-order g-modes periods using a 15-year time series of GOLF data from the SOHO spacecraft. Here we report progress towards and challenges associated with calculating and comparing g-mode period predictions for several previously published standard solar models using various abundance mixtures and opacities, as well as the predictions for some non-standard models incorporating early mass loss, and compare with the periods reported by Fossat et al (2017). Additionally, we have a side-by-side comparison of results of different stellar pulsation codes for calculating g-mode predictions. These comparisons will allow for testing of nonstandard physics input that affect the core, including an early more massive Sun and dynamic electron screening.

  3. Low-Frequency Interlayer Raman Modes to Probe Interface of Twisted Bilayer MoS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shengxi; Liang, Liangbo; Ling, Xi; Puretzky, Alexander A; Geohegan, David B; Sumpter, Bobby G; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2016-02-10

    van der Waals homo- and heterostructures assembled by stamping monolayers together present optoelectronic properties suitable for diverse applications. Understanding the details of the interlayer stacking and resulting coupling is crucial for tuning these properties. We investigated the low-frequency interlayer shear and breathing Raman modes (frequency and intensity changes of low-frequency modes. The frequency variation can be up to 8 cm(-1) and the intensity can vary by a factor of ∼5 for twisting angles near 0° and 60°, where the stacking is a mixture of high-symmetry stacking patterns and is thus sensitive to twisting. For twisting angles between 20° and 40°, the interlayer coupling is nearly constant because the stacking results in mismatched lattices over the entire sample. It follows that the Raman signature is relatively uniform. Note that for some samples, multiple breathing mode peaks appear, indicating nonuniform coupling across the interface. In contrast to the low-frequency interlayer modes, high-frequency intralayer Raman modes are much less sensitive to interlayer stacking and coupling. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of low-frequency Raman modes for probing the interfacial coupling and environment of twisted bilayer MoS2 and potentially other two-dimensional materials and heterostructures.

  4. Frequency dependence of p-mode frequency shifts induced by magnetic activity in Kepler solar-like stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salabert, D.; Régulo, C.; Pérez Hernández, F.; García, R. A.

    2018-04-01

    The variations of the frequencies of the low-degree acoustic oscillations in the Sun induced by magnetic activity show a dependence on radial order. The frequency shifts are observed to increase towards higher-order modes to reach a maximum of about 0.8 μHz over the 11-yr solar cycle. A comparable frequency dependence is also measured in two other main sequence solar-like stars, the F-star HD 49933, and the young 1 Gyr-old solar analog KIC 10644253, although with different amplitudes of the shifts of about 2 μHz and 0.5 μHz, respectively. Our objective here is to extend this analysis to stars with different masses, metallicities, and evolutionary stages. From an initial set of 87 Kepler solar-like oscillating stars with known individual p-mode frequencies, we identify five stars showing frequency shifts that can be considered reliable using selection criteria based on Monte Carlo simulations and on the photospheric magnetic activity proxy Sph. The frequency dependence of the frequency shifts of four of these stars could be measured for the l = 0 and l = 1 modes individually. Given the quality of the data, the results could indicate that a physical source of perturbation different from that in the Sun is dominating in this sample of solar-like stars.

  5. a High-Frequency Three-Dimensional Tyre Model Based on Two Coupled Elastic Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    LARSSON, K.; KROPP, W.

    2002-06-01

    Road traffic noise is today a serious environmental problem in urban areas. The dominating noise source at speeds greater than 50 km/h is car tyres. In order to achieve a reduction of traffic noise tyres have to become quieter. To reduce tyre/road noise a deep understanding of the noise generation mechanisms is of major importance. An existing tyre/road noise simulation model consists of a smooth tyre rolling at a constant speed on a rough road surface. It is composed of three separate modules: a tyre model, a contact model and a radiation model. The major drawback with the contact model is that it only takes the radial component of the contact forces into account. To improve this model, a description of the tangential motion at high frequencies is necessary. Most of the models for the structure-borne sound behaviour of tyres are designed for the low-frequency range (i.e., below 400 Hz). Above this frequency range, the curvature of the tyre is unimportant, while the internal structure (multi-layers of steel and rubber) increases in importance. For the high-frequency range, a double-layer tyre model is proposed, which is based on the general field equations, to take into account the tangential motion and the local deformation of the tread. Both propagating waves and mode shapes have been investigated by the use of this model. Calculations of the response of the tyre to an external excitation show relatively good agreement with measurements on a smooth tyre.

  6. Mixed-mode elastic-plastic fracture of 2024-T351 aluminium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, Masaru; Aoki, Shigeru; Kishimoto, Kikuo; Chikugo, Hiroshi; Takizawa, Masakazu.

    1985-01-01

    In order to evaluate accurately the strength and structural soundness of the structures made of high toughness materials, it is necessary to clarify the fracture behavior under the loading condition of mixed mode such as oblique cracks as well as the elasto-plastic fracture behavior of the materials in the case of single opening displacement type mode. About the fracture condition in the state of mixed mode, various theories based on the linear fracture mechanics have been proposed. In this study, the elasto-plastic fracture toughness test of mixed mode was carried out by using an aluminum alloy as the subject, and the behavior of dulling and development of cracks was observed with a scanning electron microscope. Moreover, the state of deformation of the test pieces was analyzed by elasto-plastic finite element method, thus the parameters controlling the elasto-plastic fracture of mixed mode were examined. In the range of this study, the limiting stretch zone width in the case of loading of mixed mode was 12 μm similarly to the case of single mode. Also in the case of mixed mode, there was distinct difference between the inclination of a dulling straight line and an R-curve, and the limit value of J intergral was determined by their intersection. (Kako, I.)

  7. Ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Alam, M.N.; Mamun, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Obliquely propagating ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating, warm, magnetized, two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfven mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dust- magnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field have also been considered. It has been shown that effects of self-gravitational field, dust fluid temperature, and obliqueness significantly modify the dispersion properties of these ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes. It is also found that in parallel propagating dust-Alfven mode these effects play no role, but in obliquely propagating dust-Alfven mode or perpendicular propagating dust-magnetosonic mode the effect of self-gravitational field plays destabilizing role whereas the effect of dust/ion fluid temperature plays stabilizing role. (author)

  8. Ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.

    1999-07-01

    Obliquely propagating ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating, warm, magnetized two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfven mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dust-magnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field have also been considered. It has been shown that effects of self-gravitational field, dust fluid temperature, and obliqueness significantly modify the dispersion properties of these ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes. It is also found that these effects of self-gravitational field and dust/ion fluid temperature play no role in parallel propagating dust-Alfven mode, but in obliquely propagating dust-Alfven mode or perpendicular propagating dust-magnetosonic mode the effect of self-gravitational field plays a destabilizing role whereas the effect of dust/ion fluid temperature plays a stabilizing role. (author)

  9. Oblique propagation of electron thermal modes below the electron plasma frequency without boundary effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Watanabe, T.; Sanuki, H.

    1981-08-01

    Propagation characteristics and refractive effects of an oblique electron thermal mode without boundary effects below the electron plasma frequency are studied experimentally and theoretically in an inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The behavior of this mode observed experimentally was confirmed by the theoretical analysis based on a new type of ray theory. (author)

  10. Low-frequency dust-lower-hybrid modes in a dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.

    1995-10-01

    The existence of low-frequency dust-lower-hybrid modes in a magnetized dusty plasma has been examined. These modes arise on account of the inequalities of charge and number densities of electrons, ions, and dust particles, and finite Larmor radius effects in a dusty plasma. (author). 14 refs

  11. Quasi-B-mode generated by high-frequency gravitational waves and corresponding perturbative photon fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangyu, E-mail: cqufangyuli@hotmail.com [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wen, Hao [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Fang, Zhenyun [Institute of Gravitational Physics, Department of Physics, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Wei, Lianfu; Wang, Yiwen; Zhang, Miao [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Interaction of very low-frequency primordial (relic) gravitational waves (GWs) to cosmic microwave background (CMB) can generate B-mode polarization. Here, for the first time we point out that the electromagnetic (EM) response to high-frequency GWs (HFGWs) would produce quasi-B-mode distribution of the perturbative photon fluxes. We study the duality and high complementarity between such two B-modes, and it is shown that such two effects are from the same physical origin: the tensor perturbation of the GWs and not the density perturbation. Based on this quasi-B-mode in HFGWs and related numerical calculation, it is shown that the distinguishing and observing of HFGWs from the braneworld would be quite possible due to their large amplitude, higher frequency and very different physical behaviors between the perturbative photon fluxes and background photons, and the measurement of relic HFGWs may also be possible though face to enormous challenge.

  12. Quasi-B-mode generated by high-frequency gravitational waves and corresponding perturbative photon fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.Y. Fangyu Li

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Interaction of very low-frequency primordial (relic gravitational waves (GWs to cosmic microwave background (CMB can generate B-mode polarization. Here, for the first time we point out that the electromagnetic (EM response to high-frequency GWs (HFGWs would produce quasi-B-mode distribution of the perturbative photon fluxes. We study the duality and high complementarity between such two B-modes, and it is shown that such two effects are from the same physical origin: the tensor perturbation of the GWs and not the density perturbation. Based on this quasi-B-mode in HFGWs and related numerical calculation, it is shown that the distinguishing and observing of HFGWs from the braneworld would be quite possible due to their large amplitude, higher frequency and very different physical behaviors between the perturbative photon fluxes and background photons, and the measurement of relic HFGWs may also be possible though face to enormous challenge.

  13. A frequency conversion mode for dispenser in the service station based on flow rate signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y J; Tang, D; Huang, J B; Liu, J; Jia, P F

    2012-01-01

    Dispenser is an integrated fuel transport and measurement system at the service station. In this paper, we developed a frequency conversion mode for the dispenser, based on the flow rate signal which is obtained from the converter measuring flow capacity. After introducing the frequency conversion mode to dispenser, we obtained that pump rotates at a high speed when fuelled with high flow rate, and it rotates at a low speed when fuelled with low flow rate. This makes the fuel dispenser more energy-efficient and controllable. We also did some valve optimizations on the dispenser and developed a new control mode for preset refuelling based on the frequency conversion mode, Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that the new dispenser not only can meet the national standards, but also performs better than the ordinary one especially in preset refuelling.

  14. Effect of surface parameter of interband surface mode frequencies of finite diatomic chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puszkarski, H.

    1982-07-01

    The surface modes of a finite diatomic chain of alternating atoms (M 1 not= M 2 ) are investigated. The surface force constants are assumed to differ from the bulk ones, with the resulting surface parameter a-tilde identical on both ends of the chain. Criteria, governing the existence of interband surface (IBS) modes with frequencies lying in the forbidden gap between acoustical and optical bulk bands for natural (a = 1) as well as non-natural (a not= 1) surface defect, are analysed by the difference equation method. It is found that the IBS modes localize, depending on the value of the surface parameter a, either at the surface of lighter atoms (if a-tilde is positive), or at that of heavier atoms (if a-tilde is negative). Two, one of no IBS modes are found to exist in the chain depending on the relation between the mass ratio and surface parameter - quantities on which the surface localization increment t-tilde depends. If two modes are present (one acoustical and the other optical), their frequencies are disposed symmetrically with respect to the middle of the forbidden gap, provided the surface defect is natural, or asymmetrically - if it is other than natural. If the localization of the IBS mode exceeds a well defined critical value tsub(c), the mode frequency becomes complex, indicating that the mode undergoes a damping. A comparison of the present results and those obtained by Wallis for the diatomic chain with natural surface defect is also given. (author)

  15. Mathematical Model for Electric Field Sensor Based on Whispering Gallery Modes Using Navier’s Equation for Linear Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir R. Ali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and verifies the mathematical model of an electric field senor based on the whispering gallery mode (WGM. The sensing element is a dielectric microsphere, where the light is used to tune the optical modes of the microsphere. The light undergoes total internal reflection along the circumference of the sphere; then it experiences optical resonance. The WGM are monitored as sharp dips on the transmission spectrum. These modes are very sensitive to morphology changes of the sphere, such that, for every minute change in the sphere’s morphology, a shift in the transmission spectrum will happen and that is known as WGM shifts. Due to the electrostriction effect, the applied electric field will induce forces acting on the surface of the dielectric sphere. In turn, these forces will deform the sphere causing shifts in its WGM spectrum. The applied electric field can be obtained by calculating these shifts. Navier’s equation for linear elasticity is used to model the deformation of the sphere to find the WGM shift. The finite element numerical studies are performed to verify the introduced model and to study the behavior of the sensor at different values of microspheres’ Young’s modulus and dielectric constant. Furthermore, the sensitivity and resolution of the developed WGM electric filed sensor model will be presented in this paper.

  16. Frequency Response of the Sample Vibration Mode in Scanning Probe Acoustic Microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ya-Jun, Zhao; Qian, Cheng; Meng-Lu, Qian

    2010-01-01

    Based on the interaction mechanism between tip and sample in the contact mode of a scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM), an active mass of the sample is introduced in the mass-spring model. The tip motion and frequency response of the sample vibration mode in the SPAM are calculated by the Lagrange equation with dissipation function. For the silicon tip and glass assemblage in the SPAM the frequency response is simulated and it is in agreement with the experimental result. The living myoblast cells on the glass slide are imaged at resonance frequencies of the SPAM system, which are 20kHz, 30kHz and 120kHz. It is shown that good contrast of SPAM images could be obtained when the system is operated at the resonance frequencies of the system in high and low-frequency regions

  17. Supersonic flutter suppression of electrorheological fluid-based adaptive panels resting on elastic foundations using sliding mode control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasheminejad, Seyyed M; Nezami, M; Aryaee Panah, M E

    2012-01-01

    Brief reviews on suppressing panel flutter vibrations by various active control strategies as well as utilization tunable electrorheological fluids (ERFs) for vibration control of structural systems are presented. Active suppression of the supersonic flutter motion of a simply supported sandwich panel with a tunable ERF interlayer, and coupled to an elastic foundation, is subsequently investigated. The structural formulation is based on the classical beam theory along with the Winkler–Pasternak foundation model, the ER fluid core is modeled as a first-order Kelvin–Voigt material, and the quasi-steady first-order supersonic piston theory is employed to describe the aerodynamic loading. Hamilton’s principle is used to derive a set of fully coupled dynamic equations of motion. The generalized Fourier expansions in conjunction with the Galerkin method are then employed to formulate the governing equations in the state space domain. The critical dynamic pressures at which unstable panel oscillations (coalescence of eigenvalues) occur are obtained via the p-method for selected applied electric field strengths (E = 0,2,4 kV mm −1 ). The classical Runge–Kutta time integration algorithm is subsequently used to calculate the open-loop aeroelastic response of the system in various basic loading configurations (i.e. uniformly distributed blast, gust, sonic boom, and step loads), with or without an interacting soft/stiff elastic foundation. Finally, a sliding mode control synthesis (SMC) involving the first six natural modes of the structural system is set up to actively suppress the closed-loop system response in supersonic flight conditions and under the imposed excitations. Simulation results demonstrate performance, effectiveness, and insensitivity with respect to the spillover of the proposed SMC-based control system. Limiting cases are considered and good agreements with the data available in the literature as well as with the computations made by using the

  18. Power system low frequency oscillation mode estimation using wide area measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papia Ray

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Oscillations in power systems are triggered by a wide variety of events. The system damps most of the oscillations, but a few undamped oscillations may remain which may lead to system collapse. Therefore low frequency oscillations inspection is necessary in the context of recent power system operation and control. Ringdown portion of the signal provides rich information of the low frequency oscillatory modes which has been taken into analysis. This paper provides a practical case study in which seven signal processing based techniques i.e. Prony Analysis (PA, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, S-Transform (ST, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD, Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT and Matrix Pencil Method (MPM were presented for estimating the low frequency modes in a given ringdown signal. Preprocessing of the signal is done by detrending. The application of the signal processing techniques is illustrated using actual wide area measurement systems (WAMS data collected from four different Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU i.e. Dadri, Vindyachal, Kanpur and Moga which are located near the recent disturbance event at the Northern Grid of India. Simulation results show that the seven signal processing technique (FFT, PA, ST, WVD, ESPRIT, HHT and MPM estimates two common oscillatory frequency modes (0.2, 0.5 from the raw signal. Thus, these seven techniques provide satisfactory performance in determining small frequency modes of the signal without losing its valuable property. Also a comparative study of the seven signal processing techniques has been carried out in order to find the best one. It was found that FFT and ESPRIT gives exact frequency modes as compared to other techniques, so they are recommended for estimation of low frequency modes. Further investigations were also carried out to estimate low frequency oscillatory mode with another case study of Eastern Interconnect Phasor Project

  19. On the application of frequency selective common mode feedback for multifrequency EIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Peter J; Wu, Yu; Bayford, Richard H; Demosthenous, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Common mode voltages are frequently a problem in electrical impedance tomography (EIT) and other bioimpedance applications. To reduce their amplitude common mode feedback is employed. Formalised analyses of both current and voltage feedback is presented in this paper for current drives. Common mode effects due to imbalances caused by the current drives, the electrode connections to the body load and the introduction of the body impedance to ground are considered. Frequency selective narrowband common mode feedback previously proposed to provide feedback stability is examined. As a step towards multifrequency applications the use of narrowband feedback is experimentally demonstrated for two simultaneous current drives. Measured results using standard available components show a reduction of 62 dB for current feedback and 31 dB for voltage feedback. Frequencies ranged from 50 kHz to 1 MHz.

  20. Inertia and ion Landau damping of low-frequency magnetohydrodynamical modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondeson, A.; Chu, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    The inertia and Landau damping of low-frequency magnetohydrodynamical modes are investigated using the drift-kinetic energy principle for the motion along the magnetic field. Toroidal trapping of the ions decreases the Landau damping and increases the inertia for frequencies below (r/R) 1/2 v thi /qR. The theory is applied to toroidicity-induced Alfvacute en eigenmodes and to resistive wall modes in rotating plasmas. An explanation of the beta-induced Alfvacute en eigenmode is given in terms of the Pfirsch endash Schlueter-like enhancement of inertia at low frequency. The toroidal inertia enhancement also increases the effects of plasma rotation on resistive wall modes. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  1. Continuous-variable quantum computing in optical time-frequency modes using quantum memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Peter C; Kolthammer, W Steven; Nunn, Joshua; Barbieri, Marco; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2014-09-26

    We develop a scheme for time-frequency encoded continuous-variable cluster-state quantum computing using quantum memories. In particular, we propose a method to produce, manipulate, and measure two-dimensional cluster states in a single spatial mode by exploiting the intrinsic time-frequency selectivity of Raman quantum memories. Time-frequency encoding enables the scheme to be extremely compact, requiring a number of memories that are a linear function of only the number of different frequencies in which the computational state is encoded, independent of its temporal duration. We therefore show that quantum memories can be a powerful component for scalable photonic quantum information processing architectures.

  2. Connecting structural relaxation with the low frequency modes in a hard-sphere colloidal glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Antina; Chikkadi, Vijayakumar; Schall, Peter; Bonn, Daniel

    2011-10-28

    Structural relaxation in hard-sphere colloidal glasses has been studied using confocal microscopy. The motion of individual particles is followed over long time scales to detect the rearranging regions in the system. We have used normal mode analysis to understand the origin of the rearranging regions. The low-frequency modes, obtained over short time scales, show strong spatial correlation with the rearrangements that happen on long time scales.

  3. Electron-cyclotron heating in net using the ordinary mode at down-shifted frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.; Giruzzi, G.

    1990-01-01

    A scenario for central heating in NET device is discussed using wave sources and wave launching from the most accessible side of the torus. The method presents two advantages: low wave frequency and side launch of the 0- mode. The maximum wave attenuation occurs for θ different to zero. It is a difficulty which is minimized by the fact that no special polarization is required for the reflected wave, since both modes are absorbed by the plasma core

  4. Extraordinary mode absorption at the electron cyclotron harmonic frequencies as a Tokamak plasma diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pachtman, A.

    1986-09-01

    Measurements of Extraordinary mode absorption at the electron cyclotron harmonic frequencies are of unique value in high temperature, high density Tokamak plasma diagnostic applications. An experimental study of Extraordinary mode absorption at the semi-opaque second and third harmonics has been performed on the ALCATOR C Tokamak. A narrow beam of submillimeter laser radiation was used to illuminate the plasma in a horizontal plane, providing a continuous measurement of the one-pass, quasi-perpendicular transmission

  5. Spoof surface plasmon modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces at terahertz frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yong-Qiang; Kong, Ling-Bao; Du, Chao-Hai; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Spoof surface plasmons (SSPs) have many potential applications such as imaging and sensing, communications, innovative leaky wave antenna and many other passive devices in the microwave and terahertz (THz) spectrum. The extraordinary properties of SSPs (e.g. extremely strong near field, enhanced beam–wave interaction) make them especially attractive for developing novel THz electronic sources. SSP modes on doubly corrugated metal surfaces are investigated and analyzed both theoretically and numerically in this paper. The analytical SSP dispersion expressions of symmetric and anti-symmetric modes are obtained with a simplified modal field expansion method; the results are also verified by the finite integration method. Additionally, the propagation losses are also considered for real copper surfaces with a limited constant conductivity in a THz regime. It is shown that the asymptotical frequency of the symmetric mode at the Brillouin boundary decreases along with the decreased gap size between these two corrugated metal surfaces while the asymptotical frequency increases for the anti-symmetric mode. The anti-symmetric mode demonstrates larger propagation losses than the symmetric mode. Further, the losses for both symmetric and anti-symmetric modes decrease when this gap size enlarges. By decreasing groove depth, the asymptotical frequency increases for both the symmetric and the anti-symmetric mode, but the variation of propagation losses is more complicated. Propagation losses increase along with the increased period. Our studies on the dispersion characteristics and propagation losses of SSP modes on this doubly corrugated metallic structure with various parameters is instructive for numerous applications such as waveguides, circuitry systems with high integration, filters and powerful electronic sources in the THz regime. (paper)

  6. Suppression of nonlinear frequency-sweeping of resonant interchange modes in a magnetic dipole with applied radio frequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslovsky, D.; Levitt, B.; Mauel, M. E.

    2003-01-01

    Interchange instabilities excited by energetic electrons trapped by a magnetic dipole nonlinearly saturate and exhibit complex, coherent spectral characteristics and frequency sweeping [H. P. Warren and M. E. Mauel, Phys. Plasmas 2, 4185 (1995)]. When monochromatic radio frequency (rf) fields are applied in the range of 100-1000 MHz, the saturation behavior of the interchange instability changes dramatically. For applied fields of sufficient intensity and pulse-length, coherent interchange fluctuations are suppressed and frequency sweeping is eliminated. When rf fields are switched off, coherent frequency sweeping reappears. Since low frequency interchange instabilities preserve the electron's first and second adiabatic invariants, these observations can be interpreted as resulting from nonlinear resonant wave-particle interactions described within a particle phase-space, (ψ,φ), comprised of the third adiabatic invariant and the azimuthal angle. Self-consistent numerical simulation is used to study (1) the nonlinear development of the instability, (2) the radial mode structure of the interchange instability, and (3) the suppression of frequency sweeping. When the applied rf heating is modeled as an 'rf collisionality', the simulation reproduces frequency sweeping suppression and suggests an explanation for the observations that is consistent with Berk and co-workers [H. L. Berk et al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 3102 (1999)

  7. An optical technique to measure the frequency and mode emission of tunable lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchetti, S.; Simili, R.

    1988-01-01

    To use mode tunable lasers it is necessary to measure the laser frequency and the mode emission. This problem is very important when waveguide lasers are used. Normally this information is obtained by a heterodyne technique, but there are some difficulties to perform this method in a large electrical noise environment, when pulsed of radiofrequency lasers are used. This laser information was obtained by using an alternative low-cost optical system. With this apparatus the cavity pulling was measured and an upper limit for the linewidth of a radiofrequency, high pressure, line and mode-tunable, CO 2 laser was roughly estimated

  8. Frequency and mode identification of γ Doradus from photometric and spectroscopic observations*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K. R.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.; Cottrell, P. L.

    2018-04-01

    The prototype star for the γ Doradus class of pulsating variables was studied employing photometric and spectroscopic observations to determine the frequencies and modes of pulsation. The four frequencies found are self-consistent between the observation types and almost identical to those found in previous studies (1.3641 d-1, 1.8783 d-1, 1.4742 d-1, and 1.3209 d-1). Three of the frequencies are classified as l, m = (1, 1) pulsations and the other is ambiguous between l, m = (2, 0) and (2, -2) modes. Two frequencies are shown to be stable over 20 yr since their first identification. The agreement in ground-based work makes this star an excellent calibrator between high-precision photometry and spectroscopy with the upcoming TESS observations and a potential standard for continued asteroseismic modelling.

  9. Extracting Low-Frequency Information from Time Attenuation in Elastic Waveform Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xuebao; Liu, Hong; Shi, Ying; Wang, Weihong

    2017-03-01

    Low-frequency information is crucial for recovering background velocity, but the lack of low-frequency information in field data makes inversion impractical without accurate initial models. Laplace-Fourier domain waveform inversion can recover a smooth model from real data without low-frequency information, which can be used for subsequent inversion as an ideal starting model. In general, it also starts with low frequencies and includes higher frequencies at later inversion stages, while the difference is that its ultralow frequency information comes from the Laplace-Fourier domain. Meanwhile, a direct implementation of the Laplace-transformed wavefield using frequency domain inversion is also very convenient. However, because broad frequency bands are often used in the pure time domain waveform inversion, it is difficult to extract the wavefields dominated by low frequencies in this case. In this paper, low-frequency components are constructed by introducing time attenuation into the recorded residuals, and the rest of the method is identical to the traditional time domain inversion. Time windowing and frequency filtering are also applied to mitigate the ambiguity of the inverse problem. Therefore, we can start at low frequencies and to move to higher frequencies. The experiment shows that the proposed method can achieve a good inversion result in the presence of a linear initial model and records without low-frequency information.

  10. Rapid Frequency Chirps of TAE mode due to Finite Orbit Energetic Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Herb; Wang, Ge

    2013-10-01

    The tip model for the TAE mode in the large aspect ratio limit, conceived by Rosenbluth et al. in the frequency domain, together with an interaction term in the frequency domain based on a map model, has been extended into the time domain. We present the formal basis for the model, starting with the Lagrangian for the particle wave interaction. We shall discuss the formal nonlinear time domain problem and the procedure that needs to obtain solutions in the adiabatic limit.

  11. Mode of recording and modulation frequency effects of auditory steady state response thresholds

    OpenAIRE

    Jalaei, Bahram; Shaabani, Moslem; Zakaria, Mohd Normani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The performance of auditory steady state response (ASSR) in threshold testing when recorded ipsilaterally and contralaterally, as well as at low and high modulation frequencies (MFs), has not been systematically studied. Objective To verify the influences of mode of recording (ipsilateral vs. contralateral) and modulation frequency (40 Hz vs. 90 Hz) on ASSR thresholds. Methods Fifteen female and 14 male subjects (aged 18–30 years) with normal hearing bilaterally were ...

  12. Dynamic model updating based on strain mode shape and natural frequency using hybrid pattern search technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ning; Yang, Zhichun; Wang, Le; Ouyang, Yan; Zhang, Xinping

    2018-05-01

    Aiming at providing a precise dynamic structural finite element (FE) model for dynamic strength evaluation in addition to dynamic analysis. A dynamic FE model updating method is presented to correct the uncertain parameters of the FE model of a structure using strain mode shapes and natural frequencies. The strain mode shape, which is sensitive to local changes in structure, is used instead of the displacement mode for enhancing model updating. The coordinate strain modal assurance criterion is developed to evaluate the correlation level at each coordinate over the experimental and the analytical strain mode shapes. Moreover, the natural frequencies which provide the global information of the structure are used to guarantee the accuracy of modal properties of the global model. Then, the weighted summation of the natural frequency residual and the coordinate strain modal assurance criterion residual is used as the objective function in the proposed dynamic FE model updating procedure. The hybrid genetic/pattern-search optimization algorithm is adopted to perform the dynamic FE model updating procedure. Numerical simulation and model updating experiment for a clamped-clamped beam are performed to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the present method. The results show that the proposed method can be used to update the uncertain parameters with good robustness. And the updated dynamic FE model of the beam structure, which can correctly predict both the natural frequencies and the local dynamic strains, is reliable for the following dynamic analysis and dynamic strength evaluation.

  13. Oscillation mode frequencies of 61 main-sequence and subgiant stars observed by Kepler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appourchaux, T.; Chaplin, W. J.; García, R. A.

    2012-01-01

    Solar-like oscillations have been observed by Kepler and CoRoT in several solar-type stars, thereby providing a way to probe the stars using asteroseismology Aims. We provide the mode frequencies of the oscillations of various stars required to perform a comparison with those obtained from stella...

  14. High frequency switched-mode stimulation can evoke postsynaptic responses in cerebellar principal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijn Van Dongen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the efficacy of high frequency switched-mode neural stimulation. Instead of using a constant stimulation amplitude, the stimulus is switched on and off repeatedly with a high frequency (up to 100kHz duty cycled signal. By means of tissue modeling that includes the dynamic properties of both the tissue material as well as the axon membrane, it is first shown that switched-mode stimulation depolarizes the cell membrane in a similar way as classical constant amplitude stimulation.These findings are subsequently verified using in vitro experiments in which the response of a Purkinje cell is measured due to a stimulation signal in the molecular layer of the cerebellum of a mouse. For this purpose a stimulator circuit is developed that is able to produce a monophasic high frequency switched-mode stimulation signal. The results confirm the modeling by showing that switched-mode stimulation is able to induce similar responses in the Purkinje cell as classical stimulation using a constant current source. This conclusion opens up possibilities for novel stimulation designs that can improve the performance of the stimulator circuitry. Care has to be taken to avoid losses in the system due to the higher operating frequency.

  15. Frequency splitter based on the directional emission from surface modes in dielectric photonic crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasolamprou, Anna C; Zhang, Lei; Kafesaki, Maria; Koschny, Thomas; Soukoulis, Costas M

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the numerical design and the experimental validation of frequency dependent directional emission from a dielectric photonic crystal structure. The wave propagates through a photonic crystal line-defect waveguide, while a surface layer at the termination of the photonic crystal enables the excitation of surface modes and a subsequent grating layer transforms the surface energy into outgoing propagating waves of the form of a directional beam. The angle of the beam is controlled by the frequency and the structure operates as a frequency splitter in the intermediate and far field region.

  16. Tunable radio-frequency photonic filter based on an actively mode-locked fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortigosa-Blanch, A; Mora, J; Capmany, J; Ortega, B; Pastor, D

    2006-03-15

    We propose the use of an actively mode-locked fiber laser as a multitap optical source for a microwave photonic filter. The fiber laser provides multiple optical taps with an optical frequency separation equal to the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser that governs its repetition rate. All the optical taps show equal polarization and an overall Gaussian apodization, which reduces the sidelobes. We demonstrate continuous tunability of the filter by changing the external driving radio-frequency signal of the laser, which shows good fine tunability in the operating range of the laser from 5 to 10 GHz.

  17. Fast convergent frequency-domain MIMO equalizer for few-mode fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuan; Weng, Yi; Wang, Junyi; Pan, Z.

    2018-02-01

    Space division multiplexing using few-mode fibers has been extensively explored to sustain the continuous traffic growth. In few-mode fiber optical systems, both spatial and polarization modes are exploited to transmit parallel channels, thus increasing the overall capacity. However, signals on spatial channels inevitably suffer from the intrinsic inter-modal coupling and large accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), which causes spatial modes de-multiplex even harder. Many research articles have demonstrated that frequency domain adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) equalizer can effectively compensate the DMGD and demultiplex the spatial channels with digital signal processing (DSP). However, the large accumulated DMGD usually requires a large number of training blocks for the initial convergence of adaptive MIMO equalizers, which will decrease the overall system efficiency and even degrade the equalizer performance in fast-changing optical channels. Least mean square (LMS) algorithm is always used in MIMO equalization to dynamically demultiplex the spatial signals. We have proposed to use signal power spectral density (PSD) dependent method and noise PSD directed method to improve the convergence speed of adaptive frequency domain LMS algorithm. We also proposed frequency domain recursive least square (RLS) algorithm to further increase the convergence speed of MIMO equalizer at cost of greater hardware complexity. In this paper, we will compare the hardware complexity and convergence speed of signal PSD dependent and noise power directed algorithms against the conventional frequency domain LMS algorithm. In our numerical study of a three-mode 112 Gbit/s PDM-QPSK optical system with 3000 km transmission, the noise PSD directed and signal PSD dependent methods could improve the convergence speed by 48.3% and 36.1% respectively, at cost of 17.2% and 10.7% higher hardware complexity. We will also compare the frequency domain RLS algorithm against

  18. A two-fluid interpretation of low frequency modes in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thyagaraja, A.; Haas, F.A.

    1983-01-01

    The linear stability of low frequency modes (ω/ωsub(ci) << 1) of a dissipationless two-fluid cylindrical analogue of Tokamak is investigated. The eigenvalue problem comprises a coupled first-order and second-order differential equation. Given certain plausible assumptions, the case of an internal resonant point is solved analytically. The resulting modes and frequencies are qualitatively similar to those observed. The analogue of the MHD uniform current model is solved exactly and the usual MHD marginal stability boundary is shown to be modified. More general considerations show, that even in the absence of dissipation, the magnetic field is not ''frozen'' to the ions or the electrons. Furthermore, in general the MHD equations can only be recovered by a limiting process which is inappropriate to Tokamaks. For very low frequencies (ω << ω*), however, single and two-fluid theories predict the same magnetic field structure but different electric fields. The present analysis which covers frequencies from zero to ωsub(Alfven), including drift and acoustic frequencies predicts that both discrete and continuum modes can be unstable which is in contrast to ideal MHD. (author)

  19. Frequency shift and hysteresis suppression in contact-mode AFM using contact stiffness modulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belhaq M.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the frequency response shift and hysteresis suppression of contact-mode atomic force microscopy is investigated using parametric modulation of the contact stiffness. Based on the Hertzian contact theory, a lumped single degree of freedom oscillator is considered for modeling the cantilever dynamics contact-mode atomic force microscopy. We use the technique of direct partition of motion and the method of multiple scales to obtain, respectively, the slow dynamic and the corresponding slow flow of the system. As results, this study shows that the amplitude of the contact stiffness modulation has a significant effect on the frequency response. Specifically, increasing the amplitude of the stiffness modulation suppresses hysteresis, decreases the peak amplitude and produces shifts towards higher and lower frequencies.

  20. Numerical optimization of quasi-optical mode converter for frequency step-tunable gyrotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drumm, O.

    2002-08-01

    This work concentrates on the design of a quasi-optical mode converter for a frequency step-tunable gyrotron. Special attention is paid to the optimization of the conversion and forming of the exited wave of different frequencies inside the resonator. The investigations were part of the HGF-strategy-fonds-project ''Optimization of Tokamak Operation with controlled ECRH-Deposition''. In the resonator of the gyrotron modes can be exited at frequencies between 105 and 140 GHz. With the designed converter the desired field distribution at the output window for all frequencies will be approximately obtained. The newly gained knowledge and invented synthesis methods are applied to this practical example and verified. In this work, the waveguide antenna and the mirror system of the quasi-optical mode converter are presented separately from each other. At the beginning the synthesis of the aperture antenna for a frequency step-tunable design of the Vlasov-type as well as the Denisov-type is considered. As a conclusion of the investigation, the important parameters for the design of all antennas are summarized and the frequency behavior is compared. In the second part of this work new broadband design methods for the synthesis of the mirror surface are presented. These mirrors make an optimal wave forming for all frequencies equally possible. Therefore new quality criteria are introduced for the broadband evaluation of the mirror. Afterwards the surface is varied until the criteria reach an optimum. For the numerical optimization, in this work the gradient method and the extended Katsenelenbaum-Semenov algorithm are invented and applied. The efficient realization of the described algorithms on a computer is the significant point. The theoretical background of the presented methods for the synthesis of a mirror system is based on the general solution of the Helmholtz equation. Due to this, these methods can be utilized in other fields outside the microwave applications in

  1. A Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator and complementary ensemble empirical mode decomposition for bearing fault detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaouchen, Yacine; Kedadouche, Mourad; Alkama, Rezak; Thomas, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Signal processing techniques for non-stationary and noisy signals have recently attracted considerable attentions. Among them, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) which is an adaptive and efficient method for decomposing signals from high to low frequencies into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). Ensemble EMD (EEMD) is proposed to overcome the mode mixing problem of the EMD. In the present paper, the Complementary EEMD (CEEMD) is used for bearing fault detection. As a noise-improved method, the CEEMD not only overcomes the mode mixing, but also eliminates the residual of added white noise persisting into the IMFs and enhance the calculation efficiency of the EEMD method. Afterward, a selection method is developed to choose relevant IMFs containing information about defects. Subsequently, a signal is reconstructed from the sum of relevant IMFs and a Frequency-Weighted Energy Operator is tailored to extract both the amplitude and frequency modulations from the selected IMFs. This operator outperforms the conventional energy operator and the enveloping methods, especially in the presence of strong noise and multiple vibration interferences. Furthermore, simulation and experimental results showed that the proposed method improves performances for detecting the bearing faults. The method has also high computational efficiency and is able to detect the fault at an early stage of degradation.

  2. A reconfigurable frequency-selective surface for dual-mode multi-band filtering applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majidzadeh, Maryam; Ghobadi, Changiz; Nourinia, Javad

    2017-03-01

    A reconfigurable single-layer frequency-selective surface (FSS) with dual-mode multi-band modes of operation is presented. The proposed structure is printed on a compact 10 × 10 mm2 FR4 substrate with the thickness of 1.6 mm. A simple square loop is printed on the front side while another one along with two defected vertical arms is deployed on the backside. To realise the reconfiguration, two pin diodes are embedded on the backside square loop. Suitable insertion of conductive elements along with pin diodes yields in dual-mode multi-band rejection of applicable in service frequency ranges. The first operating mode due to diodes' 'ON' state provides rejection of 2.4 GHz WLAN in 2-3 GHz, 5.2/5.8 GHz WLAN and X band in 5-12 GHz, and a part of Ku band in 13.9-16 GHz. In diodes 'OFF' state, the FSS blocks WLAN in 4-7.3 GHz, X band in 8-12.7 GHz as well as part of Ku band in 13.7-16.7 GHz. As well, high attenuation of incident waves is observed by a high shielding effectiveness (SE) in the blocked frequency bands. Also, a stable behaviour against different polarisations and angles of incidence is obtained. Comprehensive studies are conducted on a fabricated prototype to assess its performance from which encouraging results are obtained.

  3. Spectroscopic pulsational frequency identification and mode determination of γ Doradus star HD 12901

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunsden, E.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.; Wright, D. J.; De Cat, P.

    2012-12-01

    Using multisite spectroscopic data collected from three sites, the frequencies and pulsational modes of the γ Doradus star HD 12901 were identified. A total of six frequencies in the range 1-2 d-1 were observed, their identifications supported by multiple line-profile measurement techniques and previously published photometry. Five frequencies were of sufficient signal-to-noise ratio for mode identification, and all five displayed similar three-bump standard deviation profiles which were fitted well with (l,m) = (1,1) modes. These fits had reduced χ2 values of less than 18. We propose that this star is an excellent candidate to test models of non-radially pulsating γ Doradus stars as a result of the presence of multiple (1,1) modes. This paper includes data taken at the Mount John University Observatory of the University of Canterbury (New Zealand), the McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin (Texas, USA) and the European Southern Observatory at La Silla (Chile).

  4. Two Novel Measurements for the Drive-Mode Resonant Frequency of a Micromachined Vibratory Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ancheng Wang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drive-mode resonance frequency of a micromachined vibratory gyroscope (MVG, one needs to measure it accurately and efficiently. The conventional approach to measure the resonant frequency is by performing a sweep frequency test and spectrum analysis. The method is time-consuming and inconvenient because of the requirements of many test points, a lot of data storage and off-line analyses. In this paper, we propose two novel measurement methods, the search method and track method, respectively. The former is based on the magnitude-frequency characteristics of the drive mode, utilizing a one-dimensional search technique. The latter is based on the phase-frequency characteristics, applying a feedback control loop. Their performances in precision, noise resistivity and efficiency are analyzed through detailed simulations. A test system is implemented based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA and experiments are carried out. By comparing with the common approach, feasibility and superiorities of the proposed methods are validated. In particular, significant efficiency improvements are achieved whereby the conventional frequency method consumes nearly 5,000 s to finish a measurement, while only 5 s is needed for the track method and 1 s for the search method.

  5. Vibrational modes of hydraulic fractures: Inference of fracture geometry from resonant frequencies and attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipovsky, Bradley P.; Dunham, Eric M.

    2015-02-01

    Oscillatory seismic signals arising from resonant vibrations of hydraulic fractures are observed in many geologic systems, including volcanoes, glaciers and ice sheets, and hydrocarbon and geothermal reservoirs. To better quantify the physical dimensions of fluid-filled cracks and properties of the fluids within them, we study wave motion along a thin hydraulic fracture waveguide. We present a linearized analysis, valid at wavelengths greater than the fracture aperture, that accounts for quasi-static elastic deformation of the fracture walls, as well as fluid viscosity, inertia, and compressibility. In the long-wavelength limit, anomalously dispersed guided waves known as crack or Krauklis waves propagate with restoring force from fracture wall elasticity. At shorter wavelengths, the waves become sound waves within the fluid channel. Wave attenuation in our model is due to fluid viscosity, rather than seismic radiation from crack tips or fracture wall roughness. We characterize viscous damping at both low frequencies, where the flow is always fully developed, and at high frequencies, where the flow has a nearly constant velocity profile away from viscous boundary layers near the fracture walls. Most observable seismic signals from resonating fractures likely arise in the boundary layer crack wave limit, where fluid-solid coupling is pronounced and attenuation is minimal. We present a method to estimate the aperture and length of a resonating hydraulic fracture using both the seismically observed quality factor and characteristic frequency. Finally, we develop scaling relations between seismic moment and characteristic frequency that might be useful when interpreting the statistics of hydraulic fracture events.

  6. Frequency shifts of resonant modes of the Sun due to near-surface convective scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S. M.; Antia, H. M.

    Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the ``surface term.'' The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary 3D flows, can be reduced to an effective ``quiet-Sun'' wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt-Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection.

  7. FREQUENCY SHIFTS OF RESONANT MODES OF THE SUN DUE TO NEAR-SURFACE CONVECTIVE SCATTERING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, J.; Hanasoge, S.; Antia, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of oscillation frequencies of the Sun and stars can provide important independent constraints on their internal structure and dynamics. Seismic models of these oscillations are used to connect structure and rotation of the star to its resonant frequencies, which are then compared with observations, the goal being that of minimizing the difference between the two. Even in the case of the Sun, for which structure models are highly tuned, observed frequencies show systematic deviations from modeled frequencies, a phenomenon referred to as the “surface term.” The dominant source of this systematic effect is thought to be vigorous near-surface convection, which is not well accounted for in both stellar modeling and mode-oscillation physics. Here we bring to bear the method of homogenization, applicable in the asymptotic limit of large wavelengths (in comparison to the correlation scale of convection), to characterize the effect of small-scale surface convection on resonant-mode frequencies in the Sun. We show that the full oscillation equations, in the presence of temporally stationary three-dimensional (3D) flows, can be reduced to an effective “quiet-Sun” wave equation with altered sound speed, Brünt–Väisäla frequency, and Lamb frequency. We derive the modified equation and relations for the appropriate averaging of 3D flows and thermal quantities to obtain the properties of this effective medium. Using flows obtained from 3D numerical simulations of near-surface convection, we quantify their effect on solar oscillation frequencies and find that they are shifted systematically and substantially. We argue therefore that consistent interpretations of resonant frequencies must include modifications to the wave equation that effectively capture the impact of vigorous hydrodynamic convection

  8. Digital control of high-frequency switched-mode power converters

    CERN Document Server

    Corradini, Luca; Mattavelli, Paolo; Zane, Regan

    This book is focused on the fundamental aspects of analysis, modeling and design of digital control loops around high-frequency switched-mode power converters in a systematic and rigorous manner Comprehensive treatment of digital control theory for power converters Verilog and VHDL sample codes are provided Enables readers to successfully analyze, model, design, and implement voltage, current, or multi-loop digital feedback loops around switched-mode power converters Practical examples are used throughout the book to illustrate applications of the techniques developed Matlab examples are also

  9. Study of fuzzy adaptive PID controller on thermal frequency stabilizing laser with double longitudinal modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Qingkai; Zhang, Tao; Yan, Yining

    2016-10-01

    There are contradictions among speediness, anti-disturbance performance, and steady-state accuracy caused by traditional PID controller in the existing light source systems of thermal frequency stabilizing laser with double longitudinal modes. In this paper, a new kind of fuzzy adaptive PID controller was designed by combining fuzzy PID control technology and expert system to make frequency stabilizing system obtain the optimal performance. The experiments show that the frequency stability of the designed PID controller is similar to the existing PID controller (the magnitude of frequency stability is less than 10-9 in constant temperature and 10-7 in open air). But the preheating time is shortened obviously (from 10 minutes to 5 minutes) and the anti-disturbance capability is improved significantly (the recovery time needed after strong interference is reduced from 1 minute to 10 seconds).

  10. Selective injection locking of a multi-mode semiconductor laser to a multi-frequency reference beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramod, Mysore Srinivas; Yang, Tao; Pandey, Kanhaiya; Giudici, Massimo; Wilkowski, David

    2014-07-01

    Injection locking is a well known and commonly used method for coherent light amplification. Usually injection locking is obtained on a single-mode laser injected by a single-frequency seeding beam. In this work we show that selective injection locking of a single-frequency may also be achieved on a multi-mode semiconductor laser injected by a multi-frequency seeding beam, if the slave laser provides sufficient frequency filtering. This selective injection locking condition depends critically on the frequency detuning between the free-running slave emission frequency and each injected frequency component. Stable selective injection locking to a set of three seeding components separated by 1.2 GHz is obtained. This system provides an amplification up to 37 dB of each component. This result suggests that, using distinct slave lasers for each frequency line, a set of mutually coherent high-power radiation modes can be tuned in the GHz frequency domain.

  11. AIR ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE DISCHARGERS FOR OPERATION IN HIGH-FREQUENCY SWITCHING MODE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Yevdoshenko

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Operation of two designs of compact multigap dischargers has been investigated in a high-frequency switching mode. It is experimentally revealed that the rational length of single discharge gaps in the designs is 0.3 mm, and the maximum switching frequency is 27000 discharges per second under long-term stable operation of the dischargers. It is shown that in pulsed corona discharge reactors, the pulse front sharpening results in increasing the operating electric field strength by 1.3 – 1.8 times.

  12. Dispersive-cavity actively mode-locked fiber laser for stable radio frequency delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Yitang; Wang, Ruixin; Yin, Feifei; Xu, Kun; Li, Jianqiang; Lin, Jintong

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel technique for highly stable transfer of a radio frequency (RF) comb over long optical fiber link, which is highly dispersive and is a part of an actively mode-locked fiber laser. Phase fluctuation along the fiber link, which is mainly induced by physical vibration and temperature fluctuations, is automatically compensated by the self-adapted wavelength shifting. Without phase-locking loop or any tunable parts, stable radio frequency is transferred over a 2-km fiber link, with a time jitter suppression ratio larger than 110. (letter)

  13. Temporal mode selectivity by frequency conversion in second-order nonlinear optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, D. V.; Raymer, M. G.; McKinstrie, C. J.

    2013-01-01

    in a transparent optical network using temporally orthogonal waveforms to encode different channels. We model the process using coupled-mode equations appropriate for wave mixing in a uniform second-order nonlinear optical medium pumped by a strong laser pulse. We find Green functions describing the process...... in this optimal regime. We also find an operating regime in which high-efficiency frequency conversion without temporal-shape selectivity can be achieved while preserving the shapes of a wide class of input pulses. The results are applicable to both classical and quantum frequency conversion....

  14. Stochastic resonance in a single-mode laser driven by frequency modulated signal and coloured noises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Guo-Xiang; Zhang Liang-Ying; Cao Li

    2009-01-01

    By adding frequency modulated signals to the intensity equation of gain-noise model of the single-mode laser driven by two coloured noises which are correlated, this paper uses the linear approximation method to calculate the power spectrum and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the laser intensity. The results show that the SNR appears typical stochastic resonance with the variation of intensity of the pump noise and quantum noise. As the amplitude of a modulated signal has effects on the SNR, it shows suppression, monotone increasing, stochastic resonance, and multiple stochastic resonance with the variation of the frequency of a carrier signal and modulated signal.

  15. Common mode frequency instability in internally phase-locked terahertz quantum cascade lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanke, M C; Grine, A D; Fuller, C T; Nordquist, C D; Cich, M J; Reno, J L; Lee, Mark

    2011-11-21

    Feedback from a diode mixer integrated into a 2.8 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) was used to phase lock the difference frequencies (DFs) among the Fabry-Perot (F-P) longitudinal modes of a QCL. Approximately 40% of the DF power was phase locked, consistent with feedback loop bandwidth of 10 kHz and phase noise bandwidth ~0.5 MHz. While the locked DF signal has ≤ 1 Hz linewidth and negligible drift over ~30 min, mixing measurements between two QCLs and between a QCL and molecular gas laser show that the common mode frequency stability is no better than a free-running QCL. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  16. Predictive simulations of radio frequency heated plasmas of Tore Supra using the Multi-Mode model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voitsekhovitch, Irina; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.; Pankin, Alexei

    2002-01-01

    Multichannel integrated predictive simulations using the Multi-Mode transport model are carried out for radio frequency heated Tore Supra tokamak discharges in which helium is the primary ion component. Lower hybrid heated discharges in which the total current is driven noninductively [X. Litaudon et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 43, 677 (2001)] and a discharge with ion cyclotron radio frequency heating of the hydrogen minority ions [G. T. Hoang et al., Nucl. Fusion 38, 117 (1998)] are simulated. The simulations of these discharges represent the first test of the Multi-Mode model in helium plasmas with dominant electron heating. Also for the first time, the particle transport in Tore Supra discharges is computed and the density profiles are predicted self-consistently with other transport channels. It is found in these simulations that the anomalous transport driven by trapped electron mode turbulence is dominant compared to the transport driven by the ion temperature gradient turbulence. The feature of the Multi-Mode model to calculate the impurity transport self-consistently with other transport channels is used in this study to predict the influence of carbon impurity influx on the discharge evolution

  17. Influence of pore fluid and frequency on elastic properties of greensand as interpreted using NMR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hossain, Zakir; Mukerj, Tapan; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2011-01-01

    dispersion. However, Biot’s theory does not fully explain the frequency dispersion of sedimentary rocks. Greensands are composed of a mixture of quartz and micro-porous glauconite grains. In greensand, it is possible that the contrast between flow in macro-pores and micro-pores within glauconites gives rise....... Biot’s critical frequency and NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) T2 spectrum were combined to describe the differences in fluid flow within macro-pores and within micro-pores. NMR data show that Biot’s flow should occur only in large pores in the greensand while, Biot’s flow should not occur in micro-pores....... Differences of fluid flow in macro-pores and micro-pores pores are described as high frequency squirt flow in greensand....

  18. Evidence of resonant mode coupling and the relationship between low and high frequencies in a rapidly rotating a star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating δ Sct star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles day –1 (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitude larger and may exceed even the amplitudes of the parent modes. We show that two dominant low frequencies at 5.86 and 2.93 cycles day –1 in the gravity-mode region are not harmonics of each other, and their properties follow those of the almost equidistant high-frequency triplet. We note that the previously puzzling situation of finding two strong peaks in the low-frequency region related by nearly a factor of two in frequency has been seen in other δ Sct stars as well.

  19. Evidence of resonant mode coupling and the relationship between low and high frequencies in a rapidly rotating a star

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breger, M.; Montgomery, M. H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2014-03-10

    In the theory of resonant mode coupling, the parent and child modes are directly related in frequency and phase. The oscillations present in the fast rotating δ Sct star KIC 8054146 allow us to test the most general and generic aspects of such a theory. The only direct way to separate the parent and coupled (child) modes is to examine the correlations in amplitude variability between the different frequencies. For the dominant family of related frequencies, only a single mode and a triplet are the origins of nine dominant frequency peaks ranging from 2.93 to 66.30 cycles day{sup –1} (as well as dozens of small-amplitude combination modes and a predicted and detected third high-frequency triplet). The mode-coupling model correctly predicts the large amplitude variations of the coupled modes as a product of the amplitudes of the parent modes, while the phase changes are also correctly modeled. This differs from the behavior of 'normal' combination frequencies in that the amplitudes are three orders of magnitude larger and may exceed even the amplitudes of the parent modes. We show that two dominant low frequencies at 5.86 and 2.93 cycles day{sup –1} in the gravity-mode region are not harmonics of each other, and their properties follow those of the almost equidistant high-frequency triplet. We note that the previously puzzling situation of finding two strong peaks in the low-frequency region related by nearly a factor of two in frequency has been seen in other δ Sct stars as well.

  20. Mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio-frequency sheath potentials on edge localized modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gui, B. [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Xu, X. Q. [Lawerence Livermore National Lab, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Myra, J. R.; D' Ippolito, D. A. [Lodestar Research Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80301 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The mitigating impact of thermal and rectified radio frequency (RF) sheath potentials on the peeling-ballooning modes is studied non-linearly by employing a two-fluid three-field simulation model based on the BOUT++ framework. Additional shear flow and the Kelvin-Helmholtz effect due to the thermal and rectified RF sheath potential are induced. It is found that the shear flow increases the growth rate while the K-H effect decreases the growth rate slightly when there is a density gradient, but the energy loss of these cases is suppressed in the nonlinear phase. The stronger external electrostatic field due to the sheaths has a more significant effect on the energy loss suppression. From this study, it is found the growth rate in the linear phase mainly determines the onset of edge-localized modes, while the mode spectrum width in the nonlinear phase has an important impact on the turbulent transport. The wider mode spectrum leads to weaker turbulent transport and results in a smaller energy loss. Due to the thermal sheath and rectified RF sheath potential in the scrape-off-layer, the modified shear flow tears apart the peeling-ballooning filament and makes the mode spectrum wider, resulting in less energy loss. The perturbed electric potential and the parallel current near the sheath region is also suppressed locally due to the sheath boundary condition.

  1. Dynamic Confinement of ITER Plasma by O-Mode Driver at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2009-05-01

    A low B-field side launched electron cyclotron O-Mode driver leads to the dynamic rf confinement, in addition to rf turbulent heating, of ITER plasma. The scaling law for the local energy confinement time τE is evaluated (τE ˜ 3neTe/2Q, where (3/2) neTe is the local plasma thermal energy density and Q is the local rf turbulent heating rate). The dynamics of unstable dissipative trapped particle modes (DTPM) strongly coupled to Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for gyrotron frequency 170GHz; power˜24 MW CW; and on-axis B-field ˜ 10T. In the case of dynamic stabilization of DTPM turbulence and for the heavily damped T-G modes, the energy confinement time scales as τE˜(I0)-2, whereby I0(W/m^2) is the O-Mode driver irradiance. R. Prater et. al., Nucl. Fusion 48, No 3 (March 2008). E. P. Velikhov, History of the Russian Tokamak and the Tokamak Thermonuclear Fusion Research Worldwide That Led to ITER (Documentary movie; Stefan Studios Int'l, La Jolla, CA, 2008; E. P. Velikhov, V. Stefan.) M N Rosenbluth, Phys. Scr. T2A 104-109 1982 B. B. Kadomtsev and O. P. Pogutse, Nucl. Fusion 11, 67 (1971).

  2. Blind identification of the number of sub-carriers for orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based elastic optical networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Xu, Hengying; Bai, Chenglin

    2018-03-01

    In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based elastic optical networking (EON), it is imperative to identify unknown parameters of OFDM-based EON signals quickly, intelligently and robustly. Because the number of sub-carriers determines the size of the sub-carriers spacing and then affects the symbol period of the OFDM and the anti-dispersion capability of the system, the identification of the number of sub-carriers has a profound effect on the identification of other key parameters of the system. In this paper, we proposed a method of number identification for sub-carriers of OFDM-based EON signals with help of high-order cyclic cumulant. The specific fourth-order cyclic cumulant exists only at the location of its sub-carriers frequencies. So the identification of the number of sub-carriers can be implemented by detecting the cyclic-frequencies. The proposed scheme in our study can be divided into three sub-stages, i.e. estimating the spectral range, calculating the high-order cyclic cumulant and identifying the number of sub-carriers. When the optical signal-to-noise ratios (OSNR) varied from 16dB to 22dB, the number of sub-carriers (64-512) was successfully identified in the experiment, and from the statistical point of view, the average identification absolute accuracy (IAAs) exceeded 94%.

  3. Identification of trapped electron modes in frequency fluctuation spectra of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnichand, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis shows that the analysis of frequency fluctuation spectra can provide an additional experimental indication of the dominant mode. Depending on the plasma scenario, fluctuation spectra can display different frequency components: Broadband spectra (Δf ∼ hundreds of kHz) which are always observed. Their amplitude is maximum at the zero frequency and they are attributed to turbulence. Coherent modes (Δf ∼ 1 kHz) which oscillate at a very well defined frequency. They can for example be due to geodesic acoustic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes; Quasi-Coherent (QC) modes (Δf ∼ tens of kHz) which oscillate at a rather well defined frequency but which are reminiscent of broadband fluctuations. The fluctuation study performed in the plasma core region shows that the fluctuation spectra in TEM-dominated regimes can be noticeably different from the ones in ITG-dominated regimes, as only TEM can induce QC modes. Such a finding has been achieved by comparing fluctuations measurements with simulations Measurements are made with a reflectometry diagnostic, a radar-like technique able to provide local indications of the density fluctuations occurring in the vicinity of the reflection layer. Frequency fluctuation spectra are inferred from a Fourier analysis of the reflectometry signal. First, the main properties of QC modes are characterized experimentally. Their normalized scale is estimated to k(perpendicular)ρ i ≤1, their amplitude is ballooned on the low field side mid-plane and they can be observed at many different radii. These indications are in agreement with what could be expected for ITG/TEM instabilities. Then reflectometry measurements are analyzed in Ohmic plasmas. QC modes are observed in the Linear Ohmic Confinement (LOC) regime dominated by TEM whereas only broadband spectra are seen in the Saturated Ohmic Confinement (SOC) regime dominated by ITG. Frequency spectra from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations show that TEM induce a narrow

  4. Mode-Selective Photon Counting Via Quantum Frequency Conversion Using Spectrally-Engineered Pump Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manurkar, Paritosh

    Most of the existing protocols for quantum communication operate in a two-dimensional Hilbert space where their manipulation and measurement have been routinely investigated. Moving to higher-dimensional Hilbert spaces is desirable because of advantages in terms of longer distance communication capabilities, higher channel capacity and better information security. We can exploit the spatio-temporal degrees of freedom for the quantum optical signals to provide the higher-dimensional signals. But this necessitates the need for measurement and manipulation of multidimensional quantum states. To that end, there have been significant theoretical studies based on quantum frequency conversion (QFC) in recent years even though the experimental progress has been limited. QFC is a process that allows preservation of the quantum information while changing the frequency of the input quantum state. It has deservedly garnered a lot of attention because it serves as the connecting bridge between the communications band (C-band near 1550 nm) where the fiber-optic infrastructure is already established and the visible spectrum where high efficiency single-photon detectors and optical memories have been demonstrated. In this experimental work, we demonstrate mode-selective frequency conversion as a means to measure and manipulate photonic signals occupying d -dimensional Hilbert spaces where d=2 and 4. In the d=2 case, we demonstrate mode contrast between two temporal modes (TMs) which serves as the proof-of-concept demonstration. In the d=4 version, we employ six different TMs for our detailed experimental study. These TMs also include superposition modes which are a crucial component in many quantum key distribution protocols. Our method is based on producing pump pulses which allow us to upconvert the TM of interest while ideally preserving the other modes. We use MATLAB simulations to determine the pump pulse shapes which are subsequently produced by controlling the amplitude and

  5. Mechanical low-frequency filter via modes separation in 3D periodic structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, L.; Belloni, E.; Ardito, R.; Braghin, F.; Corigliano, A.

    2017-12-01

    This work presents a strategy to design three-dimensional elastic periodic structures endowed with complete bandgaps, the first of which is ultra-wide, where the top limits of the first two bandgaps are overstepped in terms of wave transmission in the finite structure. Thus, subsequent bandgaps are merged, approaching the behaviour of a three-dimensional low-pass mechanical filter. This result relies on a proper organization of the modal characteristics, and it is validated by performing numerical and analytical calculations over the unit cell. A prototype of the analysed layout, made of Nylon by means of additive manufacturing, is experimentally tested to assess the transmission spectrum of the finite structure, obtaining good agreement with numerical predictions. The presented strategy paves the way for the development of a class of periodic structures to be used in robust and reliable wave attenuation over a wide frequency band.

  6. Generation of picosecond pulses and frequency combs in actively mode locked external ring cavity quantum cascade lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wójcik, Aleksander K.; Belyanin, Alexey; Malara, Pietro; Blanchard, Romain; Mansuripur, Tobias S.; Capasso, Federico

    2013-01-01

    We propose a robust and reliable method of active mode locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers and develop its theoretical description. Its key element is the use of an external ring cavity, which circumvents fundamental issues undermining the stability of mode locking in quantum cascade lasers. We show that active mode locking can give rise to the generation of picosecond pulses and phase-locked frequency combs containing thousands of the ring cavity modes

  7. Distance measurement using frequency scanning interferometry with mode-hoped laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medhat, M.; Sobee, M.; Hussein, H. M.; Terra, O.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, frequency scanning interferometry is implemented to measure distances up to 5 m absolutely. The setup consists of a Michelson interferometer, an external cavity tunable diode laser, and an ultra-low expansion (ULE) Fabry-Pérot (FP) cavity to measure the frequency scanning range. The distance is measured by acquiring simultaneously the interference fringes from, the Michelson and the FP interferometers, while scanning the laser frequency. An online fringe processing technique is developed to calculate the distance from the fringe ratio while removing the parts result from the laser mode-hops without significantly affecting the measurement accuracy. This fringe processing method enables accurate distance measurements up to 5 m with measurements repeatability ±3.9×10-6 L. An accurate translation stage is used to find the FP cavity free-spectral-range and therefore allow accurate measurement. Finally, the setup is applied for the short distance calibration of a laser distance meter (LDM).

  8. A MULTI-SITE CAMPAIGN TO MEASURE SOLAR-LIKE OSCILLATIONS IN PROCYON. II. MODE FREQUENCIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedding, Timothy R.; Bruntt, Hans; Kiss, Laszlo L.; Kjeldsen, Hans; Campante, Tiago L.; Appourchaux, Thierry; Bonanno, Alfio; Chaplin, William J.; Garcia, Rafael A.; Martic, Milena; Mosser, Benoit; Butler, R. Paul; O'Toole, Simon J.; Kambe, Eiji; Izumiura, Hideyuki; Ando, Hiroyasu; Sato, Bun'ei; Hartmann, Michael; Hatzes, Artie

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed data from a multi-site campaign to observe oscillations in the F5 star Procyon. The data consist of high-precision velocities that we obtained over more than three weeks with 11 telescopes. A new method for adjusting the data weights allows us to suppress the sidelobes in the power spectrum. Stacking the power spectrum in a so-called echelle diagram reveals two clear ridges, which we identify with even and odd values of the angular degree (l = 0 and 2, and l = 1 and 3, respectively). We interpret a strong, narrow peak at 446 μHz that lies close to the l = 1 ridge as a mode with mixed character. We show that the frequencies of the ridge centroids and their separations are useful diagnostics for asteroseismology. In particular, variations in the large separation appear to indicate a glitch in the sound-speed profile at an acoustic depth of ∼1000 s. We list frequencies for 55 modes extracted from the data spanning 20 radial orders, a range comparable to the best solar data, which will provide valuable constraints for theoretical models. A preliminary comparison with published models shows that the offset between observed and calculated frequencies for the radial modes is very different for Procyon than for the Sun and other cool stars. We find the mean lifetime of the modes in Procyon to be 1.29 +0.55 -0.49 days, which is significantly shorter than the 2-4 days seen in the Sun.

  9. Gender and vocal production mode discrimination using the high frequencies for speech and singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Brian B.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Story, Brad H.

    2014-01-01

    Humans routinely produce acoustical energy at frequencies above 6 kHz during vocalization, but this frequency range is often not represented in communication devices and speech perception research. Recent advancements toward high-definition (HD) voice and extended bandwidth hearing aids have increased the interest in the high frequencies. The potential perceptual information provided by high-frequency energy (HFE) is not well characterized. We found that humans can accomplish tasks of gender discrimination and vocal production mode discrimination (speech vs. singing) when presented with acoustic stimuli containing only HFE at both amplified and normal levels. Performance in these tasks was robust in the presence of low-frequency masking noise. No substantial learning effect was observed. Listeners also were able to identify the sung and spoken text (excerpts from “The Star-Spangled Banner”) with very few exposures. These results add to the increasing evidence that the high frequencies provide at least redundant information about the vocal signal, suggesting that its representation in communication devices (e.g., cell phones, hearing aids, and cochlear implants) and speech/voice synthesizers could improve these devices and benefit normal-hearing and hearing-impaired listeners. PMID:25400613

  10. Solvent friction effects propagate over the entire protein molecule through low-frequency collective modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori; Smith, Jeremy C

    2014-07-24

    Protein solvation dynamics has been investigated using atom-dependent Langevin friction coefficients derived directly from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. To determine the effect of solvation on the atomic friction coefficients, solution and vacuum MD simulations were performed for lysozyme and staphylococcal nuclease and analyzed by Langevin mode analysis. The coefficients thus derived are roughly correlated with the atomic solvent-accessible surface area (ASA), as expected from the fact that friction occurs as the result of collisions with solvent molecules. However, a considerable number of atoms with higher friction coefficients are found inside the core region. Hence, the influence of solvent friction propagates into the protein core. The internal coefficients have large contributions from the low-frequency modes, yielding a simple picture of the surface-to-core long-range damping via solvation governed by collective low-frequency modes. To make use of these findings in implicit-solvent modeling, we compare the all-atom friction results with those obtained using Langevin dynamics (LD) with two empirical representations: the constant-friction and the ASA-dependent (Pastor-Karplus) friction models. The constant-friction model overestimates the core and underestimates the surface damping whereas the ASA-dependent friction model, which damps protein atoms only on the solvent-accessible surface, reproduces well the friction coefficients for both the surface and core regions observed in the explicit-solvent MD simulations. Therefore, in LD simulation, the solvent friction coefficients should be imposed only on the protein surface.

  11. Design of practical sliding-mode controllers with constant switching frequency for power converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro-Lopez, Eva M. [School of Computer Science, Centre for Interdisciplinary Computational and Dynamical Analysis, The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Kilburn Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Cortes, Domingo [Seccion de Mecatronica, Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, CINVESTAV-IPN, Av. IPN 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360 Mexico City (Mexico); Castro, Christian [Centro de Investigacion en Computacion del IPN, Av. Jose Othon de Mendizabal s/n, Col. Nueva Industrial Vallejo, 07738 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2009-05-15

    A novel experimentally motivated method in order to design a family of easy-to-implement sliding-mode controllers for power converters is proposed. Two main results are presented. First, the relation between sliding-mode control and average control is reinterpreted so that the limitation of the switching frequency for the closed-loop system is achieved in a more direct way than other methods so far reported in the literature. For this purpose, a class of sliding surfaces which makes the associated equivalent control be the system average control is proposed. Second, the achievement of a constant switching frequency in the controlled system is assured without requiring the sliding-mode-based controller to be modified, unlike most previous works. As a result, the proposed sliding surfaces-type can be directly implemented via a pulse-width modulator. The control methodology is implemented for the voltage control in a boost converter prototype in which the load is considered unknown. Experimental results confirm high performance and robustness under parameters variation. Furthermore, the solution proposed is easy to implement and well-suited for other power converters. (author)

  12. Low and high frequency asymptotics acoustic, electromagnetic and elastic wave scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Varadan, VK

    2013-01-01

    This volume focuses on asymptotic methods in the low and high frequency limits for the solution of scattering and propagation problems. Each chapter is pedagogical in nature, starting with the basic foundations and ending with practical applications. For example, using the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction, the canonical problem of edge diffraction is first solved and then used in solving the problem of diffraction by a finite crack. In recent times, the crack problem has been of much interest for its applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of flaws in structural materials.

  13. Numerical Determination of Natural Frequencies and Modes of the Vibrations of a Thick-Walled Cylindrical Shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, A. Ya.; Borisenko, M. Yu.; Boichuk, E. V.; Prigoda, A. P.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a thick-walled cylindrical shell are determined numerically using the finite-element method implemented with licensed FEMAR software. The natural frequencies and modes are compared with those obtained earlier experimentally by the method of stroboscopic holographic interferometry. Frequency coefficients demonstrating how the natural frequency depends on the physical and mechanical parameters of the material are determined.

  14. Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Yuan, Chang; Xin, Zhao; Fan, Yang; Cheng-En, Wu

    2016-07-01

    Bifurcation and chaos in high-frequency peak current mode Buck converter working in continuous conduction mode (CCM) are studied in this paper. First of all, the two-dimensional discrete mapping model is established. Next, reference current at the period-doubling point and the border of inductor current are derived. Then, the bifurcation diagrams are drawn with the aid of MATLAB. Meanwhile, circuit simulations are executed with PSIM, and time domain waveforms as well as phase portraits in i L-v C plane are plotted with MATLAB on the basis of simulation data. After that, we construct the Jacobian matrix and analyze the stability of the system based on the roots of characteristic equations. Finally, the validity of theoretical analysis has been verified by circuit testing. The simulation and experimental results show that, with the increase of reference current I ref, the corresponding switching frequency f is approaching to low-frequency stage continuously when the period-doubling bifurcation happens, leading to the converter tending to be unstable. With the increase of f, the corresponding I ref decreases when the period-doubling bifurcation occurs, indicating the stable working range of the system becomes smaller. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61376029), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China, and the College Graduate Research and Innovation Program of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant No. SJLX15_0092).

  15. Compact mode-locked diode laser system for high precision frequency comparisons in microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, H.; Kovalchuk, E. V.; Wicht, A.; Erbert, G.; Tränkle, G.; Peters, A.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays cold atom-based quantum sensors such as atom interferometers start leaving optical labs to put e.g. fundamental physics under test in space. One of such intriguing applications is the test of the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Universality of Free Fall (UFF), using different quantum objects such as rubidium (Rb) and potassium (K) ultra-cold quantum gases. The corresponding atom interferometers are implemented with light pulses from narrow linewidth lasers emitting near 767 nm (K) and 780 nm (Rb). To determine any relative acceleration of the K and Rb quantum ensembles during free fall, the frequency difference between the K and Rb lasers has to be measured very accurately by means of an optical frequency comb. Micro-gravity applications not only require good electro-optical characteristics but are also stringent in their demand for compactness, robustness and efficiency. For frequency comparison experiments the rather complex fiber laser-based frequency comb system may be replaced by one semiconductor laser chip and some passive components. Here we present an important step towards this direction, i.e. we report on the development of a compact mode-locked diode laser system designed to generate a highly stable frequency comb in the wavelength range of 780 nm.

  16. Flexible and elastic metamaterial absorber for low frequency, based on small-size unit cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Y. J.; Zheng, H. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, Y. P., E-mail: yplee@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics and RINS, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, J. Y. [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, J.-H. [Department of Nano and Electronic Physics, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, K. W. [Department of Information Display, Sunmoon University, Asan (Korea, Republic of); Cheong, H. [Department of Physics, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Y. H. [Infovion Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-28

    Using a planar and flexible metamaterial (MM), we obtained the low-frequency perfect absorption even with very small unit-cell size in snake-shape structure. These shrunken, deep-sub-wavelength and thin MM absorbers were numerically and experimentally investigated by increasing the inductance. The periodicity/thickness (the figure of merit for perfect absorption) is achieved to be 10 and 2 for single-snake-bar and 5-snake-bar structures, respectively. The ratio between periodicity and resonance wavelength (in mm) is close to 1/12 and 1/30 at 2 GHz and 400 MHz, respectively. The absorbers are specially designed for absorption peaks around 2 GHz and 400 MHz, which can be used for depressing the electromagnetic noise from everyday electronic devices and mobile phones.

  17. Theories and experiments on the stiffening effect of high-frequency excitation for continuous elastic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jon Juel

    2003-01-01

    theories, each providing valuable insight. One of these is capable of predicting the vertical string lift due to stiffening in terms of simple expressions, with results that agree very well with experimental measurements for a wide range of conditions. It appears that resonance effects cannot be ignored...... for demonstrating and measuring the stiffening effect in a simple setting, in the form of a horizontal piano string subjected to longitudinal high-frequency excitation at the clamped base and free at the other end. A simplest possible theoretical model is set up and analyzed using a hierarchy of three approximating......, as was done in a few related studies¿¿unless the system has very low modal density or heavy damping; thus first-order consideration to resonance effects is included. Using the specific example with experimental support to put confidence on the proposed theory, expressions for predicting the stiffening effect...

  18. Effects of three-mode field interactions in laser instabilities and in beat-frequency spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herdow, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    Population pulsations are fluctuations in the population difference (of a two level system) due to the presence of two or more coherent waves interfering in the medium. In this work, the author shows that population pulsations generated by three waves, a central wave and two mode-locked sidebands, are responsible for both the multiwavelength and the single-wavelength instabilities of single-mode lasers containing homgeneously-broadened media. The role of the population pulsations in establishing these instabilities, however, diminish as the central mode is detuned away from the atomic resonance frequency. For homogeneously-broadened lasers, the author finds two regions of single-wavelength instability. The first is at line center, for which population pulsations are solely responsible, and the second is off line center where the unsaturated medium provides the required gain and anomalous dispersion. For the case of inhomogeneously-broadened lasers, the author shows that population pulsations significantly increase the instability range over that predicted by Casperson for single-mode bad-cavity lasers. Both the unidirectional ring and the standing-wave cavities are treated. The Fourier expansion technique, used in this work, for treating three-frequency operation in saturation spectroscopy is shown to be equivalent (in appropriate limits) to the linear stability analysis in laser theory and optical bistability. The author also shows, in single-sideband saturation spectroscopy, that for long interaction lengths propagation effects can significantly influence the absorption and dispersion coefficients of the medium. Finally, the author shows that under certain conditions the pronounced splitting effects of the population pulsations develop into regions of intense absorption

  19. Frequency-Dependent Altered Functional Connections of Default Mode Network in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youjun Li

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder associated with the progressive dysfunction of cognitive ability. Previous research has indicated that the default mode network (DMN is closely related to cognition and is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease. Because recent studies have shown that different frequency bands represent specific physiological functions, DMN functional connectivity studies of the different frequency bands based on resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI data may provide new insight into AD pathophysiology. In this study, we explored the functional connectivity based on well-defined DMN regions of interest (ROIs from the five frequency bands: slow-5 (0.01–0.027 Hz, slow-4 (0.027–0.073 Hz, slow-3 (0.073–0.198 Hz, slow-2 (0.198–0.25 Hzs and standard low-frequency oscillations (LFO (0.01–0.08 Hz. We found that the altered functional connectivity patterns are mainly in the frequency band of slow-5 and slow-4 and that the decreased connections are long distance, but some relatively short connections are increased. In addition, the altered functional connections of the DMN in AD are frequency dependent and differ between the slow-5 and slow-4 bands. Mini-Mental State Examination scores were significantly correlated with the altered functional connectivity patterns in the slow-5 and slow-4 bands. These results indicate that frequency-dependent functional connectivity changes might provide potential biomarkers for AD pathophysiology.

  20. Towards attosecond synchronization of remote mode-locked lasers using stabilized transmission of optical comb frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, R. B.; Byrd, J. M.; Doolittle, L. R.; Holzwarth, R.; Huang, G.

    2011-09-01

    We propose a method of synchronizing mode-locked lasers separated by hundreds of meters with the possibility of achieving sub-fs performance by locking the phases of corresponding lines in the optical comb spectrum. The optical phase from one comb line is transmitted to the remote laser over an interferometrically stabilized link by locking a single frequency laser to a comb line with high phase stability. We describe how these elements are integrated into a complete system and estimate the potential performance.

  1. Terahertz repetition frequencies from harmonic mode-locked monolithic compound-cavity laser diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanson, D. A.; Street, M. W.; McDougall, S. D.; Thayne, I. G.; Marsh, J. H.; Avrutin, E. A.

    2001-01-01

    Compound-cavity laser diodes are mode locked at a harmonic of the fundamental round-trip frequency to achieve repetition rates of up to 2.1 THz. The devices are fabricated from GaAs/AlGaAs material at a wavelength of 860 nm and incorporate two gain sections with an etched slot reflector between them, and a saturable absorber section. Autocorrelation studies are used to investigate device behavior for different reflector types and reflectivity. These lasers may find applications in terahertz imaging, medicine, ultrafast optical links, and atmospheric sensing. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  2. Analysis of Higher Order Modes in Large Superconducting Radio Frequency Accelerating Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Galek, Tomasz; Brackebusch, Korinna; Van Rienen, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting radio frequency cavities used for accelerating charged particle beams are commonly used in accelerator facilities around the world. The design and optimization of modern superconducting RF cavities requires intensive numerical simulations. Vast number of operational parameters must be calculated to ensure appropriate functioning of the accelerating structures. In this study, we primarily focus on estimation and behavior of higher order modes in superconducting RF cavities connected in chains. To calculate large RF models the state-space concatenation scheme, an efficient hybrid method, is employed.

  3. Orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes from combined experimental and theoretical sum frequency spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chase, Hilary M.; Chen, Shunli; Fu, Li; Upshur, Mary Alice; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; Thomson, Regan J.; Wang, Hong-Fei; Batista, Victor S.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2017-09-01

    Inferring molecular orientations from vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra is challenging in polarization combinations that result in low signal intensities, or when the local point group symmetry approximation fails. While combining experiments with density functional theory (DFT) could overcome this problem, the scope of the combined method has yet to be established. Here, we assess its feasibility of determining the distributions of molecular orientations for one monobasic ester, two epoxides and three alcohols at the vapor/fused silica interface. We find that molecular orientations of nonlocal vibrational modes cannot be determined using polarization-resolved SFG measurements alone.

  4. Quasi-normal frequencies: Semi-analytic results for highly damped modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skakala, Jozef; Visser, Matt

    2011-01-01

    Black hole highly-damped quasi-normal frequencies (QNFs) are very often of the form ω n = (offset) + in (gap). We have investigated the genericity of this phenomenon for the Schwarzschild-deSitter (SdS) black hole by considering a model potential that is piecewise Eckart (piecewise Poschl-Teller), and developing an analytic 'quantization condition' for the highly-damped quasi-normal frequencies. We find that the ω n = (offset) + in (gap) behaviour is common but not universal, with the controlling feature being whether or not the ratio of the surface gravities is a rational number. We furthermore observed that the relation between rational ratios of surface gravities and periodicity of QNFs is very generic, and also occurs within different analytic approaches applied to various types of black hole spacetimes. These observations are of direct relevance to any physical situation where highly-damped quasi-normal modes are important.

  5. Ultra-low-frequency electrostatic modes in a magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Amin, M.R.; Roy Chowdhury, A.R.; Salahuddin, M.

    1997-11-01

    A study on the extremely low-frequency possible electrostatic modes in a finite temperature magnetized dusty plasma taking the charged dust grains as the third component has been carried out using the appropriate Vlasov-kinetic theory for the dynamics of the electrons, ions and the dust particles. It is found that the inequalities of charge and number density of plasma species, and the finite-Larmor-radius thermal kinetic effects of the mobile charged dust grains, introduce the existence of very low-frequency electrostatic eigenmodes in the three-component homogeneous magnetized dusty plasma. The relevance of the present investigation to space and astrophysical situations as well as laboratory experiments for dust Coulomb crystallization has been pointed out. (author)

  6. Frequency-independent radiation modes of interior sound radiation: Experimental study and global active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, C.; Papantoni, V.; Algermissen, S.; Monner, H. P.

    2017-08-01

    Active control of structural sound radiation is a promising technique to overcome the poor passive acoustic isolation performance of lightweight structures in the low-frequency region. Active structural acoustic control commonly aims at the suppression of the far-field radiated sound power. This paper is concerned with the active control of sound radiation into acoustic enclosures. Experimental results of a coupled rectangular plate-fluid system under stochastic excitation are presented. The amplitudes of the frequency-independent interior radiation modes are determined in real-time using a set of structural vibration sensors, for the purpose of estimating their contribution to the acoustic potential energy in the enclosure. This approach is validated by acoustic measurements inside the cavity. Utilizing a feedback control approach, a broadband reduction of the global acoustic response inside the enclosure is achieved.

  7. Braids and phase gates through high-frequency virtual tunneling of Majorana zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorantla, Pranay; Sensarma, Rajdeep

    2018-05-01

    Braiding of non-Abelian Majorana anyons is a first step towards using them in quantum computing. We propose a protocol for braiding Majorana zero modes formed at the edges of nanowires with strong spin-orbit coupling and proximity-induced superconductivity. Our protocol uses high-frequency virtual tunneling between the ends of the nanowires in a trijunction, which leads to an effective low-frequency coarse-grained dynamics for the system, to perform the braid. The braiding operation is immune to amplitude noise in the drives and depends only on relative phase between the drives, which can be controlled by the usual phase-locking techniques. We also show how a phase gate, which is necessary for universal quantum computation, can be implemented with our protocol.

  8. An estimation of global solar p-mode frequencies from IRIS network data: 1989-1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serebryanskiy, A.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh.; Kholikov, Sh.; Fossat, E.; Gelly, B.; Schmider, F. X.; Grec, G.; Cacciani, A.; Palle, P. L.; Lazrek, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2001-06-01

    The IRIS network has accumulated full disk helioseismological data since July 1989, i.e. a complete 11-year solar cycle. Since the last paper publishing a frequency list [A&A 317 (1997) L71], not only has the network acquired new data, but has also developed new co-operative programs with compatible instruments [Abstr. SOHO 6/GONG 98 Workshop (1998) 51], so that merging IRIS files with these co-operative program data sets has made possible the improvement of the overall duty cycle. This paper presents new estimations of low degree p-mode frequencies obtained from this IRIS++ data bank covering the period 1989-1996, as well as the variation of their main parameters along the total range of magnetic activity, from before the last maximum to the very minimum. A preliminary estimation of the peak profile asymmetries is also included.

  9. Low-frequency fluctuation regime in a multimode semiconductor laser subject to a mode-selective optical feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogister, F.; Sciamanna, M.; Deparis, O.; Megret, P.; Blondel, M.

    2002-01-01

    We study numerically the dynamics of a multimode laser diode subject to a mode-selective optical feedback by using a generalization of the Lang-Kobayashi equations. In this configuration, only one longitudinal mode of the laser is reinjected into the laser cavity; the other modes are free. When the laser operates in the low-frequency fluctuation regime, our model predicts intensity bursts in the free modes simultaneously with dropouts in the selected mode, in good agreement with recent experiments. In the frame of our model, intensity bursts and dropouts are associated with collisions of the system trajectory in phase space with saddle-type antimodes

  10. Mode-conversion process and overdense-plasma heating in the electron cyclotron range of frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, S.; Abe, H.

    1988-01-01

    Through a particle-simulation investigation, a new mode-conversion process, through which an incident fast extraordinary mode (fast X mode) is converted into an electron Bernstein mode (B mode) via a (slow extraordinary mode slow X mode), is discovered in plasmas whose maximum density exceeds the cutoff density of the slow X mode. The converted B mode is found to heat the electrons efficiently in an overdense plasma region, when the plasma has the optimum density gradient at the plasma surface

  11. High resolution switching mode inductance-to-frequency converter with temperature compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matko, Vojko; Milanović, Miro

    2014-10-16

    This article proposes a novel method for the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal oscillating in the switching oscillating circuit to achieve better temperature stability of the converter. The novelty of this method lies in the switching-mode converter, the use of additionally connected impedances in parallel to the shunt capacitances of the quartz crystal, and two inductances in series to the quartz crystal. This brings a considerable reduction of the temperature influence of AT-cut crystal frequency change in the temperature range between 10 and 40 °C. The oscillator switching method and the switching impedances connected to the quartz crystal do not only compensate for the crystal's natural temperature characteristics but also any other influences on the crystal such as ageing as well as from other oscillating circuit elements. In addition, the method also improves frequency sensitivity in inductance measurements. The experimental results show that through high temperature compensation improvement of the quartz crystal characteristics, this switching method theoretically enables a 2 pH resolution. It converts inductance to frequency in the range of 85-100 µH to 2-560 kHz.

  12. High Resolution Switching Mode Inductance-to-Frequency Converter with Temperature Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojko Matko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel method for the temperature-compensated inductance-to-frequency converter with a single quartz crystal oscillating in the switching oscillating circuit to achieve better temperature stability of the converter. The novelty of this method lies in the switching-mode converter, the use of additionally connected impedances in parallel to the shunt capacitances of the quartz crystal, and two inductances in series to the quartz crystal. This brings a considerable reduction of the temperature influence of AT-cut crystal frequency change in the temperature range between 10 and 40 °C. The oscillator switching method and the switching impedances connected to the quartz crystal do not only compensate for the crystal’s natural temperature characteristics but also any other influences on the crystal such as ageing as well as from other oscillating circuit elements. In addition, the method also improves frequency sensitivity in inductance measurements. The experimental results show that through high temperature compensation improvement of the quartz crystal characteristics, this switching method theoretically enables a 2 pH resolution. It converts inductance to frequency in the range of 85–100 µH to 2–560 kHz.

  13. A stochastic model with a low-frequency amplification feedback for the stratospheric northern annular mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yueyue; Cai, Ming; Ren, Rongcai

    2017-08-01

    We consider three indices to measure the polar stratospheric mass and stratospheric meridional mass circulation variability: anomalies of (1) total mass in the polar stratospheric cap (60-90°N, above the isentropic surface 400 K, PSM), (2) total adiabatic mass transport across 60°N into the polar stratosphere cap (AMT), (3) and total diabetic mass transport across 400 K from the polar stratosphere into the troposphere below (DMT). It is confirmed that the negative stratospheric Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and PSM indices have a nearly indistinguishable temporal evolution and a similar red-noise-like spectrum with a de-correlation timescale of 4 weeks. This enables us to examine the low-frequency nature of the NAM in the framework of mass circulation, namely, d/{dt}{PSM}={AMT} - {DMT} . The DMT index tends to be positively correlated with the PSM with a red-noise-like spectrum, representing slow radiative cooling processes giving rise to a de-correlation timescale of 3-4 weeks. The AMT is nearly perfectly correlated with the day-to-day tendency of PSM, reflecting a robust quasi 90° out-of-phase relation between the AMT and PSM at all frequency bands. Variations of vertically westward tilting of planetary waves contribute mainly to the high-frequency portion of AMT. It is the wave amplitude's slow vacillation that plays the leading role in the quasi 90° out-of-phase relation between the AMT and PSM. Based on this, we put forward a linear stochastic model with a low-frequency amplification feedback from low-frequency amplitude vacillations of planetary waves to explain the amplified low-frequency response of PSM/NAM to a stochastic forcing from the westward tilting variability.

  14. Direct measurements of damping rates and stability limits for low frequency MHD modes and Alfven Eigenmodes in the JET tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasoli, A.F.; Testa, D.; Jaun, A.; Sharapov, S.; Gormezano, C.

    2001-01-01

    The linear stability properties of global modes that can be driven by resonant energetic particles or by the bulk plasma are studied using an external excitation method based on the JET saddle coil antennas. Low toroidal mode number, stable plasma modes are driven by the saddle coils and detected by magnetic probes to measure their structure, frequency and damping rate, both in the Alfven Eigenmode (AE) frequency range and in the low frequency Magneto-Hydro-Dynamic (MHD) range. For AEs, the dominant damping mechanisms are identified for different plasma conditions of relevance for reactors. Spectra and damping rates of low frequency MHD modes that are localized at the foot of the internal transport barrier and can affect the plasma performance in advanced tokamak scenarios have been directly measured for the first time. This gives the possibility of monitoring in real time the approach to the instability boundary. (author)

  15. Measurement of correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and particle rearrangements in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, K.; Manning, M.L.; Yunker, P.J.; Ellenbroek, W.G.; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J.; Yodh, A.G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance

  16. TeraSCREEN: multi-frequency multi-mode Terahertz screening for border checks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Naomi E.; Alderman, Byron; Allona, Fernando; Frijlink, Peter; Gonzalo, Ramón; Hägelen, Manfred; Ibáñez, Asier; Krozer, Viktor; Langford, Marian L.; Limiti, Ernesto; Platt, Duncan; Schikora, Marek; Wang, Hui; Weber, Marc Andree

    2014-06-01

    The challenge for any security screening system is to identify potentially harmful objects such as weapons and explosives concealed under clothing. Classical border and security checkpoints are no longer capable of fulfilling the demands of today's ever growing security requirements, especially with respect to the high throughput generally required which entails a high detection rate of threat material and a low false alarm rate. TeraSCREEN proposes to develop an innovative concept of multi-frequency multi-mode Terahertz and millimeter-wave detection with new automatic detection and classification functionalities. The system developed will demonstrate, at a live control point, the safe automatic detection and classification of objects concealed under clothing, whilst respecting privacy and increasing current throughput rates. This innovative screening system will combine multi-frequency, multi-mode images taken by passive and active subsystems which will scan the subjects and obtain complementary spatial and spectral information, thus allowing for automatic threat recognition. The TeraSCREEN project, which will run from 2013 to 2016, has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme under the Security Call. This paper will describe the project objectives and approach.

  17. Effects of contraction mode and stimulation frequency on electrical stimulation-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Yuki; Himori, Koichi; Tatebayashi, Daisuke; Yamada, Ryotaro; Ogasawara, Riki; Yamada, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    We compared the skeletal muscle hypertrophy resulting from isometric (Iso) or eccentric (Ecc) electrical stimulation (ES) training with different stimulation frequencies. Male Wistar rats were assigned to the Iso and Ecc groups. These were divided into three further subgroups that were stimulated at 10 Hz (Iso-10 and Ecc-10), 30 Hz (Iso-30 and Ecc-30), or 100 Hz (Iso-100 and Ecc-100). In experiment 1, the left plantarflexor muscles were stimulated every other day for 3 wk. In experiment 2, mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling was investigated 6 h after one bout of ES. The contralateral right muscle served as a control (non-ES). Ecc contractions comprised forced dorsiflexion combined with ES. The peak torque and torque-time integral during ES were higher in the Ecc group than that in the Iso group in all stimulation frequencies examined. The gastrocnemius muscle weight normalized to body weight in ES side was increased compared with the non-ES side by 6, 7, and 17% in the Ecc-30, Iso-100, and Ecc-100 groups, respectively, with a greater gain in Ecc-100 than the Ecc-30 and Iso-100 groups. The p70S6K (Thr389) phosphorylation level was higher in the Ecc-30 and -100 than in the Iso-30 and -100 groups, respectively. The peak torque and torque-time integral were highly correlated with the magnitude of increase in muscle mass and the phosphorylation of p70S6K. These data suggest that ES-induced muscle hypertrophy and mTORC1 activity are determined by loading intensity and volume during muscle contraction independent of the contraction mode. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Eccentric contraction and high-frequency stimulation (HFS) are regarded as an effective way to increase muscle mass by electrical stimulation (ES) training. However, little is known about whether muscle hypertrophy is affected by contraction mode and stimulation frequency in ES training. Here, we provide the evidence that muscle hypertrophy and mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity are

  18. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed

  19. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States); Ge, Nien-Hui, E-mail: nhge@uci.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2025 (United States)

    2013-08-30

    Highlights: ► Vibrational dynamics of conjugated C=O and N=N modes of ethyl diazoacetate was studied. ► Their frequency–frequency correlation functions are different. ► The dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum indicates anticorrelated frequency fluctuations. ► Correlation effects on dual-frequency 2D IR spectra are discussed. ► The existence of cis and trans conformers is revealed in 2D IR spectra. - Abstract: We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester C=O and diazo N=N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency–frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single C=O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  20. An astrophysical interpretation of the remarkable g-mode frequency groups of the rapidly rotating γ Dor star, KIC 5608334

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saio, Hideyuki; Bedding, Timothy R.; Kurtz, Donald W.; Murphy, Simon J.; Antoci, Victoria; Shibahashi, Hiromoto; Li, Gang; Takata, Masao

    2018-06-01

    The Fourier spectrum of the γ-Dor variable KIC 5608334 shows remarkable frequency groups at ˜3, ˜6, ˜9, and 11-12 d-1. We explain the four frequency groups as prograde sectoral g modes in a rapidly rotating star. Frequencies of intermediate-to-high radial order prograde sectoral g modes in a rapidly rotating star are proportional to |m| (i.e. ν ∝ |m|) in the corotating frame as well as in the inertial frame. This property is consistent with the frequency groups of KIC 5608334 as well as the period versus period-spacing relation present within each frequency group, if we assume a rotation frequency of 2.2 d-1, and that each frequency group consists of prograde sectoral g modes of |m| = 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. In addition, these modes naturally satisfy near-resonance conditions νi ≈ νj + νk with mi = mj + mk. We even find exact resonance frequency conditions (within the precise measurement uncertainties) in many cases, which correspond to combination frequencies.

  1. Identification of low-frequency kinetic wave modes in the Earth's ion foreshock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Blanco-Cano

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work we use ion and magnetic field data from the AMPTE-UKS mission to study the characteristics of low frequency (ωr « Ωp waves observed upstream of the Earth's bow shock. We test the application of various plasma-field correlations and magnetic ratios derived from linear Vlasov theory to identify the modes in this region. We evaluate (for a parameter space consistent with the ion foreshock the Alfvén ratio, the parallel compressibility, the cross-helicity, the noncoplanar ratio, the magnetic compression and the polarization for the two kinetic instabilities that can be generated in the foreshock by the interaction of hot diffuse ions with the solar wind: the left-hand resonant and the right-hand resonant ion beam instabilities. Comparison of these quantities with the observed plasma-field correlations and various magnetic properties of the waves observed during 10 intervals on 30 October 1984, where the waves are associated with diffuse ions, allows us to identify regions with Alfvénic waves and regions where the predominant mode is the right-hand resonant instability. In all the cases the waves are transverse, propagating at angles ≤ 33° and are elliptically polarized. Our results suggest that while the observed Alfvén waves are generated locally by hot diffuse ions, the right-handed waves may result from the superposition of waves generated by two different types of beam distribution (i.e. cold beam and diffuse ions. Even when there was good agreement between the values of observed transport ratios and the values given by the theory, some discrepancies were found. This shows that the observed waves are different from the theoretical modes and that mode identification based only on polarization quantities does not give a complete picture of the waves' characteristics and can lead to mode identification of waves whose polarization may agree with theoretical predictions even when other properties can diverge from those of the

  2. Identification of low-frequency kinetic wave modes in the Earth's ion foreshock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Blanco-Cano

    Full Text Available In this work we use ion and magnetic field data from the AMPTE-UKS mission to study the characteristics of low frequencyr « Ωp waves observed upstream of the Earth's bow shock. We test the application of various plasma-field correlations and magnetic ratios derived from linear Vlasov theory to identify the modes in this region. We evaluate (for a parameter space consistent with the ion foreshock the Alfvén ratio, the parallel compressibility, the cross-helicity, the noncoplanar ratio, the magnetic compression and the polarization for the two kinetic instabilities that can be generated in the foreshock by the interaction of hot diffuse ions with the solar wind: the left-hand resonant and the right-hand resonant ion beam instabilities. Comparison of these quantities with the observed plasma-field correlations and various magnetic properties of the waves observed during 10 intervals on 30 October 1984, where the waves are associated with diffuse ions, allows us to identify regions with Alfvénic waves and regions where the predominant mode is the right-hand resonant instability. In all the cases the waves are transverse, propagating at angles ≤ 33° and are elliptically polarized. Our results suggest that while the observed Alfvén waves are generated locally by hot diffuse ions, the right-handed waves may result from the superposition of waves generated by two different types of beam distribution (i.e. cold beam and diffuse ions. Even when there was good agreement between the values of observed transport ratios and the values given by the theory, some discrepancies were found. This shows that the observed waves are different from the theoretical modes and that mode identification based only on polarization quantities does not give a complete picture of the waves' characteristics and can lead to mode identification of waves whose polarization may agree with theoretical predictions even when

  3. Traveltime Dispersion in an Isotropic Elastic Mantle: Dominance of the Lower Mantle Signal in Differential-frequency Time Residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, B. S. A.; Zaroli, C.; Nolet, G.

    2014-12-01

    We study wavefield effects in elastic isotropic 3-D seismic structures derived from the temperature field of a high resolution mantle circulation model. More specifically, we quantify the structural dispersion of traveltime residuals of direct P- and S-waves in a model with realistic length-scales and magnitudes of the variations in seismic velocities and density. 3-D global wave propagation is simulated using a spectral element method, and traveltime residuals are measured in four different frequency bands by cross-correlation of 3-D and 1-D synthetic waveforms. Intrinsic (dissipative) attenuation is deliberately neglected, so that any variation of traveltimes with frequency can be attributed to structural effects. Additional simulations are performed for a model in which 3-D structure is removed in the upper 800 km to isolate the dispersion signal of the lower mantle. One question that we address is whether the structural length-scales inherent to a vigorously convecting mantle give rise to significant body-wave dispersion. In our synthetic dataset, the difference between long-period and short-period traveltime residuals generally increases with increasing short-period residual. However, we do not find an exact linear dependence, and in case of P-waves even non-monotonic behaviour. At largest short-period residuals, average dispersion is on the order of 2 s for both P- and S-waves and even larger when structure is confined to the lower mantle. Dispersion also appears to be asymmetric; that is, larger for negative than for positive residuals. The standard deviations of both P- and S-wave residuals also increase with increasing period and we discuss possible explanations for this behaviour. Overall, wavefield effects in both models are generally stronger for P-waves than for S-waves at the same frequencies. We also find that for certain combinations of periods, the difference between the respective residuals is very similar between the "whole mantle" and the "lower

  4. Electrocorticography and the early maturation of high-frequency suppression within the default mode network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Kurt E; Poliakov, Andrew; Novotny, Edward J; Olson, Jared D; Grabowski, Thomas J; Ojemann, Jeffrey G

    2018-02-01

    OBJECTIVE The acquisition and refinement of cognitive and behavioral skills during development is associated with the maturation of various brain oscillatory activities. Most developmental investigations have identified distinct patterns of low-frequency electrophysiological activity that are characteristic of various behavioral milestones. In this investigation, the authors focused on the cross-sectional developmental properties of high-frequency spectral power from the brain's default mode network (DMN) during goal-directed behavior. METHODS The authors contrasted regionally specific, time-evolving high gamma power (HGP) in the lateral DMN cortex between 3 young children (age range 3-6 years) and 3 adults by use of electrocorticography (ECoG) recordings over the left perisylvian cortex during a picture-naming task. RESULTS Across all participants, a nearly identical and consistent response suppression of HGP, which is a functional signature of the DMN, was observed during task performance recordings acquired from ECoG electrodes placed over the lateral DMN cortex. This finding provides evidence of relatively early maturation of the DMN. Furthermore, only HGP relative to evoked alpha and beta band power showed this level of consistency across all participants. CONCLUSIONS Regionally specific, task-evoked suppression of the high-frequency components of the cortical power spectrum is established early in brain development, and this response may reflect the early maturation of specific cognitive and/or computational mechanisms.

  5. Relaxation oscillations induced by amplitude-dependent frequency in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, P.W.; Ware, A.S.; Newman, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    A nonlinear frequency shift in dissipative trapped electron mode turbulence is shown to give rise to a relaxation oscillation in the saturated power density spectrum. A simple non-Markovian closure for the coupled evolution of ion momentum and electron density response is developed to describe the oscillations. From solutions of a nonlinear oscillator model based on the closure, it is found that the oscillation is driven by the growth rate, as modified by the amplitude-dependent frequency shift, with inertia provided by the memory of the growth rate of prior amplitudes. This memory arises from time-history integrals common to statistical closures. The memory associated with a finite time of energy transfer between coupled spectrum components does not sustain the oscillation in the simple model. Solutions of the model agree qualitatively with the time-dependent numerical solutions of the original dissipative trapped electron model, yielding oscillations with the proper phase relationship between the fluctuation energy and the frequency shift, the proper evolution of the wave number spectrum shape and particle flux, and a realistic period

  6. Frequency stabilized HeNe gas laser with 3.5 mW from a single mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.D.; Voigt, D.; Spronck, J.W.; Verlaan, A.L.; Munnig Schmidt, R.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an optical frequency stabilization technique using a three-mode Helium Neon laser at 632.8 nm. Using this configuration, a maximum frequency stability relative to an iodine stabilized laser of 6×10 -12 (71 s integration time) was achieved. Two long term measurements of 62 h and

  7. High-frequency coherent edge fluctuations in a high-pedestal-pressure quiescent H-mode plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Groebner, R J; Snyder, P B; Osborne, T H; Burrell, K H

    2011-07-29

    A set of high frequency coherent (HFC) modes (f=80-250 kHz) is observed with beam emission spectroscopy measurements of density fluctuations in the pedestal of a strongly shaped quiescent H-mode plasma on DIII-D, with characteristics predicted for kinetic ballooning modes (KBM): propagation in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction; a frequency near 0.2-0.3 times the ion-diamagnetic frequency; inferred toroidal mode numbers of n∼10-25; poloidal wave numbers of k(θ)∼0.17-0.4 cm(-1); and high measured decorrelation rates (τ(c)(-1)∼ω(s)∼0.5×10(6) s(-1)). Their appearance correlates with saturation of the pedestal pressure. © 2011 American Physical Society

  8. Optical sum-frequency generation in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V; Kowligy, Abijith S; Huang, Yu-Ping; Kumar, Prem

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate sum-frequency generation between a telecom wavelength and the Rb D2 line, achieved through natural phase matching in a nonlinear whispering gallery mode resonator. Due to the strong optical field confinement and ultra high Q of the cavity, the process saturates already at sub-mW pump peak power, at least two orders of magnitude lower than in existing waveguide-based devices. The experimental data are in agreement with the nonlinear dynamics and phase matching theory based on spherical geometry. Our experimental and theoretical results point toward a new platform for manipulating the color and quantum states of light waves for applications such as atomic memory based quantum networking and logic operations with optical signals. (paper)

  9. Prediction of pressure induced structural phase transitions and internal mode frequency changes in solid N2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etters, R.D.; Kobashi, K.; Chandrasekharan, V.

    1983-01-01

    A rhombohedral distortion of the Pm3n structure is introduced which shows that a low temperature phase transition occurs from P4 2 /mnm into the R3c calcite structure at P approx. = 19.2 kbar with a volume change of 0.125 cm 3 /mole. This transition agrees with recent Raman scattering measurements. Another transition from R3c into R3m is predicted at P approx. = 67.5 kbar, with a volume change of 0.1 cm 3 /mole. The pressure dependence of the intramolecular mode frequencies for the R3c structure is in reasonably good agreement with the two main branches observed experimentally

  10. Mode shape and natural frequency identification for seismic analysis from background vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhan, S.; Wozniak, Z.

    1986-10-01

    Background vibration in a CANDU plant can be used to determine the dynamic characteristics of major items of equipment, such as calandria, the fuelling machines and the primary heat transport pumps. These dynamic characteristics can then be used to verify the seismic response of the equipment which, at present, is based on theoretical models only. The feasibility and basic theory of this new approach (which uses accelerations measured at several points on a structure and does not require knowledge of the source of excitation) was established in Phase I of the study. This report is based on Phase II in which the methods of analysis developed in Phase I were improved and verified experimentally. A Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm was incorporated and an interactive curve fitting technique was developed to obtain the dynamic characteristics in the form of natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. The method is now available for use at a CANDU plant

  11. Numerical studies on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by radio frequency current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Q.; Zhang, X.D.; Guenter, S.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical modeling on the stabilization of neoclassical tearing modes by localized radio frequency (rf) current drive has been carried out to study the effects of various wave and plasma parameters on the stabilization and the associated physics. The change of the rf current profile due to the magnetic island has been taken into account by modeling the two-dimensional transport of the fast electrons induced by the rf wave. It is found that, when the rf deposition width is much larger than the island width, the modulated rf current drive to deposit the rf current around the island's o point has a stronger stabilizing effect than a nonmodulated one. The slowing down time of the fast electrons and the initial island width when applying the rf wave are also found to be important in determining the stabilizing effect

  12. Frequency and transmission mode of hepatitis C virus in northern Sindh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.A.; Shaikh, W.M.; Solangi, G.A.; Abro, H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the frequency of hepatitis C and mode of transmission in patients of chronic liver disease (CLD). Patients and Methods: The study included 1074 patients of chronic liver disease admitted to the department of medicine due to HCV. Their variables were recorded and analyzed. Results: A total of 1074 patients, comprising of 564 of chronic hepatitis (group I) and 510 of cirrhosis liver (group II) respectively were studied. The male to female ratio was 2:1 in both groups. Anti-HCV antibody was present in 51% in group I and 57% in group II. Use of syringes (62%) was an important risk factor. Conclusion: HCV is a leading cause of CLD. The leading risk factor identified is the use of contaminated syringes. (author)

  13. Frequency-domain interferometer simulation with higher-order spatial modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freise, A; Heinzel, G; Lueck, H; Schilling, R; Willke, B; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    FINESSE is a software simulation allowing one to compute the optical properties of laser interferometers used by interferometric gravitational-wave detectors today. This fast and versatile tool has already proven to be useful in the design and commissioning of gravitational-wave detectors. The basic algorithm of FINESSE numerically computes the light amplitudes inside an interferometer using Hermite-Gauss modes in the frequency domain. In addition, FINESSE provides a number of commands for easily generating and plotting the most common signals including power enhancement, error and control signals, transfer functions and shot-noise-limited sensitivities. Among the various simulation tools available to the gravitational wave community today, FINESSE provides an advanced and versatile optical simulation based on a general analysis of user-defined optical setups and is quick to install and easy to use

  14. MISO Current-mode Biquad Filter with Independent Control of Pole Frequency and Quality Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jaikla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a three-inputs single-output biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions: low-pass, high-pass, band-pass, band-reject and all-pass functions, based on current controlled current conveyor transconductance amplifier (CCCCTA. The quality factor and pole frequency can be electronically/independently tuned via the input bias current. The proposed circuit uses 2 CCCCTAs and 2 grounded capacitors without external any resistors which is very suitable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The filter does not require double input current signal. Each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. Moreover, the circuit possesses high output impedance which would be an ideal choice for current-mode cascading. The PSPICE simulation results are included to verify the workability of the proposed filter. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation.

  15. Low-frequency oscillations in default mode subnetworks are associated with episodic memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldsman, Michele; Egorova, Natalia; Singh, Baljeet; Mungas, Dan; DeCarli, Charles; Brodtmann, Amy

    2017-11-01

    Disruptions to functional connectivity in subsystems of the default mode network are evident in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Functional connectivity estimates correlations in the time course of low-frequency activity. Much less is known about other potential perturbations to this activity, such as changes in the amplitude of oscillations and how this relates to cognition. We examined the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations in 44 AD patients and 128 cognitively normal participants and related this to episodic memory, the core deficit in AD. We show higher amplitudes of low-frequency oscillations in AD patients. Rather than being compensatory, this appears to be maladaptive, with greater amplitude in the ventral default mode subnetwork associated with poorer episodic memory. Perturbations to default mode subnetworks in AD are evident in the amplitude of low-frequency oscillations in the resting brain. These disruptions are associated with episodic memory demonstrating their behavioral and clinical relevance in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Use of Time-Frequency Analysis and Neural Networks for Mode Identification in a Wireless Software-Defined Radio Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Gandetto

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of time-frequency distributions is proposed as a nonlinear signal processing technique that is combined with a pattern recognition approach to identify superimposed transmission modes in a reconfigurable wireless terminal based on software-defined radio techniques. In particular, a software-defined radio receiver is described aiming at the identification of two coexistent communication modes: frequency hopping code division multiple access and direct sequence code division multiple access. As a case study, two standards, based on the previous modes and operating in the same band (industrial, scientific, and medical, are considered: IEEE WLAN 802.11b (direct sequence and Bluetooth (frequency hopping. Neural classifiers are used to obtain identification results. A comparison between two different neural classifiers is made in terms of relative error frequency.

  17. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Gironi, Gianna; Suetta, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes energetic, spatial, temporal and spectral characterization measurements of the Engineering Qualification Model (EQM) of the Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA) used in the ALADIN instrument currently under development for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The EQM is equivalent to the Flight Model, with the exception of some engineering grade components. The Laser Transmitter Assembly, based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate laser pulses at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz during bursts. It is capable to operate in Single Longitudinal Mode and to be tuned over 25 GHz range. An internal "network" of sensors has been implemented inside the laser architecture to allow "in flight" monitoring of transmitter. Energy in excess of 100 mJ, with a spatial beam quality factor (M2) lower than 3, a spectral linewidth less than 50 MHz with a frequency stability better than 4 MHz on short term period have been measured on the EQM. Most of the obtained results are well within the expected values and match the Instrument requirements. They constitute an important achievement, showing the absence of major critical areas in terms of performance and the capability to obtain them in a rugged and compact structure suitable for space applications. The EQM will be submitted in the near future to an Environmental test campaign.

  18. Traveltime dispersion in an isotropic elastic mantle: strong lower-mantle signal in differential-frequency residuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuberth, Bernhard S. A.; Zaroli, Christophe; Nolet, Guust

    2015-12-01

    We study wavefield effects of direct P- and S-waves in elastic and isotropic 3-D seismic structures derived from the temperature field of a high-resolution mantle circulation model. More specifically, we quantify the dispersion of traveltime residuals caused by diffraction in structures with dynamically constrained length scales and magnitudes of the lateral variations in seismic velocities and density. 3-D global wave propagation is simulated using a spectral element method. Intrinsic attenuation (i.e. dissipation of seismic energy) is deliberately neglected, so that any variation of traveltimes with frequency can be attributed to structural effects. Traveltime residuals are measured at 15, 22.5, 34 and 51 s dominant periods by cross-correlation of 3-D and 1-D synthetic waveforms. Additional simulations are performed for a model in which 3-D structure is removed in the upper 800 km to isolate the dispersion signal of the lower mantle. We find that the structural length scales inherent to a vigorously convecting mantle give rise to significant diffraction-induced body-wave traveltime dispersion. For both P- and S-waves, the difference between long-period and short-period residuals for a given source-receiver pair can reach up to several seconds for the period bands considered here. In general, these `differential-frequency' residuals tend to increase in magnitude with increasing short-period delay. Furthermore, the long-period signal typically is smaller in magnitude than the short-period one; that is, wave-front healing is efficient independent of the sign of the residuals. Unlike the single-frequency residuals, the differential-frequency residuals are surprisingly similar between the `lower-mantle' and the `whole-mantle' model for corresponding source-receiver pairs. The similarity is more pronounced in case of S-waves and varies between different combinations of period bands. The traveltime delay acquired in the upper mantle seems to cancel in these differential

  19. Sliding Mode Control of a Bidirectional Buck/Boost DC-DC Converter with Constant Switching Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Safari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, sliding mode control (SMC for a bidirectional buck/boost DC-DC converter (BDC with constant frequency in continuous conduction mode (CCM is discussed. Since the converter is a high-order converter, the reduced-order sliding manifold is exploited. Because of right-half-plan zero (RHPZ in the converter’s duty ratio to output voltage transfer function, sliding mode current controller is used. This controller benefits from various advantages such as fast dynamic response, robustness, stable and small variation of the settling time over a wide range of operation conditions. Because the converter operates in both step-down and step-up modes, two sliding manifold is derived for each mode. The existence and stability conditions are analyzed for both SMC in step-down and step-up modes. Finally, Simulation results are also provided to justify the feasibility of the controller using MATLAB/Simulink.

  20. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Physiological high frequency activities (HFA are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections, or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response and N80 (late response of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20 and HFA(SEP(N80 and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA(CCEP(N2. HFA(SEP(N20 showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1 had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.

  1. Detonation mode and frequency analysis under high loss conditions for stoichiometric propane-oxygen

    KAUST Repository

    Jackson, Scott

    2016-03-24

    The propagation characteristics of galloping detonations were quantified with a high-time-resolution velocity diagnostic. Combustion waves were initiated in 30-m lengths of 4.1-mm inner diameter transparent tubing filled with stoichiometric propane-oxygen mixtures. Chemiluminescence from the resulting waves was imaged to determine the luminous wave front position and velocity every 83.3 μ. As the mixture initial pressure was decreased from 20 to 7 kPa, the wave was observed to become increasingly unsteady and transition from steady detonation to a galloping detonation. While wave velocities averaged over the full tube length smoothly decreased with initial pressure down to half of the Chapman-Jouguet detonation velocity (DCJ) at the quenching limit, the actual propagation mechanism was seen to be a galloping wave with a cycle period of approximately 1.0 ms, corresponding to a cycle length of 1.3-2.0 m or 317-488 tube diameters depending on the average wave speed. The long test section length of 7300 tube diameters allowed observation of up to 20 galloping cycles, allowing for statistical analysis of the wave dynamics. In the galloping regime, a bimodal velocity distribution was observed with peaks centered near 0.4 DCJ and 0.95 DCJ. Decreasing initial pressure increasingly favored the low velocity mode. Galloping frequencies ranged from 0.8 to 1.0 kHz and were insensitive to initial mixture pressure. Wave deflagration-to-detonation transition and detonation failure trajectories were found to be repeatable in a given test and also across different initial mixture pressures. The temporal duration of wave dwell at the low and high velocity modes during galloping was also quantified. It was found that the mean wave dwell duration in the low velocity mode was a weak function of initial mixture pressure, while the mean dwell time in the high velocity mode depended exponentially on initial mixture pressure. Analysis of the velocity histories using dynamical systems ideas

  2. The strange physics of low frequency mirror mode turbulence in the high temperature plasma of the magnetosheath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mirror mode turbulence is the lowest frequency perpendicular magnetic excitation in magnetized plasma proposed already about half a century ago by Rudakov and Sagdeev (1958 and Chandrasekhar et al. (1958 from fluid theory. Its experimental verification required a relatively long time. It was early recognized that mirror modes for being excited require a transverse pressure (or temperature anisotropy. In principle mirror modes are some version of slow mode waves. Fluid theory, however, does not give a correct physical picture of the mirror mode. The linear infinitesimally small amplitude physics is described correctly only by including the full kinetic theory and is modified by existing spatial gradients of the plasma parameters which attribute a small finite frequency to the mode. In addition, the mode is propagating only very slowly in plasma such that convective transport is the main cause of flow in it. As the lowest frequency mode it can be expected that mirror modes serve as one of the dominant energy inputs into plasma. This is however true only when the mode grows to large amplitude leaving the linear stage. At such low frequencies, on the other hand, quasilinear theory does not apply as a valid saturation mechanism. Probably the dominant processes are related to the generation of gradients in the plasma which serve as the cause of drift modes thus transferring energy to shorter wavelength propagating waves of higher nonzero frequency. This kind of theory has not yet been developed as it has not yet been understood why mirror modes in spite of their slow growth rate usually are of very large amplitudes indeed of the order of |B/B0|2~O(1. It is thus highly reasonable to assume that mirror modes are instrumental for the development of stationary turbulence in high temperature plasma. Moreover, since the magnetic field in mirror turbulence forms extended though slightly oblique magnetic bottles, low parallel energy particles can be trapped

  3. Effect of dipole-quadrupole Robinson mode coupling upon the beam response to radio-frequency phase noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Bosch

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available In an electron storage ring, coupling between dipole and quadrupole Robinson oscillations modifies the spectrum of longitudinal beam oscillations driven by radio-frequency (rf generator phase noise. In addition to the main peak at the resonant frequency of the coupled dipole Robinson mode, another peak occurs at the resonant frequency of the coupled quadrupole mode. To describe these peaks analytically for a quadratic synchrotron potential, we include the dipole and quadrupole modes when calculating the beam response to generator noise. We thereby obtain the transfer function from generator-noise phase modulation to beam phase modulation with and without phase feedback. For Robinson-stable bunches confined in a synchrotron potential with a single minimum, the calculated transfer function agrees with measurements at the Aladdin 800-MeV electron storage ring. The transfer function is useful in evaluating phase feedback that suppresses Robinson oscillations in order to obtain quiet operation of an infrared beam line.

  4. Dispersive properties and attraction instability of low-frequency collective modes in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Rezendes, D.

    1998-01-01

    A dispersion relation for low-frequency collective modes in dusty plasmas is derived with allowance for attractive and repulsive forces arising between the dust grains due to dissipative fluxes of plasma particles onto the grain surfaces. It is shown that these fluxes give rise to dust attraction instabilities, which are similar to the gravitational instability. In the range of wave numbers corresponding to the stability domain, two types of dust sound waves arise, depending on whether the wavelengths of the collective modes are longer or shorter than the mean free path of the plasma particles (i.e., the distance they travel before they collide with dust grains). The dispersion relation derived is valid for any ratio between the wavelength of the perturbations and the mean free path and encompasses the entire range of intermediate wave numbers. The critical wave numbers that determine the threshold for the onset of attraction instability, which is similar to the Jeans instability, can, in particular, lie within this range. The thresholds for attraction instability and the instability growth rates are obtained numerically for a wide range of the plasma parameters (such as the ratio of the ion temperature to the electron temperature) that are of interest for present-day experiments with dust crystals, plasma etching, and space plasma studies. Computer simulation shows that, in the nonlinear stage, the attraction instability causes the dust cloud to collapse, which leads to the formation of dust plasma crystals. Our investigation makes it possible to trace the processes in the initial stage of dust crystallization. Results are obtained for hydrogen and silicon plasmas, which are most typical of laboratory experiments

  5. Influence of Posture and Frequency Modes in Total Body Water Estimation Using Bioelectrical Impedance Spectroscopy in Boys and Adult Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaharu Kagawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to examine differences in total body water (TBW measured using single-frequency (SF and multi-frequency (MF modes of bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy (BIS in children and adults measured in different postures using the deuterium (2H dilution technique as the reference. Twenty-three boys and 26 adult males underwent assessment of TBW using the dilution technique and BIS measured in supine and standing positions using two frequencies of the SF mode (50 kHz and 100 kHz and the MF mode. While TBW estimated from the MF mode was comparable, extra-cellular fluid (ECF and intra-cellular fluid (ICF values differed significantly (p < 0.01 between the different postures in both groups. In addition, while estimated TBW in adult males using the MF mode was significantly (p < 0.01 greater than the result from the dilution technique, TBW estimated using the SF mode and prediction equation was significantly (p < 0.01 lower in boys. Measurement posture may not affect estimation of TBW in boys and adult males, however, body fluid shifts may still occur. In addition, technical factors, including selection of prediction equation, may be important when TBW is estimated from measured impedance.

  6. Effect of magnetic configuration on frequency of NBI-driven Alfvén modes in TJ-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnikov, A. V.; Ochando, M.; Ascasibar, E.; Castejon, F.; Cappa, A.; Eliseev, L. G.; Hidalgo, C.; Krupnik, L. I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Liniers, M.; Lysenko, S. E.; de Pablos, J. L.; Perfilov, S. V.; Sharapov, S. E.; Spong, D. A.; Jimenez, J. A.; Ufimtsev, M. V.; Breizman, B. N.; HIBP Group; the TJ-II Team

    2014-12-01

    Excitation of modes in the Alfvénic frequency range, 30 kHz values, 1.51advantage of the unique TJ-II capabilities, a dynamic magnetic configuration experiment with \\unicode{7548} (ρ , t) variation during discharges has shown strong effects on the mode frequency via both vacuum \\unicode{7548} changes and induced net plasma current. A drastic frequency increase from ˜50 to ˜250 kHz was observed for some modes when plasma current as low as ±2 kA was induced by small (10%) changes in the vertical field. A comprehensive set of diagnostics including a heavy ion beam probe, magnetic probes and a multi-chord bolometer made it possible to identify the spatial spread of the modes and deduce the internal amplitudes of their plasma density and magnetic field perturbations. A simple analytical model for fAE, based on the local Alfvén eigenmode (AE) dispersion relation, was proposed to characterize the observation. It was shown that all the observations, including vacuum iota and plasma current variations, may be fitted by the model, so the linear mode frequency dependence on \\unicode{7548} (plasma current) and one over square root density dependence present the major features of the NBI-induced AEs in TJ-II, and provide the framework for further experiment-to-theory comparison.

  7. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: yellen@duke.edu [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-02-07

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  8. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2016-02-01

    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  9. Single-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at resonance frequency with self-injection locked pump laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; Lopez-Mercado, C A; Megret, P; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode Brillouin fiber ring laser, which is passively stabilized at pump resonance frequency by using self-injection locking of semiconductor pump laser. Resonance condition for Stokes radiation is achieved by length fitting of Brillouin laser cavity. The laser generate single-frequency Stokes wave with linewidth less than 0.5 kHz using approximately 17-m length cavity

  10. A new design of dielectric elastomer membrane resonator with tunable resonant frequencies and mode shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunlong; Oh, Inkyu; Chen, Jiehao; Hu, Yuhang

    2018-06-01

    Conventional membrane resonators are bulky, and once the geometries and materials are fixed in the fabricated device, the resonators’ characteristics are fixed. In this work, we introduce the active membrane, dielectric elastomer (DE), into the resonator design. Attaching a stiffer passive membrane onto the active DE membrane forms a two-layer system, which generates an out-of-plane deformation when the DE is actuated through a DC voltage applied across the thickness of the DE membrane. When an AC voltage is applied, the two-layer system can generate an out-of-plane oscillation which enables its use as membrane resonators. Both experiments and simulations are carried out to study the dynamic characteristics of the system. The resonant frequencies and mode shapes of the resonator can be tuned through the passive layer properties such as the modulus, thickness, density, and size. The effective stiffness of the DE film changes as the magnitude of the voltage applied on the film changes, which provides an active way to tune the dynamic characteristics of the two-layer resonator even after the device is set. The system is also light weight, low cost, and easy to fabricate, and has great potential in many engineering applications.

  11. High energy, single frequency, tunable laser source operating in burst mode for space based lidar applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Alberto; Mondello, Alessia; Sapia, Adalberto; D'Ottavi, Alessandro; Brotini, Mauro; Nava, Enzo; Stucchi, Emanuele; Trespidi, Franco; Mariottini, Cristina; Wazen, Paul; Falletto, Nicolas; Fruit, Michel

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the laser transmitter assembly used in the ALADIN instrument currently in C/D development phase for the ESA ADM-AEOLUS mission (EADS Astrium as prime contractor for the satellite and the instrument). The Laser Transmitter Assembly (TXA), based on a diode pumped tripled Nd:YAG laser, is used to generate tunable laser pulses of 150 mJ at a nominal wavelength of 355 nm. This laser is operated in burst mode, with a pulse repetition cycle of 100 Hz. The TXA is composed of the following units: a diodepumped CW Nd:YAG Laser named Reference Laser Head (RLH), used to inject a diode-pumped, Q-switched, amplified and frequency tripled Nd:YAG Laser working in the third harmonic referred as Power Laser Head (PLH) and a Transmitter Laser Electronics (TLE) containing all the control and power electronics needed for PLH and RLH operation. The TXA is made by an European consortium under the leadership of Galileo Avionica (It), and including CESI (It), Quantel (Fr), TESAT (Ge) and Thales (Fr).

  12. Task-Related Modulations of BOLD Low-Frequency Fluctuations within the Default Mode Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Tommasin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN, are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33 ± 6 years, 8 F/12 M the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the continuous execution of a working memory n-back task. We found that task execution impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to continuous task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response to a task.

  13. Task-Related Modulations of BOLD Low-Frequency Fluctuations within the Default Mode Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasin, Silvia; Mascali, Daniele; Gili, Tommaso; Assan, Ibrahim Eid; Moraschi, Marta; Fratini, Michela; Wise, Richard G.; Macaluso, Emiliano; Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33 ± 6 years, 8 F/12 M) the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the continuous execution of a working memory n-back task. We found that task execution impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to continuous task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response to a task. PMID:28845420

  14. Task-related modulations of BOLD low-frequency fluctuations within the default mode network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasin, Silvia; Mascali, Daniele; Gili, Tommaso; Eid Assan, Ibrahim; Moraschi, Marta; Fratini, Michela; Wise, Richard G.; Macaluso, Emiliano; Mangia, Silvia; Giove, Federico

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous low-frequency Blood-Oxygenation Level-Dependent (BOLD) signals acquired during resting state are characterized by spatial patterns of synchronous fluctuations, ultimately leading to the identification of robust brain networks. The resting-state brain networks, including the Default Mode Network (DMN), are demonstrated to persist during sustained task execution, but the exact features of task-related changes of network properties are still not well characterized. In this work we sought to examine in a group of 20 healthy volunteers (age 33±6 years, 8F/12M) the relationship between changes of spectral and spatiotemporal features of one prominent resting-state network, namely the DMN, during the steady-state execution of a sustained working memory n-back task. We found that the steady state execution of such a task impacted on both functional connectivity and amplitude of BOLD fluctuations within large parts of the DMN, but these changes correlated between each other only in a small area of the posterior cingulate. We conclude that combined analysis of multiple parameters related to connectivity, and their changes during the transition from resting state to steady-state task execution, can contribute to a better understanding of how brain networks rearrange themselves in response of a task.

  15. Ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes in self-gravitating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gravitating, warm, magnetized, two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfvén mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dust-magnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to ...

  16. Vibrational correlation between conjugated carbonyl and diazo modes studied by single- and dual-frequency two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maekawa, Hiroaki; Sul, Soohwan; Ge, Nien-Hui

    2013-08-01

    We have applied infrared three-pulse photon echo and single- and dual-frequency 2D IR spectroscopy to the ester Cdbnd O and diazo Ndbnd N stretching modes in ethyl diazoacetate (EDA), and investigated their vibrational frequency fluctuations and correlation. The two modes exhibit different vibrational dynamics and 2D lineshape, which are well simulated by frequency-frequency correlation functions (FFCFs) with two decaying components. Although the FT IR spectrum shows a single Cdbnd O band, absolute magnitude 2D IR nonrephasing spectrum displays spectral signatures supporting the presence of cis and trans conformations. The cross-peak inclined toward the anti-diagonal in the dual-frequency 2D IR spectrum, indicating that the frequency fluctuations of the two modes are anticorrelated. This behavior is attributed to anticorrelated change in the bond orders when solvent and structural fluctuations causes EDA to adopt a different mixture of the two dominant resonance structures. The effects of cross FFCF on the cross-peak line shape are discussed.

  17. Evolution of soft-phonon modes in Fe-Pd shape memory alloy under large elastic-like strains

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seiner, Hanuš; Stoklasová, Pavla; Sedlák, Petr; Ševčík, Martin; Janovská, Michaela; Landa, Michal; Fukuda, T.; Yamaguchi, T.; Kakeshita, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 105, Februar (2016), s. 182-188 ISSN 1359-6454 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-15264S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : anisotropic elasticity * single crystal * phase transitions * surface acoustic waves (SAW) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 5.301, year: 2016 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S1359645415301348/1-s2.0-S1359645415301348-main.pdf?_tid=1309c656-fb07-11e5-888b-00000aab0f01&acdnat=1459844530_9f54d29d7437d07cc7b3dae3fbb0a882

  18. Features of the repetition frequency of edge localized modes in EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, M.; Xiao, C.; Xu, G.S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the features of the edge localized modes (ELMs) observed in the 2010 experimental campaign on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The first high-confinement mode (H-mode) at an H-factor of HIPB98(y, 2)~1 has been obtained with about 1 MW lower hybrid wave...

  19. Normal mode analysis based on an elastic network model for biomolecules in the Protein Data Bank, which uses dihedral angles as independent variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wako, Hiroshi; Endo, Shigeru

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a computer program, named PDBETA, that performs normal mode analysis (NMA) based on an elastic network model that uses dihedral angles as independent variables. Taking advantage of the relatively small number of degrees of freedom required to describe a molecular structure in dihedral angle space and a simple potential-energy function independent of atom types, we aimed to develop a program applicable to a full-atom system of any molecule in the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The algorithm for NMA used in PDBETA is the same as the computer program FEDER/2, developed previously. Therefore, the main challenge in developing PDBETA was to find a method that can automatically convert PDB data into molecular structure information in dihedral angle space. Here, we illustrate the performance of PDBETA with a protein-DNA complex, a protein-tRNA complex, and some non-protein small molecules, and show that the atomic fluctuations calculated by PDBETA reproduce the temperature factor data of these molecules in the PDB. A comparison was also made with elastic-network-model based NMA in a Cartesian-coordinate system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Mixed Stimulus-Induced Mode Selection in Neural Activity Driven by High and Low Frequency Current under Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical activities of neurons are dependent on the complex electrophysiological condition in neuronal system, the three-variable Hindmarsh-Rose (HR neuron model is improved to describe the dynamical behaviors of neuronal activities with electromagnetic induction being considered, and the mode transition of electrical activities in neuron is detected when external electromagnetic radiation is imposed on the neuron. In this paper, different types of electrical stimulus impended with a high-low frequency current are imposed on new HR neuron model, and mixed stimulus-induced mode selection in neural activity is discussed in detail. It is found that mode selection of electrical activities stimulated by high-low frequency current, which also changes the excitability of neuron, can be triggered owing to adding the Gaussian white noise. Meanwhile, the mode selection of the neuron electrical activity is much dependent on the amplitude B of the high frequency current under the same noise intensity, and the high frequency response is selected preferentially by applying appropriate parameters and noise intensity. Our results provide insights into the transmission of complex signals in nerve system, which is valuable in engineering prospective applications such as information encoding.

  1. Evidence for the frequency-shift of the OA A_1g mode in Hg-based superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In-Sang; Lee, Hye-Gyong

    1996-03-01

    The Hg-based superconductors, HgBa_2Ca_n-1Cu_nO_2n+2+δ (n=1,2,3) have two strong Raman peaks at ~ 570 and 590 cm-1 in the high-frequency region. From the results of Raman measurements of Tl-doped Hg-1223 system, it is concluded that the peak at ~ 570 cm-1 does not arise from the vibration of the interstitial oxygen O_δ in the Hg/Tl-O plane, but from the frequency-shift of the A_1g-type vibration of the apical oxygen O_A. The peak at 570 cm-1 is from the O_As surrounded by the O_δs in the nearest neighbor, while the 590 cm-1 mode is from the O_As without the O_δs in the immediate neighbor. The intensity of the 570 cm-1 mode increases with the O_δ content, but the Raman frequencies of both modes do not change significantly. This suggests that the increase of the frequency of the OA A_1g mode under high pressure (I.-S. Yang et al., Phys. Rev. B 51, 644 (1995)) is independent from the O_δ content, in the Hg-based superconductors.

  2. Measurement of correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and particle rearrangements in quasi-two-dimensional colloidal glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Manning, M L; Yunker, Peter J; Ellenbroek, Wouter G; Zhang, Zexin; Liu, Andrea J; Yodh, A G

    2011-09-02

    We investigate correlations between low-frequency vibrational modes and rearrangements in two-dimensional colloidal glasses composed of thermosensitive microgel particles, which readily permit variation of the sample packing fraction. At each packing fraction, the particle displacement covariance matrix is measured and used to extract the vibrational spectrum of the "shadow" colloidal glass (i.e., the particle network with the same geometry and interactions as the sample colloid but absent damping). Rearrangements are induced by successive, small reductions in the packing fraction. The experimental results suggest that low-frequency quasilocalized phonon modes in colloidal glasses, i.e., modes that present low energy barriers for system rearrangements, are spatially correlated with rearrangements in this thermal system.

  3. The application of low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode for the inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Z H; Xie, X D; Wu, B; Li, Y H; He, C F

    2012-01-01

    Shed-pipe grouting technology, an effective advanced supporting method, is often used in the excavation of soft strata. Steel floral pipes are one of the key load-carrying components of shed-pipe grouting supporting structures. Guided waves are a very attractive methodology to inspect multi-hole steel floral pipes as they offer long range inspection capability, mode and frequency tuning, and cost effectiveness. In this contribution, preliminary experiments are described for the inspection of steel floral pipes using a low frequency longitudinal guided wave mode, L(0,2). The relation between the number of grouting holes and the peak-to-peak amplitude of the first end-reflected signal was obtained. The effect of the grouting holes in steel floral pipes on the propagation velocity of the L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz was analyzed. Experimental results indicate that the typical grouting holes in steel floral pipe have no significant effect on the propagation of this mode. As a result, low frequency longitudinal guided wave modes have potential for the non-destructive long range inspection of multi-hole steel floral pipes. Furthermore, the propagation velocity of the investigated L(0,2) mode at 30 kHz decreases linearly with the increase of the number of grouting holes in a steel floral pipe. It is also noticeable that the effect of the grouting holes cumulates along with the increase in the number of grouting holes and subsequent increase in reflection times of longitudinal guided waves in the steel floral pipe. The application potential of the low frequency longitudinal guided wave technique for the inspection of embedded steel floral pipes is discussed.

  4. Infrared, diode laser spectroscopy of the Ar--N2O complex: Observation of the intermolecular bending mode in combination with the highest frequency intramolecular stretching mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T.A.; Chappell, E.L.; Sharpe, S.W.

    1993-01-01

    Rotationally resolved vibrational spectra consisting of a-type transitions have been observed for the low-frequency, intermolecular bending mode in combination with the highest frequency, intramolecular stretching mode of Ar--N 2 O. Analysis of the spectral data places the origin of the combination band at 2256.1 cm -1 while the origin of the intramolecular stretching fundamental is at 2223.9 cm -1 . The difference between these two origins is approximately 32.2 cm -1 and agrees well with our calculated frequency of 31.5 cm -1 for the intermolecular bending mode, which was obtained by analysis of the centrifugal distortion constants. In addition, argon--nitrous oxide exhibits an anomalously large inertial defect of 10.96 amu A 2 in the combination state. This indicates a breakdown in the assumption of separation between vibration and rotation. While much of the inertial defect in the ground state can be accounted for by including Coriolis interactions, that occurring in the combination state is only partially accounted for by a similar analysis. Small, but significant changes, are observed in both the radial and angular parameters for Ar--N 2 O when going from the ground to the combination state, indicating large amplitude motion. The combination band is approximately 200 times less intense than the high-frequency, stretching fundamental of Ar--N 2 O. In addition, over 400 new rovibrational transitions are assigned to the previously observed 1 0 1 intramolecular stretching fundamental of the complex, and the subsequent rotational analysis is found to be in close agreement with earlier studies. Data were taken on a newly built, rapid-scan, diode laser spectrometer that incorporates a 12 cmx200 μm pulsed slit-expansion nozzle

  5. High-frequency and time resolution rocket observations of structured low- and medium-frequency whistler mode emissions in the auroral ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBelle, J.; McAdams, K. L.; Trimpi, M. L.

    High bandwidth electric field waveform measurements on a recent auroral sounding rocket reveal structured whistler mode signals at 400-800 kHz. These are observed intermittently between 300 and 500 km with spectral densities 0-10 dB above the detection threshold of 1.5×10-11V2/m2Hz. The lack of correlation with local particle measurements suggests a remote source. The signals are composed of discrete structures, in one case having bandwidths of about 10 kHz and exhibiting rapid frequency variations of the order of 200 kHz per 100 ms. In one case, emissions near the harmonic of the whistler mode signals are detected simultaneously. Current theories of auroral zone whistler mode emissions have not been applied to explain quantitatively the fine structure of these signals, which resemble auroral kilometric radiation (AKR) rather than auroral hiss.

  6. Effect of impurity modes with quasilocal and local frequencies on the superconducting transition temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhernov, A.P.; Malov, Yu.A.; Panova, G.Kh.

    1975-01-01

    An anisotropic irregular semiconductor is under consideration. It is believed that the effective parameter of the interaction-lambda-which determines electron coupling is less or about 0.5. The Eliashberg integral equation system is solved for T→Tsub(c). A simple analytic expression is obtained for Tsub(c). The character of a varying critical temperature in superconductors with impurity atoms is analyzed in detail. The dependence of the critical temperature on parameters describing the phonon spectrum of an impurity system is investigated. The existence of impurity modes with quasilocal and local frequencies in the phonon spectra can lead both to relatively small and to rather noticeable variations in Tsub(c). The first case is typical of the situation when an impurity atom is practically an isotopic defect. If an impurity atom is very heavy (Msub(I) 1 0 ) or strongly (γ 1 >>γ 0 ) coupled with matrix atoms. A sharp decrease in the effective force constant γ 1 for an impurity atom results in the growth of delta Tsub(c): delta Tsub(c) approximately cγ0/γ 1 (lambda - μsup((0)). On the contrary a rise in the γ 1 value requires a negative correction to Tsub(c), and delta Tsub(c) approximately c/(lambda - μsup((0)), where c - an impurity concentration, μ - matrix element of the Coulomb screened interaction averaged over the Fermi surface and multiplied for the density of normal electron states on the Fermi level. Comparison with experimental data is made. A qualitative description of the Tsub(c) change due to the impurity presence is given for a set of solutions. There is a satisfactory quantitative agreement between calculated and experimental values of delta Tsub(c)

  7. Ion beam generated modes in the lower hybrid frequency range in a laboratory magnetoplasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W. N.; Colestock, P. L.; Pribyl, P.

    2012-12-01

    The generation of waves by ion ring distributions is of great importance in many instances in space plasmas. They occur naturally in the magnetosphere through the interaction with substorms, or they can be man-made in ionospheric experiments by photo-ionization of neutral atoms injected perpendicular to the earth's magnetic field. The interaction of a fast ion beam with a low β plasma has been studied in the laboratory. Experiments were performed at the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. The experiments were done in a Helium plasma (n ≃ 1012 \\ cm-3, B0 = 1000 G - 1800 G, fpe}/f{ce ≃ 1 - 5, Te = 0.25\\ eV, vte ≤ vA). The ion beam \\cite{Tripathi_ionbeam} is a Helium beam with energies ranging from 5 keV to 18 keV. The fast ion velocity is on the order of the Alfvén velocity. The beam is injected from the end of the machine, and spirals down the linear device. Waves were observed below fci in the shear Alfvén wave regime, and in a broad spectrum above fci in the lower hybrid frequency range, the focus of this paper. The wave spectra have distinct peaks close to ion cyclotron harmonics, extending out to the 100th harmonic in some cases. The wave generation was studied for various magnetic fields and background plasma densities, as well as for different beam energies and pitch angles. The waves were measured with 3-axis electric and magnetic probes. Detailed measurements of the perpendicular mode structure will be shown. Langmuir probes were used to measure density and temperature evolution due to the beam-plasma interaction. Retarding field energy analyzers captured the ion beam profiles. The work was performed at the LArge Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility (BaPSF) at UCLA, funded by DOE/NSF.

  8. Twin peak high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations as a spectral imprint of dual oscillation modes of accretion tori

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakala, P.; Goluchová, K.; Török, G.; Šrámková, E.; Abramowicz, M. A.; Vincent, F. H.; Mazur, G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Context. High-frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low-mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3:2. A widely discussed class of proposed QPOs models is based on oscillations of accretion toroidal structures orbiting in the close vicinity of black holes or neutron stars. Aims: Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of slender tori. We consider the model of an optically thick slender accretion torus with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent Kα iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. Methods: We used relativistic ray-tracing implemented in the parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyzed the influence of the distant observer inclination and the spin of the central compact object. Relativistic optical projection of the oscillating slender torus is illustrated by images in false colours related to the frequency shift. Results: We show that performed simulations yield power spectra with the pair of dominant peaks that correspond to the frequencies of radial and vertical oscillation modes and with the peak frequency ratio equal to the proper value 3:2 on a wide range of inclinations and spin values. We also discuss exceptional cases of a very low and very high inclination, as well as unstable high spin relativistic precession-like configurations that predict a constant frequency ratio equal to 1:2. We

  9. Nonlinear asteroseismology: insight from amplitude and frequency modulations of oscillation modes in compact pulsators from Kepler photometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Weikai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear mode interactions are difficult to observe from ground-based telescopes as the typical periods of the modulations induced by those nonlinear phenomena are on timescales of weeks, months, even years. The launch of space telescopes, e.g., Kepler, has tremendously changed the situation and shredded new light on this research field. We present results from Kepler photometry showing evidence that nonlinear interactions between modes occur in the two compact pulsators KIC 8626021, a DB white dwarf, and KIC 10139564, a short period hot B subdwarf. KIC 8626021 and KIC 10139564 had been monitored by Kepler in short-cadence for nearly two years and more than three years without interruption, respectively. By analyzing these high-quality photometric data, we found that the modes within the triplets induced by rotation clearly reveal different behaviors: their frequencies and amplitudes may exhibit either periodic or irregular modulations, or remain constant. These various behaviors of the amplitude and of the frequency modulations of the oscillation modes observed in these two stars are in good agreement with those predicted within the amplitude equation formalism in the case of the nonlinear resonant mode coupling mechanism.

  10. Transition to the improved confinement mode in torsatron U-3M in range of rare collision frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, V.K.; Sorokovov, E.L.; Berezhnyj, V.L. and others

    2010-01-01

    Transition to the mode of improved plasma confinement in U-3M facility earlier was discussed in works [1-3]. In these studies discussed the various processes in the confinement volume and in the peripheral plasma that accompany the transition process. Study of plasma confinement and process of transition into the mode of improved confinement just at rare collisions between plasma particles is very important because future fusion reactor based on a toroidal magnetic trap will operate under plasma parameters with rare collision frequencies ('banana' mode). The peculiarity of experiments on torsatron U-3M is that they are conducted at small density n-bar e ≤ 2 lover case x 10 12 cm -3 and, thereby, the frequency of collisions in the confinement area is in the 'banana' mode [4]. And herewith, time of collisions is essentially smaller (up to several orders for electrons and up to the order for ions) than the lifetime of plasma particles. It ensures maxwellization of distribution function and possibility to compare the obtained results with data from other experiments. The objective of this work is to study the main regularity of transition into the mode of improved confinement. Also it is interesting to compare the results with data from other facilities.

  11. Processing of complex shapes with single-mode resonant frequency microwave applicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fellows, L.A.; Delgado, R.; Hawley, M.C.

    1994-01-01

    Microwave processing is an alternative to conventional composite processing techniques. Single-mode microwave applicators efficiently couple microwave energy into the composite. The application of the microwave energy is greatly affected by the geometry of the composite. In the single mode microwave applicator, two types of modes are available. These modes are best suited to processing flat planar samples or cylindrical samples with geometries that align with the electric fields. Mode-switching is alternating between different electromagnetic modes with the intelligent selection of the modes to alleviate undesirable temperature profiles. This method has improved the microwave heating profiles of materials with complex shapes that do not align with either type of electric field. Parts with two different complex geometries were fabricated from a vinyl toluene/vinyl ester resin with a continuous glass fiber reinforcement by autoclaving and by microwave techniques. The flexural properties of the microwave processed samples were compared to the flexural properties of autoclaved samples. The trends of the mechanical properties for the complex shapes were consistent with the results of experiments with flat panels. This demonstrated that mode-switching techniques are as applicable for the complex shapes as they are for the simpler flat panel geometry

  12. A numerical model for ocean ultra-low frequency noise: wave-generated acoustic-gravity and Rayleigh modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardhuin, Fabrice; Lavanant, Thibaut; Obrebski, Mathias; Marié, Louis; Royer, Jean-Yves; d'Eu, Jean-François; Howe, Bruce M; Lukas, Roger; Aucan, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    The generation of ultra-low frequency acoustic noise (0.1 to 1 Hz) by the nonlinear interaction of ocean surface gravity waves is well established. More controversial are the quantitative theories that attempt to predict the recorded noise levels and their variability. Here a single theoretical framework is used to predict the noise level associated with propagating pseudo-Rayleigh modes and evanescent acoustic-gravity modes. The latter are dominant only within 200 m from the sea surface, in shallow or deep water. At depths larger than 500 m, the comparison of a numerical noise model with hydrophone records from two open-ocean sites near Hawaii and the Kerguelen islands reveal: (a) Deep ocean acoustic noise at frequencies 0.1 to 1 Hz is consistent with the Rayleigh wave theory, in which the presence of the ocean bottom amplifies the noise by 10 to 20 dB; (b) in agreement with previous results, the local maxima in the noise spectrum support the theoretical prediction for the vertical structure of acoustic modes; and (c) noise level and variability are well predicted for frequencies up to 0.4 Hz. Above 0.6 Hz, the model results are less accurate, probably due to the poor estimation of the directional properties of wind-waves with frequencies higher than 0.3 Hz.

  13. Dense SDM (12-core × 3-mode) transmission over 527 km with 33.2-ns mode-dispersion employing low-complexity parallel MIMO frequency-domain equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibahara, K.; Mizuno, T.; Takara, H.

    We demonstrate 12-core × 3-mode dense SDM transmission over 527 km graded-index multi-core few-mode fiber without mode-dispersion management. Employing low baud rate multi-carrier signal and frequency-domain equalization enables 33.2-ns DMD compensation with low computational complexity. © 2015 OSA...

  14. Superconducting electron tunneling as detection method for low frequency resonant vibration modes of interstitials in fcc lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)

  15. Estimation and control of droplet size and frequency in projected spray mode of a gas metal arc welding (GMAW) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzehaee, Mohammad Mousavi; Haeri, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    New estimators are designed based on the modified force balance model to estimate the detaching droplet size, detached droplet size, and mean value of droplet detachment frequency in a gas metal arc welding process. The proper droplet size for the process to be in the projected spray transfer mode is determined based on the modified force balance model and the designed estimators. Finally, the droplet size and the melting rate are controlled using two proportional-integral (PI) controllers to achieve high weld quality by retaining the transfer mode and generating appropriate signals as inputs of the weld geometry control loop. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Single mode CO2 laser frequency modulation up to 350 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeb, W. R.; Peruso, C. J.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments on internal frequency modulation (FM) of a CO2 laser showed no limitation of FM by the linewidth. However, distortions in the form of strong enhancement of sideband amplitude arise for frequencies equal to the cavity resonant frequencies, most pronounced if the modulator is positioned near a cavity mirror.

  17. Dependence of helium transport on plasma current and ELM frequency in H-mode discharges in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Finkenthal, D.F.; West, W.P.; Burrell, K.H.; Seraydarian, R.P.

    1993-05-01

    The removal of helium (He) ash from the plasma core with high efficiency to prevent dilution of the D-T fuel mixture is of utmost importance for future fusion devices, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A variety of measurements in L-mode conditions have shown that the intrinsic level of helium transport from the core to the edge may be sufficient to prevent sufficient dilution (i.e., τ He /τ E < 5). Preliminary measurements in biased-induced, limited H-mode discharges in TEXTOR suggest that the intrinsic helium transport properties may not be as favorable. If this trend is shown also in diverted H-mode plasmas, then scenarios based on ELMing H-modes would be less desirable. To further establish the database on helium transport in H-mode conditions, recent studies on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining helium transport properties in H-mode conditions and the dependence of these properties on plasma current and ELM frequency

  18. Frequency shift of a crystal quartz resonator in thickness-shear modes induced by an array of hemispherical material units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuantai Hu; Huiliang Hu; Bin Luo; Huan Xue; Jiemin Xie; Ji Wang

    2013-08-01

    A two-dimensional model was established to study the dynamic characteristics of a quartz crystal resonator with the upper surface covered by an array of hemispherical material units. A frequency-dependent equivalent mass ratio was proposed to simulate the effect of the covered units on frequency shift of the resonator system. It was found that the equivalent mass ratio alternately becomes positive or negative with change of shear modulus and radius of each material unit, which indicates that the equivalent mass ratio is strongly related to the vibration mode of the covered loadings. The further numerical results show the cyclical feature in the relationship of frequency shift and shear modulus/radius as expected. The solutions are useful in the analysis of frequency stability of quartz resonators and acoustic wave sensors.

  19. Q-switching and mode-locking in a diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd : YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donin, Valerii I; Yakovin, Dmitrii V; Gribanov, A V

    2012-01-01

    A new method for obtaining Q-switching simultaneously with mode-locking using one travelling-wave acousto-optic modulator in a frequency-doubled Nd : YAG laser cavity is described. Further shortening of output laser pulses (from 40 to 3.25 ps) is achieved by forming a Kerr lens in the frequency-doubling crystal. At an average power of ∼ 2 W and a Q-switching rate of 2 kHz, the peak power of the stably operating reached ∼ 50 MW.

  20. Optical frequency comb generation based on the dual-mode square microlaser and a nonlinear fiber loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hai-Zhong; Han, Jun-Yuan; Li, Qing; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Qin, Guan-Shi; Huang, Yong-Zhen

    2018-05-01

    A novel approach using a dual-mode square microlaser as the pump source is demonstrated to produce wideband optical frequency comb (OFC). The enhanced nonlinear frequency conversion processes are accomplished in a nonlinear fiber loop, which can reduce the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold and then generate a dual-mode Brillouin laser with improved optical signal-to-noise ratio. An OFC with 130 nm bandwidth and 76 GHz repetition rate is successfully generated under the four-wave mixing, and the number of the comb lines is enhanced by 26 times compared with the system without fiber loop. In addition, the repetition rate of the comb can be adjusted by changing the injection current of the microlaser. The pulse width of the comb spectrum is also compressed from 3 to 1 ps with an extra amplification-nonlinear process.

  1. 18-THz-wide optical frequency comb emitted from monolithic passively mode-locked semiconductor quantum-well laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Mu-Chieh; Guzmán, Robinson; Ali, Muhsin; Santos, Rui; Augustin, Luc; Carpintero, Guillermo

    2017-10-01

    We report on an optical frequency comb with 14nm (~1.8 THz) spectral bandwidth at -3 dB level that is generated using a passively mode-locked quantum-well (QW) laser in photonic integrated circuits (PICs) fabricated through an InP generic photonic integration technology platform. This 21.5-GHz colliding-pulse mode-locked laser cavity is defined by on-chip reflectors incorporating intracavity phase modulators followed by an extra-cavity SOA as booster amplifier. A 1.8-THz-wide optical comb spectrum is presented with ultrafast pulse that is 0.35-ps-wide. The radio frequency beat note has a 3-dB linewidth of 450 kHz and 35-dB SNR.

  2. Lattice dynamics and vibration modes frequencies for substitutional impurities in InP, GaP and ZnS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandevyver, Michel; Plumelle, Pierre.

    1977-01-01

    The model used is a rigid-ion model with an effective ionic charge including general interactions for nearest and next nearest neighbours and long range Coulomb interactions. It provides a good fit with available neutron data and with infrared absorption results for InP. In this model, no hypothesis is made a priori on the interatomic forces and the eleven parameters given by the model are used. A mathematical model which employs a Green's function technique in the mass defect and the nearest neighbour force constant defect approximation is used to calculate the lattice dynamics of the imperfect crystal. The frequencies of the local modes, the gap modes and the band modes, are given for isolated substitutional impurities. The same calculation is achieved for GaP and ZnS and the results are compared with infrared data [fr

  3. A complete dc characterization of a constant-frequency, clamped-mode, series-resonant converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Fu-Sheng; Lee, Fred C.

    1988-01-01

    The dc behavior of a clamped-mode series-resonant converter is characterized systematically. Given a circuit operating condition, the converter's mode of operation is determined and various circuit parameters are calculated, such as average inductor current (load current), rms inductor current, peak capacitor voltage, rms switch currents, average diode currents, switch turn-on currents, and switch turn-off currents. Regions of operation are defined, and various circuit characteristics are derived to facilitate the converter design.

  4. Internal differential rotation of the Sun: the P-modes frequency splitting in the measurements of brightness oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didkovskij, L.V.

    1989-01-01

    a 12-DAY SERIES OF TWO-DIMNIONAL IMAGES OF SOLAR BRIGHTNESS OSCILLATIONS EIGENFREQUENCIES in the range of 6-32 degrees. The rotational frequency splitting of separate modes as a function of inner turn-points radius of acoustic waves is found. The results of the analysis shw fast rotation of the central region of the Sun and non-monotonous trend of angular rotation velocity varitions with radius of the boundary of solar core

  5. The frequency content of Double-Mode Cepheids light curves and the importance of the cross-coupling terms

    OpenAIRE

    Poretti, Ennio

    1997-01-01

    The recent results (Pardo & Poretti 1997, A&A 324, 121; Poretti & Pardo 1997, A&A 324, 133) obtained on the frequency content of Double-Mode Cepheids light curves and the properties of their Fourier parameters are reviewed. Some points briefly discussed in previous papers (no third periodicity, methodological aspects on the true peaks detection, the action of the cross coupling terms and the impact on theoretical models) are described.

  6. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 ...

  7. Synchronization of a variable frequency source with a fixed frequency source using a Sliding-Mode controller

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestha, L.K.; Yeung, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    One way of synchronizing the SSC Low Energy Booster with the Medium Energy Booster is by matching the longitudinal phase of the designated RF buckets of two machines throughout acceleration to a preprogrammed trajectory. This makes the synchronization predictable in advance. The model associated with the phase-locking is time-varying and model parameters are subjected to disturbance due to errors in the bending magnetic field. Also the disturbance could be due to other feedback loops such as a B-field loop or a beam phase loop in the system. The measured phase error between the two reference waves may not be accurate. Hence in this paper the authors have shown the design of a Sliding-Mode controller for such an application. In the absence of measurement errors and parameter uncertainties and with no disturbance, the controller reduces to a classical gain feedback. Due to the general approach they have adopted in synthesizing the controller, the techniques can be applied to existing synchronization schemes

  8. ITER Plasma at Electron Cyclotron Frequency Domain: Stimulated Raman Scattering off Gould-Trivelpiece Modes and Generation of Suprathermal Electrons and Energetic Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering in the electron cyclotron frequency range of the X-Mode and O-Mode driver with the ITER plasma leads to the ``tail heating'' via the generation of suprathermal electrons and energetic ions. The scattering off Trivelpiece-Gould (T-G) modes is studied for the gyrotron frequency of 170GHz; X-Mode and O-Mode power of 24 MW CW; on-axis B-field of 10T. The synergy between the two-plasmon decay and Raman scattering is analyzed in reference to the bulk plasma heating. Supported in part by Nikola TESLA Labs, La Jolla, CA

  9. Low-Frequency Raman Modes of 2H-TaSe2 in the Charge Density Wave Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sugata; Simpson, J.; Einstein, T. L.; Hight Walker, A. R.; Theoretical Collaboration

    With changes in temperatures, tantalum diselenide (2H-TaSe2) , a layered, transition metal chalcogenides (TMD) exhibits unique super-lattice structures. The metallic ground state changes to an incommensurate charge density wave (CDW) state at 122?K followed by a commensurate CDW state at 90?K, and eventually a superconducting state 0.14 K. These phase transitions are driven by strong electron-phonon coupling and favored by the particular form of the Fermi surface of these systems. Here we theoretically studied the structural origin of low-frequency Raman modes of bulk 2H-TaSe2\\ in the CDW phases. Our calculations reveal that changes observed in the Raman modes are associated with the thermal expansion in the basal plane of 2H-TaSe2. The Grüneisen parameters of these two Raman modes increase in the CDW phases. Changes in the lattice parameter ``a'' are large compared to ``c'' which induces strain along the a-axis. We compared our results with experimental data which show low-frequency Raman phonon modes are very sensitive to temperature and are not observed in the metallic room-temperature state. In addition, we found that cation displacement is more than anion in CDW phase. Our results may shed more light on exact nature of the CDW instability and optical properties in this system.

  10. The effect of frequency and mode of sports activity on the psychological status in tetraplegics and paraplegics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraki, S; Tsunawake, N; Hiramatsu, S; Yamasaki, M

    2000-05-01

    To examine whether the psychological benefits of sports activity differ between tetraplegics and paraplegics with spinal cord injury, and investigate the effect of frequency and modes of sports activity on the psychological benefits. The Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Profiles of Mood States (POMS) were administered to 169 male individuals with spinal cord injury (mean age=42.7 years) including 53 tetraplegics and 116 paraplegics. The subjects were divided into four groups according to their frequencies of sports activity; High-active (more than three times a week; n=32), Middle-active (once or twice a week, n=41), Low-active (once to three times a month, n=32), and Inactive (no sports participation, n=64). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in depression for SDS, trait anxiety for STAI and depression and vigor for POMS among the groups. High-active group showed the lowest scores of depression and trait anxiety and the highest score of vigor among the four groups. In contrast, no significant difference was found for any psychological measurements between tetraplegics and paraplegics. In addition, there was no significant difference for any psychological measurements among modes (wheelchair basketball, wheelchair racing, wheelchair tennis and minor modes). These findings demonstrated that sports activity can improve the psychological status, irrespective of tetraplegics and paraplegics, and that the psychological benefits are emphasized by sports activity at high frequency.

  11. Design of an O-mode frequency modulated reflectometry system for the measurement of Alborz Tokamak plasma density profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koohestani, Saeideh [Department of Energy Engineering and physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Amrollahi, Reza, E-mail: amrollahi@aut.ac.ir [Department of Energy Engineering and physics, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi, Gholamreza [Department of Electrical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran, 15875-4413, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Reflectometry is a common method for plasma diagnostic, in which microwaves are launched into the plasma and reflected at the critical surfaces. Comparing the reflected microwave signals with the launched waves would give rise to the plasma density profiles. In the present study, an ordinary mode (O-mode) frequency modulation (FM) reflectometry system has been designed for the electron density profile measurement of the Alborz Tokamak plasma. This system has been considered to operate at K-band (18–26.5 GHz) frequency range and scan the frequency band between 18 to 26 GHz in 40 μS. The density profile from major radius r = 47.9–51.55 cm can be measured in Alborz Tokamak plasma. Based on the Alborz Tokamak operational conditions, the characteristic frequencies, and some dimensional limitations, all parts of reflectometer have been designed so that an appropriate efficiency with minimum attenuation, especially in transmitting/receiving system would be achieved. A dual antenna and an oversized waveguide of X-band (8–12 GHz) for transmitting and receiving purposes and a balanced detector for absolute phase determination have been utilized. The details of the Alborz Tokamak FM reflectometry components focusing on the antenna and waveguide design and mounting are described in this paper. Additionally, the procedure of plasma profile reconstruction using the system output signal is discussed. This system uses signal phase shift to determine the position of the cutoff layer.

  12. Investigation of monolithic passively mode-locked quantum dot lasers with extremely low repetition frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianhong; Cao, Juncheng; Montrosset, Ivo

    2015-01-01

    The dynamical regimes and performance optimization of quantum dot monolithic passively mode-locked lasers with extremely low repetition rate are investigated using the numerical method. A modified multisection delayed differential equation model is proposed to accomplish simulations of both two-section and three-section passively mode-locked lasers with long cavity. According to the numerical simulations, it is shown that fundamental and harmonic mode-locking regimes can be multistable over a wide current range. These dynamic regimes are studied, and the reasons for their existence are explained. In addition, we demonstrate that fundamental pulses with higher peak power can be achieved when the laser is designed to work in a region with smaller differential gain.

  13. Design of Tank Velocity Based on Multi-Mode Natural Frequencies for Suppression of Sloshing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Taegwon; Kim, Dongjoo [Kumoh Nat’l Institute of Technology, Gumi (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Suppression of sloshing is essential to achieve fast transportation and stable maneuvering of tanks partially filled with liquid. In this study, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the effects of the acceleration magnitude and the acceleration duration of triangular velocity profiles on sloshing when a rectangular tank moves horizontally. We previously reported, based on only the first natural mode, that sloshing is significantly suppressed when the acceleration duration equals the first natural period of sloshing. On the other hand, the present CFD simulations find the best acceleration duration for minimum sloshing and explains the results considering higher modes as well as the first mode. We also perform the analysis using an equivalent model based on masses and springs, and evaluate its accuracy by comparing it with the CFD simulation results.

  14. Fracture mode, microstructure and temperature-dependent elastic moduli for thermoelectric composites of PbTe-PbS with SiC nanoparticle additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Jennifer E.; Case, Eldon D.; Schmidt, Robert D.; Wu, Chun-I.; Hogan, Timothy P.; Trejo, Rosa M.; Lara-Curzio, Edgar; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-six (Pb0.95Sn0.05Te)0.92(PbS)0.08-0.055% PbI2-SiC nanoparticle (SiCnp) composite thermoelectric specimens were either hot pressed or pulsed electric current sintered (PECS). Bloating (a thermally induced increase in porosity, P, for as-densified specimens) was observed during annealing at temperatures >603 K for hot-pressed specimens and PECS-processed specimens from wet milled powders, but in contrast seven out of seven specimens densified by PECS from dry milled powders showed no observable bloating following annealing at temperatures up to 936 K. In this study, bloating in the specimens was accessed via thermal annealing induced changes in (i) porosity measured by scanning electron microscopy on fractured specimen surfaces, (ii) specimen volume and (iii) elastic moduli. The moduli were measured by resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. SiCnp additions (1-3.5 vol.%) changed the fracture mode from intergranular to transgranular, inhibited grain growth, and limited bloating in the wet milled PECS specimens. Inhibition of bloating likely occurs due to cleaning of contamination from powder particle surfaces via PECS processing which has been reported previously in the literature.

  15. Connecting structural relaxation with the low frequency modes in a hard-sphere colloidal glass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, A.; Chikkadi, V.; Schall, P.; Bonn, D.

    2011-01-01

    Structural relaxation in hard-sphere colloidal glasses has been studied using confocal microscopy. The motion of individual particles is followed over long time scales to detect the rearranging regions in the system. We have used normal mode analysis to understand the origin of the rearranging

  16. Manual B-mode versus automated radio-frequency carotid intima-media thickness measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, Soner; Plantinga, Yvonne; Dijk, Joke M.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Bots, Michiel L.; Algra, N. N.; Doevendans, P. A.; Eikelboom, C.; van der Graaf, Y.; Grobbee, E.; Kappelle, L. J.; Mali, W. P. Th M.; Moll, F. L.; Rutten, G. E. H. M.; Visseren, F. L. J.

    2009-01-01

    Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) serves as an indicator of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk. Manual measurements of B-mode ultrasound images are the most applied method. Automated measurements with radiofrequency (RF) ultrasound have been suggested as an alternative. The aim of this

  17. Elastic and elastic-plastic behaviour of a piping system during blowdown - Comparison of measurement and calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petruschke, W.; Strunk, G.

    1987-01-01

    The investigations according to the system identification show that the piping model using beam theory and flexibility factors according to the Karman theory are adequate for evaluating natural frequencies, mode shapes, static displacements and stresses. The same accuracy can be seen by comparing the piping response due to blowdown within the elastic range. The simplified elastic-plastic analysis in general overestimates the maximum amplitudes while the frequency content is not simulated very well. For practical purposes, it can be an adequate tool in many cases. The elastic-plastic analysis is the most expensive procedure but gives also the best results. The use of beam elements with multilinear moment-curvature relationships results in a good approximation for the global behaviour (displacements). The strains according to this theory only include the beam deformation modes

  18. Nonlinear generation of non-acoustic modes by low-frequency sound in a vibrationally relaxing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perelomova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Two dynamic equations referring to a weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive flow of a gas in which molecular vibrational relaxation takes place, are derived. The first one governs an excess temperature associated with the thermal mode, and the second one describes variations in vibrational energy. Both quantities refer to non-wave types of gas motion. These variations are caused by the nonlinear transfer of acoustic energy into thermal mode and internal vibrational degrees of freedom of a relaxing gas. The final dynamic equations are instantaneous; they include a quadratic nonlinear acoustic source, reflecting the nonlinear character of interaction of low-frequency acoustic and non-acoustic motions of the fluid. All types of sound, periodic or aperiodic, may serve as an acoustic source of both phenomena. The low-frequency sound is considered in this study. Some conclusions about temporal behavior of non-acoustic modes caused by periodic and aperiodic sound are made. Under certain conditions, acoustic cooling takes place instead of heating. (author)

  19. High-frequency dual mode pulsed wave Doppler imaging for monitoring the functional regeneration of adult zebrafish hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Jin; Park, Jinhyoung; Kim, Jieun; Kim, Hyung Ham; Lee, Changyang; Hwang, Jae Youn; Lien, Ching-Ling; Shung, K. Kirk

    2015-01-01

    Adult zebrafish is a well-known small animal model for studying heart regeneration. Although the regeneration of scars made by resecting the ventricular apex has been visualized with histological methods, there is no adequate imaging tool for tracking the functional recovery of the damaged heart. For this reason, high-frequency Doppler echocardiography using dual mode pulsed wave Doppler, which provides both tissue Doppler (TD) and Doppler flow in a same cardiac cycle, is developed with a 30 MHz high-frequency array ultrasound imaging system. Phantom studies show that the Doppler flow mode of the dual mode is capable of measuring the flow velocity from 0.1 to 15 cm s−1 with high accuracy (p-value = 0.974 > 0.05). In the in vivo study of zebrafish, both TD and Doppler flow signals were simultaneously obtained from the zebrafish heart for the first time, and the synchronized valve motions with the blood flow signals were identified. In the longitudinal study on the zebrafish heart regeneration, the parameters for diagnosing the diastolic dysfunction, for example, E/Em < 10, E/A < 0.14 for wild-type zebrafish, were measured, and the type of diastolic dysfunction caused by the amputation was found to be similar to the restrictive filling. The diastolic function was fully recovered within four weeks post-amputation. PMID:25505135

  20. Low-Frequency Shear and Layer-Breathing Modes in Raman Scattering of Two-Dimensional Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liangbo; Zhang, Jun; Sumpter, Bobby G; Tan, Qing-Hai; Tan, Ping-Heng; Meunier, Vincent

    2017-12-26

    Ever since the isolation of single-layer graphene in 2004, two-dimensional layered structures have been among the most extensively studied classes of materials. To date, the pool of two-dimensional materials (2DMs) continues to grow at an accelerated pace and already covers an extensive range of fascinating and technologically relevant properties. An array of experimental techniques have been developed and used to characterize and understand these properties. In particular, Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a key experimental technique, thanks to its capability to identify minute structural and electronic effects in nondestructive measurements. While high-frequency (HF) intralayer Raman modes have been extensively employed for 2DMs, recent experimental and theoretical progress has demonstrated that low-frequency (LF) interlayer Raman modes are more effective at determining layer numbers and stacking configurations and provide a unique opportunity to study interlayer coupling. These advantages are due to 2DMs' unique interlayer vibration patterns where each layer behaves as an almost rigidly moving object with restoring forces corresponding to weak interlayer interactions. Compared to HF Raman modes, the relatively small attention originally devoted to LF Raman modes is largely due to their weaker signal and their proximity to the strong Rayleigh line background, which previously made their detection challenging. Recent progress in Raman spectroscopy with technical and hardware upgrades now makes it possible to probe LF modes with a standard single-stage Raman system and has proven crucial to characterize and understand properties of 2DMs. Here, we present a comprehensive and forward-looking review on the current status of exploiting LF Raman modes of 2DMs from both experimental and theoretical perspectives, revealing the fundamental physics and technological significance of LF Raman modes in advancing the field of 2DMs. We review a broad array of materials, with

  1. Observation of Ω mode electron heating in dusty argon radio frequency discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Killer, Carsten; Bandelow, Gunnar; Schneider, Ralf; Melzer, André [Institut für Physik, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Matyash, Konstantin [Universitätsrechenzentrum, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-Universität Greifswald, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    The time-resolved emission of argon atoms in a dusty plasma has been measured with phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy using an intensified charge-coupled device camera. For that purpose, three-dimensional dust clouds have been confined in a capacitively coupled rf argon discharge with the help of thermophoretic levitation. While electrons are exclusively heated by the expanding sheath (α mode) in the dust-free case, electron heating takes place in the entire plasma bulk when the discharge volume is filled with dust particles. Such a behavior is known as Ω mode, first observed in electronegative plasmas. Furthermore, particle-in-cell simulations have been carried out, which reproduce the trends of the experimental findings. These simulations support previous numerical models showing that the enhanced atomic emission in the plasma can be attributed to a bulk electric field, which is mainly caused by the reduced electrical conductivity due to electron depletion.

  2. Radio frequency ablation in the rabbit lung using wet electrodes: comparison of monopolar and dual bipolar electrode mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Gong Yong; Park, Sang Hee; Han, Young Min; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Jeon, Soo Bin; Lee, Yong Chul

    2006-01-01

    To compare the effect of radio frequency ablation (RFA) on the dimensions of radio frequency coagulation necrosis in a rabbit lung using a wet electrode in monopolar mode with that in dual electrode bipolar mode at different infusion rates (15 mm/hr versus 30 ml/hr) and saline concentrations (0.9% normal versus 5.8% hypertonic saline. Fifty ablation zones (one ablation zone in each rabbit) were produced in 50 rabbit using one or two 16-guage wet electrodes with a 1- cm active tip. The RFA system used in the monopolar and dual electrode wet bipolar RFA consisted of a 375-kHz generator (Elektrotom HiTT 106, Berchtold, Medizinelektronik, Germany). The power used was 30 watts and the exposure time was 5 minutes. The rabbits were assigned to one of five groups. Group A (n = 10) was infused with 0.9% NaCl used at a rate of 30 ml/hr in a monopolar mode. Groups B (n=10) and C (n=10) were infused with 0.9% NaCl at a rate of 15 and 30ml/hr, respectively in dual electrode bipolar mode; groups D (n=10) and E (n=10) were infused with 5.8% NaCl at a rate of 15 and 30 ml/hr, respectively in a dual electrode bipolar mode. The dimensions of the ablation zones in the gross specimens from the groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance by means of the Scheffe test (post-hoc testing). The mean largest diameter of the ablation zones was larger in dual electrode bipolar mode (30.9 ± 4.4 mm) than in monopolar mode (22.5 ± 3.5 mm). The mean smallest diameter of the ablation zones was larger in dual electrode bipolar mode (22.3 ± 2.5 mm) than in monopolar mode (19.5 ± 3.5 mm). There were significant differences in the largest and smallest dimension between the monopolar (group A ) ana dual electrode wet bipolar mode (groups B-E). In dual electrode bipolar mode, the mean largest diameter of the ablation zones was larger at an infusion rate of 15 ml/hr (34.2 ± 4.0 mm) than at 30 ml/hr (27.6 ± 0.0 mm), and the mean smallest diameter of the ablation zones was larger at an

  3. Low-frequency REB modulation and acceleration of ions in a supercritical mode during plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chupikov, P.T.; Medvedev, D.V.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Panasenko, B.D.

    2004-01-01

    Low-frequency modulation of a high-current relativistic electron beam (REB) and acceleration of ions in the first section of a collective ion accelerator as studied experimentally. This modulation was obtained due to periodic compensation of a virtual cathode charge by plasma ions. An ion flow was produced by an electric field of virtual cathode when plasma assists. Plasma was formed by the four Bostick plasma guns placed at equal distance along the periphery of the drift chamber. The low-frequency modulation with depth 10 % at frequency 46 MHz was obtained. The ion energy was measured using the magnetic analyzer. The ion energy that probably was obtained in the potential well of the virtual cathode exceeded the REB energy

  4. High-frequency imaging of elastic contrast and contact area with implications for naturally observed changes in fault properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Kohei; Kilgore, Brian D.; Beeler, Nicholas M.; Nakatani, Masao

    2014-01-01

    During localized slip of a laboratory fault we simultaneously measure the contact area and the dynamic fault normal elastic stiffness. One objective is to determine conditions where stiffness may be used to infer changes in area of contact during sliding on nontransparent fault surfaces. Slip speeds between 0.01 and 10 µm/s and normal stresses between 1 and 2.5 MPa were imposed during velocity step, normal stress step, and slide-hold-slide tests. Stiffness and contact area have a linear interdependence during rate stepping tests and during the hold portion of slide-hold-slide tests. So long as linearity holds, measured fault stiffness can be used on nontransparent materials to infer changes in contact area. However, there are conditions where relations between contact area and stiffness are nonlinear and nonunique. A second objective is to make comparisons between the laboratory- and field-measured changes in fault properties. Time-dependent changes in fault zone normal stiffness made in stress relaxation tests imply postseismic wave speed changes on the order of 0.3% to 0.8% per year in the two or more years following an earthquake; these are smaller than postseismic increases seen within natural damage zones. Based on scaling of the experimental observations, natural postseismic fault normal contraction could be accommodated within a few decimeter wide fault core. Changes in the stiffness of laboratory shear zones exceed 10% per decade and might be detectable in the field postseismically.

  5. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauste, R.; Moreno-Navarro, F.; Gallego, R.; Rubio-Gámez, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers. [es

  6. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya

    2010-11-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging to interrogate atherosclerotic plaques in vivo in large arteries. The goal of this investigation is twofold: (i) introduce a modeling framework for residual stress that unlike traditional Fung type classical opening angle models may be used for a diseased artery, and (ii) investigate the sensitivity of the spectra of small amplitude high frequency time harmonic vibrations superimposed on a large deformation to the details of the residual stress stored in arteries through a numerical simulation using physiologic parameter values under both low and high blood pressure loadings. The modeling framework also points the way towards an inverse problem using IVUS techniques to estimate residual stress in healthy and diseased arteries. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Analysis of the sensitivity of the impact resonance frequency test as a tool to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Tauste

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The modulus value of bituminous materials is a key factor in the design of road pavements and the estimation of their life service. This parameter can be measured in laboratory but, unfortunately, this requires the deterioration of the pavement so as the consumption of time and resources. Therefore, this study analyses the feasibility of using impact resonance frequency tests as an alternative to traditional methods for determining the dynamic modulus of bituminous mixtures. The sensitivity of this technique has been studied by analyzing its repeatability and reproducibility, studying the variations in the values measured by modifying the dimensions of the specimens, test temperatures and types of mixture tested. In addition, this non-destructive technique has been compared with other traditional tests used to determine the elastic properties of bituminous materials. The results show that this test could be an interesting tool to characterize the properties and damage state of asphalt layers.

  8. Effects of an applied low frequency field on the dynamics of a two-level atom interacting with a single-mode field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xun-Wei, Xu; Nian-Hua, Liu

    2010-01-01

    The effects of an applied low frequency field on the dynamics of a two-level atom interacting with a single-mode field are investigated. It is shown that the time evolution of the atomic population is mainly controlled by the coupling constants and the frequency of the low frequency field, which leads to a low frequency modulation function for the time evolution of the upper state population. The amplitude of the modulation function becomes larger as the coupling constants increase. The frequency of the modulation function is proportional to the frequency of the low frequency field, and decreases with increasing coupling constant. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  9. Global low-frequency modes in weakly ionized magnetized plasmas: effects of equilibrium plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.; Pierre, Th.; Zagorodny, A.

    2004-01-01

    The linear and non-linear properties of global low-frequency oscillations in cylindrical weakly ionized magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically for the conditions of equilibrium plasma rotation. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental observations of rotating plasmas in laboratory devices, such as Mistral and Mirabelle in France, and KIWI in Germany. (authors)

  10. HIGHER MODE FREQUENCY EFFECTS ON RESONANCE IN MACHINERY, STRUCTURES, AND PIPE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.

    2010-05-02

    The complexities of resonance in multi-degree of freedom systems (multi-DOF) may be clarified using graphic presentations. Multi-DOF systems represent actual systems, such as beams or springs, where multiple, higher order, natural frequencies occur. Resonance occurs when a cyclic load is applied to a structure, and the frequency of the applied load equals one of the natural frequencies. Both equations and graphic presentations are available in the literature for single degree of freedom (SDOF) systems, which describe the response of spring-mass-damper systems to harmonically applied, or cyclic, loads. Loads may be forces, moments, or forced displacements applied to one end of a structure. Multi-DOF systems are typically described only by equations in the literature, and while equations certainly permit a case by case analysis for specific conditions, graphs provide an overall comprehension not gleaned from single equations. In fact, this collection of graphed equations provides novel results, which describe the interactions between multiple natural frequencies, as well as a comprehensive description of increased vibrations near resonance.

  11. SiOx Ink-Repellent Layer Deposited by Radio Frequency (RF) Plasmas in Continuous Wave and Pulse Mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qiang; Fu Yabo; Pang Hua; Zhang Yuefei; Zhang Guangqiu

    2007-01-01

    Low surface energy layers, proposed application for non-water printing in computer to plate (CTP) technology, are deposited in both continuous wave and pulse radio frequency (13.56 MHz) plasma with hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) as precursor. It is found that the plasma mode dominates the polymer growth rate and the surface composition. Derived from the spectra of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and combined with printable test it is concluded that concentration of Si in coatings plays an important role for the ink printability and the ink does not adhere on the surface with high silicon concentration

  12. Systematic analysis of whistler-mode emissions below the lower hybrid frequency based on the data of the Cluster project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemec, F.; Santolik, O.; Gereova, K.; Macusova, E.; Cornilleau-Wehrlin, N.

    2003-12-01

    We report results of a systematic analysis of equatorial noise below the local lower hybrid frequency. Our analysis is based on the entire data set collected by the STAFF-SA instruments on board the Cluster spacecraft during the first two years of operation (2001 - 2002). We compare intensities of equatorial noise with other whistler-mode emissions, for example with chorus or hiss. The results indicate that these emissions can play a significant role in the dynamics of the inner magnetosphere. Using the multipoint measurement we show considerable spatio-temporal variations of the wave intensity.

  13. Temperature dependence of elastic properties of paratellurite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvestrova, I.M.; Pisarevskii, Y.V.; Senyushenkov, P.A.; Krupny, A.I.

    1987-01-01

    New data are presented on the temperature dependence of the elastic wave velocities, elastic stiffness constants, and thermal expansion of paratellurite. It is shown that the external pressure appreciably influences the elastic properties of TeO 2 , especially the temperature dependence of the elastic modulus connected with the crystal soft mode. (author)

  14. Two discharge modes of a repetitive nanosecond pulsed helium glow discharge under sub-atmospheric pressure in the repetition frequency range of 20 to 600 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yusuke; Maegawa, Takuya; Otsubo, Akira; Nishimura, Yoshimi; Nagata, Masayoshi; Yatsuzuka, Mitsuyasu

    2018-05-01

    Two discharge modes, α and γ, of a repetitive nanosecond pulsed helium glow discharge at a gas pressure of 10 kPa in the repetition frequency range from 20 to 600 kHz are reported for the first time. The pulsed glow discharge is produced in a pair of parallel plate metal electrodes without insertion of dielectrics. The α mode discharge is volumetrically produced in the electrode gap at a low-repetition frequency, whereas the γ mode discharge is localized at the cathode surface at a high-repetition frequency. At high-repetition frequency, the time interval between voltage pulses is shorter than the lifetime of the afterglow produced by the preceding discharge. Then, the γ mode discharge is maintained by a large number of secondary electrons emitted from the cathode exposed to high-density ions and metastable helium atoms in the afterglow. In the α mode discharge with a low-repetition frequency operation, primary electrons due to gas ionization dominate the ionization process. Thus, a large discharge voltage is needed for the excitation of the α mode discharge. It is established that the bifurcation of α-γ discharge mode, accompanied by a decrease in the discharge voltage, occurs at the high-repetition frequency of ∼120 kHz.

  15. INVESTIGATION ON ESTABLISHED OPERATIONAL MODES OF FREQUENCY-CONTROLLED INDUCTION GENERATOR OF WIND POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. I. Mustafayev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes an analytical expression for calculating a manipulated variable of stator voltage in a frequency-controlled induction generator with a cage rotor of a wind power plant while regulating a constant value of the absolute slip of the generator. Comparison of the calculated results by the proposed expression and full differential equations of the generator (an equation of state at steady state has confirmed a high accuracy of the analytical expression.

  16. Bright squeezed vacuum in a nonlinear interferometer: frequency/temporal Schmidt-mode description

    OpenAIRE

    Sharapova, P. R.; Tikhonova, O. V.; Lemieux, S.; Boyd, R. W.; Chekhova, M. V.

    2018-01-01

    Control over the spectral properties of the bright squeezed vacuum (BSV), a highly multimode non-classical macroscopic state of light that can be generated through high-gain parametric down conversion, is crucial for many applications. In particular, in several recent experiments BSV is generated in a strongly pumped SU(1,1) interferometer to achieve phase supersensitivity, perform broadband homodyne detection, or tailor the frequency spectrum of squeezed light. In this work, we present an an...

  17. Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supplies.:Miniaturization of Power Electronics.

    OpenAIRE

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Andersen, Michael A. E.; Knott, Arnold

    2015-01-01

    The importance of technology and electronics in our daily life is constantly increasing. At the same time portability and energy efficiency are currently some of the hottest topics. This creates a huge need for power converters in a compact form factor and with high efficiency, which can supply these electronic devices. This calls for new technologies in order to miniaturize the power electronics of today. One way to do this is by increasing the switching frequency dramatically and develop ve...

  18. Vibrational modes and frequencies of borophene in comparison with graphene nanosheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghzadeh, S.; Khatibi, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, for the first time, by applying molecular dynamics simulation in conjugation with frequency domain decomposition, it was demonstrated that borophene resonators are at least 100% more efficient than graphene ones. It was also shown that this significant superiority does not arise solely from the difference between the molecular weights of borophene and graphene, but rather from the amazing intrinsic mechanical properties of borophene. Interest in detecting lower masses and lower pressures has led to a scientific race to find resonators with higher resonant frequencies. As a powerful rival of graphene, and used to fabricate sensors with lower-than-zeptogram resolutions, borophene promises enhanced future capabilities. Studies of the effects of geometrical parameters have verified that resonance is fully dependent on resonator size and chirality. The fundamental natural frequency of a rectangular borophene sheet is much higher when its zigzag edge is longer than the armchair edge, but not the other way around. Generally, it can be concluded that a rectangular borophene resonator with a longer zigzag edge achieves a higher resonance than a graphene resonator of equivalent weight. As a final fascinating conclusion: Borophene seems to be superior to graphene in resonance applications.

  19. Phase synchronization in a two-mode solid state laser: Periodic modulations with the second relaxation oscillation frequency of the laser output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Tzu-Fang; Jao, Kuan-Hsuan; Hung, Yao-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Phase synchronization (PS) in a periodically pump-modulated two-mode solid state laser is investigated. Although PS in the laser system has been demonstrated in response to a periodic modulation with the main relaxation oscillation (RO) frequency of the free-running laser, little is known about the case of modulation with minor RO frequencies. In this Letter, the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method is utilized to decompose the laser time series into a set of orthogonal modes and to examine the intrinsic PS near the frequency of the second RO. The degree of PS is quantified by means of a histogram of phase differences and the analysis of Shannon entropy. - Highlights: • We study the intrinsic phase synchronization in a periodically pump-modulated two-mode solid state laser. • The empirical mode decomposition method is utilized to define the intrinsic phase synchronization. • The degree of phase synchronization is quantified by a proposed synchronization coefficient

  20. A continuous-discrete approach for evaluation of natural frequencies and mode shapes of high-rise buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekinejad, Mohsen; Rahgozar, Reza; Malekinejad, Ali; Rahgozar, Peyman

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a continuous-discrete approach based on the concept of lumped mass and equivalent continuous approach is proposed for free vibration analysis of combined system of framed tube, shear core and outrigger-belt truss in high-rise buildings. This system is treated as a continuous system (i.e., discrete beams and columns are replaced with equivalent continuous membranes) and a discrete system (or lumped mass system) at different stages of dynamic analysis. The structure is discretized at each floor of the building as a series of lumped masses placed at the center of shear core. Each mass has two transitional degrees of freedom (lateral and axial( and one rotational. The effect of shear core and outrigger-belt truss on framed tube system is modeled as a rotational spring placed at the location of outrigger-belt truss system along structure's height. By solving the resulting eigen problem, natural frequencies and mode-shapes are obtained. Numerical examples are presented to show acceptable accuracy of the procedure in estimating the fundamental frequencies and corresponding mode shapes of the combined system as compared to finite element analysis of the complete structure. The simplified proposed method is much faster and should be more suitable for rapid interactive design.

  1. Active sources in the cutoff of centrifugal fans to reduce the blade tones at higher-order duct mode frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neise, W.; Koopmann, G. H.

    1991-01-01

    A previously developed (e.g., Neise and Koopmann, 1984; Koopmann et al., 1988) active noise control technique in which the unwanted acoustic signals from centrifugal fans are suppressed by placing two externally driven sources near the cutoff of the casing was applied to the frequency region where not only plane sound waves are propagational in the fan ducts but also higher-order acoustic modes. Using a specially designed fan noise testing facility, the performance of two fans (280-mm impeller diam and 508 mm diam) was monitored with static pressure taps mounted peripherally around the inlet nozzle. Experimental results show that the aerodynamically generated source pressure field around the cutoff is too complex to be successfully counterimaged by only two active sources introduced in this region. It is suggested that, for an efficient application of this noise control technique in the higher-order mode frequency regime, it is neccessary to use an active source involving larger number of individually driven loudspeakers.

  2. Optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with hybrid mode-locking and a broad tunable range of repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Honglei; Wu, Xuejian; Zhang, Hongyuan; Zhao, Shijie; Yang, Lijun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-12-01

    We present an optically stabilized Erbium fiber frequency comb with a broad repetition rate tuning range based on a hybrid mode-locked oscillator. We lock two comb modes to narrow-linewidth reference lasers in turn to investigate the best performance of control loops. The control bandwidth of fast and slow piezoelectric transducers reaches 70 kHz, while that of pump current modulation with phase-lead compensation is extended to 32 kHz, exceeding laser intrinsic response. Eventually, simultaneous lock of both loops is realized to totally phase-stabilize the comb, which will facilitate precision dual-comb spectroscopy, laser ranging, and timing distribution. In addition, a 1.8-MHz span of the repetition rate is achieved by an automatic optical delay line that is helpful in manufacturing a secondary comb with a similar repetition rate. The oscillator is housed in a homemade temperature-controlled box with an accuracy of ±0.02  K, which not only keeps high signal-to-noise ratio of the beat notes with reference lasers, but also guarantees self-starting at the same mode-locking every time.

  3. Frequency Noise Suppression of a Single Mode Laser with an Unbalanced Fiber Interferometer for Subnanometer Interferometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Radek; Čížek, Martin; Mikel, Břetislav; Číp, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2015), s. 1342-1355 ISSN 1424-8220 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP102/12/P962; GA ČR GAP102/10/1813; GA TA ČR TA01010995; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1212; GA MŠk ED0017/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : unbalanced interferometer * fiber spool * PI control * frequency noise Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.033, year: 2015

  4. Time Reversal of Arbitrary Photonic Temporal Modes via Nonlinear Optical Frequency Conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Raymer, Michael G; Reddy, Dileep V; van Enk, Steven J; McKinstrie, Colin J

    2017-01-01

    Single-photon wave packets can carry quantum information between nodes of a quantum network. An important general operation in photon-based quantum information systems is blind reversal of a photon's temporal wave-packet envelope, that is, the ability to reverse an envelope without knowing the temporal state of the photon. We present an all-optical means for doing so, using nonlinear-optical frequency conversion driven by a short pump pulse. This scheme allows for quantum operations such as a...

  5. Excitation of high frequency pressure driven modes in non-axisymmetric equilibrium at high βpol in PBX-M

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sesnic, S.; Holland, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Asakura, N.; Bell, R. E.; Bernabei, S.; Chance, M. S.; Duperrex, P.-A.; Fonck, R. J.; Gammel, G. M.; Greene, G. J.; Hatcher, R. E.; Jardin, S. C.; Jiang, T.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B.; Levinton, F. M.; Manickam, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S. F.; Powell, E. T.; Qin, Y.; Roberts, D. W.; Sauthoff, N. R.

    1993-12-01

    High frequency pressure driven modes have been observed in high poloidal beta discharges in the Princeton Beta Experiment Modification (PBX-M). These modes are excited in a non-axisymmetric equilibrium characterized by a large, low frequency mt = 1/nt = 1 island, and they are capable of expelling fast ions. The modes reside on or very close to the q = 1 surface and have mode numbers with either mh = nh or (less probably) mh/nh = mh/(mh-1), with mh varying between 3 and 10. Occasionally these modes are simultaneously localized in the vicinity of the ml = 2/nl = 1 island. The high frequency modes near the q = 1 surface also exhibit a ballooning character, being significantly stronger on the large major radius side of the plasma. When a large mt = 1/nt = 1 island is present, the mode is poloidally localized in the immediate vicinity of the X point of the island. The modes occur exclusively in high beta beam heated discharges and are likely to be driven by the beam ions. They can thus be a manifestation of either a toroidicity induced shear Alfven eigenmode (TAE) at q = (2mh+1)/2nh, a kinetic ballooning mode, or some other type of pressure driven (high β) mode. Most of the data are consistent with the theoretical predictions for the TAE gap mode. Since the high frequency modes in PBX-M, however, are found exclusively on or in the immediate neighbourhood of magnetic surfaces with low rational numbers (q = 1, 2,...), other possibilities are not excluded

  6. Influence of high-frequency electromagnetic fields on different modes of cell death and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Port, M; Abend, M; Römer, B; Van Beuningen, D

    2003-09-01

    International thresholds for exposure to non-ionizing radiation leading to non-thermal effects were conservatively set by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). The aim of this study was to examine whether biological effects such as different modes of cell death and gene expression modifications related to tumorgenesis are detectable above the threshold defined. Human leukaemia cells (HL-60) grown in vitro were exposed to electromagnetic fields (EMF; t 1/2(r) about 1 ns; field strength about 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure) leading to non-thermal effects using a high-voltage-improved GTEM cell 5302 (EMCO) connected to a pulse generator NP20 (C = 1 nF, U(Load) = 20kV). HL-60 cells were harvested at 0, 24, 48 and 72 h after radiation exposure. Micronuclei, apoptosis and abnormal cells (e.g. necrosis) were determined using morphological criteria. In parallel, the expression of 1176 genes was measured using Atlas Human 1.2. Array. Based on high data reproducibility calculated from two independent experiments (> 99%), array analysis was performed. No significant change in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal cells and differential gene expression was found. Exposure of HL-60 cells to EMFs 25 times higher than the ICNIRP reference levels for occupational exposure failed to induce any changes in apoptosis, micronucleation, abnormal morphologies and gene expression. Further experiments using EMFs above the conservatively defined reference level set by the ICNIRP may be desirable.

  7. Nonlinear propagation of ultra-low-frequency electronic modes in a magnetized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.

    1999-07-01

    A theoretical investigation has been made of nonlinear propagation of ultra-low-frequency electromagnetic waves in a magnetized two fluid (negatively charged dust and positively charged ion fluids) dusty plasma. These are modified Alfven waves for small value of θ and are modified magnetosonic waves for large θ, where θ is the angle between the directions of the external magnetic field and the wave propagation. A nonlinear evolution equation for the wave magnetic field, which is known as Korteweg de Vries (K-dV) equation and which admits a stationary solitary wave solution, is derived by the reductive perturbation method. The effects of external magnetic field and dust characteristics on the amplitude and the width of these solitary structures are examined. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems, are briefly mentioned. (author)

  8. Far Infrared High Resolution Synchrotron FTIR Spectroscopy of the Low Frequency Bending Modes of Dmso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Smirnova, Irina; Bocquet, Robin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gael; Sadovskii, Dmitrii A.; Pirali, Olivier; Roy, Pascale

    2010-06-01

    In addition to its importance for industrial and environmental studies, the monitoring of DiMethylSulfOxyde (DMSO, (CH_3)_2SO) concentrations is of considerable interest for civil protection. The existing high resolution gas phase spectroscopic data of DMSO only concerned the pure rotational transitions in the ground state. In the Far-IR domain, the low-frequency rovibrational transitions have never previously resolved. The high brightness of the AILES beamline of the synchrotron SOLEIL and the instrumental sensitivity provided by the multipass cell allowed to measure for the first time these transitions. 1581 A-type and C-type transitions in the ν11 band have been assigned and 25 molecular constants of Watson's s-form hamiltonian developed to degree 8 have been fitted within the experimental accuracy. The use of then synchrotron radiation has opened many possibilities for new spectroscopic studies. Together with several other recent studies, our successful measurement and analysis of DMSO convincingly demonstrates the potential of the AILES beamline for high resolution FIR spectroscopy. Thus our present work is just at the beginning of unraveling the rovibrational structure of low frequency bending and torsional vibrational states of DMSO and yielding important comprehensive structural and spectroscopic information on this molecule. L. Margules, R. A. Motienko, E. A. Alekseev, J. Demaison, J. Molec. Spectrosc., 260(23),2009 V. Typke, M. Dakkouri, J. Molec. Struct., 599(177),2001 A. Cuisset, L. Nanobashvili, I. Smirnova, R. Bocquet, F. Hindle, G. Mouret, O. Pirali, P. Roy, D. Sadovskii, Chem. Phys. Lett., accepted for publication

  9. Emergence of linear elasticity from the atomistic description of matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakir, Abdullah, E-mail: acakir@ntu.edu.sg [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Pica Ciamarra, Massimo [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore); Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, CNR–SPIN, Università di Napoli Federico II, I-80126 Napoli (Italy)

    2016-08-07

    We investigate the emergence of the continuum elastic limit from the atomistic description of matter at zero temperature considering how locally defined elastic quantities depend on the coarse graining length scale. Results obtained numerically investigating different model systems are rationalized in a unifying picture according to which the continuum elastic limit emerges through a process determined by two system properties, the degree of disorder, and a length scale associated to the transverse low-frequency vibrational modes. The degree of disorder controls the emergence of long-range local shear stress and shear strain correlations, while the length scale influences the amplitude of the fluctuations of the local elastic constants close to the jamming transition.

  10. Emergence of linear elasticity from the atomistic description of matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, Abdullah; Pica Ciamarra, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of the continuum elastic limit from the atomistic description of matter at zero temperature considering how locally defined elastic quantities depend on the coarse graining length scale. Results obtained numerically investigating different model systems are rationalized in a unifying picture according to which the continuum elastic limit emerges through a process determined by two system properties, the degree of disorder, and a length scale associated to the transverse low-frequency vibrational modes. The degree of disorder controls the emergence of long-range local shear stress and shear strain correlations, while the length scale influences the amplitude of the fluctuations of the local elastic constants close to the jamming transition.

  11. In-Plane free Vibration Analysis of an Annular Disk with Point Elastic Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bashmal, S.; Bhat, R.; Rakheja, S.

    2011-01-01

    In-plane free vibrations of an elastic and isotropic annular disk with elastic constraints at the inner and outer boundaries, which are applied either along the entire periphery of the disk or at a point are investigated. The boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are employed in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to obtain the frequency parameters and the associated mode shapes. Boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are generated for the free boundary conditions of the disk while arti...

  12. Pipe leak diagnostic using high frequency piezoelectric pressure sensor and automatic selection of intrinsic mode function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Hanafi M.; Ghazali, M. F.; Yusof, M. F. M.; Remli, M. A. Pi; Kamarulzaman, M. H.

    2017-10-01

    In a recent study, the analysis of pressure transient signals could be seen as an accurate and low-cost method for leak and feature detection in water distribution systems. Transient phenomena occurs due to sudden changes in the fluid’s propagation in pipelines system caused by rapid pressure and flow fluctuation due to events such as closing and opening valves rapidly or through pump failure. In this paper, the feasibility of the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) method/technique in analysing the pressure transient signals in presented and discussed. HHT is a way to decompose a signal into intrinsic mode functions (IMF). However, the advantage of HHT is its difficulty in selecting the suitable IMF for the next data postprocessing method which is Hilbert Transform (HT). This paper reveals that utilizing the application of an integrated kurtosis-based algorithm for a z-filter technique (I-Kaz) to kurtosis ratio (I-Kaz-Kurtosis) allows/contributes to/leads to automatic selection of the IMF that should be used. This technique is demonstrated on a 57.90-meter medium high-density polyethylene (MDPE) pipe installed with a single artificial leak. The analysis results using the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio revealed/confirmed that the method can be used as an automatic selection of the IMF although the noise level ratio of the signal is low. Therefore, the I-Kaz-kurtosis ratio method is recommended as a means to implement an automatic selection technique of the IMF for HHT analysis.

  13. Experimental Research on the Elastic Deformation Mode of S235JR Rolled Steel Fastened between the Centers of a Universal Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacaru, LL; Axinte, E.; Musca, G.

    2016-11-01

    Elastic deformations of the technological system occur during the mechanical treatment of a blank, regardless of the manner in which it is fastened. The elastic deformation of the blank is significant especially when machining shaft-like parts. The purpose of our research is to compare the mathematical model of blank deformation to the experimental model when the blank, which is a part belonging to the shaft class, is fastened between centers.

  14. Measurements of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode converted wave intensity with phase contrast imaging in Alcator C-Mod and comparison with full-wave simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujii, N.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Lin, Y.; Wright, J. C.; Wukitch, S. J.; Jaeger, E. F.; Green, D. L.; Harvey, R. W.

    2012-01-01

    Radio frequency waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) are widely used to heat tokamak plasmas. In ICRF heating schemes involving multiple ion species, the launched fast waves convert to ion cyclotron waves or ion Bernstein waves at the two-ion hybrid resonances. Mode converted waves are of interest as actuators to optimise plasma performance through current drive and flow drive. In order to describe these processes accurately in a realistic tokamak geometry, numerical simulations are essential, and it is important that these codes be validated against experiment. In this study, the mode converted waves were measured using a phase contrast imaging technique in D-H and D- 3 He plasmas. The measured mode converted wave intensity in the D- 3 He mode conversion regime was found to be a factor of ∼50 weaker than the full-wave predictions. The discrepancy was reduced in the hydrogen minority heating regime, where mode conversion is weaker.

  15. The impact research of control modes in steam turbine control system (digital electric hydraulic to the low-frequency oscillation of grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanghai Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the control theory for steam turbine, the transfer function of the steam turbine control modes in the parallel operation was obtained. The frequency domain analysis indicated that different control modes of turbine control system have different influence on the damping characteristics of the power system. The comparative analysis shows the direction and the degree of the influence under the different oscillation frequency range. This can provide the theory for the suppression of the low-frequency oscillation from turbine side and has a guiding significance for the stability of power system. The results of simulation tests are consistent with the theoretic analysis.

  16. High frequency modes of YBa2Cu3O6+x and their variation with the oxygen content x

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruan Jinghui; Niu Shiwen; Cheng Zhixu; Cheng Yufen; Zeng Xiangxin; Gou Cheng; Wang Jun; Guo Liping; Lin Jun; Yu Ansun; Shen Zhigong; Zhang Panlin; Chai Zhang

    1994-01-01

    Neutron inelastic scattering spectra of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 6+x samples with various oxygen contents x have been measured in the range from 10 to 150 meV with a new type of Be-filter detector spectrometer at the CIAE, Beijing. In semiconducting samples with x=0 and x=0.2, some strong high frequency modes (HFMs) are observed in the range from 60 to 150 meV. However, HFMs are not present in superconducting samples with x=0.78 and 0.97. An anomalous inelastic scattering intensity of the sample with x ≤ 0.2 is about two to three times stronger than that obtained with x=0.78 and 0.97 in the measured energy range from 10 to 150 meV. (orig.)

  17. A devil in the detail: parameter cross-talk from the solar cycle and estimation of solar p-mode frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, W. J.; Jiménez-Reyes, S. J.; Eff-Darwich, A.; Elsworth, Y.; New, R.

    2008-04-01

    Frequencies, powers and damping rates of the solar p modes are all observed to vary over the 11-yr solar activity cycle. Here, we show that simultaneous variations in these parameters give rise to a subtle cross-talk effect, which we call the `devil in the detail', that biases p-mode frequencies estimated from analysis of long power frequency spectra. We also show that the resonant peaks observed in the power frequency spectra show small distortions due to the effect. Most of our paper is devoted to a study of the effect for Sun-as-a-star observations of the low-l p modes. We show that for these data the significance of the effect is marginal. We also touch briefly on the likely l dependence of the effect, and discuss the implications of these results for solar structure inversions.

  18. Frequency of urinary tract infection (UTI) and commonest causative organisms in spinal cord injury patients with various voiding modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahboob, F.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the frequency of urinary tract infection and commonest causative organisms in spinal cord injury patients with various modes of voiding in rehabilitation setup in Pakistan. Study Design: A descriptive study of 100 spinal cord injury patients. Place and Duration of the Study: The Armed Forces Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (AFIRM) Rawalpindi from September 2007 to March 2008 on clinical samples received from admitted patients in CMH Rawalpindi and AFIRM. Material and Methods: In 100 patients of spinal cord urine samples were subjected to Urine Routine examination and Urine Culture sensitivity. Urine culture revealing a bacterial colony count of 105 cfu/ml or higher were considered positive for urinary tract infection (UTI) if present with symptoms. Significant bacteriuria was investigated for spectrum and sensitivity pattern as well. Results: Of all 100 spinal cord patients 52 patients (52%) had symptoms suggestive of UTI but only 37 patients (37%) had significant bacteriuria on urine culture supported by high level pyuria were declared to have UTI. E-coli was the most commonly isolated organism with total no of 20 cases (54.1%) followed by Pseudomonas 6 cases (16.2%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 3 cases (8.1%), Proteus mirabilis 3 cases (8.1%), Citrobacter freundi 2 cases (5.4%) and the least frequent was Morganella morganii with 1 case (2.7%). UTI was most frequent in patients with indwelling catheter and was least associated with self voiding. Conclusion: Urinary Tract Infection was commonly observed among spinal cord injury patients. E-coli was the commonest isolated pathogen followed by Pseudomonas, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Citrobacter freundi, Candida and Morganella morganii in descending order of frequency. UTI was most frequent in patients using indwelling catheter as a mode of voiding. (author)

  19. Unraveling complex nonlinear elastic behaviors in rocks using dynamic acousto-elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J.; Guyer, R.; Renaud, G.; TenCate, J. A.; Johnson, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    In comparison with standard nonlinear ultrasonic methods like frequency mixing or resonance based measurements that allow one to extract average, bulk variations of modulus and attenuation versus strain level, dynamic acousto-elasticity (DAE) allows to obtain the elastic behavior over the entire dynamic cycle, detailing the full nonlinear behavior under tension and compression, including hysteresis and memory effects. This method consists of exciting a sample in Bulk-mode resonance at strains of 10-7 to 10-5 and simultaneously probing with a sequence of high frequency, low amplitude pulses. Time of flight and amplitudes of these pulses, respectively related to nonlinear elastic and dissipative parameters, can be plotted versus vibration strain level. Despite complex nonlinear signatures obtained for most rocks, it can be shown that for low strain amplitude (Pasqualini et al., JGR 2007), but not with the extreme detail of elasticity provided by DAE. Previous quasi-static measurements made in Berea sandstone (Claytor et al, GRL 2009), show that the hysteretic behavior disappears when the protocol is performed at a very low strain-rate (static limit). Therefore, future work will aim at linking quasi-static and dynamic observations, i.e. the frequency or strain-rate dependence, in order to understand underlying physical phenomena.

  20. MIPAS observations of longitudinal oscillations in the mesosphere and the lower thermosphere: climatology of odd-parity daily frequency modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. García-Comas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available MIPAS global Sun-synchronous observations are almost fixed in local time. Subtraction of the descending and ascending node measurements at each longitude only includes the longitudinal oscillations with odd daily frequencies nodd from the Sun's perspective at 10:00. Contributions from the background atmosphere, daily-invariant zonal oscillations and tidal modes with even-parity daily frequencies vanish. We have determined longitudinal oscillations in MIPAS temperature with nodd and wavenumber k = 0–4 from the stratosphere to 150 km from April 2007 to March 2012. To our knowledge, this is the first time zonal oscillations in temperature have been derived pole to pole in this altitude range from a single instrument. The major findings are the detection of (1 migrating tides at northern and southern high latitudes; (2 significant k = 1 activity at extratropical and high latitudes, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere; (3 k = 3 and k = 4 eastward-propagating waves that penetrate the lower thermosphere with a significantly larger vertical wavelength than in the mesosphere; and (4 a migrating tide quasi-biennial oscillation in the stratosphere, mesosphere and lower thermosphere. MIPAS global measurements of longitudinal oscillations are useful for testing tide modeling in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere region and as a lower boundary for models extending higher up in the atmosphere.

  1. A Study of Subseasonal Predictability of the Atmospheric Circulation Low-frequency Modes based on SL-AV forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruglova, Ekaterina; Kulikova, Irina; Khan, Valentina; Tischenko, Vladimir

    2017-04-01

    The subseasonal predictability of low-frequency modes and the atmospheric circulation regimes is investigated based on the using of outputs from global Semi-Lagrangian (SL-AV) model of the Hydrometcentre of Russia and Institute of Numerical Mathematics of Russian Academy of Science. Teleconnection indices (AO, WA, EA, NAO, EU, WP, PNA) are used as the quantitative characteristics of low-frequency variability to identify zonal and meridional flow regimes with focus on control distribution of high impact weather patterns in the Northern Eurasia. The predictability of weekly and monthly averaged indices is estimated by the methods of diagnostic verification of forecast and reanalysis data covering the hindcast period, and also with the use of the recommended WMO quantitative criteria. Characteristics of the low frequency variability have been discussed. Particularly, it is revealed that the meridional flow regimes are reproduced by SL-AV for summer season better comparing to winter period. It is shown that the model's deterministic forecast (ensemble mean) skill at week 1 (days 1-7) is noticeably better than that of climatic forecasts. The decrease of skill scores at week 2 (days 8-14) and week 3( days 15-21) is explained by deficiencies in the modeling system and inaccurate initial conditions. It was noticed the slightly improvement of the skill of model at week 4 (days 22-28), when the condition of atmosphere is more determined by the flow of energy from the outside. The reliability of forecasts of monthly (days 1-30) averaged indices is comparable to that at week 1 (days 1-7). Numerical experiments demonstrated that the forecast accuracy can be improved (thus the limit of practical predictability can be extended) through the using of probabilistic approach based on ensemble forecasts. It is shown that the quality of forecasts of the regimes of circulation like blocking is higher, than that of zonal flow.

  2. Implementation of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) and advanced signal processing for elastic optical networking in accordance with networking and transmission constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Stanley

    An increasing adoption of digital signal processing (DSP) in optical fiber telecommunication has brought to the fore several interesting DSP enabled modulation formats. One such format is orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), which has seen great success in wireless and wired RF applications, and is being actively investigated by several research groups for use in optical fiber telecom. In this dissertation, I present three implementations of OFDM for elastic optical networking and distributed network control. The first is a field programmable gate array (FPGA) based real-time implementation of a version of OFDM conventionally known as intensity modulation and direct detection (IMDD) OFDM. I experimentally demonstrate the ability of this transmission system to dynamically adjust bandwidth and modulation format to meet networking constraints in an automated manner. To the best of my knowledge, this is the first real-time software defined networking (SDN) based control of an OFDM system. In the second OFDM implementation, I experimentally demonstrate a novel OFDM transmission scheme that supports both direct detection and coherent detection receivers simultaneously using the same OFDM transmitter. This interchangeable receiver solution enables a trade-off between bit rate and equipment cost in network deployment and upgrades. I show that the proposed transmission scheme can provide a receiver sensitivity improvement of up to 1.73 dB as compared to IMDD OFDM. I also present two novel polarization analyzer based detection schemes, and study their performance using experiment and simulation. In the third implementation, I present an OFDM pilot-tone based scheme for distributed network control. The first instance of an SDN-based OFDM elastic optical network with pilot-tone assisted distributed control is demonstrated. An improvement in spectral efficiency and a fast reconfiguration time of 30 ms have been achieved in this experiment. Finally, I

  3. Calibration and fluctuation of the secular frequency peak amplitude versus initial condition distribution of the ion cloud confined into a three-dimensional quadrupole ion trap using a fourier transform operating mode and a steady ion flow injection mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janulyte, A.; Andre, J.; Carette, M.; Mercury, M.; Reynard, C; Zerega, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A specific Fourier transform operating mode is applied to a 3-dimensional quadrupolar ion trap for mass analysis (Fourier Transform Quadrupolar Ion Trap (FTQIT) Operating Mode or Mass Spectrometer). With this operating mode, an image signal, which is representative of the collective motion of simultaneously confined ions, is made up from a set of recorded time-of-flight histograms. In an ion trap, the secular frequency of ion motion depends on m/Z ratio of the ion. By Fourier transformation of the image signal, one observes the frequency peak of each confined ionic species. When only one ionic species is confined, the peak amplitude is proportional to the maximal amplitude of the image signal. The maximal amplitude of the image signal is expressed according to the operating parameters, the initial conditions of the ions and the number of ions. Simulation tools lead to fluctuation calculation of the maximal amplitude of the image signal. Two origins are explored: (1) the fluctuation of the numbers of ions according to the steady ion flow injection mode (SIFIM) used with this operating mode and (2) the distribution fluctuation of the initial positions and velocities. Initial confinement conditions, obtained with SIFIM injection mode, lead to optimal detection with small fluctuations of the peak amplitude for Fourier transform operating mode applied to an ion trap. (authors)

  4. Study of guided modes in three-dimensional composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, S.; Gerard, A.

    The propagation of elastic waves in a three-dimensional carbon-carbon composite is modeled with a mixed variational method, using the Bloch or Floquet theories and the Hellinger-Reissner function for two independent fields. The model of the equivalent homogeneous material only exists below a cut-off frequency of about 600 kHz. The existence below the cut-off frequency of two guided waves can account for the presence of a slow guided wave on either side of the cut-off frequency. Optical modes are generated at low frequencies, and can attain high velocites (rapid guided modes of 15,000 m/sec).

  5. Normal mode analysis and applications in biological physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykeman, Eric C; Sankey, Otto F

    2010-10-27

    Normal mode analysis has become a popular and often used theoretical tool in the study of functional motions in enzymes, viruses, and large protein assemblies. The use of normal modes in the study of these motions is often extremely fruitful since many of the functional motions of large proteins can be described using just a few normal modes which are intimately related to the overall structure of the protein. In this review, we present a broad overview of several popular methods used in the study of normal modes in biological physics including continuum elastic theory, the elastic network model, and a new all-atom method, recently developed, which is capable of computing a subset of the low frequency vibrational modes exactly. After a review of the various methods, we present several examples of applications of normal modes in the study of functional motions, with an emphasis on viral capsids.

  6. Elastic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledbetter, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter investigates the following five aspects of engineering-material solid-state elastic constants: general properties, interrelationships, relationships to other physical properties, changes during cooling from ambient to near-zero temperature, and near-zero-temperature behavior. Topics considered include compressibility, bulk modulus, Young's modulus, shear modulus, Poisson's ratio, Hooke's law, elastic-constant measuring methods, thermodynamic potentials, higher-order energy terms, specific heat, thermal expansivity, magnetic materials, structural phase transitions, polymers, composites, textured aggregates, and other-phenomena correlations. Some of the conclusions concerning polycrystalline elastic properties and their temperature dependence are: elastic constants are physical, not mechanical, properties which relate thermodynamically to other physical properties such as specific heat and thermal expansivity; elastic constants at low temperatures are nearly temperature independent, as required by the third law of thermodynamics; and elastic constants can be used to study directional properties of materials, such as textured aggregates and composites

  7. Self-induced parametric amplification arising from nonlinear elastic coupling in a micromechanical resonating disk gyroscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzan, Sarah H; Zega, Valentina; Li, Mo; Ahn, Chae H; Corigliano, Alberto; Kenny, Thomas W; Horsley, David A

    2015-03-12

    Parametric amplification, resulting from intentionally varying a parameter in a resonator at twice its resonant frequency, has been successfully employed to increase the sensitivity of many micro- and nano-scale sensors. Here, we introduce the concept of self-induced parametric amplification, which arises naturally from nonlinear elastic coupling between the degenerate vibration modes in a micromechanical disk-resonator, and is not externally applied. The device functions as a gyroscope wherein angular rotation is detected from Coriolis coupling of elastic vibration energy from a driven vibration mode into a second degenerate sensing mode. While nonlinear elasticity in silicon resonators is extremely weak, in this high quality-factor device, ppm-level nonlinear elastic effects result in an order-of-magnitude increase in the observed sensitivity to Coriolis force relative to linear theory. Perfect degeneracy of the primary and secondary vibration modes is achieved through electrostatic frequency tuning, which also enables the phase and frequency of the parametric coupling to be varied, and we show that the resulting phase and frequency dependence of the amplification follow the theory of parametric resonance. We expect that this phenomenon will be useful for both fundamental studies of dynamic systems with low dissipation and for increasing signal-to-noise ratio in practical applications such as gyroscopes.

  8. A single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin fiber laser passively stabilized at the pump resonance frequency with a dynamic population inversion grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirin, V V; López-Mercado, C A; Kinet, D; Mégret, P; Fotiadi, A A; Zolotovskiy, I O

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a single-longitudinal-mode Brillouin ring fiber laser passively stabilized at the resonance frequency with a 1.7 m section that is an unpumped polarization-maintaining erbium-doped fiber. The two coupled all-fiber Fabry–Perot interferometers that comprise the cavity, in combination with the dynamical population inversion gratings self-induced in the active fiber, provide adaptive pump-mode selection and Stokes wave generation at the same time. The laser is shown to emit a single-frequency Stokes wave with a linewidth narrower than 100 Hz. (letter)

  9. Simultaneous Q-switching and mode-locking in an intracavity frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 / KTP green laser with Cr4+:YAG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhopadhyay, P. K.; Ranganathan, K.; George, J.; Nathan, T. P. S.; Alsous, M. B.

    2007-01-01

    We report intracavity second harmonic (at 532 nm) generation in passively Q-switched mode-locked Nd: YVO4 laser. The width of a typical Q-switched envelope of the mode locked pulses for the green laser was around 65 ± 5 ns and the repetition rate for the mode locked pulses was 400 MHz. The intracavity frequency doubling significantly improves the depth of modulation of the mode locked pulses. The peak power of a single mode locked green pulse near the center of the Q-switched envelope was estimated to be more than 2kw and the average green power was 6 times higher than the CW green power at an incident diode pump power of 6W. (author)

  10. Dense SDM (12-Core × 3-Mode) Transmission Over 527 km With 33.2-ns Mode-Dispersion Employing Low-Complexity Parallel MIMO Frequency-Domain Equalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shibahara, Kohki; Lee, Doohwan; Kobayashi, Takayuki

    2016-01-01

    We propose long-haul space-division-multiplexing (SDM) transmission systems employing parallel multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) and transmission fiber with low differential mode delay (DMD). We first discuss the advantages of parallel MIMO FDE technique in...

  11. Greater repertoire and temporal variability of cross-frequency coupling (CFC modes in resting-state neuromagnetic recordings among children with reading difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavros I Dimitriadis

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCross-frequency, phase-to-amplitude coupling (PAC between neuronal oscillations at rest may serve as the substrate that supports information exchange between functionally specialized neuronal populations both within and between cortical regions. The study utilizes novel algorithms to identify prominent instantaneous modes of cross-frequency coupling and their temporal stability in resting state magnetoencephalography (MEG data from 23 students experiencing severe reading difficulties (RD and 27 age-matched non-impaired readers (NI.Phase coherence estimates were computed in order to identify the prominent mode of PAC interaction for each sensor, sensor pair, and pair of frequency bands (from δ to γ at successive temporal segments of the continuous MEG record. The degree of variability in the characteristic frequency-pair PACf1-f2 modes over time was also estimated. Results revealed a wider repertoire of prominent PAC interactions in RD as compared to NI students, suggesting an altered functional substrate for information exchange between neuronal assemblies in the former group. Moreover, RD students showed significant variability in PAC modes over time. This temporal instability of PAC values was particularly prominent: (a within and between right hemisphere temporal and occipitotemporal sensors and, (b between left hemisphere frontal, temporal, and occipitotemporal sensors and corresponding right hemisphere sites. Altered modes of neuronal population coupling may help account for extant data revealing reduced, task-related neurophysiological and hemodynamic activation in left hemisphere regions involved in the reading network in RD. Moreover, the spatial distribution of pronounced instability of cross-frequency coupling modes in this group may provide an explanation for previous reports suggesting the presence of inefficient compensatory mechanisms to support reading.

  12. Numerical investigation of the propagation of elastic wave modes in a one-dimensional phononic crystal plate coated on a uniform substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Zhilin; Assouar, Badreddine M

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of wave modes in a two-layer free standing plate composed of a one-dimensional phononic crystal (PC) thin layer coated on a uniform substrate was investigated numerically by the modified plane wave expansion method. The band structures of the system with different thicknesses of the substrate were calculated. The numerical result showed that Bragg scattering by the periodic structure in a PC and wave scattering by the free surface could be coupled to each other with an added substrate layer. The properties of the confined modes in such a system, for example, the Love-wave-like mode, the confined PC mode (which is localized mainly in the PC layer) and the surface mode on the free surface of the substrate layer, were investigated.

  13. Dependence of the frequency spectrum of small amplitude vibrations superimposed on finite deformations of a nonlinear, cylindrical elastic body on residual stress

    KAUST Repository

    Gorb, Yuliya; Walton, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    We model and analyze the response of nonlinear, residually stressed elastic bodies subjected to small amplitude vibrations superimposed upon large deformations. The problem derives from modeling the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging

  14. The role of travel mode in engagement with a Radio Frequency ID chip based school physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Coombes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of active travel to school in children is low and declining. For example, the 2014 National Travel Survey showed that just 46% of primary school children walk to school. This is despite the fact that children who actively travel have been shown to be more physically active overall as well as perform better in class. Beat the Street is a community based intervention which uses RFID (Radio Frequency ID chip readers attached to locations around the neighbourhood. The aim of the intervention is to encourage walking and cycling by gamifying these travel behaviours; individuals taking part gain points by touching a smartcard on the readers and these points become part of a competition. One of the aims of Beat the Street is to encourage children who already walk and cycle to and from school to do so more, as well as achieve modal shift from motorised transport to active travel as a means of commuting. However, habitual travel mode is ‘sticky’ and, despite the potential health benefits being greater, it may be more difficult to change mode than it is to encourage more activity in those who already walk or cycle. Set in a neighbourhood in the city of Norwich, England, this analysis examines how travel mode prior to the initiation of Beat the Street is associated with subsequent engagement with the intervention and what the association of this engagement is with physical activity change. Aim: This pilot study evaluates how prior travel mode to school is associated with engagement in the Beat the Street intervention in schoolchildren in the city of Norwich, England. Methods: The Beat the Street intervention was conducted within a Norwich neighbourhood for 9 weeks during May-July 2014. Children were recruited to the evaluation via two schools; one in the intervention neighbourhood, and a control located on the opposite side of the city. All year 4 and 5 children (aged 8-10 years were invited at both schools. Recruited children

  15. The region of influence of significant defects and the mechanical vibrations of linear elastic solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2004-12-01

    The presence of cracks, voids or fields of pores, and their growth under applied forces or environmental actions, can produce a meaningful lowering in the proper frequencies of normal modes of mechanical vibration in machines and structures. A quite general expression for the square of modes proper frequency as a functional of displacement field, density field and elastic moduli fields is used as a starting point. The effect of defects on frequency are modeled as equivalent changes in density and elastic moduli fields, introducing the concept of region of influence of each defect. This region of influence is derived from the relation between the stress field of flawed components in machines or structures, and the elastic energy released from a suitable reference state, due to the presence of significant defects in the above mentioned mechanical components. An approximate analytical expression is obtained, which relates the relative variation in the square of mode s proper frequency with position, size, shape and orientation of defects in mode displacement field. Some simple mathematical models of machine and structural elements with cracks or fields of pores are considered as examples. The connections between the relative lowering in the square of mode s proper frequency and the stress intensity factor of a defect are discussed : the concept of region of influence of a defect is used as a bridge between (low frequency and low amplitude) vibration dynamics and linear elastic fracture mechanics. Some limitations of the present approach are discussed as well as the possibility of applying the region of influence of defects to the damping of normal modes of vibration

  16. Impact of acoustic airflow on intrasinus drug deposition: New insights into the vibrating mode and the optimal acoustic frequency to enhance the delivery of nebulized antibiotic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Lara; Merhie, Amira El; Navarro, Laurent; Prévôt, Nathalie; Durand, Marc; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2015-10-15

    We investigated the impact of vibrating acoustic airflow, the high frequency (f≥100 Hz) and the low frequency (f≤45 Hz) sound waves, on the enhancement of intrasinus drug deposition. (81m)Kr-gas ventilation study was performed in a plastinated human cast with and without the addition of vibrating acoustic airflow. Similarly, intrasinus drug deposition in a nasal replica using gentamicin as a marker was studied with and without the superposition of different modes of acoustic airflow. Ventilation experiments demonstrate that no sinus ventilation was observed without acoustic airflow although sinus ventilation occurred whatever the modes of acoustic airflow applied. Intrasinus drug deposition experiments showed that the high frequency acoustic airflow led to 4-fold increase in gentamicin deposition into the left maxillary sinus and to 2-fold deposition increase into the right maxillary sinus. Besides, the low frequency acoustic airflow demonstrated a significant increase of 4-fold and 2-fold in the right and left maxillary sinuses, respectively. We demonstrated the benefit of different modes of vibrating acoustic airflow for maxillary sinus ventilation and intrasinus drug deposition. The degree of gentamicin deposition varies as a function of frequency of the vibrating acoustic airflow and the geometry of the ostia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Bimodal atomic force microscopy driving the higher eigenmode in frequency-modulation mode: Implementation, advantages, disadvantages and comparison to the open-loop case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, Daniel; Solares, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    We present an overview of the bimodal amplitude-frequency-modulation (AM-FM) imaging mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM), whereby the fundamental eigenmode is driven by using the amplitude-modulation technique (AM-AFM) while a higher eigenmode is driven by using either the constant-excitation or the constant-amplitude variant of the frequency-modulation (FM-AFM) technique. We also offer a comparison to the original bimodal AFM method, in which the higher eigenmode is driven with constant frequency and constant excitation amplitude. General as well as particular characteristics of the different driving schemes are highlighted from theoretical and experimental points of view, revealing the advantages and disadvantages of each. This study provides information and guidelines that can be useful in selecting the most appropriate operation mode to characterize different samples in the most efficient and reliable way.

  18. Vibrations of Elastic Systems With Applications to MEMS and NEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Magrab, Edward B

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a unified approach to the vibrations of elastic systems as applied to MEMS devices, mechanical components, and civil structures. Applications include atomic force microscopes, energy harvesters, and carbon nanotubes and consider such complicating effects as squeeze film damping, viscous fluid loading, in-plane forces, and proof mass interactions with their elastic supports. These effects are analyzed as single degree-of-freedom models and as more realistic elastic structures. The governing equations and boundary conditions for beams, plates, and shells with interior and boundary attachments are derived by applying variational calculus to an expression describing the energy of the system. The advantages of this approach regarding the generation of orthogonal functions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method are demonstrated. A large number of graphs and tables are given to show the impact of various factors on the systems’ natural frequencies, mode shapes, and responses.

  19. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun

    2011-06-26

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun; Wu, Ying; Sheng, Ping; Zhang, Zhaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  1. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeev, T., E-mail: tagir@mailbox.tu-berlin.de; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D. [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H. [Heinrich-Hertz-Institut, Einsteinufer 37, 10587 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-01-19

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning.

  2. 1.55-μm mode-locked quantum-dot lasers with 300 MHz frequency tuning range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeev, T.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Franke, D.; Kreissl, J.; Künzel, H.

    2015-01-01

    Passive mode-locking of two-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on InP is reported. 1250-μm long lasers exhibit a wide tuning range of 300 MHz around the fundamental mode-locking frequency of 33.48 GHz. The frequency tuning is achieved by varying the reverse bias of the saturable absorber from 0 to −2.2 V and the gain section current from 90 to 280 mA. 3 dB optical spectra width of 6–7 nm leads to ex-facet optical pulses with full-width half-maximum down to 3.7 ps. Single-section quantum-dot mode-locked lasers show 0.8 ps broad optical pulses after external fiber-based compression. Injection current tuning from 70 to 300 mA leads to 30 MHz frequency tuning

  3. High-temperature superconducting coplanar-waveguide quarter-wavelength resonator with odd- and even-mode resonant frequencies for dual-band bandpass filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, Kei; Takagi, Yuta; Narahashi, Shoichi [Research Laboratories, NTT DOCOMO, INC., 3-6 Hikari-no-oka Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8536 Japan (Japan); Nojima, Toshio, E-mail: satokei@nttdocomo.co.j [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita 14, Nishi 9, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0814 Japan (Japan)

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents a high-temperature superconducting coplanar-waveguide quarter-wavelength resonator that has two different resonant modes for use in a dual-band bandpass filter (DBPF). An RF filter with multiple passbands such as the DBPF is a basic element that is expected to achieve broadband transmission by using separated frequency bands aggregately and simultaneously in future mobile communication systems. The proposed resonator has a folded center conductor and two open stubs that are aligned close to it. The odd- and even-mode resonant frequencies are configured using the space between the folded center conductor and the open stubs. It is easy to configure the odd- and even-mode coupling coefficients independently because the two resonant modes have different current density distributions. Consequently, a DBPF with two different bandwidths can be easily designed. This paper presents three design examples for a four-pole Chebyshev DBPF with different combinations of fractional bandwidths in order to investigate the validity of the proposed resonator. This paper also presents measured results of the DBPF based on the design examples from the standpoint of experimental investigation. The designed and measured frequency responses confirm that the proposed resonator is effective in achieving DBPFs not only with two of the same bandwidths but also with two different bandwidths.

  4. Mathematical modeling of the crack growth in linear elastic isotropic materials by conventional fracture mechanics approaches and by molecular dynamics method: crack propagation direction angle under mixed mode loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanova, Larisa; Bronnikov, Sergej

    2018-03-01

    The crack growth directional angles in the isotropic linear elastic plane with the central crack under mixed-mode loading conditions for the full range of the mixity parameter are found. Two fracture criteria of traditional linear fracture mechanics (maximum tangential stress and minimum strain energy density criteria) are used. Atomistic simulations of the central crack growth process in an infinite plane medium under mixed-mode loading using Large-scale Molecular Massively Parallel Simulator (LAMMPS), a classical molecular dynamics code, are performed. The inter-atomic potential used in this investigation is Embedded Atom Method (EAM) potential. The plane specimens with initial central crack were subjected to Mixed-Mode loadings. The simulation cell contains 400000 atoms. The crack propagation direction angles under different values of the mixity parameter in a wide range of values from pure tensile loading to pure shear loading in a wide diapason of temperatures (from 0.1 К to 800 К) are obtained and analyzed. It is shown that the crack propagation direction angles obtained by molecular dynamics method coincide with the crack propagation direction angles given by the multi-parameter fracture criteria based on the strain energy density and the multi-parameter description of the crack-tip fields.

  5. Elastic Nonlinear Response in Granular Media Under Resonance Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X.; Johnson, P. A.

    2004-12-01

    We are studying the elastic linear and nonlinear behavior of granular media using dynamic wave methods. In the work presented here, our goal is to quantify the elastic nonlinear response by applying wave resonance. Resonance studies are desirable because they provide the means to easily study amplitude dependencies of elastic nonlinear behavior and thus to characterize the physical nature of the elastic nonlinearity. This work has implications for a variety of topics, in particular, the in situ nonlinear response of surface sediments. For this work we constructed an experimental cell in which high sensitivity dynamic resonance studies were conducted using granular media under controlled effective pressure. We limit our studies here to bulk modes but have the capability to employ shear waves as well. The granular media are composed of glass beads held under pressure by a piston, while applying resonance waves from transducers as both the excitation and the material probe. The container is closed with two fitted pistons and a normal load is applied to the granular sample across the top piston. Force and displacement are measured directly. Resonant frequency sweeps with frequencies corresponding to the fundamental bulk mode are applied to the longitudinal source transducer. The pore pressure in the system is 1 atm. The glass beads used in our experiments are of diameter 0.5 mm, randomly deposited in a duralumin cylinder of diameter 30 mm and height of 15 mm. This corresponds to a granular skeleton acoustic wave velocity of v ª 750m/s under 50 N of force [0.07 Mpa]. The loaded system gives fundamental mode resonances in the audio frequency band at half a wavelength where resonance frequency is effective-pressure dependent. The volume fraction of glass beads thus obtained is found to be 0.63 ± 0.01. Plane-wave generating and detecting transducers of diameter 30 mm are placed on axis at the top and bottom of the cylindrical container in direct contact with the glass

  6. Thermo-mechanical vibration analysis of annular and circular graphene sheet embedded in an elastic medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    Full Text Available In this study, the vibration behavior of annular and circular graphene sheet coupled with temperature change and under in-plane pre-stressed is studied. Influence of the surrounding elastic medium 011 the fundamental frequencies of the single-layered graphene sheets (SLGSs is investigated. Both Winkler-type and Pasternak- type models are employed to simulate the interaction of the graphene sheets with a surrounding elastic medium. By using the nonlocal elasticity theory the governing equation is derived for SLGSs. The closed-form solution for frequency vibration of circular graphene sheets lias been obtained and nonlocal parameter, inplane pre-stressed, the parameters of elastic medium and temperature change appears into arguments of Bessel functions. The results are subsequently compared with valid result reported in the literature and the molecular dynamics (MD results. The effects of the small scale, pre-stressed, mode number, temperature change, elastic medium and boundary conditions on natural frequencies are investigated. The non-dimensional frequency decreases at high temperature case with increasing the temperature change for all boundary conditions. The effect of temperature change 011 the frequency vibration becomes the opposite at high temperature case in compression with the low temperature case. The present research work thus reveals that the nonlocal parameter, boundary conditions and temperature change have significant effects on vibration response of the circular nanoplates. The present results can be used for the design of the next generation of nanodevices that make use of the thermal vibration properties of the graphene.

  7. A 1.4-V 48-μW current-mode front-end circuit for analog hearing aids with frequency compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoyu; Yang Haigang; Li Fanyang; Yin Tao; Liu Fei

    2012-01-01

    A current-mode front-end circuit with low voltage and low power for analog hearing aids is presented. The circuit consists of a current-mode AGC (automatic gain control) and a current-mode adaptive filter. Compared with its conventional voltage-mode counterparts, the proposed front-end circuit has the identified features of frequency compensation based on the state space theory and continuous gain with an exponential characteristic. The frequency compensation which appears only in the DSP unit of the digital hearing aid can upgrade the performance of the analog hearing aid in the field of low-frequency hearing loss. The continuous gain should meet the requirement of any input amplitude level, while its exponential characteristic leads to a large input dynamic range in accordance with the dB SPL (sound pressure level). Furthermore, the front-end circuit also provides a discrete knee point and discrete compression ratio to allow for high calibration flexibility. These features can accommodate users whose ears have different pain thresholds. Taking advantage of the current-mode technique, the MOS transistors work in the subthreshold region so that the quiescent current is small. Moreover, the input current can be compressed to a low voltage signal for processing according to the compression principle from the current-domain to the voltage-domain. Therefore, the objective of low voltage and low power (48 μW at 1.4 V) can be easily achieved in a high threshold-voltage CMOS process of 0.35 μm (V TON + |V TOP |≈ 1.35 V). The THD is below −45 dB. The fabricated chip only occupies the area of 1 × 0.5 mm 2 and 1 × 1 mm 2 .

  8. First Kepler results on compact pulsators - II. KIC 010139564, a new pulsating subdwarf B (V361 Hya) star with an additional low-frequency mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawaler, Stephen; Reed, M.D.; Quint, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We present the discovery of non-radial pulsations in a hot subdwarf B star based on 30.5 d of nearly continuous time series photometry using the Kepler spacecraft. KIC 010139564 is found to be a short-period pulsator of the V361 Hya (EC 14026) class with more than 10 independent pulsation modes...... whose periods range from 130 to 190 s. It also shows one periodicity at a period of 3165 s. If this periodicity is a high-order g-mode, then this star may be the hottest member of the hybrid DW Lyn stars. In addition to the resolved pulsation frequencies, additional periodic variations in the light...... are independent stellar oscillation modes. We find that most of the identified periodicities are indeed stable in phase and amplitude, suggesting a rotation period of 2-3 weeks for this star, but further observations are needed to confirm this suspicion....

  9. MHD-model for low-frequency waves in a tokamak with toroidal plasma rotation and problem of existence of global geodesic acoustic modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.

  10. Stability of Microturbulent Drift Modes during Internal Transport Barrier Formation in the Alcator C-Mod Radio Frequency Heated H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Fiore, C.L.; Dorland, W.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Rewoldt, G.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ernst, D.R.; Rice, J.E.; Wukitch, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Recent H-mode experiments on Alcator C-Mod [I.H. Hutchinson, et al., Phys. Plasmas 1 (1994) 1511] which exhibit an internal transport barrier (ITB), have been examined with flux tube geometry gyrokinetic simulations, using the massively parallel code GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther, G. Rewoldt, and W.M. Tang, Comput. Phys. Commun. 88 (1995) 128]. The simulations support the picture of ion/electron temperature gradient (ITG/ETG) microturbulence driving high xi/ xe and that suppressed ITG causes reduced particle transport and improved ci on C-Mod. Nonlinear calculations for C-Mod confirm initial linear simulations, which predicted ITG stability in the barrier region just before ITB formation, without invoking E x B shear suppression of turbulence. Nonlinear fluxes are compared to experiment, which both show low heat transport in the ITB and higher transport within and outside of the barrier region

  11. Macroscopic and bulk-controlled elastic modes in an interaction of interstitial alcali metal cations within a face-centered cubic crystalline fullerine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatarenko, V.A.; Tsysman, C.L.; Oltarzhevskaya, Y.T. [Institute for Metal Physics, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    The calculations in a majority of previous works for the fulleride (AqC{sub 60}) crystals were performed within the framework of the rigid-lattice model, neglecting the distoration relaxation of the host fullerene (C{sub 60}) crystal caused by the interstitial alkali-metal (A) cations. However, an each cation is a source of a static distoration field, and the resulting field is a superposition of such fields generated by all cations. This is a reason why the host-crystal distortions depend on the A-cations configurations, i.e. on a type of a spatial bulk distribution of interstitial cations. This paper seeks to find a functional relation between the amplitudes of the doping-induced structure-distortion waves and of statistic concentration ones. A semiphenomenological model is constructed here within the scope of statistical-thermodynamic treatment and using the lattice-statistics simulation method. In this model the effects due to the presence of q solute A cations over available interstices (per unit cell) on the statistic inherent reorientation and/or displacements of the solvent molecules from the average-lattice sites as well as on the lattice parameter a of the elastically-anysotropic cubic C{sub 60} crystal are taken into account.

  12. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara

    2011-01-01

    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  13. Excitation of higher radial modes of azimuthal surface waves in the electron cyclotron frequency range by rotating relativistic flow of electrons in cylindrical waveguides partially filled by plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girka, Igor O.; Pavlenko, Ivan V.; Thumm, Manfred

    2018-05-01

    Azimuthal surface waves are electromagnetic eigenwaves of cylindrical plasma-dielectric waveguides which propagate azimuthally nearby the plasma-dielectric interface across an axial external stationary magnetic field. Their eigenfrequency in particular can belong to the electron cyclotron frequency range. Excitation of azimuthal surface waves by rotating relativistic electron flows was studied in detail recently in the case of the zeroth radial mode for which the waves' radial phase change within the layer where the electrons gyrate is small. In this case, just the plasma parameters cause the main influence on the waves' dispersion properties. In the case of the first and higher radial modes, the wave eigenfrequency is higher and the wavelength is shorter than in the case of the zeroth radial mode. This gain being of interest for practical applications can be achieved without any change in the device design. The possibility of effective excitation of the higher order radial modes of azimuthal surface waves is demonstrated here. Getting shorter wavelengths of the excited waves in the case of higher radial modes is shown to be accompanied by decreasing growth rates of the waves. The results obtained here are of interest for developing new sources of electromagnetic radiation, in nano-physics and in medical physics.

  14. Fracton-Elasticity Duality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretko, Michael; Radzihovsky, Leo

    2018-05-01

    Motivated by recent studies of fractons, we demonstrate that elasticity theory of a two-dimensional quantum crystal is dual to a fracton tensor gauge theory, providing a concrete manifestation of the fracton phenomenon in an ordinary solid. The topological defects of elasticity theory map onto charges of the tensor gauge theory, with disclinations and dislocations corresponding to fractons and dipoles, respectively. The transverse and longitudinal phonons of crystals map onto the two gapless gauge modes of the gauge theory. The restricted dynamics of fractons matches with constraints on the mobility of lattice defects. The duality leads to numerous predictions for phases and phase transitions of the fracton system, such as the existence of gauge theory counterparts to the (commensurate) crystal, supersolid, hexatic, and isotropic fluid phases of elasticity theory. Extensions of this duality to generalized elasticity theories provide a route to the discovery of new fracton models. As a further consequence, the duality implies that fracton phases are relevant to the study of interacting topological crystalline insulators.

  15. Coupling single NV-centres to high-Q whispering gallery modes of a preselected frequency-matched microresonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schietinger, Stefan; Benson, Oliver

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we report the controlled coupling of fluorescence from a single NV-centre in a single nanodiamond to the high-Q modes of a preselected microsphere. Microspheres from an ensemble with a finite size distribution can be characterized precisely via white light Mie-scattering. The mode spectrum of individual spheres can be determined with high precision. A sphere with an appropriate spectrum can be selected, and a nanodiamond containing a single NV-centre can be coupled to it. The spectral position of the calculated lowest order whispering gallery modes are found to be in very good agreement with the experimentally observed resonances of the coupled fluorescence from the single NV-re.

  16. THz elastic dynamics in finite-size CoFeB-MgO phononic superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrichs, Henning, E-mail: hulrich@gwdg.de; Meyer, Dennis; Müller, Markus; Wittrock, Steffen; Mansurova, Maria [I. Physical Institute, Georg-August University of Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Walowski, Jakob; Münzenberg, Markus [Institute of Physics, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University of Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 6, 17489 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-10-14

    In this article, we present the observation of coherent elastic dynamics in a nano-scale phononic superlattice, which consists of only 4 bilayers. We demonstrate how ultra-short light pulses with a length of 40 fs can be utilized to excite a coherent elastic wave at 0.535 THz, which persist over about 20 ps. In later steps of the elastic dynamics, modes with frequency of 1.7 THz and above appear. All these modes are related to acoustic band gaps. Thus, the periodicity strongly manifests in the wave physics, although the system under investigation has only a small number of spatial periods. To further illustrate this, we show how by breaking the translational invariance of the superlattice, these features can be suppressed. Discussed in terms of phonon blocking and radiation, we elucidate in how far our structures can be considered as useful building blocks for phononic devices.

  17. Study on Frequency Dependency of ON-Resistance and Pulse-Loss Calculation of MOSFETs for Switch Mode Power Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Hideho; Sato, Ryohei; Iwata, Yoshiharu

    Global efforts toward energy conservation, increasing data centers, and the increasing use of IT equipments are leading to a demand in reduced power consumption of equipments, and power efficiency improvement of power supply units is becoming a necessity. MOSFETs are widely used for their low ON-resistances. Power efficiency is designed using time-domain circuit simulators, except for transformer copper-loss, which has frequency dependency which is calculated separately using methods based on skin and proximity effects. As semiconductor technology reduces the ON-resistance of MOSFETs, frequency dependency due to the skin effect or proximity effect is anticipated. In this study, ON-resistance of MOSFETs are measured and frequency dependency is confirmed. Power loss against rectangular current pulse is calculated. The calculation method for transformer copper-loss is expanded to MOSFETs. A frequency function for the resistance model is newly developed and parametric calculation is enabled. Acceleration of calculation is enabled by eliminating summation terms. Using this method, it is shown that the frequency dependent component of the measured MOSFETs increases the dissipation from 11% to 32% at a switching frequency of 100kHz. From above, this paper points out the importance of the frequency dependency of MOSFETs' ON-resistance, provides means of calculating its pulse losses, and improves loss calculation accuracy of SMPSs.

  18. Entanglement and nonclassicality in four-mode Gaussian states generated via parametric down-conversion and frequency up-conversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arkhipov, Ie.I.; Peřina Jr., J.; Haderka, Ondřej; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 6, Sep (2016), 1-12, č. článku 33802. ISSN 2045-2322 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : four-mode Gaussian states * parametric down-conversion Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 4.259, year: 2016

  19. Frequency tuning of single photons from a whispering-gallery mode resonator to MHz-wide transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, G.; Vogl, U.; Sedlmeir, F.

    2016-01-01

    photons, which is based on parametric down-conversion in a triply resonant whispering-gallery mode resonator, with alkaline transitions [Schunk et al., Optica 2015, 2, 773]. In this paper, we analyse our source in terms of phase matching, available wavelength-tuning mechanisms and applications...

  20. Vibrational transitions in hydrogen bonded bimolecular complexes – A local mode perturbation theory approach to transition frequencies and intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackeprang, Kasper; Kjærgaard, Henrik Grum

    2017-01-01

    The local mode perturbation theory (LMPT) model was developed to improve the description of hydrogen bonded XH-stretching transitions, where X is typically O or N. We present a modified version of the LMPT model to extend its application from hydrated bimolecular complexes to hydrogen bonded...

  1. Localized surface plate modes via flexural Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.; Chen, P. -Y.; Guenneau, S.; Salama, Khaled N.; Bagci, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are naturally generated upon excitation of metals with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. However, the concept of spoof plasmons has made it possible to generate plasmoniclike effects in microwave electrodynamics, magnetics, and even acoustics. Similarly, in this paper, the concept of localized surface plate modes (SPMs) is introduced. It is demonstrated that SPMs can be generated on a two-dimensional (clamped or stress-free) cylindrical surface with subwavelength corrugations, which resides on a thin elastic plate, under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Numerical characterization of this corrugated rigid structure shows that it is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with dispersive but uniformly negative flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmoniclike elastic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing and elastic imaging and cloaking.

  2. Localized surface plate modes via flexural Mie resonances

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, M.

    2017-05-11

    Surface-plasmon polaritons are naturally generated upon excitation of metals with high-frequency electromagnetic waves. However, the concept of spoof plasmons has made it possible to generate plasmoniclike effects in microwave electrodynamics, magnetics, and even acoustics. Similarly, in this paper, the concept of localized surface plate modes (SPMs) is introduced. It is demonstrated that SPMs can be generated on a two-dimensional (clamped or stress-free) cylindrical surface with subwavelength corrugations, which resides on a thin elastic plate, under excitation by an incident flexural plane wave. Numerical characterization of this corrugated rigid structure shows that it is elastically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with dispersive but uniformly negative flexural rigidity. This, indeed, suggests that plasmoniclike elastic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including earthquake sensing and elastic imaging and cloaking.

  3. Stability of two-degrees-of-freedom aero-elastic models with frequency and time variable parametric self-induced forces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Pospíšil, Stanislav; Yau, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 57, August (2015), s. 91-107 ISSN 0889-9746 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA ČR(CZ) GC13-34405J Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : aero-elastic system * self-excited vibration * dynamic stability * Routh–Hurwitz conditions * flutter derivatives * divergence Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 1.709, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jfluidstructs.2015.05.010

  4. Modeling and analysis of waves in a heat conducting thermo-elastic plate of elliptical shape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Selvamani

    Full Text Available Wave propagation in heat conducting thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-section is studied using the Fourier expansion collocation method based on Suhubi's generalized theory. The equations of motion based on two-dimensional theory of elasticity is applied under the plane strain assumption of generalized thermo elastic plate of elliptical cross-sections composed of homogeneous isotropic material. The frequency equations are obtained by using the boundary conditions along outer and inner surface of elliptical cross-sectional plate using Fourier expansion collocation method. The computed non-dimensional frequency, velocity and quality factor are plotted in dispersion curves for longitudinal and flexural (symmetric and antisymmetric modes of vibrations.

  5. In Situ elastic property sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olness, D.; Hirschfeld, T.; Kishiyama, K.; Steinhaus, R.

    1987-01-01

    Elasticity is an important property of many materials. Loss of elasticity can have serious consequences, such as when a gasket deteriorates and permits leakage of an expensive or hazardous material, or when a damping system begins to go awry. Loss of elasticity can also provide information related to an ancillary activity such as degradation of electrical insulation, loss of plasticizer in a plastic, or changes in permeability of a thin film. In fact, the mechanical properties of most organic compounds are altered when the compound degrades. Thus, a sensor for the mechanical properties can be used to monitor associated characteristics as well. A piezoelectric material in contact with an elastomer forms an oscillating system that can provide real-time elasticity monitoring. This combination constitutes a forced harmonic oscillator with damping provided by the elastomer. A ceramic oscillator with a total volume of a few mm 3 was used as an elasticity sensor. It was placed in intimate contact with an elastomer and then monitored remotely with a simple oscillator circuit and standard frequency counting electronics. Resonant frequency shifts and changes in Q value were observed corresponding to changes in ambient temperature and/or changes in pressure applied to the sample. Elastomer samples pretreated with ozone (to simulate aging) showed changes in Q value and frequency response, even though there were no visible changes in the elastic samples

  6. Study on the mode-transition of nanosecond-pulsed dielectric barrier discharge between uniform and filamentary by controlling pressures and pulse repetition frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sizhe; Lu, Xinpei

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the temporally resolved evolution of the nanosecond pulsed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in a moderate 6mm gap under various pressures and pulse repetition frequencies (PRFs) by intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) images, using synthetic air and its components oxygen and nitrogen. It is found that the pressures are very different when the DBD mode transits between uniform and filamentary in air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The PRFs can also obviously affect the mode-transition. The transition mechanism in the pulsed DBD is not Townsend-to-streamer, which is dominant in the traditional alternating-voltage DBDs. The pulsed DBD in a uniform mode develops in the form of plane ionization wave, due to overlap of primary avalanches, while the increase in pressure disturbs the overlap and DBD develops in streamer instead, corresponding to the filamentary mode. Increasing the initiatory electron density by pre-ionization methods may contribute to discharge uniformity at higher pressures. We also find that the dependence of uniformity upon PRF is non-monotonic.

  7. Elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leader, Elliot

    1991-01-01

    With very few unexplained results to challenge conventional ideas, physicists have to look hard to search for gaps in understanding. An area of physics which offers a lot more than meets the eye is elastic and diffractive scattering where particles either 'bounce' off each other, emerging unscathed, or just graze past, emerging relatively unscathed. The 'Blois' workshops provide a regular focus for this unspectacular, but compelling physics, attracting highly motivated devotees

  8. Sensitivity of coronal loop sausage mode frequencies and decay rates to radial and longitudinal density inhomogeneities: a spectral approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cally, Paul S.; Xiong, Ming

    2018-01-01

    Fast sausage modes in solar magnetic coronal loops are only fully contained in unrealistically short dense loops. Otherwise they are leaky, losing energy to their surrounds as outgoing waves. This causes any oscillation to decay exponentially in time. Simultaneous observations of both period and decay rate therefore reveal the eigenfrequency of the observed mode, and potentially insight into the tubes’ nonuniform internal structure. In this article, a global spectral description of the oscillations is presented that results in an implicit matrix eigenvalue equation where the eigenvalues are associated predominantly with the diagonal terms of the matrix. The off-diagonal terms vanish identically if the tube is uniform. A linearized perturbation approach, applied with respect to a uniform reference model, is developed that makes the eigenvalues explicit. The implicit eigenvalue problem is easily solved numerically though, and it is shown that knowledge of the real and imaginary parts of the eigenfrequency is sufficient to determine the width and density contrast of a boundary layer over which the tubes’ enhanced internal densities drop to ambient values. Linearized density kernels are developed that show sensitivity only to the extreme outside of the loops for radial fundamental modes, especially for small density enhancements, with no sensitivity to the core. Higher radial harmonics do show some internal sensitivity, but these will be more difficult to observe. Only kink modes are sensitive to the tube centres. Variation in internal and external Alfvén speed along the loop is shown to have little effect on the fundamental dimensionless eigenfrequency, though the associated eigenfunction becomes more compact at the loop apex as stratification increases, or may even displace from the apex.

  9. A Brillouin scattering study of the effect of chemical passivation on the elastic properties of porous silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, H. J.; Kuok, M. H.; Ng, S. C.; Boukherroub, R.; Lockwood, D. J.

    2002-07-01

    Brillouin scattering has been performed to probe acoustic waves in porous silicon films that have been chemically modified with either 1-decene, decyl aldehyde, undecylenic acid, or ethyl undecylenate. The shift in the frequencies of acoustic modes in the passivated porous silicon samples, relative to those in freshly prepared porous silicon, is different for different chemical modifiers. The magnitude of the frequency shift is qualitatively correlated with the change, caused by the passivation, in the average densities and elastic constants of the samples.

  10. Repetition frequency scaling of an all-polarization maintaining erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser based on carbon nanotubes saturable absorber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sotor, J., E-mail: jaroslaw.sotor@pwr.edu.pl; Sobon, G.; Abramski, K. M. [Laser and Fiber Electronics Group, Wroclaw University of Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, 50-370 Wroclaw (Poland); Jagiello, J.; Lipinska, L. [Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, Wolczynska 133, 01-919 Warsaw (Poland)

    2015-04-07

    We demonstrate an all-polarization maintaining (PM), mode-locked erbium (Er)-doped fiber laser based on a carbon nanotubes (CNT) saturable absorber (SA). The laser resonator was maximally simplified by using only one passive hybrid component and a pair of fiber connectors with deposited CNTs. The repetition frequency (F{sub rep}) of such a cost-effective and self-starting mode-locked laser was scaled from 54.3 MHz to 358.6 MHz. The highest F{sub rep} was obtained when the total cavity length was shortened to 57 cm. The laser allows ultrashort pulse generation with the duration ranging from 240 fs to 550 fs. Because the laser components were based on PM fibers the laser was immune to the external perturbations and generated laniary polarized light with the degree of polarization (DOP) of 98.7%.

  11. Inductance mode characteristics of a ceramic YBa2Cu3O7-x radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device at 77 K

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Il'ichev, E. V.; Andreev, A. V.; Jacobsen, Claus Schelde

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results on some radio-frequency superconducting quantum interference device (rf-SQUID) signal properties are presented. The quantum interferometer was made of ceramic YBa2Cu3O7−x and was due to a low critical current operated in the inductance or nonhysteretic mode. With bias current...... as reference, amplitude variation, and phase shift of the voltage over the tank circuit coupled to the SQUID were measured simultaneously. It is shown that there is qualitative agreement between calculations based on the resistivity shunted junction model and the data. Moreover, using phase detection, signal...... instabilities predicted for the rf-SQUID inductance mode were observed. These signal instabilities may be exploited to enhance the transfer coefficient for measured flux-to-output signal. Journal of Applied Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....

  12. Energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network based on adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Xiao, Nengwu; Chen, Chen; Yuan, Weicheng; Qiu, Kun

    2016-02-01

    We propose an energy-efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) using adaptive sleep-mode control and dynamic bandwidth allocation. In this scheme, a bidirectional-centralized algorithm named the receiver and transmitter accurate sleep control and dynamic bandwidth allocation (RTASC-DBA), which has an overall bandwidth scheduling policy, is employed to enhance the energy efficiency of the OFDM-PON. The RTASC-DBA algorithm is used in an optical line terminal (OLT) to control the sleep mode of an optical network unit (ONU) sleep and guarantee the quality of service of different services of the OFDM-PON. The obtained results show that, by using the proposed scheme, the average power consumption of the ONU is reduced by ˜40% when the normalized ONU load is less than 80%, compared with the average power consumption without using the proposed scheme.

  13. DYNAMICS OF VIBRATION FEEDERS WITH A NONLINEAR ELASTIC CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Dyrda

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Subject to the smooth and efficient operation of each production line, is the use of vehicles transporting high specification. It worked well in practice for transporting construction machines, which are used during the vibration. The use of vibration machines requires optimization of their operation modes. In the form of elastic link in them are increasingly using rubber-metallic elements, which are characterized by nonlinear damping properties. So it is necessary to search for new, more modern, methods of calculation of dynamic characteristics of the vibration machines on the properties of rubber as a cushioning material. Methodology. The dynamics of vibration machine that is as elastic rubber block units and buffer shock absorbers limiting the amplitude of the vibrations of the working body. The method of determining amplitude-frequency characteristics of the vibrating feeder is based on the principle of Voltaire, who in the calculations of the damping properties of the dampers will allow for elastic-hereditary properties of rubber. When adjusting the basic dynamic stiffness of the elastic ties and vibratory buffers, using the principle of heredity rubber properties, determine the dependence of the amplitude of the working body of the machine vibrations. This method is called integro-operator using the fractional-exponential kernels of relaxation. Findings. Using the derived formula for determining the amplitude of the resonance curve is constructed one-mass nonlinear system. It is established that the use of the proposed method of calculation will provide a sufficiently complete description of the damping parameters of rubber-metallic elements and at the same time be an effective means of calculating the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear vibration systems. Originality. The authors improved method of determining damping characteristics of rubber-metallic elements and the amplitude-frequency characteristics of nonlinear

  14. Sliding mode load frequency control for multi-area time-delay power system with wind power integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mi, Yang; Hao, Xuezhi; Liu, Yongjuan

    2017-01-01

    The interconnected time-delay power system has become an important issue for the open communication network. Meanwhile, due to the output power fluctuation of integrated wind energy, load frequency control (LFC) for power system with variable sources and loads has become more complicated. The novel...

  15. Frequency locking of single-mode 3.5-THz quantum cascade lasers using a gas cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.; Hovenier, J.N.; Cui, M.; Hayton, D.J.; Gao, J.R.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Shi, S.C.; Kao, T.Y.; Hu, Q.; Reno, J.L.

    2012-01-01

    We report frequency locking of two 3.5-THz third-order distributed feedback (DFB) quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) by using methanol molecular absorption lines, a proportional-integral-derivative controller, and a NbN bolometer. We show that the free-running linewidths of the QCLs are dependent on the

  16. Phased arrays of compact waveguide radiators and frequency selective surfaces : a multi-mode equivalent network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerini, G.

    2003-01-01

    The current trend for radar array antennas requires increased integration, as well as large bandwidth, for multifunction systems, and frequency/angular selectivity properties for structural integration on military platforms, like ships and aircrafts, with low radar cross section (RCS). We have

  17. Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a nonlinear elastic bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Ryuichi; Oshita, Yoshihito

    2011-02-01

    Free-vibration acoustic resonance of a one-dimensional nonlinear elastic bar was investigated by direct analysis in the calculus of variations. The Lagrangian density of the bar includes a cubic term of the deformation gradient, which is responsible for both geometric and constitutive nonlinearities. By expanding the deformation function into a complex Fourier series, we derived the action integral in an analytic form and evaluated its stationary conditions numerically with the Ritz method for the first three resonant vibration modes. This revealed that the bar shows the following prominent nonlinear features: (i) amplitude dependence of the resonance frequency; (ii) symmetry breaking in the vibration pattern; and (iii) excitation of the high-frequency mode around nodal-like points. Stability of the resonant vibrations was also addressed in terms of a convex condition on the strain energy density.

  18. Features of the non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering controlled by elastic waves with elevated linear losses: potentials for multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S; Arellanes, Adan Omar

    2017-12-01

    During subsequent development of the recently proposed multi-frequency parallel spectrometer for precise spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals, we study potentials of new acousto-optical cells exploiting selected crystalline materials at the limits of their capabilities. Characterizing these wide-aperture cells is non-trivial due to new features inherent in the chosen regime of an advanced non-collinear one-phonon anomalous light scattering by elastic waves with significantly elevated acoustic losses. These features can be observed simpler in uniaxial, tetragonal, and trigonal crystals possessing linear acoustic attenuation. We demonstrate that formerly studied additional degree of freedom, revealed initially for multi-phonon regimes of acousto-optical interaction, can be identified within the one-phonon geometry as well and exploited for designing new cells. We clarify the role of varying the central acoustic frequency and acoustic attenuation using the identified degree of freedom. Therewith, we are strongly restricted by a linear regime of acousto-optical interaction to avoid the origin of multi-phonon processes within carrying out a multi-frequency parallel spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals. Proof-of-principle experiments confirm the developed approaches and illustrate their applicability to innovative technique for an advanced spectrum analysis of wideband radio-wave signals with the improved resolution in an extended frequency range.

  19. Blocky inversion of multichannel elastic impedance for elastic parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozayan, Davoud Karami; Gholami, Ali; Siahkoohi, Hamid Reza

    2018-04-01

    Petrophysical description of reservoirs requires proper knowledge of elastic parameters like P- and S-wave velocities (Vp and Vs) and density (ρ), which can be retrieved from pre-stack seismic data using the concept of elastic impedance (EI). We propose an inversion algorithm which recovers elastic parameters from pre-stack seismic data in two sequential steps. In the first step, using the multichannel blind seismic inversion method (exploited recently for recovering acoustic impedance from post-stack seismic data), high-resolution blocky EI models are obtained directly from partial angle-stacks. Using an efficient total-variation (TV) regularization, each angle-stack is inverted independently in a multichannel form without prior knowledge of the corresponding wavelet. The second step involves inversion of the resulting EI models for elastic parameters. Mathematically, under some assumptions, the EI's are linearly described by the elastic parameters in the logarithm domain. Thus a linear weighted least squares inversion is employed to perform this step. Accuracy of the concept of elastic impedance in predicting reflection coefficients at low and high angles of incidence is compared with that of exact Zoeppritz elastic impedance and the role of low frequency content in the problem is discussed. The performance of the proposed inversion method is tested using synthetic 2D data sets obtained from the Marmousi model and also 2D field data sets. The results confirm the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method for inversion of pre-stack seismic data.

  20. Emission characteristics of 6.78-MHz radio-frequency glow discharge plasma in a pulsed mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2017-07-01

    This paper investigated Boltzmann plots for both atomic and ionic emission lines of iron in an argon glow discharge plasma driven by 6.78-MHz radio-frequency (RF) voltage in a pulsed operation, in order to discuss how the excitation/ionization process was affected by the pulsation. For this purpose, a pulse frequency as well as a duty ratio of the pulsed RF voltage was selected as the experimenter parameters. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed at a forward RF power of 70 W and at an argon pressures of 670 Pa. The Boltzmann plot for low-lying excited levels of iron atom was on a linear relationship, which was probably attributed to thermal collisions with ultimate electrons in the negative glow region; in this case, the excitation temperature was obtained in a narrow range of 3300-3400 K, which was hardly affected by the duty ratio as well as the pulse frequency of the pulsed RF glow discharge plasma. This observation suggested that the RF plasma could be supported by a self-stabilized negative glow region, where the kinetic energy distribution of the electrons would be changed to a lesser extent. Additional non-thermal excitation processes, such as a Penning-type collision and a charge-transfer collision, led to deviations (overpopulation) of particular energy levels of iron atom or iron ion from the normal Boltzmann distribution. However, their contributions to the overall excitation/ionization were not altered so greatly, when the pulse frequency or the duty ratio was varied in the pulsed RF glow discharge plasma.

  1. Surface vibrational modes in disk-shaped resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A V; Gritsenko, D S; Mitrofanov, V P

    2014-03-01

    The natural frequencies and distributions of displacement components for the surface vibrational modes in thin isotropic elastic disks are calculated. In particular, the research is focused on even solutions for low-lying resonant vibrations with large angular wave numbers. Several families of modes are found which are interpreted as modified surface modes of an infinitely long cylinder and Lamb modes of a plate. The results of calculation are compared with the results of the experimental measurements of vibrational modes generated by means of resonant excitation in duraluminum disk with radius of ≈90 mm and thickness of 16 mm in the frequency range of 130-200 kHz. An excellent agreement between the calculated and measured frequencies is found. Measurements of the structure of the resonant peaks show splitting of some modes. About a half of the measured modes has splitting Δfsplit/fmode at the level of the order of 10(-5). The Q-factors of all modes measured in vacuum lie in the interval (2…3)×10(5). This value is typical for duraluminum mechanical resonators in the ultrasonic frequency range. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pressure Dependence of the Radial Breathing Mode of Carbon Nanotubes: The Effect of Fluid Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, M. J.; Quirke, N.

    2007-04-01

    The pressure dependence of shifts in the vibrational modes of individual carbon nanotubes is strongly affected by the nature of the pressure transmitting medium as a result of adsorption at the nanotube surface. The adsorbate is treated as an elastic shell which couples with the radial breathing mode (RBM) of the nanotube via van der Waal interactions. Using analytical methods as well as molecular simulation, we observe a low frequency breathing mode for the adsorbed fluid at ˜50cm-1, as well as diameter dependent upshifts in the RBM frequency with pressure, suggesting metallic nanotubes may wet more than semiconducting ones.

  3. Sputter crater formation in the case of microsecond pulsed glow discharge in a Grimm-type source. Comparison of direct current and radio frequency modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimova, Varvara; Hoffmann, Volker; Eckert, Jürgen

    2012-10-01

    Depth profiling with pulsed glow discharge is a promising technique. The application of pulsed voltage for sputtering reduces the sputtering rate and thermal stress and hereby improves the analysis of thin layered and thermally fragile samples. However pulsed glow discharge is not well studied and this limits its practical use. The current work deals with the questions which usually arise when the pulsed mode is applied: Which duty cycle, frequency and pulse length must be chosen to get the optimal sputtering rate and crater shape? Are the well-known sputtering effects of the continuous mode valid also for the pulsed regime? Is there any difference between dc and rf pulsing in terms of sputtering? It is found that the pulse length is a crucial parameter for the crater shape and thermal effects. Sputtering with pulsed dc and rf modes is found to be similar. The observed sputtering effects at various pulsing parameters helped to interpret and optimize the depth resolution of GD OES depth profiles.

  4. Vocal fold elasticity of the Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) – producing high fundamental frequency vocalization with a very long vocal fold

    OpenAIRE

    Riede, Tobias; Titze, Ingo R.

    2008-01-01

    The vocal folds of male Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) are about 3 cm long. If fundamental frequency were to be predicted by a simple vibrating string formula, as is often done for the human larynx, such long vocal folds would bear enormous stress to produce the species-specific mating call with an average fundamental frequency of 1 kHz. Predictions would be closer to 50 Hz. Vocal fold histology revealed the presence of a large vocal ligament between the vocal fold epithelium and...

  5. Low Power Very High Frequency Switch-Mode Power Supply with 50 V Input and 5 V Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mickey Pierre; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a resonant converter with a switching frequency in the very high frequencyrange (30-300 MHz), a large step down ratio (10 times) and low output power (1 W). Several different invertersand rectifiers are analyzed and compared. The class E inverter and rectifier...... are selected based on complexity andefficiency estimates. Three different power stages are implemented; one with a large input inductor, one with a switch with small capacitances and one with a switch with low on resistance. The power stages are designed with the same specifications and efficiencies from 60...

  6. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chong; Li, Jie; Zhang, Xiaoming; Shi, Yunbo; Tang, Jun; Cao, Huiliang; Liu, Jun

    2016-05-31

    The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN), electronic-thermal noise (ETN), flicker noise (FN) and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN). The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD) and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF). There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  7. A Noise Reduction Method for Dual-Mass Micro-Electromechanical Gyroscopes Based on Sample Entropy Empirical Mode Decomposition and Time-Frequency Peak Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Shen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The different noise components in a dual-mass micro-electromechanical system (MEMS gyroscope structure is analyzed in this paper, including mechanical-thermal noise (MTN, electronic-thermal noise (ETN, flicker noise (FN and Coriolis signal in-phase noise (IPN. The structure equivalent electronic model is established, and an improved white Gaussian noise reduction method for dual-mass MEMS gyroscopes is proposed which is based on sample entropy empirical mode decomposition (SEEMD and time-frequency peak filtering (TFPF. There is a contradiction in TFPS, i.e., selecting a short window length may lead to good preservation of signal amplitude but bad random noise reduction, whereas selecting a long window length may lead to serious attenuation of the signal amplitude but effective random noise reduction. In order to achieve a good tradeoff between valid signal amplitude preservation and random noise reduction, SEEMD is adopted to improve TFPF. Firstly, the original signal is decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs by EMD, and the SE of each IMF is calculated in order to classify the numerous IMFs into three different components; then short window TFPF is employed for low frequency component of IMFs, and long window TFPF is employed for high frequency component of IMFs, and the noise component of IMFs is wiped off directly; at last the final signal is obtained after reconstruction. Rotation experimental and temperature experimental are carried out to verify the proposed SEEMD-TFPF algorithm, the verification and comparison results show that the de-noising performance of SEEMD-TFPF is better than that achievable with the traditional wavelet, Kalman filter and fixed window length TFPF methods.

  8. Nonlinear Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.

    2001-05-01

    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  9. Non-invasive characterization of polyurethane-based tissue constructs in a rat abdominal repair model using high frequency ultrasound elasticity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiao; Takanari, Keisuke; Hong, Yi; Lee, Kee-Won; Amoroso, Nicholas J; Wang, Yadong; Wagner, William R; Kim, Kang

    2013-04-01

    The evaluation of candidate materials and designs for soft tissue scaffolds would benefit from the ability to monitor the mechanical remodeling of the implant site without the need for periodic animal sacrifice and explant analysis. Toward this end, the ability of non-invasive ultrasound elasticity imaging (UEI) to assess temporal mechanical property changes in three different types of porous, biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds was evaluated in a rat abdominal wall repair model. The polymers utilized were salt-leached scaffolds of poly(carbonate urethane) urea, poly(ester urethane) urea and poly(ether ester urethane) urea at 85% porosity. A total of 60 scaffolds (20 each type) were implanted in a full thickness muscle wall replacement in the abdomens of 30 rats. The constructs were ultrasonically scanned every 2 weeks and harvested at weeks 4, 8 and 12 for compression testing or histological analysis. UEI demonstrated different temporal stiffness trends among the different scaffold types, while the stiffness of the surrounding native tissue remained unchanged. The changes in average normalized strains developed in the constructs from UEI compared well with the changes of mean compliance from compression tests and histology. The average normalized strains and the compliance for the same sample exhibited a strong linear relationship. The ability of UEI to identify herniation and to characterize the distribution of local tissue in-growth with high resolution was also investigated. In summary, the reported data indicate that UEI may allow tissue engineers to sequentially evaluate the progress of tissue construct mechanical behavior in vivo and in some cases may reduce the need for interim time point animal sacrifice. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Out-of-hours demand in primary care: frequency, mode of contact and reasons for encounter in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Carola A; Rosemann, Thomas; Zoller, Marco; Eichler, Klaus; Senn, Oliver

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the demand for traditional out-of-hours general practitioner (GP) emergency care in Switzerland including GPs' satisfaction and reasons for encounter (RFE). During a 2-month period (2009), a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was performed in GPs participating in the mandatory out-of-hours service in the city of Zurich, Switzerland. The number and mode of patient contacts were assessed to investigate the demand for GP care in traditional out-of-hours services. GPs and patient characteristics, including RFE according to the International Classification of Primary Care, were noted. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were conducted. Out of the 295 out-of-hours episodes during the study period, 148 (50%) duty periods were documented by a total of 93 GPs (75% men) with a mean (SD) age of 48.0 (6.2) years. The median (interquartile range) number of out-of-hours contacts was 5 (3-8) and the demand for home visits was significantly more common compared with practice and telephone consultations. A total of 112 different RFEs were responsible for the 382 documented patient contacts with fever accounting for the most common complaint (13.9%). Although 80% of GPs agreed to be satisfied overall with their profession as primary care provider, 57.6% among them were dissatisfied with the current out-of-hours service. Inappropriate payment and interference with their daily work in practice were most frequently reported. Our findings indicate that there is still strong patient demand for out-of-hours care with special need for home visits, suggesting that new organizational models such as integrating GPs into emergency care may not be an appropriate approach for all patients. Therefore, the ongoing reorganization of the out-of-hours-service in many health care systems has to be evaluated carefully in order not to miss important patient needs. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Design of fixed frequency controlled radial-mode stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformers for DC/DC converter applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Yuan-Ping; Vasic, Dejan; Costa, François; Wu, Wen-Jong; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) for DC/DC converter applications. We examined several parameters, which allows us to produce a piezoelectric transformer with optimal efficiency and which has an optimal range for regulating voltage. The characteristics of a piezoelectric transformer (PT) are well known when the load impedance is a pure resistor. However, when piezoelectric transformers are used in AC/DC or DC/DC converter applications, it requires the presence of a rectifier circuit block. A rectifier is usually a nonlinear device which does not act like a pure resistor. We began by modeling a full-wave rectifier directly in order to understand the design constraint variables such as the maximum mechanical current, the piezoelectric transformer configuration, and the energy balance of the PT configuration. In our final design, a stacked disk-type piezoelectric transformer with radial-mode vibration was chosen due to the large number of design parameters required. In our new design procedure, instead of just looking at the typical optimal loading condition of the PT, we used the concept of a maximum mechanical current to determine the new optimal efficiency which is suitable for voltage regulation. From our results we found that the size of the piezoelectric transformer and efficiency are trade-offs which means that they have an inverse relationship. In summary, we developed a new design procedure to determine the optimal size of a piezoelectric transformer, which we found to be small but with high efficiency so as to provide an optimal range for regulating voltage

  12. Observation of ion cyclotron range of frequencies mode conversion plasma flow drive on Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Wukitch, S. J.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Lin, L.; Marmar, E. S.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Tsujii, N.; Wright, J. C.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2009-05-01

    At modest H3e levels (n3He/ne˜8%-12%), in relatively low density D(H3e) plasmas, n¯e≤1.3×1020 m-3, heated with 50 MHz rf power at Bt0˜5.1 T, strong (up to 90 km/s) toroidal rotation (Vϕ) in the cocurrent direction has been observed by high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy on Alcator C-Mod. The change in central Vϕ scales with the applied rf power (≤30 km s-1 MW-1), and is generally at least a factor of 2 higher than the empirically determined intrinsic plasma rotation scaling. The rotation in the inner plasma (r /a≤0.3) responds to the rf power more quickly than that of the outer region (r /a≥0.7), and the rotation profile is broadly peaked for r /a≤0.5. Localized poloidal rotation (0.3≤r/a≤0.6) in the ion diamagnetic drift direction (˜2 km/s at 3 MW) is also observed, and similarly increases with rf power. Changing the toroidal phase of the antenna does not affect the rotation direction, and it only weakly affects the rotation magnitude. The mode converted ion cyclotron wave (MC ICW) has been detected by a phase contrast imaging system and the MC process is confirmed by two-dimensional full wave TORIC simulations. The simulations also show that the MC ICW is strongly damped on H3e ions in the vicinity of the MC layer, approximately on the same flux surfaces where the rf driven flow is observed. The flow shear in our experiment is marginally sufficient for plasma confinement enhancement based on the comparison of the E ×B shearing rate and gyrokinetic linear stability analysis.

  13. Yttrium aluminium garnet under pressure: Structural, elastic, and vibrational properties from ab initio studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteseguro, V.; Rodríguez-Hernández, P.; Muñoz, A.

    2015-01-01

    The structural, elastic, and vibrational properties of yttrium aluminum garnet Y 3 Al 5 O 12 are studied under high pressure by ab initio calculations in the framework of the density functional theory. The calculated ground state properties are in good agreement with the available experimental data. Pressure dependences of bond length and bulk moduli of the constituent polyhedra are reported. The evolution of the elastic constants and the major elastic properties, Young and shear modulus, Poisson's ratios, and Zener anisotropy ratio, are described. The mechanical stability is analyzed, on the light of “Born generalized stability criteria,” showing that the garnet is mechanically unstable above 116 GPa. Symmetries, frequencies, and pressure coefficients of the Raman-active modes are discussed on the basis of the calculated total and partial phonon density of states, which reflect the dynamical contribution of each atom. The relations between the phonon modes of Y 3 Al 5 O 12 and the internal and external molecular modes of the different polyhedra are discussed. Infrared-active modes, as well as the silent modes, and their pressure dependence are also investigated. No dynamical instabilities were found below 116 GPa

  14. Dynamic elasticity measurement for prosthetic socket design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Kim, Junghoon; Son, Hyeryon; Choi, Youngjin

    2017-07-01

    The paper proposes a novel apparatus to measure the dynamic elasticity of human limb in order to help the design and fabrication of the personalized prosthetic socket. To take measurements of the dynamic elasticity, the desired force generated as an exponential chirp signal in which the frequency increases and amplitude is maintained according to time progress is applied to human limb and then the skin deformation is recorded, ultimately, to obtain the frequency response of its elasticity. It is referred to as a Dynamic Elasticity Measurement Apparatus (DEMA) in the paper. It has three core components such as linear motor to provide the desired force, loadcell to implement the force feedback control, and potentiometer to record the skin deformation. After measuring the force/deformation and calculating the dynamic elasticity of the limb, it is visualized as 3D color map model of the limb so that the entire dynamic elasticity can be shown at a glance according to the locations and frequencies. For the visualization, the dynamic elasticities measured at specific locations and frequencies are embodied using the color map into 3D limb model acquired by using 3D scanner. To demonstrate the effectiveness, the visualized dynamic elasticities are suggested as outcome of the proposed system, although we do not have any opportunity to apply the proposed system to the amputees. Ultimately, it is expected that the proposed system can be utilized to design and fabricate the personalized prosthetic socket in order for releasing the wearing pain caused by the conventional prosthetic socket.

  15. Internal resonance of an elastic body levitated above high-Tc superconducting bulks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokuzawa, T; Toshihiko, S; Yoshizawa, M

    2010-01-01

    In high-Tc superconducting magnetic levitation systems, levitated bodies can keep stable levitation with no contact and no control and thus their damping is very small. Thanks to these features, their applications to various apparatus are expected. However, on account of their small damping, the nonlinearity of electromagnetic levitation force can give notable effects upon motion of the levitated bodies. Therefore this nonlinearity must be taken into account to accurately analyze the dynamical behavior of the levitated bodies. Structures of such a levitated body can show elastic deformation if the large electromagnetic force acts on it. Therefore, we need to deal with the model as an elastic body. As mentioned above, nonlinear characteristics easily appear in this elastic vibration on account of the small damping. Especially when the ratio of the natural frequencies of the eigenmodes is integer, internal resonance can occur. This nonlinear resonance is derived from nonlinear interactions among the eigenmodes of the elastic levitated body. This kind of internal resonance of an elastic body appearing in high-Tc superconducting levitation systems has not been studied so far. This research especially deals with internal resonance of a beam supported at both its ends by electromagnetic forces acting on permanent magnets. The governing equation with the nonlinear boundary conditions for the dynamics of a levitated beam has been derived. Numerical results show internal resonance of the 1st mode and the 3rd mode. Experimental results are qualitatively in good agreement with numerical ones.

  16. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects

  17. Comparison of Monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators Based on Passively Mode-Locked Lasers for Continuous Wave mm-Wave and Sub-THz Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Criado, A. R.; de Dios, C.; Acedo, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, two different Passive Mode-Locked Laser Diodes (PMLLD) structures, a Fabry–Perot cavity and a ring cavity laser are characterized and evaluated as monolithic Optical Frequency Comb Generators (OFCG) for CW sub-THz generation. An extensive characterization of the devices under study...... is carried out based on an automated measurement system that systematically evaluates the dynamic characteristics of the devices, focusing on the figures of merit that define the optimum performance of a pulsed laser source when considered as an OFCG. Sub-THz signals generated with both devices at 60 GHz...... topologies that can be used for the implementation of photonic integrated sub-THz CW generation....

  18. Design and implementation of a new modified sliding mode controller for grid-connected inverter to controlling the voltage and frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Mohammad Mehdi; Nayeripour, Majid; Rajaei, Amirhossein; Mansouri, Mohammad Mahdi

    2016-03-01

    As the output power of a microgrid with renewable energy sources should be regulated based on the grid conditions, using robust controllers to share and balance the power in order to regulate the voltage and frequency of microgrid is critical. Therefore a proper control system is necessary for updating the reference signals and determining the proportion of each inverter in the microgrid control. This paper proposes a new adaptive method which is robust while the conditions are changing. This controller is based on a modified sliding mode controller which provides adapting conditions in linear and nonlinear loads. The performance of the proposed method is validated by representing the simulation results and experimental lab results. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Shao-Yong; Chen, Jiu-Jiu; Huang, Hong-Bo

    2018-04-01

    Topological phononic insulators (TPnIs) show promise for application in the manipulation of acoustic waves for the design of low-loss transmission and perfectly integrated communication devices. Since solid phononic crystals exist as a transverse polarization mode and a mixed longitudinal-transverse polarization mode, the realization of topological edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is desirable to enhance the controllability of the edge waves in solid systems. In this paper, a two-dimensional (2D) solid/solid hexagonal-latticed phononic system that simultaneously supports the topologically protected edge states for out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves is investigated. Firstly, two pairs of two-fold Dirac cones, respectively corresponding to the out-of-plane and in-plane waves, are obtained at the same frequency by tuning the crystal parameters. Then, a strategy of zone folding is invoked to form double Dirac cones. By shrinking and expanding the steel scatterer, the lattice symmetry is broken, and band inversions induced, giving rise to an intriguing topological phase transition. Finally, the topologically protected edge states for both out-of-plane and in-plane bulk elastic waves, which can be simultaneously located at the frequency range from 1.223 to 1.251 MHz, are numerically observed. Robust pseudospin-dependent elastic edge wave propagation along arbitrary paths is further demonstrated. Our results will significantly broaden its practical application in the engineering field.

  20. Escape time, relaxation, and sticky states of a softened Henon-Heiles model: Low-frequency vibrational mode effects and glass relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo-Marín, J. Quetzalcóatl; Naumis, Gerardo G.

    2018-04-01

    Here we study the relaxation of a chain consisting of three masses joined by nonlinear springs and periodic conditions when the stiffness is weakened. This system, when expressed in their normal coordinates, yields a softened Henon-Heiles system. By reducing the stiffness of one low-frequency vibrational mode, a faster relaxation is enabled. This is due to a reduction of the energy barrier heights along the softened normal mode as well as for a widening of the opening channels of the energy landscape in configurational space. The relaxation is for the most part exponential, and can be explained by a simple flux equation. Yet, for some initial conditions the relaxation follows as a power law, and in many cases there is a regime change from exponential to power-law decay. We pinpoint the initial conditions for the power-law decay, finding two regions of sticky states. For such states, quasiperiodic orbits are found since almost for all components of the initial momentum orientation, the system is trapped inside two pockets of configurational space. The softened Henon-Heiles model presented here is intended as the simplest model in order to understand the interplay of rigidity, nonlinear interactions and relaxation for nonequilibrium systems such as glass-forming melts or soft matter. Our softened system can be applied to model β relaxation in glasses and suggest that local reorientational jumps can have an exponential and a nonexponential contribution for relaxation, the latter due to asymmetric molecules sticking in cages for certain orientations.

  1. Elastic wave manipulation by using a phase-controlling meta-layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaohui; Sun, Chin-Teh; Barnhart, Miles V.; Huang, Guoliang

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a high pass meta-layer for elastic waves is proposed. An elastic phase-controlling meta-layer is theoretically realized using parallel and periodically arranged metamaterial sections based on the generalized Snell's law. The elastic meta-layer is composed of periodically repeated supercells, in which the frequency dependent elastic properties of the metamaterial are used to control a phase gradient at the interface between the meta-layer and conventional medium. It is analytically and numerically demonstrated that with a normal incident longitudinal wave, the wave propagation characteristics can be directly manipulated by the periodic length of the meta-layer element at the sub-wavelength scale. It is found that propagation of the incident wave through the interface is dependent on whether the working wavelength is longer or shorter than the periodic length of the meta-layer element. Specifically, a mode conversion of the P-wave to an SV-wave is investigated as the incident wave passes through the meta-layer region. Since the most common and damaging elastic waves in civil and mechanical industries are in the low frequency region, the work in this paper has great potential in the seismic shielding, engine vibration isolation, and other highly dynamic fields.

  2. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a ω is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, Q/sub xy/, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  3. Tacoma mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.D.; Ruth, R.D.; Wang, J.M.

    1979-01-01

    The name Tacoma refers to the Tacoma Narrows Bridge which collapsed on November 8, 1940 due to massive oscillations caused by high winds. One of the destructive modes was a torsion mode which was excited by transverse wind, a dipole force, and continued until the bridge collapsed. The name is used to refer to a coherent mode of oscillation of a spectrum of oscillators in which the amplitude vs frequency graph contains one node, where the node occurs near the driving frequency and a(ω) is not symmetric about zero. When this result is applied to vertical instabilities in coasting beams, it implies the existence of a coherent skew quadrupole moment, whenever a coherent dipole oscillation exists

  4. In-Plane free Vibration Analysis of an Annular Disk with Point Elastic Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashmal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In-plane free vibrations of an elastic and isotropic annular disk with elastic constraints at the inner and outer boundaries, which are applied either along the entire periphery of the disk or at a point are investigated. The boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are employed in the Rayleigh-Ritz method to obtain the frequency parameters and the associated mode shapes. Boundary characteristic orthogonal polynomials are generated for the free boundary conditions of the disk while artificial springs are used to account for different boundary conditions. The frequency parameters for different boundary conditions of the outer edge are evaluated and compared with those available in the published studies and computed from a finite element model. The computed mode shapes are presented for a disk clamped at the inner edge and point supported at the outer edge to illustrate the free in-plane vibration behavior of the disk. Results show that addition of point clamped support causes some of the higher modes to split into two different frequencies with different mode shapes.

  5. Frequency division using a micromechanical resonance cascade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qalandar, K. R., E-mail: kamala@engineering.ucsb.edu; Gibson, B.; Sharma, M.; Ma, A.; Turner, K. L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Strachan, B. S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Shaw, S. W. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48823 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    A coupled micromechanical resonator array demonstrates a mechanical realization of multi-stage frequency division. The mechanical structure consists of a set of N sequentially perpendicular microbeams that are connected by relatively weak elastic elements such that the system vibration modes are localized to individual microbeams and have natural frequencies with ratios close to 1:2:⋯:2{sup N}. Conservative (passive) nonlinear inter-modal coupling provides the required energy transfer between modes and is achieved by finite deformation kinematics. When the highest frequency beam is excited, this arrangement promotes a cascade of subharmonic resonances that achieve frequency division of 2{sup j} at microbeam j for j = 1, …, N. Results are shown for a capacitively driven three-stage divider in which an input signal of 824 kHz is passively divided through three modal stages, producing signals at 412 kHz, 206 kHz, and 103 kHz. The system modes are characterized and used to delineate the range of AC input voltages and frequencies over which the cascade occurs. This narrow band frequency divider has simple design rules that are scalable to higher frequencies and can be extended to a larger number of modal stages.

  6. Conical Refraction of Elastic Waves by Anisotropic Metamaterials and Application for Parallel Translation of Elastic Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young

    2017-08-30

    Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.

  7. Vibrational dynamics of icosahedrally symmetric biomolecular assemblies compared with predictions based on continuum elasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zheng; Bahar, Ivet; Widom, Michael

    2009-06-03

    Coarse-grained elastic network models elucidate the fluctuation dynamics of proteins around their native conformations. Low-frequency collective motions derived by simplified normal mode analysis are usually involved in biological function, and these motions often possess noteworthy symmetries related to the overall shape of the molecule. Here, insights into these motions and their frequencies are sought by considering continuum models with appropriate symmetry and boundary conditions to approximately represent the true atomistic molecular structure. We solve the elastic wave equations analytically for the case of spherical symmetry, yielding a symmetry-based classification of molecular motions together with explicit predictions for their vibrational frequencies. We address the case of icosahedral symmetry as a perturbation to the spherical case. Applications to lumazine synthase, satellite tobacco mosaic virus, and brome mosaic virus show that the spherical elastic model efficiently provides insights on collective motions that are otherwise obtained by detailed elastic network models. A major utility of the continuum models is the possibility of estimating macroscopic material properties such as the Young's modulus or Poisson's ratio for different types of viruses.

  8. Fluid-elastic Instability of Helical Tubes Subjected to Single-Phase External Flow and Two-Phase Internal Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong Chull Jo; Myung Jo Jhung; Woong Sik Kim; Hho Jung Kim

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates the fluid-elastic instability characteristics of steam generator helical type tubes in operating nuclear power plants. The thermal-hydraulic conditions of both tube side and shell side flow fields are predicted by a general purpose computational fluid dynamics code employing the finite volume element modeling. To get the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape and participation factor, modal analyses are performed for helical type tubes with various conditions. Investigated are the effects of the helix angle, the number of supports and the status of the inner fluid on the modal, and fluid-elastic instability characteristics of the tubes, which are expressed in terms of the natural frequency, corresponding mode shape, and stability ratio. (authors)

  9. Controlling elastic waves with small phononic crystals containing rigid inclusions

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Pai

    2014-05-01

    We show that a two-dimensional elastic phononic crystal comprising rigid cylinders in a solid matrix possesses a large complete band gap below a cut-off frequency. A mechanical model reveals that the band gap is induced by negative effective mass density, which is affirmed by an effective medium theory based on field averaging. We demonstrate, by two examples, that such elastic phononic crystals can be utilized to design small devices to control low-frequency elastic waves. One example is a waveguide made of a two-layer anisotropic elastic phononic crystal, which can guide and bend elastic waves with wavelengths much larger than the size of the waveguide. The other example is the enhanced elastic transmission of a single-layer elastic phononic crystal loaded with solid inclusions. The effective mass density and reciprocal of the modulus of the single-layer elastic phononic crystal are simultaneously near zero. © CopyrightEPLA, 2014.

  10. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin

    2013-05-01

    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.

  11. Customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiawen; Li, Shilong; Tang, J.

    2018-04-01

    Acoustic metamaterials have attractive potential in elastic wave guiding and attenuation over specific frequency ranges. The vast majority of related investigations are on transient waves. In this research we focus on stationary wave manipulation, i.e., shaping of vibration modes. Periodically arranged piezoelectric transducers shunted with inductive circuits are integrated to a beam structure to form a finite-length metamaterial beam. We demonstrate for the first time that, under a given operating frequency of interest, we can facilitate a metamaterial design such that this frequency becomes a natural frequency of the integrated system. Moreover, the vibration mode corresponding to this natural frequency can be customized and shaped to realize tailored/localized response distribution. This is fundamentally different from previous practices of utilizing geometry modification and/or feedback control to achieve mode tailoring. The metamaterial design is built upon the combinatorial effects of the bandgap feature and the effective resonant cavity feature, both attributed to the dynamic characteristics of the metamaterial beam. Analytical investigations based on unit-cell dynamics and modal analysis of the metamaterial beam are presented to reveal the underlying mechanism. Case illustrations are validated by finite element analyses. Owing to the online tunability of circuitry integrated, the proposed mode shaping technique can be online adjusted to fit specific requirements. The customized shaping of vibration modes by acoustic metamaterial synthesis has potential applications in vibration suppression, sensing enhancement and energy harvesting.

  12. Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Yi [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-11-24

    DOE-GTRC-05596 11/24/2104 Collaborative Research: Process-Resolving Decomposition of the Global Temperature Response to Modes of Low Frequency Variability in a Changing Climate PI: Dr. Yi Deng (PI) School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences Georgia Institute of Technology 404-385-1821, yi.deng@eas.gatech.edu El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and Annular Modes (AMs) represent respectively the most important modes of low frequency variability in the tropical and extratropical circulations. The projection of future changes in the ENSO and AM variability, however, remains highly uncertain with the state-of-the-science climate models. This project conducted a process-resolving, quantitative evaluations of the ENSO and AM variability in the modern reanalysis observations and in climate model simulations. The goal is to identify and understand the sources of uncertainty and biases in models’ representation of ENSO and AM variability. Using a feedback analysis method originally formulated by one of the collaborative PIs, we partitioned the 3D atmospheric temperature anomalies and surface temperature anomalies associated with ENSO and AM variability into components linked to 1) radiation-related thermodynamic processes such as cloud and water vapor feedbacks, 2) local dynamical processes including convection and turbulent/diffusive energy transfer and 3) non-local dynamical processes such as the horizontal energy transport in the oceans and atmosphere. In the past 4 years, the research conducted at Georgia Tech under the support of this project has led to 15 peer-reviewed publications and 9 conference/workshop presentations. Two graduate students and one postdoctoral fellow also received research training through participating the project activities. This final technical report summarizes key scientific discoveries we made and provides also a list of all publications and conference presentations resulted from research activities at Georgia Tech. The main findings include

  13. Vibrational mode frequencies of silica species in SiO2-H2O liquids and glasses from ab initio molecular dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiekermann, Georg; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Schmidt, Christian; Jahn, Sandro

    2012-04-21

    Vibrational spectroscopy techniques are commonly used to probe the atomic-scale structure of silica species in aqueous solution and hydrous silica glasses. However, unequivocal assignment of individual spectroscopic features to specific vibrational modes is challenging. In this contribution, we establish a connection between experimentally observed vibrational bands and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) of silica species in solution and in hydrous silica glass. Using the mode-projection approach, we decompose the vibrations of silica species into subspectra resulting from several fundamental structural subunits: The SiO(4) tetrahedron of symmetry T(d), the bridging oxygen (BO) Si-O-Si of symmetry C(2v), the geminal oxygen O-Si-O of symmetry C(2v), the individual Si-OH stretching, and the specific ethane-like symmetric stretching contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer. This allows us to study relevant vibrations of these subunits in any degree of polymerization, from the Q(0) monomer up to the fully polymerized Q(4) tetrahedra. Demonstrating the potential of this approach for supplementing the interpretation of experimental spectra, we compare the calculated frequencies to those extracted from experimental Raman spectra of hydrous silica glasses and silica species in aqueous solution. We discuss observed features such as the double-peaked contribution of the Q(2) tetrahedral symmetric stretch, the individual Si-OH stretching vibrations, the origin of the experimentally observed band at 970 cm(-1) and the ethane-like vibrational contribution of the H(6)Si(2)O(7) dimer at 870 cm(-1).

  14. Fusion oriented plasma research in Bangladesh: theoretical study on low-frequency dust modes and edge plasma control experiment in tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Islam, Md.; Salimullah, Mohammed; Yatsu, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Yousuke; Ishimoto, Yuki

    2003-01-01

    A collaboration with a Japanese institute in the field of plasma-wall interaction and dusty plasma has been formed in order to understand the physical properties of edge plasma. Results of the theoretical study on dusty plasma and the experimental study on GAMMA10 plasma are presented in this paper. Part A deals with the results obtained from the theoretical investigation of the properties and excitation of low-frequency electrostatic dust modes, e.g. the dust-acoustic (DA) and dust-lower-hybrid (DLH) waves, using the fluid models. In this study, dust grain charge is considered as a dynamic variable in streaming magnetized dusty plasmas with a background of neutral atoms. Dust charge fluctuation, collisional and streaming effects on DA and DLH modes are discussed. Part B deals with the results of the plasma control experiment in a non-axisymmetric magnetic field region of the anchor cell of GAMMA10. The observations, which indicate the comparatively low-temperature plasma formation in the anchor cell, are explained from the viewpoint of enhanced outgassing from the wall due to the interaction of the drifted-out ions. The drifting of ions is thought to be due to the effect of a local non-axisymmetric magnetic field. Experimental results on the control of the wall-plasma interaction by covering the flux tube of a non-axisymmetric magnetic field region by conducting plates are given. Possible influences of the asymmetric magnetic field and conducting plates on the GAMMA10 plasma parameters are discussed. (author)

  15. Vibration analysis of orthotropic circular and elliptical nano-plates embedded in elastic medium based on nonlocal Mindlin plate theory and using Galerkin method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anjomshoa, Amin; Tahani, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    In the present study a continuum model based on the nonlocal elasticity theory is developed for free vibration analysis of embedded ortho tropic thick circular and elliptical nano-plates rested on an elastic foundation. The elastic foundation is considered to behave like a Pasternak type of foundations. Governing equations for vibrating nano-plate are derived according to the Mindlin plate theory in which the effects of shear deformations of nano-plate are also included. The Galerkin method is then employed to obtain the size dependent natural frequencies of nano-plate. The solution procedure considers the entire nano-plate as a single super-continuum element. Effect of nonlocal parameter, lengths of nano-plate, aspect ratio, mode number, material properties, thickness and foundation on circular frequencies are investigated. It is seen that the nonlocal frequencies of the nano-plate are smaller in comparison to those from the classical theory and this is more pronounced for small lengths and higher vibration modes. It is also found that as the aspect ratio increases or the nanoplate becomes more elliptical, the small scale effect on natural frequencies increases. Further, it is observed that the elastic foundation decreases the influence of nonlocal parameter on the results. Since the effect of shear deformations plays an important role in vibration analysis and design of nano-plates, by predicting smaller values for fundamental frequencies, the study of these nano-structures using thick plate theories such as Mindlin plate theory is essential.

  16. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  17. Dark current studies on a normal-conducting high-brightness very-high-frequency electron gun operating in continuous wave mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Huang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on measurements and analysis of a field-emitted electron current in the very-high-frequency (VHF gun, a room temperature rf gun operating at high field and continuous wave (CW mode at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL. The VHF gun is the core of the Advanced Photo-injector Experiment (APEX at LBNL, geared toward the development of an injector for driving the next generation of high average power x-ray free electron lasers. High accelerating fields at the cathode are necessary for the high-brightness performance of an electron gun. When coupled with CW operation, such fields can generate a significant amount of field-emitted electrons that can be transported downstream the accelerator forming the so-called “dark current.” Elevated levels of a dark current can cause radiation damage, increase the heat load in the downstream cryogenic systems, and ultimately limit the overall performance and reliability of the facility. We performed systematic measurements that allowed us to characterize the field emission from the VHF gun, determine the location of the main emitters, and define an effective strategy to reduce and control the level of dark current at APEX. Furthermore, the energy spectra of isolated sources have been measured. A simple model for energy data analysis was developed that allows one to extract information on the emitter from a single energy distribution measurement.

  18. Effect of rotation and magnetic field on free vibrations in a spherical non-homogeneous embedded in an elastic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayones, F. S.; Abd-Alla, A. M.

    2018-06-01

    The prime objective of the present paper is to analyze the effect of magnetic field and rotation on the free vibrations of an elastic hollow sphere. The one-dimensional equation of motion is solved in terms of radial displacement. The frequency equation is obtained when the boundaries are free and fixed boundary conditions. The determination is concerned with the eigenvalues of the natural frequency of the free vibrations in the case of harmonic vibrations. The natural frequencies and the mode shapes are calculated numericall and the effects of rotation and magnetic field are discussed. It was shown that the dispersion curves of waves were significantly influenced by the magnetic field and rotation of the elastic sphere.

  19. Frequency tunable surface magneto elastic waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janusonis, J.; Chang, C. L.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Tobey, R. I.

    2015-01-01

    We use the transient grating technique to generate narrow-band, widely tunable, in-plane surface magnetoelastic waves in a nickel film. We monitor both the structural deformation of the acoustic wave and the accompanying magnetic precession and witness their intimate coupling in the time domain.

  20. High-power actively Q-switched single-mode 1342 nm Nd:YVO4 ring laser, injection-locked by a cw single-frequency microchip laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Peter; Bartschke, Juergen; L'huillier, Johannes A

    2015-11-30

    In this paper we report on the realization of a single-mode Q-switched Nd:YVO4 ring laser at 1342 nm. Unidirectional and single-mode operation of the ring laser is achieved by injection-locking with a continuous wave Nd:YVO4 microchip laser, emitting a single-frequency power of up to 40 mW. The ring laser provides a single-mode power of 13.9 W at 10 kHz pulse repetition frequency with a pulse duration of 18.2 ns and an excellent beam quality (M2 laser, a power of 8.7 W at 671 nm with a pulse duration of 14.8 ns and a beam propagation factor of M2 < 1.1 is obtained. The 671 nm radiation features a long-term spectral width of 75 MHz.

  1. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS

    2010-12-07

    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  2. Piezoelectricity induced defect modes for shear waves in a periodically stratified supperlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piliposyan, Davit

    2018-01-01

    Properties of shear waves in a piezoelectric stratified periodic structure with a defect layer are studied for a superlattice with identical piezoelectric materials in a unit cell. Due to the electro-mechanical coupling in piezoelectric materials the structure exhibits defect modes in the superlattice with full transmission peaks both for full contact and electrically shorted interfaces. The results show an existence of one or two transmission peaks depending on the interfacial conditions. In the long wavelength region where coupling between electro-magnetic and elastic waves creates frequency band gaps the defect layer introduces one or two defect modes transmitting both electro-magnetic and elastic energies. Other parameters affecting the defect modes are the thickness of the defect layer, differences in refractive indexes and the magnitude of the angle of the incident wave. The results of the paper may be useful in the design of narrow band filters or multi-channel piezoelectric filters.

  3. Identification of Natural Oscillation Modes for Purposes of Seismic Assessment and Monitoring of HPP Dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuz’menko, A. P., E-mail: apkuzm@gmail.com; Saburov, S. V., E-mail: saburov58@yandex.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Computer Equipment Design Technology Institute, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    The paper puts forward a method for processing data from detailed seismic assessments of HPP dams (dynamic tests). A detailed assessment (hundreds of observation points in dam galleries) is performed with consideration of operating dam equipment and the microseismic noise. It is shown that dynamic oscillation characteristics (natural oscillation frequencies and modes in the main dam axes, the velocities of propagation of elastic waves with given polarization, and so on.) can be determined with sufficient accuracy by using complex transfer functions and pulse characteristics. Monitoring data is processed using data from a detailed assessment, taking account of identified natural oscillation modes and determined ranges of natural frequencies. The spectra of characteristic frequencies thus obtained are used to choose substitution models and estimate the elastic characteristics of the “dam – rock bed” construction system, viz., the modulus of elasticity (the Young modulus), the Poisson ratio, the dam section stiffness with respect to shear, tension and compression and the elastic characteristics of the rock foundation.

  4. Numerical estimate of fracture parameters under elastic and elastic-plastic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soba, Alejandro; Denis, Alicia C.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of the stress intensity factor K in the elastic fracture analysis is well known. In this work three methods are developed to estimate the parameter K I , corresponding to the normal loading mode, employing the finite elements method. The elastic-plastic condition is also analyzed, where the line integral J is the relevant parameter. Two cases of interest are studied: sample with a crack in its center and tubes with internal pressure. (author)

  5. Elastic scattering and quasi-elastic transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermaz, M.C.

    1978-01-01

    Experiments are presented which it will be possible to carry out at GANIL on the elastic scattering of heavy ions: diffraction phenomena if the absorption is great, refraction phenomena if absorption is low. The determination of the optical parameters can be performed. The study of the quasi-elastic transfer reactions will make it possible to know the dynamics of the nuclear reactions, form exotic nuclei and study their energy excitation spectrum, and analyse the scattering and reaction cross sections [fr

  6. Modal approach for the full simulation of nondestructive tests by elastic guided waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jezzine, K.

    2006-11-01

    Tools for simulating nondestructive tests by elastic guided waves are developed. Two overall formulations based on modal formalism and reciprocity are derived depending on whether transmission and reception are separated or not. They relate phenomena of guided wave radiation by a transducer, their propagation, their scattering by a non-uniformity of the guide or a defect and their reception. Receiver electrical output is expressed as a product of terms relating to each phenomenon that can be computed separately. Their computation uses developments based on the semi-analytical finite elements method, dealing with guides of arbitrary cross-section and cracks normal to the guide axis. Simulation tools are used to study means for selecting a single mode using a transducer positioned on the guide section, such a selection making easier the interpretation of the results of testing by guided waves. Two methods of mode selection are proposed, based on the use of two specific frequencies (which existence depends on guide geometry and mode symmetry). Mimicking the normal stress distribution of the mode at one of these two frequencies or the other makes it possible to radiate solely or predominantly the mode chosen. Examinations are simulated in configurations using a single or two separated transducers positioned on the section of various guide geometries and cracks of various shapes. The interest and performances of the two methods of mode selection are studied in these configurations. (author)

  7. Filtering of elastic waves by opal-based hypersonic crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasyuk, Alexey S; Scherbakov, Alexey V; Yakovlev, Dmitri R; Akimov, Andrey V; Kaplyanskii, Alexander A; Kaplan, Saveliy F; Grudinkin, Sergey A; Nashchekin, Alexey V; Pevtsov, Alexander B; Golubev, Valery G; Berstermann, Thorsten; Brüggemann, Christian; Bombeck, Michael; Bayer, Manfred

    2010-04-14

    We report experiments in which high quality silica opal films are used as three-dimensional hypersonic crystals in the 10 GHz range. Controlled sintering of these structures leads to well-defined elastic bonding between the submicrometer-sized silica spheres, due to which a band structure for elastic waves is formed. The sonic crystal properties are studied by injection of a broadband elastic wave packet with a femtosecond laser. Depending on the elastic bonding strength, the band structure separates long-living surface acoustic waves with frequencies in the complete band gap from bulk waves with band frequencies that propagate into the crystal leading to a fast decay.

  8. A robust approach for analysing dispersion of elastic waves in an orthotropic cylindrical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplunov, J.; Nobili, A.

    2017-08-01

    Dispersion of elastic waves in a thin orthotropic cylindrical shell is considered, within the framework of classical 2D Kirchhoff-Love theory. In contrast to direct multi-parametric analysis of the lowest propagating modes, an alternative robust approach is proposed that simply requires evaluation of the evanescent modes (quasi-static edge effect), which, at leading order, do not depend on vibration frequency. A shortened dispersion relation for the propagating modes is then derived by polynomial division and its accuracy is numerically tested against the full Kirchhoff-Love dispersion relation. It is shown that the same shortened relation may be also obtained from a refined dynamic version of the semi-membrane theory for cylindrical shells. The presented results may be relevant for modelling various types of nanotubes which, according to the latest experimental findings, possess strong material anisotropy.

  9. Competition of elastic and adhesive properties of carbon nanotubes anchored to atomic force microscopy tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, Charlotte; Marsaudon, Sophie; Boisgard, Rodolphe; Aime, Jean-Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we address the mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes anchored to atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips in a detailed analysis of experimental results and exhaustive description of a simple model. We show that volume elastic and surface adhesive forces both contribute to the dynamical AFM experimental signals. Their respective weights depend on the nanotube properties and on an experimental parameter: the oscillation amplitude. To quantify the elastic and adhesive contributions, a simple analytical model is used. It enables analytical expressions of the resonance frequency shift and dissipation that can be measured in the atomic force microscopy dynamical frequency modulation mode. It includes the nanotube adhesive contribution to the frequency shift. Experimental data for single-wall and multi-wall carbon nanotubes compare well to the model predictions for different oscillation amplitudes. Three parameters can be extracted: the distance necessary to unstick the nanotube from the surface and two spring constants corresponding to tube compression and to the elastic force required to overcome the adhesion force

  10. Elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Thorpe, M. F.; Davis, L. C.

    1995-05-01

    We study the elastic properties of rigid fiber-reinforced composites with perfect bonding between fibers and matrix, and also with sliding boundary conditions. In the dilute region, there exists an exact analytical solution. Around the rigidity threshold we find the elastic moduli and Poisson's ratio by decomposing the deformation into a compression mode and a rotation mode. For perfect bonding, both modes are important, whereas only the compression mode is operative for sliding boundary conditions. We employ the digital-image-based method and a finite element analysis to perform computer simulations which confirm our analytical predictions.

  11. Analysis of mode-hopping effect in Fabry–Pérot multiple-quantum well laser diodes via low frequency noise investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pralgauskaitė, Sandra; Palenskis, Vilius; Matukas, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive investigation of noise characteristics and radiation spectrum with special attention to the mode-hopping effect of Fabry–Pérot (FP) multiple quantum well laser diodes (LDs) have been carried out: laser radiation spectra, optical and electrical fluctuations and cross-correlation factor...... between them have been measured under stable and mode-hopping operation. At the mode-hopping that occurs at particular operation conditions (injection current and temperature) LD radiation spectrum is unstable in time, very intensive and highly correlated Lorentzian-type optical and electrical...

  12. Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav

    2016-01-01

    The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...... for alternative excitation cases. The differences between two regimes, the low frequency one, when a waveguide supports only one propagating wave, and the high frequency one, when several waves are supported, are demonstrated and explained....

  13. Elastic Metamaterials with Simultaneously Negative Effective Shear Modulus and Mass Density

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Ying

    2011-09-02

    We propose a type of elastic metamaterial comprising fluid-solid composite inclusions which can possess a negative shear modulus and negative mass density over a large frequency region. Such a material has the unique property that only transverse waves can propagate with a negative dispersion while longitudinal waves are forbidden. This leads to many interesting phenomena such as negative refraction, which is demonstrated by using a wedge sample and a significant amount of mode conversion from transverse waves to longitudinal waves that cannot occur on the interface of two natural solids.

  14. Simplified description of out-of-plane waves in thin annular elastic plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zadeh, Maziyar Nesari; Sorokin, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Dispersion relations are derived for the out-of-plane wave propagation in planar elastic plates with constant curvature using the classical Kirchhoff thin plate theory. The dispersion diagrams and the mode shapes are compared with their counterparts for a straight plate strip and the role...... of curvature is assessed for plates with unconstrained edges. Elementary Bernoulli–Euler theory for a beam of rectangular cross-section with the circular shape of its axis is also employed to analyze the wave guide properties of this structure in its out-of-plane deformation. The applicability range...... of the elementary beam theory is validated. The wave finite element method in the formulation of the three-dimensional elasticity theory is used to ensure that the comparison of dispersion diagrams is performed in the frequency range, where the classical thin plate theory is valid. Thus, the paper summarizes...

  15. Experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Bartłomiej; Takara, Hidehiko; Tsukishima, Yukio; Yoshimatsu, Toshihide; Yonenaga, Kazushige; Jinno, Masahiko

    2010-10-11

    We describe experimental demonstration of spectrum-sliced elastic optical path network (SLICE) architecture. We employ optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation format and bandwidth-variable optical cross-connects (OXC) to generate, transmit and receive optical paths with bandwidths of up to 1 Tb/s. We experimentally demonstrate elastic optical path setup and spectrally-efficient transmission of multiple channels with bit rates ranging from 40 to 140 Gb/s between six nodes of a mesh network. We show dynamic bandwidth scalability for optical paths with bit rates of 40 to 440 Gb/s. Moreover, we demonstrate multihop transmission of a 1 Tb/s optical path over 400 km of standard single-mode fiber (SMF). Finally, we investigate the filtering properties and the required guard band width for spectrally-efficient allocation of optical paths in SLICE.

  16. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  17. A finite element computer program for the calculation of the resonant frequencies of anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleury, W.H.; Rosinger, H.E.; Ritchie, I.G.

    1975-09-01

    A set of computer programs for the calculation of the flexural and torsional resonant frequencies of rectangular section bars of materials of orthotropic or higher symmetry are described. The calculations are used in the experimental determination and verification of the elastic constants of anisotropic materials. The simple finite element technique employed separates the inertial and elastic properties of the beam element into station and field transfer matrices respectively. It includes the Timoshenko beam corrections for flexure and Lekhnitskii's theory for torsion-flexure coupling. The programs also calculate the vibration shapes and surface nodal contours or Chladni figures of the vibration modes. (author)

  18. Comparative Investigation of Normal Modes and Molecular Dynamics of Hepatitis C NS5B Protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asafi, M S; Tekpinar, M; Yildirim, A

    2016-01-01

    Understanding dynamics of proteins has many practical implications in terms of finding a cure for many protein related diseases. Normal mode analysis and molecular dynamics methods are widely used physics-based computational methods for investigating dynamics of proteins. In this work, we studied dynamics of Hepatitis C NS5B protein with molecular dynamics and normal mode analysis. Principal components obtained from a 100 nanoseconds molecular dynamics simulation show good overlaps with normal modes calculated with a coarse-grained elastic network model. Coarse-grained normal mode analysis takes at least an order of magnitude shorter time. Encouraged by this good overlaps and short computation times, we analyzed further low frequency normal modes of Hepatitis C NS5B. Motion directions and average spatial fluctuations have been analyzed in detail. Finally, biological implications of these motions in drug design efforts against Hepatitis C infections have been elaborated. (paper)

  19. Modes of failures: primary and secondary stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, R.L.

    1987-07-01

    The paper begins with a reminder that the purpose of stress classification is to ensure suitable margins with respect to failure modes. The distinction between primary stresses and secondary stresses is then examined and a method is given for assessing the degree of elastic follow up in the elastic plastic field. The importance of elastic follow up is then highlighted by an examination of the effect of primary and secondary stresses on crack behavior

  20. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This presentation analyses the azimuthal decomposition of optical modes. Decomposition of azimuthal modes need two steps, namely generation and decomposition. An azimuthally-varying phase (bounded by a ring-slit) placed in the spatial frequency...

  1. All-fiber interferometer-based repetition-rate stabilization of mode-locked lasers to 10-14-level frequency instability and 1-fs-level jitter over 1  s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Dohyeon; Kim, Jungwon

    2017-12-15

    We report on all-fiber Michelson interferometer-based repetition-rate stabilization of femtosecond mode-locked lasers down to 1.3×10 -14 frequency instability and 1.4 fs integrated jitter in a 1 s time scale. The use of a compactly packaged 10 km long single-mode fiber (SMF)-28 fiber link as a timing reference allows the scaling of phase noise at a 10 GHz carrier down to -80  dBc/Hz at 1 Hz Fourier frequency. We also tested a 500 m long low-thermal-sensitivity fiber as a reference and found that, compared to standard SMF-28 fiber, it can mitigate the phase noise divergence by ∼10  dB/dec in the 0.1-1 Hz Fourier frequency range. These results suggest that the use of a longer low-thermal-sensitivity fiber may achieve sub-femtosecond integrated timing jitter with sub-10 -14 -level frequency instability in repetition rate by a simple and robust all-fiber-photonic method.

  2. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  3. Mode Interaction in Structures - An Overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byskov, Esben

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Koiter [1] was the first to formulate an asymptotic expansion to investigate postbuckling behavior and imperfection sensitivity of elastic structures. Since then, a large number of analyses of particular structures have appeared as well as some new expansions aimed at specific problems, ...... analyses must always be preferred because asymptotic expansions are obsolete. Keywords: stability, elastic, mode interaction....

  4. Elasticity theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Saada, Adel S; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    2013-01-01

    Elasticity: Theory and Applications reviews the theory and applications of elasticity. The book is divided into three parts. The first part is concerned with the kinematics of continuous media; the second part focuses on the analysis of stress; and the third part considers the theory of elasticity and its applications to engineering problems. This book consists of 18 chapters; the first of which deals with the kinematics of continuous media. The basic definitions and the operations of matrix algebra are presented in the next chapter, followed by a discussion on the linear transformation of points. The study of finite and linear strains gradually introduces the reader to the tensor concept. Orthogonal curvilinear coordinates are examined in detail, along with the similarities between stress and strain. The chapters that follow cover torsion; the three-dimensional theory of linear elasticity and the requirements for the solution of elasticity problems; the method of potentials; and topics related to cylinders, ...

  5. Dynamic rotor mode in antiferromagnetic nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lefmann, Kim; Jacobsen, H.; Garde, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present experimental, numerical, and theoretical evidence for an unusual mode of antiferromagnetic dynamics in nanoparticles. Elastic neutron scattering experiments on 8-nm particles of hematite display a loss of diffraction intensity with temperature, the intensity vanishing around 150 K...

  6. Frequency Equations for the In-Plane Vibration of Circular Annular Disks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bashmal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the in-plane vibration of circular annular disks under combinations of different boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges. The in-plane free vibration of an elastic and isotropic disk is studied on the basis of the two-dimensional linear plane stress theory of elasticity. The exact solution of the in-plane equation of equilibrium of annular disk is attainable, in terms of Bessel functions, for uniform boundary conditions. The frequency equations for different modes can be obtained from the general solutions by applying the appropriate boundary conditions at the inner and outer edges. The presented frequency equations provide the frequency parameters for the required number of modes for a wide range of radius ratios and Poisson's ratios of annular disks under clamped, free, or flexible boundary conditions. Simplified forms of frequency equations are presented for solid disks and axisymmetric modes of annular disks. Frequency parameters are computed and compared with those available in literature. The frequency equations can be used as a reference to assess the accuracy of approximate methods.

  7. Stress effects on the elastic properties of amorphous polymeric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caponi, S., E-mail: silvia.caponi@cnr.it, E-mail: silvia.corezzi@unipg.it [Istituto Officina dei Materiali del CNR (CNR-IOM) - Unità di Perugia, c/o Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Perugia I-06100 (Italy); Corezzi, S., E-mail: silvia.caponi@cnr.it, E-mail: silvia.corezzi@unipg.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); CNR-ISC (Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi), c/o Università di Roma “LaSapienza,” Piazzale A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Mattarelli, M. [NiPS Laboratory, Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy); Fioretto, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Geologia, Università di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06100 Perugia (Italy)

    2014-12-07

    Brillouin light scattering measurements have been used to study the stress induced modification in the elastic properties of two glass forming polymers: polybutadiene and epoxy-amine resin, prototypes of linear and network polymers, respectively. Following the usual thermodynamic path to the glass transition, polybutadiene has been studied as a function of temperature from the liquid well into the glassy phase. In the epoxy resin, the experiments took advantage of the system ability to reach the glass both via the chemical vitrification route, i.e., by increasing the number of covalent bonds among the constituent molecules, as well as via the physical thermal route, i.e., by decreasing the temperature. Independently from the particular way chosen to reach the glassy phase, the measurements reveal the signature of long range tensile stresses development in the glass. The stress presence modifies both the value of the sound velocities and their mutual relationship, so as to break the generalized Cauchy-like relation. In particular, when long range stresses, by improvise sample cracking, are released, the frequency of longitudinal acoustic modes increases more than 10% in polybutadiene and ∼4% in the epoxy resin. The data analysis suggests the presence of at least two different mechanisms acting on different length scales which strongly affect the overall elastic behaviour of the systems: (i) the development of tensile stress acting as a negative pressure and (ii) the development of anisotropy which increases its importance deeper and deeper in the glassy state.

  8. Magneto-elastic dynamics and bifurcation of rotating annular plate*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yu-Da; Piao Jiang-Min; Li Wen-Qiang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, magneto-elastic dynamic behavior, bifurcation, and chaos of a rotating annular thin plate with various boundary conditions are investigated. Based on the thin plate theory and the Maxwell equations, the magneto-elastic dynamic equations of rotating annular plate are derived by means of Hamilton’s principle. Bessel function as a mode shape function and the Galerkin method are used to achieve the transverse vibration differential equation of the rotating annular plate with different boundary conditions. By numerical analysis, the bifurcation diagrams with magnetic induction, amplitude and frequency of transverse excitation force as the control parameters are respectively plotted under different boundary conditions such as clamped supported sides, simply supported sides, and clamped-one-side combined with simply-anotherside. Poincaré maps, time history charts, power spectrum charts, and phase diagrams are obtained under certain conditions, and the influence of the bifurcation parameters on the bifurcation and chaos of the system is discussed. The results show that the motion of the system is a complicated and repeated process from multi-periodic motion to quasi-period motion to chaotic motion, which is accompanied by intermittent chaos, when the bifurcation parameters change. If the amplitude of transverse excitation force is bigger or magnetic induction intensity is smaller or boundary constraints level is lower, the system can be more prone to chaos. (paper)

  9. Elastic softness of hybrid lead halide perovskites

    KAUST Repository

    Ferreira, A. C.; Lé toublon, A.; Paofai, S.; Raymond, S.; Ecolivet, C.; Rufflé , B.; Cordier, S.; Katan, C.; Saidaminov, Makhsud I.; Zhumekenov, A. A.; Bakr, Osman; Even, J.; Bourges, Ph.

    2018-01-01

    scattering, low frequency acoustic phonons in four different hybrid perovskite single crystals: MAPbBr3, FAPbBr3, MAPbI3 and α-FAPbI3 (MA: methylammonium, FA: formamidinium). We report a complete set of elastic constants caracterized by a very soft shear

  10. Parameter sensitivity analysis of nonlinear piezoelectric probe in tapping mode atomic force microscopy for measurement improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarty, Rachael; Nima Mahmoodi, S., E-mail: nmahmoodi@eng.ua.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Alabama, Box 870276, Tuscaloosa, Alabama 35487 (United States)

    2014-02-21

    The equations of motion for a piezoelectric microcantilever are derived for a nonlinear contact force. The analytical expressions for natural frequencies and mode shapes are obtained. Then, the method of multiple scales is used to analyze the analytical frequency response of the piezoelectric probe. The effects of nonlinear excitation force on the microcantilever beam's frequency and amplitude are analytically studied. The results show a frequency shift in the response resulting from the force nonlinearities. This frequency shift during contact mode is an important consideration in the modeling of AFM mechanics for generation of more accurate imaging. Also, a sensitivity analysis of the system parameters on the nonlinearity effect is performed. The results of a sensitivity analysis show that it is possible to choose parameters such that the frequency shift minimizes. Certain parameters such as tip radius, microcantilever beam dimensions, and modulus of elasticity have more influence on the nonlinearity of the system than other parameters. By changing only three parameters—tip radius, thickness, and modulus of elasticity of the microbeam—a more than 70% reduction in nonlinearity effect was achieved.

  11. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-08-17

    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  12. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Garcia; Alexander Jimmefors; Fariba Mousavi; Lillemor Adrianson; Patricia Rosenberg; Trevor Archer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulat...

  13. Fast, High Resolution, and Wide Modulus Range Nanomechanical Mapping with Bimodal Tapping Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocun, Marta; Labuda, Aleksander; Meinhold, Waiman; Revenko, Irène; Proksch, Roger

    2017-10-24

    Tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM), also known as amplitude modulated (AM) or AC mode, is a proven, reliable, and gentle imaging mode with widespread applications. Over the several decades that tapping mode has been in use, quantification of tip-sample mechanical properties such as stiffness has remained elusive. Bimodal tapping mode keeps the advantages of single-frequency tapping mode while extending the technique by driving and measuring an additional resonant mode of the cantilever. The simultaneously measured observables of this additional resonance provide the additional information necessary to extract quantitative nanomechanical information about the tip-sample mechanics. Specifically, driving the higher cantilever resonance in a frequency modulated (FM) mode allows direct measurement of the tip-sample interaction stiffness and, with appropriate modeling, the set point-independent local elastic modulus. Here we discuss the advantages of bimodal tapping, coined AM-FM imaging, for modulus mapping. Results are presented for samples over a wide modulus range, from a compliant gel (∼100 MPa) to stiff materials (∼100 GPa), with the same type of cantilever. We also show high-resolution (subnanometer) stiffness mapping of individual molecules in semicrystalline polymers and of DNA in fluid. Combined with the ability to remain quantitative even at line scan rates of nearly 40 Hz, the results demonstrate the versatility of AM-FM imaging for nanomechanical characterization in a wide range of applications.

  14. Mode damping in a commensurate monolayer solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, Ludwig Walter; Hansen, Flemming Yssing

    1997-01-01

    with an elastic-continuum theory of the response of modes of either parallel or perpendicular polarization for a spherical adsorbate on a hexagonal substrate. The results are applied to the discussion of computer simulations and inelastic atomic-scattering experiments for adsorbates on graphite. The extreme...... of substrate modes with strong anomalous dispersion, and enables a semiquantitative account of observed avoided crossings of the adlayer perpendicular vibration mode and the substrate Rayleigh mode....

  15. The use of 18O enrichment to determine the mode of co-ordination in MXO3 species via infrared frequency and intensity patterns: the shape of matrix-isolated KNO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beattie, I.R.; Ogden, J.S.; Price, D.D.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a new experimental approach to the problem of determining the mode of co-ordination of [XO 3 ]sup(n-) ions (e.g. [NO 3 ] - , [CO 3 ] 2- ). Using the nitrate ion as an example, it is shown, via line diagrams, that a qualitative distinction between monodentate and bidentate binding should be possible simply by noting the number and relative intensities of isotope bands associated with the highest frequency N-O stretching mode in the i.r. spectrum of the 18 O-enriched material. The method is illustrated by reference to the matrix i.r. spectrum of molecular KNO 3 , where the initial qualitative conclusion of bidentate co-ordination is confirmed by subsequent force-constant analysis. (author)

  16. Estimates of anelastic dissipation in the Earth's torsional modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. CAPUTO

    1966-06-01

    Full Text Available The decay of the amplitude of the free modes of the
    Earth is a potential source of information on the mechanism of dissipation
    of the elastic energy of the Earth.
    However there are serious difficulties in the interpretation of the decay;
    they are caused by several facts. One is the limited length of the significant
    part of the record which prohibits to identify the splitting of all the modes
    caused by the Earth rotation and also to follow the pattern in its rotation;
    another reason is the coupling between modes, caused by the inhomogenities
    and the flattening of the Earth, which can transfer energy from one mode
    to another. The results available are therefore very few and of poor accuracy.
    In order to seek new information on the mechanism of dissipation of
    the elastic energy we solve a generalized form of the equation of elastodynamic
    in which we have introduced some unspecified operators to represent
    the dissipation of the elastic energy. By confronting these operators with
    the observations we would hope to find informations on the mechanism
    of dissipation. Unfortunately the laws of variation of Q with frequency,
    found by various authors who were using different observations, are not in
    agreement and are very uncertain. Therefore we can only estimate the
    average values of the parameters of the supposed mechanisms of dissipation.
    We analyze also the dissipation of energy due to viscous frictions at
    the core mantle boundary. This dissipation would be negligible even for
    viscosities of the core up to 1010 poise

  17. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  18. Statistical mechanics of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, JH

    2012-01-01

    Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.

  19. Elasticity of energy consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stam, M.

    2004-01-01

    Insight is given into the price elasticities of several energy carriers. Next, attention is paid to the impact of the discussion on changes of the Regulating Energy Levy (REB, abbreviated in Dutch) in the Netherlands [nl

  20. Elastic properties of fly ash-stabilized mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Dimter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stabilized mixes are used in the construction of bearing layers in asphalt and concrete pavement structures. Two nondestructive methods: resonant frequency method and ultrasonic pulse velocity method, were used for estimation of elastic properties of fly ash–stabilized mixes. Stabilized mixes were designed containing sand from the river Drava and binder composed of different share of cement and fly ash. The aim of the research was to analyze the relationship between the dynamic modulus of elasticity determined by different nondestructive methods. Data showed that average value of elasticity modulus obtained by the ultrasound velocity method is lower than the values of elasticity modulus obtained by resonant frequency method. For further analysis and enhanced discussion of elastic properties of fly ash stabilized mixes, see Dimter et al. [1].

  1. Electrostatic frequency maps for amide-I mode of β-peptide: Comparison of molecular mechanics force field and DFT calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Kaicong; Zheng, Xuan; Du, Fenfen

    2017-08-01

    The spectroscopy of amide-I vibrations has been widely utilized for the understanding of dynamical structure of polypeptides. For the modeling of amide-I spectra, two frequency maps were built for β-peptide analogue (N-ethylpropionamide, NEPA) in a number of solvents within different schemes (molecular mechanics force field based, GM map; DFT calculation based, GD map), respectively. The electrostatic potentials on the amide unit that originated from solvents and peptide backbone were correlated to the amide-I frequency shift from gas phase to solution phase during map parameterization. GM map is easier to construct with negligible computational cost since the frequency calculations for the samples are purely based on force field, while GD map utilizes sophisticated DFT calculations on the representative solute-solvent clusters and brings insight into the electronic structures of solvated NEPA and its chemical environments. The results show that the maps' predicted amide-I frequencies present solvation environmental sensitivities and exhibit their specific characters with respect to the map protocols, and the obtained vibrational parameters are in satisfactory agreement with experimental amide-I spectra of NEPA in solution phase. Although different theoretical schemes based maps have their advantages and disadvantages, the present maps show their potentials in interpreting the amide-I spectra for β-peptides, respectively.

  2. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal

    2013-01-01

    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  3. Finite-element analysis of elastic sound-proof coupling thermal state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsyss, V. G.; Strokov, I. M.; Sergaeva, M. Yu

    2018-01-01

    The aim is in calculated determining of the elastic rubber-metal element thermal state of soundproof coupling ship shafting under variable influence during loads in time. Thermal coupling calculation is performed with finite element method using NX Simens software with Nastran solver. As a result of studies, the following results were obtained: - a volumetric picture of the temperature distribution over the array of the deformed coupling body is obtained; - time to reach steady-state thermal coupling mode has been determined; - dependences of maximum temperature and time to reach state on the established operation mode on rotation frequency and ambient temperature are determined. The findings prove the conclusion that usage of finite element analysis modern software can significantly speed up problem solving.

  4. Series elasticity of the human triceps surae muscle : Measurement by controlled-release vs. resonance methods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL; Boom, H; Robinson, C; Rutten, W; Neuman, M; Wijkstra, H

    1997-01-01

    With a newly developed Controlled-Release Ergometer the complete characteristic of the series elastic component can be measured in human muscles. Previous estimates were based on the resonance method: muscle elasticity was assessed from the resonance frequency of the muscle elasticity connected to a

  5. Fringe instability in constrained soft elastic layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shaoting; Cohen, Tal; Zhang, Teng; Yuk, Hyunwoo; Abeyaratne, Rohan; Zhao, Xuanhe

    2016-11-04

    Soft elastic layers with top and bottom surfaces adhered to rigid bodies are abundant in biological organisms and engineering applications. As the rigid bodies are pulled apart, the stressed layer can exhibit various modes of mechanical instabilities. In cases where the layer's thickness is much smaller than its length and width, the dominant modes that have been studied are the cavitation, interfacial and fingering instabilities. Here we report a new mode of instability which emerges if the thickness of the constrained elastic layer is comparable to or smaller than its width. In this case, the middle portion along the layer's thickness elongates nearly uniformly while the constrained fringe portions of the layer deform nonuniformly. When the applied stretch reaches a critical value, the exposed free surfaces of the fringe portions begin to undulate periodically without debonding from the rigid bodies, giving the fringe instability. We use experiments, theory and numerical simulations to quantitatively explain the fringe instability and derive scaling laws for its critical stress, critical strain and wavelength. We show that in a force controlled setting the elastic fingering instability is associated with a snap-through buckling that does not exist for the fringe instability. The discovery of the fringe instability will not only advance the understanding of mechanical instabilities in soft materials but also have implications for biological and engineered adhesives and joints.

  6. Effect of Polypropylene Fibers on Self-Healing and Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity Recovery of Fiber Reinforced Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adham El-Newihy

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate self-healing properties and recovered dynamic moduli of engineered polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete using non-destructive resonant frequency testing. Two types of polypropylene fibers (0.3% micro and 0.6% macro and two curing conditions have been investigated: Water curing (at ~25 Celsius and air curing. The Impact Resonance Method (IRM has been conducted in both transverse and longitudinal modes on concrete cylinders prior/post crack induction and post healing of cracks. Specimens were pre-cracked at 14 days, obtaining values of crack width in the range of 0.10–0.50 mm. Addition of polypropylene fibers improved the dynamic response of concrete post-cracking by maintaining a fraction of the original resonant frequency and elastic properties. Macro fibers showed better improvement in crack bridging while micro fiber showed a significant recovery of the elastic properties. The results also indicated that air-cured Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete (PFRC cylinders produced ~300 Hz lower resonant frequencies when compared to water-cured cylinders. The analyses showed that those specimens with micro fibers exhibited a higher recovery of dynamic elastic moduli.

  7. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  8. Confocal Microscopy of Jammed Matter: From Elasticity to Granular Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorjadze, Ivane

    Packings of particles are ubiquitous in nature and are of interest not only to the scientific community but also to the food, pharmaceutical, and oil industries. In this thesis we use confocal microscopy to investigate packing geometry and stress transmission in 3D jammed particulate systems. By introducing weak depletion attraction we probe the accessible phase-space and demonstrate that a microscopic approach to jammed matter gives validity to statistical mechanics framework, which is intriguing because our particles are not thermally activated. We show that the fluctuations of the local packing parameters can be successfully captured by the recently proposed 'granocentric' model, which generates packing statistics according to simple stochastic processes. This model enables us to calculate packing entropy and granular temperature, the so-called 'compactivity', therefore, providing a basis for a statistical mechanics of granular matter. At a jamming transition point at which there are formed just enough number of contacts to guarantee the mechanical stability, theoretical arguments suggest a singularity which gives rise to the surprising scaling behavior of the elastic moduli and the microstructure, as observed in numerical simulations. Since the contact network in 3D is typically hidden from view, experimental test of the scaling law between the coordination number and the applied pressure is lacking in the literature. Our data show corrections to the linear scaling of the pressure with density which takes into account the creation of contacts. Numerical studies of vibrational spectra, in turn, reveal sudden features such as excess of low frequency modes, dependence of mode localization and structure on the pressure. Chapter four describes the first calculation of vibrational density of states from the experimental 3D data and is in qualitative agreement with the analogous computer simulations. We study the configurational role of the pressure and demonstrate

  9. Identification of modal parameters and spatial matrix in frequency domain. Basic theory; Shuhasu ryoiki ni okeru mode tokusei to tokusei gyoretsu no dotei. Kiso riron no kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwahara, M [Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Sugiura, T; Takaiwa, H; Nagamatsu, A [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    An approach is presented for the identification of spatial matrix with modal parameters in the frequency domain. Modal parameters are transformed to spatial matrix with constraints of modal vector orthogonality and characteristic equation. Adding the connecting conditions or unconnected conditions of measuring points, spatial matrix is determined by modal parameters whose number is smaller than that of dimension of spatial matrix. 9 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Correlations between frequency of infra-red active vibrational modes and copper-oxygen distance in copper oxides, application to superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, P.; Infante, C.; Siddiqi, S.A.; Sreedhar, K.

    1990-05-01

    The infra-red spectra of a large number of ternary Cu(II) oxides with at least a quasi square-planar coordination of oxygen around the copper ions have been studied. The frequency of the bands with the highest frequency, υ max , is found to correlate extremely well with the shortest Cu-O distance. υ max increases at an impressive rate of ∼ 20 cm -1 per .01 A when the Cu-O distance becomes less than 1.97 A, which is the Cu 2+ -O 2- distance in square-planar CuO 4 complexes as obtained from empirical ionic radii considerations. The marked sensitivity may be used as a ''titration'' procedure not only to assign bands but also to obtain diagnostic information about local coordination in compounds derived, for example, from the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-d structure such as LaCaBaCu 3 O 7-d . The only example where this correlation fails is in the two-layer non-superconducting oxides derived from La 2 (Ca,Sr)Cu 2 O 6 . the significance of this result is discussed. The marked dependence of frequency on the bond-distance is qualitatively examined in terms of an increased electron-phonon coupling to account for the observed tendency of the superconducting transition temperature to go through a maximum as the average basal plane Cu-O distance is decreased. (author). 52 refs, 6 figs

  11. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  12. ITER Plasma at Ion Cyclotron Frequency Domain: The Fusion Alpha Particles Diagnostics Based on the Stimulated Raman Scattering of Fast Magnetosonic Wave off High Harmonic Ion Bernstein Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, V. Alexander

    2014-10-01

    A novel method for alpha particle diagnostics is proposed. The theory of stimulated Raman scattering, SRS, of the fast wave and ion Bernstein mode, IBM, turbulence in multi-ion species plasmas, (Stefan University Press, La Jolla, CA, 2008). is utilized for the diagnostics of fast ions, (4)He (+2), in ITER plasmas. Nonlinear Landau damping of the IBM on fast ions near the plasma edge leads to the space-time changes in the turbulence level, (inverse alpha particle channeling). The space-time monitoring of the IBM turbulence via the SRS techniques may prove efficient for the real time study of the fast ion velocity distribution function, spatial distribution, and transport. Supported by Nikola Tesla Labs., La Jolla, CA 92037.

  13. [Aortic elastic properties and its clinical significance in intracranial aneurysms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Zhao-xia; You, Xiang-dong; Weng, Wen-chao; Wang, Jian-an; Shi, Jian

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the aortic elastic properties and its clinical significance in intracranial aneurysms (IAs). One hundred and seven IAs patients (57 with hypertension) and 108 healthy subjects were recruited. The internal aortic diameters in systole and diastole were measured by the M-mode echocardiography, the aortic elasticity indexes were calculated and compared. The aortic distensibility (DIS) was lower and the aortic stiffness index (SI) was higher in IAs patients than those in controls (both P IAs patients with hypertension (IAs-HP) than those in IAs with no hypertension (P IAs patients and hypertension is closely related to the severity of aortic elasticity.

  14. Pneumatic Variable Series Elastic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hao; Wu, Molei; Shen, Xiangrong

    2016-08-01

    Inspired by human motor control theory, stiffness control is highly effective in manipulation and human-interactive tasks. The implementation of stiffness control in robotic systems, however, has largely been limited to closed-loop control, and suffers from multiple issues such as limited frequency range, potential instability, and lack of contribution to energy efficiency. Variable-stiffness actuator represents a better solution, but the current designs are complex, heavy, and bulky. The approach in this paper seeks to address these issues by using pneumatic actuator as a variable series elastic actuator (VSEA), leveraging the compressibility of the working fluid. In this work, a pneumatic actuator is modeled as an elastic element with controllable stiffness and equilibrium point, both of which are functions of air masses in the two chambers. As such, for the implementation of stiffness control in a robotic system, the desired stiffness/equilibrium point can be converted to the desired chamber air masses, and a predictive pressure control approach is developed to control the timing of valve switching to obtain the desired air mass while minimizing control action. Experimental results showed that the new approach in this paper requires less expensive hardware (on-off valve instead of proportional valve), causes less control action in implementation, and provides good control performance by leveraging the inherent dynamics of the actuator.

  15. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  16. Shells on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Y.C.; Kedia, K.K.

    1977-01-01

    No realistic analytical work in the area of Shells on Elastic Foundations has been reported in the literature. Various foundation models have been proposed by several authors. These models involve one or more than one parameters to characterise the foundation medium. Some of these models cannot be used to derive the basic equations governing the behaviour of shells on elastic foundations. In the present work, starting from an elastic continuum hypothesis, a mathematical model for foundation has been derived in curvilinear orthogonal coordinates by the help of principle of virtual displacements, treating one of the virtual displacements as known to satisfy certain given conditions at its edge surfaces. In this model, several foundation parameters can be considered and it can also be used for layered medium of both finite and infinite thickness. (Auth.)

  17. Elastic Characterization of Concrete Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Vela, Claudio; Ruiz, Abraham; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2001-03-01

    Many geographical locations share a common problem of high environmental humidity. It is thus desirable to build houses that can withstand strong water loading. In this work we study the evolution of High Performance Concrete as a function of hardening stage. The technique that we use is based on the propagation of resonant audio frequency modes of oscillation along the long axis of homemade HPC cylindrical samples. An audio generator fed piezoelectric (at one end of the rod) excites vibrations in the sample. Off resonance these vibrations do not propagate away from the piezoelectric site. On the other hand, when a resonance is reached the vibration extends all over the bar. A second piezoelectric is placed at the other extreme of the cylinder. We measure three parameters: the resonant frequency, speed of sound, and loss factor. To measure the resonant frequency we connect the two piezos to an oscilloscope in the x-y mode. At resonance the oscilloscope displays an ellipse and the audio generator reports the frequency. To measure the speed of sound, we excite the firs piezo with a pulse and measure the delay time in the second piezo. The loss factor can be extracted from the ratio of the exciting pulse and the measured one. From these parameters we calculate the Young modulus, the area moment of inertia and the effective density of the HPC. These quantities are measured twice a day during the 28-day hardening time.

  18. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin

    2010-01-01

    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  19. The law of elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Cesare Masin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight-a cognitive law analogous to Hooke¿s law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined either in series or in parallel. This total elongation was longer for serial than for parallel springs, and increased proportionally to the number of serial springs and inversely proportionally to the number of parallel springs. The results suggest that participants integrated load weight with imagined elasticity rather than with spring length.

  20. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek

    2014-01-01

    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  1. Elastic plastic fracture mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, L.A.

    1978-07-01

    The application of linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) to crack stability in brittle structures is now well understood and widely applied. However, in many structural materials, crack propagation is accompanied by considerable crack-tip plasticity which invalidates the use of LEFM. Thus, present day research in fracture mechanics is aimed at developing parameters for predicting crack propagation under elastic-plastic conditions. These include critical crack-opening-displacement methods, the J integral and R-curve techniques. This report provides an introduction to these concepts and gives some examples of their applications. (author)

  2. Reduced-Order Computational Model for Low-Frequency Dynamics of Automobiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arnoux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A reduced-order model is constructed to predict, for the low-frequency range, the dynamical responses in the stiff parts of an automobile constituted of stiff and flexible parts. The vehicle has then many elastic modes in this range due to the presence of many flexible parts and equipment. A nonusual reduced-order model is introduced. The family of the elastic modes is not used and is replaced by an adapted vector basis of the admissible space of global displacements. Such a construction requires a decomposition of the domain of the structure in subdomains in order to control the spatial wave length of the global displacements. The fast marching method is used to carry out the subdomain decomposition. A probabilistic model of uncertainties is introduced. The parameters controlling the level of uncertainties are estimated solving a statistical inverse problem. The methodology is validated with a large computational model of an automobile.

  3. Elastic stability and vibration of toroidal magnets for fusion reactors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, F.C.; Swanson, C.

    1975-09-01

    The vibration and elastic stability of a set of discrete superconducting toroidal field magnets arranged to form a ''bumpy'' torus is examined. The mutual destabilizing magnetic forces between magnet pairs are calculated using a numerical differential inductance technique. It is shown that the mutual attractive magnetic forces can produce elastic buckling of the entire toroidal set. The vibration modes of the set are also found as functions of the coil current. The response of the set of magnets to an earthquake type motion of the toroidal base is calculated. The calculations have been incorporated in a computer code which accompanies the report. Measurements are made of the lateral stiffness of a flexible, planar, superconducting coil between two rigid coils in series. These tests show a dramatic decrease in the natural bending frequency with subsequent elastic instability or ''buckling'' at a critical value of the current in the coils. These observations support a magnetoelastic analysis which shows that proposed designs, of toroidal field coils for Tokamak fusion reactors, have insufficient lateral support for mechanical stability of the magnets

  4. Self-bending elastic waves and obstacle circumventing in wireless power transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, S.; Xia, Y.; Ruzzene, M.; Erturk, A.

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate self-bending of elastic waves along convex trajectories by means of geometric and phased arrays. Potential applications include ultrasonic imaging and manipulation, wave focusing, and wireless power transfer around obstacles. The basic concept is illustrated through a geometric array, which is designed to implement a phase delay profile among the array elements that leads to self-bending along a specified circular trajectory. Experimental validation is conducted for the lowest asymmetric Lamb wave mode in a thin plate over a range of frequencies to investigate the bandwidth of the approach. Experiments also illustrate the functionality of the array as a transmitter to deliver elastic wave energy to a receiver/harvester located behind a large obstacle for electrical power extraction. It is shown that the trajectory is not distorted by the presence of the obstacle and circumventing is achieved. A linear phased array counterpart of the geometric array is then constructed to illustrate the concept by imposing proper time delays to the array elements, which allows the generation of different trajectories using the same line source. This capability is demonstrated by tailoring the path diameter in the phased array setting, which offers the flexibility and versatility to induce a variety of convex trajectories for self-bending elastic waves.

  5. Study on the elastic behavior of Ti-13Nb-13Zr subjected to different heat treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florencio, O.; Chaves, J.M.; Silva Junior, P.S.; Schneider, S.G.

    2010-01-01

    Study of elastic behavior of Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy was realized through measures of anelastic relaxation (internal friction and frequency) as a function of temperature, obtained by mechanical spectroscopy using flexural vibration of the fundamental mode of the two samples, β-ST WQ heat-treated to 1170K for 30min and water quenched and β-ST WQ +670 K/3h with subsequent aging treatment at 670K for 3h. Spectra of anelastic relaxation not showed the presence of relaxation processes due to interstitial and substitutional solutes in the alloy, the dynamic elastic modulus of alloys at room temperature was 64GPa and 87GPa, respectively. After a further heat treatment at 1170K for 30 minutes, for to reduce internal stresses of the material was observed an increase in elastic modulus, with values of 87GPa and 110GPa respectively, this increment was associated with the variation of the proportions of phases α and β present in the samples, as was revealed by XRD and SEM results. (author)

  6. Diffraction by an immersed elastic wedge

    CERN Document Server

    Croisille, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    This monograph presents the mathematical description and numerical computation of the high-frequency diffracted wave by an immersed elastic wave with normal incidence. The mathematical analysis is based on the explicit description of the principal symbol of the pseudo-differential operator connected with the coupled linear problem elasticity/fluid by the wedge interface. This description is subsequently used to derive an accurate numerical computation of diffraction diagrams for different incoming waves in the fluid, and for different wedge angles. The method can be applied to any problem of coupled waves by a wedge interface. This work is of interest for any researcher concerned with high frequency wave scattering, especially mathematicians, acousticians, engineers.

  7. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hall, T [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bouchard, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and UTHSC at Houston Graduate School of Biomed, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  8. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emelianov, S; Hall, T; Bouchard, R

    2014-01-01

    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  9. Environmental bias and elastic curves on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guven, Jemal; María Valencia, Dulce; Vázquez-Montejo, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of an elastic curve bound to a surface will reflect the geometry of its environment. This may occur in an obvious way: the curve may deform freely along directions tangent to the surface, but not along the surface normal. However, even if the energy itself is symmetric in the curve's geodesic and normal curvatures, which control these modes, very distinct roles are played by the two. If the elastic curve binds preferentially on one side, or is itself assembled on the surface, not only would one expect the bending moduli associated with the two modes to differ, binding along specific directions, reflected in spontaneous values of these curvatures, may be favored. The shape equations describing the equilibrium states of a surface curve described by an elastic energy accommodating environmental factors will be identified by adapting the method of Lagrange multipliers to the Darboux frame associated with the curve. The forces transmitted to the surface along the surface normal will be determined. Features associated with a number of different energies, both of physical relevance and of mathematical interest, are described. The conservation laws associated with trajectories on surface geometries exhibiting continuous symmetries are also examined. (paper)

  10. Impact loads on beams on elastic foundations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kameswara Rao, N.S.V.; Prasad, B.B.

    1975-01-01

    Quite often, complex structural components are idealised as beams in engineering analysis and design. Also, equations governing the responses of shallow shells are mathematically equivalent to the equations governing the responses of beams on elastic foundations. Hence with possible applications in several technical disciplines, the behaviour of beams on elastic foundations subjected to impact loads is studied in detail in the present investigation both analytically and experimentally. The analytical methods include analysis and energy method. The effect of foundation parameters (stiffness, and damping constants) on the dynamic responses of the beam-foundation system has been analysed. In modal analysis, the free-vibration equation has been solved by replacing the applied impulse by suitable initial conditions and the solution has been obtained as the linear combination of an infinite sequence of discrete eigen-vectors. In the energy method, the beam-foundation system is treated to be under forced vibrations and the forcing function has been obtained using the Hertz's law of impact. In the case of free-free end conditions of the beam, the rigid body modes and the elastic modes have been superposed to obtain the total response. The responses predicted using modal analysis are higher than those obtained using energy method. From the present study it is observed that model analysis is preferable to energy method. (Auth.)

  11. The Law of Elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…

  12. Autonomic Vertical Elasticity of Docker Containers with ElasticDocker

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Dhuraibi , Yahya; Paraiso , Fawaz; Djarallah , Nabil; Merle , Philippe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Elasticity is the key feature of cloud computing to scale computing resources according to application workloads timely. In the literature as well as in industrial products, much attention was given to the elasticity of virtual machines, but much less to the elasticity of containers. However, containers are the new trend for packaging and deploying microservices-based applications. Moreover, most of approaches focus on horizontal elasticity, fewer works address vertica...

  13. Characterization of deep nanoscale surface trenches with AFM using thin carbon nanotube probes in amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of deep surface trenches with atomic force microscopy (AFM) presents significant challenges due to the sharp step edges that disturb the instrument and prevent it from faithfully reproducing the sample topography. Previous authors have developed AFM methodologies to successfully characterize semiconductor surface trenches with dimensions on the order of tens of nanometers. However, the study of imaging fidelity for features with dimensions smaller than 10 nm has not yet received sufficient attention. Such a study is necessary because small features in some cases lead to apparently high-quality images that are distorted due to tip and sample mechanical deformation. This paper presents multi-scale simulations, illustrating common artifacts affecting images of nanoscale trenches taken with fine carbon nanotube probes within amplitude-modulation and frequency-force-modulation AFM (AM-AFM and FFM-AFM, respectively). It also describes a methodology combining FFM-AFM with a step-in/step-out algorithm analogous to that developed by other groups for larger trenches, which can eliminate the observed artifacts. Finally, an overview of the AFM simulation methods is provided. These methods, based on atomistic and continuum simulation, have been previously used to study a variety of samples including silicon surfaces, carbon nanotubes and biomolecules

  14. Elastic anisotropy and low-temperature thermal expansion in the shape memory alloy Cu-Al-Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Santhosh Potharay; Menon, C S

    2008-04-01

    Cu-based shape memory alloys are known for their technologically important pseudo-elastic and shapememory properties, which are intimately associated with the martensitic transformation. A combination of deformation theory and finite-strain elasticity theory has been employed to arrive at the expressions for higher order elastic constants of Cu-Al-Zn based on Keating's approach. The second- and third-order elastic constants are in good agreement with the measurements. The aggregate elastic properties like bulk modulus, pressure derivatives, mode Grüneisen parameters of the elastic waves, low temperature limit of thermal expansion, and the Anderson-Grüneisen parameter are also presented.

  15. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W

    1997-01-01

    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  16. Servo-Elastic Dynamics of a Hydraulic Actuator Pitching a Blade with Large Deflections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, M H; Kallesoee, B S

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the servo-elastic dynamics of a hydraulic pitch actuator acting on a largely bend wind turbine blade. The compressibility of the oil and flexibility of the hoses introduce a dynamic mode in the pitch bearing degree of freedom. This mode may obtain negative damping if the proportional gain on the actuator position error is defined too large relative to the viscous forces in the hydraulic system and the total rotational inertia of the pitch bearing degree of freedom. A simple expression for the stability limit of this proportional gain is derived for tuning the gain based on the Ziegler-Nichols method. Computed transfer functions from reference to actual pitch angles indicate that the actuator can be approximated as a low-pass filter with some appropriate limitations on pitching speed and acceleration. The structural blade model includes the geometrical coupling of edgewise bending and torsion for large flapwise deflections. This coupling is shown to introduce edgewise bending response for pitch reference oscillations around the natural frequency of the edgewise bending mode, in which frequency range the transfer function from reference to actual pitch angle cannot be modeled as a simple low-pass filter. The pitch bearing is assumed to be frictionless as a first approximation

  17. Designing interactively with elastic splines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Fisker, Ann-Sofie

    2018-01-01

    We present an algorithm for designing interactively with C1 elastic splines. The idea is to design the elastic spline using a C1 cubic polynomial spline where each polynomial segment is so close to satisfying the Euler-Lagrange equation for elastic curves that the visual difference becomes neglig...... negligible. Using a database of cubic Bézier curves we are able to interactively modify the cubic spline such that it remains visually close to an elastic spline....

  18. Optimization of directional elastic energy propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Erik; Chang, Hannah R.; Ruzzene, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how topology optimization can be used to design a periodically perforated plate, in order to obtain a tailored anisotropic group velocity profile. The main method is demonstrated on both low and high frequency bending wave propagation in an aluminum plate......, but is general in the sense that it could be used to design periodic structures with frequency dependent group velocity profiles for any kind of elastic wave propagation. With the proposed method the resulting design is manufacturable. Measurements on an optimized design compare excellently with the numerical...

  19. Inter-comb synchronization by mode-to-mode locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Byung Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Two combs of fiber femtosecond lasers are synchronized through the optical frequency reference created by injection-locking of a diode laser to a single comb mode. Maintaining a mHz-level narrow linewidth, the optical frequency reference permits two combs to be stabilized by mode-to-mode locking with a relative stability of 1.52  ×  10-16 at 10 s with a frequency slip of 2.46 mHz. This inter-comb synchronization can be utilized for applications such as dual-comb spectroscopy or ultra-short pulse synthesis without extra narrow-linewidth lasers.

  20. Crystal Growth of High-Quality Protein Crystals under the Presence of an Alternant Electric Field in Pulse-Wave Mode, and a Strong Magnetic Field with Radio Frequency Pulses Characterized by X-ray Diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Rodríguez-Romero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this research was devoted to investigating the effect of alternate current (AC using four different types of wave modes (pulse-wave at 2 Hz on the crystal growth of lysozyme in solution. The best results, in terms of size and crystal quality, were obtained when protein crystals were grown under the influence of electric fields in a very specific wave mode (“breathing” wave, giving the highest resolution up to 1.34 Å in X-ray diffraction analysis compared with controls and with those crystals grown in gel. In the second part, we evaluated the effect of a strong magnetic field of 16.5 Tesla combined with radiofrequency pulses of 0.43 μs on the crystal growth in gels of tetragonal hen egg white (HEW lysozyme. The lysozyme crystals grown, both in solution applying breathing-wave and in gel under the influence of this strong magnetic field with pulses of radio frequencies, produced the larger-in-size crystals and the highest resolution structures. Data processing and refinement statistics are very good in terms of the resolution, mosaicity and Wilson B factor obtained for each crystal. Besides, electron density maps show well-defined and distinctly separated atoms at several selected tryptophan residues for the crystal grown using the “breathing wave pulses”.