Sample records for elastic migration applications

  1. Elastic and acoustic wavefield decompositions and application to reverse time migrations (United States)

    Wang, Wenlong

    P- and S-waves coexist in elastic wavefields, and separation between them is an essential step in elastic reverse-time migrations (RTMs). Unlike the traditional separation methods that use curl and divergence operators, which do not preserve the wavefield vector component information, we propose and compare two vector decomposition methods, which preserve the same vector components that exist in the input elastic wavefield. The amplitude and phase information is automatically preserved, so no amplitude or phase corrections are required. The decoupled propagation method is extended from elastic to viscoelastic wavefields. To use the decomposed P and S vector wavefields and generate PP and PS images, we create a new 2D migration context for isotropic, elastic RTM which includes PS vector decomposition; the propagation directions of both incident and reflected P- and S-waves are calculated directly from the stress and particle velocity definitions of the decomposed P- and S-wave Poynting vectors. Then an excitation-amplitude image condition that scales the receiver wavelet by the source vector magnitude produces angle-dependent images of PP and PS reflection coefficients with the correct polarities, polarization, and amplitudes. It thus simplifies the process of obtaining PP and PS angle-domain common-image gathers (ADCIGs); it is less effort to generate ADCIGs from vector data than from scalar data. Besides P- and S-waves decomposition, separations of up- and down-going waves are also a part of processing of multi-component recorded data and propagating wavefields. A complex trace based up/down separation approach is extended from acoustic to elastic, and combined with P- and S-wave decomposition by decoupled propagation. This eliminates the need for a Fourier transform over time, thereby significantly reducing the storage cost and improving computational efficiency. Wavefield decomposition is applied to both synthetic elastic VSP data and propagating wavefield

  2. Decoupled deblurring filter and its application to elastic migration and inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai


    We present a decoupled deblurring filter that approximates the multiparameter Hessian inverse by using local filters to approximate its submatrices for the same and different parameter classes. Numerical tests show that the filter not only reduces the footprint noise, balances the amplitudes and increases the resolution of the elastic migration images, but also mitigates the crosstalk artifacts. When used as a preconditioner, it accelerates the convergence rate for elastic inversion.

  3. Quantitative elastic migration. Applications to 3D borehole seismic surveys; Migration elastique quantitative. Applications a la sismique de puits 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clochard, V.


    3D VSP imaging is nowadays a strategic requirement by petroleum companies. It is used to precise in details the geology close to the well. Because of the lack of redundancy and limited coverage in the data. this kind of technology is more restrictive than surface seismic which allows an investigation at a higher scale. Our contribution was to develop an elastic quantitative imagine (GRT migration) which can be applied to 3 components borehole dataset. The method is similar to the Kirchhoff migration using sophistical weighting of the seismic amplitudes. In reality. GRT migration uses pre-calculated Green functions (travel time. amplitude. polarization). The maps are obtained by 3D ray tracing (wavefront construction) in the velocity model. The migration algorithm works with elementary and independent tasks. which is useful to process different kind of dataset (fixed or moving geophone antenna). The study has been followed with validations using asymptotic analytical solution. The ability of reconstruction in 3D borehole survey has been tested in the Overthrust synthetic model. The application to a real circular 3D VSP shows various problems like velocity model building, anisotropy factor and the preprocessing (deconvolution. wave mode separation) which can destroy seismic amplitudes. An isotropic 3 components preprocessing of the whole dataset allows a better lateral reconstruction. The choice of a big migration aperture can help the reconstruction of strong geological dip in spite of migration smiles. Finally, the methodology can be applied to PS converted waves. (author)

  4. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai


    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is used to invert synthetic particle-velocity data and crosswell pressure field data. The migration images consist of both the P- and Svelocity perturbation images. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data illustrate the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In addition, elastic LSRTM images are better focused and have better reflector continuity than do the acoustic LSRTM images.

  5. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Zongcai


    We use elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) to invert for the reflectivity images of P- and S-wave impedances. Elastic LSRTMsolves the linearized elastic-wave equations for forward modeling and the adjoint equations for backpropagating the residual wavefield at each iteration. Numerical tests on synthetic data and field data reveal the advantages of elastic LSRTM over elastic reverse time migration (RTM) and acoustic LSRTM. For our examples, the elastic LSRTM images have better resolution and amplitude balancing, fewer artifacts, and less crosstalk compared with the elastic RTM images. The images are also better focused and have better reflector continuity for steeply dipping events compared to the acoustic LSRTM images. Similar to conventional leastsquares migration, elastic LSRTM also requires an accurate estimation of the P- and S-wave migration velocity models. However, the problem remains that, when there are moderate errors in the velocity model and strong multiples, LSRTMwill produce migration noise stronger than that seen in the RTM images.

  6. Least-squares reverse time migration in elastic media (United States)

    Ren, Zhiming; Liu, Yang; Sen, Mrinal K.


    Elastic reverse time migration (RTM) can yield accurate subsurface information (e.g. PP and PS reflectivity) by imaging the multicomponent seismic data. However, the existing RTM methods are still insufficient to provide satisfactory results because of the finite recording aperture, limited bandwidth and imperfect illumination. Besides, the P- and S-wave separation and the polarity reversal correction are indispensable in conventional elastic RTM. Here, we propose an iterative elastic least-squares RTM (LSRTM) method, in which the imaging accuracy is improved gradually with iteration. We first use the Born approximation to formulate the elastic de-migration operator, and employ the Lagrange multiplier method to derive the adjoint equations and gradients with respect to reflectivity. Then, an efficient inversion workflow (only four forward computations needed in each iteration) is introduced to update the reflectivity. Synthetic and field data examples reveal that the proposed LSRTM method can obtain higher-quality images than the conventional elastic RTM. We also analyse the influence of model parametrizations and misfit functions in elastic LSRTM. We observe that Lamé parameters, velocity and impedance parametrizations have similar and plausible migration results when the structures of different models are correlated. For an uncorrelated subsurface model, velocity and impedance parametrizations produce fewer artefacts caused by parameter crosstalk than the Lamé coefficient parametrization. Correlation- and convolution-type misfit functions are effective when amplitude errors are involved and the source wavelet is unknown, respectively. Finally, we discuss the dependence of elastic LSRTM on migration velocities and its antinoise ability. Imaging results determine that the new elastic LSRTM method performs well as long as the low-frequency components of migration velocities are correct. The quality of images of elastic LSRTM degrades with increasing noise.

  7. Unix Application Migration Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Microsoft. Redmond


    Drawing on the experience of Microsoft consultants working in the field, as well as external organizations that have migrated from UNIX to Microsoft® Windows®, this guide offers practical, prescriptive guidance on the issues you are likely to face when porting existing UNIX applications to the Windows operating system environment. Senior IT decision makers, network managers, and operations managers will get real-world guidance and best practices on planning and implementation issues to understand the different methods through which migration or co-existence can be accomplished. Also detailing

  8. Elastic sealants for surgical applications. (United States)

    Annabi, Nasim; Yue, Kan; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Sealants have emerged as promising candidates for replacing sutures and staples to prevent air and liquid leakages during and after the surgeries. Their physical properties and adhesion strength to seal the wound area without limiting the tissue movement and function are key factors in their successful implementation in clinical practice. In this contribution, the advances in the development of elastic sealants formed from synthetic and natural materials are critically reviewed and their shortcomings are pointed out. In addition, we highlight the applications in which elasticity of the sealant is critical and outline the limitations of the currently available sealants. This review will provide insights for the development of novel bioadhesives with advanced functionality for surgical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Elastic Reverse Time Migration (RTM) From Surface Topography (United States)

    Akram, Naveed; Chen, Xiaofei


    Seismic Migration is a promising data processing technique to construct subsurface images by projecting the recorded seismic data at surface back to their origins. There are numerous Migration methods. Among them, Reverse Time Migration (RTM) is considered a robust and standard imaging technology in present day exploration industry as well as in academic research field because of its superior performance compared to traditional migration methods. Although RTM is extensive computing and time consuming but it can efficiently handle the complex geology, highly dipping reflectors and strong lateral velocity variation all together. RTM takes data recorded at the surface as a boundary condition and propagates the data backwards in time until the imaging condition is met. It can use the same modeling algorithm that we use for forward modeling. The classical seismic exploration theory assumes flat surface which is almost impossible in practice for land data. So irregular surface topography has to be considered in simulation of seismic wave propagation, which is not always a straightforward undertaking. In this study, Curved grid finite difference method (CG-FDM) is adapted to model elastic seismic wave propagation to investigate the effect of surface topography on RTM results and explore its advantages and limitations with synthetic data experiments by using Foothill model with topography as the true model. We focus on elastic wave propagation rather than acoustic wave because earth actually behaves as an elastic body. Our results strongly emphasize on the fact that irregular surface topography must be considered for modeling of seismic wave propagation to get better subsurface images specially in mountainous scenario and suggest practitioners to properly handled the geometry of data acquired on irregular topographic surface in their imaging algorithms.

  10. Active elastic metamaterials with applications in acoustics


    Pope, Simon; Laalej, Hatim; Daley, Steve


    International audience; Elastic metamaterials provide a new approach to solving existing problems in acoustics. They have also been associated with novel concepts such as acoustic invisibility and subwavelength imaging. To be applied to many of the proposed applications a metamaterial would need to have the desired mass density and elastic moduli over a wide frequency band. To minimise scatter in acoustics applications the impedance of solid elastic metamaterials also need to be matched to th...

  11. Quantitative multi-waves migration in elastic anisotropic media; Migration quantitative multi-ondes en milieu elastique anisotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgne, H.


    modelling of waves propagation in anisotropic media. With the approximations of ray theory, 1 develop an expression of the geometrical spreading, the amplitude, and their reciprocity relations. I set up imaging formulas in order to reconstruct the reflection coefficients of the subsurface in elastic anisotropic media. In a first time, 1 salve the direct problem, by expressing the integral relation between the scattered wave field recorded by the receivers and the subsurface reflection coefficients. In a second time, 1 apply an elastic anisotropic quantitative migration method, based on the properties of the inverse Radon transforms (Beylkin's approach), in order to express the reflection coefficient in 2D, 2.5D and 3D media. 1 implemented these formulas in a new preserved amplitude migration algorithm, where the images are sorted by angle classes. At last, 1 apply these theoretical results to synthetic and real datasets. 1 show that migration is able to reconstruct the correct A V A behavior of anisotropic reflection coefficients if hath. modifications are achieved. Then, 1 degrade the process, by keeping an anisotropic ray tracing but using the classical isotropic imaging formula. F'or this commonly used configuration, 1 evaluate the error that can be expected in the A V A response of the migrated reflection coefficient. Methodological applications show the sensibility of the migration results to the velocity model smoothing and to an error on the anisotropic axis. (author)

  12. Elastic sealants for surgical applications


    Annabi, Nasim; Yue, Kan; Tamayol, Ali; Khademhosseini, Ali


    Sealants have emerged as promising candidates for replacing sutures and staples to prevent air and liquid leakages during and after the surgeries. Their physical properties and adhesion strength to seal the wound area without limiting the tissue movement and function are key factors in their successful implementation in clinical practice. In this contribution, the advances in the development of elastic sealants formed from synthetic and natural materials are critically reviewed and their shor...

  13. Application of numerical methods to elasticity imaging. (United States)

    Castaneda, Benjamin; Ormachea, Juvenal; Rodríguez, Paul; Parker, Kevin J


    Elasticity imaging can be understood as the intersection of the study of biomechanical properties, imaging sciences, and physics. It was mainly motivated by the fact that pathological tissue presents an increased stiffness when compared to surrounding normal tissue. In the last two decades, research on elasticity imaging has been an international and interdisciplinary pursuit aiming to map the viscoelastic properties of tissue in order to provide clinically useful information. As a result, several modalities of elasticity imaging, mostly based on ultrasound but also on magnetic resonance imaging and optical coherence tomography, have been proposed and applied to a number of clinical applications: cancer diagnosis (prostate, breast, liver), hepatic cirrhosis, renal disease, thyroiditis, arterial plaque evaluation, wall stiffness in arteries, evaluation of thrombosis in veins, and many others. In this context, numerical methods are applied to solve forward and inverse problems implicit in the algorithms in order to estimate viscoelastic linear and nonlinear parameters, especially for quantitative elasticity imaging modalities. In this work, an introduction to elasticity imaging modalities is presented. The working principle of qualitative modalities (sonoelasticity, strain elastography, acoustic radiation force impulse) and quantitative modalities (Crawling Waves Sonoelastography, Spatially Modulated Ultrasound Radiation Force (SMURF), Supersonic Imaging) will be explained. Subsequently, the areas in which numerical methods can be applied to elasticity imaging are highlighted and discussed. Finally, we present a detailed example of applying total variation and AM-FM techniques to the estimation of elasticity.

  14. Lateral migration of an elastic capsule by optical force in a uniform flow. (United States)

    Chang, Cheong Bong; Huang, Wei-Xi; Sung, Hyung Jin


    The lateral migration of an elastic capsule under an optical force in a uniform flow was studied to show the separation characteristics according to the elastic properties in the cross-type optical separator. The initially spherical capsule was moved through the fluid flow using a laser beam with a Gaussian distribution focused along the direction normal to the flow device surface. To simulate such a system, a penalty immersed boundary method was adopted to enable fluid-membrane coupling, and a dynamic ray tracing method was applied to the optical force calculation. The effects of the elastic properties of the capsule membrane (the surface Young's modulus and the bending modulus) on the lateral migration were studied. By increasing the surface Young's modulus, the capsule deformed less and the migration distance increased; however, buckling occurred in the capsule with a high surface Young's modulus. Buckling could be suppressed by increasing the bending rigidity. The effects of the flow velocity and the laser beam power were also examined. In the simulation, the S number, i.e., the ratio of the optical force to the viscous force, was adjusted by decreasing the flow velocity or increasing the laser beam power. The migration distance increased as the S number increased, and a constant lateral migration distance was obtained for a rigid particle for a given S number. An elastic capsule under conditions intermediate between a fixed flow velocity and a fixed laser beam power, however, did not yield a constant lateral migration distance due to the extent of the deformation in the different situations. To predict the lateral migration distance of an elastic capsule, a nondimensional parameter, S_{e}, was defined to include the effects of the optical force, the elastic force, and the fluid viscous force. A unified tendency of the lateral migration distance with S_{e} was obtained for capsules with intermediate elasticity, by varying either the flow velocity or the laser

  15. Effect of substrate elasticity on macroscopic parameters of fish keratocyte migration (United States)

    Dziob, Daniel; Kołodziej, Tomasz; Nowak, Justyna; Cyzio, Piotr; Raczkowska, Joanna; Laska, Jadwiga; Rajfur, Zenon


    Cell migration is an important biological phenomenon which depends on a number of internal and external factors. One of such factors can be the mechanical properties of the environment which can have an impact on the cell’s regulatory pathways through so-called mechanotransduction. Ultimately, these properties can also influence the process of cell migration. The goal of this work is to investigate how substrate stiffness (elasticity) changes basic migration parameters of migrating cells. Fish keratocytes migrating on polyacrylamide hydrogels have been used as a model of fast migrating cells. Cell migration have been tracked with optical microscopy, employing a time-lapse technique. Migration parameters have been determined from image analysis. This study has shown a systematic decrease of some of the key migration parameters—average cell speed and angular persistence—with a simultaneous increase of substrate elasticity. The results demonstrate that the elasticity of the substrate is the key factor in cell migration. It determines speed and angular persistence, which proves that mechanical parameters of the environment can affect cellular processes. A detailed knowledge of mechanotransduction processes can have major implications for tissue engineering and for the understanding of metastasis.

  16. Migrating Applications to IPv6

    CERN Document Server

    York, Dan


    If IPv6 is to be adopted on a large scale, the applications running on desktop systems, laptops, and even mobile devices need to work just as well with this protocol as they do with IPv4. This concise book takes you beyond the network layer and helps you explore the issues you need to address if you are to successfully migrate your apps to IPv6. It's ideal for application developers, system/network architects, product managers, and others involved in moving your network to IPv6. Explore changes you need to make in your application's user interfaceMake sure your application is retrieving corre

  17. Elastic least-squares reverse time migration with velocities and density perturbation (United States)

    Qu, Yingming; Li, Jinli; Huang, Jianping; Li, Zhenchun


    Elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) based on the non-density-perturbation assumption can generate false-migrated interfaces caused by density variations. We perform an elastic LSRTM scheme with density variations for multicomponent seismic data to produce high-quality images in Vp, Vs and ρ components. However, the migrated images may suffer from crosstalk artefacts caused by P- and S-waves coupling in elastic LSRTM no matter what model parametrizations used. We have proposed an elastic LSRTM with density variations method based on wave modes separation to reduce these crosstalk artefacts by using P- and S-wave decoupled elastic velocity-stress equations to derive demigration equations and gradient formulae with respect to Vp, Vs and ρ. Numerical experiments with synthetic data demonstrate the capability and superiority of the proposed method. The imaging results suggest that our method promises imaging results with higher quality and has a faster residual convergence rate. Sensitivity analysis of migration velocity, migration density and stochastic noise verifies the robustness of the proposed method for field data.

  18. The elastic wave velocity response of methane gas hydrate formation in vertical gas migration systems (United States)

    Bu, Q. T.; Hu, G. W.; Ye, Y. G.; Liu, C. L.; Li, C. F.; Best, A. I.; Wang, J. S.


    Knowledge of the elastic wave velocities of hydrate-bearing sediments is important for geophysical exploration and resource evaluation. Methane gas migration processes play an important role in geological hydrate accumulation systems, whether on the seafloor or in terrestrial permafrost regions, and their impact on elastic wave velocities in sediments needs further study. Hence, a high-pressure laboratory apparatus was developed to simulate natural continuous vertical migration of methane gas through sediments. Hydrate saturation (S h) and ultrasonic P- and S-wave velocities (V p and V s) were measured synchronously by time domain reflectometry (TDR) and by ultrasonic transmission methods respectively during gas hydrate formation in sediments. The results were compared to previously published laboratory data obtained in a static closed system. This indicated that the velocities of hydrate-bearing sediments in vertical gas migration systems are slightly lower than those in closed systems during hydrate formation. While velocities increase at a constant rate with hydrate saturation in the closed system, P-wave velocities show a fast-slow-fast variation with increasing hydrate saturation in the vertical gas migration system. The observed velocities are well described by an effective-medium velocity model, from which changing hydrate morphology was inferred to cause the fast-slow-fast velocity response in the gas migration system. Hydrate forms firstly at the grain contacts as cement, then grows within the pore space (floating), then finally grows into contact with the pore walls again. We conclude that hydrate morphology is the key factor that influences the elastic wave velocity response of methane gas hydrate formation in vertical gas migration systems.

  19. Final Project Report: Imaging Fault Zones Using a Novel Elastic Reverse-Time Migration Imaging Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Ting [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Tan, Sirui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lin, Youzuo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gao, Kai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Imaging fault zones and fractures is crucial for geothermal operators, providing important information for reservoir evaluation and management strategies. However, there are no existing techniques available for directly and clearly imaging fault zones, particularly for steeply dipping faults and fracture zones. In this project, we developed novel acoustic- and elastic-waveform inversion methods for high-resolution velocity model building. In addition, we developed acoustic and elastic reverse-time migration methods for high-resolution subsurface imaging of complex subsurface structures and steeply-dipping fault/fracture zones. We first evaluated and verified the improved capabilities of our newly developed seismic inversion and migration imaging methods using synthetic seismic data. Our numerical tests verified that our new methods directly image subsurface fracture/fault zones using surface seismic reflection data. We then applied our novel seismic inversion and migration imaging methods to a field 3D surface seismic dataset acquired at the Soda Lake geothermal field using Vibroseis sources. Our migration images of the Soda Lake geothermal field obtained using our seismic inversion and migration imaging algorithms revealed several possible fault/fracture zones. AltaRock Energy, Inc. is working with Cyrq Energy, Inc. to refine the geologic interpretation at the Soda Lake geothermal field. Trenton Cladouhos, Senior Vice President R&D of AltaRock, was very interested in our imaging results of 3D surface seismic data from the Soda Lake geothermal field. He planed to perform detailed interpretation of our images in collaboration with James Faulds and Holly McLachlan of University of Nevada at Reno. Using our high-resolution seismic inversion and migration imaging results can help determine the optimal locations to drill wells for geothermal energy production and reduce the risk of geothermal exploration.

  20. Conical Refraction of Elastic Waves by Anisotropic Metamaterials and Application for Parallel Translation of Elastic Waves. (United States)

    Ahn, Young Kwan; Lee, Hyung Jin; Kim, Yoon Young


    Conical refraction, which is quite well-known in electromagnetic waves, has not been explored well in elastic waves due to the lack of proper natural elastic media. Here, we propose and design a unique anisotropic elastic metamaterial slab that realizes conical refraction for horizontally incident longitudinal or transverse waves; the single-mode wave is split into two oblique coupled longitudinal-shear waves. As an interesting application, we carried out an experiment of parallel translation of an incident elastic wave system through the anisotropic metamaterial slab. The parallel translation can be useful for ultrasonic non-destructive testing of a system hidden by obstacles. While the parallel translation resembles light refraction through a parallel plate without angle deviation between entry and exit beams, this wave behavior cannot be achieved without the engineered metamaterial because an elastic wave incident upon a dissimilar medium is always split at different refraction angles into two different modes, longitudinal and shear.

  1. Multiple scale model for cell migration in monolayers: Elastic mismatch between cells enhances motility. (United States)

    Palmieri, Benoit; Bresler, Yony; Wirtz, Denis; Grant, Martin


    We propose a multiscale model for monolayer of motile cells that comprise normal and cancer cells. In the model, the two types of cells have identical properties except for their elasticity; cancer cells are softer and normal cells are stiffer. The goal is to isolate the role of elasticity mismatch on the migration potential of cancer cells in the absence of other contributions that are present in real cells. The methodology is based on a phase-field description where each cell is modeled as a highly-deformable self-propelled droplet. We simulated two types of nearly confluent monolayers. One contains a single cancer cell in a layer of normal cells and the other contains normal cells only. The simulation results demonstrate that elasticity mismatch alone is sufficient to increase the motility of the cancer cell significantly. Further, the trajectory of the cancer cell is decorated by several speed "bursts" where the cancer cell quickly relaxes from a largely deformed shape and consequently increases its translational motion. The increased motility and the amplitude and frequency of the bursts are in qualitative agreement with recent experiments.

  2. Converted-wave guided imaging condition for elastic reverse time migration with wavefield separation (United States)

    Choi, Hyungwook; Seol, Soon Jee; Byun, Joongmoo


    Elastic reverse time migration (ERTM), which is capable of using multicomponent seismic data, provides not only an improvement of the P-P image compared to the one derived from acoustic RTM, but also more opportunities to understand the subsurface through converted wave images (P-S, S-P, and S-S images). However, the polarity reversals in P-S and S-P images and cross-talk noises generated in S-P and S-S images degrade the converted wave images of ERTM. To overcome these problems, we derive a new P-S converted wave imaging condition for 2D ERTM based on wavefield separation techniques. The proposed imaging condition, called converted-wave guided (CWG) imaging condition, incorporates an extra term that represents the sign and wavelength of S-waves converted from source wavefields into the zero-lag cross-correlation imaging condition for P-S imaging. The extra term compensates for the polarity reversal of separated S-waves from receiver wavefields because the converted S-waves from source wavefields also have the change in polarity. In addition, since this CWG imaging condition produces images where P- and S-waves from source wavefields and S-waves from receiver wavefields coincide, image resolution is enhanced without generating spurious events. Our approach is motivated by the specific feature of ERTM that generates converted waves at the reflection points (conventional imaging points) when proper elastic models are used. Through a numerical experiment with a simple elastic model, we demonstrate that the proposed CWG imaging condition successfully corrects the polarity reversal and provides higher image resolution. We also test our migration algorithm on a synthetic ocean bottom cable (OBC) dataset created using the Marmousi-II model. The P-S image obtained from CWG imaging condition shows continuous events and improved image resolution.

  3. Application of Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) to improve Reservoir Characterization


    Gharaee Shahri, Seyed Ali


    The Extended Elastic Impedance (EEI) as a seismic attribute was first introduced by Whitcombe (2002) as a method for fluid and lithology prediction. EEI is the application of angle rotation in the conventional acoustic impedance under certain approximation. It essentially works by projecting intercept and gradient together with different angles which highlights different features. EEI has capability to estimate elastic parameters such as S-wave impedance, Vp/Vs ratio, bulk modulus, shear mod...

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Melanoma Cell Migration with an Elastic Continuum Model for the Evaluation of the Influence of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha on Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Vianna Gallinaro


    Full Text Available An elastic continuum mathematical model was implemented to study collective C8161 melanoma cell migration during a “scratch wound” assay, in control and under the influence of the proinflammatory cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α. The model has four constants: force that results from lamellipod formation (F, adhesion constant between cells and extracellular matrix (ECM (b, cell layer elasticity modulus (k, and growth rate (ρ. A nonlinear regression routine was used to obtain the parameters of the model with data from an experiment made with C8161 melanoma cells, with and without TNF-α. Coefficient of determination for both situations was R2=0.89 and R2=0.92, respectively. The parameters values obtained were similar to the ones found in the literature. However, the adhesion constant value decreased with the introduction of TNF-α, which is not in accordance with expected since the presence of TNF-α is associated with an increased expression of integrins that would promote an enhanced adhesion among cells. The model was used in a study relating to the adhesion constant and cell migration, and the results suggested that cell migration decreases with higher adhesion, which is also not in accordance with expected. These differences would not occur if it was considered that TNF-α increases the elasticity modulus of the cell layer.

  5. Vibrations of Elastic Systems With Applications to MEMS and NEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Magrab, Edward B


    This work presents a unified approach to the vibrations of elastic systems as applied to MEMS devices, mechanical components, and civil structures. Applications include atomic force microscopes, energy harvesters, and carbon nanotubes and consider such complicating effects as squeeze film damping, viscous fluid loading, in-plane forces, and proof mass interactions with their elastic supports. These effects are analyzed as single degree-of-freedom models and as more realistic elastic structures. The governing equations and boundary conditions for beams, plates, and shells with interior and boundary attachments are derived by applying variational calculus to an expression describing the energy of the system. The advantages of this approach regarding the generation of orthogonal functions and the Rayleigh-Ritz method are demonstrated. A large number of graphs and tables are given to show the impact of various factors on the systems’ natural frequencies, mode shapes, and responses.

  6. Reducing Uncertainties in Hydrocarbon Prediction through Application of Elastic Domain (United States)

    Shamsuddin, S. Z.; Hermana, M.; Ghosh, D. P.; Salim, A. M. A.


    The application of lithology and fluid indicators has helped the geophysicists to discriminate reservoirs to non-reservoirs from a field. This analysis is conducted to select the most suitable lithology and fluid indicator for the Malaysian basins that could lead to better eliminate pitfalls of amplitude. This paper uses different rock physics analysis such as elastic impedance, Lambda-Mu-Rho, and SQp-SQs attribute. Litho-elastic impedance log is generated by correlating the gamma ray log with extended elastic impedance log. The same application is used for fluid-elastic impedance by correlation of EEI log with water saturation or resistivity. The work is done on several well logging data collected from different fields in Malay basin and its neighbouring basin. There's an excellent separation between hydrocarbon sand and background shale for Well-1 from different cross-plot analysis. Meanwhile, the Well-2 shows good separation in LMR plot. The similar method is done on the Well-3 shows fair separation of silty sand and gas sand using SQp-SQs attribute which can be correlated with well log. Based on the point distribution histogram plot, different lithology and fluid can be separated clearly. Simultaneous seismic inversion results in acoustic impedance, Vp/Vs, SQp, and SQs volumes. There are many attributes available in the industry used to separate the lithology and fluid, however some of the methods are not suitable for the application to the basins in Malaysia.

  7. Liquid Crystals Viscous and Elastic Properties in Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pasechnik, Sergey V; Shmeliova, Dina V


    Covering numerous practical applications as yet not covered in any single source of information, this monograph discusses the importance of viscous and elastic properties for applications in both display and non-display technologies. The very well-known authors are major players in this field of research and pay special attention here to the use of liquid crystals in fiber optic devices as applied in telecommunication circuits.

  8. Mathematical theory of elasticity of quasicrystals and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Tian-You


    This interdisciplinary work on condensed matter physics, the continuum mechanics of novel materials, and partial differential equations, discusses the mathematical theory of elasticity and hydrodynamics of quasicrystals, as well as its applications. By establishing new partial differential equations of higher order and their solutions under complicated boundary value and initial value conditions, the theories developed here dramatically simplify the solution of complex elasticity problems. Comprehensive and detailed mathematical derivations guide readers through the work. By combining theoretical analysis and experimental data, mathematical studies and practical applications, readers will gain a systematic, comprehensive and in-depth understanding of condensed matter physics, new continuum mechanics and applied mathematics. This new edition covers the latest developments in quasicrystal studies. In particular, it pays special attention to the hydrodynamics, soft-matter quasicrystals, and the Poisson bracket m...

  9. Shape memory effect and super elasticity. Its dental applications.


    Kotian R


    The shape memory alloys are quite fascinating materials characterized by a shape memory effect and super elasticity which ordinary metals do not have. This unique behaviour was first found in a Au-47.5 at % Cd alloy in 1951, and was published in 1963 by the discovery of Ti-Ni alloy. Shape memory alloys now being practically used as new functional alloys for various dental and medical applications.

  10. Final Report: Migration Mechanisms for Large-scale Parallel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Nieh


    Process migration is the ability to transfer a process from one machine to another. It is a useful facility in distributed computing environments, especially as computing devices become more pervasive and Internet access becomes more ubiquitous. The potential benefits of process migration, among others, are fault resilience by migrating processes off of faulty hosts, data access locality by migrating processes closer to the data, better system response time by migrating processes closer to users, dynamic load balancing by migrating processes to less loaded hosts, and improved service availability and administration by migrating processes before host maintenance so that applications can continue to run with minimal downtime. Although process migration provides substantial potential benefits and many approaches have been considered, achieving transparent process migration functionality has been difficult in practice. To address this problem, our work has designed, implemented, and evaluated new and powerful transparent process checkpoint-restart and migration mechanisms for desktop, server, and parallel applications that operate across heterogeneous cluster and mobile computing environments. A key aspect of this work has been to introduce lightweight operating system virtualization to provide processes with private, virtual namespaces that decouple and isolate processes from dependencies on the host operating system instance. This decoupling enables processes to be transparently checkpointed and migrated without modifying, recompiling, or relinking applications or the operating system. Building on this lightweight operating system virtualization approach, we have developed novel technologies that enable (1) coordinated, consistent checkpoint-restart and migration of multiple processes, (2) fast checkpointing of process and file system state to enable restart of multiple parallel execution environments and time travel, (3) process migration across heterogeneous

  11. High elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites for dental applications (United States)

    Wang, Yijun


    Dental restorations account for more than $3 billion dollars a year on the market. Among them, all-ceramic dental crowns draw more and more attention and their popularity has risen because of their superior aesthetics and biocompatibility. However, their relatively high failure rate and labor-intensive fabrication procedure still limit their application. In this thesis, a new family of high elastic modulus nanopowder reinforced resin composites and their mechanical properties are studied. Materials with higher elastic modulus, such as alumina and diamond, are used to replace the routine filler material, silica, in dental resin composites to achieve the desired properties. This class of composites is developed to serve (1) as a high stiffness support to all-ceramic crowns and (2) as a means of joining independently fabricated crown core and veneer layers. Most of the work focuses on nano-sized Al2O3 (average particle size 47 nm) reinforcement in a polymeric matrix with 50:50 Bisphenol A glycidyl methacrylate (Bis-GMA): triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Surfactants, silanizing agents and primers are examined to obtain higher filler levels and enhance the bonding between filler and matrix. Silane agents work best. The elastic modulus of a 57.5 vol% alumina/resin composite is 31.5 GPa compared to current commercial resin composites with elastic modulus alumina, diamond/resin composites are studied. An elastic modulus of about 45 GPa is obtained for a 57 vol% diamond/resin composite. Our results indicate that with a generally monodispersed nano-sized high modulus filler, relatively high elastic modulus resin-based composite cements are possible. Time-dependent behavior of our resin composites is also investigated. This is valuable for understanding the behavior of our material and possible fatigue testing in the future. Our results indicate that with effective coupling agents and higher filler loading, viscous flow can be greatly decreased due to the

  12. Applications of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) structures (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold M.; Hayashi, Shunichi


    Experiments and analyses have confirmed the feasibility of an innovative, new class of very simple, reliable, low mass, low packaging volume, and low-cost self-deployable structures for space and commercial applications. The material technology called "cold hibernated elastic memory" (CHEM) utilizes shape memory polymers in open cellular (foam) structures. The CHEM foams are self-deployable and are using the foam's elastic recovery plus their shape memory to erect structures. These structures are under development by the NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI). Currently, the CHEM structure concept is well formulated, with clear space and commercial applications. The CHEM structures are described here and their major advantages are identified over other expandable/deployable structures. Previous experimental results were very encouraging and indicated that the CHEM foam technology can perform robustly in the Earth environment as well as in space. Some potential space applications were studied under various programs at JPL with promising results. Although the space community will be the major beneficiary, a lot of potential commercial applications are also foreseen for the "Earth environment" and described in this paper as well.

  13. Towards Process Support for Migrating Applications to Cloud Computing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chauhan, Muhammad Aufeef; Babar, Muhammad Ali


    Cloud computing is an active area of research for industry and academia. There are a large number of organizations providing cloud computing infrastructure and services. In order to utilize these infrastructure resources and services, existing applications need to be migrated to clouds. However...... for supporting migration to cloud computing based on our experiences from migrating an Open Source System (OSS), Hackystat, to two different cloud computing platforms. We explained the process by performing a comparative analysis of our efforts to migrate Hackystate to Amazon Web Services and Google App Engine....... We also report the potential challenges, suitable solutions, and lesson learned to support the presented process framework. We expect that the reported experiences can serve guidelines for those who intend to migrate software applications to cloud computing....

  14. Endothelial Myocyte Enhancer Factor 2c Inhibits Migration of Smooth Muscle Cells Through Fenestrations in the Internal Elastic Lamina. (United States)

    Lu, Yao Wei; Lowery, Anthony M; Sun, Li-Yan; Singer, Harold A; Dai, Guohao; Adam, Alejandro P; Vincent, Peter A; Schwarz, John J


    Laminar flow activates myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) transcription factors in vitro to induce expression of atheroprotective genes in the endothelium. Here we sought to establish the role of Mef2c in the vascular endothelium in vivo. To study endothelial Mef2c, we generated endothelial-specific deletion of Mef2c using Tie2-Cre or Cdh5-Cre-ER T2 and examined aortas and carotid arteries by en face immunofluorescence. We observed enhanced actin stress fiber formation in the Mef2c-deleted thoracic aortic endothelium (laminar flow region), similar to those observed in normal aortic inner curvature (disturbed flow region). Furthermore, Mef2c deletion resulted in the de novo formation of subendothelial intimal cells expressing markers of differentiated smooth muscle in the thoracic aortas and carotids. Lineage tracing showed that these cells were not of endothelial origin. To define early events in intimal development, we induced endothelial deletion of Mef2c and examined aortas at 4 and 12 weeks postinduction. The number of intimal cell clusters increased from 4 to 12 weeks, but the number of cells within a cluster peaked at 2 cells in both cases, suggesting ongoing migration but minimal proliferation. Moreover, we identified cells extending from the media through fenestrations in the internal elastic lamina into the intima, indicating transfenestral smooth muscle migration. Similar transfenestral migration was observed in wild-type carotid arteries ligated to induce neointimal formation. These results indicate that endothelial Mef2c regulates the endothelial actin cytoskeleton and inhibits smooth muscle cell migration into the intima. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. [Review on Application of Optical Scattering Spectroscopy for Elastic Wave Velocity Study on Materials in Earth's Interior]. (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-jun; Li, He-ping; Dai, Li-dong; Hu, Hai-ying; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Chao-shuai


    In-situ experimental results on the elastic wave velocity of Earth materials at high pressure and high temperature in combination with data from seismic observation can help to inverse the chemical composition, state and migration of materials in Earth's interior, providing an important approach to explore information of deep earth. Applying the Brillouin scattering into the Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) to obtain the in situ elastic wave velocities of minerals, is the important approach to investigate elastic properties of Earth's Interior. With the development of DAC technology, on the one hand, the high temperature and high pressure experimental environment to simulate different layers of the earth can be achieved; on the other hand, the optical properties of DAC made many kinds of optical analysis and test methods have been widely applied in this research field. In order to gain the elastic wave velocity under high temperature and high pressure, the accurate experimental pressure and heating temperature of the sample in the cavity should be measured and calibrated first, then the scattering signal needs to dealt with, using the Brillouin frequency shift to calculate the velocity in the sample. Combined with the lattice constants obtained from X ray technique, by a solid elastic theory, all the elastic parameters of minerals can be solved. In this paper, firstly, application of methods based on optical spectrum such as Brillouin and Raman scattering in elasticity study on materials in Earth's interior, and the basic principle and research progress of them in the velocity measurement, pressure and temperature calibration are described in detail. Secondly, principle and scope of application of two common methods of spectral pressure calibration (fluorescence and Raman spectral pressure standard) are analyzed, in addition with introduce of the application of two conventional means of temperature calibration (blackbody radiation and Raman temperature scale) in

  16. The agricultural input elasticity of rural-urban migration in South Africa


    Asfaha, T.A.; Jooste, Andre


    The pace of rural-urban migration relative to urban job creation is of particular relevance in relation to the level of urban unemployment and poverty in many developing countries. Faced with high levels of urban unemployment and other socio-economic problems governments in developing countries adopted several policies to ameliorate the situation. Since such policies were mainly urban biased in nature it not only failed in most cases but also in some instance exacerbated the situation by stim...

  17. Application of external tracking in ultrasound elasticity imaging (United States)

    Foroughi, Pezhman; Hager, Gregory D.; Wacker, Frank K.; Boctor, Emad M.


    Despite the success of ultrasound elasticity imaging (USEI) in medical applications such as diagnosis and screening of breast lesions and prostate cancer, USEI has not been adopted in routine clinical procedures. This is partly caused by the difficulty in acquiring reliable images and interpreting them, the lack of consistency over time, and the dependency of image quality to the expertise of the user. We previously demonstrated the potential of exploiting an external tracker to partially alleviate these issues and enhance the quality of USEI. The tracking data enabled fast and automatic selection of pairs of RF frames used in strain calculation. Here, we expand this method by including new features. The proposed method employs image content to compensate for the limited accuracy of the tracking device. It also combines multiple strain images to improve the quality of the final image. For this purpose, It normalizes the images and determines which images can be combined relying on the tracking information. We have acquired RF frames synchronized with tracking data from livers of pig containing an ablated region and a breast phantom using two different tracking devices; an optical tracker and a less accurate electromagnetic tracker. We present the promising results of the proposed method and investigate the sensitivity of frame selection technique without using the image content to inaccuracies in tracking information.

  18. Mathematical theory of elasticity of quasicrystals and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Tianyou


    This book presents a clear-cut, strict and systematic mathematical overview of the continuum mechanics of novel materials, condensed matter physics and partial differential equations, and explores the mathematical theory of elasticity of quasicrystals.

  19. Protein Disulfide Levels and Lens Elasticity Modulation: Applications for Presbyopia. (United States)

    Garner, William H; Garner, Margaret H


    The purpose of the experiments described here was to determine the effects of lipoic acid (LA)-dependent disulfide reduction on mouse lens elasticity, to synthesize the choline ester of LA (LACE), and to characterize the effects of topical ocular doses of LACE on mouse lens elasticity. Eight-month-old mouse lenses (C57BL/6J) were incubated for 12 hours in medium supplemented with selected levels (0-500 μM) of LA. Lens elasticity was measured using the coverslip method. After the elasticity measurements, P-SH and PSSP levels were determined in homogenates by differential alkylation before and after alkylation. Choline ester of LA was synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry and HPLC. Eight-month-old C57BL/6J mice were treated with 2.5 μL of a formulation of 5% LACE three times per day at 8-hour intervals in the right eye (OD) for 5 weeks. After the final treatment, lenses were removed and placed in a cuvette containing buffer. Elasticity was determined with a computer-controlled instrument that provided Z-stage upward movements in 1-μm increments with concomitant force measurements with a Harvard Apparatus F10 isometric force transducer. The elasticity of lenses from 8-week-old C57BL/6J mice was determined for comparison. Lipoic acid treatment led to a concentration-dependent decrease in lens protein disulfides concurrent with an increase in lens elasticity. The structure and purity of newly synthesized LACE was confirmed. Aqueous humor concentrations of LA were higher in eyes of mice following topical ocular treatment with LACE than in mice following topical ocular treatment with LA. The lenses of the treated eyes of the old mice were more elastic than the lenses of untreated eyes (i.e., the relative force required for similar Z displacements was higher in the lenses of untreated eyes). In most instances, the lenses of the treated eyes were even more elastic than the lenses of the 8-week-old mice. As the elasticity of the human lens decreases with age

  20. Elastic scattering of positronium: Application of the confined variational method

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Junyi


    We demonstrate for the first time that the phase shift in elastic positronium-atom scattering can be precisely determined by the confined variational method, in spite of the fact that the Hamiltonian includes an unphysical confining potential acting on the center of mass of the positron and one of the atomic electrons. As an example, we study the S-wave elastic scattering for the positronium-hydrogen scattering system, where the existing 4% discrepancy between the Kohn variational calculation and the R-matrix calculation is resolved. © Copyright EPLA, 2012.

  1. Impact of Thresholds and Load Patterns when Executing HPC Applications with Cloud Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Facco Rodrigues


    Full Text Available Elasticity is one of the most known capabilities related to cloud computing, being largely deployed reactively using thresholds. In this way, maximum and minimum limits are used to drive resource allocation and deallocation actions, leading to the following problem statements: How can cloud users set the threshold values to enable elasticity in their cloud applications? And what is the impact of the application’s load pattern in the elasticity? This article tries to answer these questions for iterative high performance computing applications, showing the impact of both thresholds and load patterns on application performance and resource consumption. To accomplish this, we developed a reactive and PaaS-based elasticity model called AutoElastic and employed it over a private cloud to execute a numerical integration application. Here, we are presenting an analysis of best practices and possible optimizations regarding the elasticity and HPC pair. Considering the results, we observed that the maximum threshold influences the application time more than the minimum one. We concluded that threshold values close to 100% of CPU load are directly related to a weaker reactivity, postponing resource reconfiguration when its activation in advance could be pertinent for reducing the application runtime.

  2. Compressed-sensing application - Pre-stack kirchhoff migration

    KAUST Repository

    Aldawood, Ali


    Least-squares migration is a linearized form of waveform inversion that aims to enhance the spatial resolution of the subsurface reflectivity distribution and reduce the migration artifacts due to limited recording aperture, coarse sampling of sources and receivers, and low subsurface illumination. Least-squares migration, however, due to the nature of its minimization process, tends to produce smoothed and dispersed versions of the reflectivity of the subsurface. Assuming that the subsurface reflectivity distribution is sparse, we propose the addition of a non-quadratic L1-norm penalty term on the model space in the objective function. This aims to preserve the sparse nature of the subsurface reflectivity series and enhance resolution. We further use a compressed-sensing algorithm to solve the linear system, which utilizes the sparsity assumption to produce highly resolved migrated images. Thus, the Kirchhoff migration implementation is formulated as a Basis Pursuit denoise (BPDN) problem to obtain the sparse reflectivity model. Applications on synthetic data show that reflectivity models obtained using this compressed-sensing algorithm are highly accurate with optimal resolution.

  3. Application of elastic and elastic-plastic fracture mechanics methods to surface flaws (United States)

    Mccabe, Donald E.; Ernst, Hugo A.; Newman, James C., Jr.


    Fuel tanks that are a part of the External Tank assembly for the Space Shuttle are made of relatively thin 2219-T87 aluminum plate. These tanks contain about 917 m of fusion weld seam, all of which is nondestructively inspected for flaws and all those found are repaired. The tanks are subsequently proof-tested to a pressure that is sufficiently severe to cause weld metal yielding in a few local regions of the weld seam. The work undertaken in the present project was to develop a capability to predict flaw growth from undetected surface flaws that are assumed to be located in the highly stressed regions. The technical challenge was to develop R-curve prediction capability for surface cracks in specimens that contain the flaws of unusual sizes and shapes deemed to be of interest. The test techniques developed and the elastic-plastic analysis concepts adopted are presented. The flaws of interest were quite small surface cracks that were narrow-deep ellipses that served to exacerbate the technical difficulties involved.

  4. Application of RMS for damage detection by guided elastic waves (United States)

    Radzieński, M.; Doliński, Ł.; Krawczuk, M.; dot Zak, A.; Ostachowicz, W.


    This paper presents certain results of an experimental study related with a damage detection in structural elements based on deviations in guided elastic wave propagation patterns. In order to excite guided elastic waves within specimens tested piezoelectric transducers have been applied. As excitation signals 5 sine cycles modulated by Hanning window have been used. Propagation of guided elastic waves has been monitored by a scanning Doppler laser vibrometer. The time signals recorded during measurement have been utilised to calculate the values of RMS. It has turned out that the values of RMS differed significantly in damaged areas from the values calculated for the healthy ones. In this way it has become possible to pinpoint precisely the locations of damage over the entire measured surface. All experimental investigations have been carried out for thin aluminium or composite plates. Damage has been simulated by a small additional mass attached on the plate surface or by a narrow notch cut. It has been shown that proposed method allows one to localise damage of various shapes and sizes within structural elements over the whole area under investigation.

  5. Application of RMS for damage detection by guided elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzienski, M; Dolinski, L; Krawczuk, M [Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Control Engineering, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland); Zak, A; Ostachowicz, W, E-mail: [Szewalski Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Polish Academy of Sciences, Fiszera 14, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)


    This paper presents certain results of an experimental study related with a damage detection in structural elements based on deviations in guided elastic wave propagation patterns. In order to excite guided elastic waves within specimens tested piezoelectric transducers have been applied. As excitation signals 5 sine cycles modulated by Hanning window have been used. Propagation of guided elastic waves has been monitored by a scanning Doppler laser vibrometer. The time signals recorded during measurement have been utilised to calculate the values of RMS. It has turned out that the values of RMS differed significantly in damaged areas from the values calculated for the healthy ones. In this way it has become possible to pinpoint precisely the locations of damage over the entire measured surface. All experimental investigations have been carried out for thin aluminium or composite plates. Damage has been simulated by a small additional mass attached on the plate surface or by a narrow notch cut. It has been shown that proposed method allows one to localise damage of various shapes and sizes within structural elements over the whole area under investigation.

  6. Design of super-elastic biodegradable scaffolds with longitudinally oriented microchannels and optimization of the channel size for Schwann cell migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Uto, Takanari Muroya, Michio Okamoto, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Tsuyoshi Murase, Mitsuhiro Ebara and Takao Aoyagi


    Full Text Available We newly designed super-elastic biodegradable scaffolds with longitudinally oriented microchannels for repair and regeneration of peripheral nerve defects. Four-armed poly(ε-caprolactone-co-D,L-lactides (P(CL-co-DLLAs were synthesized by ring-opening copolymerization of CL and DLLA from terminal hydroxyl groups of pentaerythritol, and acryloyl chloride was then reacted with the ends of the chains. The end-functionalized P(CL-co-DLLA was crosslinked in a cylindrical mold in the presence of longitudinally oriented silica fibers as the templates, which were later dissolved by hydrofluoric acid. The elastic moduli of the crosslinked P(CL-co-DLLAs were controlled between 10−1 and 102 MPa at 37 °C, depending on the composition. The scaffolds could be elongated to 700% of their original size without fracture or damage ('super-elasticity'. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed that well-defined and highly aligned multiple channels consistent with the mold design were produced in the scaffolds. Owing to their elastic nature, the microchannels in the scaffolds did not collapse when they were bent to 90°. To evaluate the effect of the channel diameter on Schwann cell migration, microchannels were also fabricated in transparent poly(dimethylsiloxane, allowing observation of cell migration. The migration speed increased with channel size, but the Young's modulus of the scaffold decreased as the channel diameter increased. These findings may serve as the basis for designing tissue-engineering scaffolds for nerve regeneration and investigating the effects of the geometrical and dimensional properties on axonal outgrowth.

  7. Research and Application of Visco-Elastic Memory Foam, in the Field of Footwear Manufacturing


    Teodor Socaciu; Mihai Simon; Liviu Dorin Pop; Manuel de Freitas


    The paper study and tests the use of Visco-Elastic Memory Foam in ergonomic shoe insoles application. To maximize comfort needs, Memory Foam responds to the unique curves and pressures points of the person’s soles. This application is not necessarily meant for people with disabilities, but for normal everyday use of a high comfort shoe.

  8. Research and Application of Visco-Elastic Memory Foam, in the Field of Footwear Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor Socaciu


    Full Text Available The paper study and tests the use of Visco-Elastic Memory Foam in ergonomic shoe insoles application. To maximize comfort needs, Memory Foam responds to the unique curves and pressures points of the person’s soles. This application is not necessarily meant for people with disabilities, but for normal everyday use of a high comfort shoe.

  9. Migrating Existing PHP Web Applications to the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut VODA


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present a set of best practices for moving PHP web applications from a traditional hosting to a Cloud based one. PHP applications are widespread nowadays and they come in many shapes and sizes and that is why they require a special attention. The paper goes beyond just moving the code in the Cloud and setting up the run-time environment as some architectural changes must be done at application level most of the time. The decision of how and when to make these changes can make the difference between a successful migra-tion and a failed one. It will be presented how to decouple and scale an application, how to scale a database while following the high availability principles.

  10. Glyphosate applications on arable fields considerably coincide with migrating amphibians. (United States)

    Berger, Gert; Graef, Frieder; Pfeffer, Holger


    Glyphosate usage is increasing worldwide and the application schemes of this herbicide are currently changing. Amphibians migrating through arable fields may be harmed by Glyphosate applied to field crops. We investigated the population-based temporal coincidence of four amphibian species with Glyphosate from 2006 to 2008. Depending on a) age- and species-specific main migration periods, b) crop species, c) Glyphosate application mode for crops, and d) the presumed DT50 value (12 days or 47 days) of Glyphosate, we calculated up to 100% coincidence with Glyphosate. The amphibians regularly co-occur with pre-sowing/pre-emerging Glyphosate applications to maize in spring and with stubble management prior to crop sowing in late summer and autumn. Siccation treatment in summer coincides only with early pond-leaving juveniles. We suggest in-depth investigations of both acute and long-term effects of Glyphosate applications on amphibian populations not only focussed on exposure during aquatic periods but also terrestrial life stages.

  11. An Elastic Architecture Adaptable to Millions of Application Scenarios


    Chen, Yunji; Chen, Tianshi; Guo, Qi; Xu, Zhiwei; Zhang, Lei


    Part 5: Performance Modeling, Prediction, and Tuning; International audience; With the rapid development of computer industry, the number of applications has been growing rapidly. Furthermore, even one application may correspond to different application scenarios which impose different requirements on performance or power. This trend raises the following question: how to design processors that best suit millions of application scenarios? It is impractical to design a dedicated processor for e...

  12. Preparation and Characterization of Naringenin-Loaded Elastic Liposomes for Topical Application.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jun Tsai

    Full Text Available Excessive production of radical oxygen species in skin is a contributor to a variety of skin pathologies. Naringenin is a potent antioxidant. The purpose of the present study was to develop elastic liposomes for naringenin topical application. Naringenin-loaded elastic liposomes containing different amounts of Tween 80 and cholesterol were prepared. The physicochemical properties including vesicle size, surface charge, encapsulation efficiency, and permeability capacity were determined to evaluate the effect of components. The stability of formulation and skin irritation caused by drug-loaded elastic liposomes were also evaluated for assessment of the clinical utility of elastic liposomes. Saturated aqueous solution of naringenin and naringenin dissolved in 10% Tween 80 solution (5 mg/mL were used as the control group. The result showed that in using elastic liposomes as carrier, the deposition amounts in the skin of naringenin were significantly increased about 7.3~11.8-fold and 1.2~1.9-fold respectively, when compared with the saturated aqueous solution and Tween 80 solution-treated groups. The level of drug was more than 98.89±3.90% after 3 months of storage at 4℃. In a skin irritation test, the result showed experimental formulation exhibit considerably less irritating than the positive control (paraformaldehyde-treated group, suggesting its potential therapeutic application.

  13. Elastic theory of low-dimensional continua and its applications in bio- and nano-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Z C


    This review presents the elastic theory of low-dimensional (one- and two-dimensional) continua and its applications in bio- and nano-structures including short DNA rings, lipid membranes, cell membranes, graphene and carbon nanotubes. [The full abstract is in the pdf file.

  14. An Experimental Study of Incremental Surface Loading of an Elastic Plate: Application to Volcano Tectonics (United States)

    Williams, K. K.; Zuber, M. T.


    Models of surface fractures due to volcanic loading an elastic plate are commonly used to constrain thickness of planetary lithospheres, but discrepancies exist in predictions of the style of initial failure and in the nature of subsequent fracture evolution. In this study, we perform an experiment to determine the mode of initial failure due to the incremental addition of a conical load to the surface of an elastic plate and compare the location of initial failure with that predicted by elastic theory. In all experiments, the mode of initial failure was tension cracking at the surface of the plate, with cracks oriented circumferential to the load. The cracks nucleated at a distance from load center that corresponds the maximum radial stress predicted by analytical solutions, so a tensile failure criterion is appropriate for predictions of initial failure. With continued loading of the plate, migration of tensional cracks was observed. In the same azimuthal direction as the initial crack, subsequent cracks formed at a smaller radial distance than the initial crack. When forming in a different azimuthal direction, the subsequent cracks formed at a distance greater than the radial distance of the initial crack. The observed fracture pattern may explain the distribution of extensional structures in annular bands around many large scale, circular volcanic features.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Protsenko


    Full Text Available Purpose. The paper should consider lowering the labour input of maintenance of drive gears operation of vehicles power plants at the expense of working out the coupling construction having low duration of substitution of elastic element and a justification of its force, power and strength parameters. Methodology. During development of coupling construction with increased maintainability the criterion of minimum average labour input of its reconstruction has been used. Constructive-power parametres of coupling were defined with the use of classical methods and statics and calculus theorems. Simulation of couplings operation is executed by numerical methods for couplings of concrete executions with the use of modern program complexes. Findings. Authors developed the coupling with rope elastic elements having low labour input of elastic element substitution due to multiple-purpose construction of tightening elements and pins with open slots in which the rope sequentially can be included is developed. The dependences are received, allowing to define power loads of elements of a coupling, and also to execute selection of ropes and calculation of strength of tightening elements. With obtained dependence the coupling with rope elastic elements for substitution of coupling Vulkan propulsion plant of the bulk ship of the project 2-95А/R is calculated and designed. The integrated definition of time for rope substitution in the offered coupling with application of specifications has displayed that for execution of this process it is necessary to expend about 150 minutes of time that is much less than 530 mines necessary for substitution of elastic membranes of base coupling Vulkan. Originality. The estimation of the basic constructive, power and strenght parametres of coupling with face installation of a rope with increased maintainability is executed. Practical value. Construction of a coupling with increased maintainability equipped with rope elastic

  16. Towards Monitoring-as-a-service for Scientific Computing Cloud applications using the ElasticSearch ecosystem (United States)

    Bagnasco, S.; Berzano, D.; Guarise, A.; Lusso, S.; Masera, M.; Vallero, S.


    The INFN computing centre in Torino hosts a private Cloud, which is managed with the OpenNebula cloud controller. The infrastructure offers Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) services to different scientific computing applications. The main stakeholders of the facility are a grid Tier-2 site for the ALICE collaboration at LHC, an interactive analysis facility for the same experiment and a grid Tier-2 site for the BESIII collaboration, plus an increasing number of other small tenants. The dynamic allocation of resources to tenants is partially automated. This feature requires detailed monitoring and accounting of the resource usage. We set up a monitoring framework to inspect the site activities both in terms of IaaS and applications running on the hosted virtual instances. For this purpose we used the ElasticSearch, Logstash and Kibana (ELK) stack. The infrastructure relies on a MySQL database back-end for data preservation and to ensure flexibility to choose a different monitoring solution if needed. The heterogeneous accounting information is transferred from the database to the ElasticSearch engine via a custom Logstash plugin. Each use-case is indexed separately in ElasticSearch and we setup a set of Kibana dashboards with pre-defined queries in order to monitor the relevant information in each case. For the IaaS metering, we developed sensors for the OpenNebula API. The IaaS level information gathered through the API is sent to the MySQL database through an ad-hoc developed RESTful web service. Moreover, we have developed a billing system for our private Cloud, which relies on the RabbitMQ message queue for asynchronous communication to the database and on the ELK stack for its graphical interface. The Italian Grid accounting framework is also migrating to a similar set-up. Concerning the application level, we used the Root plugin TProofMonSenderSQL to collect accounting data from the interactive analysis facility. The BESIII

  17. Robust mouldable intelligent scheduling using application benchmarking for elastic environments


    Kureshi, Ibad; Holmes, Violeta; Cooke, D.; Allan, R.; Liang, Shuo; Gubb, D


    In a green IT obsessed world hardware efficiency and usage of computer systems becomes essential.\\ud There is a multiplier effect when this is applied to High Performance Computing systems. With an\\ud average compute rack consuming between 7 and 25kW it is essential that resources be utilised in the\\ud most optimum way possible. Currently the batch schedulers employed to manage these multi-user\\ud multi-application environments are nothing more than match making and service level agreement\\ud...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Brovelli


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a noticeable growth in migration flows from Africa and Middle East to Southern Europe, thus generating a remarkable increase of attention on media and public opinion, sometimes resulting in stereotypes and prejudices. Funded by the European Commission – Joint Research Centre through the MYGEOSS program, MIGRation pATtterns in Europe (MIGRATE aims at educating the citizens about migration fluxes in Europe using a gamification approach based on a trivia game. MIGRATE is completely developed with Free and Open Source Software. On the server-side Django is used to define the models that handle all the required data and tables are created in a PostgreSQL database. Questions and answers are sent in JSON format to the client, while the geospatial layers in GeoJSON format are rendered on the map interface using OpenLayers 3. Bootstrap, HTML5 and CSS3 are used for responsive design, while the jQuery library is used to ease the JavaScript programming. All the data sources used within MIGRATE are available as full and open access with no restrictions for reuse, except for the obligation to mention the source of the input data. Exploited data sources include OpenStreetMap for geospatial information, and UNHCR, IOM, Eurostat and The Migrant’s Files project for non-geospatial information. Overall, data shows how the users’ perceptions change while playing and that players’ awareness of migration-related problems increases with the number of games played. The source code of MIGRATE and the collected data are available respectively under the EU Public License (EUPL and the CC BY 4.0 license.

  19. Elastic Beanstalk

    CERN Document Server

    Vliet, Jurg; Wel, Steven; Dowd, Dara


    While it's always been possible to run Java applications on Amazon EC2, Amazon's Elastic Beanstalk makes the process easier-especially if you understand how it works beneath the surface. This concise, hands-on book not only walks you through Beanstalk for deploying and managing web applications in the cloud, you'll also learn how to use this AWS tool in other phases of development. Ideal if you're a developer familiar with Java applications or AWS, Elastic Beanstalk provides step-by-step instructions and numerous code samples for building cloud applications on Beanstalk that can handle lots

  20. Elastic wavelets and their application to problems of solitary wave propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cattani, Carlo


    Full Text Available The paper can be referred to that direction in the wavelet theory, which was called by Kaiser "the physical wavelets". He developed the analysis of first two kinds of physical wavelets - electromagnetic (optic and acoustic wavelets. Newland developed the technique of application of harmonic wavelets especially for studying the harmonic vibrations. Recently Cattani and Rushchitsky proposed the 4th kind of physical wavelets - elastic wavelets. This proposal was based on three main elements: 1. Kaiser's idea of constructing the physical wavelets on the base of specially chosen (admissible solutions of wave equations. 2. Developed by one of authors theory of solitary waves (with profiles in the form of Chebyshov-Hermite functions propagated in elastic dispersive media. 3. The theory and practice of using the wavelet "Mexican Hat" system, the mother and farther wavelets (and their Fourier transforms of which are analytically represented as the Chebyshov-Hermite functions of different indexes. An application of elastic wavelets to studying the evolution of solitary waves of different shape during their propagation through composite materials is shown on many examples.

  1. Three dimensional winds: A maximum cross-correlation application to elastic lidar data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, William Tillman [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)


    Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar (light detection and ranging) data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three-dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain-following winds in the Rio Grande valley.

  2. Full Dynamic Ball Bearing Model with Elastic Outer Ring for High Speed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wagner


    Full Text Available Ball bearings are commonly used in high speed turbomachinery and have a critical influence on the rotordynamic behavior. Therefore, a simulation model of the bearing to predict the dynamic influence is essential. The presented model is a further step to develop an accurate and efficient characterization of the ball bearing’s rotor dynamic parameters such as stiffness and deflections as well as vibrational excitations induced by the discrete rolling elements. To make it applicable to high speed turbomachinery, the model considers centrifugal forces, gyroscopic effects and ball spinning. The consideration of an elastic outer ring makes the bearing model suitable for integrated lightweight bearing constructions used in modern aircraft turbines. In order to include transient rotordynamic behavior, the model is built as a full dynamic multibody simulation with time integration. To investigate the influence of the elasticity of the outer ring, a comparison with a rigid formulation for several rotational speeds and loads is presented.

  3. Potential biomedical and commercial applications of cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) self-deployable foam structures (United States)

    Sokolowski, Witold


    A cold hibernated elastic memory (CHEM) foam structure is one of the most recent results of the quest for simple, reliable and low-cost expandable space structures. The CHEM technology utilizes shape memory polymers in open cellular (foam) structure or sandwich structures made of shape memory polymer foam cores and polymeric composite skins. It takes advantage of the polymer"s heat activated shape memory in addition to the foam"s elastic recovery to deploy a compacted structure. The glass transition temperature Tg is tailored to rigidize the structure in the fully deployed configuration. Previous experimental and analytical results were very encouraging and indicated that the CHEM foam technology can perform robustly in space as well as in the Earth environment. CHEM structures are described here and their major advantages are identified over other expandable/deployable structures. Although the space community is the original major beneficiary, a number of potential applications are also anticipated for the "earth environment". CHEM developers strongly believe that this technology has great promise for a host of commercial and bio-medical applications. Some of these potential and already investigated CHEM applications are described in this paper.

  4. Computational Elastic Knots

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Xin


    Elastic rods have been studied intensively since the 18th century. Even now the theory of elastic rods is still developing and enjoying popularity in computer graphics and physical-based simulation. Elastic rods also draw attention from architects. Architectural structures, NODUS, were constructed by elastic rods as a new method of form-finding. We study discrete models of elastic rods and NODUS structures. We also develop computational tools to find the equilibria of elastic rods and the shape of NODUS. Applications of elastic rods in forming torus knot and closing Bishop frame are included in this thesis.

  5. Analytical applications and effective properties of a second gradient isotropic elastic material model (United States)

    Enakoutsa, Koffi


    Recently, the works by Toupin, Mindlin, Sokolowski and Germain have been developed following two research streams. In the first one, higher-order gradient continuum models were developed based on the Cauchy tetrahedron argument (see, e.g., dell'Isola and Seppecher in Comptes Rendus de l Academie de Sciences 17 Serie IIb: Mecanique, Physique, Chimie, Astronomie 321:303-308, 1995, Meccanica 32:33-52 1997, Zeitschrift fr Angewandte Mathematik und Physik 63(6):1119-1141, 2012). In the second one, the structure of higher-order gradient models is developed with a view to the applications. In particular in the model of linear isotropic solids proposed by Dell'Isola, Sciarra and Vidoli (DSV), the main constitutive equation is obtained for the case of second gradient models. This model introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's elastic constants five constitutive constants. The practical applications of this model remain in its infancy since the issue of determining the new moduli it introduces is not yet completely addressed. Also, analytical solutions of simple boundary value problems that can be helpful to grasp some of the physical foundations of this model are missing. This paper aims to address these two issues by providing the analytical solutions for two model problems, a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions and the circular bending of a beam in plane strain, both the beam and the shell obeying the DSV second gradient isotropic elastic model. The solution of the circular bending of a beam has served to grasp some of the physical soundness of the model. A framework based on homogenization under inhomogeneous boundary conditions is also suggested to determine the unknown constitutive constants, which are provided in the particular case of elastic porous heterogeneous materials.

  6. C 1 natural element method for strain gradient linear elasticity and its application to microstructures (United States)

    Nie, Zhi-Feng; Zhou, Shen-Jie; Han, Ru-Jun; Xiao, Lin-Jing; Wang, Kai


    C 1 natural element method ( C 1 NEM) is applied to strain gradient linear elasticity, and size effects on microstructures are analyzed. The shape functions in C 1 NEM are built upon the natural neighbor interpolation (NNI), with interpolation realized to nodal function and nodal gradient values, so that the essential boundary conditions (EBCs) can be imposed directly in a Galerkin scheme for partial differential equations (PDEs). In the present paper, C 1 NEM for strain gradient linear elasticity is constructed, and several typical examples which have analytical solutions are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the constructed method. In its application to microstructures, the size effects of bending stiffness and stress concentration factor (SCF) are studied for microspeciem and microgripper, respectively. It is observed that the size effects become rather strong when the width of spring for microgripper, the radius of circular perforation and the long axis of elliptical perforation for microspeciem come close to the material characteristic length scales. For the U-shaped notch, the size effects decline obviously with increasing notch radius, and decline mildly with increasing length of notch.

  7. Remote data retrieval for bioinformatics applications: an agent migration approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    Full Text Available Some of the approaches have been developed to retrieve data automatically from one or multiple remote biological data sources. However, most of them require researchers to remain online and wait for returned results. The latter not only requires highly available network connection, but also may cause the network overload. Moreover, so far none of the existing approaches has been designed to address the following problems when retrieving the remote data in a mobile network environment: (1 the resources of mobile devices are limited; (2 network connection is relatively of low quality; and (3 mobile users are not always online. To address the aforementioned problems, we integrate an agent migration approach with a multi-agent system to overcome the high latency or limited bandwidth problem by moving their computations to the required resources or services. More importantly, the approach is fit for the mobile computing environments. Presented in this paper are also the system architecture, the migration strategy, as well as the security authentication of agent migration. As a demonstration, the remote data retrieval from GenBank was used to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  8. Application of Nonlocal Elasticity Shell Model for Axial Buckling of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Khademolhosseini


    Full Text Available Recently, nano devices have been developed which use Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs as structural elements. To define the range of applicability of CNTs in such devices, it is important to investigate failure modes such as the axial buckling limit. Classical continuum models are inaccurate as they are unable to account for the size-effects in such devices. In this work, a modified nonlocal continuum shell model for the axial buckling of CNTs is proposed and compared with a nonlocal model for torsional buckling. This is done through modifying classical continuum models by incorporating basic concepts from nonlocal elasticity. Furthermore, molecular dynamics (MD simulations are performed on a range of nanotubes with different diameters. Compared to classical models, the modified nonlocal models provide a much better fit to MD simulation results. Using MD simulation results for axial buckling, values of the nonlocal constant and shell thickness are calculated.

  9. Assessing Task Migration Impact on Embedded Soft Real-Time Streaming Multimedia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimonda Andrea


    Full Text Available Abstract Multiprocessor systems on chips (MPSoCs are envisioned as the future of embedded platforms such as game-engines, smart-phones and palmtop computers. One of the main challenge preventing the widespread diffusion of these systems is the efficient mapping of multitask multimedia applications on processing elements. Dynamic solutions based on task migration has been recently explored to perform run-time reallocation of task to maximize performance and optimize energy consumption. Even if task migration can provide high flexibility, its overhead must be carefully evaluated when applied to soft real-time applications. In fact, these applications impose deadlines that may be missed during the migration process. In this paper we first present a middleware infrastructure supporting dynamic task allocation for NUMA architectures. Then we perform an extensive characterization of its impact on multimedia soft real-time applications using a software FM Radio benchmark.

  10. Assessing Task Migration Impact on Embedded Soft Real-Time Streaming Multimedia Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Acquaviva


    Full Text Available Multiprocessor systems on chips (MPSoCs are envisioned as the future of embedded platforms such as game-engines, smart-phones and palmtop computers. One of the main challenge preventing the widespread diffusion of these systems is the efficient mapping of multitask multimedia applications on processing elements. Dynamic solutions based on task migration has been recently explored to perform run-time reallocation of task to maximize performance and optimize energy consumption. Even if task migration can provide high flexibility, its overhead must be carefully evaluated when applied to soft real-time applications. In fact, these applications impose deadlines that may be missed during the migration process. In this paper we first present a middleware infrastructure supporting dynamic task allocation for NUMA architectures. Then we perform an extensive characterization of its impact on multimedia soft real-time applications using a software FM Radio benchmark.

  11. Applications of elastic full waveform inversion to shallow seismic surface waves (United States)

    Bohlen, Thomas; Forbriger, Thomas; Groos, Lisa; Schäfer, Martin; Metz, Tilman


    Shallow-seismic Rayleigh waves are attractive for geotechnical site investigations. They exhibit a high signal to noise ratio in field data recordings and have a high sensitivity to the S-wave velocity, an important lithological and geotechnical parameter to characterize the very shallow subsurface. Established inversion methods assume (local) 1-D subsurface models, and allow the reconstruction of the S-wave velocity as a function of depth by inverting the dispersion properties of the Rayleigh waves. These classical methods, however, fail if significant lateral variations of medium properties are present. Then the full waveform inversion (FWI) of the elastic wave field seems to be the only solution. Moreover, FWI may have the potential to recover multi-parameter models of seismic wave velocities, attenuation and eventually mass density. Our 2-D elastic FWI is a conjugate-gradient method where the gradient of the misfit function is calculated by the time-domain adjoint method. The viscoelastic forward modelling is performed with a classical staggered-grid 2-D finite-difference forward solver. Viscoelastic damping is implemented in the time-domain by a generalized standard linear solid. We use a multi-scale inversion approach by applying frequency filtering in the inversion. We start with the lowest frequency oft the field data and increase the upper corner frequency sequentially. Our modelling and FWI software is freely available under the terms of GNU GPL on In recent years we studied the applicability of two-dimensional elastic FWI using numerous synthetic reconstruction tests and several field data examples. Important pre-processing steps for the application of 2-D elastic FWI to shallow-seismic field data are the 3D to 2D correction of geometrical spreading and the estimation of a priori Q-values that must be used as a passive medium parameter during the FWI. Furthermore, a source-wavelet correction filter should be applied during the FWI

  12. Anisotropic elasticity of silicon and its application to the modelling of X-ray optics. (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Barrett, Raymond; Cloetens, Peter; Detlefs, Carsten; Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel


    The crystal lattice of single-crystal silicon gives rise to anisotropic elasticity. The stiffness and compliance coefficient matrix depend on crystal orientation and, consequently, Young's modulus, the shear modulus and Poisson's ratio as well. Computer codes (in Matlab and Python) have been developed to calculate these anisotropic elasticity parameters for a silicon crystal in any orientation. These codes facilitate the evaluation of these anisotropy effects in silicon for applications such as microelectronics, microelectromechanical systems and X-ray optics. For mechanically bent X-ray optics, it is shown that the silicon crystal orientation is an important factor which may significantly influence the optics design and manufacturing phase. Choosing the appropriate crystal orientation can both lead to improved performance whilst lowering mechanical bending stresses. The thermal deformation of the crystal depends on Poisson's ratio. For an isotropic constant Poisson's ratio, ν, the thermal deformation (RMS slope) is proportional to (1 + ν). For a cubic anisotropic material, the thermal deformation of the X-ray optics can be approximately simulated by using the average of ν12 and ν13 as an effective isotropic Poisson's ratio, where the direction 1 is normal to the optic surface, and the directions 2 and 3 are two normal orthogonal directions parallel to the optical surface. This average is independent of the direction in the optical surface (the crystal plane) for Si(100), Si(110) and Si(111). Using the effective isotropic Poisson's ratio for these orientations leads to an error in thermal deformation smaller than 5.5%.

  13. Research and Application of Digital Transmission of Unbonded Elastic Wire Resistance Type Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Zheng


    Full Text Available By analyzing different resistance values, this collector of this article collects signal of the Unbonded Elastic Wire Resistance Type Sensor (UEWRTS in brief acquisition embedded in the dams, reservoirs and other hydraulic buildings, and monitors the facilities in real time view. The position of embedded sensors can be distinguished by setting the address and code. The analog signal is one-on- one converted to digital signals through high-precision analog-to-digital conversion and amplification chips by digitized transducers. The digital signals are transported to the central server, and the deformation of the structure is estimated by original data in the server. Meanwhile, it extended the transformer’s effective measuring distance from normal analog 200 meters up to digitalized 1200 meters. In situation of multi UEWRTS installed field, all the output of the transformers can be connected in parallel to eliminate the cables to only one RS485-Bus as a twisted-pair cable and a power line. Applications of the transducer in several reservoir dams’ security monitoring system proof that is of high accuracy, reliable, strong anti-interference solution for all the UEWRTS applications of the relative monitoring and measurement projects. The collector has been applied in dam monitoring, and achieved good results.

  14. Spatially varying Riemannian elasticity regularization: Application to thoracic CT registration in image-guided radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Troels; Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Aznar, M.


    For deformable registration of computed tomography (CT) scans in image guided radiation therapy (IGRT) we apply Riemannian elasticity regularization. We explore the use of spatially varying elasticity parameters to encourage bone rigidity and local tissue volume change only in the gross tumor...

  15. Improving imaging quality using least-squares reverse time migration: application to data from Bohai basin (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Liu, Qiancheng; Wu, Jizhong


    Least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is a seismic imaging technique based on linear inversion, which usually aims to improve the quality of seismic images through removing the acquisition footprint, suppressing migration artifacts, and enhancing resolution. LSRTM has been shown to produce migration images with better quality than those computed by conventional migration. In this paper, our derivation of LSRTM approximates the near-incident reflection coefficient with the normal-incident reflection coefficient, which shows that the reflectivity term defined is related to the normal-incident reflection coefficient and the background velocity. With reflected data, LSRTM is mainly sensitive to impedance perturbations. According to an approximate relationship between them, we reformulate the perturbation related system into a reflection-coefficient related one. Then, we seek the inverted image through linearized iteration. In the proposed algorithm, we only need the migration velocity for LSRTM considering that the density changes gently when compared with migration velocity. To validate our algorithms, we first apply it to a synthetic case and then a field data set. Both applications illustrate that our imaging results are of good quality.

  16. Improving imaging quality using least-squares reverse time migration: application to data from Bohai basin

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Hao


    Least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM) is a seismic imaging technique based on linear inversion, which usually aims to improve the quality of seismic image through removing the acquisition footprint, suppressing migration artifacts, and enhancing resolution. LSRTM has been shown to produce migration images with better quality than those computed by conventional migration. In this paper, our derivation of LSRTM approximates the near-incident reflection coefficient with the normal-incident reflection coefficient, which shows that the reflectivity term defined is related to the normal-incident reflection coefficient and the background velocity. With reflected data, LSRTM is mainly sensitive to impedance perturbations. According to an approximate relationship between them, we reformulate the perturbation related system into a reflection-coefficient related one. Then, we seek the inverted image through linearized iteration. In the proposed algorithm, we only need the migration velocity for LSRTM considering that the density changes gently when compared with migration velocity. To validate our algorithms, we first apply it to a synthetic case and then a field data set. Both applications illustrate that our imaging results are of good quality.

  17. Measurement of third-order elastic constants and applications to loaded structural materials. (United States)

    Takahashi, Sennosuke; Motegi, Ryohei


    The objective of this study is to obtain the propagation velocity of an elastic wave in a loaded isotropic solid and to show the usefulness of the third-order elastic constant in determining properties of practical materials. As is well known, the infinitesimal elastic theory is unable to express the influence of stress on elastic wave propagating in loaded materials. To solve this problem, the authors derive an equation of motion for elastic wave in a finitely deformed state and use the Lagrangian description where the state before deformation is used as a reference, and Murnaghans finite deformation theory for the unidirectional deformed isotropic solid. Ordinary derivatives were used for the mathematical treatment and although the formulas are long the content is simple. The theory is applied to the measurement of the third-order elastic constants of common steels containing carbon of 0.22 and 0.32 wt%. Care is taken in preparing specimens to precise dimensions, in properly adhering of transducer to the surface of the specimen, and in having good temperature control during the measurements to obtain precise data. As a result, the stress at various sites in the structural materials could be estimated by measuring the elastic wave propagation times. The results obtained are graphed for illustration.

  18. Theory of equilibria of elastic braids with applications to DNA supercoiling (United States)

    van der Heijden, Gert; Starostin, Eugene


    Motivated by supercoiling of DNA and other filamentous structures, we formulate a new theory for equilibria of 2-braids, i.e., structures formed by two elastic rods winding around each other in continuous contact and subject to a local interstrand interaction. Unlike in previous work no assumption is made on the shape of the contact curve. Rather, this shape is solved for. The theory is developed in terms of a moving frame of directors attached to one of the strands with one of the directors pointing to the position of the other strand. The constant-distance constraint is automatically satisfied by the introduction of what we call braid strains. The price we pay is that the potential energy involves arclength derivatives of these strains, thus giving rise to a second-order variational problem. The Euler-Lagrange equations for this problem give balance equations for the overall braid force and moment referred to the moving frame as well as differential equations that can be interpreted as effective constitutive relations encoding the effect that the second strand has on the first as the braid deforms under the action of end loads. Both open braid and closed braid solutions (links and knots) are computed and current applications to DNA supercoiling are discussed. Research supported by EPSRC and HFSP.

  19. Application of Migration Velocity Using Fourier Transform Approach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of velocity by Fourier transform to process 3-D unmigrated seismic sections has been carried out in Fabi Field, Niger Delta – Nigeria. Usually, all seismic events (sections) are characterized by spikes or noise (random or coherent), multiples and shear waves so that when a seismic bed is dipping, the apparent ...

  20. Application of a modified method of ultrasonic measurements for determination of elastic moduli of rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zel, I. Yu.; Ivankina, T. I., E-mail: [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Russian Federation); Levin, D. M. [Tula State University (Russian Federation); Lokajicek, T. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Geology (Czech Republic)


    The velocities of elastic waves with quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse polarizations in a spherical rock sample have been measured. The experimental values of velocities are used to calculate 21 elastic moduli of the sample. For comparison, the effective elastic properties of the sample are simulated based on the data on the crystallographic textures of rock-forming minerals obtained by neutron diffraction. It is shown that the largest discrepancy between the model predictions and experimental velocity values is observed for transversely polarized waves.

  1. Identification of elasticity modulus by vibratory analysis (Application to a natural composite: Aleppo pine wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAOUI Abdelhakim


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a method for the determination of the elasticity modulus in the vibratory domain of materials. This approach is based on research and interpretation of the spectrum of natural frequencies resulting from natural vibrations based on the theory of elastic beams. The tests consist of classical tests of longitudinal vibrations of natural composite beams (Aleppo pine wood, long enough to observe some natural frequencies. This identification method showed a good correlation between the theoretical and experimental values, notably the evaluation of the modal parameter for the case of the resonant frequencies and the identification of the modulus of elasticity of the materials used.

  2. Elastic interaction of partially debonded circular inclusions. II. Application to fibrous composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kushch, V.I.; Shmegera, S.V.; Mishnaevsky, Leon


    A complete analytical solution has been obtained of the elasticity problem for a plane containing periodically distributed, partially debonded circular inclusions, regarded as the representative unit cell model of fibrous composite with interface damage. The displacement solution is written...

  3. Migrating to the Cloud IT Application, Database, and Infrastructure Innovation and Consolidation

    CERN Document Server

    Laszewski, Tom


    Whether your company is planning on database migration, desktop application migration, or has IT infrastructure consolidation projects, this book gives you all the resources you'll need. It gives you recommendations on tools, strategy and best practices and serves as a guide as you plan, determine effort and budget, design, execute and roll your modern Oracle system out to production. Focusing on Oracle grid relational database technology and Oracle Fusion Middleware as the target cloud-based architecture, your company can gain organizational efficiency, agility, increase innovation and reduce

  4. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto


    If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications and want to sharpen your understanding of the core elements and applications, this is the book for you. It is assumed that you've got working knowledge of JSON and, if you want to extend ElasticSearch, of Java and related technologies.

  5. ElasticSearch cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Paro, Alberto


    Written in an engaging, easy-to-follow style, the recipes will help you to extend the capabilities of ElasticSearch to manage your data effectively.If you are a developer who implements ElasticSearch in your web applications, manage data, or have decided to start using ElasticSearch, this book is ideal for you. This book assumes that you've got working knowledge of JSON and Java

  6. Coupled elastic-plastic thermomechanically assisted diffusion: Theory development, numerical implementation, and application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinacht, Daniel J. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)


    A fully coupled thermomechanical diffusion theory describing the thermal and mechanically assisted mass transport of dilute mobile constituents in an elastic solid is extended to include the effects of elastic-plastic deformation. Using the principles of modern continuum mechanics and classical plasticity theory, balance laws and constitutive equations are derived for a continuum composed of an immobile, but deformable, parent material and a dilute mobile constituent. The resulting equations are cast into a finite element formulation for incorporation into a finite element code. This code serves as a tool for modeling thermomechanically assisted phenomena in elastic-plastic solids. A number of simplified problems for which analytical solutions can be derived are used to benchmark the theory and finite element code. Potential uses of the numerical implementation of the theory are demonstrated using two problems. Specifically, tritium diffusion in a titanium alloy and hydrogen diffusion in a multiphase stainless steel are examined.

  7. Application of separation of variables in Green’s function to typical half-strip problem for elastic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Udoh


    Full Text Available This paper presents the method of separation of variables in Green’s function and its application to the problem of half-strip of elastic material. Unlike that of the full strip, the half-strip problem differs in specification of the boundary conditions. Though similar to the full-strip problem in conjugality conditions, the half-strip problem is amenable to the application of Poisson’s equation instead of Laplace’s equation. The results show that this problem is one-dimensional and the shearing stresses are non-symmetric.

  8. Modelling elasticity in solids using active cubes - application to simulated operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Nielsen, Morten


    The paper describes an approach to elastic modelling of human tissue based on the use of 3D solid active models-active cubes (M. Bro-Nielsen, 1994)-and a shape description based on the metric tensor in a solid. Active cubes are used because they provide a natural parameterization of the surface...... and the interior of the given object when deformed to match the object's shape. Using the metric tensor to store the shape of the deformed active cube, the elastic behaviour of the object in response to applied forces or subject to constraints is modelled by minimizing an energy based on the metric tensor...

  9. Elastic analysis of pavement structure with application of vertical and centripetal surface forces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW


    Full Text Available below the centre of the load. KEY WORDS: Centripetal load, vertical load, linear elastic theory, Hankel transform. 1. INTRODUCTION Until recently, vertical load only was used in the analysis of pavements. However, several researches have shown... stream_source_info Maina1_2006.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 20587 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Maina1_2006.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Elastic Analysis of Pavement Structure...

  10. Geometrical foundations of continuum mechanics an application to first- and second-order elasticity and elasto-plasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Steinmann, Paul


    This book illustrates the deep roots of the geometrically nonlinear kinematics of generalized continuum mechanics in differential geometry. Besides applications to first- order elasticity and elasto-plasticity an appreciation thereof is particularly illuminating for generalized models of continuum mechanics such as second-order (gradient-type) elasticity and elasto-plasticity.   After a motivation that arises from considering geometrically linear first- and second- order crystal plasticity in Part I several concepts from differential geometry, relevant for what follows, such as connection, parallel transport, torsion, curvature, and metric for holonomic and anholonomic coordinate transformations are reiterated in Part II. Then, in Part III, the kinematics of geometrically nonlinear continuum mechanics are considered. There various concepts of differential geometry, in particular aspects related to compatibility, are generically applied to the kinematics of first- and second- order geometrically nonlinear con...

  11. Non-linear elastic deformations

    CERN Document Server

    Ogden, R W


    Classic in the field covers application of theory of finite elasticity to solution of boundary-value problems, analysis of mechanical properties of solid materials capable of large elastic deformations. Problems. References.

  12. A nonlinear theory for elastic plates with application to characterizing paper properties (United States)

    M. W. Johnson; Thomas J. Urbanik


    A theory of thin plates which is physically as well as kinematically nonlinear is, developed and used to characterize elastic material behavior for arbitrary stretching and bending deformations. It is developed from a few clearly defined assumptions and uses a unique treatment of strain energy. An effective strain concept is introduced to simplify the theory to a...

  13. Elastic Remote Methods


    Jayaram, K.,


    Part 2: Cloud Computing; International audience; For distributed applications to take full advantage of cloud computing systems, we need middleware systems that allow developers to build elasticity management components right into the applications.This paper describes the design and implementation of ElasticRMI, a middleware system that (1) enables application developers to dynamically change the number of (server) objects available to handle remote method invocations with respect to the appl...

  14. Some Integral Relations of Hankel Transform Type and Applications to Elasticity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen


    The dominant part of an integral equation arising in connection with boundary value problems for the circular disc is evaluated in terms of orthogonal polynomials. This relation leads to an efficient method for numerical solution of the complete integral equation even in the presence of a complic......The dominant part of an integral equation arising in connection with boundary value problems for the circular disc is evaluated in terms of orthogonal polynomials. This relation leads to an efficient method for numerical solution of the complete integral equation even in the presence...... of a complicated bounded kernel. The static problem of a circular crack in an infinite elastic body under general loads is used to illustrate vector boundary conditions leading to two coupled integral equations, while the problem of a vibrating flexible circular plate in frictionless contact with an elastic half...... space is solved by use of the associated numerical method....

  15. Mobilization with movement and elastic tape application for the conservative management of carpometacarpal joint osteoarthritis. (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Valdes, Kristin


    Carpometacarpal osteoarthritis can limit a person's ability to engage in desired activities. Many therapists utilize conservative approaches to assist these patients. These authors describe utilizing a combination of mobilization with movement and the use of elastic tape for patients with this arthritis. - Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. Copyright © 2015 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. IMGui-A Desktop GUI Application for Isolation with Migration Analyses. (United States)

    Knoblauch, Jared; Sethuraman, Arun; Hey, Jody


    The Isolation with Migration (IM) programs (e.g., IMa2) have been utilized extensively by evolutionary biologists for model-based inference of demographic parameters including effective population sizes, migration rates, and divergence times. Here, we describe a graphical user interface for the latest IM program. IMGui provides a comprehensive set of tools for performing demographic analyses, tracking progress of runs, and visualizing results. Developed using node. js and the Electron framework, IMGui is an application that runs on any desktop operating system, and is available for download at © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  17. Iterative image reconstruction in elastic inhomogenous media with application to transcranial photoacoustic tomography (United States)

    Poudel, Joemini; Matthews, Thomas P.; Mitsuhashi, Kenji; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V.; Anastasio, Mark A.


    Photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) is an emerging computed imaging modality that exploits optical contrast and ultrasonic detection principles to form images of the photoacoustically induced initial pressure distribution within tissue. The PACT reconstruction problem corresponds to a time-domain inverse source problem, where the initial pressure distribution is recovered from the measurements recorded on an aperture outside the support of the source. A major challenge in transcranial PACT brain imaging is to compensate for aberrations in the measured data due to the propagation of the photoacoustic wavefields through the skull. To properly account for these effects, a wave equation-based inversion method should be employed that can model the heterogeneous elastic properties of the medium. In this study, an iterative image reconstruction method for 3D transcranial PACT is developed based on the elastic wave equation. To accomplish this, a forward model based on a finite-difference time-domain discretization of the elastic wave equation is established. Subsequently, gradient-based methods are employed for computing penalized least squares estimates of the initial source distribution that produced the measured photoacoustic data. The developed reconstruction algorithm is validated and investigated through computer-simulation studies.

  18. Linear and nonlinear elastic modulus imaging: an application to breast cancer diagnosis. (United States)

    Goenezen, Sevan; Dord, Jean-Francois; Sink, Zac; Barbone, Paul E; Jiang, Jingfeng; Hall, Timothy J; Oberai, Assad A


    We reconstruct the in vivo spatial distribution of linear and nonlinear elastic parameters in ten patients with benign (five) and malignant (five) tumors. The mechanical behavior of breast tissue is represented by a modified Veronda-Westmann model with one linear and one nonlinear elastic parameter. The spatial distribution of these elastic parameters is determined by solving an inverse problem within the region of interest (ROI). This inverse problem solution requires the knowledge of the displacement fields at small and large strains. The displacement fields are measured using a free-hand ultrasound strain imaging technique wherein, a linear array ultrasound transducer is positioned on the breast and radio frequency echo signals are recorded within the ROI while the tissue is slowly deformed with the transducer. Incremental displacement fields are determined from successive radio-frequency frames by employing cross-correlation techniques. The rectangular regions of interest were subjectively selected to obtain low noise displacement estimates and therefore were variables that ranged from 346 to 849.6 mm2 . It is observed that malignant tumors stiffen at a faster rate than benign tumors and based on this criterion nine out of ten tumors were correctly classified as being either benign or malignant.

  19. Studying the influence of nanodiamonds over the elasticity of polymer/nanodiamond composites for biomedical application (United States)

    Hikov, T.; Mitev, D.; Radeva, E.; Iglic, A.; Presker, R.; Daniel, M.; Sepitka, J.; Krasteva, N.; Keremidarska, M.; Cvetanov, I.; Pramatarova, L.


    The combined unique properties offered by organic and inorganic constituents within a single material on a nanoscale level make nanocomposites attractive for the next generation of biocompatible materials. The composite materials of the detonation nanodiamond/polymer type possess spatial organization of components with new structural features and physical properties, as well as complex functions due to the strong synergistic effects between the nanoparticles and the polymer [1]. The plasma polymerization (PP) method was chosen to obtain composites of silicon-based polymers, in which detonation generated nanodiamond (DND) particles were incorporated. The composite layers are homogeneous, chemically resistant, thermally and mechanically stable, thus allowing a large amount of biological components to be loaded onto their surface and to be used in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, implants, stents, biosensors and other medical and biological devices. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main focus of research in regenerative medicine due to their extraordinary potential to differentiate into different kinds of cells including osteoblasts, which are needed for various bone disease treatments. However, for optimal usage of MSCs knowledge about the factors that influence their initial distribution in the human system, tissue-specific activation and afterwards differentiation into osteoblasts is required. In recent studies it was found that one of these factors is the elasticity of the substrates [2]. The choice of the proper material which specifically guides the differentiation of stem cells even in the absence of growth factors is very important when building modern strategy for bone regeneration. One of the reasons for there not being many studies in this area worldwide is the lack of suitable biomaterials which support these kinds of experiments. The goal of this study is to create substrates suitable for cell culture with a range of mechanical properties

  20. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50 MM Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis E., III


    The ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge is the pathfinder application for 50mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. Superior corrosion and shock resistance are required to withstand the acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads that challenge conventional steel bearings. During early ground testing one bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hours of run time. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. A thorough investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press-fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTis relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully duplicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  1. Failure Analysis and Recovery of a 50-mm Highly Elastic Intermetallic NiTi Ball Bearing for an ISS Application (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Howard, S. Adam; Moore, Lewis


    Ball bearings used inside the ISS Distillation Assembly centrifuge require superior corrosion and shock resistance to withstand acidic wastewater exposure and heavy spacecraft launch related loads. These requirements challenge conventional steel bearings and provide an ideal pathfinder application for 50-mm bore, deep-groove ball bearings made from the corrosion immune and highly elastic intermetallic material 60NiTi. During early ground testing in 2014 one 60NiTi bearing unexpectedly and catastrophically failed after operating for only 200 hr. A second bearing running on the same shaft was completely unaffected. An investigation into the root cause of the failure determined that an excessively tight press fit of the bearing outer race coupled with NiTi's relatively low elastic modulus were key contributing factors. The proposed failure mode was successfully replicated by experiment. To further corroborate the root cause theory, a successful bearing life test using improved installation practices (selective fitting) was conducted. The results show that NiTi bearings are suitable for space applications provided that care is taken to accommodate their unique material characteristics.

  2. A Statistical Learning Framework for Materials Science: Application to Elastic Moduli of k-nary Inorganic Polycrystalline Compounds. (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Notestine, Randy; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Jain, Anubhav; Asta, Mark; Gamst, Anthony


    Materials scientists increasingly employ machine or statistical learning (SL) techniques to accelerate materials discovery and design. Such pursuits benefit from pooling training data across, and thus being able to generalize predictions over, k-nary compounds of diverse chemistries and structures. This work presents a SL framework that addresses challenges in materials science applications, where datasets are diverse but of modest size, and extreme values are often of interest. Our advances include the application of power or Hölder means to construct descriptors that generalize over chemistry and crystal structure, and the incorporation of multivariate local regression within a gradient boosting framework. The approach is demonstrated by developing SL models to predict bulk and shear moduli (K and G, respectively) for polycrystalline inorganic compounds, using 1,940 compounds from a growing database of calculated elastic moduli for metals, semiconductors and insulators. The usefulness of the models is illustrated by screening for superhard materials.

  3. A Statistical Learning Framework for Materials Science: Application to Elastic Moduli of k-nary Inorganic Polycrystalline Compounds (United States)

    de Jong, Maarten; Chen, Wei; Notestine, Randy; Persson, Kristin; Ceder, Gerbrand; Jain, Anubhav; Asta, Mark; Gamst, Anthony


    Materials scientists increasingly employ machine or statistical learning (SL) techniques to accelerate materials discovery and design. Such pursuits benefit from pooling training data across, and thus being able to generalize predictions over, k-nary compounds of diverse chemistries and structures. This work presents a SL framework that addresses challenges in materials science applications, where datasets are diverse but of modest size, and extreme values are often of interest. Our advances include the application of power or Hölder means to construct descriptors that generalize over chemistry and crystal structure, and the incorporation of multivariate local regression within a gradient boosting framework. The approach is demonstrated by developing SL models to predict bulk and shear moduli (K and G, respectively) for polycrystalline inorganic compounds, using 1,940 compounds from a growing database of calculated elastic moduli for metals, semiconductors and insulators. The usefulness of the models is illustrated by screening for superhard materials.

  4. Applications of DSP to Explicit Dynamic FEA Simulations of Elastically-Dominated Impact Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Diehl


    Full Text Available Explicit Dynamic Finite Element techniques are increasingly used for simulating impact events of personal electronic devices such as portable phones and laptop computers. Unfortunately, the elastically-dominated impact behavior of these devices greatly increases the tendency of Explicit Dynamic methods to calculate noisy solutions containing high-frequency ringing, especially for acceleration and contact-force data. For numerous reasons, transient FEA results are often improperly recorded by the analyst, causing corruption by aliasing. If aliasing is avoided, other sources of distortion can still occur. For example, filtering or decimating Explicit Dynamic data typically requires extremely small normalized cutoff frequencies that can cause significant numerical problems for common DSP programs such as MATLAB. This paper presents techniques to combat the unique DSP-related challenges of Explicit Dynamic data and then demonstrates them on a very challenging transient problem of a steel ball impacting a plastic LCD display in a portable phone, correlating simulation and experimental results.

  5. 3D elastic-orthorhombic anisotropic full-waveform inversion: Application to field OBC data

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon


    For the purpose of extracting higher resolution information from a 3D field data set, we apply a 3D elastic orthorhombic (ORT) anisotropic full waveform inversion (FWI) to hopefully better represent the physics of the Earth. We utilize what we consider as the optimal parameterization for surface acquired seismic data over a potentially orthorhombic media. This parameterization admits the possibility of incorporating a hierarchical implementation moving from higher anisotropy symmetry to lower ones. From the analysis of the radiation pattern of this new parameterization, we focus the inversion of the 3D data on the parameters that may have imprint on the data with minimal tradeoff, and as a result we invert for the horizontal P-wave velocity model, an ε1 model, its orthorhombic deviation, and the shear wave velocity. The inverted higher resolution models provide reasonable insights of the medium.

  6. Application of various elastic thin shell theories to blood flow problems (United States)


    Some existing theories, on elastic thin shells, are reviewed to ascertain their influence on the computation of phase velocities in fluid filled cylinders representing certain aspects of the behavior of arteries and veins in vivo. For physiologically meaningful parameters, including moderately large in plane prestrain that occurs in mammals, the results suggest that with one exception, the small differences in the formulations exercise little influence on the phase velocities. However, it is demonstrated that inclusion of the forces induced by the rotation of the hydrostatic pressure is essential or significantly erroneous torsional wave speeds result. Also the introduction of moderate implane prestrains that are present in living mammals is shown to lead to nonselfadjoint differential equations of motion, whose biorthogonal eigenvectors differ slightly from each other.

  7. Applications of computer simulation, nuclear reactions and elastic scattering to surface analysis of materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pacheco de Carvalho, J. A.


    Full Text Available This article involves computer simulation and surface analysis by nuclear techniques, which are non-destructive. Both the “energy method of analysis” for nuclear reactions and elastic scattering are used. Energy spectra are computer simulated and compared with experimental data, giving target composition and concentration profile information. The method is successfully applied to thick flat targets of graphite, quartz and sapphire and targets containing thin films of aluminium oxide. Depth profiles of 12C and 16O nuclei are determined using (d,p and (d,α deuteron induced reactions. Rutherford and resonance elastic scattering of (4He+ ions are also used.

    Este artículo trata de simulación por ordenador y del análisis de superficies mediante técnicas nucleares, que son no destructivas. Se usa el “método de análisis en energia” para reacciones nucleares, así como el de difusión elástica. Se simulan en ordenador espectros en energía que se comparan com datos experimentales, de lo que resulta la obención de información sobre la composición y los perfiles de concentración de la muestra. Este método se aplica con éxito em muestras espesas y planas de grafito, cuarzo y zafiro y muestras conteniendo películas finas de óxido de aluminio. Se calculan perfiles en profundidad de núcleos de 12C y de 16O a través de reacciones (d,p y (d,α inducidas por deuterones. Se utiliza también la difusión elástica de iones (4He+, tanto a Rutherford como resonante.

  8. Sensor Applications of Soft Magnetic Materials Based on Magneto-Impedance, Magneto-Elastic Resonance and Magneto-Electricity (United States)

    García-Arribas, Alfredo; Gutiérrez, Jon; Kurlyandskaya, Galina V.; Barandiarán, José M.; Svalov, Andrey; Fernández, Eduardo; Lasheras, Andoni; de Cos, David; Bravo-Imaz, Iñaki


    The outstanding properties of selected soft magnetic materials make them successful candidates for building high performance sensors. In this paper we present our recent work regarding different sensing technologies based on the coupling of the magnetic properties of soft magnetic materials with their electric or elastic properties. In first place we report the influence on the magneto-impedance response of the thickness of Permalloy films in multilayer-sandwiched structures. An impedance change of 270% was found in the best conditions upon the application of magnetic field, with a low field sensitivity of 140%/Oe. Second, the magneto-elastic resonance of amorphous ribbons is used to demonstrate the possibility of sensitively measuring the viscosity of fluids, aimed to develop an on-line and real-time sensor capable of assessing the state of degradation of lubricant oils in machinery. A novel analysis method is shown to sensitively reveal the changes of the damping parameter of the magnetoelastic oscillations at the resonance as a function of the oil viscosity. Finally, the properties and performance of magneto-electric laminated composites of amorphous magnetic ribbons and piezoelectric polymer films are investigated, demonstrating magnetic field detection capabilities below 2.7 nT. PMID:24776934

  9. Elastic scattering phenomenology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackintosh, R.S. [The Open University, School of Physical Sciences, Milton Keynes (United Kingdom)


    We argue that, in many situations, fits to elastic scattering data that were historically, and frequently still are, considered ''good'', are not justifiably so describable. Information about the dynamics of nucleon-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus scattering is lost when elastic scattering phenomenology is insufficiently ambitious. It is argued that in many situations, an alternative approach is appropriate for the phenomenology of nuclear elastic scattering of nucleons and other light nuclei. The approach affords an appropriate means of evaluating folding models, one that fully exploits available empirical data. It is particularly applicable for nucleons and other light ions. (orig.)

  10. Elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections for fission reactor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hicks, S. F.; Combs, B.; Downes, L.; Girgis, J.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P. J.; Schniederjan, J.; Sidwell, L.; Sigillito, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Dallas, Irving TX 75019 (United States); Chakraborty, A.; Crider, B. P.; Kumar, A.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Prados-Estevz, F. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Vanhoy, J. R.; Watts, D. [Department of Physics, United States Naval Academy, Annapolis MD 21402 (United States); Yates, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States) and Department of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)


    Nuclear data important for the design and development of the next generation of light-water reactors and future fast reactors include neutron elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections on important structural materials, such as Fe, and on coolant materials, such as Na. These reaction probabilities are needed since neutron reactions impact fuel performance during irradiations and the overall efficiency of reactors. While neutron scattering cross sections from these materials are available for certain incident neutron energies, the fast neutron region, particularly above 2 MeV, has large gaps for which no measurements exist, or the existing uncertainties are large. Measurements have been made at the University of Kentucky Accelerator Laboratory to measure neutron scattering cross sections on both Fe and Na in the region where these gaps occur and to reduce the uncertainties on scattering from the ground state and first excited state of these nuclei. Results from measurements on Fe at incident neutron energies between 2 and 4 MeV will be presented and comparisons will be made to model calculations available from data evaluators.

  11. Handling topological changes during elastic registration : Application to augmented reality in laparoscopic surgery. (United States)

    Paulus, Christoph J; Haouchine, Nazim; Kong, Seong-Ho; Soares, Renato Vianna; Cazier, David; Cotin, Stephane


    Locating the internal structures of an organ is a critical aspect of many surgical procedures. Minimally invasive surgery, associated with augmented reality techniques, offers the potential to visualize inner structures, allowing for improved analysis, depth perception or for supporting planning and decision systems. Most of the current methods dealing with rigid or non-rigid augmented reality make the assumption that the topology of the organ is not modified. As surgery relies essentially on cutting and dissection of anatomical structures, such methods are limited to the early stages of the surgery. We solve this shortcoming with the introduction of a method for physics-based elastic registration using a single view from a monocular camera. Singularities caused by topological changes are detected and propagated to the preoperative model. This significantly improves the coherence between the actual laparoscopic view and the model and provides added value in terms of navigation and decision-making, e.g., by overlaying the internal structures of an organ on the laparoscopic view. Our real-time augmentation method is assessed on several scenarios, using synthetic objects and real organs. In all cases, the impact of our approach is demonstrated, both qualitatively and quantitatively ( ). The presented approach tackles the challenge of localizing internal structures throughout a complete surgical procedure, even after surgical cuts. This information is crucial for surgeons to improve the outcome for their surgical procedure and avoid complications.

  12. A Membrane Model from Implicit Elasticity Theory. Application to Visceral Pleura

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freed, Alan D. [Saginaw Valley State Univ., University Center, MI (United States); Liao, Jun [Mississippi State Univ., Mississippi State, MS (United States); Einstein, Daniel R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    A Fungean solid is derived for membranous materials as a body defined by isotropic response functions whose mathematical structure is that of a Hookean solid where the elastic constants are replaced by functions of state derived from an implicit, thermodynamic, internal energy function. The theory utilizes Biot’s (Lond Edinb Dublin Philos Mag J Sci 27:468–489, 1939) definitions for stress and strain that, in one-dimension, are the stress/strain measures adopted by Fung (Am J Physiol 28:1532–1544, 1967) when he postulated what is now known as Fung’s law. Our Fungean membrane model is parameterized against a biaxial data set acquired from a porcine pleural membrane subjected to three, sequential, proportional, planar extensions. These data support an isotropic/deviatoric split in the stress and strain-rate hypothesized by our theory. These data also demonstrate that the material response is highly nonlinear but, otherwise, mechanically isotropic. These data are described reasonably well by our otherwise simple, four-parameter, material model.

  13. Towards Monitoring-as-a-service for Scientific Computing Cloud applications using the ElasticSearch ecosystem

    CERN Document Server

    Bagnasco, S; Guarise, A; Lusso, S; Masera, M; Vallero, S


    The INFN computing centre in Torino hosts a private Cloud, which is managed with the OpenNebula cloud controller. The infrastructure offers Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) and Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) services to different scientific computing applications. The main stakeholders of the facility are a grid Tier-2 site for the ALICE collaboration at LHC, an interactive analysis facility for the same experiment and a grid Tier-2 site for the BESIII collaboration, plus an increasing number of other small tenants. The dynamic allocation of resources to tenants is partially automated. This feature requires detailed monitoring and accounting of the resource usage. We set up a monitoring framework to inspect the site activities both in terms of IaaS and applications running on the hosted virtual instances. For this purpose we used the ElasticSearch, Logstash and Kibana (ELK) stack. The infrastructure relies on a MySQL database back-end for data preservation and to ensure flexibility to choose a different monit...

  14. DNA migration mechanism analyses for applications in capillary and microchip electrophoresis (United States)

    Forster, Ryan E.; Hert, Daniel G.; Chiesl, Thomas N.; Fredlake, Christopher P.; Barron, Annelise E.


    In 2009, electrophoretically driven DNA separations in slab gels and capillaries have the sepia tones of an old-fashioned technology in the eyes of many, even while they remain ubiquitously used, fill a unique niche, and arguably have yet to reach their full potential. For comic relief, what is old becomes new again: agarose slab gel separations are used to prepare DNA samples for “next-gen” sequencing platforms (e.g., the Illumina and 454 machines)—dsDNA molecules within a certain size range are “cut out” of a gel and recovered for subsequent “massively parallel” pyrosequencing. In this review, we give a Barron lab perspective on how our comprehension of DNA migration mechanisms in electrophoresis has evolved, since the first reports of DNA separations by CE (∼1989) until now, 20 years later. Fused silica capillaries, and borosilicate glass and plastic microchips, quietly offer increasing capacities for fast (and even “ultra-fast”), efficient DNA separations. While the channel-by-channel scaling of both old and new electrophoresis platforms provides key flexibility, it requires each unique DNA sample to be prepared in its own micro- or nanovolume. This Achille's heel of electrophoresis technologies left an opening through which pooled-sample, next-gen DNA sequencing technologies rushed. We shall see, over time, whether sharpening understanding of transitions in DNA migration modes in crosslinked gels, nanogel solutions, and uncrosslinked polymer solutions will allow electrophoretic DNA analysis technologies to flower again. Microchannel electrophoresis, after a quiet period of metamorphosis, may emerge sleeker and more powerful, to claim its own important niche applications. PMID:19582705

  15. Investigation of translaminar fracture in fibrereinforced composite laminates---applicability of linear elastic fracture mechanics and cohesive-zone model (United States)

    Hou, Fang

    With the extensive application of fiber-reinforced composite laminates in industry, research on the fracture mechanisms of this type of materials have drawn more and more attentions. A variety of fracture theories and models have been developed. Among them, the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) and cohesive-zone model (CZM) are two widely-accepted fracture models, which have already shown applicability in the fracture analysis of fiber-reinforced composite laminates. However, there remain challenges which prevent further applications of the two fracture models, such as the experimental measurement of fracture resistance. This dissertation primarily focused on the study of the applicability of LEFM and CZM for the fracture analysis of translaminar fracture in fibre-reinforced composite laminates. The research for each fracture model consisted of two sections: the analytical characterization of crack-tip fields and the experimental measurement of fracture resistance parameters. In the study of LEFM, an experimental investigation based on full-field crack-tip displacement measurements was carried out as a way to characterize the subcritical and steady-state crack advances in translaminar fracture of fiber-reinforced composite laminates. Here, the fiber-reinforced composite laminates were approximated as anisotropic solids. The experimental investigation relied on the LEFM theory with a modification with respect to the material anisotropy. Firstly, the full-field crack-tip displacement fields were measured by Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Then two methods, separately based on the stress intensity approach and the energy approach, were developed to measure the crack-tip field parameters from crack-tip displacement fields. The studied crack-tip field parameters included the stress intensity factor, energy release rate and effective crack length. Moreover, the crack-growth resistance curves (R-curves) were constructed with the measured crack-tip field parameters

  16. Applications of elastic-viscoplastic constitutive models in dynamic analyses of crack run-arrest events (United States)

    Bass, B. R.; Pugh, C. E.; Swindeman, R. W.


    Applications of nonlinear techniques to the first series of six HSST wide-plate crack-arrest tests that were performed are described. The experiments include crack initiations at low temperatures and relatively long (20 cm) cleavage propagation phases which are terminated by arrest in high temperature regions. Crack arrest are then followed by ductile tearing events. Consequently, the crack front regions are exposed to wide ranges of strain rates and temperatures.

  17. A Continuum Description of Nonlinear Elasticity, Slip and Twinning, With Application to Sapphire (United States)


    Kalidindi 1998; Castaing et al. 2002; Wu et al. 2007). The theory is applicable over a potentially wide temperature range via dependence of initial...or confined compression (Graham & Brooks 1971; Castaing et al. 1981; Scott & Orr 1983; Lankford et al. 1998). Graham & Brooks (1971) suggested that... Castaing et al. 1981). However, in shock experiments, plastic strain rates are not constant, but ramp up from small values at the onset of yielding at

  18. Similarity and symmetry methods applications in elasticity and mechanics of materials

    CERN Document Server

    Mladenov, Ivaïlo


    The principle aim of the book is to present a self-contained, modern account of similarity and symmetry methods, which are important mathematical tools for both physicists, engineers and applied mathematicians. The idea is to provide a balanced presentation of the mathematical techniques and applications of symmetry methods in mathematics, physics and engineering. That is why it includes recent developments and many examples in finding systematically conservation laws, local and nonlocal symmetries for ordinary and partial differential equations. The role of continuous symmetries in classical and quantum field theories is exposed at a technical level accessible even for non specialists. The importance of symmetries in continuum mechanics and mechanics of materials is highlighted through recent developments, such as the construction of constitutive models for various materials combining Lie symmetries with experimental data. As a whole this book is a unique collection of contributions from experts in the field...

  19. Fusing Simulation Results From Multifidelity Aero-servo-elastic Simulators - Application To Extreme Loads On Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Sudret, Bruno; Lataniotis, Christos


    Fusing predictions from multiple simulators in the early stages of the conceptual design of a wind turbine results in reduction in model uncertainty and risk mitigation. Aero-servo-elastic is a term that refers to the coupling of wind inflow, aerodynamics, structural dynamics and controls. Fusing...... the response data from multiple aero-servo-elastic simulators could provide better predictive ability than using any single simulator. The co-Kriging approach to fuse information from multifidelity aero-servo-elastic simulators is presented. We illustrate the co-Kriging approach to fuse the extreme flapwise...

  20. Sr - an element shows the way - Applications of Sr isotopes for provenance, tracing and migration (Invited) (United States)

    Prohaska, T.; Irrgeher, J.; Zitek, A.; Teschler Nicola, M.


    presented for Sr isotope ratios simply supported by the fact that a higher statistical number of samples could be analyzed. Further supported by direct introductions systems such as laser ablation, the popularity of Sr in science has increased steadily. A number of fields of applications make nowadays use of the system so far: anthropology and archaeology as well as food science, chemical technology, forensic science, medicine or biology. The Sr isotope system will be presented along with analytical techniques applied. Selected examples making use of the natural Sr isotopic variation will be reported: Proof of provenance of food, forensic applications and migration studies on prehistoric cultures or modern biological systems. In addition, the application of enriched Sr isotope spikes will be presented. The spikes are administered in order to investigate Sr turnovers (e.g. as proxy for Ca in biomedical studies), marking tissues for tracing and migration experiments and investigating environmental processes.

  1. Anisotropic elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Hwu, Chyanbin


    As structural elements, anisotropic elastic plates find wide applications in modern technology. The plates here are considered to be subjected to not only in plane load but also transverse load. In other words, both plane and plate bending problems as well as the stretching-bending coupling problems are all explained in this book. In addition to the introduction of the theory of anisotropic elasticity, several important subjects have are discussed in this book such as interfaces, cracks, holes, inclusions, contact problems, piezoelectric materials, thermoelastic problems and boundary element a

  2. Hybrid elastic solids

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, Yun


    Metamaterials can exhibit electromagnetic and elastic characteristics beyond those found in nature. In this work, we present a design of elastic metamaterial that exhibits multiple resonances in its building blocks. Band structure calculations show two negative dispersion bands, of which one supports only compressional waves and thereby blurs the distinction between a fluid and a solid over a finite frequency regime, whereas the other displays super anisotropy-in which compressional waves and shear waves can propagate only along different directions. Such unusual characteristics, well explained by the effective medium theory, have no comparable analogue in conventional solids and may lead to novel applications. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. Rotational elasticity (United States)

    Vassiliev, Dmitri


    We consider an infinite three-dimensional elastic continuum whose material points experience no displacements, only rotations. This framework is a special case of the Cosserat theory of elasticity. Rotations of material points are described mathematically by attaching to each geometric point an orthonormal basis that gives a field of orthonormal bases called the coframe. As the dynamical variables (unknowns) of our theory, we choose the coframe and a density. We write down the general dynamic variational functional for our rotational theory of elasticity, assuming our material to be physically linear but the kinematic model geometrically nonlinear. Allowing geometric nonlinearity is natural when dealing with rotations because rotations in dimension three are inherently nonlinear (rotations about different axes do not commute) and because there is no reason to exclude from our study large rotations such as full turns. The main result of the talk is an explicit construction of a class of time-dependent solutions that we call plane wave solutions; these are travelling waves of rotations. The existence of such explicit closed-form solutions is a non-trivial fact given that our system of Euler-Lagrange equations is highly nonlinear. We also consider a special case of our rotational theory of elasticity which in the stationary setting (harmonic time dependence and arbitrary dependence on spatial coordinates) turns out to be equivalent to a pair of massless Dirac equations. The talk is based on the paper [1]. [1] C.G.Boehmer, R.J.Downes and D.Vassiliev, Rotational elasticity, Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, 2011, vol. 64, p. 415-439. The paper is a heavily revised version of preprint

  4. Near-field effects in Green's function retrieval from cross-correlation of elastic fields: experimental study with application to elastography. (United States)

    Benech, N; Brum, J; Catheline, S; Gallot, T; Negreira, C


    In a lossless system, the causal and acausal Green's function for elastic waves can be retrieved by cross-correlating the elastic field at two positions. This field, composed of converging and diverging waves, is interpreted in the frame of a time-reversal process. In this work, the near-field effects on the spatio-temporal focusing of elastic waves are analyzed through the elastodynamic Green's function. Contrary to the scalar field case, the spatial focusing is not symmetric preserving the directivity pattern of a simple source. One important feature of the spatial asymmetry is its dependency on the Poisson ratio of the solid. Additionally, it is shown that the retrieval of the bulk wave speed values is affected by diffraction. The correction factor depends on the relative direction between the source and the observed field. Experimental verification of the analysis is carried out on the volume of a soft-solid. A low-frequency diffuse-like field is generated by random impacts at the sample's free surface. The displacement field is imaged using ultrasound by a standard speckle tracking technique. One important application of this work is in the estimation of the shear elastic modulus in soft biological tissues, whose quantification can be useful in non-invasive diagnosis of various diseases.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. R. Pulsani


    Full Text Available Tank Information System is a web application which provides comprehensive information about minor irrigation tanks of Telangana State. As part of the program, a web mapping application using Flex and ArcGIS server was developed to make the data available to the public. In course of time as Flex be-came outdated, a migration of the client interface to the latest JavaScript based technologies was carried out. Initially, the Flex based application was migrated to ArcGIS JavaScript API using Dojo Toolkit. Both the client applications used published services from ArcGIS server. To check the migration pattern from proprietary to open source, the JavaScript based ArcGIS application was later migrated to OpenLayers and Dojo Toolkit which used published service from GeoServer. The migration pattern noticed in the study especially emphasizes upon the use of Dojo Toolkit and PostgreSQL database for ArcGIS server so that migration to open source could be performed effortlessly. The current ap-plication provides a case in study which could assist organizations in migrating their proprietary based ArcGIS web applications to open source. Furthermore, the study reveals cost benefits of adopting open source against commercial software's.

  6. Tank Information System (tis): a Case Study in Migrating Web Mapping Application from Flex to Dojo for Arcgis Server and then to Open Source (United States)

    Pulsani, B. R.


    Tank Information System is a web application which provides comprehensive information about minor irrigation tanks of Telangana State. As part of the program, a web mapping application using Flex and ArcGIS server was developed to make the data available to the public. In course of time as Flex be-came outdated, a migration of the client interface to the latest JavaScript based technologies was carried out. Initially, the Flex based application was migrated to ArcGIS JavaScript API using Dojo Toolkit. Both the client applications used published services from ArcGIS server. To check the migration pattern from proprietary to open source, the JavaScript based ArcGIS application was later migrated to OpenLayers and Dojo Toolkit which used published service from GeoServer. The migration pattern noticed in the study especially emphasizes upon the use of Dojo Toolkit and PostgreSQL database for ArcGIS server so that migration to open source could be performed effortlessly. The current ap-plication provides a case in study which could assist organizations in migrating their proprietary based ArcGIS web applications to open source. Furthermore, the study reveals cost benefits of adopting open source against commercial software's.

  7. Elastic anisotropy of crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Kube


    Full Text Available An anisotropy index seeks to quantify how directionally dependent the properties of a system are. In this article, the focus is on quantifying the elastic anisotropy of crystalline materials. Previous elastic anisotropy indices are reviewed and their shortcomings discussed. A new scalar log-Euclidean anisotropy measure AL is proposed, which overcomes these deficiencies. It is based on a distance measure in a log-Euclidean space applied to fourth-rank elastic tensors. AL is an absolute measure of anisotropy where the limiting case of perfect isotropy yields zero. It is a universal measure of anisotropy applicable to all crystalline materials. Specific examples of strong anisotropy are highlighted. A supplementary material provides an anisotropy table giving the values of AL for 2,176 crystallite compounds.

  8. Psychosocial factors of migration: adaptation and application of the health belief model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenewold, W.G.F.; de Bruijn, B.J.; Bilsborrow, R.


    Psychosocial factors influencing behaviour play a central role in health research but seem under-explored in migration research. This is unfortunate because these factors, which include knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, intentions and personality traits, provide essential and potentially effective

  9. Applicability of the leukocyte migration inhibition test in the clinical practice. (United States)

    Stanciu, L; Dumitrescu, D; Radu, D


    The leukocyte migration inhibition test reveals in vitro the presence of lymphocyte sensitivity and, consequently, of cell-mediated immunity, to a given antigen. Applied in a variety of immune and allergic cases it proved to be useful for the positive diagnosis of the disease and/or for the detection of cell-mediated immune deficiency. The results obtained recommend the leukocyte migration inhibition test in the clinical practice.

  10. Reverse time migration: A seismic processing application on the connection machine (United States)

    Fiebrich, Rolf-Dieter


    The implementation of a reverse time migration algorithm on the Connection Machine, a massively parallel computer is described. Essential architectural features of this machine as well as programming concepts are presented. The data structures and parallel operations for the implementation of the reverse time migration algorithm are described. The algorithm matches the Connection Machine architecture closely and executes almost at the peak performance of this machine.

  11. Cellular automaton for migration in ecosystem: Application of traffic model to a predator-prey system (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi; Tainaka, Kei-ichi


    In most cases, physicists have studied the migration of biospecies by the use of random walk. In the present article, we apply cellular automaton of traffic model. For simplicity, we deal with an ecosystem contains a prey and predator, and use one-dimensional lattice with two layers. Preys stay on the first layer, but predators uni-directionally move on the second layer. The spatial and temporal evolution is numerically explored. It is shown that the migration has the important effect on populations of both prey and predator. Without migration, the phase transition between a prey-phase and coexisting-phase occurs. In contrast, the phase transition disappears by migration. This is because predator can survive due to migration. We find another phase transition for spatial distribution: in one phase, prey and predator form a stripe pattern of condensation and rarefaction, while in the other phase, they uniformly distribute. The self-organized stripe may be similar to the migration patterns in real ecosystems.

  12. Migration of the UNIX Application for eFAST CANDU Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Jae Seung; Sohn, Dae Seong [ENESYS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Jae [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jeun, Gyoo Dong [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Since the mid 1980s, corporate data centers have been moving away from mainframes running dedicated operating systems to mini-computers, often using one or other of the myriad flavors of UNIX. At the same time, the users' experience of these systems has, in many cases, stayed the same, involving text-based interaction with dumb terminals or a terminal-emulation session on a Personal Computer. More recently, IT managers have questioned this approach, and have been looking at changes in the UNIX marketplace and the increasing expense of being tied in to single-vendor software and hardware solutions. The growth of Linux as a lightweight version of UNIX has fueled this interest, raising the number of organizations that are considering a migration to alternative platforms. The various implementations of the UNIX operating system have served industry well, as witnessed by the very large base both of installed systems and large-scale applications installed on those systems. However, there are increasing signs of dissatisfaction with expensive, often proprietary solutions and a growing sense that perhaps the concept of 'big iron' has had its day in the same way as it has for most of the mainframes of the type portrayed in 1970s science fiction films. One of the most extraordinary and unexpected successes of the Intel PC architecture is the extent to which this basic framework has been extended to encompass very large server and data center environments. Large-scale hosting companies are now offering enterprise level services to multiple client companies at availability levels of over 99.99 percent on what are simply racks of relatively cheap PCs. Technologies such as clustering, Network Load Balancing, and Component Load Balancing enable the personal computer to take on and match the levels of throughput, availability, and reliability of all but the most expensive 'big iron' solutions and the supercomputers.

  13. Migration from PVC cling films compared with their field of application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lillemark, L.; Lund, L.


    Samples of PVC cling films were taken at importers, wholesalers and retail shops, and their overall migration to the alternative food simulant iso-octane was measured, after establishment of a correlation between overall migration to olive oil at 40 degrees C in 10 days and to iso-octane in 2 h....... Results of the migration testing were compared with the recommended and/or actual use of the PVC film and the labelling discussed in relation to the relevant EEC directives on food contact plastics. The correct labelling of plasticized PVC film intended for use in retail packaging is important to avoid...... of DEHA to non-fatty foods defined as the food simulant water was at or below 0.1 mg/dm(2) in all PVC-films....

  14. The macrodynamics of international migration as a socio-cultural diffusion process. Part B: applications. (United States)

    Diamantides, N D


    "This study formulates a model of the macrodynamics of international migration using a differential equation to capture the push-pull forces that propel it. The model's architecture rests on the functioning of information feedback between settled friends and family at the destination and potential emigrants at the origin.... Two specific paradigms of diverse nature serve to demonstrate the model's tenets and pertinence, one being Greek emigration to the United States since 1820, and the other total out-migration from Cyprus since statehood (1946)." excerpt

  15. Theory of evaporative cooling with energy-dependent elastic scattering cross section and application to metastable helium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, P.J.J.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.


    A model was developed to allow simulation of evaporative cooling experiments in situations where the elastic scattering cross section depends on collision energy. The model was used to simulate the number of atoms and temperature in a rf sweep for metastable helium. The value of the scattering

  16. Fusing Simulation Results From Multifidelity Aero-servo-elastic Simulators - Application To Extreme Loads On Wind Turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Imad; Sudret, Bruno; Lataniotis, Christos


    Fusing predictions from multiple simulators in the early stages of the conceptual design of a wind turbine results in reduction in model uncertainty and risk mitigation. Aero-servo-elastic is a term that refers to the coupling of wind inflow, aerodynamics, structural dynamics and controls. Fusing...

  17. An Integrated Crosscutting Concern Migration Strategy and its Application to JHoTDraw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marin, M.; Moonen, L.; Van Deursen, A.


    In this paper we propose a systematic strategy for migrating crosscutting concerns in existing object-oriented systems to aspect-based solutions. The proposed strategy consists of four steps: mining, exploration, documentation and refactoring of crosscutting concerns. We discuss in detail a new

  18. Elastic reflection based waveform inversion with a nonlinear approach

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem due to the complex reflectivity of the Earth, and this nonlinearity only increases under the more expensive elastic assumption. In elastic media, we need a good initial P-wave velocity and even a better initial S-wave velocity models with accurate representation of the low model wavenumbers for FWI to converge. However, inverting for the low wavenumber components of P- and S-wave velocities using reflection waveform inversion (RWI) with an objective to fit the reflection shape, rather than produce reflections, may mitigate the limitations of FWI. Because FWI, performing as a migration operator, is in preference of the high wavenumber updates along reflectors. We propose a nonlinear elastic RWI that inverts for both the low wavenumber and perturbation components of the P- and S-wave velocities. To generate the full elastic reflection wavefields, we derive an equivalent stress source made up by the inverted model perturbations and incident wavefields. We update both the perturbation and propagation parts of the velocity models in a nested fashion. Applications on synthetic isotropic models and field data show that our method can efficiently update the low and high wavenumber parts of the models.

  19. Generation of narrowband elastic waves with a fiber laser and its application to the imaging of defects in a plate. (United States)

    Hayashi, Takahiro; Ishihara, Ken


    Pulsed laser equipment can be used to generate elastic waves through the instantaneous reaction of thermal expansion or ablation of the material; however, we cannot control the waveform generated by the laser in the same manner that we can when piezoelectric transducers are used as exciters. This study investigates the generation of narrowband tone-burst waves using a fiber laser of the type that is widely used in laser beam machining. Fiber lasers can emit laser pulses with a high repetition rate on the order of MHz, and the laser pulses can be modulated to a burst train by external signals. As a consequence of the burst laser emission, a narrowband tone-burst elastic wave is generated. We experimentally confirmed that the elastic waves agreed well with the modulation signals in time domain waveforms and their frequency spectra, and that waveforms can be controlled by the generation technique. We also apply the generation technique to defect imaging with a scanning laser source. In the experiments, with small laser emission energy, we were not able to obtain defect images from the signal amplitude due to low signal-to-noise ratio, whereas using frequency spectrum peaks of the tone-burst signals gave clear defect images, which indicates that the signal-to-noise ratio is improved in the frequency domain by using this technique for the generation of narrowband elastic waves. Moreover, even for defect imaging at a single receiving point, defect images were enhanced by taking an average of distributions of frequency spectrum peaks at different frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. An improved method for estimating in situ stress in an elastic rock mass and its engineering application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Qitao


    Full Text Available The main contribution of this paper is to develop a method to determine the in situ stress on an engineering scale by modifying the elasto-static thermal stress model (Sheorey’s model. The suggested method, firstly, introduces correction factors for the local tectonism to reflect the stress distribution difference caused by local tectonic movements. The correction factors can be determined by the least-squares approach based on laboratory tests and local in situ stress measurements. Then, the rock elastic modulus is replaced by rock mass elastic modulus so as to show the effect of rock discontinuities on the in situ stress. Combining with elasticity theory, equations for estimating the major and minor horizontal stresses are obtained. It is possible to reach satisfactory accuracy for stress estimation. To show the feasibility of this method, it is applied to two deep tunnels in China to determine the in situ stress. Field tests, including in situ stress measurements by conventional hydraulic fracturing (HF and rock mass modulus measurements using a rigid borehole jack (RBJ, are carried out. It is shown that the stress field in the two deep tunnels is dominated by horizontal tectonic movements. The major and minor horizontal stresses are estimated, respectively. Finally, the results are compared with those derived from the HF method. The calculated results in the two tunnels roughly coincide with the measured results with an average of 15% allowable discrepancy.

  1. An improved method for estimating in situ stress in an elastic rock mass and its engineering application (United States)

    Pei, Qitao; Ding, Xiuli; Lu, Bo; Zhang, Yuting; Huang, Shuling; Dong, Zhihong


    The main contribution of this paper is to develop a method to determine the in situ stress on an engineering scale by modifying the elasto-static thermal stress model (Sheorey's model). The suggested method, firstly, introduces correction factors for the local tectonism to reflect the stress distribution difference caused by local tectonic movements. The correction factors can be determined by the least-squares approach based on laboratory tests and local in situ stress measurements. Then, the rock elastic modulus is replaced by rock mass elastic modulus so as to show the effect of rock discontinuities on the in situ stress. Combining with elasticity theory, equations for estimating the major and minor horizontal stresses are obtained. It is possible to reach satisfactory accuracy for stress estimation. To show the feasibility of this method, it is applied to two deep tunnels in China to determine the in situ stress. Field tests, including in situ stress measurements by conventional hydraulic fracturing (HF) and rock mass modulus measurements using a rigid borehole jack (RBJ), are carried out. It is shown that the stress field in the two deep tunnels is dominated by horizontal tectonic movements. The major and minor horizontal stresses are estimated, respectively. Finally, the results are compared with those derived from the HF method. The calculated results in the two tunnels roughly coincide with the measured results with an average of 15% allowable discrepancy.

  2. The Role of Organizations in Liberation Psychology: Applications to the Study of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Paloma


    Full Text Available The incorporation of an immigrant population in the receiving society often takes place in the context of asymmetrical power relationships between immigrants and other groups in society. This often reduces the chances of successfully fulfilling any goals or plans that immigrants may have for their lives in the new country. In this paper we analyze how the study of migration can be enriched by Liberation Psychology, a theoretical approach which calls for the transformation of society at all levels (structural, organizational and individual as a means to create social justice and conditions of well-being for all social groups. In addition, we analyze how the internal dynamics of several organizations working in the field of migration are actually helping to perpetuate the status quo. Finally, we highlight the potential role that organizations can play in the construction of a just multicultural society, using a Liberation Psychology approach.

  3. Nonlinear Elasticity (United States)

    Fu, Y. B.; Ogden, R. W.


    This collection of papers by leading researchers in the field of finite, nonlinear elasticity concerns itself with the behavior of objects that deform when external forces or temperature gradients are applied. This process is extremely important in many industrial settings, such as aerospace and rubber industries. This book covers the various aspects of the subject comprehensively with careful explanations of the basic theories and individual chapters each covering a different research direction. The authors discuss the use of symbolic manipulation software as well as computer algorithm issues. The emphasis is placed firmly on covering modern, recent developments, rather than the very theoretical approach often found. The book will be an excellent reference for both beginners and specialists in engineering, applied mathematics and physics.

  4. Application of simplified models to CO2 migration and immobilization in large-scale geological systems

    KAUST Repository

    Gasda, Sarah E.


    Long-term stabilization of injected carbon dioxide (CO 2) is an essential component of risk management for geological carbon sequestration operations. However, migration and trapping phenomena are inherently complex, involving processes that act over multiple spatial and temporal scales. One example involves centimeter-scale density instabilities in the dissolved CO 2 region leading to large-scale convective mixing that can be a significant driver for CO 2 dissolution. Another example is the potentially important effect of capillary forces, in addition to buoyancy and viscous forces, on the evolution of mobile CO 2. Local capillary effects lead to a capillary transition zone, or capillary fringe, where both fluids are present in the mobile state. This small-scale effect may have a significant impact on large-scale plume migration as well as long-term residual and dissolution trapping. Computational models that can capture both large and small-scale effects are essential to predict the role of these processes on the long-term storage security of CO 2 sequestration operations. Conventional modeling tools are unable to resolve sufficiently all of these relevant processes when modeling CO 2 migration in large-scale geological systems. Herein, we present a vertically-integrated approach to CO 2 modeling that employs upscaled representations of these subgrid processes. We apply the model to the Johansen formation, a prospective site for sequestration of Norwegian CO 2 emissions, and explore the sensitivity of CO 2 migration and trapping to subscale physics. Model results show the relative importance of different physical processes in large-scale simulations. The ability of models such as this to capture the relevant physical processes at large spatial and temporal scales is important for prediction and analysis of CO 2 storage sites. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Conjugate gradient and cross-correlation based least-square reverse time migration and its application (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Dong; Ge, Zhong-Hui; Li, Zhen-Chun


    Although conventional reverse time migration can be perfectly applied to structural imaging it lacks the capability of enabling detailed delineation of a lithological reservoir due to irregular illumination. To obtain reliable reflectivity of the subsurface it is necessary to solve the imaging problem using inversion. The least-square reverse time migration (LSRTM) (also known as linearized reflectivity inversion) aims to obtain relatively high-resolution amplitude preserving imaging by including the inverse of the Hessian matrix. In practice, the conjugate gradient algorithm is proven to be an efficient iterative method for enabling use of LSRTM. The velocity gradient can be derived from a cross-correlation between observed data and simulated data, making LSRTM independent of wavelet signature and thus more robust in practice. Tests on synthetic and marine data show that LSRTM has good potential for use in reservoir description and four-dimensional (4D) seismic images compared to traditional RTM and Fourier finite difference (FFD) migration. This paper investigates the first order approximation of LSRTM, which is also known as the linear Born approximation. However, for more complex geological structures a higher order approximation should be considered to improve imaging quality.

  6. Investigation of migration of organic silicone into stone and its prevention; Silicone kei dansei secchakuzai no seibun ga sekizaichu ni shinto suru gensho no kyumei to shinto taisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, M.; Sasaki, M. [Kajima Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)


    Quantitative analyses of silicone migration into marble from elastic silicon adhesive were carried out by EPMA and LMA, and the amount of migrated silicone was calculated in terms of silicone concentration. By EPMA, silicone distribution into the area centering around the boundary between elastic adhesive and marble was clarified, and the migrating condition of silicone from elastic adhesive to marble was made clear. In the case of LMA, silicone concentration in micro-area in marble was measured to use the measured result for the succeeding analyses. As a result of the analysis, the trend of the change of silicone migration with the passage of time could be expressed by treating the silicone migration as diffusion phenomenon, and the depth of silicone migration could be quantified. It was confirmed that the cover primer applied at the back of marble to inhibit migration could prevent contamination of marble caused by silicone migration. The analytical method of this study seemed to be applicable to other stone materials or other adhesive and sealing materials. 14 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Fast-crawling cell types migrate to avoid the direction of periodic substratum stretching (United States)

    Okimura, Chika; Ueda, Kazuki; Sakumura, Yuichi; Iwadate, Yoshiaki


    ABSTRACT To investigate the relationship between mechanical stimuli from substrata and related cell functions, one of the most useful techniques is the application of mechanical stimuli via periodic stretching of elastic substrata. In response to this stimulus, Dictyostelium discoideum cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to the stretching direction. The origins of directional migration, higher migration velocity in the direction perpendicular to the stretching direction or the higher probability of a switch of migration direction to perpendicular to the stretching direction, however, remain unknown. In this study, we applied periodic stretching stimuli to neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, which migrate perpendicular to the direction of stretch. Detailed analysis of the trajectories of HL-60 cells and Dictyostelium cells obtained in a previous study revealed that the higher probability of a switch of migration direction to that perpendicular to the direction of stretching was the main cause of such directional migration. This directional migration appears to be a strategy adopted by fast-crawling cells in which they do not migrate faster in the direction they want to go, but migrate to avoid a direction they do not want to go. PMID:26980079

  8. Introduction to linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Phillip L


    Introduction to Linear Elasticity, 3rd Edition, provides an applications-oriented grounding in the tensor-based theory of elasticity for students in mechanical, civil, aeronautical, and biomedical engineering, as well as materials and earth science. The book is distinct from the traditional text aimed at graduate students in solid mechanics by introducing the subject at a level appropriate for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The author's presentation allows students to apply the basic notions of stress analysis and move on to advanced work in continuum mechanics, plasticity, plate and shell theory, composite materials, viscoelasticity and finite method analysis. This book also:  Emphasizes tensor-based approach while still distilling down to explicit notation Provides introduction to theory of plates, theory of shells, wave propagation, viscoelasticity and plasticity accessible to advanced undergraduate students Appropriate for courses following emerging trend of teaching solid mechan...

  9. Research of the elastic waves generated by a pulse laser. Excitation mechanism of elastic waves and application to nondestructive testing; Pulse laser de reikishita danseiha ni kansuru kenkyu. Danseiha reiki no mechanism to hihakai kensa eno oyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, H.; Takemoto, M. [Aoyama Gakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Engineering


    A bulk wave is generated when a pulse laser is irradiated to the material, and the characteristics of a Young`s modulus and Poisson`s ratio can be nondestructively estimated from the bulk wave. The generation mechanism of laser ultrasonic waves must be first clarified for such application. In this paper, fundamental research was conducted to study the generation mechanism of the elastic waves excited by a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser, and the generation method and characteristics of Rayleigh waves. The following result was obtained. A bulk wave is generated by the disk-like adiabatic expansion near the surface if the laser power is small when a spot-shape pulse laser was irradiated. A bulk wave is generated by the thin disk-like adiabatic expansion beneath the surface due to the thermal diffusion in the depth direction of a base material when the laser power becomes large. Moreover, a bulk wave is generated by the impact force due to abrasion and plasma when the power becomes still larger. The information on the bulk wave characteristics and Rayleigh wave was also obtained. 25 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Synergistic effects from graphene and carbon nanotubes endow ordered hierarchical structure foams with a combination of compressibility, super-elasticity and stability and potential application as pressure sensors (United States)

    Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Liu, Luqi; Yang, Zhou; Jin, Ming; Zhang, Zhong


    Nanostructured carbon material based three-dimensional porous architectures have been increasingly developed for various applications, e.g. sensors, elastomer conductors, and energy storage devices. Maintaining architectures with good mechanical performance, including elasticity, load-bearing capacity, fatigue resistance and mechanical stability, is prerequisite for realizing these functions. Though graphene and CNT offer opportunities as nanoscale building blocks, it still remains a great challenge to achieve good mechanical performance in their microarchitectures because of the need to precisely control the structure at different scales. Herein, we fabricate a hierarchical honeycomb-like structured hybrid foam based on both graphene and CNT. The resulting materials possess excellent properties of combined high specific strength, elasticity and mechanical stability, which cannot be achieved in neat CNT and graphene foams. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the synergistic-effect-induced highly organized, multi-scaled hierarchical architectures. Moreover, with their excellent electrical conductivity, we demonstrated that the hybrid foams could be used as pressure sensors in the fields related to artificial skin.Nanostructured carbon material based three-dimensional porous architectures have been increasingly developed for various applications, e.g. sensors, elastomer conductors, and energy storage devices. Maintaining architectures with good mechanical performance, including elasticity, load-bearing capacity, fatigue resistance and mechanical stability, is prerequisite for realizing these functions. Though graphene and CNT offer opportunities as nanoscale building blocks, it still remains a great challenge to achieve good mechanical performance in their microarchitectures because of the need to precisely control the structure at different scales. Herein, we fabricate a hierarchical honeycomb-like structured hybrid foam based on both graphene and

  11. Astronomical optics and elasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard Rene


    Astronomical Optics and Elasticity Theory provides a very thorough and comprehensive account of what is known in this field. After an extensive introduction to optics and elasticity, the book discusses variable curvature and multimode deformable mirrors, as well as, in depth, active optics, its theory and applications. Further, optical design utilizing the Schmidt concept and various types of Schmidt correctors, as well as the elasticity theory of thin plates and shells are elaborated upon. Several active optics methods are developed for obtaining aberration corrected diffraction gratings. Further, a weakly conical shell theory of elasticity is elaborated for the aspherization of grazing incidence telescope mirrors. The very didactic and fairly easy-to-read presentation of the topic will enable PhD students and young researchers to actively participate in challenging astronomical optics and instrumentation projects.

  12. Application of percolation model to the tensile strength and the reduced modulus of elasticity of three compacted pharmaceutical excipients. (United States)

    Busignies, Virginie; Leclerc, Bernard; Porion, Patrice; Evesque, Pierre; Couarraze, Guy; Tchoreloff, Pierre


    Percolation theory has been applied to several mechanical properties of pharmaceutical tablets. This power law describes the change of tablet's properties with the relative density. It defines critical tablet densities from which the mechanical properties start to change. The exponent in the law is expected to be universal for a mechanical property and numerical values are proposed in the literature. In this work, the percolation model was applied to the tensile strength and the reduced modulus of elasticity (obtained from surface indentation test) of three compacted pharmaceutical excipients (a microcrystalline cellulose, a lactose and an anhydrous calcium phosphate). Two approaches were proposed. First, the exponent was kept constant and equal to the values used in the literature (2.7 for the tensile strength and 3.9 for the reduced modulus of elasticity). Secondly, the critical tablet density (i.e. the percolation threshold) and the exponent were determined from the model. In the first approach, the percolation thresholds were higher than the relative tapped density. Using the second approach, the experimentally determined exponents were not close to the values of the literature and the critical relative densities were higher than the relative tapped density or equal to zero. Then, this study showed that the exponent seems not universal and that the model must be used carefully.

  13. 3D elastic full waveform inversion using P-wave excitation amplitude: Application to OBC field data

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon


    We propose an efficient elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) based on the P-wave excitation amplitude (maximum energy arrival) approximation in the source wavefields. Because, based on the P-wave excitation approximation (ExA), the gradient direction is approximated by the cross-correlation of source and receiver wavefields at only excitation time, it estimates the gradient direction faster than its conventional counterpart. In addition to this computational speedup, the P-wave excitation approximation automatically ignores SP and SS correlations in the approximated gradient direction. In elastic FWI for ocean bottom cable (OBC) data, the descent direction for the S-wave velocity is often degraded by undesired long-wavelength features from the SS correlation. For this reason, the P-wave excitation approach increases the convergence rate of multi-parameter FWI compared to the conventional approach. The modified 2D Marmousi model with OBC acquisition is used to verify the differences between the conventional method and ExA. Finally, the feasibility of the proposed method is demonstrated on a real OBC data from North Sea.

  14. Elastically cooperative activated barrier hopping theory of relaxation in viscous fluids. I. General formulation and application to hard sphere fluids. (United States)

    Mirigian, Stephen; Schweizer, Kenneth S


    We generalize the force-level nonlinear Langevin equation theory of single particle hopping to include collective effects associated with long range elastic distortion of the liquid. The activated alpha relaxation event is of a mixed spatial character, involving two distinct, but inter-related, local and collective barriers. There are no divergences at volume fractions below jamming or temperatures above zero Kelvin. The ideas are first developed and implemented analytically and numerically in the context of hard sphere fluids. In an intermediate volume fraction crossover regime, the local cage process is dominant in a manner consistent with an apparent Arrhenius behavior. The super-Arrhenius collective barrier is more strongly dependent on volume fraction, dominates the highly viscous regime, and is well described by a nonsingular law below jamming. The increase of the collective barrier is determined by the amplitude of thermal density fluctuations, dynamic shear modulus or transient localization length, and a growing microscopic jump length. Alpha relaxation time calculations are in good agreement with recent experiments and simulations on dense fluids and suspensions of hard spheres. Comparisons of the theory with elastic models and entropy crisis ideas are explored. The present work provides a foundation for constructing a quasi-universal, fit-parameter-free theory for relaxation in thermal molecular liquids over 14 orders of magnitude in time.

  15. An elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects and its application to numerical study (United States)

    Shi, Chu; Hu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Yu


    To simulate the FPSO-iceberg collision process more accurately, an elastic-plastic iceberg material model considering temperature gradient effects is proposed and applied. The model behaves linearly elastic until it reaches the `Tsai-Wu' yield surfaces, which are a series of concentric elliptical curves of different sizes. Decreasing temperature results in a large yield surface. Failure criteria, based on the influence of accumulated plastic strain and hydrostatic pressure, are built into the model. Based on published experimental data on the relationship between depth and temperature in icebergs, three typical iceberg temperature profiles are proposed. According to these, ice elements located at different depths have different temperatures. The model is incorporated into LS-DYNA using a user-defined subroutine and applied to a simulation of FPSO collisions with different types of iceberg. Simulated area-pressure curves are compared with design codes to validate the iceberg model. The influence of iceberg shape and temperature on the collision process is analyzed. It is indicated that FPSO structural damage not only depends on the relative strength between the iceberg and the structure, but also depends on the local shape of the iceberg.

  16. Pedagogical Potential of a Web-Based GIS Application for Migration Data: A Preliminary Investigation in the Context of South Korea (United States)

    Kim, Minsung; Kim, Kamyoung; Lee, Sang-Il


    This article examines the pedagogical potential of a Web-based GIS application, Population Migration Web Service (PMWS), in which students can examine population geography in an interactive and exploratory manner. This article introduces PMWS, a tailored, unique Internet GIS application that provides functions for visualizing spatial interaction…

  17. A general mixture model and its application to coastal sandbar migration simulation (United States)

    Liang, Lixin; Yu, Xiping


    A mixture model for general description of sediment laden flows is developed and then applied to coastal sandbar migration simulation. Firstly the mixture model is derived based on the Eulerian-Eulerian approach of the complete two-phase flow theory. The basic equations of the model include the mass and momentum conservation equations for the water-sediment mixture and the continuity equation for sediment concentration. The turbulent motion of the mixture is formulated for the fluid and the particles respectively. A modified k-ɛ model is used to describe the fluid turbulence while an algebraic model is adopted for the particles. A general formulation for the relative velocity between the two phases in sediment laden flows, which is derived by manipulating the momentum equations of the enhanced two-phase flow model, is incorporated into the mixture model. A finite difference method based on SMAC scheme is utilized for numerical solutions. The model is validated by suspended sediment motion in steady open channel flows, both in equilibrium and non-equilibrium state, and in oscillatory flows as well. The computed sediment concentrations, horizontal velocity and turbulence kinetic energy of the mixture are all shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. The mixture model is then applied to the study of sediment suspension and sandbar migration in surf zones under a vertical 2D framework. The VOF method for the description of water-air free surface and topography reaction model is coupled. The bed load transport rate and suspended load entrainment rate are all decided by the sea bed shear stress, which is obtained from the boundary layer resolved mixture model. The simulation results indicated that, under small amplitude regular waves, erosion occurred on the sandbar slope against the wave propagation direction, while deposition dominated on the slope towards wave propagation, indicating an onshore migration tendency. The computation results also shows that

  18. A wave equation migration method for receiver function imaging: 2. Application to the Japan subduction zone (United States)

    Chen, Ling; Wen, Lianxing; Zheng, Tianyu


    The newly developed wave equation poststack depth migration method for receiver function imaging is applied to study the subsurface structures of the Japan subduction zone using the Fundamental Research on Earthquakes and Earth's Interior Anomalies (FREESIA) broadband data. Three profiles are chosen in the subsurface imaging, two in northeast (NE) Japan to study the subducting Pacific plate and one in southwest (SW) Japan to study the Philippine Sea plate. The descending Pacific plate in NE Japan is well imaged within a depth range of 50-150 km. The slab image exhibits a little more steeply dipping angle (˜32°) in the south than in the north (˜27°), although the general characteristics between the two profiles in NE Japan are similar. The imaged Philippine Sea plate in eastern SW Japan, in contrast, exhibits a much shallower subduction angle (˜19°) and is only identifiable at the uppermost depths of no more than 60 km. Synthetic tests indicate that the top 150 km of the migrated images of the Pacific plate is well resolved by our seismic data, but the resolution of deep part of the slab images becomes poor due to the limited data coverage. Synthetic tests also suggest that the breakdown of the Philippine Sea plate at shallow depths reflects the real structural features of the subduction zone, rather than caused by insufficient coverage of data. Comparative studies on both synthetics and real data images show the possibility of retrieval of fine-scale structures from high-frequency contributions if high-frequency noise can be effectively suppressed and a small bin size can be used in future studies. The derived slab geometry and image feature also appear to have relatively weak dependence on overlying velocity structure. The observed seismicity in the region confirms the geometries inferred from the migrated images for both subducting plates. Moreover, the deep extent of the Pacific plate image and the shallow breakdown of the Philippine Sea plate image are

  19. Multiparameter elastic full-waveform inversion in the presence of azimuthally rotated orthorhombic anisotropy: Application to 9-C land data

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Juwon


    To examine the feasibility of elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) for azimuthally rotated orthorhombic (rORT) media, we analyze the sensitivity of the 9-component (9C) land data set acquired on the surface on each of the ORT parameters. The trade-off analysis supports that the parameter set that includes deviation parameters offers the best choice for a 9C data set. Compared to the data from an explosive source, using the 9C land data, ORT parameters show different trade-off patterns for the different source and receiver components. For this reason, finding an optimal component considering trade-offs is another important issue to better recover subsurface rotated orthorhombic anisotropy.

  20. Controlled elastic postbuckling of bilaterally constrained non-prismatic columns: application to enhanced quasi-static energy harvesters (United States)

    Liu, Suihan; Burgueño, Rigoberto


    Axially compressed bilaterally constrained columns, which can attain multiple snap-through buckling events in their elastic postbuckling response, can be used as energy concentrators and mechanical triggers to transform external quasi-static displacement input to local high-rate motions and excite vibration-based piezoelectric transducers for energy harvesting devices. However, the buckling location with highest kinetic energy release along the element, and where piezoelectric oscillators should be optimally placed, cannot be controlled or isolated due to the changing buckling configurations. This paper proposes the concept of stiffness variations along the column to gain control of the buckling location for optimal placement of piezoelectric transducers. Prototyped non-prismatic columns with piece-wise varying thickness were fabricated through 3D printing for experimental characterization and numerical simulations were conducted using the finite element method. A simple theoretical model was also developed based on the stationary potential energy principle for predicting the critical line contact segment that triggers snap-through events and the buckling morphologies as compression proceeds. Results confirm that non-prismatic column designs allow control of the buckling location in the elastic postbuckling regime. Compared to prismatic columns, non-prismatic designs can attain a concentrated kinetic energy release spot and a higher number of snap-buckling mode transitions under the same global strain. The direct relation between the column’s dynamic response and the output voltage from piezoelectric oscillator transducers allows the tailorable postbuckling response of non-prismatic columns to be used as multi-stable energy concentrators with enhanced performance in micro-energy harvesters.

  1. Synergistic effects from graphene and carbon nanotubes endow ordered hierarchical structure foams with a combination of compressibility, super-elasticity and stability and potential application as pressure sensors. (United States)

    Kuang, Jun; Dai, Zhaohe; Liu, Luqi; Yang, Zhou; Jin, Ming; Zhang, Zhong


    Nanostructured carbon material based three-dimensional porous architectures have been increasingly developed for various applications, e.g. sensors, elastomer conductors, and energy storage devices. Maintaining architectures with good mechanical performance, including elasticity, load-bearing capacity, fatigue resistance and mechanical stability, is prerequisite for realizing these functions. Though graphene and CNT offer opportunities as nanoscale building blocks, it still remains a great challenge to achieve good mechanical performance in their microarchitectures because of the need to precisely control the structure at different scales. Herein, we fabricate a hierarchical honeycomb-like structured hybrid foam based on both graphene and CNT. The resulting materials possess excellent properties of combined high specific strength, elasticity and mechanical stability, which cannot be achieved in neat CNT and graphene foams. The improved mechanical properties are attributed to the synergistic-effect-induced highly organized, multi-scaled hierarchical architectures. Moreover, with their excellent electrical conductivity, we demonstrated that the hybrid foams could be used as pressure sensors in the fields related to artificial skin.

  2. Migrating Multi-page Web Applications to Single-page AJAX Interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesbah, A.; Van Deursen, A.


    Recently, a new web development technique for creating interactive web applications, dubbed AJAX, has emerged. In this new model, the single-page web interface is composed of individual components which can be updated/replaced independently. With the rise of AJAX web applications classical

  3. A porous flow approach to model thermal non-equilibrium applicable to melt migration (United States)

    Schmeling, Harro; Marquart, Gabriele; Grebe, Michael


    We develop an approach for heat exchange between a fluid and a solid phase of a porous medium where the temperatures of the fluid and matrix are not in thermal equilibrium. The formulation considers moving of the fluid within a resting or deforming porous matrix in an Eulerian coordinate system. The approach can be applied, for example, to partially molten systems or to brine transport in porous rocks. We start from an existing theory for heat exchange where the energy conservation equations for the fluid and the solid phases are separated and coupled by a heat exchange term. This term is extended to account for the full history of heat exchange. It depends on the microscopic geometry of the fluid phase. For the case of solid containing hot, fluid-filled channels, we derive an expression based on a time-dependent Fourier approach for periodic half-waves. On the macroscopic scale, the temporal evolution of the heat exchange leads to a convolution integral along the flow path of the solid, which simplifies considerably in case of a resting matrix. The evolution of the temperature in both phases with time is derived by inserting the heat exchange term into the energy equations. We explore the effects of thermal non-equilibrium between fluid and solid by considering simple cases with sudden temperature differences between fluid and solid as initial or boundary conditions, and by varying the fluid velocity with respect to the resting porous solid. Our results agree well with an analytical solution for non-moving fluid and solid. The temperature difference between solid and fluid depends on the Peclet number based on the Darcy velocity. For Peclet numbers larger than 1, the temperature difference after one diffusion time reaches 5 per cent of \\tilde{T} or more (\\tilde{T} is a scaling temperature, e.g. the initial temperature difference). Thus, our results imply that thermal non-equilibrium can play an important role for melt migration through partially molten systems

  4. Application of meandering centreline migration modelling and object-based approach of Long Nab member (United States)

    Saadi, Saad


    Characterizing the complexity and heterogeneity of the geometries and deposits in meandering river system is an important concern for the reservoir modelling of fluvial environments. Re-examination of the Long Nab member in the Scalby formation of the Ravenscar Group (Yorkshire, UK), integrating digital outcrop data and forward modelling approaches, will lead to a geologically realistic numerical model of the meandering river geometry. The methodology is based on extracting geostatistics from modern analogous, meandering rivers that exemplify both the confined and non-confined meandering point bars deposits and morphodynamics of Long Nab member. The parameters derived from the modern systems (i.e. channel width, amplitude, radius of curvature, sinuosity, wavelength, channel length and migration rate) are used as a statistical control for the forward simulation and resulting object oriented channel models. The statistical data derived from the modern analogues is multi-dimensional in nature, making analysis difficult. We apply data mining techniques such as parallel coordinates to investigate and identify the important relationships within the modern analogue data, which can then be used drive the development of, and as input to the forward model. This work will increase our understanding of meandering river morphodynamics, planform architecture and stratigraphic signature of various fluvial deposits and features. We will then use these forward modelling based channel objects to build reservoir models, and compare the behaviour of the forward modelled channels with traditional object modelling in hydrocarbon flow simulations.

  5. A new preconditioner update strategy for the solution of sequences of linear systems in structural mechanics: application to saddle point problems in elasticity (United States)

    Mercier, Sylvain; Gratton, Serge; Tardieu, Nicolas; Vasseur, Xavier


    Many applications in structural mechanics require the numerical solution of sequences of linear systems typically issued from a finite element discretization of the governing equations on fine meshes. The method of Lagrange multipliers is often used to take into account mechanical constraints. The resulting matrices then exhibit a saddle point structure and the iterative solution of such preconditioned linear systems is considered as challenging. A popular strategy is then to combine preconditioning and deflation to yield an efficient method. We propose an alternative that is applicable to the general case and not only to matrices with a saddle point structure. In this approach, we consider to update an existing algebraic or application-based preconditioner, using specific available information exploiting the knowledge of an approximate invariant subspace or of matrix-vector products. The resulting preconditioner has the form of a limited memory quasi-Newton matrix and requires a small number of linearly independent vectors. Numerical experiments performed on three large-scale applications in elasticity highlight the relevance of the new approach. We show that the proposed method outperforms the deflation method when considering sequences of linear systems with varying matrices.

  6. Kinematic support using elastic elements (United States)

    Geirsson, Arni; Debra, Daniel B.


    The design of kinematic supports using elastic elements is reviewed. The two standard methods (cone, Vee and flat and three Vees) are presented and a design example involving a machine tool metrology bench is given. Design goals included thousandfold strain attenuation in the bench relative to the base when the base strains due to temperature variations and shifting loads. Space applications are also considered.

  7. Three-dimensional elastic image registration based on strain energy minimization: application to prostate magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Arola, Dwayne D; Roys, Steve; Gullapalli, Rao P


    The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in conjunction with an endorectal coil is currently the clinical standard for the diagnosis of prostate cancer because of the increased sensitivity and specificity of this approach. However, imaging in this manner provides images and spectra of the prostate in the deformed state because of the insertion of the endorectal coil. Such deformation may lead to uncertainties in the localization of prostate cancer during therapy. We propose a novel 3-D elastic registration procedure that is based on the minimization of a physically motivated strain energy function that requires the identification of similar features (points, curves, or surfaces) in the source and target images. The Gauss-Seidel method was used in the numerical implementation of the registration algorithm. The registration procedure was validated on synthetic digital images, MR images from prostate phantom, and MR images obtained on patients. The registration error, assessed by averaging the displacement of a fiducial landmark in the target to its corresponding point in the registered image, was 0.2 ± 0.1 pixels on synthetic images. On the prostate phantom and patient data, the registration errors were 1.0 ± 0.6 pixels (0.6 ± 0.4 mm) and 1.8 ± 0.7 pixels (1.1 ± 0.4 mm), respectively. Registration also improved image similarity (normalized cross-correlation) from 0.72 ± 0.10 to 0.96 ± 0.03 on patient data. Registration results on digital images, phantom, and prostate data in vivo demonstrate that the registration procedure can be used to significantly improve both the accuracy of localized therapies such as brachytherapy or external beam therapy and can be valuable in the longitudinal follow-up of patients after therapy.

  8. High-P,T Elasticity of Hcp Iron: Reinvestigation of the Applicability of Hcp Iron to the Earth's Inner Core (United States)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Kawai, K.; Kuwayama, Y.; Ohsumi, M.; Ishii, M.


    Earth's inner core (329~364 GPa and 5000~6000 K) is thought to be composed of hexagonal closed pack (hcp) structured solid Fe-Ni alloy (e.g., Mao et al., 1998; Kuwayama et al., 2008; Sha & Cohen, 2010). Thermoelasticity of hcp (ɛ) iron is therefore a key to interpreting seismological information of the inner core: density, seismic wave velocities, and their anisotropy. However, several studies reported that hcp iron has a shear modulus distinctly larger than that of the inner core (e.g., Mao et al., 1998; Vocadlo et al., 2009). This large Poisson ratio of the inner core is one of the remaining inexplicable features of the deep Earth, and it suggests the presence of mechanisms to lower the S-wave velocity in the inner core, such as a low-velocity component (Prescher et al., 2015), pre-melting effect (Martorell et al., 2013), anelasticity, and so on. In this study, we perform ab initio molecular dynamics simulations employing a supercell larger than in previous calculations (Vocadlo et al., 2009; Martorell et al., 2013). Also computations are conducted in a wide P,T range including, but not limited to, the inner core conditions to clarify the P,T effects on the elasticity of the hcp iron more comprehensively, and to provide an internally-consistent thermoelastic model. In addition to checking the validity of the Birch's law, the obtained Poisson ratio and aggregate anisotropy, with and without the pre-melting effect, are compared against seismological constraints to reinvestigate the viability of hcp iron in the inner core. Research supported by KAKENHI (JSPS) and the X-ray Free Electron Laser Priority Strategy Program (MEXT).

  9. Potent melanin production enhancement of human tyrosinase gene by Tat and an entrapment in elastic cationic niosomes: potential application in vitiligo gene therapy. (United States)

    Manosroi, Jiradej; Khositsuntiwong, Narinthorn; Götz, Friedrich; Werner, Rolf G; Manosroi, Worapaka; Manosroi, Aranya


    Potent melanin production enhancement of human tyrosinase plasmid (pAH7/Tyr, P) in mouse melanoma cells (B(16)F(10)) by Tat peptide (T) and an entrapment in elastic cationic niosomes (E) was described. The E composed of Tween 61/cholesterol/dodecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide at 1:1:0.5 molar ratio was prepared by freeze-dried emptying liposomes method. PE at P/E ratio of 1:160 w/w and TPE at T/P/E ratio of 0.125:1:160, 0.25:1:160, and 0.5:1:160 w/w/w were prepared. The final concentration of the plasmid in the study was 4 ng/μL. By sulforhodamine B assay, PE and TPE complexes showed slight or no cytotoxic effect. The cells transfected with TPE (0.5:1:160) exhibited the highest enhancement of tyrosinase enzyme activity of 11.82-, 7.67-, 5.07-, and 6.29-folds of control, P, PE, and TP (0.5:1) and melanin production of 13.03-, 8.46-, 5.36-, and 6.58-folds of control, P, PE, and TP (0.5:1), respectively. The elastic cationic niosomes demonstrated an increase in thermal stability of P at 4 ± 2, 25 ± 2, and 45 ± 2 °C. The vesicular size and the zeta potential values of PE and TPE complexes were slightly increased but still in the range of stable dispersion (out of ±30 mV). These results indicated the high potential application of the TPE complexes for further investigation for vitiligo gene therapy. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Migration modeling to estimate exposure to chemicals in food packaging for application in highthroughput risk-based screening and Life Cycle Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstoff, Alexi; Jolliet, O.; Huang, L.


    Specialty software and simplified models are often used to estimate "worst-case" migration of potentially toxic chemicals from packaging into food. Current approaches, however, cannot efficiently and accurately provide estimates of migration for emerging applications, e.g. in Life Cycle Assessment...... concentration in food for diverse scenarios. Therefore a partition coefficient model, as a function of a chemical’s octanol-water partition coefficient and a food’s ethanol-equivalency, was also developed. When using measured diffusion coefficients the model accurately predicted (R2 = 0.9, SE = 0.5) hundreds...

  11. Elastic actuation for legged locomotion (United States)

    Cao, Chongjing; Conn, Andrew


    The inherent elasticity of dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) gives this technology great potential in energy efficient locomotion applications. In this work, a modular double cone DEA is developed with reduced manufacturing and maintenance time costs. This actuator can lift 45 g of mass (5 times its own weight) while producing a stroke of 10.4 mm (23.6% its height). The contribution of the elastic energy stored in antagonistic DEA membranes to the mechanical work output is experimentally investigated by adding delay into the DEA driving voltage. Increasing the delay time in actuation voltage and hence reducing the duty cycle is found to increase the amount of elastic energy being recovered but an upper limit is also noticed. The DEA is then applied to a three-segment leg that is able to move up and down by 17.9 mm (9% its initial height), which demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing this DEA design in legged locomotion.

  12. Pulse sliced picosecond Ballistic Imaging and two planar elastic scattering: Development of the techniques and their application to diesel sprays (United States)

    Duran, Sean Patrick Hynes

    A line of sight imaging technique was developed which utilized pulse slicing of laser pulses to shorten the duration of the parent laser pulse, thereby making time gating more effective at removing multiple scattered light. This included the development of an optical train which utilized a Kerr cell to selectively pass the initial part of the laser pulse while rejecting photons contained later within the pulse. This line of sight ballistic imaging technique was applied to image high-pressure fuel sprays injected into conditions typically encountered in a diesel combustion chamber. Varying the environmental conditions into which the fuel was injected revealed trends in spray behavior which depend on both temperature and pressure. Different fuel types were also studied in this experiment which demonstrated remarkably different shedding structures from one another. Additional experiments were performed to characterize the imaging technique at ambient conditions. The technique was modified to use two wavelengths to allow further rejection of scattered light. The roles of spatial, temporal and polarization filtration were examined by imaging an USAF 1951 line-pair target through a highly scattering field of polystyrene micro-spheres. The optical density of the scattering field was varied by both the optical path length and number densities of the spheres. The equal optical density, but with variable path length results demonstrated the need for an aggressively shorter pulse length to effectively image the distance scales typical encountered in the primary breakup regions of diesel sprays. Results indicate that the system performance improved via the use of two wavelengths. A final investigation was undertaken to image coherent light which has elastically scattered orthogonal to the direction of the laser pulse. Two wavelengths were focused into ˜150 micron sheets via a cylindrical lens and passed under the injector nozzle. The two sheets were adjustable spatially to

  13. Elastic Appearance Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Fagertun, Jens; Larsen, Rasmus


    This paper presents a fusion of the active appearance model (AAM) and the Riemannian elasticity framework which yields a non-linear shape model and a linear texture model – the active elastic appearance model (EAM). The non-linear elasticity shape model is more flexible than the usual linear...

  14. Surface phenomena in elasticity (United States)

    Zak, M.


    Problems of elasticity associated with the behavior of free surfaces of elastic bodies are reviewed with particular reference to the propagation of characteristic waves and the criteria of wrinkling of free surfaces. All transformations are given for the case when a free surface of an elastic body is streamlined by the flow of inviscid fluid. The wrinkling phenomenon is illustrated by example.

  15. Positron interactions with water–total elastic, total inelastic, and elastic differential cross section measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tattersall, Wade [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Chiari, Luca [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Machacek, J. R.; Anderson, Emma; Sullivan, James P. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); White, Ron D. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, 4810 Queensland (Australia); Brunger, M. J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Flinders University, GPO Box 2100, Adelaide 5001, South Australia (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Buckman, Stephen J. [Centre for Antimatter-Matter Studies, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Garcia, Gustavo [Instituto de Fısica Fundamental, Consejo Superior de Investigationes Cientıficas (CSIC), Serrano 113-bis, E-28006 Madrid (Spain); Blanco, Francisco [Departamento de Fısica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)


    Utilising a high-resolution, trap-based positron beam, we have measured both elastic and inelastic scattering of positrons from water vapour. The measurements comprise differential elastic, total elastic, and total inelastic (not including positronium formation) absolute cross sections. The energy range investigated is from 1 eV to 60 eV. Comparison with theory is made with both R-Matrix and distorted wave calculations, and with our own application of the Independent Atom Model for positron interactions.

  16. Elastic reflection waveform inversion with variable density

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yuanyuan


    Elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) provides a better description of the subsurface than those given by the acoustic assumption. However it suffers from a more serious cycle skipping problem compared with the latter. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to build a good background model, which can serve as an initial model for elastic FWI. Therefore, we introduce the concept of RWI for elastic media, and propose elastic RWI with variable density. We apply Born modeling to generate the synthetic reflection data by using optimized perturbations of P- and S-wave velocities and density. The inversion for the perturbations in P- and S-wave velocities and density is similar to elastic least-squares reverse time migration (LSRTM). An incorrect initial model will lead to some misfits at the far offsets of reflections; thus, can be utilized to update the background velocity. We optimize the perturbation and background models in a nested approach. Numerical tests on the Marmousi model demonstrate that our method is able to build reasonably good background models for elastic FWI with absence of low frequencies, and it can deal with the variable density, which is needed in real cases.

  17. Effect of topical application of raspberry ketone on dermal production of insulin-like growth factor-I in mice and on hair growth and skin elasticity in humans. (United States)

    Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji; Narimatsu, Noriko; Kurihara, Hiroki; Nakagata, Naomi


    Sensory neurons release calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on activation. We recently reported that topical application of capsaicin increases facial skin elasticity and promotes hair growth by increasing dermal insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) production through activation of sensory neurons in mice and humans. Raspberry ketone (RK), a major aromatic compound contained in red raspberries (Rubus idaeus), has a structure similar to that of capsaicin. Thus, it is possible that RK activates sensory neurons, thereby increasing skin elasticity and promoting hair growth by increasing dermal IGF-I production. In the present study, we examined this possibility in mice and humans. RK, at concentrations higher than 1 microM, significantly increased CGRP release from dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRG) isolated from wild-type (WT) mice and this increase was completely reversed by capsazepine, an inhibitor of vanilloid receptor-1 activation. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased dermal IGF-I levels at 30 min after application in WT mice, but not in CGRP-knockout mice. Topical application of 0.01% RK increased immunohistochemical expression of IGF-I at dermal papillae in hair follicles and promoted hair re-growth in WT mice at 4 weeks after the application. When applied topically to the scalp and facial skin, 0.01% RK promoted hair growth in 50.0% of humans with alopecia (n=10) at 5 months after application and increased cheek skin elasticity at 2 weeks after application in 5 females (p<0.04). These observations strongly suggest that RK might increase dermal IGF-I production through sensory neuron activation, thereby promoting hair growth and increasing skin elasticity.

  18. An economic analysis of migration in Mexico. (United States)

    Greenwood, M J; Ladman, J R


    This paper analyzes internal migration in Mexico over the 1960-70 period. A model of the determinants of migration is specified and estimated for aggregated interstate migration flows. Results show that distance serves as a significant deterrent to migration, that higher destination earning levels are attractive to migrants, and that regions with high unemployment rates experience lower rates of inmigration. An unanticipated finding is that regions with higher earning levels have greater rates of outmigration. The data are disaggregated to examine separate migration relationships for each state. The results are that distance is a lesser deterrent for those migrants with more accessible alternatives, that higher earning levels reduce the deterring effects of distance, and that regions with higher earning levels have lower associated elasticities of migration. It is concluded that economic factors have played a crucial role in internal migration and thus in the changing occupational and geographic structure of the Mexican labor force.

  19. 'Migration & Integration'


    Lisa Pilgram


    Migration, Integration : [kommunalpolitische Herausforderungen]. - Augsburg : Geo-Anwenderzentrum, [ca. 2004]. - XVIII, 281 S. - (Angewandte Sozialgeographie ; 49) (GEO-Taschenbuch). - Zugl.: Augsburg, Univ., Diss., 2003

  20. On the Scaling of the Update Direction for Multi-parameter Full Waveform Inversion: Applications to 2D Acoustic and Elastic Cases (United States)

    Carneiro, Marília da Silva Ramos; Pereira-Dias, Bruno; Soares Filho, Djalma Manoel; Landau, Luiz


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) is traditionally designed as an iterative non-linear optimization problem. Thus, it is subject to scaling problems due to inappropriate choice of model parametrization. It is well known that the conventional gradient-based direction update of the parameters, although widely reported and used, does not have the correct physical units; thus, it needs to be properly weighted to provide an adequate model update. The purpose of this work is to examine this issue and to provide an alternative computation to the update directions for the multi-parameter FWI by taking into account the transformation properties of the Hessian and its approximations, since the Hessian contains information related to parameter scaling. To put in evidence the benefits of this approach, we present applications to mono-parameter acoustic and multi-parameter elastic FWI using the 2D Marmousi-2 synthetic model. The proposed direction of update properly scales the estimated models and provides a much faster convergence rate.

  1. Shear-coupled grain-boundary migration dependence on normal strain/stress (United States)

    Combe, N.; Mompiou, F.; Legros, M.


    In specific conditions, grain-boundary (GB) migration occurs in polycrystalline materials as an alternative vector of plasticity compared to the usual dislocation activity. The shear-coupled GB migration, the expected most efficient GB based mechanism, couples the GB motion to an applied shear stress. Stresses on GB in polycrystalline materials seldom have, however, a unique pure shear component. This work investigates the influence of a normal strain on the shear coupled migration of a Σ 13 (320 )[001 ] GB in a copper bicrystal using atomistic simulations. We show that the yield shear stress inducing the GB migration strongly depends on the applied normal stress. Beyond, the application of a normal stress on this GB qualitatively modifies the GB migration: while the Σ 13 (320 )[001 ] GB shear couples following the 〈110 〉 migration mode without normal stress, we report the observation of the 〈010 〉 mode under a sufficiently high tensile normal stress. Using the nudge elastic band method, we uncover the atomistic mechanism of this 〈010 〉 migration mode and energetically characterize it.

  2. Fabrication of Biodegradable Low Elastic Porous Mg-Zn-Mn-HA Alloy by Spark Plasma Sintering for Orthopaedic Applications (United States)

    Pal Singh, Bhupinder; Singh, Ramandeep; Mehta, J. S.; Prakash, Chander


    In the present research work, porous Mg-Zn-Mn-HA alloy was successfully fabricated by mechanical alloying of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), and hydroxyapatite (HA) powders followed by consolidation using Spark Plasma Sintering technique. The microstructure, surface topography, and element composition of the Mg-Zn-Mn-HA alloy was investigated using optical microscope, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The micro-hardness of the specimens was measured on a Vickers hardness tester. The microstructure and FESEM examination of the compact revealed that the alloy distinctly shows the porosities in the microstructure. It was observed that complex reactions between HA and alloy elements occurred during the sintering process of Mg-Zn-Mn-HA alloy and biocompatible phases such as Manganese Oxide ((MnO)0.441 (CaO)0.559), Mg0.97 Zn0.03, Manganese Phosphide (Mn1.9 P), Calcium Manganese Oxide (Ca2 Mn8 O16), and Zincite (ZnO2) were generated in the compact, which is beneficial to form apatite and improved the bioactivity of the alloy for osseiointegartion. The fabricated Mg-Zn-Mn-HA alloy exhibits maximum micro-hardness (∼97 HV), which is very high value as compared to the alloys reported in literature. Based on these above observations, it is expected that the as-fabricated Mg-Zn-Mn-HA alloy is suggested for orthopaedic applications.

  3. Gendering Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Morokvašić


    Full Text Available Migration patterns, migration discourse and underlying representations, migrants’ experiences, obligations and duties as well as the expectations relative to their migration are gendered. Since the pioneering feminist migration scholars’ questioning of men as a universal reference and the invisibility of women or their stereotypical representations as dependents in the mainstream production of knowledge on migration, the scholarship has evolved considerably. It is argued in the paper that the ongoing process of cross-fertilization of developments in two separate epistemologies, each initially questioning monolithic and essentialist visions of a “migrant” on one hand and a “woman” on the other, produced a fecund subfield of research “migration and gender”. The paper provides an insight into this, reviewing work on the issues related to gendering different phases of migration. Bridging migration and gender brought to the top of research agendas issues that used to be on the margins, creating new visibilities but leaving out other gendered dimensions of complex realities of migrant experience.

  4. Prevention of polydimethylsiloxane microsphere migration using a mussel-inspired polydopamine coating for potential application in injection therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Jae Chung

    Full Text Available The use of injectable bulking agents is a feasible alternative procedure for conventional surgical therapy. In this study, poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS microspheres coated with polydopamine (PDA were developed as a potential injection agent to prevent migration in vocal fold. Uniform PDMS microspheres are fabricated using a simple fluidic device and then coated with PDA. Cell attachment test reveals that the PDA-coated PDMS (PDA-PDMS substrate favors cell adhesion and attachment. The injected PDA-PDMS microspheres persist without migration on reconstructed axial CT images, whereas, pristine PDMS locally migrates over a period of 12 weeks. The gross appearance of the implants retrieved at 4, 8, 12 and 34 weeks indicates that the PDA-PDMS group maintained their original position without significant migration until 34 weeks after injection. By contrast, there is diffuse local migration of the pristine PDMS group from 4 weeks after injection. The PDA-coated PDMS microspheres can potentially be used as easily injectable, non-absorbable filler without migration.

  5. Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas


    We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 mN/m irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed, and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows nondestructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity and the value 22 mN/m is likely applicable to other similarly constructed flowing soap films.

  6. Cohort migration. (United States)

    Taeuber, K E


    Most migration analyses focus on net migration and are concerned with areal redistributions of population. Migration may also be studied as an event in the life-cycle of an individual, and migration rates may be defined as properties of cohorts. A number of efforts to examine migration as a cohort process has been hampered by the character of available data [or the United States. Rather than await the development of a registration system-either directly or via social security and tax records-the collection of residence histories is suggested as the most feasible approach to obtaining suitable data. A schematic representation of residence histories clarifies their relation to other types of migration data and illustrates the need to design such surveys with specific research purposes in mind. Exploratory work with the 1958 Residence History Supplement to the Current Population Survey (by Beale, Shryock, myself, and various colleagues) demonstrates the utility of this approach.Local studies have made fruitful use of residence histories but typically are unable to delineate birth cohorts or other appropriate base populations exposed to risk. Development of cohort migration techniques analogous to the life table approach to mortality or cohort Jertility analysis requires national data. But migration, unlike Jertility and mortality, involves events that are reversible and repeatable. Hence the demographer's stock of analytic tools requires expansion. To the sociologist-demographer, experimentation with cohort migration models seems to be getting at one of the crucial methodological problems of sociology, the analysis of social mobility. A mutually profitable interchange with students of social mobility is envisaged.

  7. Tissue elasticity measurement method using forward and inversion algorithms (United States)

    Lee, Jong-Ha; Won, Chang-Hee; Park, Hee-Jun; Ku, Jeonghun; Heo, Yun Seok; Kim, Yoon-Nyun


    Elasticity is an important indicator of tissue health, with increased stiffness pointing to an increased risk of cancer. We investigated a tissue elasticity measurement method using forward and inversion algorithms for the application of early breast tumor identification. An optical based elasticity measurement system is developed to capture images of the embedded lesions using total internal reflection principle. From elasticity images, we developed a novel method to estimate the elasticity of the embedded lesion using 3-D finite-element-model-based forward algorithm, and neural-network-based inversion algorithm. The experimental results showed that the proposed characterization method can be diffierentiate the benign and malignant breast lesions.

  8. Environmentally Adjusted Elasticity Measures


    Shaik, Saleem


    Here, using input, output and nitrogen pollution data related to one state, we propose to extend the elasticity concept to include environmental pollution treated as undesirable output to provide the environmentally adjusted elasticity measures for the period, 1936-1997 in a two-step procedure.

  9. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness (United States)

    Qian, Wei; Yu, Zhengyue; Wang, Xiaole; Lai, Yun; Yellen, Benjamin B.


    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ˜30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  10. Elastic metamaterial beam with remotely tunable stiffness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Wei [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Yu, Zhengyue [School of Naval Architecture, Ocean & Civil Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Wang, Xiaole [School of Electronic Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Lai, Yun [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy & Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, Suzhou 215006 (China); Yellen, Benjamin B., E-mail: [University of Michigan–Shanghai Jiao Tong University Joint Institute, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Duke University, P.O. Box 90300, Hudson Hall, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)


    We demonstrate a dynamically tunable elastic metamaterial, which employs remote magnetic force to adjust its vibration absorption properties. The 1D metamaterial is constructed from a flat aluminum beam milled with a linear array of cylindrical holes. The beam is backed by a thin elastic membrane, on which thin disk-shaped permanent magnets are mounted. When excited by a shaker, the beam motion is tracked by a Laser Doppler Vibrometer, which conducts point by point scanning of the vibrating element. Elastic waves are unable to propagate through the beam when the driving frequency excites the first elastic bending mode in the unit cell. At these frequencies, the effective mass density of the unit cell becomes negative, which induces an exponentially decaying evanescent wave. Due to the non-linear elastic properties of the membrane, the effective stiffness of the unit cell can be tuned with an external magnetic force from nearby solenoids. Measurements of the linear and cubic static stiffness terms of the membrane are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements of the bandgap shift as a function of the applied force. In this implementation, bandgap shifts by as much as 40% can be achieved with ∼30 mN of applied magnetic force. This structure has potential for extension in 2D and 3D, providing a general approach for building dynamically tunable elastic metamaterials for applications in lensing and guiding elastic waves.

  11. [Internal migration]. (United States)

    Borisovna, L


    Very few studies have been conducted that truly permit explanation of internal migration and it repercussions on social and economic structure. It is clear however that a profound knowledge of the determinants and consequences of internal migration will be required as a basis for economic policy decisions that advance the goal of improving the level of living of the population. the basic supposition of most studies of the relationship of population and development is that socioeconomic development conditions demographic dynamics. The process of development in Mexico, which can be characterized by great heterogeneity, consequently produces great regional disparities. At the national level various studies have estimated the volume of internal migration in Mexico, but they have usually been limited to interstate migration because the main source of data, the census, is classified by states. But given the great heterogeneity within states in all the elements related to internal migration, it is clear that studies of internal migration within states are also needed. Such studies are almost nonexistent because of their technical difficulty. National level studies show that interstate migration increased significantly between 1940-80. The proportion of Mexicans living outside their states of birth increased by 558% in those years, compared to the 342% increase in the total Mexican population. Although Puebla has a high rate of increase, migration has kept it below Mexico's national growth rate. Migration between Puebla and other states and within Puebla has led to an increasing unevenness of spatial distribution. Between 1970-80, 57 of Puebla's municipios had growth rates above the state average of 2.8%/year, 6 had growth rates equal to the average, and 129 had growth rates that were below the average but not negative. 25 states with negative growth rates that were considered strongly expulsive. In 1980, 51.7% of the population was concentrated in the 57 municipios

  12. Recent developments and applications of a real-time tool to detect magma migration in different volcanic settings (United States)

    Taisne, Benoit; Caudron, Corentin; Aoki, Yosuke


    Triggering mechanism of a seismic swarm has to be identified with great confidence in real time. Crisis response will not be the same whether magma is involved or not. The recent developments of the method based on the Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis enable a rapid and unambiguous diagnosis to detect migrating micro-seismicity. Combined with other measurements, this migrating seismicity could be linked to complex motions of magma within the volcanic edifice. The beauty of this method lies in the fact that the ratio of seismic energy, recorded at different stations, is independent of the seismic energy radiated at the source and depends only on the location of the source and attenuation of the medium. Since drastic changes in attenuation are unlikely to occur at the time scale of magma intrusion, temporal evolutions in the measured ratio have to be explained by a change in the source location. Based on simple assumptions this technique can be used to assess the potential of existing monitoring seismic network to detect migrating events in real-time. It can also be used to design monitoring seismic network based on the available number of sensors as well as from field constraints. Network capability will depend on the noise level at each station, therefore this noise is used to define the magnitude threshold that can be detected as a function of the distance. A basic set of parameters will be implemented in this tool to tackle magma migration in basaltic systems, as well as acidic ones.

  13. In vitro toxicity evaluation of new silane-modified clays and the migration extract from a derived polymer-clay nanocomposite intended to food packaging applications. (United States)

    Maisanaba, Sara; Guzmán-Guillén, Remedios; Puerto, María; Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Ortuño, Natalia; Jos, Ángeles


    The clay montmorillonite (Mt) is among the nanofillers more frequently used for food packaging applications. The organomodification of clays with different modifiers, such as silanes, is an important step in the preparation of improved polymer/clay materials known as nanocomposites. However, the toxicological data about these nanofillers is still scarce. In the present study, an in vitro toxicological evaluation in Caco-2 cells of two silane-modified clays based on Mt, Clay3 and Clay4 (0-250μg/ml), was performed. The cytotoxicity, cell death, genotoxicity and oxidative stress produced by both organoclays were evaluated after 24 and 48h of exposure. Moreover, the migration extracts obtained from nanocomposites of polypropylene (PP) + Clay3 and only PP were also investigated. Only Clay4 induced cytotoxicity, showing a reduction of cell viability to 63% of the control, as well as oxidative stress in a concentration-dependent manner. Regarding the PP-Clay3 migration extract, no cytotoxic effects were observed after exposure to the tested concentrations (0-100%). Moreover, significant differences in the presence of Ca, Mg and Si compared to the PP extract were obtained, although migration levels were in accordance with the food contact materials regulation. These findings indicate that a case-by-case toxicological assessment of organoclays should be performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of topical application of capsaicin and its related compounds on dermal insulin-like growth factor-I levels in mice and on facial skin elasticity in humans. (United States)

    Harada, Naoaki; Okajima, Kenji


    Capsaicin increases calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release from sensory neurons by stimulating vanilloid receptor-1 (VR-1). Since CGRP increases production of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in fetal osteoblasts in vitro, it is possible that sensory neuron activation by capsaicin increases production of IGF-I. In the present study, we attempted to determine whether topical application of capsaicin and related compounds increases dermal IGF-I level in mice and whether it increases facial skin elasticity in humans. Topical application of 0.01% capsaicin significantly increased dermal IGF-I levels from 30 to 180min (pcapsaicinoids (dihydrocapsaicin and nordihydrocapsaicin), 0.01% capsinoids (capsiate, dihydrocapsiate and nordihydrocapsiate), 0.01% anandamide (an endogenous agonist of VR-1), and 0.01% nonylic acid vanillylamide (a synthetic capsaicin) significantly increased dermal IGF-I levels at 30min after topical application in mice (p<0.01). Topical application of 0.01% capsaicin to faces of 17 healthy female volunteers for seven days significantly increased cheek skin elasticity (p<0.01). These observations suggest that topical application of capsaicin and related compounds might be useful in the treatment of detrimental morphological changes of the skin in patients with growth hormone deficiency and those in the elderly by increasing dermal IGF-I levels.

  15. A new approach to analytic, non-perturbative, gauge-invariant QCD renormalization is described, with applications to high energy elastic pp-scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fried H. M.


    Full Text Available A new non-perturbative, gauge-invariant model QCD renormalization is applied to high energy elastic pp-scattering. The differential cross-section deduced from this model displays a diffraction dip that resembles those of experiments. Comparison with ISR and LHC data is currently underway.

  16. Further Application of Surface Capturing Method and Cartesian Cut Cell Mesh on Hydroelastic Water-Entry Problems of Free-Falling Elastic Wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hua Wang


    Full Text Available In order to study the interactions between fluid and elastic structure (such as marine lifeboat falling down and ship, this paper presents a new CFD method on hydroelastic water-entry problem of free-falling elastic wedge, which can more conveniently handle moving solid boundaries. In the CFD solver, a surface capturing method and the Cartesian cut cell mesh are employed to deal with the moving free surface and solid boundaries, respectively. On the other hand, in structural analysis, the finite element method and lath-beam structural model are introduced to calculate the elastic response. Furthermore, based on the current CFD and structural solver, a particular data transfer method and coupling strategy are presented for the fluid-structure interaction. Finally, by comparing numerical results with experimental data, the present method is validated to be available and feasible for hydroelastic water-entry problem and further successfully adopted to analyze the motion characteristics of free-falling elastic wedge.

  17. SCF promotes dental pulp progenitor migration, neovascularization, and collagen remodeling – potential applications as a homing factor in dental pulp regeneration (United States)

    Pan, Shuang; Dangaria, Smit; Gopinathan, Gokul; Yan, Xiulin; Lu, Xuanyu; Kolokythas, Antonia; Niu, Yumei; Luan, Xianghong


    Stem cell factor (SCF) is a powerful chemokine that binds to the c-Kit receptor CD117 and has shown promise as a homing agent capable of progenitor cell recruitment. In the present study we have documented high levels of both SCF and its receptor c-Kit in differentiating dental pulp (DP) cells and in the sub-odontoblastic layer of Höhl. In vitro studies using human DP progenitors revealed a significant increase in cell proliferation after100nM SCF application, explained by a 2-fold upregulation in cyclin D3 and FGF2 cell cycle regulators, and a 7-fold increase in CDK4 expression. DP cell migration in the presence of SCF was up-regulated 2.7-fold after a 24 hour culture period, and this effect was accompanied by cytoskeletal rearrangement, a 1.5-fold increase in polymeric F-actin over G-actin, and a 1.8-fold increase in RhoA expression. Explaining the signaling effect of SCF on DP migration, PI3K/Akt and MEK/ERK pathway inhibitors were demonstrated to significantly reduce DP cell migration, while SCF alone doubled the number of migrated cells. ERK and AKT phosphorylation were dramatically upregulated already 3-5 minutes after SCF addition to the culture medium and declined thereafter, classifying SCF as a fast acting chemokine. When applied as an agent to promote tissue regeneration in subcutaneously implanted collagen sponges, SCF resulted in a 7-fold increase in the cell number in the implanted tissue construct, a more than 9-fold increase in capillaries, as well as collagen sponge remodeling and collagen fiber neogenesis. Together, these studies demonstrate the suitability of SCF as a potent aid in the regeneration of dental pulp and other mesenchymal tissues, capable of inducing cell homing, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. PMID:23703692

  18. Statistical mechanics of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, JH


    Advanced, self-contained treatment illustrates general principles and elastic behavior of solids. Topics include thermoelastic behavior of crystalline and polymeric solids, interatomic force laws, behavior of solids, and thermally activated processes. 1983 edition.

  19. Two-dimensional description of surface-bounded exospheres with application to the migration of water molecules on the Moon (United States)

    Schorghofer, Norbert


    On the Moon, water molecules and other volatiles are thought to migrate along ballistic trajectories. Here, this migration process is described in terms of a two-dimensional partial differential equation for the surface concentration, based on the probability distribution of thermal ballistic hops. A random-walk model, a corresponding diffusion coefficient, and a continuum description are provided. In other words, a surface-bounded exosphere is described purely in terms of quantities on the surface, which can provide computational and conceptual advantages. The derived continuum equation can be used to calculate the steady-state distribution of the surface concentration of volatile water molecules. An analytic steady-state solution is obtained for an equatorial ring; it reveals the width and mass of the pileup of molecules at the morning terminator.

  20. Mastering ElasticSearch

    CERN Document Server

    Kuc, Rafal


    A practical tutorial that covers the difficult design, implementation, and management of search solutions.Mastering ElasticSearch is aimed at to intermediate users who want to extend their knowledge about ElasticSearch. The topics that are described in the book are detailed, but we assume that you already know the basics, like the query DSL or data indexing. Advanced users will also find this book useful, as the examples are getting deep into the internals where it is needed.

  1. Migrating Worker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    This is the preliminary report on the results obtained in the Migrating Worker-project. This project was initiated by the Danish Ministry of Finance with the aim of illustrating the effects of the 1408/71 agreement and the bilateral double taxation agreements Denmark has with the countries included...

  2. Dateline Migration. (United States)

    Tomasi, Lydio E., Ed.


    Presents data on international migration and its effects in and between various countries in North America, Europe, and Africa. Discussions include refugee, immigrant, and migrant worker flows; the legal, political, and social problems surrounding immigrants; alien terrorism and law enforcement problems; and migrant effects on education, social…

  3. Nonlinear elastic waves in materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rushchitsky, Jeremiah J


    The main goal of the book is a coherent treatment of the theory of propagation in materials of nonlinearly elastic waves of displacements, which corresponds to one modern line of development of the nonlinear theory of elastic waves. The book is divided on five basic parts: the necessary information on waves and materials; the necessary information on nonlinear theory of elasticity and elastic materials; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – longitudinal, vertically and horizontally polarized transverse plane nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of one-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – cylindrical and torsional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement; analysis of two-dimensional nonlinear elastic waves of displacement – Rayleigh and Love nonlinear elastic surface waves. The book is addressed first of all to people working in solid mechanics – from the students at an advanced undergraduate and graduate level to the scientists, professional...

  4. A generalized constitutive elasticity law for GLPD micromorphic materials, with application to the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koffi Enakoutsa


    Full Text Available In this work we propose to replace the GLPD hypo-elasticity law by a more rigorous generalized Hooke's law based on classical material symmetry characterization assumptions. This law introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's moduli, five constitutive constants. An analytical solution is derived for the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions to illustrate the potential of the proposed generalized Hooke's law.

  5. A generalized constitutive elasticity law for GLPD micromorphic materials, with application to the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions


    Enakoutsa, Koffi


    In this work we propose to replace the GLPD hypo-elasticity law by a more rigorous generalized Hooke's law based on classical material symmetry characterization assumptions. This law introduces in addition to the two well-known Lame's moduli, five constitutive constants. An analytical solution is derived for the problem of a spherical shell subjected to axisymmetric loading conditions to illustrate the potential of the proposed generalized Hooke's law.

  6. A general methodology for inverse estimation of the elastic and anelastic properties of anisotropic open-cell porous materials—with application to a melamine foam (United States)

    Cuenca, Jacques; Van der Kelen, Christophe; Göransson, Peter


    This paper proposes an inverse estimation method for the characterisation of the elastic and anelastic properties of the frame of anisotropic open-cell foams used for sound absorption. A model of viscoelasticity based on a fractional differential constitutive equation is used, leading to an augmented Hooke's law in the frequency domain, where the elastic and anelastic phenomena appear as distinctive terms in the stiffness matrix. The parameters of the model are nine orthotropic elastic moduli, three angles of orientation of the material principal directions and three parameters governing the anelastic frequency dependence. The inverse estimation consists in numerically fitting the model on a set of transfer functions extracted from a sample of material. The setup uses a seismic-mass measurement repeated in the three directions of space and is placed in a vacuum chamber in order to remove the air from the pores of the sample. The method allows to reconstruct the full frequency-dependent complex stiffness matrix of the frame of an anisotropic open-cell foam and in particular it provides the frequency of maximum energy dissipation by viscoelastic effects. The characterisation of a melamine foam sample is performed and the relation between the fractional-derivative model and other types of parameterisations of the augmented Hooke's law is discussed.

  7. A general methodology for inverse estimation of the elastic and anelastic properties of anisotropic open-cell porous materials—with application to a melamine foam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuenca, Jacques, E-mail:; Van der Kelen, Christophe; Göransson, Peter [Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Teknikringen 8, SE-10044 Stockholm (Sweden)


    This paper proposes an inverse estimation method for the characterisation of the elastic and anelastic properties of the frame of anisotropic open-cell foams used for sound absorption. A model of viscoelasticity based on a fractional differential constitutive equation is used, leading to an augmented Hooke's law in the frequency domain, where the elastic and anelastic phenomena appear as distinctive terms in the stiffness matrix. The parameters of the model are nine orthotropic elastic moduli, three angles of orientation of the material principal directions and three parameters governing the anelastic frequency dependence. The inverse estimation consists in numerically fitting the model on a set of transfer functions extracted from a sample of material. The setup uses a seismic-mass measurement repeated in the three directions of space and is placed in a vacuum chamber in order to remove the air from the pores of the sample. The method allows to reconstruct the full frequency-dependent complex stiffness matrix of the frame of an anisotropic open-cell foam and in particular it provides the frequency of maximum energy dissipation by viscoelastic effects. The characterisation of a melamine foam sample is performed and the relation between the fractional-derivative model and other types of parameterisations of the augmented Hooke's law is discussed.

  8. Entropy change-induced elastic softening of lithiated materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqian Yang


    Full Text Available To understand the “elastic softening” of Li–Si alloys for the development of Li-ion batteries, the effect of stress-induced change of entropy on the mechanical properties of lithiated materials is examined within the theories of thermodynamics and linear elasticity. An approach is presented whereby the change of Gibbs free energy is governed by the change of the mixture entropy due to stress-induced migration of mobile atoms, from which the contribution of the change of the mixture entropy to the apparent elastic modulus of lithiated materials is determined. The reciprocal of the apparent elastic modulus of a lithiated material is a linear function of the concentration of mobile Li-atoms at a stress-free state and the square of the mismatch strain per unit mole fraction of mobile Li-atoms.

  9. Temperature dependence of the elastic constant of Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' material by acoustic response (United States)

    Phadke, Sushil; Dshrivastava, B.; Dagaonkar, N.; Mishra, Ashutosh


    The homogeneous continuous materials are widely used for many structural applications. Migrations of atoms or molecules are the mechanism of mechanical and kinetic processes in materials for their synthesis processing as well as for their structural evolutions. The elastic constant of solids provides valuable information on their mechanical and dynamical properties. In particular, they provide information on the stability and stiffness of materials. In the present study author investigated relation between elastic constant and temperature in Borassus Flabellifier 'BF' wood part. Determination of elastic properties of material is based on the longitudinal wave's velocities via ultrasonic methods. The resonant frequencies of the specimens were measured by Ultrasonic Interferometer (for solids) dual frequency using longitudinal cubic piezoelectric crystal of quartz of frequency 123.62 KHz. The temperature variations from room temperature were done by PID control unit, Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi, India. Characterization of the samples was done by scanning electron microscope (SEM) Model JEOL JSM5400 at 5.0kvx750, 10 μm.

  10. Elastic constants of calcite (United States)

    Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.


    The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.

  11. Elastic membranes in confinement. (United States)

    Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H


    An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Elastic Properties of HMX (United States)

    Sewell, Thomas D.; Bedrov, Dmitry; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, Grant D.


    Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for beta-, alpha-, and delta-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76, 2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for beta-HMX for 0 less-than-or-equal p less-than-or-equal 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K'were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the beta-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of beta-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.

  13. A first-principles approach to finite temperature elastic constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Y; Wang, J J; Zhang, H; Manga, V R; Shang, S L; Chen, L-Q; Liu, Z-K [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    A first-principles approach to calculating the elastic stiffness coefficients at finite temperatures was proposed. It is based on the assumption that the temperature dependence of elastic stiffness coefficients mainly results from volume change as a function of temperature; it combines the first-principles calculations of elastic constants at 0 K and the first-principles phonon theory of thermal expansion. Its applications to elastic constants of Al, Cu, Ni, Mo, Ta, NiAl, and Ni{sub 3}Al from 0 K up to their respective melting points show excellent agreement between the predicted values and existing experimental measurements.

  14. A preference for migration


    Stark, Oded


    At least to some extent migration behavior is the outcome of a preference for migration. The pattern of migration as an outcome of a preference for migration depends on two key factors: imitation technology and migration feasibility. We show that these factors jointly determine the outcome of a preference for migration and we provide examples that illustrate how the prevalence and transmission of a migration-forming preference yield distinct migration patterns. In particular, the imitation of...

  15. ElasticSearch server

    CERN Document Server

    Rogozinski, Marek


    This book is a detailed, practical, hands-on guide packed with real-life scenarios and examples which will show you how to implement an ElasticSearch search engine on your own websites.If you are a web developer or a user who wants to learn more about ElasticSearch, then this is the book for you. You do not need to know anything about ElastiSeach, Java, or Apache Lucene in order to use this book, though basic knowledge about databases and queries is required.

  16. A multi-scale, discrete-cell simulation of organogenesis: Application to the effects of strain stimulus on collective cell behavior during ameloblast migration. (United States)

    Cox, Brian


    A multi-scale strategy is presented for simulating organogenesis that uses a single cell response function to define the behavior of individual cells in an organ-scale simulation of a large cell population. The response function summarizes detailed information about the behavior of individual cells in a sufficiently economical way that the organ-scale model can be commensurate with the entire organ. The first application demonstrates the effects of strain stimulus on the migration of ameloblasts during enamel formation. Ameloblasts are an attractive study case because mineralization preserves a complete record of their migratory paths. The response function in this case specifies the motions of cells responding to strain stimuli that propagate through the population. The strain stimuli are related to the curvature of the surface from which the ameloblasts migrate (the dentin-enamel junction or DEJ). A single unknown rate parameter is calibrated by an independent datum from the human tooth. With no remaining adjustable parameters, the theory correctly predicts aspects of the fracture-resistant, wavy microstructure of enamel in the human molar, including wavelength variations and the rate of wave amplitude damping. At a critical value of curvature of the DEJ, a transition in the ordering of cells occurs, from invariant order over the whole population to self-assembly of the population into groups or gangs. The prediction of an ordering transition and the predicted critical curvature are consistent with gnarled enamel in the cusps of the human molar. The calibration of the model using human data also predicts waves in the mouse incisor and an ordering transition at the chimpanzee cingulum. Widespread compressive strain is predicted late in the migration for both the human molar and mouse incisor, providing a possible signal for the termination of amelogenesis.

  17. Methods to improve the resolution of prestack migrated images, with application to a 3D dataset from a fractured reservoir (United States)

    Perez, Gabriel

    I present three different methods to achieve increased definition in images from conventional seismic data, as illustrated with 3D data from the Fort Worth Basin's Barnett Shale fractured reservoir play, currently one of the hottest exploration and production trends in continental U.S. First, I present a method to correct for wavelet stretch in common-angle prestack migrated data. Wavelet stretch adversely influences contributions to the image from large angle or long offset data. Increasing the fidelity of large angles improves the vertical and lateral resolution in images from seismic data and from derived attributes, and positively impact AVA/AVO analysis. Achieving the greatest potential of this technique demands that I address the increased sensitivity to velocity errors and anisotropy. The other two methods presented here benefit from the balance in spectral content of the imaged data across angles and the increased resolution that are achieved from correcting for wavelet stretch. Then I introduce a new way to define azimuth binning in Kirchhoff prestack migration. This approach avoids mixing the typically weaker side-scattered energy with the stronger reflections from the sagittal plane. With the modified binning, signal and noise events are preferentially imaged in azimuth orientations normal to their apparent strike orientation, in surface- or map-views. This modified azimuthal binning also results in improved detection of out-of-the-plane steeply dipping reflectors, fractures and faults and their orientation, especially when combined with attributes such as curvature and coherence. Finally, I present an approach to measure lateral misalignment in prestack migrated seismic images and then correct for it by applying a warping procedure to these images. Though velocity errors are the most likely source for misalignment between images, it can also result from other imperfections in the imaging procedure. Lateral misalignment is most easily recognized and

  18. The theory of elastic waves and waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Miklowitz, J


    The primary objective of this book is to give the reader a basic understanding of waves and their propagation in a linear elastic continuum. The studies of elastodynamic theory and its application to fundamental value problems should prepare the reader to tackle many physical problems of general interest in engineering and geophysics, and of particular interest in mechanics and seismology.

  19. Acoustic Properties of Crystals with Jahn-Teller Impurities: Elastic Moduli and Relaxation Time. Application to SrF2:Cr2+ (United States)

    Averkiev, Nikita S.; Bersuker, Isaac B.; Gudkov, Vladimir V.; Zhevstovskikh, Irina V.; Sarychev, Maksim N.; Zherlitsyn, Sergei; Yasin, Shadi; Shakurov, Gilman S.; Ulanov, Vladimir A.; Surikov, Vladimir T.


    A new approach to evaluate the relaxation contribution to the total elastic moduli for crystals with Jahn-Teller (JT) impurities is worked out and applied to the analysis of the experimentally measured ultrasound velocity and attenuation in SrF2:Cr2+. Distinguished from previous work, the background adiabatic contribution to the moduli, important for revealing the impurity relaxation contribution, is taken into account. The temperature dependence of the relaxation time for transitions between the equivalent configurations of the JT centers has been obtained, and the activation energy for the latter in SrF2:Cr2+, as well as the linear vibronic coupling constant have been evaluated.

  20. Elastic ring deformation and pedestal contact status analysis of elastic ring squeeze film damper (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Ding, Qian


    This paper investigates the dynamic parametric characteristic of the elastic ring squeeze film damper (ERSFD). Firstly, the coupled oil film Reynolds equations and dynamic equations of an ERSFD supported rotor system are established. The finite differential method and numerical simulation are used to analyze the oil film pressure distribution, bearing capacity of ERSFD, oil film stiffness and damping characteristics during a vibration period. Then, based on the oil film pressure results, the deformation of elastic ring is revealed by the finite element method. Finally, pedestal contact status is analyzed according to the change of oil film thickness during a vibration period. The results reveal that the oil film pressure is sectionally continuous, the deformation of elastic ring is complex under the compression of inner and outer oil film, and different pedestal contacts occur in a vibration period. The level of nonlinearity of the bearing capacity, oil film stiffness and damping can be effectively lightened by application of the elastic ring.

  1. Light Scattering Spectroscopy: From Elastic to Inelastic (United States)

    Perelman, Lev T.; Modell, Mark D.; Vitkin, Edward; Hanlon, Eugene B.

    This chapter reviews light scattering spectroscopic techniques in which coherent effects are critical because they define the structure of the spectrum. In the case of elastic light scattering spectroscopy, the targets themselves, such as aerosol particles in environmental science or cells and subcellular organelles in biomedical applications, play the role of microscopic optical resonators. In the case of inelastic light scattering spectroscopy or Raman spectroscopy, the spectrum is created due to light scattering from vibrations in molecules or optical phonons in solids. We will show that light scattering spectroscopic techniques, both elastic and inelastic, are emerging as very useful tools in material and environmental science and in biomedicine.

  2. Elastic nonlinearity imaging. (United States)

    Hall, Timothy J; Oberait, Assad A; Barbone, Paul E; Sommer, Amy M; Gokhale, Nachiket H; Goenezent, Sevan; Jiang, Jingfeng


    Previous work has demonstrated improved diagnostic performance of highly trained breast radiologists when provided with B-mode plus elastography images over B-mode images alone. In those studies we have observed that elasticity imaging can be difficult to perform if there is substantial motion of tissue out of the image plane. So we are extending our methods to 3D/4D elasticity imaging with 2D arrays. Further, we have also documented the fact that some breast tumors change contrast with increasing deformation and those observations are consistent with in vitro tissue measurements. Hence, we are investigating imaging tissue stress-strain nonlinearity. These studies will require relatively large tissue deformations (e.g., > 20%) which will induce out of plane motion further justifying 3D/4D motion tracking. To further enhance our efforts, we have begun testing the ability to perform modulus reconstructions (absolute elastic parameter) imaging of in vivo breast tissues. The reconstructions are based on high quality 2D displacement estimates from strain imaging. Piecewise linear (secant) modulus reconstructions demonstrate the changes in elasticity image contrast seen in strain images but, unlike the strain images, the contrast in the modulus images approximates the absolute modulus contrast. Nonlinear reconstructions assume a reasonable approximation to the underlying constitutive relations for the tissue and provide images of the (near) zero-strain shear modulus and a nonlinearity parameter that describes the rate of tissue stiffening with increased deformation. Limited data from clinical trials are consistent with in vitro measurements of elastic properties of tissue samples and suggest that the nonlinearity of invasive ductal carcinoma exceeds that of fibroadenoma and might be useful for improving diagnostic specificity. This work is being extended to 3D.

  3. Numerical simulation of shear and the Poynting effects by the finite element method: An application of the generalised empirical inequalities in non-linear elasticity

    KAUST Repository

    Angela Mihai, L.


    Finite element simulations of different shear deformations in non-linear elasticity are presented. We pay particular attention to the Poynting effects in hyperelastic materials, complementing recent theoretical findings by showing these effects manifested by specific models. As the finite element method computes uniform deformations exactly, for simple shear deformation and pure shear stress, the Poynting effect is represented exactly, while for the generalised shear and simple torsion, where the deformation is non-uniform, the solution is approximated efficiently and guaranteed computational bounds on the magnitude of the Poynting effect are obtained. The numerical results further indicate that, for a given elastic material, the same sign effect occurs under different shearing mechanisms, showing the genericity of the Poynting effect under a variety of shearing loads. In order to derive numerical models that exhibit either the positive or the negative Poynting effect, the so-called generalised empirical inequalities, which are less restrictive than the usual empirical inequalities involving material parameters, are assumed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Series Elastic Actuators for legged robots (United States)

    Pratt, Jerry E.; Krupp, Benjamin T.


    Series Elastic Actuators provide many benefits in force control of robots in unconstrained environments. These benefits include high force fidelity, extremely low impedance, low friction, and good force control bandwidth. Series Elastic Actuators employ a novel mechanical design architecture which goes against the common machine design principal of "stiffer is better." A compliant element is placed between the gear train and driven load to intentionally reduce the stiffness of the actuator. A position sensor measures the deflection, and the force output is accurately calculated using Hooke"s Law (F=Kx). A control loop then servos the actuator to the desired output force. The resulting actuator has inherent shock tolerance, high force fidelity and extremely low impedance. These characteristics are desirable in many applications including legged robots, exoskeletons for human performance amplification, robotic arms, haptic interfaces, and adaptive suspensions. We describe several variations of Series Elastic Actuators that have been developed using both electric and hydraulic components.

  5. Facies Constrained Elastic Full Waveform Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Z.


    Current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion (FWI) as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example for reservoir analysis, face inherent limitations on resolution and also on the potential trade-off between elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues. However, current approaches to add such constraints are based on averaged type rock physics regularization terms. Since the true earth model consists of different facies, averaging over those facies naturally leads to smoothed models. To overcome this, we propose a novel way to utilize facies based constraints in elastic FWI. A so-called confidence map is calculated and updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and the prior information. The numerical example shows that the proposed method can reduce the cross-talks and also can improve the resolution of inverted elastic properties.

  6. Probing hysteretic elasticity in weakly nonlinear materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Paul A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Haupert, Sylvain [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Renaud, Guillaume [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Riviere, Jacques [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Talmant, Maryline [UPMC UNIV PARIS; Laugier, Pascal [UPMC UNIV PARIS


    Our work is aimed at assessing the elastic and dissipative hysteretic nonlinear parameters' repeatability (precision) using several classes of materials with weak, intermediate and high nonlinear properties. In this contribution, we describe an optimized Nonlinear Resonant Ultrasound Spectroscopy (NRUS) measuring and data processing protocol applied to small samples. The protocol is used to eliminate the effects of environmental condition changes that take place during an experiment, and that may mask the intrinsic elastic nonlinearity. As an example, in our experiments, we identified external temperature fluctuation as a primary source of material resonance frequency and elastic modulus variation. A variation of 0.1 C produced a frequency variation of 0.01 %, which is similar to the expected nonlinear frequency shift for weakly nonlinear materials. In order to eliminate environmental effects, the variation in f{sub 0} (the elastically linear resonance frequency proportional to modulus) is fit with the appropriate function, and that function is used to correct the NRUS calculation of nonlinear parameters. With our correction procedure, we measured relative resonant frequency shifts of 10{sup -5} , which are below 10{sup -4}, often considered the limit to NRUS sensitivity under common experimental conditions. Our results show that the procedure is an alternative to the stringent control of temperature often applied. Applying the approach, we report nonlinear parameters for several materials, some with very small nonclassical nonlinearity. The approach has broad application to NRUS and other Nonlinear Elastic Wave Spectroscopy approaches.

  7. Migration and the Wage-Settings Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brücker, Herbert; Jahn, Elke

    Germany on basis of a wage-setting curve. The wage-setting curve relies on the assumption that wages respond to a hange in the unemployment rate, albeit imperfectly. This allows one to derive the wage and employment effects of migration simultaneously in a general equilibrium framework. Using...... administrative micro data we find that the elasticity of the wage-setting curve is particularly high for young workers and workers with an university degree, while it is low for older workers and workers with a vocational degree. The wage and employment effects of migration are moderate: a 1 percent increase...

  8. The Influence of Small Quantities of Oxygen in the Structure, Microstructure, Hardness, Elasticity Modulus and Cytocompatibility of Ti-Zr Alloys for Dental Applications (United States)

    Vicente, Fábio B.; Correa, Diego R. N.; Donato, Tatiani A. G.; Arana-Chavez, Victor E.; Buzalaf, Marília A. R.; Grandini, Carlos R.


    The mechanical properties of Ti alloys are changed significantly with the addition of interstitial elements, such as oxygen. Because oxygen is a strong stabilizer of the α phase and has an effect on hardening in a solid solution, it has aroused great interest in the biomedical area. In this paper, Ti-Zr alloys were subjected to a doping process with small amounts of oxygen. The influence of interstitial oxygen in the structure, microstructure and some selected mechanical properties of interest for use as biomaterial and biocompatibility of the alloys were analyzed. The results showed that in the range of 0.02 wt% to 0.04 wt%, oxygen has no influence on the structure, microstructure or biocompatibility of the studied alloys, but causes hardening of the alloys, increasing the values of the microhardness and causing variation in the elasticity modulus values. PMID:28788473

  9. OREGANO_VE: a new parallelised 3D solver for the general (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic problem: validation and application to the calculation of surface deformation in the earthquake cycle (United States)

    Yamasaki, Tadashi; Houseman, Gregory; Hamling, Ian; Postek, Elek


    We have developed a new parallelized 3-D numerical code, OREGANO_VE, for the solution of the general visco-elastic problem in a rectangular block domain. The mechanical equilibrium equation is solved using the finite element method for a (non-)linear Maxwell visco-elastic rheology. Time-dependent displacement and/or traction boundary conditions can be applied. Matrix assembly is based on a tetrahedral element defined by 4 vertex nodes and 6 nodes located at the midpoints of the edges, and within which displacement is described by a quadratic interpolation function. For evaluating viscoelastic relaxation, an explicit time-stepping algorithm (Zienkiewicz and Cormeau, Int. J. Num. Meth. Eng., 8, 821-845, 1974) is employed. We test the accurate implementation of the OREGANO_VE by comparing numerical and analytic (or semi-analytic half-space) solutions to different problems in a range of applications: (1) equilibration of stress in a constant density layer after gravity is switched on at t = 0 tests the implementation of spatially variable viscosity and non-Newtonian viscosity; (2) displacement of the welded interface between two blocks of differing viscosity tests the implementation of viscosity discontinuities, (3) displacement of the upper surface of a layer under applied normal load tests the implementation of time-dependent surface tractions (4) visco-elastic response to dyke intrusion (compared with the solution in a half-space) tests the implementation of all aspects. In each case, the accuracy of the code is validated subject to use of a sufficiently small time step, providing assurance that the OREGANO_VE code can be applied to a range of visco-elastic relaxation processes in three dimensions, including post-seismic deformation and post-glacial uplift. The OREGANO_VE code includes a capability for representation of prescribed fault slip on an internal fault. The surface displacement associated with large earthquakes can be detected by some geodetic observations

  10. Intrinsically polarized elastic metamaterial (United States)

    Bilal, Osama; Suesstrunk, Roman; Huber, Sebastian; Daraio, Chiara

    Mechanical metamaterials, with periodically repeating basic building blocks in space, expand the envelope of possible properties of matter. Metamaterials harness their effective properties through structure rather than chemical composition. Successful implementations of such materials enabled the realization of ultrastiff-utralight materials, negative Poisson ratio materials, and fluid-like solids. In this work, we theoretically analyze and experimentally implement a new design principle for mechanical metamaterials. By combining states of self-stress, topological invariants and additive manufacturing techniques, we realize a new class of three-dimensional mechanical metamaterials with polar elasticity. The fabricated specimens show, at two of its opposing faces along the same axis, an asymmetric elastic response (i.e., soft on one face and harder on the other). We design our lattice to retain angular dependency to a perpendicular load, providing a direct experimental observation of nodal Weyl lines.

  11. WE-E-9A-01: Ultrasound Elasticity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emelianov, S [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX (United States); Hall, T [University of WI-Madison, Madison, WI (United States); Bouchard, R [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center and UTHSC at Houston Graduate School of Biomed, Houston, TX (United States)


    Principles and techniques of ultrasound-based elasticity imaging will be presented, including quasistatic strain imaging, shear wave elasticity imaging, and their implementations in available systems. Deeper exploration of quasistatic methods, including elastic relaxation, and their applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations will be discussed. Transient elastography based on progressive and standing shear waves will be explained in more depth, along with applications, advantages, artifacts and limitations, as will measurement of complex elastic moduli. Comparisons will be made between ultrasound radiation force techniques, MR elastography, and the simple A mode plus mechanical plunger technique. Progress in efforts, such as that by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarkers Alliance, to reduce the differences in the elastic modulus reported by different commercial systems will be explained. Dr. Hall is on an Advisory Board for Siemens Ultrasound and has a research collaboration with them, including joint funding by R01CA140271 for nonlinear elasticity imaging. Learning Objectives: Be reminded of the long history of palpation of tissue elasticity for critical medical diagnosis and the relatively recent advances to be able to image tissue strain in response to an applied force. Understand the differences between shear wave speed elasticity measurement and imaging and understand the factors affecting measurement and image frame repletion rates. Understand shear wave propagation effects that can affect measurements, such as essentially lack of propagation in fluids and boundary effects, so important in thin layers. Know characteristics of available elasticity imaging phantoms, their uses and limitations. Understand thermal and cavitational limitations affecting radiation force-based shear wave imaging. Have learning and references adequate to for you to use in teaching elasticity imaging to residents and technologists. Be able to explain how elasticity measurement

  12. [Rural migration in Poland]. (United States)

    Rakowski, W


    Migration of the rural population in Poland from 1946 to 1983 is analyzed, with a focus on rural-urban migration. Consideration is given to regional variations in migration patterns, the causes of migration, and the impact of migration on areas of origin.

  13. Mathematical methods for elastic plates

    CERN Document Server

    Constanda, Christian


    Mathematical models of deformation of elastic plates are used by applied mathematicians and engineers in connection with a wide range of practical applications, from microchip production to the construction of skyscrapers and aircraft. This book employs two important analytic techniques to solve the fundamental boundary value problems for the theory of plates with transverse shear deformation, which offers a more complete picture of the physical process of bending than Kirchhoff’s classical one.   The first method transfers the ellipticity of the governing system to the boundary, leading to singular integral equations on the contour of the domain. These equations, established on the basis of the properties of suitable layer potentials, are then solved in spaces of smooth (Hölder continuous and Hölder continuously differentiable) functions.   The second technique rewrites the differential system in terms of complex variables and fully integrates it, expressing the solution as a combination of complex ana...

  14. High elastic modulus polymer electrolytes (United States)

    Balsara, Nitash Pervez; Singh, Mohit; Eitouni, Hany Basam; Gomez, Enrique Daniel


    A polymer that combines high ionic conductivity with the structural properties required for Li electrode stability is useful as a solid phase electrolyte for high energy density, high cycle life batteries that do not suffer from failures due to side reactions and dendrite growth on the Li electrodes, and other potential applications. The polymer electrolyte includes a linear block copolymer having a conductive linear polymer block with a molecular weight of at least 5000 Daltons, a structural linear polymer block with an elastic modulus in excess of 1.times.10.sup.7 Pa and an ionic conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-5 Scm.sup.-1. The electrolyte is made under dry conditions to achieve the noted characteristics.

  15. Dispersal and migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarz, C.


    overlay maps of effort to try and remove any induced artefacts in the data. Differences in timing or the route of migration has often been studies separately. Lokki and Saurola (Lokki & Saurola, 2004 develop an omnibus procedure to test if the migration timing and/or route differ among two populations of birds (e.g. males vs females. It uses a randomization test to calibrate the test statistic. However, it makes the key assumptions about equal recovery effort in time and space so that the method may be most applicable to comparison among species with similar migration timing and movement to keep differential sighting/recovery rates from affecting the result. Of course, it is in these cases where it is most difficulty to separate the groups which will require substantial samples to have good performance. Thorup and Rahbek (Thorup & Rahbek, 2004 provide a framework for accounting for unequal spatial recovery probability investigating the geometric influence of ocean and sea on observed migratory patterns. Taking the data set of Pied Flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca ringed as nestlings in Scandinavia and recovered en route on their initial migration and using a model based on the clock–and–compass innate navigation hypothesis they are showing that geometric constraints explain quite a bit of the variation in ring–recoveries. The model also shows that ring recovery patterns do reflect the migratory patterns, and that they are suitable for an analysis of the concentration of the migratory route which is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration. This is important for the general use of ringing data in studies of migration and dispersal. The new approach has also implications for understanding the migratory orientation program. The compiled papers highlight some novel ideas of how to analyse band recoveries to investigate migration routes and migration behaviour as well as dispersal patterns among birds and dolphins. Multistate modeling appears

  16. Variable-order rotated staggered-grid method for elastic-wave forward modeling (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Zhong; Hu, Tian-Yue; Lu, Xue-Mei; Qin, Zhen; Li, Yan-Dong; Zhang, Yan


    Numerical simulations of a seismic wavefield are important to analyze seismic wave propagation. Elastic-wave equations are used in data simulation for modeling migration and imaging. In elastic wavefield numerical modeling, the rotated staggered-grid method (RSM) is a modification of the standard staggered-grid method (SSM). The variable-order method is based on the method of variable-length spatial operators and wavefield propagation, and it calculates the real dispersion error by adapting different finite-difference orders to different velocities. In this study, the variable-order rotated staggered-grid method (VRSM) is developed after applying the variable-order method to RSM to solve the numerical dispersion problem of RSM in low-velocity regions and reduce the computation cost. Moreover, based on theoretical dispersion and the real dispersion error of wave propagation calculated with the wave separation method, the application of the original method is extended from acoustic to shear waves, and the calculation is modified from theoretical to time-varying values. A layered model and an overthrust model are used to demonstrate the applicability of VRSM. We also evaluate the order distribution, wave propagation, and computation time. The results suggest that the VRSM order distribution is reasonable and VRSM produces high-precision results with a minimal computation cost.

  17. Exploiting Elasticity with Thin Polymer Films (United States)

    Croll, Andrew


    Soft matter is often dominated by long-ranging mechanical distortion and is thus intimately linked to elastic theory. The detailed understanding provided by theory has allowed remarkable technological achievements to be made with polymers and other soft systems. However, as technology pushes lengthscales downward many challenges have arisen and even basic problems such as measuring Young's modulus become difficult. To move forward, many polymer thin-film researchers have been attracted to the simple repetitive buckling pattern known as wrinkling because the instability provides a convenient tool to measure mechanical properties. As with all technology the wrinkle system does have physical limits on its applicability, several of which may not be obvious and may have implications for extreme measurement. Here we highlight some of our recent work examining the limits of this elastic pattern and the implications for thin polymer films. We first show how the morphology of ultra-thin wrinkled polystyrene and polystyrene-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) films show signs of localization effects - a clear deviation from linear elasticity. We go on to show how roughness, in certain cases, can induce similar morphologies, even in the limits of vanishing applied stress. As random roughness influences a film's elastic behaviour it is natural to examine periodic roughness as means to control localization and create more complex morphologies. Colloidal polystyrene is an excellent test material as it can easily be assembled in highly ordered crystalline monolayers. Remarkably, this ``discrete'' polymer film shows the same wrinkled morphology as does a continuum film. We show how a completely different type of elasticity is necessary to explain the effect, that of a granular material. More disordered ``glassy'' colloidal monolayers provide a means to push our understanding of the granular elastic theory, and suggest an interesting, albeit highly speculative limit for extreme continuum

  18. Development of Feature Set, Classification Implementation and Applications for Vowel Migration/Modification in Sung Filipino (Tagalog Texts and Perceived Intelligibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia B. Bustos


    Full Text Available With the emergence of research on real-time visual feedback to supplement vocal pedagogy, the utilization of technology in the world of music is now seen to accelerate skills learning and enhance cognitive development. The researchers of this project aim to further analyze vowel intelligibility and develop software applications intended to be used not only by professional singers but also by individuals who wish to improve their singing capability. Data in the form of sung vowels and song pieces were obtained from 46 singers. A Listening Test was then conducted on these samples to obtain the ground truth for vowel classification based on human perception. Simulation of the human auditory perception of sung Filipino vowels was performed using formant frequencies and Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients as feature vector inputs to a two-stage Discriminant Analysis classifier. The setup resulted in an over-all Training Set accuracy of 89.4% and an over-all Test Set accuracy of 90.9%. The accuracy of the classifier, measured in terms of the correspondence of vowel classifications obtained from the classifier with the results of the Listening Test, reached 92.3%. Using information obtained from the classifier, offline and online/real-time software applications were developed. The main application features include the display of the spectral envelope and spectrogram, pitch and vibrato analysis and direct feedback on the classification of the sung vowel. These features were recommended by singers who were surveyed and were incorporated in the applications to aid singers to adjust formant locations, directly determine listener’s perception of sung vowels, perform modeling effectively and carry out vowel migration.

  19. Migration of birds (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the migration of birds. Topics covered include why birds migrate, when birds migrate, speed, altitude, courses, distance, major flyways and...

  20. Form finding in elastic gridshells. (United States)

    Baek, Changyeob; Sageman-Furnas, Andrew O; Jawed, Mohammad K; Reis, Pedro M


    Elastic gridshells comprise an initially planar network of elastic rods that are actuated into a shell-like structure by loading their extremities. The resulting actuated form derives from the elastic buckling of the rods subjected to inextensibility. We study elastic gridshells with a focus on the rational design of the final shapes. Our precision desktop experiments exhibit complex geometries, even from seemingly simple initial configurations and actuation processes. The numerical simulations capture this nonintuitive behavior with excellent quantitative agreement, allowing for an exploration of parameter space that reveals multistable states. We then turn to the theory of smooth Chebyshev nets to address the inverse design of hemispherical elastic gridshells. The results suggest that rod inextensibility, not elastic response, dictates the zeroth-order shape of an actuated elastic gridshell. As it turns out, this is the shape of a common household strainer. Therefore, the geometry of Chebyshev nets can be further used to understand elastic gridshells. In particular, we introduce a way to quantify the intrinsic shape of the empty, but enclosed regions, which we then use to rationalize the nonlocal deformation of elastic gridshells to point loading. This justifies the observed difficulty in form finding. Nevertheless, we close with an exploration of concatenating multiple elastic gridshell building blocks.

  1. Application of the nudged elastic band method to the point-to-point radio wave ray tracing in IRI modeled ionosphere (United States)

    Nosikov, I. A.; Klimenko, M. V.; Bessarab, P. F.; Zhbankov, G. A.


    Point-to-point ray tracing is an important problem in many fields of science. While direct variational methods where some trajectory is transformed to an optimal one are routinely used in calculations of pathways of seismic waves, chemical reactions, diffusion processes, etc., this approach is not widely known in ionospheric point-to-point ray tracing. We apply the Nudged Elastic Band (NEB) method to a radio wave propagation problem. In the NEB method, a chain of points which gives a discrete representation of the radio wave ray is adjusted iteratively to an optimal configuration satisfying the Fermat's principle, while the endpoints of the trajectory are kept fixed according to the boundary conditions. Transverse displacements define the radio ray trajectory, while springs between the points control their distribution along the ray. The method is applied to a study of point-to-point ionospheric ray tracing, where the propagation medium is obtained with the International Reference Ionosphere model taking into account traveling ionospheric disturbances. A 2-dimensional representation of the optical path functional is developed and used to gain insight into the fundamental difference between high and low rays. We conclude that high and low rays are minima and saddle points of the optical path functional, respectively.

  2. Reduced-order computational model in nonlinear structural dynamics for structures having numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency range. Application to fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batou, A., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Soize, C., E-mail: [Université Paris-Est, Laboratoire Modélisation et Simulation Multi Echelle, MSME UMR 8208 CNRS, 5 bd Descartes, 77454 Marne-la-Vallee (France); Brie, N., E-mail: [EDF R and D, Département AMA, 1 avenue du général De Gaulle, 92140 Clamart (France)


    Highlights: • A ROM of a nonlinear dynamical structure is built with a global displacements basis. • The reduced order model of fuel assemblies is accurate and of very small size. • The shocks between grids of a row of seven fuel assemblies are computed. -- Abstract: We are interested in the construction of a reduced-order computational model for nonlinear complex dynamical structures which are characterized by the presence of numerous local elastic modes in the low-frequency band. This high modal density makes the use of the classical modal analysis method not suitable. Therefore the reduced-order computational model is constructed using a basis of a space of global displacements, which is constructed a priori and which allows the nonlinear dynamical response of the structure observed on the stiff part to be predicted with a good accuracy. The methodology is applied to a complex industrial structure which is made up of a row of seven fuel assemblies with possibility of collisions between grids and which is submitted to a seismic loading.

  3. Directional Cell Migration in Response to Repeated Substratum Stretching (United States)

    Okimura, Chika; Iwadate, Yoshiaki


    Crawling migration plays an essential role in a variety of biological phenomena, including development, wound healing, and immune system function. Migration properties such as anterior-posterior polarity, directionality, and velocity are regulated not only by the reception of a chemoattractant but also by sensing mechanical inputs from the external environment. In this review, we describe the mechanical response of migrating cells, particularly under repeated stretching of the elastic substratum, highlighting the fact that there appear to be two independent mechanosensing systems that generate the polarity needed for migration. Cells that have no stress fibers, such as Dictyostelium cells and neutrophil-like differentiated HL-60 cells, migrate perpendicular to the stretching direction via myosin II localization. Cells that do possess stress fibers, however, such as fish keratocytes, migrate parallel to the stretching via a stress-fiber-dependent process.

  4. Mathematical foundations of elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Marsden, Jerrold E


    This advanced-level study approaches mathematical foundations of three-dimensional elasticity using modern differential geometry and functional analysis. It is directed to mathematicians, engineers and physicists who wish to see this classical subject in a modern setting with examples of newer mathematical contributions. Prerequisites include a solid background in advanced calculus and the basics of geometry and functional analysis.The first two chapters cover the background geometry ― developed as needed ― and use this discussion to obtain the basic results on kinematics and dynamics of con

  5. Thermally Driven Elastic Micromachines (United States)

    Hosaka, Yuto; Yasuda, Kento; Sou, Isamu; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Komura, Shigeyuki


    We discuss the directional motion of an elastic three-sphere micromachine in which the spheres are in equilibrium with independent heat baths having different temperatures. Even in the absence of prescribed motion of springs, such a micromachine can gain net motion purely because of thermal fluctuations. A relation connecting the average velocity and the temperatures of the spheres is analytically obtained. This velocity can also be expressed in terms of the average heat flows in the steady state. Our model suggests a new mechanism for the locomotion of micromachines in nonequilibrium biological systems.

  6. Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy: Elastic properties of some intermetallic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, F.; Thoma, D.J.; He, Y.; Maloy, S.A.; Mitchell, T.E. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science Technology Div.


    A novel nondestructive evaluation method, resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS), is reviewed with an emphasis upon defining the elastic properties of intermetallic phases. The applications and advantages of RUS as compared to other conventional elastic constant measurement methods are explained. RUS has been employed to measure the elastic properties of single crystal and/or polycrystalline intermetallics, such as Laves phases (C15 HfV{sub 2} and NbCr{sub 2}), Nb-modified titanium aluminides, and transition metal disilicides (C11{sub b} MoSi{sub 2}, C40 NbSi{sub 2} and TaSi{sub 2}). For Laves phases, the elastic properties of HfV{sub 2}-based C15 phases show various anomalies and those of C15 NbCr{sub 2} do not. For Nb-modified titanium aluminides, the elastic properties of O-phase alloys are investigated as a function of alloying content. For transition metal disilicides, single crystal elastic constants of MoSi{sub 2}, NbSi{sub 2}, and TaSi{sub 2} are obtained and compared. Based on the experimentally determined elastic properties, the characteristics of interatomic bonding in these materials are examined and the possible impact of the elastic properties on mechanical behavior is discussed.

  7. Reversible simulations of elastic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.


    Consider a system of N identical hard spherical particles moving in a d-dimensional box and undergoing elastic, possibly multi-particle, collisions. We develop a new algorithm that recovers the pre-collision state from the post-collision state of the system, across a series of consecutive collisions, \\textit{with essentially no memory overhead}. The challenge in achieving reversibility for an n-particle collision (where, in general, n<< N) arises from the presence of nd-d-1 degrees of freedom (arbitrary angles) during each collision, as well as from the complex geometrical constraints placed on the colliding particles. To reverse the collisions in a traditional simulation setting, all of the particular realizations of these degrees of freedom (angles) during the forward simulation must be tracked. This requires memory proportional to the number of collisions, which grows very fast with N and d, thereby severely limiting the \\textit{de facto} applicability of the scheme. This limitation is addressed here by first performing a pseudo-randomization of angles, which ensures determinism in the reverse path for any values of n and d. To address the more difficult problem of geometrical and dynamic constraints, a new approach is developed which correctly samples the constrained phase space. Upon combining the pseudo-randomization with correct phase space sampling, perfect reversibility of collisions is achieved, as illustrated for n<=3, d=2, and n=2, d=3. This result enables, for the first time, reversible simulations of elastic collisions with essentially zero memory accumulation. In principle, the approach presented here could be generalized to larger values of n, which would be of definite interest for molecular dynamics simulations at high densities.

  8. Elastic emission polishing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.


    Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

  9. Semi-automatic ROI placement system for analysis of brain PET images based on elastic model. Application to diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohyama, Masashi; Mishina, Masahiro; Kitamura, Shin; Katayama, Yasuo [Nippon Medical School, Tokyo (Japan); Senda, Michio; Tanizaki, Naoki; Ishii, Kenji


    PET with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is a useful technique to image cerebral glucose metabolism and to detect patients with Alzheimer's disease in the early stage, in which characteristic temporoparietal hypometabolism is visualized. We have developed a new system, in which the standard brain ROI atlas made of networks of segments is elastically transformed to match the subject brain images, so that standard ROIs defined on the segments are placed on the individual brain images and are used to measure radioactivity over each brain region. We applied this methods to Alzheimer's disease. This method was applied to the images of 10 normal subjects (ages 55 +/- 12) and 21 patients clinically diagnosed as Alzheimer's disease (age 61 +/- 10). The FDG uptake reflecting glucose metabolism was evaluated with SUV, i.e. decay corrected radioactivity divided by injected dose per body weight in (Bq/ml)/(Bq/g). The system worked all right in every subject including those with extensive hypometabolism. Alzheimer patients showed markedly lower in the parietal cortex (4.0-4.1). When the threshold value of FDG uptake in the parietal lobe was set as 5 (Bq/ml)/(Bq/g), we could discriminate the patients with Alzheimer's disease from the normal subjects. The sensitivity was 86% and the specificity was 90%. This system can assist diagnosis of FDG images and may be useful for treating data of a large number of subjects; e.g. when PET is applied to health screening. (author)

  10. Investigation of acoustic waves generated in an elastic solid by a pulsed ion beam and their application in a FIB based scanning ion acoustic microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmadaliev, C.


    The aim of this work is to investigate the acoustic wave generation by pulsed and periodically modulated ion beams in different solid materials depending on the beam parameters and to demonstrate the possibility to apply an intensity modulated focused ion beam (FIB) for acoustic emission and for nondestructive investigation of the internal structure of materials on a microscopic scale. The combination of a FIB and an ultrasound microscope in one device can provide the opportunity of nondestructive investigation, production and modification of micro- and nanostructures simultaneously. This work consists of the two main experimental parts. In the first part the process of elastic wave generation during the irradiation of metallic samples by a pulsed beam of energetic ions was investigated in an energy range from 1.5 to 10 MeV and pulse durations of 0.5-5 {mu}s, applying ions with different masses, e.g. oxygen, silicon and gold, in charge states from 1{sup +} to 4{sup +}. The acoustic amplitude dependence on the ion beam parameters like the ion mass and energy, the ion charge state, the beam spot size and the pulse duration were of interest. This work deals with ultrasound transmitted in a solid, i.e. bulk waves, because of their importance for acoustic transmission microscopy and nondestructive inspection of internal structure of a sample. The second part of this work was carried out using the IMSA-100 FIB system operating in an energy range from 30 to 70 keV. The scanning ion acoustic microscope based on this FIB system was developed and tested. (orig.)

  11. Pore-Scale Investigation of Micron-Size Polyacrylamide Elastic Microspheres (MPEMs) Transport and Retention in Saturated Porous Media

    KAUST Repository

    Yao, Chuanjin


    Knowledge of micrometer-size polyacrylamide elastic microsphere (MPEM) transport and retention mechanisms in porous media is essential for the application of MPEMs as a smart sweep improvement and profile modification agent in improving oil recovery. A transparent micromodel packed with translucent quartz sand was constructed and used to investigate the pore-scale transport, surface deposition-release, and plugging deposition-remigration mechanisms of MPEMs in porous media. The results indicate that the combination of colloidal and hydrodynamic forces controls the deposition and release of MPEMs on pore-surfaces; the reduction of fluid salinity and the increase of Darcy velocity are beneficial to the MPEM release from pore-surfaces; the hydrodynamic forces also influence the remigration of MPEMs in pore-throats. MPEMs can plug pore-throats through the mechanisms of capture-plugging, superposition-plugging, and bridge-plugging, which produces resistance to water flow; the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring in the interior of porous media can enhance the plugging effect of MPEMs; while the interception with MPEM particulate filters occurring at the surface of low-permeability layer can prevent the low-permeability layer from being damaged by MPEMs. MPEMs can remigrate in pore-throats depending on their elasticity through four steps of capture-plugging, elastic deformation, steady migration, and deformation recovery. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  12. Elasticity of polymeric nanocolloidal particles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riest, Jonas; Athanasopoulou, Labrini; Egorov, Sergei A; Likos, Christos N; Ziherl, Primož


    .... Elasticity of individual particles directly controls their swelling, wetting, and adsorption behaviour, their aggregation and self-assembly as well as structural and rheological properties of suspensions...

  13. Medical Ultrasonic Elasticity Imaging Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Mok Keun [Department of Electronics and Communications Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of)


    Breast and prostate tumors or cancers tend to be stiffer than the surrounding normal tissue. However, the difference in echogenicity between cancerous and normal tissues is not clearly distinguishable in ultrasound B-mode imaging. Thus, imaging the stiffness contrast between the two different tissue types helps to diagnose lesions quantitatively, and such a method of imaging the elasticity of human tissue is termed ultrasound elasticity imaging. Recently, elasticity imaging has become an effective complementary diagnostic modality along with ultrasound B-mode imaging. This paper presents various elasticity imaging methods that have been reported up to now and describes their characteristics and principles of operation.

  14. Model-Based Reconstructive Elasticity Imaging Using Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salavat R. Aglyamov


    Full Text Available Elasticity imaging is a reconstructive imaging technique where tissue motion in response to mechanical excitation is measured using modern imaging systems, and the estimated displacements are then used to reconstruct the spatial distribution of Young's modulus. Here we present an ultrasound elasticity imaging method that utilizes the model-based technique for Young's modulus reconstruction. Based on the geometry of the imaged object, only one axial component of the strain tensor is used. The numerical implementation of the method is highly efficient because the reconstruction is based on an analytic solution of the forward elastic problem. The model-based approach is illustrated using two potential clinical applications: differentiation of liver hemangioma and staging of deep venous thrombosis. Overall, these studies demonstrate that model-based reconstructive elasticity imaging can be used in applications where the geometry of the object and the surrounding tissue is somewhat known and certain assumptions about the pathology can be made.

  15. A validatable legacy database migration using ORM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moes, T.H.; Wijbenga, J.P.; Balsters, H.; Huitema, G.B.


    This paper describes a method used in a real-life case of a legacy database migration. The difficulty of the case lies in the fact that the legacy application to be replaced has to remain fully available during the migration process while at the same time data from the old system is to be integrated

  16. Questions about elastic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Engelbrecht, Jüri


    This book addresses the modelling of mechanical waves by asking the right questions about them and trying to find suitable answers. The questions follow the analytical sequence from elementary understandings to complicated cases, following a step-by-step path towards increased knowledge. The focus is on waves in elastic solids, although some examples also concern non-conservative cases for the sake of completeness. Special attention is paid to the understanding of the influence of microstructure, nonlinearity and internal variables in continua. With the help of many mathematical models for describing waves, physical phenomena concerning wave dispersion, nonlinear effects, emergence of solitary waves, scales and hierarchies of waves as well as the governing physical parameters are analysed. Also, the energy balance in waves and non-conservative models with energy influx are discussed. Finally, all answers are interwoven into the canvas of complexity.

  17. The ascending aortic elasticity feature in normotensive subjects: evaluation with coronary CT angiography. (United States)

    Liang, Wenqian; Chen, Dandan; Chen, Weicui; Cheng, Guanxun


    To evaluate the ascending aortic elasticity feature, 118 normotensive subjects who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) were enrolled. Two groups of parameters assessing elasticity were calculated based on the measurements of volume and area of ascending aorta. Multivariate analysis revealed that some factors including age, systolic BP, diastolic BP, heart rate, smoking status and hyperlipidemia independently related to decreased aortic elasticity. Both measuring methods are applicable for evaluation of aortic elasticity. As the prevalence of CCTA, it is meaningful that CCTA can provide not only the structural details of ascending aorta but also functional information of the vessel elasticity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PAGOSA Sample Problem. Elastic Precursor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weseloh, Wayne N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Clancy, Sean Patrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A PAGOSA simulation of a flyer plate impact which produces an elastic precursor wave is examined. The simulation is compared to an analytic theory for the Mie-Grüneisen equation of state and an elastic-perfectly-plastic strength model.

  19. Cell wall elasticity: I. A critique of the bulk elastic modulus approach and an analysis using polymer elastic principles (United States)

    Wu, H. I.; Spence, R. D.; Sharpe, P. J.; Goeschl, J. D.


    The traditional bulk elastic modulus approach to plant cell pressure-volume relations is inconsistent with its definition. The relationship between the bulk modulus and Young's modulus that forms the basis of their usual application to cell pressure-volume properties is demonstrated to be physically meaningless. The bulk modulus describes stress/strain relations of solid, homogeneous bodies undergoing small deformations, whereas the plant cell is best described as a thin-shelled, fluid-filled structure with a polymer base. Because cell walls possess a polymer structure, an alternative method of mechanical analysis is presented using polymer elasticity principles. This initial study presents the groundwork of polymer mechanics as would be applied to cell walls and discusses how the matrix and microfibrillar network induce nonlinear stress/strain relationships in the cell wall in response to turgor pressure. In subsequent studies, these concepts will be expanded to include anisotropic expansion as regulated by the microfibrillar network.

  20. Elasticity of Flowing Soap films (United States)

    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas


    The robustness of soap films and bubbles manifests their mechanical stability. The single most important factor underlying the mechanical stability of soap films is its elasticity. Non-destructive measurement of the elasticity in these films has been cumbersome, because of its flowing nature. Here we provide a convenient, reproducible, and non-destructive method for measuring the elasticity by generating and inspecting Marangoni waves. Our method is based on generating an oblique shock by inserting a thin cylindrical obstacle in the flowing film, and converting the measured the shock angle to elasticity. Using this method, we find a constant value for the elasticity of 22 dyne/cm in the commonly used range of film widths, thicknesses or flow rates, implying that the surface of the film is chemically saturated with soap molecules.

  1. Three-dimensional elastic lidar winds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buttler, W.T.


    Maximum cross-correlation techniques have been used with satellite data to estimate winds and sea surface velocities for several years. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is currently using a variation of the basic maximum cross-correlation technique, coupled with a deterministic application of a vector median filter, to measure transverse winds as a function of range and altitude from incoherent elastic backscatter lidar data taken throughout large volumes within the atmospheric boundary layer. Hourly representations of three- dimensional wind fields, derived from elastic lidar data taken during an air-quality study performed in a region of complex terrain near Sunland Park, New Mexico, are presented and compared with results from an Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved laser doppler velocimeter. The wind fields showed persistent large scale eddies as well as general terrain following winds in the Rio Grande valley.

  2. Elastic K-means using posterior probability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Zheng

    Full Text Available The widely used K-means clustering is a hard clustering algorithm. Here we propose a Elastic K-means clustering model (EKM using posterior probability with soft capability where each data point can belong to multiple clusters fractionally and show the benefit of proposed Elastic K-means. Furthermore, in many applications, besides vector attributes information, pairwise relations (graph information are also available. Thus we integrate EKM with Normalized Cut graph clustering into a single clustering formulation. Finally, we provide several useful matrix inequalities which are useful for matrix formulations of learning models. Based on these results, we prove the correctness and the convergence of EKM algorithms. Experimental results on six benchmark datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed EKM and its integrated model.

  3. Application of Ni-Ti base shape memory and super-elastic alloys; Ni-Ti kikeijo kioku oyobi chodansei gokin no jitsuyoka jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Y. [Furukawa Electric Co. Ltd., Yokahama (Japan). Yakahama R and D Laboratories


    The thermal hysteresis Hs of Ni-Ti binary alloy was between 20K and 40K. Those values had no problem when the alloy was used as a one-way element, but were too large for the use of the alloy as a reversible two-way actuator. Hs decreased to 10 - 15K by copper addition, and shape memory effect due to R (Rhombohedral) phase transformation was found later which decreased Hs by a large margin. Hs became as small as about 2K with the repetition life of more than 1 million times, and Hs became 100K by utilizing micro-dispersion of niobium. Applications of Ni-Ti binary alloy, Ni-Ti-Cu alloy, R phase alloy, and Ni-Ti-Nb alloy were discussed. Superelasticity was put to practical use in such a surprising field as the core grid for the brassiere, and used also for medical corsets. The field of spectacles rim is a treasure-house for the application of superelasticity. Applications also to antennas for portable telephones and orthodontic wire are successful. 30 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Influence of the Systemic Application of Blue–Green Spirulina platensis Algae on the Cutaneous Carotenoids and Elastic Fibers in Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim E. Darvin


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect of oral application of the antioxidant-containing Spirulina platensis on characteristic skin aging parameters, e.g., concentration of cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen/elastin index (SAAID, was investigated in vivo. A significant average increase from 2.67 ± 0.86 arb. units to 3.25 ± 0.93 arb. units (p < 0.001 in the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was detected subsequent to oral application of the carotenoid-containing Spirulina platensis powder, showing a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the skin. A slight but not significant increase (p = 0.33 in the dermal SAAID mean values was measured from −0.54 ± 0.11 to −0.51 ± 0.11 subsequent to oral intake of Spirulina platensis powder.

  5. On Elasticity Measurement in Cloud Computing


    Wei Ai; Kenli Li; Shenglin Lan; Fan Zhang; Jing Mei; Keqin Li; Rajkumar Buyya


    Elasticity is the foundation of cloud performance and can be considered as a great advantage and a key benefit of cloud computing. However, there is no clear, concise, and formal definition of elasticity measurement, and thus no effective approach to elasticity quantification has been developed so far. Existing work on elasticity lack of solid and technical way of defining elasticity measurement and definitions of elasticity metrics have not been accurate enough to capture the essence of elas...

  6. Elastic Anisotropy of Basalt (United States)

    Becker, K.; Shapiro, S.; Stanchits, S.; Dresen, G.; Kaselow, A.; Vinciguerra, S.


    Elastic properties of rocks are sensitive to changes of the in-situ stress and damage state. In particular, seismic velocities are strongly affected by stress-induced formation and deformation of cracks or shear-enhanced pore collapse. The effect of stress on seismic velocities as a result of pore space deformation in isotropic rock at isostatic compression may be expressed by the equation: A+K*P-B*exp (-D*P) (1), where P=Pc-Pp is the effective pressure, the pure difference between confining pressure and pore pressure. The parameter A, K, B and D describe material constants determined using experimental data. The physical meaning of the parameters is given by Shapiro (2003, in Geophysics Vol.68(Nr.2)). Parameter D is related to the stress sensitivity of the rock. A similar relation was derived by Shapiro and Kaselow (2005, in Geophysics in press) for weak anisotropic rocks under arbitrary load. They describe the stress dependent anisotropy in terms of Thomson's (1986, in Geophysics, Vol. 51(Nr.10)) anisotropy parameters ɛ and γ as a function of stress in the case of an initially isotropic rock: ɛ ∝ E2-E3, γ ∝ E3-E2 (2) with Ei=exp (D*Pi). The exponential terms Ei are controlled by the effective stress components Pi. To test this relation, we have conducted a series of triaxial compression tests on dry samples of initially isotropic Etnean Basalt in a servo-controlled MTS loading frame equipped with a pressure cell. Confining pressure was 60, 40 and 20 MPa. Samples were 5 cm in diameter and 10 cm in length. Elastic anisotropy was induced by axial compression of the samples through opening and growth of microcracks predominantly oriented parallel to the sample axis. Ultrasonic P- and S- wave velocities were monitored parallel and normal to the sample axis by an array of 20 piezoceramic transducers glued to the surface. Preamplified full waveform signals were stored in two 12 channel transient recorders. According to equation 2 the anisotropy parameters are

  7. Effective elastic properties of a composite containing multiple types of anisotropic ellipsoidal inclusions, with application to the attachment of tendon to bone (United States)

    Saadat, Fatemeh; Birman, Victor; Thomopoulos, Stavros; Genin, Guy M.


    Estimates of the effective stiffness of a composite containing multiple types of inclusions are needed for the design and study of a range of material systems in engineering and physiology. While excellent estimates and tight bounds exist for composite systems containing specific classes and distributions of identical inclusions, these are not easily generalized to systems with multiple types of inclusions. The best estimate available for a composite containing multiple classes of inclusions arises from the Kanaun-Jeulin approach. However, this method is analogous to a generalized Benveniste approach, and therefore suffers from the same limitations: while excellent for low volume fractions of inclusions, the Kanaun-Jeullin and Benveniste estimates liebelow three-point bounds at higher volume fractions. Here, we present an estimate for composites containing multiple classes of aligned ellipsoidal inclusions that lies within known three-point bounds at relatively higher volume fractions of inclusions and that is applicable to many engineering and biological composites. The approach involves replacing the averaged strains used in the Kanaun-Jeulin method with an effective strain measure. We demonstrate application of the constitutive model to the graded tissue system at the attachment of tendon to bone.

  8. Estimating Price Elasticity using Market-Level Appliance Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, K. Sydny [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This report provides and update to and expansion upon our 2008 LBNL report “An Analysis of the Price Elasticity of Demand for Appliances,” in which we estimated an average relative price elasticity of -0.34 for major household appliances (Dale and Fujita 2008). Consumer responsiveness to price change is a key component of energy efficiency policy analysis; these policies influence consumer purchases through price both explicitly and implicitly. However, few studies address appliance demand elasticity in the U.S. market and public data sources are generally insufficient for rigorous estimation. Therefore, analysts have relied on a small set of outdated papers focused on limited appliance types, assuming long-term elasticities estimated for other durables (e.g., vehicles) decades ago are applicable to current and future appliance purchasing behavior. We aim to partially rectify this problem in the context of appliance efficiency standards by revisiting our previous analysis, utilizing data released over the last ten years and identifying additional estimates of durable goods price elasticities in the literature. Reviewing the literature, we find the following ranges of market-level price elasticities: -0.14 to -0.42 for appliances; -0.30 to -1.28 for automobiles; -0.47 to -2.55 for other durable goods. Brand price elasticities are substantially higher for these product groups, with most estimates -2.0 or more elastic. Using market-level shipments, sales value, and efficiency level data for 1989-2009, we run various iterations of a log-log regression model, arriving at a recommended range of short run appliance price elasticity between -0.4 and -0.5, with a default value of -0.45.

  9. Service Migration Protocol for NFC Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Anders; Schwefel, Hans-Peter; Martin, Miquel


    of use while preserving state. This paper focuses on the scenario of migration between two devices in which the actual migration procedure is executed over near-field communication (NFC) ad-hoc links. The NFC link is interesting as it gives the user the perception of trust and enables service continuity......In future ubiquitous communication environments, users expect to move freely while continuously interacting with the available applications through a variety of devices. Interactive applications will therefore need to support migration, which means to follow users and adapt to the changing context...

  10. Malaysia and forced migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arzura Idris


    This paper analyzes the phenomenon of "forced migration" in Malaysia. It examines the nature of forced migration, the challenges faced by Malaysia, the policy responses and their impact on the country and upon the forced migrants...

  11. Migration and revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nando Sigona


    Full Text Available The Arab Spring has not radically transformed migration patterns in the Mediterranean, and the label ‘migration crisis’ does not do justice to the composite and stratified reality.

  12. Essays on temporary migration


    Mestres Domenech, J.


    My thesis dissertation focuses on the temporariness of migration, its diverse effects as well as on migration selection. The first paper, A Dynamic Model of Return Migration analyzes the decision process underlying return migration using a dynamic model. We explain how migrants decide whether to stay or to go back to their home country together with their savings and consumption decisions. We simulate our model with return intentions and perform policy simulations. The se...

  13. Irregular Migration of Egyptians


    ROMAN, Howaida


    Euro-Mediterranean Consortium for Applied Research on International Migration (CARIM) After defining irregular migration and tackling its different dimensions, the analytical note proposes to analyse the causes and dynamics of irregular migration in Egypt. It highlights furthermore the determinants of EU Policies in the realm of irregular migration, and Egypt’s policy-making approach towards irregular migrants. The conclusion emphasizes the necessity of forging coherent and effective polic...

  14. More Myths of Migration. (United States)

    Basch, Linda; Lerner, Gail


    Challenges "myths" about women and migration, including (1) the causes of migration are economic, not racism; (2) migrant women receive support from feminist groups and trade unions; (3) transnational corporations are positive forces in developing nations; (4) migration today has little impact on family life; and (5) most migrants cluster in…

  15. Celestial mechanics of elastic bodies


    Beig, Robert; Schmidt, Bernd G.


    We construct time independent configurations of two gravitating elastic bodies. These configurations either correspond to the two bodies moving in a circular orbit around their center of mass or strictly static configurations.

  16. Uniqueness theorems in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Knops, Robin John


    The classical result for uniqueness in elasticity theory is due to Kirchhoff. It states that the standard mixed boundary value problem for a homogeneous isotropic linear elastic material in equilibrium and occupying a bounded three-dimensional region of space possesses at most one solution in the classical sense, provided the Lame and shear moduli, A and J1 respectively, obey the inequalities (3 A + 2 J1) > 0 and J1>O. In linear elastodynamics the analogous result, due to Neumann, is that the initial-mixed boundary value problem possesses at most one solution provided the elastic moduli satisfy the same set of inequalities as in Kirchhoffs theorem. Most standard textbooks on the linear theory of elasticity mention only these two classical criteria for uniqueness and neglect altogether the abundant literature which has appeared since the original publications of Kirchhoff. To remedy this deficiency it seems appropriate to attempt a coherent description ofthe various contributions made to the study of uniquenes...

  17. Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals (United States)

    Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.


    The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are

  18. DNA Bending elasticity (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  19. Integrodifferential relations in linear elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Kostin, Georgy V


    This work treats the elasticity of deformed bodies, including the resulting interior stresses and displacements.It also takes into account that some of constitutive relations can be considered in a weak form. To discuss this problem properly, the method of integrodifferential relations is used, and an advanced numerical technique for stress-strain analysis is presented and evaluated using various discretization techniques. The methods presented in this book are of importance for almost all elasticity problems in materials science and mechanical engineering.

  20. Consumer cohorts and demand elasticities


    Geir Wæhler Gustavsen


    A mixed effects model is used to estimate intercepts, price and expenditure elasticities for vegetables, meat and fish in different cohorts. Results from Wald tests reveal that intercepts for fish are higher for older cohorts than for younger cohorts, and expenditure elasticities for meat are higher for older cohorts than for younger cohorts. The implication is that over time, when younger cohorts replace older cohorts, the total expenditure share for fish is likely to decrease contributing t...

  1. Linearized formulation for fluid-structure interaction: Application to the linear dynamic response of a pressurized elastic structure containing a fluid with a free surface (United States)

    Schotté, J.-S.; Ohayon, R.


    To control the linear vibrations of structures partially filled with liquids is of prime importance in various industries such as aerospace, naval, civil and nuclear engineering. It is proposed here to investigate a linearized formulation adapted to a rational computation of the vibrations of such coupled systems. Its particularity is to be fully Lagrangian since it considers the fluid displacement field with respect to a static equilibrium configuration as the natural variable describing the fluid motion, as classically done in structural dynamics. As the coupled system considered here is weakly damped in the low frequency domain (low modal density), the analysis of the vibrations of the associated undamped conservative system constitutes the main objective of this paper. One originality of the present formulation is to take into account the effect of the pressurization of the tank on the dynamics of the system, particularly in the case of a compressible liquid. We propose here a new way of deriving the linearized equations of the coupled problem involving a deformable structure and an inner inviscid liquid with a free surface. A review of the classical case considering a heavy incompressible liquid is followed by an application to the new case involving a light compressible liquid. A solution procedure in the frequency domain is proposed and a numerical discretization using the finite element method is discussed. In order to reduce the computational costs, an appropriate reduced order matrix model using modal synthesis approach is also presented.

  2. Assessment of ADHD Symptoms and the Issue of Cultural Variation: Are Conners 3 Rating Scales Applicable to Children and Parents With Migration Background? (United States)

    Schmidt, Martin; Reh, Verena; Hirsch, Oliver; Rief, Winfried; Christiansen, Hanna


    The objective was to evaluate whether Conners 3 ( Conners 3rd edition) ratings of ADHD symptoms are robust to distortion by cultural variation when applied to children with migration background living in Germany. From 2010 to 2011, Conners 3 data (self-rating, parent rating, and teacher rating) of 243 children with Turkish migration background, aged 6 to 16 years, were collected in various German schools. Allocation of items to latent factors was tested with confirmatory analyses. Reliability and validity of resulting factors was calculated and influence of acculturation, gender, and age on rating-modalities was examined. Confirmatory factor analyses showed high model fits for all rating-modalities. Resulting scales had good reliability and validity. There was a small influence of acculturation on parent ratings of oppositional defiant disorder but not on ADHD core symptoms. Conners 3 ratings seem to be robust against influences of cultural variation. Their German translation can be utilized for children with Turkish migration background without limitation.

  3. A cross-correlation objective function for least-squares migration and visco-acoustic imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Dutta, Gaurav


    Conventional acoustic least-squares migration inverts for a reflectivity image that best matches the amplitudes of the observed data. However, for field data applications, it is not easy to match the recorded amplitudes because of the visco-elastic nature of the earth and inaccuracies in the estimation of source signature and strength at different shot locations. To relax the requirement for strong amplitude matching of least-squares migration, we use a normalized cross-correlation objective function that is only sensitive to the similarity between the predicted and the observed data. Such a normalized cross-correlation objective function is also equivalent to a time-domain phase inversion method where the main emphasis is only on matching the phase of the data rather than the amplitude. Numerical tests on synthetic and field data show that such an objective function can be used as an alternative to visco-acoustic least-squares reverse time migration (Qp-LSRTM) when there is strong attenuation in the subsurface and the estimation of the attenuation parameter Qp is insufficiently accurate.

  4. Vector-based excitation amplitude imaging condition for elastic RTM (United States)

    Zhou, Jinju; Wang, Deli


    In recent years, many studies have focused on elastic reverse time migration (RTM). In response to the problems associated with elastic RTM, we propose a new procedure for 2D elastic multicomponent RTM. In this new method, decomposed P- and S-wave components are obtained from the decoupled propagation of the source and receiver wavefields, which allows the expedient calculation of the Poynting vectors and the incident and reflection angles of the P- and S-waves. In addition, we deduce the vector-based excitation amplitude imaging condition. This process automatically accounts for the particle vibration directions when determining the angle-dependent signed reflection coefficients, and does not require the sign to be determined apart from the value of the reflection coefficients. This concept was further extended to the source-normalized crosscorrelation imaging condition. The reflection coefficient of the layered model test was in agreement with the Zoeppritz theory, the PP and PS wave images of the Marmousi II model were clear, and the PS wave images had higher resolution and richer details. In addition, since the calculated reflection coefficients are angle-dependent, they can be easily used for the extraction of angle-domain common-image gathers. Moreover, the imaging condition avoids the polarization reversal in PS wave images and does not require all of the source wavefield data. Consequently, the computation and storage requirements are significantly reduced, which will facilitate the use of the elastic RTM in practice.

  5. Development and application of a non-targeted extraction method for the analysis of migrating compounds from plastic baby bottles by GC-MS. (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; van Hoeck, Els; Vervliet, Philippe; Scippo, Marie Louise; Simon, Coraline; van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian


    In 2011, the European Union prohibited the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles due to the toxic effects of the PC monomer bisphenol-A. Therefore, baby bottles made of alternative materials, e.g. polypropylene (PP) or polyethersulphone (PES), are currently marketed. The principal aim of the study was the identification of major compounds migrating from baby bottles using a liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis. A 50% EtOH in water solution was selected as a simulant for milk. After sterilisation of the bottle, three migration experiments were performed during 2 h at 70°C. A non-targeted liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:1) was performed on the simulant samples. Identification of migrants from 24 baby bottles was done using commercially available WILEY and NIST mass spectra libraries. Differences in the migrating compounds and their intensities were observed between the different types of plastics, but also between the same polymer from a different producer. Differences in the migration patterns were perceived as well between the sterilisation and the migrations and within the different migrations. Silicone, Tritan™ and PP exhibited a wide variety of migrating compounds, whereas PES and polyamide (PA) showed a lower amount of migrants, though sometimes in relatively large concentrations (azacyclotridecan-2-one up to 250 µg kg⁻¹). Alkanes (especially in PP bottles), phthalates (dibutylphthalate in one PP bottle (±40 µg kg⁻¹) and one silicone bottle (±25 µg kg⁻¹); diisobutylphthalate in one PP (±10 µg kg⁻¹), silicone (up to ±80 µg kg⁻¹); and Tritan™ bottle (±30 µg kg⁻¹)), antioxidants (Irgafos 168, degradation products of Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076), etc. were detected for PP, silicone and Tritan™ bottles. Although the concentrations were relatively low, some compounds not authorised by European Union Regulation No. 10/2011, such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (10-100 µg kg⁻¹) or 2

  6. Manipulation of cell mechanotaxis by designing curvature of the elasticity boundary on hydrogel matrix. (United States)

    Ueki, Ayaka; Kidoaki, Satoru


    Directional cell migration induced by the stiffness gradient of cell culture substrates is known as a subset of the mechanical-cue-induced taxis, so-called mechanotaxis, typically durotaxis toward hard region. To establish the general conditions of biomaterials to manipulate the mechanotaxis, the effect of the shape of the elasticity transition boundary between hard and soft regions of a substrate on mechanotaxis should be systematically determined as well as the conditions of elasticity gradient strength. Here, as a simplified factor of expressing variations in the shape of the elasticity boundary in living tissues, we focus on the curvature of the elasticity boundary. Mask-free photolithographic microelasticity patterning of photocurable gelatin gel was employed to systematically prepare elasticity boundaries with various curvatures, and the efficiency of mechanotaxis of fibroblast cells around each curved boundary was examined. Highly efficient usual durotaxis was induced on a convex boundary with 100 μm in radius and on a concave boundary with 750 μm in radius of curvature. Interestingly, biased migration toward soft regions of the gel, i.e., inverse durotaxis, was first observed for concave boundaries with 50 μm or 100 μm in radius of curvature, which was named as "negative mechanotaxis". The curvature of the elasticity boundary was found to markedly affect the efficiency of induction and the direction of mechanotaxis. The mechanism responsible for this phenomenon and the implication for the curvature effect in in vivo systems are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Problems in nonlinear elastic and elastic-plastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Tilakraj, V R


    sub 0. We prove the corresponding sequence of minimisers of the mixed displacement-traction problem converges weakly to a minimiser of the pure displacement problem as the radius epsilon tends to zero. The third problem we consider is the expansion of a spherical cavity in a nonlinearly elastic-perfectly plastic solid under the action of an internal pressure P within the cavity. We calculate (i) the critical pressure required to produce unbounded expansion of the cavity in an infinite medium, and (ii) the critical pressure required to form a cavity from zero initial radius in a finite piece of material and show that both critical pressures are the same. We illustrate these results explicitly for a particular stored energy function. In this thesis we study variational problems in nonlinear elasticity and related problems for elastic-plastic solids. First, we consider a one-dimensional variational problem in nonlinear elasticity. We consider an elastic cylinder of length L subject to axially symmetric deformati...


    CERN Multimedia


    Restricted services from 3 to 7 November 2001 Due to the migration of the Oracle HR application to the Web, some services which rely on the application's availability may be disturbed from Friday 2 November at 17:30 until Thursday 8 November at 08:30. Amongst those services: HR Division: records office, recruitment, claims and benefits. FI Division: personnel accounting, advances and claims. ST Division: registration office (access cards). SPL Division: external firm staff records. EP Division: users' office. Experiments' secretariats: PIE, Greybook. Divisional secretariats: externals, internal addresses. All information concerning this migration is available at: We apologize for any inconvenience and thank you in advance for your understanding.

  9. Elastic deformation of soft coatings due to lubrication forces. (United States)

    Wang, Yumo; Tan, Matthew R; Frechette, Joelle


    Elastic deformation of rigid materials with soft coatings (stratified materials) due to lubrication forces can alter the interpretation of dynamic surface forces measurements and prevent contact formation between approaching surfaces. Understanding the role of elastic deformation on the process of fluid drainage is necessary, in particular for the case where one (or both) of the interacting materials consists of a rigid substrate with a soft coating. We combine lubrication theory and solid linear elasticity to describe the dynamic of fluid drainage past a compliant stratified boundary. The analysis presented covers the full range of coating thicknesses, from an elastic foundation to a half-space for an incompressible coating. We decouple the individual contributions of the coating thickness and material properties on the elastic deformation, hydrodynamic forces, and fluid film thickness. We obtain a simple expression for the shift in contact position during force measurements that is valid for many experimental conditions. We compare directly the effect of stratification on the out-of-contact deformation to the well-known effect of stratification on indentation. We show that corrections developed for stratification in contact mechanics are not applicable to elastohydrodynamic deformation. Finally, we provide generalized contour maps that can be employed directly to estimate the elastic deformation present in most dynamic surface force measurements.

  10. Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems (United States)

    Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei


    Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439

  11. Recent developments and applications of a real-time tool to detect magma migration in different volcanic settings and network optimization. (United States)

    Taisne, B.; Aoki, Y.; Caudron, C.


    Triggering mechanism of a seismic swarm has to be identified with great confidence in real time. Crisis response will not be the same whether magma is involved or not. The recent developments of a method based on the Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis enable a rapid and unambiguous diagnosis to detect migrating micro-seismicity. The beauty of this method lies in the fact that the ratio of seismic energy, recorded at different stations, is independent of the seismic energy radiated at the source and depends only on the location of the source and attenuation of the medium. Since drastic changes in attenuation are unlikely to occur at the time scale of magma intrusion, temporal evolutions in the measured ratio have to be explained by a change in the source location. Based on simple assumptions, this technique can be used to assess the potential of existing monitoring seismic network to detect migrating events in real-time. Of much importance, it can also be used to design monitoring seismic network based on the available number of sensors, as well as from field constraints. The method will be implemented in MSNoise software ( This allows us to mine existing datasets, to compare the different noise-based techniques, but also to use the method for monitoring purposes. We will present how the key question: "Migration or No Migration" could be answered in real time without need of complex calculation nor full knowledge of the site effect and attenuation of the medium.

  12. Draft EEC method for the determination of the global migration of plastics constituents into fatty-food simulants: Applicability to lacquers, plastics and laminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battum, D. van; Rijk, M.A.H.; Verspoor, R.; Rossi, L.


    An experimental study was carried out to establish whether the draft EEC method for the determination of the global migration of constituents from plastics packaging materials into fatty food stimulants could be applied to all plastics, including lacquers and laminates. Some difficulties were

  13. Topology optimization of anisotropic broadband double-negative elastic metamaterials (United States)

    Dong, Hao-Wen; Zhao, Sheng-Dong; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Zhang, Chuanzeng


    of our optimized structures can inspire new ideas and novel applications including the low-frequency vibration attenuation, flat lens and ultrasonography for elastic waves.

  14. Automation of Flexible Migration Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk von Suchodoletz


    Full Text Available Many digital preservation scenarios are based on the migration strategy, which itself is heavily tool-dependent. For popular, well-defined and often open file formats – e.g., digital images, such as PNG, GIF, JPEG – a wide range of tools exist. Migration workflows become more difficult with proprietary formats, as used by the several text processing applications becoming available in the last two decades. If a certain file format can not be rendered with actual software, emulation of the original environment remains a valid option. For instance, with the original Lotus AmiPro or Word Perfect, it is not a problem to save an object of this type in ASCII text or Rich Text Format. In specific environments, it is even possible to send the file to a virtual printer, thereby producing a PDF as a migration output. Such manual migration tasks typically involve human interaction, which may be feasible for a small number of objects, but not for larger batches of files.We propose a novel approach using a software-operated VNC abstraction layer in order to replace humans with machine interaction. Emulators or virtualization tools equipped with a VNC interface are very well suited for this approach. But screen, keyboard and mouse interaction is just part of the setup. Furthermore, digital objects need to be transferred into the original environment in order to be extracted after processing. Nevertheless, the complexity of the new generation of migration services is quickly rising; a preservation workflow is now comprised not only of the migration tool itself, but of a complete software and virtual hardware stack with recorded workflows linked to every supported migration scenario. Thus the requirements of OAIS management must include proper software archiving, emulator selection, system image and recording handling. The concept of view-paths could help either to automatically determine the proper pre-configured virtual environment or to set up system

  15. Problems in hard and soft matter: From brain folds and Levy localization to active elasticity (United States)

    Mayett, David

    contact between the two. Our modeling contributes towards generalizing the rules governing the interplay between different cell types, particularly during collective cell migration. In the final part of this thesis, we move to an even smaller length scale. Our main motivations come from a series of experiments on the localization of light and the application of tight-binding models to the electronic transport properties of DNA sequences. To this end, we study the statistical properties of the conductance distribution and Lyapunov exponents in the Anderson tight-binding model with Levy-type disorder.

  16. Rayleigh-Taylor instability in soft elastic layers. (United States)

    Riccobelli, D; Ciarletta, P


    This work investigates the morphological stability of a soft body composed of two heavy elastic layers attached to a rigid surface and subjected only to the bulk gravity force. Using theoretical and computational tools, we characterize the selection of different patterns as well as their nonlinear evolution, unveiling the interplay between elastic and geometric effects for their formation. Unlike similar gravity-induced shape transitions in fluids, such as the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, we prove that the nonlinear elastic effects saturate the dynamic instability of the bifurcated solutions, displaying a rich morphological diagram where both digitations and stable wrinkling can emerge. The results of this work provide important guidelines for the design of novel soft systems with tunable shapes, with several applications in engineering sciences.This article is part of the themed issue 'Patterning through instabilities in complex media: theory and applications.' © 2017 The Author(s).

  17. Depth migration and de-migration for 3-D migration velocity analysis; Migration profondeur et demigration pour l'analyse de vitesse de migration 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assouline, F.


    for the application of migration velocity analysis. We are interested in particular in an important problem: the influence of irregularities in seismic acquisition on the quality of the depth migrated images. Indeed, 3-D seismic acquisitions show irregularities which are characterized by offset variations as well as a non uniform spatial sampling of the data. To overcome the first kind of irregularities, we propose to introduce the concept of migration by offset class in which are migrated all seismic traces that belong to a given offset class, and we show that such a migration relies on a sound theoretical basis whenever the offset varies smoothly with the midpoint coordinate. These theoretical considerations are validated experimentally: offset classes constructed so that the offset varies slowly with the midpoint coordinate allow to obtain the required imaging quality for migration velocity analysis. The influence, on the quality of the migrated images, of a non uniform spatial sampling of the data is, as for it, much more important than the one linked to offset variations: the computation of the superposition of migrated images associated with each midpoint requires the use of a genuine numerical integration formula. We study quadrature formulas based on polynomial interpolation procedures of the function to be integrated. We recommend to use the Hermite interpolation based numerical integration formula if we are primarily interested in amplitude variations in the case of gently dipping layers, and the Lagrange interpolation based numerical integration formula for the imaging of structures involving some complexity. Moreover, the implementation of these schemes of interpolation consists of a preprocessing of the data and does not really increase the CPU time required for running the migration itself. Of course, these approaches require that the distribution of midpoints is dense enough so as to take correctly into account the variations of the function to be

  18. Dialogues on migration policy


    Giugni, Marco; Passy, Florence


    Dialogues on Migration Policy brings together leading American and European scholars of immigration politics to address migration policy. Editors Marco Giugni and Florence Passy's aim to present a number of informed "dialogues" addressing three main theoretical concerns in this field: the role of the national state in a globalizing world, the determinants of policy change, and the role of collective interests in migration policy. Adopting an unconventional format, the novelty of Dialogues on ...

  19. Many Faces of Migrations


    Milica Antić Gaber; Marko Krevs


    Temporary or permanent, local or international, voluntary or forced, legal or illegal, registered or unregistered migrations of individuals, whole communities or individual groups are an important factor in constructing and modifying (modern) societies. The extent of international migrations is truly immense. At the time of the preparation of this publication more than 200 million people have been involved in migrations in a single year according to the United Nations. Furthermore, three time...

  20. Elastic metamaterials and dynamic homogenization: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankit Srivastava


    Full Text Available In this paper, we review the recent advances which have taken place in the understanding and applications of acoustic/elastic metamaterials. Metamaterials are artificially created composite materials which exhibit unusual properties that are not found in nature. We begin with presenting arguments from discrete systems which support the case for the existence of unusual material properties such as tensorial and/or negative density. The arguments are then extended to elastic continuums through coherent averaging principles. The resulting coupled and nonlocal homogenized relations, called the Willis relations, are presented as the natural description of inhomogeneous elastodynamics. They are specialized to Bloch waves propagating in periodic composites and we show that the Willis properties display the unusual behavior which is often required in metamaterial applications such as the Veselago lens. We finally present the recent advances in the area of transformation elastodynamics, charting its inspirations from transformation optics, clarifying its particular challenges, and identifying its connection with the constitutive relations of the Willis and the Cosserat types.

  1. Barrier distributions from elastic scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowley, N. [Manchester Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics]|[Surrey Univ., Guildford (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics; Timmers, H.; Leigh, J.R.; Masgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Mein, J.C.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics


    A new representation of the distribution of potential barriers present in heavy ion reactions is defined in terms of the elastic scattering excitation function. Its validity is demonstrated for the systems {sup 16}0 + {sup 144,} {sup 154}Sm, {sup 186}W, {sup 208}Pb, for which precise measurements have been made. Compared with fusion barrier distributions, which show structures characteristic of collective inelastic couplings, the elastic distributions are less detailed. This appears to be due to couplings to weaker direct reaction channels. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Complex variable methods in elasticity

    CERN Document Server

    England, A H


    The plane strain and generalized plane stress boundary value problems of linear elasticity are the focus of this graduate-level text, which formulates and solves these problems by employing complex variable theory. The text presents detailed descriptions of the three basic methods that rely on series representation, Cauchy integral representation, and the solution via continuation. Its five-part treatment covers functions of a complex variable, the basic equations of two-dimensional elasticity, plane and half-plane problems, regions with circular boundaries, and regions with curvilinear bounda

  3. Regional Redistribution and Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manasse, Paolo; Schultz, Christian

    We study a model with free migration between a rich and a poor region. Since there is congestion, the rich region has an incentive to give the poor region a transfer in order to reduce immigration. Faced with free migration, the rich region voluntarily chooses a transfer, which turns out...... to be equal to that a social planner would choose. Provided migration occurs in equilibrium, this conclusion holds even in the presence of moderate mobility costs. However, large migration costs will lead to suboptimal transfers in the market solution...

  4. Migration and Its Consequences


    Ivan Vasile Ivanoff


    ABSTRACT: Migration, as a social phenomenon, has an especially complex character and can be analyzed from the point of view of the state which is the source of the migration as well as from the point of view of the state which is the destination of the migration. Its causes are especially complex but the economic ones are determinant and are fundamentally different of the causes which determine the population to seek refuge in case of armed conflict. The effects of the migration are equally c...

  5. Migration into art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring

    This book addresses a topic of increasing importance to artists, art historians and scholars of cultural studies, migration studies and international relations: migration as a profoundly transforming force that has remodelled artistic and art institutional practices across the world. It explores...... contemporary art's critical engagement with migration and globalisation as a key source for improving our understanding of how these processes transform identities, cultures, institutions and geopolitics. The author explores three interwoven issues of enduring interest: identity and belonging, institutional...... visibility and recognition of migrant artists, and the interrelations between aesthetics and politics, including the balancing of aesthetics, politics and ethics in representations of forced migration....

  6. bessel functions for axisymmetric elasticity problems of the elastic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    homogeneous, isotropic, linear elastic half-space could be obtained by integration over the loaded region (area) with the point load solution considered as the Green function [1]. 1.1 Bessel Functions and Axisymmetric Problems. The Bessel's equations are commonly encountered in partial differential equations in bodies ...

  7. In vitro fibroblast migration by sustained release of PDGF-BB loaded in chitosan nanoparticles incorporated in electrospun nanofibers for wound dressing applications. (United States)

    Piran, Mehrdad; Vakilian, Saeid; Piran, Mehran; Mohammadi-Sangcheshmeh, Abdollah; Hosseinzadeh, Simzar; Ardeshirylajimi, Abdolreza


    Migration of fibroblasts into wound area is a critical phenomenon in wound healing process. We used an appropriate system to fabricate an electrospun bioactive scaffold with controlled release of PDGF-BB in order to induce migration of primary skin fibroblast cells. First of all, protein-loaded chitosan nanoparticles based on ionic gelation interaction between chitosan and sodium tripolyphosphate were prepared. Then polycaprolactone electrospun fibers containing chitosan nanoparticles or PDGF-BB-loaded chitosan nanoparticles were prepared. Cellular attachment and morphology of cells seeded on scaffolds with or without PDGF-BB were evaluated by using a fluorescence microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Cells were well-oriented 72 h after seeding on the scaffolds containing PDGF-BB. The mean aspect ratio of populations on scaffold containing PDGF-BB-loaded chitosan nanoparticles was significantly greater than those on the scaffold containing chitosan nanoparticles but no PDGF-BB. Furthermore, the Arp2 gene, which is involved in cell protrusion formation, showed about three times more expression at mRNA level, in cells seeding on PDGF-BB-containing scaffold compared to cells seeding on scaffold containing only chitosan nanoparticles, using Real Time PCR test. Finally, under agarose migration assay results demonstrated that cells' chemotaxic behavior was more toward scaffold containing PDGF-BB compared to the PDGF-BB alone or FBS group. In addition, in terms of distance, the cell mass could grow faster, in response to scaffold containing PDGF-BB compared to FBS or PDGF-BB alone; however, the number of migrating cells might be the same or significantly higher in the latter groups.

  8. Child Safety Seats on Commercial Airliners: A Demonstration of Cross-Price Elasticities (United States)

    Sanders, Shane; Weisman, Dennis L.; Li, Dong; Grimes, Paul, Ed.


    The cross-price elasticity concept can be difficult for microeconomics students to grasp. The authors provide a real-life application of cross-price elasticities in policymaking. After a debate that spanned more than a decade and included input from safety engineers, medical personnel, politicians, and economists, the Federal Aviation…

  9. Contribution to Control of an Elastic Two-Mass System by Means of Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelmira Ferkova


    Full Text Available Oscillations of an elastic two-mass system with all known parameters may be suppressed by suitable feedback signal. An observer enables to estimate this feedback without measurement of load mechanism speed. This article contains application of genetic algorithms for identification of elastic system parameters and determination of corresponding observer feedback coefficients. Design correctness is verified by simulation.

  10. The Elastic Constants Measurement of Metal Alloy by Using Ultrasonic Nondestructive Method at Different Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryi Hu


    Full Text Available The ultrasonic nondestructive method is introduced into the elastic constants measurement of metal material. The extraction principle of Poisson’s ratio, elastic modulus, and shear modulus is deduced from the ultrasonic propagating equations with two kinds of vibration model of the elastic medium named ultrasonic longitudinal wave and transverse wave, respectively. The ultrasonic propagating velocity is measured by using the digital correlation technique between the ultrasonic original signal and the echo signal from the bottom surface, and then the elastic constants of the metal material are calculated. The feasibility of the correlation algorithm is verified by a simulation procedure. Finally, in order to obtain the stability of the elastic properties of different metal materials in a variable engineering application environment, the elastic constants of two kinds of metal materials in different temperature environment are measured by the proposed ultrasonic method.

  11. Quantum elasticity of graphene: Thermal expansion coefficient and specific heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burmistrov, I.S.; Gornyi, I.V.; Kachorovskii, V.Y.; Katsnelson, M.I.; Mirlin, A.D.


    We explore thermodynamics of a quantum membrane, with a particular application to suspended graphene membrane and with a particular focus on the thermal expansion coefficient. We show that an interplay between quantum and classical anharmonicity-controlled fluctuations leads to unusual elastic


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential functions are then made to satisfy the governing field equations and the associated boundary conditions for the particular problem of a point load at the origin of the semi-infinite linear elastic isotropic soil mass. The unknown parameters of the function are thus determined and used to find the stresses, strains ...

  13. Duration of an Elastic Collision (United States)

    de Izarra, Charles


    With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…

  14. Fluids, Elasticity, Geometry, and the Existence of Wrinkled Solutions (United States)

    Acharya, Amit; Chen, Gui-Qiang G.; Li, Siran; Slemrod, Marshall; Wang, Dehua


    We are concerned with underlying connections between fluids, elasticity, isometric embedding of Riemannian manifolds, and the existence of wrinkled solutions of the associated nonlinear partial differential equations. In this paper, we develop such connections for the case of two spatial dimensions, and demonstrate that the continuum mechanical equations can be mapped into a corresponding geometric framework and the inherent direct application of the theory of isometric embeddings and the Gauss-Codazzi equations through examples for the Euler equations for fluids and the Euler-Lagrange equations for elastic solids. These results show that the geometric theory provides an avenue for addressing the admissibility criteria for nonlinear conservation laws in continuum mechanics.

  15. Strong tissue glue with tunable elasticity. (United States)

    Kelmansky, Regina; McAlvin, Brian J; Nyska, Abraham; Dohlman, Jenny C; Chiang, Homer H; Hashimoto, Michinao; Kohane, Daniel S; Mizrahi, Boaz


    Many bio-adhesive materials adhere weakly to tissue due to their high water content and weak structural integrity. Others provide desirable adhesive strength but suffer from rigid structure and lack of elasticity after administration. We have developed two water-free, liquid four-armed PEG pre-polymers modified with NHS or with NH 2 end groups which upon mixing changed from liquids to an elastic solid. The sealant and adhesive properties increased with the amount of the %v/v PEG 4 -NHS pre-polymer, and achieved adhesive properties comparable to those of cyanoacrylate glues. All mixtures showed minimal cytotoxicity in vitro. Mixtures of 90%v/v PEG 4 -NHS were retained in the subcutaneous space in vivo for up to 14days with minimal inflammation. This material's combination of desirable mechanical properties and biocompatibility has potential in numerous biomedical applications. Many bio-adhesive materials adhere weakly to tissue (e.g. hydrogels) due to their high water content and weak structural integrity. Others provide desirable mechanical properties but suffer from poor biocompatibility (e.g. cyanoacrylates). This study proposes a new concept for the formation of super strong and tunable tissue glues. Our bio-materials' enhanced performance is the product of new neat (without water or other solvents) liquid polymers that solidify after administration while allowing interactions with the tissue. Moreover, the elastic modulus of these materials could easily be tuned without compromising biocompatibility. This system could be an attractive alternative to sutures and staples since it can be applied more quickly, causes less pain and may require less equipment while maintaining the desired adhesion strength. Copyright © 2017 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Migrating Art History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania


    Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0.......Review of Hiroko Ikegami, The Great Migrator. Robert Rauschenberg and the Global Rise of American Art. Cambridge Mass., The MIT Press, 2010. 277 pages. ISBN 978-0-262-01425-0....

  17. Migration in Burkina Faso

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, F.S.


    Migration plays an important role in development and as a strategy for poverty reduction. A recent World Bank investigation finds a significant positive relationship between international migration and poverty reduction at the country level (Adams and Page 2003). Burkina Faso, whose conditions for

  18. Geography of European Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitin Dmitry V.


    Full Text Available In recent decades, the role of international migration has increased dramatically in most European countries. The growth in migration has made some authors proclaim the beginning of a second Migration Period that could transform the social and cultural identity of Europe. The article presents an analysis of international migration geography in Europe in the last twenty-five years. The authors identify the main trends in migration, provide migration profiles of European countries, and propose a classification based on the recent changes in the migrant stock. Changes in the migrant stock (total emigration and immigration reflect the level of involvement in international and global processes. They can serve as an indicator of a country’s attractiveness for both foreigners and the country’s citizens. The study shows that European countries are increasingly split into ‘immigrant’ and ‘emigrant’ states. The authors describe spatial patterns of migration. The volume and localisation of migration flows in Europe are affected not only by cultural and historical circumstance, such as a colonial past or a common language. The scale of immigrant influx often does not depend on a donor country’s demographic potential or the level of its socio-economic development. The links between the place of origin and destination are often more complex than it might initially seem. The authors stress the importance of a differentiated immigration policy taking into account ethnic and cultural features of host societies.

  19. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    (co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  20. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiraouani Boucetta K


    Full Text Available Kenza Qiraouani Boucetta,1 Zoubida Charrouf,2 Hassan Aguenaou,3 Abdelfattah Derouiche,4 Yahya Bensouda1 1Research Team on Formulation and Biopharmacy, Research Center for Drug, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 2Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat, Morocco; 3Mixed Unit of Research in Nutrition, ITU / CNESTEN, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra, Morocco; 4Faculty of Sciences, Hassan II University, Casablanca, Morocco Background: During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity.Materials and methods: Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity, and the resonance running time (RRT at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application.Results: The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net elasticity of the skin (R5 (P<0.001, biological elasticity (R7 (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of RRT (P=0.002. The application of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2 (P<0.001, net

  1. The Globalisation of migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mesić


    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates that contemporary international migration is a constitutive part of the globalisation process. After defining the concepts of globalisation and the globalisation of migration, the author discusses six key themes, linking globalisation and international migration (“global cities”, the scale of migration; diversification of migration flows; globalisation of science and education; international migration and citizenship; emigrant communities and new identities. First, in accordance with Saskia Sassen’s analysis, the author rejects the wide-spread notion that unqualified migrants have lost an (important role in »global cities«, i.e. in the centres of the new (global economy. Namely, the post-modern service sector cannot function without the support of a wide range of auxiliary unqualified workers. Second, a critical comparison with traditional overseas mass migration to the USA at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries indicates that present international migration is, perhaps, less extensive – however it is important to take into consideration various limitations that previously did not exist, and thus the present migration potential is in really greater. Third, globalisation is more evident in a diversification of the forms of migration: the source area of migrants to the New World and Europe has expanded to include new regions in the world; new immigration areas have arisen (the Middle East, new industrial countries of the Far East, South Europe; intra-regional migration has intensified. Forth, globalisation is linked to an increased migration of experts and the pessimistic notion of a brain drain has been replaced by the optimistic idea of a brain gain. Fifth, contemporary international migration has been associated with a crisis of the national model of citizenship. Sixth, the interlinking of (migrant cultural communities regardless of distance and the physical proximity of cultural centres (the

  2. Migration and Environmental Hazards (United States)

    Hunter, Lori M.


    Losses due to natural hazards (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes) and technological hazards (e.g., nuclear waste facilities, chemical spills) are both on the rise. One response to hazard-related losses is migration, with this paper offering a review of research examining the association between migration and environmental hazards. Using examples from both developed and developing regional contexts, the overview demonstrates that the association between migration and environmental hazards varies by setting, hazard types, and household characteristics. In many cases, however, results demonstrate that environmental factors play a role in shaping migration decisions, particularly among those most vulnerable. Research also suggests that risk perception acts as a mediating factor. Classic migration theory is reviewed to offer a foundation for examination of these associations. PMID:21886366

  3. Migration of health workers. (United States)

    Buchan, James


    The discussion and debate stimulated by these papers focused across a range of issues but there were four main areas of questioning: "measuring" and monitoring migration (issues related to comparability, completeness and accuracy of data sets on human resources); the impact of migration of health workers on health systems; the motivations of individual health workers to migrate (the "push" and "pull" factors) and the effect of policies designed either to reduce migration (e.g "self ufficiency") or to stimulate it (e.g active international recruitment). It was recognised that there was a critical need to examine migratory flows within the broader context of all health care labour market dynamics within a country, that increasing migration of health workers was an inevitable consequence of globalisation, and that there was a critical need to improve monitoring so as to better inform policy formulation and policy testing in this area.

  4. Virtual machine migration in an over-committed cloud

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiangliang


    While early emphasis of Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) clouds was on providing resource elasticity to end users, providers are increasingly interested in over-committing their resources to maximize the utilization and returns of their capital investments. In principle, over-committing resources hedges that users - on average - only need a small portion of their leased resources. When such hedge fails (i.e., resource demand far exceeds available physical capacity), providers must mitigate this provider-induced overload, typically by migrating virtual machines (VMs) to underutilized physical machines. Recent works on VM placement and migration assume the availability of target physical machines [1], [2]. However, in an over-committed cloud data center, this is not the case. VM migration can even trigger cascading overloads if performed haphazardly. In this paper, we design a new VM migration algorithm (called Scattered) that minimizes VM migrations in over-committed data centers. Compared to a traditional implementation, our algorithm can balance host utilization across all time epochs. Using real-world data traces from an enterprise cloud, we show that our migration algorithm reduces the risk of overload, minimizes the number of needed migrations, and has minimal impact on communication cost between VMs. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Collusion and the elasticity of demand


    David Collie


    The analysis of collusion in infinitely repeated Cournot oligopoly games has generally assumed that demand is linear, but this note uses constant-elasticity demand functions to investigate how the elasticity of demand affects the sustainability of collusion.

  6. Application of platelet-rich plasma accelerates the wound healing process in acute and chronic ulcers through rapid migration and upregulation of cyclin A and CDK4 in HaCaT cells. (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Ae; Ryu, Han-Won; Lee, Kyu-Suk; Cho, Jae-We


    Application of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used for chronic wound healing. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of PRP on the wound healing processes of both acute and chronic ulcers and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. We treated 16 patients affected by various acute and chronic ulcers with PRP. We performed molecular studies of cell proliferation, migration assays, immunoblotting and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) assays in PRP-treated HaCaT keratinocyte cells. PRP treatment induced increased rates of cell proliferation and cell migration of HaCaT cells. In addition, the expression of cyclin A and cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) 4 proteins was markedly increased with a low concentration (0.5%) of PRP treatment in HaCaT cells. In 11 patients with chronic ulcers, including stasis ulcers, diabetic ulcers, venous leg ulcers, livedoid vasculitis, claw foot and traumatic ulcers, 9 patients showed 90-100% epithelization after 15.18 days. In 5 patients with acute ulcers, such as dehiscence, open wound and burn wound, 80-100% epithelization was achieved between 4 to 20 days. Topical application of PRP to acute and chronic skin ulcers significantly accelerated the epithelization process, likely through upregulation of the cell cycle regulatory proteins cyclin A and CDK4.

  7. New software methods in radar ornithology using WSR-88D weather data and potential application to monitoring effects of climate change on bird migration (United States)

    Mead, Reginald; Paxton, John; Sojda, Richard S.; Swayne, David A.; Yang, Wanhong; Voinov, A.A.; Rizzoli, A.; Filatova, T.


    Radar ornithology has provided tools for studying the movement of birds, especially related to migration. Researchers have presented qualitative evidence suggesting that birds, or at least migration events, can be identified using large broad scale radars such as the WSR-88D used in the NEXRAD weather surveillance system. This is potentially a boon for ornithologists because such data cover a large portion of the United States, are constantly being produced, are freely available, and have been archived since the early 1990s. A major obstacle to this research, however, has been that identifying birds in NEXRAD data has required a trained technician to manually inspect a graphically rendered radar sweep. A single site completes one volume scan every five to ten minutes, producing over 52,000 volume scans in one year. This is an immense amount of data, and manual classification is infeasible. We have developed a system that identifies biological echoes using machine learning techniques. This approach begins with training data using scans that have been classified by experts, or uses bird data collected in the field. The data are preprocessed to ensure quality and to emphasize relevant features. A classifier is then trained using this data and cross validation is used to measure performance. We compared neural networks, naive Bayes, and k-nearest neighbor classifiers. Empirical evidence is provided showing that this system can achieve classification accuracies in the 80th to 90th percentile. We propose to apply these methods to studying bird migration phenology and how it is affected by climate variability and change over multiple temporal scales.

  8. Calculation of Elastic Bond Constants in Atomistic Strain Analysis (United States)

    Chen, Haiyuan; Wang, Juanjuan; Ashalley, Eric; Li, Handong; Niu, Xiaobin


    Strain analysis has significance both for tailoring material properties and designing nanoscale devices. In particular, strain plays a vital role in engineering the growth thermodynamics and kinetics and is applicable for designing optoelectronic devices. In this paper, we present a methodology for establishing the relationship between elastic bond constants and measurable parameters, i.e., Poisson's ratio ν and systematic elastic constant K. At the atomistic level, this approach is within the framework of linear elastic theory and encompasses the neighbor interactions when an atom is introduced to stress. Departing from the force equilibrium equations, the relationships between ν, K, and spring constants are successfully established. Both the two-dimensional (2D) square lattice and common three-dimensional (3D) structures are taken into account in the procedure for facilitating, bridging the gap between structural complexity and numerical experiments. A new direction for understanding the physical phenomena in strain engineering is established.

  9. The elasticity of soap bubbles containing wormlike micelles. (United States)

    Sabadini, Edvaldo; Ungarato, Rafael F S; Miranda, Paulo B


    Slow-motion imaging of the rupture of soap bubbles generally shows the edges of liquid films retracting at a constant speed (known as the Taylor-Culick velocity). Here we investigate soap bubbles formed from simple solutions of a cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide - CTAB) and sodium salicylate. The interaction of salicylate ions with CTAB leads to the formation of wormlike micelles (WLM), which yield a viscoelastic behavior to the liquid film of the bubble. We demonstrate that these elastic bubbles collapse at a velocity up to 30 times higher than the Taylor-Culick limit, which has never been surpassed. This is because during the bubble inflation, the entangled WLM chains stretch, storing elastic energy. This extra energy is then released during the rupture of the bubble, yielding an additional driving force for film retraction (besides surface tension). This new mechanism for the bursting of elastic bubbles may have important implications to the breakup of viscoelastic sprays in industrial applications.

  10. To optimal elasticity of adhesives mimicking gecko foot-hairs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filippov, A.E. [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering of NASU, 83144 Donetsk (Ukraine); Popov, V. [Technische Universitaet Berlin, Institut fuer Mechanik, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)]. E-mail:


    Artificial structure of a plate with elastic fibers interacting with rough fractal surface by Van der Waals forces is simulated numerically to find an optimal relation between the system parameters. The force balance equations are solved numerically for different values of elastic constant and variable surface roughness. An optimal elasticity is found to provide maximum cohesion force between the plate and surface. It is shown that high flexibility of the fibers is not always good to efficiency of the system, artificial adhesives must be made from stiff enough polymers. If the ellasticity is close to an optimum, the force is almost constant at a wide interval of the surface roughness. It is desirable to make system adaptive to wide spectrum of applications.

  11. Theory of a new elastic-plastic-viscous model and its application to the nuclear fuel mechanical analysis; Teoria y aplicacion a los combustibles nucleares de un nuevo modelo de respuesta de un solido elasto-visco-plastico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A.


    In this work a new elastic-plastic-viscous model is described. The model is one of the multiple integral type, and has been included in a numerical code to predict the behaviour of a nuclear fuel of cylindrical form. Some features of this code are also described. (Author) 91 refs.

  12. Development of a monitoring system for the DQMGUI in ElasticSearch and Kibana

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Adrian


    The Data Quality Monitoring Graphical User Interface (DQMGUI) is the heart of the process of monitoring the quality of data in CMS. The health-status of the DQMGUI and its performances are constantly being monitored and stored in log les, which are subsequently parsed for errors and warnings. This very process allows human operators to act in case of problems. However, the monitoring infrastructure has been migrated to a CERN-hosted ElasticSearch engine in the last year. As a consequence, it is necessary to refactor the old monitoring system, adapting and extending it to be compliant with the new ElasticSearch-based one.

  13. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali


    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  14. Determination of the modulus of elasticity of the human cornea. (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Wang, Defu; Pye, David


    To determine the material behavior of the human cornea in the form of simple relationships between the modulus of elasticity and intraocular pressure (IOP) and to establish the effect of age on the material behavior. Human corneal specimens with age between 50 and 95 years were tested under inflation conditions to determine their behavior. The corneas were subjected to two extreme load rates to represent dynamic and static loading conditions. The pressure-deformation results were analyzed using shell theory to derive the relationship between the modulus of elasticity and IOP. The corneas demonstrated a nonlinear hyperelastic behavior pattern with an initial low stiffness stage and a final high stiffness stage. Despite the nonlinearity of the pressure deformation results, the relationship between the modulus of elasticity and the applied pressure was almost linear. A considerable increase was noted in the values of the modulus of elasticity associated with both age and load rate. General equations were derived to calculate the values of the secant and tangent moduli of elasticity in terms of IOP for any age greater than 50 years, and these equations are presented in a simple form suitable for use in numerical simulations. Adequate representation of corneal material behavior is essential for the accurate predictive modeling of corneal biomechanics. The material models developed in this work could be implemented in numerical simulations of refractive surgery procedures, corneal shape changes due to contact lens wear, and other applications.

  15. Hydrodynamic and elastic interactions of sedimenting flexible fibers (United States)

    Ekiel-Jezewska, Maria L.; Bukowicki, Marek


    Dynamics of flexible micro and nano filaments in fluids is intensively investigated in many laboratories, with a perspective of numerous applications in biology, medicine or modern technology. In the literature, different theoretical models of elastic interactions between flexible fiber segments are applied. The task of this work is to examine the impact of a chosen elastic model on the dynamics of fibers settling in a viscous fluid under low Reynolds number. To this goal, we construct two trumbbells, each made of three beads connected by springs and with a bending resistance, and we describe hydrodynamic interactions of the beads in terms of the Rotne-Prager mobility tensors. Using the harmonic bending potential, and coupling it to the spring potential by the Young's modulus, we find simple benchmark solutions: stable stationary configurations of a single elastic trumbbell and a fast horizontal attraction of two elastic trumbbells towards a periodic long-lasting orbit. We show that for sufficiently large bending angles, other models of bending interactions can lead to qualitatively and quantitatively different spurious effects. We also demonstrate examples of essential differences between the dynamics of elastic dumbbells and trumbbells. This work was supported in part by Narodowe Centrum Nauki under Grant No. 2014/15/B/ST8/04359.

  16. Multiparameter Elastic Full Waveform Inversion With Facies Constraints

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Zhendong


    Full waveform inversion (FWI) aims fully benefit from all the data characteristics to estimate the parameters describing the assumed physics of the subsurface. However, current efforts to utilize full waveform inversion as a tool beyond acoustic imaging applications, for example in reservoir analysis, faces inherent challenges related to the limited resolution and the potential trade-off between the elastic model parameters. Adding rock physics constraints does help to mitigate these issues, but current approaches to add such constraints are based on including them as a priori knowledge mostly valid around the well or as a boundary condition for the whole area. Since certain rock formations inside the Earth admit consistent elastic properties and relative values of elastic and anisotropic parameters (facies), utilizing such localized facies information in FWI can improve the resolution of inverted parameters. We propose a novel confidence map based approach to utilize the facies-based constraints in both isotropic and anisotropic elastic FWI. We invert for such a confidence map using Bayesian theory, in which the confidence map is updated at each iteration of the inversion using both the inverted models and a prior information. The numerical examples show that the proposed method can reduce the trade-offs and also can improve the resolution of the inverted elastic and anisotropic properties.

  17. Bayesian inference of elastic properties with resonant ultrasound spectroscopy. (United States)

    Bales, Ben; Petzold, Linda; Goodlet, Brent R; Lenthe, William C; Pollock, Tresa M


    Bayesian modeling and Hamiltonian Monte Carlo (HMC) are utilized to formulate a robust algorithm capable of simultaneously estimating anisotropic elastic properties and crystallographic orientation of a specimen from a list of measured resonance frequencies collected via Resonance Ultrasound Spectroscopy (RUS). Unlike typical optimization procedures which yield point estimates of the unknown parameters, computing a Bayesian posterior yields probability distributions for the unknown parameters, and HMC is an efficient way to compute this posterior. The algorithms described are demonstrated on RUS data collected from two parallelepiped specimens of structural metal alloys. First, the elastic constants for a specimen of fine-grain polycrystalline Ti-6Al-4 V with random crystallographic texture and isotropic elastic symmetry are estimated. Second, the elastic constants and crystallographic orientation for a single crystal Ni-based superalloy CMSX-4 specimen are accurately determined, using only measurements of the specimen geometry, mass, and resonance frequencies. The unique contributions of this paper are as follows: the application of HMC for sampling the Bayesian posterior of a probabilistic RUS model, and the procedure for simultaneous estimation of elastic constants and lattice-specimen misorientation. Compared to previous approaches these algorithms demonstrate superior convergence behavior, particularly when the initial parameterization is unknown, and enable substantially simplified experimental procedures.

  18. Modified elastic tissue-Masson trichrome stain. (United States)

    Garvey, W


    A combined elastic tissue-Masson technique is presented which stains elastic fibers of all sizes, nuclei and connective tissue. The modified elastic tissue stain consists of hematoxylin, ferric chloride and Verhoeff's iodine; nuclei and elastic fibers are stained blue-black in six minutes without differentiation. By contrast, cytoplasmic elements are stained red, (Biebrich scarlet-acid fuchsin) and collagen is stained green (light green) or blue (aniline blue). The entire staining procedure takes approximately one hour.

  19. Elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2 (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Koutsos, Vasileios; Cheung, Rebecca


    We report the experimental determination of the elastic properties of suspended multilayer WSe2, a promising two-dimensional (2D) semiconducting material combined with high optical quality. The suspended WSe2 membranes have been fabricated by mechanical exfoliation of bulk WSe2 and transfer of the exfoliated multilayer WSe2 flakes onto SiO2/Si substrates pre-patterned with hole arrays. Then, indentation experiments have been performed on these membranes with an atomic force microscope. The results show that the 2D elastic modulus of the multilayer WSe2 membranes increases linearly while the prestress decreases linearly as the number of layers increases. The interlayer interaction in WSe2 has been observed to be strong enough to prevent the interlayer sliding during the indentation experiments. The Young's modulus of multilayer WSe2 (167.3 ± 6.7 GPa) is statistically independent of the thickness of the membranes, whose value is about two thirds of other most investigated 2D semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides, namely, MoS2 and WS2. Moreover, the multilayer WSe2 can endure ˜12.4 GPa stress and ˜7.3% strain without fracture or mechanical degradation. The 2D WSe2 can be an attractive semiconducting material for application in flexible optoelectronic devices and nano-electromechanical systems.

  20. Design of controlled elastic and inelastic structures (United States)

    Reinhorn, A. M.; Lavan, O.; Cimellaro, G. P.


    One of the founders of structural control theory and its application in civil engineering, Professor Emeritus Tsu T. Soong, envisioned the development of the integral design of structures protected by active control devices. Most of his disciples and colleagues continuously attempted to develop procedures to achieve such integral control. In his recent papers published jointly with some of the authors of this paper, Professor Soong developed design procedures for the entire structure using a design — redesign procedure applied to elastic systems. Such a procedure was developed as an extension of other work by his disciples. This paper summarizes some recent techniques that use traditional active control algorithms to derive the most suitable (optimal, stable) control force, which could then be implemented with a combination of active, passive and semi-active devices through a simple match or more sophisticated optimal procedures. Alternative design can address the behavior of structures using Liapunov stability criteria. This paper shows a unified procedure which can be applied to both elastic and inelastic structures. Although the implementation does not always preserve the optimal criteria, it is shown that the solutions are effective and practical for design of supplemental damping, stiffness enhancement or softening, and strengthening or weakening.

  1. European migration: Push and pull

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zimmermann, Klaus F


      In recent decades, Europe has experienced periods of push and pull migration. Whereas pull migration has been seen as economically beneficial, there is concern that push migration will accelerate the employment crisis...

  2. Thermodynamic parameters of elasticity and electrical conductivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The thermodynamic parameters (change in free energy of elasticity, DGe; change in enthalpy of elasticity, DHe; and change in entropy of elasticity, DSe) and the electrical conductivity of natural rubber composites reinforced separately with some agricultural wastes have been determined. Results show that the reinforced ...

  3. Some Measurements of Elasticities of Substitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Tinbergen (Jan)


    textabstractSo far, when measuring elasticities of demand, most econometricians have concentrated upon the plain elasticity of total demand for a given commodity. For many important problems we should, in addition, like to know something of "partial elasticities," as I might provisionally call them.

  4. Comparison of elastic versus rigid suture material for peripheral sutures in tendon repair. (United States)

    Nozaki, Kenji; Mori, Ryuji; Ryoke, Koji; Uchio, Yuji


    For secure tendon repair, while core suture materials have been previously investigated, the optimum material for peripheral sutures remains unclear. Transected bovine gastrocnemius tendons were repaired by 2-strand side-locking loop technique using no.2 braided polyblend polyethylene thread for the core suture. Then, 8-strand peripheral cross-stitches were added using either 2-0 rigid sutures (braided polyblend polyethylene) or USP 2-0-sized elastic sutures (nylon). The holding area of each peripheral suture was set at either 3 × 1 mm (shallow holding) or 6 × 2 mm (deep holding). Therefore, 4 groups were compared (the shallow-rigid, deep-rigid, shallow-elastic, and deep-elastic groups). The gap formation, ultimate tensile strength, and suture migration state were measured after 500 cyclic loadings (from 10 to 200 N). The shallow-rigid group had inferior outcomes compared to the other groups. Although the deep-rigid group had the smallest gap and highest ultimate strength, all peripheral sutures had failure prior to core suture rupture. The two elastic groups showed no significant differences, irrespective of the size of the holding area. Suture migration did not occur in the two elastic groups until the ultimate strength was reached and the core suture ruptured. Depending on the suturing method, rigid suture material may not be appropriate for peripheral sutures, when accompanying rigid core suture material. If peripheral sutures can be made with accurate deep holding, rigid suture material will provide favorable outcome. However, in other cases, elastic suture material is considered best for supporting a rigid core suture, as elasticity is another important factor for peripheral sutures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological Changes and Device Migration After Stent Graft Insertion - Clinical Application of an Image-Based Modeling System and Analysis With Geometric Parameters. (United States)

    Nemoto, Youkou; Hoshina, Katsuyuki; Kobayashi, Masaharu; Kimura, Masaru; Yamamoto, Sota; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Ohshima, Marie


    Previously, we developed an image-based modeling system (V-Modeler) to investigate geometric changes in stent grafts (SGs) following their implantation for abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). The aims of the present study were to improve this system for clinical use, to chronologically analyze postoperative morphological changes in SGs, and to demonstrate scenarios of SG migration.Methods and Results:Contrast-enhanced computed tomography data from 36 patients who underwent endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) for AAAs were used, with 72 centerline paths, in total, analyzed for bilateral SG legs. The existing V-modeler system was modified by introducing a penalty term, optimizing the number of control points using Akaike's information criterion, and changing the degree of the function from 3 to 5. Geometric parameters were then analyzed immediately, as well as >1 year after EVAR. Eight migrations were found and although overall SG curvature and curvature at the distal (leg) site did not change, curvature at the proximal (trunk) site of SGs decreased over time. Subanalysis revealed that SGs with severe curvature showed the same trend, whereas distal curvature increased in the non-severe curvature group. In addition, proximal curvature decreased more in Excluder than Zenith devices. The present study demonstrates SG behavior after implantation with numerical values for SG length and curvature.

  6. Migration and AIDS. (United States)


    This article presents the perspectives of UNAIDS and the International Organization for Migration (IOM) on migration and HIV/AIDS. It identifies research and action priorities and policy issues, and describes the current situation in major regions of the world. Migration is a process. Movement is enhanced by air transport, rising international trade, deregulation of trade practices, and opening of borders. Movements are restricted by laws and statutes. Denial to freely circulate and obtain asylum is associated with vulnerability to HIV infections. A UNAIDS policy paper in 1997 and IOM policy guidelines in 1988 affirm that refugees and asylum seekers should not be targeted for special measures due to HIV/AIDS. There is an urgent need to provide primary health services for migrants, voluntary counseling and testing, and more favorable conditions. Research is needed on the role of migration in the spread of HIV, the extent of migration, availability of health services, and options for HIV prevention. Research must be action-oriented and focused on vulnerability to HIV and risk taking behavior. There is substantial mobility in West and Central Africa, economic migration in South Africa, and nonvoluntary migration in Angola. Sex workers in southeast Asia contribute to the spread. The breakup of the USSR led to population shifts. Migrants in Central America and Mexico move north to the US where HIV prevalence is higher.

  7. Migration of the population. (United States)

    Krasinets, E


    Two factors influence foreign migration balance of the Russian Federation. The first factor involves the migration process between Russia and former union republics. The influx of population to the Russian Federation from other republics of the former Soviet Union is considered as one of the largest in the world. The average annual migratory growth of Russia during the years 1991-94 as a result of this migration exchange has tripled as compared with 1986-90, with a total of 2.7 million Russians who migrated into Russia. However, from 1996 up to the present time, the number of persons arriving in Russia declined dramatically. Meanwhile, the second factor that determines the country's migration balance is emigration to the far abroad. The most significant trend in determining the development of internal migration in Russia is the outflow of population from northern and eastern regions. The directions of internal and external migratory flows have a large influence on the migration balance in Russia's rural areas. The reduction of migratory flows in rural areas is the direct result of processes in the economic sphere. It confirms the reconstruction of rural-urban migratory exchange.

  8. Visualizing Human Migration Trhough Space and Time (United States)

    Zambotti, G.; Guan, W.; Gest, J.


    Human migration has been an important activity in human societies since antiquity. Since 1890, approximately three percent of the world's population has lived outside of their country of origin. As globalization intensifies in the modern era, human migration persists even as governments seek to more stringently regulate flows. Understanding this phenomenon, its causes, processes and impacts often starts from measuring and visualizing its spatiotemporal patterns. This study builds a generic online platform for users to interactively visualize human migration through space and time. This entails quickly ingesting human migration data in plain text or tabular format; matching the records with pre-established geographic features such as administrative polygons; symbolizing the migration flow by circular arcs of varying color and weight based on the flow attributes; connecting the centroids of the origin and destination polygons; and allowing the user to select either an origin or a destination feature to display all flows in or out of that feature through time. The method was first developed using ArcGIS Server for world-wide cross-country migration, and later applied to visualizing domestic migration patterns within China between provinces, and between states in the United States, all through multiple years. The technical challenges of this study include simplifying the shapes of features to enhance user interaction, rendering performance and application scalability; enabling the temporal renderers to provide time-based rendering of features and the flow among them; and developing a responsive web design (RWD) application to provide an optimal viewing experience. The platform is available online for the public to use, and the methodology is easily adoptable to visualizing any flow, not only human migration but also the flow of goods, capital, disease, ideology, etc., between multiple origins and destinations across space and time.

  9. Luminosity calibration from elastic scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, H


    The absolute luminosity of the LHC at the ATLAS interaction point will be calibrated by the measurement of the t-distribution of elastic pp-scattering in the Coulomb-Nuclear interference region. The ALFA detector housed in Roman Pots located 240m away from IP1 is designed to approach the beam at mm distance and to measure elastic pp-scattering at micro-radian scattering angles. This measurement will be performed with dedicated runs using a special beam optics with high beta* and parallel-to-point focusing in order to access the Coulomb regime. In this note the expected performance of this method, evaluated with a simulation of the experimental set-up, is presented.

  10. Elasticity of Crosslinked Biopolymer Networks (United States)

    Lubensky, Tom


    Crosslinked networks of biopolymers exhibit an enormous variety of nonlinear elastic behaviors depending on the rigidity of constituent polymers and the geometry and topology of the network. This talk will present a brief review of the general theory of nonlinear elasticity. It will then discuss the phenomenon of strain stiffening in networks of semiflexible polymers and present a theory [1] of this phenomena based on the nonlinear force-extension curve of these polymers and the simplifying assumption of affine response. The nonlinear stress-strain curves predicted by this theory agree remarkably well with experiments on a number of different polymer networks. Limitations and extensions of the simple theory including extensions to nonaffine behavior will also be discussed. [1] Storm, Cornelis, Jennifer J. Pastore, Jennifer J., Fred C. MacKintosh, Fred C., T.C. Lubensky, T.C., and Paul A. Janmey, Paul A., Nature 435, 191-194 (2005).

  11. Elasticity of Relativistic Rigid Bodies? (United States)

    Smarandache, Florentin


    In the classical Twin Paradox, according to the Special Theory of Relativity, when the traveling twin blasts off from the Earth to a relative velocity v =√{/3 } 2 c with respect to the Earth, his measuring stick and other physical objects in the direction of relative motion shrink to half their lengths. How is that possible in the real physical world to have let's say a rigid rocket shrinking to half and then later elongated back to normal as an elastic material when it stops? What is the explanation for the traveler's measuring stick and other physical objects, in effect, return to the same length to their original length in the Stay-At-Home, but there is no record of their having shrunk? If it's a rigid (not elastic) object, how can it shrink and then elongate back to normal? It might get broken in such situation.

  12. Transient waves in visco-elastic media

    CERN Document Server

    Ricker, Norman


    Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics 10: Transient Waves in Visco-Elastic Media deals with the propagation of transient elastic disturbances in visco-elastic media. More specifically, it explores the visco-elastic behavior of a medium, whether gaseous, liquid, or solid, for very-small-amplitude disturbances. This volume provides a historical overview of the theory of the propagation of elastic waves in solid bodies, along with seismic prospecting and the nature of seismograms. It also discusses the seismic experiments, the behavior of waves propagated in accordance with the Stokes wave

  13. Migration og etnicitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Connie Carøe


    Migration og etnicitet er aktuelle og forbundne fænomener, idet migration øger berøringsfladerne mellem befolkningsgrupper. Etniciteter formes i takt med at grænser drages imellem disse grupper. Imod moderniserings-teoriernes forventning forsvandt etnicitet ikke som en traditionel eller oprindelig...... måde at skabe tilhørsforhold på; globalt set fremstår vor tid istedet som en "migrationens tidsalder", der tilsyneladende også er en tidsalder, hvor kulturelle særtræk, i form af etnicitet, udgør vigtige linjer, hvorefter grupper skilller sig ud fra hinanden. Både migration og etnicitet bringer fokus...... den finder sted i modtagerlandet, men nyere perspektiver på migration, som begreber om medborgerskab, transnationalisme og diaspora er eksponenter for, søger udover den nationalstatslige ramme og inddrager konsekvenserne af migrationen for afsenderlande....

  14. Modelling the elastic properties of cellulose nanopaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Rui; Goutianos, Stergios; Tu, Wei


    The elastic modulus of cellulose nanopaper was predicted using a two-dimensional (2D) micromechanical fibrous network model. The elastic modulus predicted by the network model was 12 GPa, which is well within the range of experimental data for cellulose nanopapers. The stress state in the network...... revealed both tensile and compressive stresses during elastic deformation of the model. The length, diameter, waviness and elastic modulus of the cellulose nanofibres were varied in the model and their effect on the elastic modulus of fibrous networks was studied. It was found that high values of elastic...... moduli of cellulose networks could be obtained for long, thin and straight nanofibres of high stiffness. The effect of inter-fibre bonding and network density was also investigated. Increasing fibre-fibre interactions facilitated stress transfer in cellulose networks and led to a higher elastic modulus...

  15. Propagation des ondes élastiques dans les matériaux non linéaires Aperçu des résultats de laboratoire obtenus sur les roches et des applications possibles en géophysique Propagation of Elastic Waves in Nonlinear Materials Survey of Laboratory Results on Rock and Geophysical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasolofosaon P.


    non-linéarité sous fort confinement, et qui pourraient engendrer un signal résultant d'une interaction onde-onde . Tempérant ce pessimisme, il faut noter qu'un éventuel signal d'interaction non linéaire présenterait l'avantage, quant à sa détection, d'être dans une bande de fréquence différente de celle des ondes utilisées pour l'engendrer. Bien que nous n'ayons pas connaissance d'essais d'application actuels, les perspectives paraissent plus encourageantes dans le domaine du génie civil ou minier. C'est dans le domaine diagraphique, où des distances de propagation sont très faibles, que des applications semblent possibles à moyen terme. Si l'on en juge par le dépôt très récent de plusieurs brevets, les compagnies de logging poursuivraient des recherches dans cette voie. A general and important characteristic of rocks is their elastically nonlinear behavior resulting in significant effects on wave propagation. The nonlinear response of rock is a direct consequence of the compliant nature of rock : the macro-and micro-structure of the material (microcracks, grain-to-grain contacts, etc. . As a result, the material modulus varies as a function of the applied pressure. Interest has grown significantly in the last several years, as illustrated by the increasing number of publications regarding this topic. Here we present a summary of the fundamentals of theory and of experimental observations characteristic of rock, and we address possible applications in geophysics. Two disciplines regarding the nonlinear elasticity of rock have been developed over recent years in tandem :- Acoustoelasticity where wave propagation in statically, prestressed materials is studied. Here one relates the variation in applied pressure to the elastic wavespeed in order to extract the nonlinear coefficients. This area of study includes the topic of stress-induced anisotropy. - Acoustic nonlinearity where we are interested in the temporary and local variation in the elastic

  16. A peridynamic theory for linear elastic shells

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, Shubhankar Roy; Roy, Debasish; Reddy, J N


    A state-based peridynamic formulation for linear elastic shells is presented. The emphasis is on introducing, possibly for the first time, a general surface based peridynamic model to represent the deformation characteristics of structures that have one physical dimension much smaller than the other two. A new notion of curved bonds is exploited to cater for force transfer between the peridynamic particles describing the shell. Starting with the three dimensional force and deformation states, appropriate surface based force, moment and several deformation states are arrived at. Upon application on the curved bonds, such states beget the necessary force and deformation vectors governing the motion of the shell. Correctness of our proposal on the peridynamic shell theory is numerically assessed against static deformation of spherical and cylindrical shells and flat plates.

  17. Macroscopic modelization of the cloud elasticity*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etancelin J.-M.


    Full Text Available In order to achieve its promise of providing information technologies (IT on demand, cloud computing needs to rely on a mathematical model capable of directing IT on and off according to a demand pattern to provide a true elasticity. This article provides a first method to reach this goal using a “fluid type” partial differential equations model. On the one hand it examines the question of service time optimization for the simultaneous satisfaction of the cloud consumer and provider. On the other hand it tries to model a way to deliver resources according to the real time capacity of the cloud that depends on parameters such as burst requests and application timeouts. All these questions are illustrated via an implicit finite volume scheme.

  18. Highly tunable elastic dielectric metasurface lenses

    CERN Document Server

    Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Arbabi, Amir; Horie, Yu; Faraon, Andrei


    Dielectric metasurfaces are two-dimensional structures composed of nano-scatterers that manipulate phase and polarization of optical waves with subwavelength spatial resolution, enabling ultra-thin components for free-space optics. While high performance devices with various functionalities, including some that are difficult to achieve using conventional optical setups have been shown, most demonstrated components have a fixed functionality. Here we demonstrate highly tunable metasurface devices based on subwavelength thick silicon nano-posts encapsulated in a thin transparent elastic polymer. As proof of concept, we demonstrate a metasurface microlens operating at 915 nm, with focal distance tuning from 600 $\\mu$m to 1400 $\\mu$m through radial strain, while maintaining a diffraction limited focus and a focusing efficiency above 50$\\%$. The demonstrated tunable metasurface concept is highly versatile for developing ultra-slim, multi-functional and tunable optical devices with widespread applications ranging f...

  19. On Characterization of Elasticity Parameters in Context of Measurement Errors (United States)

    Slawinski, M. A.


    In this presentation, we discuss the one-to-one relation between the elasticity parameters and the traveltime and polarization of a propagating signal in the context of the measurement errors. The one-to-one relationship between seismic measurements and a model postulated in the realm of the constitutive equation of an elastic continuum provides the link between the observational and theoretical aspects of seismic tomography [1]. The existence of this link encourages us to develop methods of inferring the elasticity parameters from measurements. However, a consideration of required accuracy and the analysis of error sensitivity suggest that the pragmatic application of this one-to-one relationship might be a difficult task indeed [4]. There are eight symmetry classes of an elastic continuum whose properties are contained in the density-scaled elasticity tensor [6]. Given this tensor in an arbitrary coordinate system, we can identify to which symmetry class it belongs, as well as obtain the orientation of its symmetry axes and planes, and hence the elasticity parameters in a natural coordinate system [2]. To obtain the tensor to be studied, we consider either ray velocities and polarizations [1] or wavefront slownesses and polarizations [5]. For the former, we assume that the medium is homogeneous in order to invoke the straightness of rays to calculate ray velocity given the source and receiver position; for the latter, we assume that the medium is homogeneous in at least one direction in order to invoke the ray parameter. In spite of the limitations due to homogeneities, both approaches are sensitive to measurement errors, which are not negligible. In view of these observational concerns [4], we consider several weaker objectives based on the theoretical formulation. Rather than distinguishing among eight symmetry classes and obtaining the corresponding elasticity parameters, we might be able to distinguish among a few groups that contain several classes within


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorana Rancic


    Full Text Available Our methodological procedure established successful technique of the direct dying of elastic fibers and lamellas in elastic tissues. Experiments were carried out on a human autopsy material. Blocks rich in elastic fibers were fixed by 10% buffered neutral formaline and cut in the thickness of 5mm. Deparaffinization of slides is done by xylol treatment (2x15 min. Additional denaturation is achieved by combined solution, which contains 1.2 g of picric acid in 30% solution of glacial acetic acid. By chloramine B application as blocking agent in form of 1% DMSO solution the dye's affinity for eviromental tissue is decreased. Tissues prepared in this way are treated with 0.5% solution of acidic sulfonic color Evans Blue (C.I.23860 in ratio 2:1. Lamellas are dark violet with light violet periphery. Obtained results are in favor of high applicability of this method in light microscopy. In our opinion, this method can be recommended as one of the methods for identification of elastic tissues.

  1. Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics. (United States)

    Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C


    Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Integrating meteorology into research on migration. (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel


    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  3. The gravity model of labor migration behavior (United States)

    Alexandr, Tarasyev; Alexandr, Tarasyev


    In this article, we present a dynamic inter-regional model, that is based on the gravity approach to migration and describes in continuous time the labor force dynamics between a number of conjugate regions. Our modification of the gravity migration model allows to explain the migration processes and to display the impact of migration on the regional economic development both for regions of origin and attraction. The application of our model allows to trace the dependency between salaries levels, total workforce, the number of vacancies and the number unemployed people in simulated regions. Due to the gravity component in our model the accuracy of prediction for migration flows is limited by the distance range between analyzed regions, so this model is tested on a number of conjugate neighbor regions. Future studies will be aimed at development of a multi-level dynamic model, which allows to construct a forecast for unemployment and vacancies trends on the first modeling level and to use these identified parameters on the second level for describing dynamic trajectories of migration flows.



    Kobylinsky S. V.; Usenko A. S.


    Several peculiarities of the implementation of migration policy in the Russian Federation were considered in this article. We have shown main provisions on refugees and forced migrants from the Ukraine and labor migration. On the basis of the study we have suggested an improvement of migration legislation, in particular, creation of a single codex and migration police

  5. Bulk metallic glass composite with good tensile ductility, high strength and large elastic strain limit. (United States)

    Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K C; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang


    Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19' phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties.

  6. Union is strength: matrix elasticity and microenvironmental factors codetermine stem cell differentiation fate. (United States)

    Lv, Hongwei; Li, Lisha; Zhang, Yin; Chen, Zhishen; Sun, Meiyu; Xu, Tiankai; Tian, Licheng; Lu, Man; Ren, Min; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Yulin


    Stem cells are an attractive cellular source for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering applications due to their multipotency. Although the elasticity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been shown to have crucial impacts in directing stem cell differentiation, it is not the only contributing factor. Many researchers have recently attempted to design microenvironments that mimic the stem cell niche with combinations of ECM elasticity and other cues, such as ECM physical properties, soluble biochemical factors and cell-cell interactions, thereby driving cells towards their preferred lineages. Here, we briefly discuss the effect of matrix elasticity on stem cell lineage specification and then summarize recent advances in the study of the combined effects of ECM elasticity and other cues on the differentiation of stem cells, focusing on two aspects: biophysical and biochemical factors. In the future, biomedical scientists will continue investigating the union strength of matrix elasticity and microenvironmental cues for manipulating stem cell fates.

  7. A scoping review of the use of elastic therapeutic tape for neck or upper extremity conditions. (United States)

    Taylor, Raewyn L; O'Brien, Lisa; Brown, Ted


    Scoping review. Elastic therapeutic tape is a relatively new intervention for treating a variety of injuries; however, there is little evidence to support its effectiveness for neck or upper extremity conditions. This scoping review examines current evidence on the recommended application, purpose and effectiveness of elastic therapeutic tape for treating neck or upper extremity conditions. A scoping review was conducted to examine the evidence in 14 peer-reviewed published articles that reported on the use of elastic therapeutic tape for neck or upper extremity conditions. Six studies reported statistically significant changes to pain with the use of elastic therapeutic tape. Only three studies found statistically significant changes to range of motion. Elastic therapeutic tape may play a role in reducing short-term neck and upper extremity pain, however future high quality studies that contribute to the evidence base for its use are needed. N/A. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of dietary and/or cosmetic argan oil on postmenopausal skin elasticity. (United States)

    Boucetta, Kenza Qiraouani; Charrouf, Zoubida; Aguenaou, Hassan; Derouiche, Abdelfattah; Bensouda, Yahya


    During menopause, the decrease of estrogenic secretion induces the disruption of skin functioning, thus causing the decline in skin elasticity characteristic of skin aging. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in postmenopausal women the effect of daily consumption and/or application of argan oil on skin elasticity. Sixty postmenopausal women consumed butter during the stabilization period and were randomly divided into two groups for the intervention period: the treatment group of 30 participants received dietary argan oil, the control group of 30 participants received olive oil, and both groups applied cosmetic argan oil in the left volar forearm during a 60-day period. Assessments of skin elasticity parameters, ie, the three R-parameters (R2 or gross-elasticity of the skin, R5 or net elasticity of the skin, and R7 or biological elasticity), and the resonance running time (RRT) at both volar forearms of the two groups were performed during three visits: before starting oils consumption and application, after 30 days of oils consumption and application, and after 60 days of oils consumption and application. The consumption of argan oil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (Pskin (R5) (Poil led to a significant increase of gross-elasticity of the skin (R2) (Pskin (R5) (Poil have an anti-aging effect on the skin demonstrated by the improvement of skin elasticity, characterized by an increase of R-parameters (R2, R5, and R7) and a decrease of RRT.

  9. Study of an API migration for two XML APIs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. Bartholomei; K. Czarnecki; R. Lämmel (Ralf); T. van der Storm (Tijs); M.G.J. van den Brand (Mark); D. Gasevic; J. Gray


    htmlabstractAPI migration refers to adapting an application such that its dependence on a given API (the source API) is eliminated in favor of depending on an alternative API (the target API) with the source and target APIs serving the same domain. One may attempt to automate API migration by code

  10. Eliciting illegal migration rates through list randomization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKenzie, D.; Siegel, M.


    Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. We trial this technique by adding it to

  11. Variable Joint Elasticities in Running (United States)

    Peter, Stephan; Grimmer, Sten; Lipfert, Susanne W.; Seyfarth, Andre

    In this paper we investigate how spring-like leg behavior in human running is represented at joint level. We assume linear torsion springs in the joints and between the knee and the ankle joint. Using experimental data of the leg dynamics we compute how the spring parameters (stiffness and rest angles) change during gait cycle. We found that during contact the joints reveal elasticity with strongly changing parameters and compare the changes of different parameters for different spring arrangements. The results may help to design and improve biologically inspired spring mechanisms with adjustable parameters.

  12. Wave motion in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Graff, Karl F


    This highly useful textbook presents comprehensive intermediate-level coverage of nearly all major topics of elastic wave propagation in solids. The subjects range from the elementary theory of waves and vibrations in strings to the three-dimensional theory of waves in thick plates. The book is designed not only for a wide audience of engineering students, but also as a general reference for workers in vibrations and acoustics. Chapters 1-4 cover wave motion in the simple structural shapes, namely strings, longitudinal rod motion, beams and membranes, plates and (cylindrical) shells. Chapter

  13. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan


    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  14. Elastic Moduli of Carbon Nanohorns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar


    Full Text Available Carbon nanotube is a special case of carbon nanohorns or carbon nanocones with zero apex angle. Research into carbon nanohorns started almost at the same time as the discovery of nanotubes in 1991. Most researchers focused on the investigation of nanotubes, and the exploration of nanohorns attracted little attention. To model the carbon nanohorns, we make use of a more reliable second-generation reactive empirical bond-order potential by Brenner and coworkers. We investigate the elastic moduli and conclude that these nanohorns are equally strong and require in-depth investigation. The values of Young's and Shear moduli decrease with apex angle.

  15. Migration and health. (United States)

    Evans, J; Baldwin, W


    Investigation of migration and health often forces us to acknowledge that the types of migration (international, internal, and residential) interact with each other as well as other population parameters such as the age/sex structure, sexual activity, fertility, mortality, and family structure. Research on migration is often obscured by these interactions. In fact, the adoption of a health perspective in the design of migration research represents a substantial improvement over traditional approaches that are based on distinctions among the various types of population movement. This is because a health perspective treats population movement as a dynamic process by which individuals are related to specific locations by reason of their participation in human networks. In other words, migration is regarded as a human process rather than a discrete event, and accordingly, it becomes less important to describe the individual's involvement with human networks and the institutions sustaining them. The use of a health perspective in migration research often calls our attention to the ways in which the types of migration are interconnected. For example, a migrant from Mexico might exhibit considerable internal mobility and may circulate between Mexico might exhibit considerable internal mobility and may circulate between Mexico and the US over several years until he develops enough contacts in the US to settle in a particular community in which his personal contact with human networks and place-specific institutions are conducive to settlement. Through him, family members may attach to the community. In the process, they all encounter health risks, make demands on the health care system, change the demographic/health characteristics of both sending and receiving places, sometimes act as transmitting agents of disease to those with whom they interact and, undergo changes in their levels of personal development and well-being. A research perspective that investigates these

  16. Strain Stiffening of Fibrillar Collagen during Individual and Collective Cell Migration Identified by AFM Nanoindentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvert, S. van; Friedl, P.


    The multistep process of cell migration requires cells to dynamically couple to extracellular interfaces and generate traction force or friction for displacement of the cell body. When deformed, biopolymer networks, including fibrillar collagen and fibrin, undergo a nonlinear elasticity change that

  17. Validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method for determining the migration of primary aromatic amines from cooking utensils and its application to actual samples. (United States)

    Sendón, Raquel; Bustos, Juana; Sánchez, Jose Juan; Paseiro, Perfecto; Cirugeda, Ma Eugenia


    Many cooking utensils are made of nylon, a material that may incorporate azodyes and where primary aromatic amines (PAAs) are the starting substances. Moreover, aromatic amines may also be present as technical impurities. Another source of PAAs could be aromatic isocyanates used as monomers in the production of polyurethanes. The aim of this work was to validate a simple LC-MS/MS method for the determination of eight primary aromatic amines (m-phenylenediamine, 2,6- and 2,4-toluenediamine, 1,5-diaminonaphthalene, aniline, 4,4'-diaminonaphenylether, 4,4'-methylenedianiline and 3,3'-dimethylbenzidine) in the aqueous food simulant 3% acetic acid (w/v). The detection limits calculated were adequate with respect to present legislation. The method was validated at four concentration levels (2, 5 10 and 20 microg kg(-1)). Global internal reproducibility was in the range 5.6-21.4% (RSD(R)) depending on the compound and concentration. Mean recoveries for all levels varied between 89 and 100%, depending on the amine. A total of 39 samples of cooking utensils were analyzed using the described method and the results obtained after the third migration test were not compliant in approximately half of the samples.

  18. Migration = cloning; aliasiing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüttel, Hans; Kleist, Josva; Nestmann, Uwe


    In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider the creat......In Obliq, a lexically scoped, distributed, object-oriented programming language, object migration was suggested as the creation of a copy of an object’s state at the target site, followed by turning the object itself into an alias, also called surrogate, for the remote copy. We consider...... the creation of object surrogates as an abstraction of the abovementioned style of migration. We introduce Øjeblik, a distribution-free subset of Obliq, and provide three different configuration-style semantics, which only differ in the respective aliasing model. We show that two of the semantics, one of which...... matches Obliq’s implementation, render migration unsafe, while our new proposal for a third semantics is provably safe. Our work suggests a straightforward repair of Obliq’s aliasing model such that it allows programs to safely migrate objects....

  19. A new approach to ultrasonic elasticity imaging (United States)

    Hoerig, Cameron; Ghaboussi, Jamshid; Fatemi, Mostafa; Insana, Michael F.


    Biomechanical properties of soft tissues can provide information regarding the local health status. Often the cells in pathological tissues can be found to form a stiff extracellular environment, which is a sensitive, early diagnostic indicator of disease. Quasi-static ultrasonic elasticity imaging provides a way to image the mechanical properties of tissues. Strain images provide a map of the relative tissue stiffness, but ambiguities and artifacts limit its diagnostic value. Accurately mapping intrinsic mechanical parameters of a region may increase diagnostic specificity. However, the inverse problem, whereby force and displacement estimates are used to estimate a constitutive matrix, is ill conditioned. Our method avoids many of the issues involved with solving the inverse problem, such as unknown boundary conditions and incomplete information about the stress field, by building an empirical model directly from measured data. Surface force and volumetric displacement data gathered during imaging are used in conjunction with the AutoProgressive method to teach artificial neural networks the stress-strain relationship of tissues. The Autoprogressive algorithm has been successfully used in many civil engineering applications and to estimate ocular pressure and corneal stiffness; here, we are expanding its use to any tissues imaged ultrasonically. We show that force-displacement data recorded with an ultrasound probe and displacements estimated at a few points in the imaged region can be used to estimate the full stress and strain vectors throughout an entire model while only assuming conservation laws. We will also demonstrate methods to parameterize the mechanical properties based on the stress-strain response of trained neural networks. This method is a fundamentally new approach to medical elasticity imaging that for the first time provides full stress and strain vectors from one set of observation data.

  20. En fornemmelse for migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schütze, Laura Maria

    Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan sted, museets rolle som aktør og religion er relevante for produktionen af migration på Immigrantmuseet (2012) og i Københavns Museums udstilling At blive københavner (2010). Afhandlingen er baseret på udstillingsanalyse samt interview med relevant museumsfagligt......, anvendes som virkemidler til at nuancere migration og distancere udstillingen fra den offentlige debat om indvandring. Afhandlingen peger på, at produktionen af den nyere danske historie på museum er præget af et fravær af religion. Det skyldes, at de museumsfaglige praksisser og traditioner afspejler en...... identiteter, som vi tager for givet: nationer, byer, kvinder - såvel som migration og religion. Afhandlingen argumenterer følgelig for, at museernes produktion af (materiel) religion er et særdeles relevant, men kun ringe udforsket, genstandsfelt for religionssociologien....

  1. More myths of migration. (United States)

    Basch, L; Lerner, G


    This paper discusses some of the myths of migration. The 5 myths presented are: 1) racism has little to do with the causes of migration and does not necessarily impede the adjustment or success of migrants; 2) in areas where there is a strong feminist movement and trade unions, migrant women receive their support and can count on the solidarity of these organizations; 3) transnational corporations are positive forces in the developing countries where they operate--not only do they provide these states with new sources of capital, but they also impart new industrial skills to the labor force; 4) migration today is essentially short-term in nature--it therefore does not have a strong impact on family life; and 5) most migrants cluster together in ethnic enclaves which provide a strong source of support and diminish dislocation inherent in the migrant process.

  2. Demand Elasticities for Mobile Telecommunications in Austria


    Dewenter, Ralf; Haucap, Justus


    This paper analyses price elasticities in the Austrian market for mobile telecommunications services using data on firm specific tariffs in the period between January 1998 and March 2002. Dynamic panel data regressions are used to estimate short-run and long-run demand elasticities for business customers and for private consumers with both postpaid contracts and prepaid cards.We find that business customers have a higher elasticity of demand than private consumers, where postpaid customers te...

  3. Elastic deformations driven by non-uniform lubrication flows

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Shimon; Gat, Amir; Bercovici, Moran


    The ability to create dynamic deformations of micron-sized structures is relevant to a wide variety of applications such as adaptable optics, soft robotics, and reconfigurable microfluidic devices. In this work we examine non-uniform lubrication flow as a mechanism to create complex deformation fields in an elastic plate. We consider a Kirchoff-Love elasticity model for the plate and Hele-Shaw flow in a narrow gap between the plate and a parallel rigid surface. Based on linearization of the Reynolds equation, we obtain a governing equation which relates elastic deformations to gradients in non-homogenous physical properties of the fluid (e.g. body forces, viscosity, and slip velocity). We then focus on a specific case of non-uniform Helmholtz-Smoluchowski electroosmotic slip velocity, and provide a method for determining the zeta-potential distribution necessary to generate arbitrary static and quasi-static deformations of the elastic plate. Extending the problem to time-dependent solutions, we analyze transi...

  4. Medical ultrasound: imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity. (United States)

    Wells, Peter N T; Liang, Hai-Dong


    After X-radiography, ultrasound is now the most common of all the medical imaging technologies. For millennia, manual palpation has been used to assist in diagnosis, but it is subjective and restricted to larger and more superficial structures. Following an introduction to the subject of elasticity, the elasticity of biological soft tissues is discussed and published data are presented. The basic physical principles of pulse-echo and Doppler ultrasonic techniques are explained. The history of ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is summarized, together with a brief critique of previously published reviews. The relevant techniques-low-frequency vibration, step, freehand and physiological displacement, and radiation force (displacement, impulse, shear wave and acoustic emission)-are described. Tissue-mimicking materials are indispensible for the assessment of these techniques and their characteristics are reported. Emerging clinical applications in breast disease, cardiology, dermatology, gastroenterology, gynaecology, minimally invasive surgery, musculoskeletal studies, radiotherapy, tissue engineering, urology and vascular disease are critically discussed. It is concluded that ultrasonic imaging of soft tissue strain and elasticity is now sufficiently well developed to have clinical utility. The potential for further research is examined and it is anticipated that the technology will become a powerful mainstream investigative tool.

  5. Einstein viscosity with fluid elasticity (United States)

    Einarsson, Jonas; Yang, Mengfei; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.


    We give the first correction to the suspension viscosity due to fluid elasticity for a dilute suspension of spheres in a viscoelastic medium. Our perturbation theory is valid to O (ϕ Wi2) in the particle volume fraction ϕ and the Weissenberg number Wi =γ ˙λ , where γ ˙ is the typical magnitude of the suspension velocity gradient, and λ is the relaxation time of the viscoelastic fluid. For shear flow we find that the suspension shear-thickens due to elastic stretching in strain "hot spots" near the particle, despite the fact that the stress inside the particles decreases relative to the Newtonian case. We thus argue that it is crucial to correctly model the extensional rheology of the suspending medium to predict the shear rheology of the suspension. For uniaxial extensional flow we correct existing results at O (ϕ Wi ) , and find dramatic strain-rate thickening at O (ϕ Wi2) . We validate our theory with fully resolved numerical simulations.

  6. Elegent -- an elastic event generator

    CERN Document Server

    Kašpar, Jan


    Although elastic scattering of nucleons may look like a simple process, it presents a long-lasting challenge for theory. Due to missing hard energy scale, the perturbative QCD can not be applied. Instead, many phenomenological/theoretical models have emerged. In this paper we present a unified implementation of some of the most prominent models in a C++ library, moreover extended to account for effects of the electromagnetic interaction. The library is complemented with a number of utilities. For instance, programs to sample many distributions of interest in four-momentum transfer squared, t, impact parameter, b, and collision energy sqrt(s). These distributions at ISR, SppS, RHIC, Tevatron and LHC energies are available for download from the project web site. Both in the form of ROOT files and PDF figures providing comparisons among the models. The package includes also a tool for Monte-Carlo generation of elastic scattering events, which can easily be embedded in any other program framework.

  7. Continuum mechanics elasticity, plasticity, viscoelasticity

    CERN Document Server

    Dill, Ellis H


    FUNDAMENTALS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICSMaterial ModelsClassical Space-TimeMaterial BodiesStrainRate of StrainCurvilinear Coordinate SystemsConservation of MassBalance of MomentumBalance of EnergyConstitutive EquationsThermodynamic DissipationObjectivity: Invariance for Rigid MotionsColeman-Mizel ModelFluid MechanicsProblems for Chapter 1BibliographyNONLINEAR ELASTICITYThermoelasticityMaterial SymmetriesIsotropic MaterialsIncompressible MaterialsConjugate Measures of Stress and StrainSome Symmetry GroupsRate Formulations for Elastic MaterialsEnergy PrinciplesGeometry of Small DeformationsLinear ElasticitySpecial Constitutive Models for Isotropic MaterialsMechanical Restrictions on the Constitutive RelationsProblems for Chapter 2BibliographyLINEAR ELASTICITYBasic EquationsPlane StrainPlane StressProperties of SolutionsPotential EnergySpecial Matrix NotationThe Finite Element Method of SolutionGeneral Equations for an Assembly of ElementsFinite Element Analysis for Large DeformationsProblems for Chapter 3Bibliograph...

  8. Design of Linear Series Elastic Actuators for a Humanoid Robot


    Knabe, Coleman Scott


    Series elastic actuators (SEAs) have numerous benefits for force controlled robotic applications. This thesis presents the design and assembly of a set of compact, lightweight, low-friction linear SEAs for the legs of the Tactical Hazardous Operations Robot (THOR). The THOR SEA pairs a ball screw driven linear actuator with a configurable titanium leaf spring. A removable pivot changes the effective cantilever length, setting the compliance to either 372 or 655 kN/m. Unlike typical SEAs which...

  9. Inversion problem for ion-atom differential elastic scattering. (United States)

    Rich, W. G.; Bobbio, S. M.; Champion, R. L.; Doverspike, L. D.


    The paper describes a practical application of Remler's (1971) method by which one constructs a set of phase shifts from high resolution measurements of the differential elastic scattering of protons by rare-gas atoms. These JWKB phase shifts are then formally inverted to determine the corresponding intermolecular potentials. The validity of the method is demonstrated by comparing an intermolecular potential obtained by direct inversion of experimental data with a fairly accurate calculation by Wolniewicz (1965).

  10. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Domino, L; Patinet, Sylvain; Eddi, A


    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying sub-wavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  11. Faraday wave lattice as an elastic metamaterial. (United States)

    Domino, L; Tarpin, M; Patinet, S; Eddi, A


    Metamaterials enable the emergence of novel physical properties due to the existence of an underlying subwavelength structure. Here, we use the Faraday instability to shape the fluid-air interface with a regular pattern. This pattern undergoes an oscillating secondary instability and exhibits spontaneous vibrations that are analogous to transverse elastic waves. By locally forcing these waves, we fully characterize their dispersion relation and show that a Faraday pattern presents an effective shear elasticity. We propose a physical mechanism combining surface tension with the Faraday structured interface that quantitatively predicts the elastic wave phase speed, revealing that the liquid interface behaves as an elastic metamaterial.

  12. Transventricular Migration of Neurocysticercosis. (United States)

    Shah, Abhidha; Vutha, Ravikiran; Sankhe, Shilpa; Goel, Atul


    The movements of a neurocysticercosis cyst within the ventricular cavity have been identified rarely. A 22-year old male patient presented with the main symptom of diplopia for about a week. Findings of the neurologic examination revealed bilateral sixth cranial nerve weakness. Investigations during the period showed an intraventricular tumor that migrated from lateral ventricle to the third ventricle and subsequently to the fourth ventricle. The lesion was resected from the fourth ventricle and was identified to be a neurocysticercosis cyst. Such an intraventricular migration of any kind of tumor has not been recorded in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Migration, Narration, Identity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leese, Peter

    three consecutive summers from 2010 to 2012. The articles focus on various aspects of the migrant experience and try to answer questions about migrant identity and its representations in literature and the media. The book closes with an original play by Carlos Morton, the Chicano playwright working......(co-editor with Carly McLaughlin and Wladyslaw Witalisz) This book presents articles resulting from joint research on the representations of migration conducted in connection with the Erasmus Intensive Programme entitled «Migration and Narration» taught to groups of international students over...

  14. International Migration of Couples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till


    Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts that the probabil......Migrant self-selection is important to labor markets and public finances in both origin and destination countries. We develop a theoretical model regarding the migration of dual-earner couples and test it using population-wide administrative data from Denmark. Our model predicts...

  15. Samtidskunst og migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anne Ring


    "Samtidskunst og migration. En oversigt over faglitteraturen" er en forskningsoversigt der gør status over hvad der hidtil er skrevet inden for det kunsthistoriske område om vor tids billedkunst og migration som politisk, socialt og kulturelt fænomen, primært i forbindelse med immigration til...... Europa og i bredere forstand Vesten. Rapporten er en intern rapport som er lavet i tilknytning til det kollektive forskningsprojekt "Islam i europæisk litteratur" på Afdelingen for Litteraturvidenskab og Moderne Kultur og indleveret til dette projekts leder, Peter Madsen....

  16. Making Migration Meaningful

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benwell, Ann Fenger


    . The article focuses on changing patterns of mobility in the Mongolian ‘age of the market’ and its effects on population groups. Internal and international migration has continually risen as individuals and families have moved to places of opportunity. Connections are believed to be maintained during periods...... of absence by migrant family members, as both men and women are culturally permitted to be separate from their families. Migration is understood to contribute to prosperity, and separations contribute to generate growth and hishig (good fortune) for the good of the family. However, such mobility is also...

  17. [Migration and diabetes]. (United States)

    Aydinkoc-Tuzcu, Kadriye; Schindler, Karin; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Ludvik, Bernhard; Fasching, Peter


    The article deals with the demographic data of migration in Austria and with therapeutic advice concerning drug therapy and diabetes education for patients with migration background. In this context socio-cultural specifics are discussed. These suggestions are seen complementary to the general treatment guidelines of the Austrian Diabetes Association.Especially for the fast months Ramadan there are a lot of informations. The most important point is that the patient care must be highly individualized and the management plan may differ for each patient.

  18. What's driving migration? (United States)

    Kane, H


    During the 1990s investment in prevention of international or internal migration declined, and crisis intervention increased. The budgets of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees and the UN Development Program remained about the same. The operating assumption is that war, persecution, famine, and environmental and social disintegration are inevitable. Future efforts should be directed to stabilizing populations through investment in sanitation, public health, preventive medicine, land tenure, environmental protection, and literacy. Forces pushing migration are likely to increase in the future. Forces include depletion of natural resources, income disparities, population pressure, and political disruption. The causes of migration are not constant. In the past, migration occurred during conquests, settlement, intermarriage, or religious conversion and was a collective movement. Current migration involves mass movement of individuals and the struggle to survive. There is new pressure to leave poor squatter settlements and the scarcities in land, water, and food. The slave trade between the 1500s and the 1800s linked continents, and only 2-3 million voluntarily crossed national borders. Involuntary migration began in the early 1800s when European feudal systems were in a decline, and people sought freedom. Official refugees, who satisfy the strict 1951 UN definition, increased from 15 million in 1980 to 23 million in 1990 but remained a small proportion of international migrants. Much of the mass movement occurs between developing countries. Migration to developed countries is accompanied by growing intolerance, which is misinformed. China practices a form of "population transfer" in Tibet in order to dilute Tibetan nationalism. Colonization of countries is a new less expensive form of control over territory. Eviction of minorities is another popular strategy in Iraq. Public works projects supported by foreign aid displace millions annually. War and civil conflicts

  19. Traveltime-based reflection full-waveform inversion for elastic medium (United States)

    Wang, Guanchao; Wang, Shangxu; Du, Qizhen; Yuan, Sanyi


    The main difficulty of full waveform inversion (FWI) based on local optimization methods is that it tends to trap in local minima or cycle-skipping associated with inaccurate initial models and waveform misfit functions, especially for elastic media. To address this issue, we first discuss the relationship between reverse time migration (RTM) and traditional reflection FWI (RFWI). Then, we present an elastic RFWI (ERFWI) methodology. However, for ERFWI, high nonlinearity still exists in data residuals related misfit function, when true amplitude migration is not adopted. To further mitigate the cycle skipping and avoid the requirements of true amplitude migration, we develop a traveltime-based ERFWI method to update the low-wavenumber components of P- and S-velocity models. The traveltime-based ERFWI only eliminates traveltime residuals along the wave-path of sensitivity kernels to extract the long-wavelength background of the middle and deep parts. Once the traveltime of reflected waves is described correctly, the inversion result using the traveltime-based ERFWI method could be used as a velocity model for prestack depth migration (PSDM) or as an initial model for the conventional FWI to obtain high-resolution velocity model. The final results by combining traveltime-based ERFWI and conventional FWI illustrate that the combined method can obtain an improved result, compared with regular FWI methods.

  20. The role of Vimentin in Regulating Cell Invasive Migration in Dense Cultures of Breast Carcinoma Cells (United States)

    Messica, Yonatan; Laser-Azogui, Adi; Volberg, Tova; Elisha, Yair; Lysakovskaia, Kseniia; Eils, Roland; Gladilin, Evgeny; Geiger, Benjamin; Beck, Roy


    Cell migration and mechanics are tightly regulated by the integrated activities of the various cytoskeletal networks. In cancer cells, cytoskeletal modulations have been implicated in the loss of tissue integrity, and acquisition of an invasive phenotype. In epithelial cancers, for example, increased expression of the cytoskeletal filament protein vimentin correlates with metastatic potential. Nonetheless, the exact mechanism whereby vimentin affects cell motility remains poorly understood. In this study, we measured the effects of vimentin expression on the mechano-elastic and migratory properties of the highly invasive breast carcinoma cell line MDA231. We demonstrate here that vimentin stiffens cells and enhances cell migration in dense cultures, but exerts little or no effect on the migration of sparsely plated cells. These results suggest that cell-cell interactions play a key role in regulating cell migration, and coordinating cell movement in dense cultures. Our findings pave the way towards understanding the relationship between cell migration and mechanics, in a biologically relevant context.

  1. Migration scenarii in extrasolar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crida A.


    Full Text Available In this review talk, I present the theory of type I migration of small mass planets, and its latest developments that open the possibility of outward migration in the inner part of a protoplanetary disk. I also review the type II migration of giant planets, and mention the runaway, type III. Then, we focus on the migration of pairs of planets in resonance. The eccentricity of the planets raise, and possibly their mutual inclination as well. Also, the migration rate can be changed, and directed outward if the outer planet is the lighter. Last, we present a synthetic scenario of migration for the giant planets of our Solar System.

  2. Magnetically actuated microstructured surfaces can actively modify cell migration behaviour. (United States)

    Khademolhosseini, F; Liu, C-C; Lim, C J; Chiao, M


    We present a study on the application of magnetically actuated polymer micropillar surfaces in modifying the migration behaviour of cells. We show that micropillar surfaces actuated at a frequency of 1 Hz can cause more than a 5-fold decrease in cell migration rates compared to controls, whereas non-actuated micropillar surfaces cause no statistically significant alterations in cell migration rates. The effectiveness of the micropillar arrays in impeding cell migration depends on micropillar density and placement patterns, as well as the direction of micropillar actuation with respect to the direction of cell migration. Since the magnetic micropillar surfaces presented can be actuated remotely with small external magnetic fields, their integration with implants could provide new possibilities for in-vivo tissue engineering applications.

  3. 3D pre-stack time migration; Kiruhihoffuho ni yoru sanjigen jugo mae jikan migration shori

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Y.; Matsuoka, T. [Japan Petroleum Exploration Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Tsuru, T. [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    This paper reports pre-stack migration in elastic wave exploration as to its algorithm and examples of processed data. The time migration processing hypothesizes that seismic waves propagate linearly. It calculates travel time by dividing the sum of the straight distance from a vibration transmitting point to an image point and the straight distance from the image point to a vibration receiving point with RMS velocity given as a parameter. To maintain the relative relation of amplitude sizes, the signal on an elliptic body is made smaller in inverse proportion to the size of that elliptic body. With regard to apparent interval of input trace as seen from the reflection surface, or with regard to density, the signal is made smaller by cos{theta} times. While this program deals with three-dimensional migration, its output turns out as an arbitrary two-dimensional plane. The program requires a huge amount of data processing, whereas a method is used, that the input trace is divided, each group is processed by using separate computers, and the results are summed up. 3 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Effects of Host-rock Fracturing on Elastic-deformation Source Models of Volcano Deflation. (United States)

    Holohan, Eoghan P; Sudhaus, Henriette; Walter, Thomas R; Schöpfer, Martin P J; Walsh, John J


    Volcanoes commonly inflate or deflate during episodes of unrest or eruption. Continuum mechanics models that assume linear elastic deformation of the Earth's crust are routinely used to invert the observed ground motions. The source(s) of deformation in such models are generally interpreted in terms of magma bodies or pathways, and thus form a basis for hazard assessment and mitigation. Using discontinuum mechanics models, we show how host-rock fracturing (i.e. non-elastic deformation) during drainage of a magma body can progressively change the shape and depth of an elastic-deformation source. We argue that this effect explains the marked spatio-temporal changes in source model attributes inferred for the March-April 2007 eruption of Piton de la Fournaise volcano, La Reunion. We find that pronounced deflation-related host-rock fracturing can: (1) yield inclined source model geometries for a horizontal magma body; (2) cause significant upward migration of an elastic-deformation source, leading to underestimation of the true magma body depth and potentially to a misinterpretation of ascending magma; and (3) at least partly explain underestimation by elastic-deformation sources of changes in sub-surface magma volume.

  5. Migration and regional inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peng, Lianqing; Swider, Sarah


    rising, regional inequality has actually decreased, and most recently, remained stable. Our study suggests that China’s unique migratory regime is crucial to understanding these findings. We conduct a counterfactual simulation to demonstrate how migration and remittances have mitigated income inequality...

  6. Migration as Adventure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog


    Narratives of adventure constitute a well-established convention of describing travel experiences, yet the significance of this narrative genre in individuals’ accounts of their migration and life abroad has been little investigated. Drawing on Simmel and Bakhtin, among others, this article...

  7. Digitizing migration heritage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marselis, Randi


    Museums are increasingly digitizing their collections and making them available to the public on-line. Creating such digital resources may become means for social inclusion. For museums that acknowledge migration history and cultures of ethnic minority groups as important subjects in multiethnic...

  8. Diel vertical migrat..

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jan 24, 2002 ... crustacean zooplankton but also in a Wide array of different marine zooplankton groups. (Russell 1927, McLaren 1963). Thus there is no doubt that ..... cooperation during field work and for their fruitful discussion on the draft manuscript. REFERENCES. Bayly lAE 1986 Aspects of diel vertical migration in ...

  9. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco


    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  10. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  11. Migrating the Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    The migration of Blaga’s universalist, even centralist poems from Romanian of the first third of the 20th C. into American of the first fifth of the 21st C. illustrates the uses of Pierre Joris’s nomadic methods. My translations of Blaga read well for a teenage audience whose only exposure to lit...

  12. Practical Data Migration

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, Johny


    This book is for executives and practitioners tasked with the movement of data from old systems to a new repository. It uses a series of steps guaranteed to get the reader from an empty new system to one that is working and backed by the user population. Using this proven methodology will vastly increase the chances of a successful migration.

  13. On the inverse problem in high-energy elastic hadron scattering and the applicability of a representation for the real part of the amplitude;Um estudo sobre o problema inverso do espalhamento elastico de hadrons em altas energias e a aplicabilidade de uma representacao para a parte real da amplitude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fagundes, Daniel Almeida


    The theoretical description of high-energy elastic hadron scattering constitutes an open problem in both, the underlying quantum field theory of strong interactions (QCD) and the phenomenological context. In this work the inverse problem in elastic hadron scattering is discussed in the impact parameter and eikonal frameworks, specifically a study on the empirical extraction of the profile, the inelastic overlap and the eikonal functions, from the experimental data and some principles and high-energy theorems (model independent). The analysis is limited to elastic proton-proton scattering in the center of momentum energy interval 19.4 - 62.5 GeV. In particular, a novel representation for the Martin's Real Part Formula is introduced but without the scaling property and suitable for empirical analysis. By means of this representation, and two other parametrizations previously introduced (constrained and unconstrained), several properties of the inelastic overlap function and the imaginary part of the eikonal (opacity) in the momentum transfer space are determined, in special: (1) evidence of a peripheral effect (tail) in the inelastic overlap function in the parameter impact space above 2 fm; (2) development of analytical parametrizations for this function leading to three gaussian components with centers at 0.0, {approx}0.7 and {approx}1.3 fm; (3) evidence of a finite zero (change of sign) in the opacity function in the momentum transfer space; (4) development of empirical parametrization for this function consistent with form factors as a product of two monopoles with constrained masses (not a dipole type) and a term with zero; (5) detailed discussion on the determination of the opacity function in the momentum transfer space through the semi-analytical approach. The applicability of these empirical results in the development of eikonal models (mainly those inspired in QCD) is also discussed. (author)

  14. Multidiscipline simulation of elastic manipulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Rølvåg


    Full Text Available This paper contributes to multidiscipline simulation of elastic robot manipulators in FEDEM. All developments presented in this paper are based on the formulations in FEDEM, a simulation system developed by the authors which combines finite element, mechanism and control analysis. In order to establish this general simulation system as an efficient multidiscipline robot design tool a robot control system including a high level robot programming language, interpolation algorithms, path generation algorithms, forward and inverse kinematics, control systems, gear and transmission models are implemented. These new features provide a high level of integration between traditionally separate design disciplines from the very beginning of the design and optimization process. Several simulations have shown that high fidelity mathematical models can be derived and used as a basis for dynamic analysis and controller design in FEDEM.

  15. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells (United States)

    Vella, Dominic; Ajdari, Amin; Vaziri, Ashkan; Boudaoud, Arezki


    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells.

  16. Wrinkling of Pressurized Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic


    We study the formation of localized structures formed by the point loading of an internally pressurized elastic shell. While unpressurized shells (such as a ping-pong ball) buckle into polygonal structures, we show that pressurized shells are subject to a wrinkling instability. We study wrinkling in depth, presenting scaling laws for the critical indentation at which wrinkling occurs and the number of wrinkles formed in terms of the internal pressurization and material properties of the shell. These results are validated by numerical simulations. We show that the evolution of the wrinkle length with increasing indentation can be understood for highly pressurized shells from membrane theory. These results suggest that the position and number of wrinkles may be used in combination to give simple methods for the estimation of the mechanical properties of highly pressurized shells. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  17. Elastic modulus of hard tissues. (United States)

    Bar-On, Benny; Wagner, H Daniel


    This work aims at evaluating the elastic modulus of hard biological tissues by considering their staggered platelet micro-structure. An analytical expression for the effective modulus along the stagger direction is formulated using three non-dimensional structural variables. Structures with a single staggered hierarchy (e.g. collagen fibril) are first studied and predictions are compared with the experimental results and finite element simulations from the literature. A more complicated configuration, such as an array of fibrils, is analyzed next. Finally, a mechanical model is proposed for tooth dentin, in which variations in the multi-scale structural hierarchy are shown to significantly affect the macroscopic mechanical properties. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimization Of Elastic Bridge Trusses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignas Rimkus


    Full Text Available The article analyzes the problems of optimizing elastic bridgetrusses, which is a tool for seeking the establishment of theminimum volume (mass of construction and optimization of thecross-section area and height as well as the structure of the truss.It has been formulated as a nonlinear discrete mathematical programmingproblem. The upper band of the truss works not onlyfor compression but also for bending. The cross-sections of theelements are designed from rolled steel sections. Mathematicalmodels are prepared by using the finite element method and complyingwith requirements for the strength, stiffness and stabilityof the structure. The formulated problems are solved referringto an iterative process and applying the mathematical softwarepackage “MATLAB” along with routine “fmincon”. The ratio ofbuckling is corrected in every case of iteration. Requirementsfor cross-section assortment (discretion are fulfilled employingthe branch and bound method.

  19. Determination of Aortic Elasticity from MR- and CT- Images Using an Automatic Active Contour Model


    Krug, Roland


    The possibility to monitor changes in aortic elasticity in humans has important applications for clinical trials predicting arterial diseases before they become morphologically apparent. The elasticity is usually quantified by compliance measurements. Therefore, the relative temporal change in vessel cross-sectional area through the cardiac cycle or alternatively, the pulse-wave velocity has to be determined. In this work we determined the compliance via 3 MR methods (FLASH, TrueFISP and puls...

  20. Shear elastic modulus of magnetic gels with random distribution of magnetizable particles (United States)

    Iskakova, L. Yu; Zubarev, A. Yu


    Magnetic gels present new type of composite materials with rich set of uniquie physical properties, which find active applications in many industrial and bio-medical technologies. We present results of mathematically strict theoretical study of elastic modulus of these systems with randomly distributed magnetizable particles in an elastic medium. The results show that an external magnetic field can pronouncedly increase the shear modulus of these composites.

  1. From Migration Regime to Regional Citizenry: Migration and Identity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I examine the East African common market, taken as a regional migration regime, and draw its implications for intra-regional migration and identity formation. Using desk research, I analyse the common market Protocol's provisions and envisage the implications of its implementation for intraregional migration and identity ...

  2. The International Organization for Migration in Global Migration Governance


    Poulsen, Sofie Havn; Andersen, Lise


    This project focuses on the IOM, the notion of global governance of migration and the interaction between these two. The point of departure has been an attempt to grasp the current global approach to migration and comprehend whether, or to what degree, there is governance of migration issues taking place at a global level.

  3. Globalization, Migration and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George, Susan


    Full Text Available EnglishMigration may become the most important branch of demography in the earlydecades of the new millennium in a rapidly globalizing world. This paper discusses the causes, costsand benefits of international migration to countries of the South and North, and key issues of commonconcern. International migration is as old as national boundaries, though its nature, volume,direction, causes and consequences have changed. The causes of migration are rooted in the rate ofpopulation growth and the proportion of youth in the population, their education and training,employment opportunities, income differentials in society, communication and transportationfacilities, political freedom and human rights and level of urbanization. Migration benefits the Souththrough remittances of migrants, improves the economic welfare of the population (particularly womenof South countries generally, increases investment, and leads to structural changes in the economy.However, emigration from the South has costs too, be they social or caused by factors such as braindrain. The North also benefits by migration through enhancement of economic growth, development ofnatural resources, improved employment prospects, social development and through exposure toimmigrants' new cultures and lifestyles. Migration also has costs to the North such as of immigrantintegration, a certain amount of destabilization of the economy, illegal immigration, and socialproblems of discrimination and exploitation. Issues common to both North and South include impact onprivate investment, trade, international cooperation, and sustainable development. Both North andSouth face a dilemma in seeking an appropriate balance between importing South's labour or itsproducts and exporting capital and technology from the North.FrenchLa migration est sans doute devenue la partie la plus importante de la démographie des premières décennies du nouveau millénaire dans un monde qui change rapidement. Ce

  4. Elastic properties and electron transport in InAs nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migunov, Vadim


    The electron transport and elastic properties of InAs nanowires grown by chemical vapor deposition on InAs (001) substrate were studied experimentally, in-situ in a transmission electron microscope (TEM). A TEM holder allowing the measurement of a nanoforce while simultaneous imaging nanowire bending was used. Diffraction images from local areas of the wire were recorded to correlate elastic properties with the atomic structure of the nanowires. Another TEM holder allowing the application of electrical bias between the nanowire and an apex of a metallic needle while simultaneous imaging the nanowire in TEM or performing electron holography was used to detect mechanical vibrations in mechanical study or holographical observation of the nanowire inner potential in the electron transport studies. The combination of the scanning probe methods with TEM allows to correlate the measured electric and elastic properties of the nanowires with direct identification of their atomic structure. It was found that the nanowires have different atomic structures and different stacking fault defect densities that impacts critically on the elastic properties and electric transport. The unique methods, that were applied in this work, allowed to obtain dependencies of resistivity and Young's modulus of left angle 111 right angle -oriented InAs nanowires on defect density and diameter. It was found that the higher is the defect density the higher are the resistivity and the Young's modulus. Regarding the resistivity, it was deduced that the stacking faults increase the scattering of the electrons in the nanowire. These findings are consistent with the literature, however, the effect described by the other groups is not so pronounced. This difference can be attributed to the significant incompleteness of the physical models used for the data analysis. Regarding the elastic modulus, there are several mechanisms affecting the elasticity of the nanowires discussed in the thesis. It

  5. Evaluation of Antenna Foundation Elastic Modulus (United States)

    Mcginness, H.; Anderson, G.


    An experiment to measure the elastic deflection of the DSS 14 concrete pedestal under the weight of the antenna was conducted in February 1983 and is compared to a similiar experiment made in 1968. Comparison of the results confirms the decrease in elastic modulus measured on core samples recently taken from the pedestal.

  6. Modulography: elasticity imaging of atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Baldewsing (Radj)


    textabstractModulography is an experimental elasticity imaging method. It has potential to become an all-in-one in vivo tool (a) for detecting vulnerable atherosclerotic coronary plaques, (b) for assessing information related to their rupture-proneness and (c) for imaging their elastic material

  7. Elastic moduli of nearly pure polycrystalline plutonium (United States)

    Migliori, Albert; Shekhter, Arkady; Betts, Jon B.; Fanelli, Victor


    We measure elastic moduli of microalloyed poly-crystalline cylindrical specimen of Pu-239. We observe α->β->γ->δ phase transitions and find that the elastic moduli of nearly pure plutonium are the same as those of Ga-stabilized plutonium.

  8. Wave propagation in elastic layers with damping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey; Darula, Radoslav


    The conventional concepts of a loss factor and complex-valued elastic moduli are used to study wave attenuation in a visco-elastic layer. The hierarchy of reduced-order models is employed to assess attenuation levels in various situations. For the forcing problem, the attenuation levels are found...

  9. Vibrations of a pipe on elastic foundations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    is investigated. Two cases of elastic foundations are considered: rotational and both linear and rotational. The major findings are the variations in frequency with flow velocity and displacements at different points and times. Keywords. Cantilevered pipe; vibrations of pipes; elastic foundations; exter- nal transverse force. 1.

  10. Elasticity of a quantum monolayer solid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruch, Ludwig Walter


    A perturbation-theory formulation of the zero-temperature elastic constants is used to verify symmetry relations for a (monolayer) triangluar lattice. A generalization of the Cauchy relation between the two elastic constants of the triangular lattice with central-pair-potential interactions...

  11. Zimbabwe's Exodus Crisis, Migration, Survival

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Remittances, Informalisation and Dispossession in Urban Zimbabwe Sarah Bracking and Lloyd Sachikonye. 324. Chapter Fifteen Transnationalism and Undocumented Migration Between Rural Zimbabwe and South Africa France Maphosa. 346. Chapter Sixteen Metaphors of Migration: Zimbabwean Migrants in the South ...

  12. Generalized multiscale finite element method for elasticity equations

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric T.


    In this paper, we discuss the application of generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM) to elasticity equation in heterogeneous media. We consider steady state elasticity equations though some of our applications are motivated by elastic wave propagation in subsurface where the subsurface properties can be highly heterogeneous and have high contrast. We present the construction of main ingredients for GMsFEM such as the snapshot space and offline spaces. The latter is constructed using local spectral decomposition in the snapshot space. The spectral decomposition is based on the analysis which is provided in the paper. We consider both continuous Galerkin and discontinuous Galerkin coupling of basis functions. Both approaches have their cons and pros. Continuous Galerkin methods allow avoiding penalty parameters though they involve partition of unity functions which can alter the properties of multiscale basis functions. On the other hand, discontinuous Galerkin techniques allow gluing multiscale basis functions without any modifications. Because basis functions are constructed independently from each other, this approach provides an advantage. We discuss the use of oversampling techniques that use snapshots in larger regions to construct the offline space. We provide numerical results to show that one can accurately approximate the solution using reduced number of degrees of freedom.

  13. Elastically stretchable thin film conductors on an elastomeric substrate (United States)

    Jones Harris, Joyelle Elizabeth

    Imagine a large, flat screen television that can be rolled into a small cylinder after purchase in the store and then unrolled and mounted onto the wall of a home. The electronic devices within the television must be able to withstand large deformation and tensile strain. Consider a robot that is covered with an electronic skin that simulates human skin. The skin would enable the machine to lift an elderly person with care and sensitivity. The skin will endure repeated deformation with the highest tensile strains being experienced at the robot's joints. These applications and many others will benefit from stretchable electronic circuitry. While several different methods have been employed to create stretchable electronics, all methods use a common tool -- stretchable conductors. Therefore, the goal of this thesis work was to fabricate elastically stretchable conductors that can be used in stretchable electronics. We deposited Au thin films on an elastomeric substrate, and the resulting conductors remained electrically continuous when stretched by 30% and more. We developed photolithographic processes that can be used to pattern elastically stretchable conductors with a 10 mum resolution. We fabricated bi-level stretchable conductors that are separated by an elastomeric insulator and are electrically connected through via holes in the insulator. We applied our bi-level conductors to create a stretchable resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit with a tunable resonant frequency. We also used stretchable conductors to measure action potentials in biological samples. This thesis describes the fabrication and application of our elastically stretchable conductors.

  14. [Migration processes in small towns]. (United States)

    Makowska, K


    Changing migration patterns in Poland and their impact on small towns are analysed with a focus on the period since the 1950s. The analysis shows that although migration previously benefited major urban areas at the expense of small towns, the migration situation of small towns has recently improved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Aleksankov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The processes of live migration without shared storage with pre-copy approach and move migration are researched. Migration of virtual machines is an important opportunity of virtualization technology. It enables applications to move transparently with their runtime environments between physical machines. Live migration becomes noticeable technology for efficient load balancing and optimizing the deployment of virtual machines to physical hosts in data centres. Before the advent of live migration, only network migration (the so-called, «Move», has been used, that entails stopping the virtual machine execution while copying to another physical server, and, consequently, unavailability of the service. Method. Algorithms of live migration without shared storage with pre-copy approach and move migration of virtual machines are reviewed from the perspective of research of migration time and unavailability of services at migrating of virtual machines. Main Results. Analytical models are proposed predicting migration time of virtual machines and unavailability of services at migrating with such technologies as live migration with pre-copy approach without shared storage and move migration. In the latest works on the time assessment of unavailability of services and migration time using live migration without shared storage experimental results are described, that are applicable to draw general conclusions about the changes of time for unavailability of services and migration time, but not to predict their values. Practical Significance. The proposed models can be used for predicting the migration time and time of unavailability of services, for example, at implementation of preventive and emergency works on the physical nodes in data centres.

  16. Musei del migration heritage / Migration heritage museums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Dragoni


    Since the second half of the 1960s of the 20th century, a profound cultural innovation was accompanied to the radical change in the social, political and economic climate. The anthropological notion of culture as opposed to idealistic vision, the unusual and strong interest in material culture, the enunciation of the concept of cultural property by the Franceschini Commission, the luck of the Public History bring a change of the disciplinary statutes of historical sciences, which begin to attend to social history, focusing on the spontaneous sources of information and initiating experiences of oral history. To all this a remarkable transformation of the themes and of the social function of museums is added. This paper illustrates, in relation to this more general context, the foundation and the dissemination of museums dedicated to the history of migration in Italy and in the world, enunciates their possible social utility for the integration of present migrants in Italy and illustrates, by way of example, the museum recently opened in Recanati.

  17. Elastic and dynamic properties of membrane phase-field models. (United States)

    Lázaro, Guillermo R; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Hernández-Machado, Aurora


    Phase-field models have been extensively used to study interfacial phenomena, from solidification to vesicle dynamics. In this article, we analyze a phase-field model that captures the relevant physical features that characterize biological membranes. We show that the Helfrich theory of elasticity of membranes can be applied to phase-field models, allowing to derive the expressions of the stress tensor, lateral stress profile and elastic moduli. We discuss the relevance and interpretations of these magnitudes from a phase-field perspective. Taking the sharp-interface limit we show that the membrane macroscopic equilibrium equation can be derived from the equilibrium condition of the phase-field interface. We also study two dynamic models that describe the behaviour of a membrane. From the study of the relaxational behaviour of the membrane we characterize the relevant dynamics of each model, and discuss their applications.

  18. Sonoelastography: the method of choice for evaluation of tissue elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrudin Smajlović


    Full Text Available Ultrasound devices and methodologies have been continuously evolving and becoming more important as tools in diagnostic medicine. Recently a new ultrasound diagnostic technique has been developed. Named sonoelastography, the technique enables evaluation of tissue elasticity and is based on differences in stiffness (hardness, compressibility, elasticity of pathological changes and normal adjacent tissue. Sonoelastography (SE is also known as Real-time tissue elastography (RTE, Real-time sonoelastography (RTSE, Tissue type imaging (TTI and Ultrasound Strain Imaging Technology. It has been found useful in many medicine elds and adopted readily by clinicians of different specialties. It gives more information than conventional ultrasound in evaluation of tumors, liver disease, skeletal muscles, rheumatoid nodules and other pathological changes. This review covers the basics of elastography, its applications, instruments, techniques, the scoring system and the indications for elastography.

  19. Elastically driven intermittent microscopic dynamics in soft solids (United States)

    Bouzid, Mehdi; Colombo, Jader; Barbosa, Lucas Vieira; Del Gado, Emanuela


    Soft solids with tunable mechanical response are at the core of new material technologies, but a crucial limit for applications is their progressive aging over time, which dramatically affects their functionalities. The generally accepted paradigm is that such aging is gradual and its origin is in slower than exponential microscopic dynamics, akin to the ones in supercooled liquids or glasses. Nevertheless, time- and space-resolved measurements have provided contrasting evidence: dynamics faster than exponential, intermittency and abrupt structural changes. Here we use 3D computer simulations of a microscopic model to reveal that the timescales governing stress relaxation, respectively, through thermal fluctuations and elastic recovery are key for the aging dynamics. When thermal fluctuations are too weak, stress heterogeneities frozen-in upon solidification can still partially relax through elastically driven fluctuations. Such fluctuations are intermittent, because of strong correlations that persist over the timescale of experiments or simulations, leading to faster than exponential dynamics.

  20. New empirical generalizations on the determinants of price elasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijmolt, THA; Van Heerde, HJ; Pieters, RGM

    The importance of pricing decisions for firms has fueled an extensive stream of research on price elasticities. In an influential meta-analytical study, Tellis (1988) summarized price elasticity research findings until 1986. However, empirical generalizations on price elasticity require

  1. Effect of elasticity during viscoelastic polymer flooding : a possible mechanism of increasing the sweep efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbissinova, T.S.; Trivedi, J.J.; Kuru, E. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering


    This paper discussed a laboratory experiment undertaken to study how the elasticity of polymer-based fluids affects microscopic sweep efficiency, which has implications for enhanced oil recovery processes. In a series of experiments, polymer solutions with the same shear viscosity but notably different elastic characteristics were injected through a mineral-oil-saturated sandpack. The experiments involved a special core holder that was designed to simulate radial flow. The solution was injected via a perforated injection line located in the centre of the cell, and fluids were produced by way of 2 production lines located at the periphery. The shear rate used in the experiments was within the range of field applications. Using polymer solutions with similar shear viscosity behaviour and different elasticity allowed the effect of elasticity on sweep efficiency to be singled out. It was concluded that adjusting the molecular weight distribution of the solution at a constant shear viscosity and polymer concentration could improve the sweep efficiency of a polymeric fluid. The higher-elasticity polymer solution had a higher resistance to flow through porous media, resulting in better sweep efficiency and lower residual oil saturation. The objective of the study was to isolate elasticity from the other parameters that affect displacement efficiency to show the individual effect of elasticity on oil recovery. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 14 figs.

  2. [Medical genetics and migration]. (United States)

    Feingold, J


    Any migration results in the transfer of normal and pathological genes from one population to another. The frequency of pathological genes may vary according to the population, sickle cell anaemia, for instance, being frequent in Africa and cystic fibrosis in Europe. It follows that the hereditary pathology of migrants is not the same as that of the host population, at least during the immediate post-migration years; subsequently, all depends on the degree of cross-breeding. In epidemiological genetics the study of the frequency of some diseases in the original population, among migrants and in the host population enables the effects of genes and environment on the aetiology of these diseases to be investigated.

  3. Tracking migrating birds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willemoes, Mikkel

    Migratory movements of birds has always fascinated man and led to many questions concerning the ecological drivers behind, the necessary adaptations and the navigational abilities required. However, especially for the long-distance migrants, basic descriptions of their movements are still lacking...... and many experiments are only becoming possible with the current development of tracking technologies. During this thesis work I have been tracking the poorly known movements of several species of long-distance migrants and document highly complex migration patterns. In three manuscripts these movements...... were related to the yearly progression of an environmental surrogate for food availability along the course of migration. In one species, with multiple, different non-breeding staging sites, environmental conditions explain movements well and also how yearly differences explain differences in timing...

  4. Religion, migration og integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borup, Jørn


    Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i integrationss......Sammenhængen mellem religion og integration har de sidste år været genstand for debat. Artiklen kommer ind på begreber og sammenhænge relateret til området (migration, diaspora, assimilation, etnicitet, kultur) og ser på religionens mulige rolle som negativ eller positiv ressource i...

  5. Forced Migration: Refugee Populations (United States)

    Boyle, Joyceen S.


    Undocumented migration is a global phenomenon that manifests in various contexts. This article describes the impact of the movement of large numbers of people in several African countries, producing a unique type of migrant—the refugee. We describe issues that refugee movements create on fragile health care systems, situations that precipitate refugee movements, certain human rights violations that are of particular concern such as gender based violence (GBV) and child soldiers, and lastly, implications for nursing practice and policy. We use examples from several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mozambique. Drawing on key documents from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, current literature, as well as the international experience of the authors, this article presents an overview of forced migration and discusses opportunities for nurses to impact research, practice and policy related to refugee health. PMID:25645484

  6. Standard test method for determining the effective elastic parameter for X-ray diffraction measurements of residual stress

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia


    1.1 This test method covers a procedure for experimentally determining the effective elastic parameter, Eeff, for the evaluation of residual and applied stresses by X-ray diffraction techniques. The effective elastic parameter relates macroscopic stress to the strain measured in a particular crystallographic direction in polycrystalline samples. Eeff should not be confused with E, the modulus of elasticity. Rather, it is nominally equivalent to E/(1 + ν) for the particular crystallographic direction, where ν is Poisson's ratio. The effective elastic parameter is influenced by elastic anisotropy and preferred orientation of the sample material. 1.2 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction instruments intended for measurements of macroscopic residual stress that use measurements of the positions of the diffraction peaks in the high back-reflection region to determine changes in lattice spacing. 1.3 This test method is applicable to all X-ray diffraction techniques for residual stress measurem...

  7. Design and Analysis of a Service Migration Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, Aamir; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    on another device. For such a need, an architecture is proposed to design and develop applications that migrate from one device to another and resume its operation. A simple application was constructed based on the proposed framework. Experiments were carried out to demonstrate its applicability...

  8. Probabilistic migration modelling focused on functional barrier efficiency and low migration concepts in support of risk assessment. (United States)

    Brandsch, Rainer


    Migration modelling provides reliable migration estimates from food-contact materials (FCM) to food or food simulants based on mass-transfer parameters like diffusion and partition coefficients related to individual materials. In most cases, mass-transfer parameters are not readily available from the literature and for this reason are estimated with a given uncertainty. Historically, uncertainty was accounted for by introducing upper limit concepts first, turning out to be of limited applicability due to highly overestimated migration results. Probabilistic migration modelling gives the possibility to consider uncertainty of the mass-transfer parameters as well as other model inputs. With respect to a functional barrier, the most important parameters among others are the diffusion properties of the functional barrier and its thickness. A software tool that accepts distribution as inputs and is capable of applying Monte Carlo methods, i.e., random sampling from the input distributions of the relevant parameters (i.e., diffusion coefficient and layer thickness), predicts migration results with related uncertainty and confidence intervals. The capabilities of probabilistic migration modelling are presented in the view of three case studies (1) sensitivity analysis, (2) functional barrier efficiency and (3) validation by experimental testing. Based on the predicted migration by probabilistic migration modelling and related exposure estimates, safety evaluation of new materials in the context of existing or new packaging concepts is possible. Identifying associated migration risk and potential safety concerns in the early stage of packaging development is possible. Furthermore, dedicated material selection exhibiting required functional barrier efficiency under application conditions becomes feasible. Validation of the migration risk assessment by probabilistic migration modelling through a minimum of dedicated experimental testing is strongly recommended.

  9. Syrian Crisis and Migration


    Pinar Yazgan; Deniz Eroglu Utku; Ibrahim Sirkeci


    With the growing insurrections in Syria in 2011, an exodus in large numbers have emerged. The turmoil and violence have caused mass migration to destinations both within the region and beyond. The current "refugee crisis" has escalated sharply and its impact is widening from neighbouring countries toward Europe. Today, the Syrian crisis is the major cause for an increase in displacement and the resultant dire humanitarian situation in the region. Since the conflict shows no signs of abating i...

  10. Retrograde Gastrojejunostomy Tube Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke Adesina


    Full Text Available Percutaneous enteral feeding tubes are placed about 250,000 times each year in the United States. Although they are relatively safe, their placement may be complicated by perforation, infection, bleeding, vomiting, dislodgment, and obstruction. There have been numerous reports of antegrade migration of gastrojejunostomy (G-J tubes. We report a case of G-J tube regurgitation following protracted vomiting and discuss the management of this very rare entity.

  11. American Migration Controversies


    Milan Mesić


    The USA has been and has remained the world's most important immigration country. The last quarter of the 20th century has been marked by a new mass immigration wave that in absolute size of the immigration flow can be compared to the highest flows in the previous century. This recent migration, however, differs from traditional immigration to America in that it includes a greater ethnic, religious and cultural diversity. The vast majority of today's immigrants, both legal and clandestine, co...

  12. Enforcement and illegal migration


    Pia Orrenius


    Border enforcement of immigration laws attempts to raise the costs of illegal immigration, while interior enforcement also lowers the benefits. Border and interior enforcement therefore reduce the net benefits of illegal immigration and should lower the probability that an individual will decide to migrate. While some empirical studies find that border and interior enforcement serve as significant deterrents to illegal immigration, immigration enforcement is costly and carries significant uni...

  13. Conservation physiology of animal migration (United States)

    Lennox, Robert J.; Chapman, Jacqueline M.; Souliere, Christopher M.; Tudorache, Christian; Wikelski, Martin; Metcalfe, Julian D.; Cooke, Steven J.


    Migration is a widespread phenomenon among many taxa. This complex behaviour enables animals to exploit many temporally productive and spatially discrete habitats to accrue various fitness benefits (e.g. growth, reproduction, predator avoidance). Human activities and global environmental change represent potential threats to migrating animals (from individuals to species), and research is underway to understand mechanisms that control migration and how migration responds to modern challenges. Focusing on behavioural and physiological aspects of migration can help to provide better understanding, management and conservation of migratory populations. Here, we highlight different physiological, behavioural and biomechanical aspects of animal migration that will help us to understand how migratory animals interact with current and future anthropogenic threats. We are in the early stages of a changing planet, and our understanding of how physiology is linked to the persistence of migratory animals is still developing; therefore, we regard the following questions as being central to the conservation physiology of animal migrations. Will climate change influence the energetic costs of migration? Will shifting temperatures change the annual clocks of migrating animals? Will anthropogenic influences have an effect on orientation during migration? Will increased anthropogenic alteration of migration stopover sites/migration corridors affect the stress physiology of migrating animals? Can physiological knowledge be used to identify strategies for facilitating the movement of animals? Our synthesis reveals that given the inherent challenges of migration, additional stressors derived from altered environments (e.g. climate change, physical habitat alteration, light pollution) or interaction with human infrastructure (e.g. wind or hydrokinetic turbines, dams) or activities (e.g. fisheries) could lead to long-term changes to migratory phenotypes. However, uncertainty remains

  14. Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritto, Roland [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of -100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to kpR = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.

  15. Migration Profile NIGERIA 1. Structural Migration Profile 2. Flash Migration Profile (January - March 2017)




    The new generation of Migration Profiles aims at collecting knowledge on migration and development at regular, short intervals (3/6 months) and with a sub-national coverage, providing tailored monitoring and ensuring comparability across countries. It links migration, developmental and humanitarian aspects as well as analyses on the EU strategic role vis-à-vis the third country, including its political, financial and humanitarian support. This publication reproduces the Migration Profile of N...

  16. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber


    We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.

  17. Migrations in Slovenian geography textbooks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurij Senegačnik


    Full Text Available In Slovenia, the migrations are treated in almost all geographical textbooks for different levels of education. In the textbooks for the elementary school from the sixth to ninth grade, students acquire knowledge of the migrations by the inductive approach. Difficulty level of treatment and quantity of information are increasing by the age level. In the grammar school program a trail of gaining knowledge on migration is deductive. Most attention is dedicated to migrations in general geography textbooks. The textbooks for vocational and technical school programs deal with migrations to a lesser extent and with different approaches.

  18. Estimation of In vivo Cancellous Bone Elasticity (United States)

    Otani, Takahiko; Mano, Isao; Tsujimoto, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Tadahito; Teshima, Ryota; Naka, Hiroshi


    The effect of decreasing bone density (a symptom of osteoporosis) is greater for cancellous bone than for dense cortical bone, because cancellous bone is metabolically more active. Therefore, the bone density or bone mineral density of cancellous bone is generally used to estimate the onset of osteoporosis. Elasticity or elastic constant is a fundamental mechanical parameter and is directly related to the mechanical strength of bone. Accordingly, elasticity is a preferable parameter for assessing fracture risk. A novel ultrasonic bone densitometer LD-100 has been developed to determine the mass density and elasticity of cancellous bone with a spatial resolution comparable to that of peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Bone density and bone elasticity are evaluated using ultrasonic parameters based on fast and slow waves in cancellous bone by modeling the ultrasonic wave propagation path. Elasticity is deduced from the measured bone density and the propagation speed of the fast wave. Thus, the elasticity of cancellous bone is approximately expressed by a cubic equation of bone density.

  19. Robust Force Control of Series Elastic Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calanca


    Full Text Available Force-controlled series elastic actuators (SEA are widely used in novel human-robot interaction (HRI applications, such as assistive and rehabilitation robotics. These systems are characterized by the presence of the “human in the loop”, so that control response and stability depend on uncertain human dynamics, including reflexes and voluntary forces. This paper proposes a force control approach that guarantees the stability and robustness of the coupled human-robot system, based on sliding-mode control (SMC, considering the human dynamics as a disturbance to reject. We propose a chattering free solution that employs simple task models to obtain high performance, comparable with second order solutions. Theoretical stability is proven within the sliding mode framework, and predictability is reached by avoiding the reaching phase by design. Furthermore, safety is introduced by a proper design of the sliding surface. The practical feasibility of the approach is shown using an SEA prototype coupled with a human impedance in severe stress tests. To show the quality of the approach, we report a comparison with state-of-the-art second order SMC, passivity-based control and adaptive control solutions.

  20. A critical survey of live virtual machine migration techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Choudhary


    Full Text Available Abstract Virtualization techniques effectively handle the growing demand for computing, storage, and communication resources in large-scale Cloud Data Centers (CDC. It helps to achieve different resource management objectives like load balancing, online system maintenance, proactive fault tolerance, power management, and resource sharing through Virtual Machine (VM migration. VM migration is a resource-intensive procedure as VM’s continuously demand appropriate CPU cycles, cache memory, memory capacity, and communication bandwidth. Therefore, this process degrades the performance of running applications and adversely affects efficiency of the data centers, particularly when Service Level Agreements (SLA and critical business objectives are to be met. Live VM migration is frequently used because it allows the availability of application service, while migration is performed. In this paper, we make an exhaustive survey of the literature on live VM migration and analyze the various proposed mechanisms. We first classify the types of Live VM migration (single, multiple and hybrid. Next, we categorize VM migration techniques based on duplication mechanisms (replication, de-duplication, redundancy, and compression and awareness of context (dependency, soft page, dirty page, and page fault and evaluate the various Live VM migration techniques. We discuss various performance metrics like application service downtime, total migration time and amount of data transferred. CPU, memory and storage data is transferred during the process of VM migration and we identify the category of data that needs to be transferred in each case. We present a brief discussion on security threats in live VM migration and categories them in three different classes (control plane, data plane, and migration module. We also explain the security requirements and existing solutions to mitigate possible attacks. Specific gaps are identified and the research challenges in improving

  1. Hysteretic nonlinear elasticity of Berea sandstone at low‐vibrational strain revealed by dynamic acousto‐elastic testing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renaud, G; Rivière, J; Le Bas, P.‐Y; Johnson, P.A


    ... ). The approach, termed dynamic acousto‐elasticity, is the dynamic analog of static acousto‐elasticity where the wave speed is measured as a function of the applied static load. Dynamic acousto‐elasticity uses low...

  2. Multi-component pre-stack time-imaging and migration-based velocity analysis in transversely isotropic media; Imagerie sismique multicomposante et analyse de vitesse de migration en milieu transverse isotrope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerea, C.V.


    Complementary to the recording of compressional (P-) waves, the observation of P-S converted waves has recently been receiving specific attention. This is mainly due to their tremendous potential as a tool for fracture and lithology characterization, imaging sediments in gas saturated rocks, and imaging shallow sediments with higher resolution than conventional P-P data. In a conventional marine seismic survey, we cannot record P-to-S converted-wave energy since the fluids cannot support shear-wave strain. Thus, to capture the converted-wave energy, we need to record it at the water-bottom casing an ocean-bottom cable (OBC). The S-waves recorded at the seabed are mainly converted from P to S (i.e., PS-waves or C-waves) at the subsurface reflectors. The most accurate way to image seismic data is pre-stack depth migration. In this thesis, I develop a numerically efficient 2.5-D true-amplitude elastic Kirchhoff pre-stack migration algorithm designed to handle OBC data gathered along a single line. All the kinematic and dynamic elastic Green's functions required in the computation of true-amplitude weight term of Kirchhoff summation, are based on the non-hyperbolic explicit approximations of P- and SV-wave travel-times in layered transversely isotropic (VTI) media. Hence, this elastic imaging algorithm is very well-suited for migration-based velocity analysis techniques, for which fast, robust and iterative pre-stack migration is desired. In this thesis, I approach also the topic of anisotropic velocity model building for elastic pre-stack time-imaging. and propose an original methodology for joint PP-PS migration-based velocity analysis (MVA) in layered VTI anisotropic media. Tests on elastic synthetic and real OBC seismic data ascertain the validity of the pre-stack migration algorithm and velocity analysis methodology. (author)

  3. Uranium migration in a podzol. The role of colloids in the non-saturated zone and the phreatic water: application to the Landes de Gascogne area; Migration de l'uranium dans un podzol. Le role des colloides dans la zone non saturee et la nappe: application aux Landes de Gascogne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P


    The non-saturated zone of a soil represents the interface between the atmosphere and the phreatic water. The confinement efficiency of the non-saturated zone above the phreatic water depends on the fastness of water transfers and on the type of pollutant transport mechanisms. Uranium (VI) can combine with humid acids to form very stable complexes. The aggregates of the absorbing complex are highly sensible to the variations of the ionic force of the environment. This sensitiveness can be at the origin of a strong remobilization of the colloid humic compounds of the soil, and of their migration towards the underground water. In this situation, the uranium complexed by humic compounds can rapidly migrate in the soil. The comparative reactive transport of the total uranium and its isotopes has been studied in a site, the Landes de Gascogne podzol (SW France), where metallic uranium has been sprinkled on the surface of the soil. The field study has been completed with an experimental column transport study using uranium isotopes tracer techniques. The field study shows that most of uranium is trapped in the very first cm of the soil. However, anomalous high uranium concentrations are observed in underground waters, more than 2 km away from the contaminated areas. This demonstrates that a fast and long distance transport process exists for uranium in the unsaturated zone. In the sandy soil of the study area, natural argillo-humic colloids migrate with the velocity of water but can be delayed when the ionic force of the underground waters increases. It is shown that uranium is strongly linked with the thin grain size fraction (< 8 {mu}m) of the sand, and more particularly with the argillo-humic composite colloids. In the stable geochemical conditions of the experimental columns, more than 70% of uranium is trapped in the first 2 cm of the sand, even after the circulation of 100 volumes of water inside the column. This shows the strong trapping capacity of the Landes sand

  4. Physical Guidance of Cell Migration (United States)

    Losert, Wolfgang

    Cells migrate as individuals or groups, to perform critical functions in life from organ development to wound healing and the immune response. While directed migration of cells is often mediated by chemical or physical gradients, our recent work has demonstrated that the physical properties of the microenvironment can also control and guide migration. I will describe how an underlying wave-like process of the actin scaffolding drives persistent migration, and how such actin waves are nucleated and guided by the texture of the microenvironment. Based on this observation we design textures capable of guiding cells in a single preferred direction using local asymmetries in nano/microtopography on subcellular scales, or altering migration in other ways. This phenomenon is observed both for the pseudopod-dominated migration of Dictyostelium cells and for the lamellipod-driven migration of human neutrophils. The conservation of this mechanism across cell types suggests that actin-wave-based guidance is important in biology and physiology.

  5. Myosin-II-Mediated Directional Migration of Dictyostelium Cells in Response to Cyclic Stretching of Substratum (United States)

    Iwadate, Yoshiaki; Okimura, Chika; Sato, Katsuya; Nakashima, Yuta; Tsujioka, Masatsune; Minami, Kazuyuki


    Living cells are constantly subjected to various mechanical stimulations, such as shear flow, osmotic pressure, and hardness of substratum. They must sense the mechanical aspects of their environment and respond appropriately for proper cell function. Cells adhering to substrata must receive and respond to mechanical stimuli from the substrata to decide their shape and/or migrating direction. In response to cyclic stretching of the elastic substratum, intracellular stress fibers in fibroblasts and endothelial, osteosarcoma, and smooth muscle cells are rearranged perpendicular to the stretching direction, and the shape of those cells becomes extended in this new direction. In the case of migrating Dictyostelium cells, cyclic stretching regulates the direction of migration, and not the shape, of the cell. The cells migrate in a direction perpendicular to that of the stretching. However, the molecular mechanisms that induce the directional migration remain unknown. Here, using a microstretching device, we recorded green fluorescent protein (GFP)-myosin-II dynamics in Dictyostelium cells on an elastic substratum under cyclic stretching. Repeated stretching induced myosin II localization equally on both stretching sides in the cells. Although myosin-II-null cells migrated randomly, myosin-II-null cells expressing a variant of myosin II that cannot hydrolyze ATP migrated perpendicular to the stretching. These results indicate that Dictyostelium cells accumulate myosin II at the portion of the cell where a large strain is received and migrate in a direction other than that of the portion where myosin II accumulated. This polarity generation for migration does not require the contraction of actomyosin. PMID:23442953


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M.Ferouani M. Ferouani


    Full Text Available Thermal barrier coatings are used to protect different parts in compressors and turbines from heat. They are generally composed of two layers, one metallic layer providing resistance to heat corrosion and oxidation, and one thermally insulating ceramic layer. Two different techniques are industrially used. Plasma spray results in a lamellar structure granting a low thermal conductivity, but with a low thermal expansion compliance. Electron Beam Physical Vapour Deposition generates a columnar structure allowing a better accommodation of the thermal expansion stresses, entailing improved lifetime of the coating, but with a higher thermal conductivity. The aim of the paper presented here is to develop a procedure of analysis based on the micro structural observation for the prediction of the properties of new coatings in court of industrial development and to predict the effect of the posterior thermal treatment on the properties of the coatings carried out. For a given coating, one has to calculate linear elasticity and its evolution with the temperature as well as thermal expansion, aiming at predicting different parameters related to the in service deterioration.  

  7. Elastic/Inelastic Measurement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, Steven [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Hicks, Sally [Univ. of Dallas, TX (United States); Vanhoy, Jeffrey [U.S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); McEllistrem, Marcus [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    The work scope involves the measurement of neutron scattering from natural sodium (23Na) and two isotopes of iron, 56Fe and 54Fe. Angular distributions, i.e., differential cross sections, of the scattered neutrons will be measured for 5 to 10 incident neutron energies per year. The work of the first year concentrates on 23Na, while the enriched iron samples are procured. Differential neutron scattering cross sections provide information to guide nuclear reaction model calculations in the low-­energy (few MeV) fast-­neutron region. This region lies just above the isolated resonance region, which in general is well studied; however, model calculations are difficult in this region because overlapping resonance structure is evident and direct nuclear reactions are becoming important. The standard optical model treatment exhibits good predictive ability for the wide-­region average cross sections but cannot treat the overlapping resonance features. In addition, models that do predict the direct reaction component must be guided by measurements to describe correctly the strength of the direct component, e.g., β2 must be known to describe the direct component of the scattering to the first excited state. Measurements of the elastic scattering differential cross sections guide the optical model calculations, while inelastic differential cross sections provide the crucial information for correctly describing the direct component. Activities occurring during the performance period are described.

  8. Capillary stretching of elastic fibers (United States)

    Protiere, Suzie; Stone, Howard A.; Duprat, Camille


    Fibrous media consisting of constrained flexible fibers can be found in many engineered systems (membranes in filters, woven textile, matted paper). When such materials interact with a liquid, the presence of liquid/air interfaces induces capillary forces that deform the fibers. To model this interaction we study the behaviour of a finite volume of liquid deposited on two parallel flexible fibers clamped at both ends. A tension along the fibers is imposed and may be varied. We show that the system undergoes various morphological changes as the interfiber distance, the elasticity and the tension of the fibers are varied. For a certain range of parameters, the liquid spreads along the fibers and pulls them together, leading to the ``zipping'' of the fibers. This capillary adhesion can then be enhanced or reduced by changing the tension within the fibers. We will show that balancing stretching and capillary forces allows the prediction of this transition as well as the conditions for which detachment of the fibers occurs. These results may be used to prevent the clogging of fibrous membranes or to optimize the capture of liquids.

  9. Marangoni elasticity of flowing soap films


    Kim, Ildoo; Mandre, Shreyas


    We measure the Marangoni elasticity of a flowing soap film to be 22 dyne/cm irrespective of its width, thickness, flow speed, or the bulk soap concentration. We perform this measurement by generating an oblique shock in the soap film and measuring the shock angle, flow speed and thickness. We postulate that the elasticity is constant because the film surface is crowded with soap molecules. Our method allows non-destructive measurement of flowing soap film elasticity, and the value 22 dyne/cm ...

  10. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level......Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...

  11. Elastic stiffness of a Skyrmion crystal. (United States)

    Nii, Y; Kikkawa, A; Taguchi, Y; Tokura, Y; Iwasa, Y


    We observe the elastic stiffness and ultrasonic absorption of a Skyrmion crystal in the chiral-lattice magnet MnSi. The Skyrmion crystal lattice exhibits a stiffness 3 orders of magnitude smaller than that of the atomic lattice of MnSi, being as soft as the flux line lattice in type-II superconductors. The observed anisotropic elastic responses are consistent with the cylindrical shape of the Skyrmion spin texture. Phenomenological analysis reveals that the spin-orbit coupling is responsible for the emergence of anisotropic elasticity in the Skyrmion lattice.

  12. Automated migration analysis based on cell texture: method & reliability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chittenden Thomas W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper, we present and validate a way to measure automatically the extent of cell migration based on automated examination of a series of digital photographs. It was designed specifically to identify the impact of Second Hand Smoke (SHS on endothelial cell migration but has broader applications. The analysis has two stages: (1 preprocessing of image texture, and (2 migration analysis. Results The output is a graphic overlay that indicates the front lines of cell migration superimposed on each original image, with automated reporting of the distance traversed vs. time. Expert preference compares to manual placement of leading edge shows complete equivalence of automated vs. manual leading edge definition for cell migration measurement. Conclusion Our method is indistinguishable from careful manual determinations of cell front lines, with the advantages of full automation, objectivity, and speed.

  13. Electric-field-induced interfacial instabilities of a soft elastic membrane confined between viscous layers. (United States)

    Dey, Mohar; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar; Sharma, Ashutosh; Qian, Shizhi; Joo, Sang Woo


    We explore the electric-field-induced interfacial instabilities of a trilayer composed of a thin elastic film confined between two viscous layers. A linear stability analysis (LSA) is performed to uncover the growth rate and length scale of the different unstable modes. Application of a normal external electric field on such a configuration can deform the two coupled elastic-viscous interfaces either by an in-phase bending or an antiphase squeezing mode. The bending mode has a long-wave nature, and is present even at a vanishingly small destabilizing field. In contrast, the squeezing mode has finite wave-number characteristics and originates only beyond a threshold strength of the electric field. This is in contrast to the instabilities of the viscous films with multiple interfaces where both modes are found to possess long-wave characteristics. The elastic film is unstable by bending mode when the stabilizing forces due to the in-plane curvature and the elastic stiffness are strong and the destabilizing electric field is relatively weak. In comparison, as the electric field increases, a subdominant squeezing mode can also appear beyond a threshold destabilizing field. A dominant squeezing mode is observed when the destabilizing field is significantly strong and the elastic films are relatively softer with lower elastic modulus. In the absence of liquid layers, a free elastic film is also found to be unstable by long-wave bending and finite wave-number squeezing modes. The LSA asymptotically recovers the results obtained by the previous formulations where the membrane bending elasticity is approximately incorporated as a correction term in the normal stress boundary condition. Interestingly, the presence of a very weak stabilizing influence due to a smaller interfacial tension at the elastic-viscous interfaces opens up the possibility of fabricating submicron patterns exploiting the instabilities of a trilayer.

  14. Design of an elasticized collagen scaffold: A method to induce elasticity in a rigid protein. (United States)

    Versteegden, Luuk R; Hoogenkamp, Henk R; Lomme, Roger M; van Goor, Harry; Tiemessen, Dorien M; Geutjes, Paul J; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Feitz, Wout F; Hafmans, Theo G; Verdonschot, Nico; Daamen, Willeke F; van Kuppevelt, Toin H


    Type I collagen is widely applied as a biomaterial for tissue regeneration. In the extracellular matrix, collagen provides strength but not elasticity under large deformations, a characteristic crucial for dynamic organs and generally imparted by elastic fibers. In this study, a methodology is described to induce elastic-like characteristics in a scaffold consisting of solely type I collagen. Tubular scaffolds are prepared from collagen fibrils by a casting, molding, freezing and lyophilization process. The lyophilized constructs are compressed, corrugated and subsequently chemically crosslinked with carbodiimide in the corrugated position. This procedure induces elastic-like properties in the scaffolds that could be repeatedly stretched five times their original length for at least 1000 cycles. The induced elasticity is entropy driven and can be explained by the introduction of hydrophobic patches that are disrupted upon stretching thus increasing the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. The scaffolds are cytocompatible as demonstrated by fibroblast cell culture. In conclusion, a new straightforward technique is described to endow unique elastic characteristics to scaffolds prepared from type I collagen alone. Scaffolds may be useful for engineering of dynamic tissues such as blood vessels, ligaments, and lung. In this research report, a methodology is presented to introduce elasticity to biomaterials consisting of only type I collagen fibrils. The method comprises physical compression and corrugation in combination with chemical crosslinking. By introducing elasticity to collagen biomaterials, their application in regenerative medicine may be expanded to dynamic organs such as blood vessels, ligaments and lung. The combination of strength and elasticity in one single natural biomaterial may also "simplify" the design of new scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. MSAT—A new toolkit for the analysis of elastic and seismic anisotropy (United States)

    Walker, Andrew M.; Wookey, James


    The design and content of MSAT, a new Matlab toolkit for the study and analysis of seismic and elastic anisotropy, is described. Along with a brief introduction to the basic theory of anisotropic elasticity and a guide to the functions provided by the toolkit, three example applications are discussed. First, the toolkit is used to analyse the effect of pressure on the elasticity of the monoclinic upper mantle mineral diopside. Second, the degree to which a model of elasticity in the lowermost mantle can be approximated by transverse isotropy is examined. Finally backazimuthal variation in the effective shear wave splitting caused by two anisotropic layers where the lower layer is dipping is calculated. MSAT can be freely reused for any purpose and the implementation of these and other examples are distributed with the source code.

  16. A regularization-free Young's modulus reconstruction algorithm for ultrasound elasticity imaging. (United States)

    Pan, Xiaochang; Gao, Jing; Shao, Jinhua; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing


    Ultrasound elasticity imaging aims to reconstruct the distribution of elastic modulus (e.g., Young's modulus) within biological tissues, since the value of elastic modulus is often related to pathological changes. Currently, most elasticity imaging algorithms face a challenge of choosing the value of the regularization constant. We propose a more applicable algorithm without the need of any regularization. This algorithm is not only simple to use, but has a relatively high accuracy. Our method comprises of a nonrigid registration technique and tissue incompressibility assumption to estimate the two-dimensional (2D) displacement field, and finite element method (FEM) to reconstruct the Young's modulus distribution. Simulation and phantom experiments are performed to evaluate the algorithm. Simulation and phantom results showed that the proposed algorithm can reconstruct the Young's modulus with an accuracy of 63∼85%.

  17. On the Evaluation of the Elastic Modulus of Soft Materials Using Beams with Unknown Initial Curvature (United States)

    Khatam, Hamed; Ravi-Chandar, K.


    A nonlinear optimization procedure is established to determine the elastic modulus of slender, soft materials using beams with unknown initial curvature in the presence of large rotations. Specifically, the deflection of clamped-free beams under self-weight – measured at different orientations with respect to gravity – is used to determine the modulus of elasticity and the intrinsic curvature in the unloaded state. The approach is validated with experiments on a number of different materials – steel, polyetherimide, rubber and pig skin. Since the loading is limited to self-weight, the strain levels attained in these tests are small enough to assume a linear elastic material behavior. This nondestructive methodology is also applicable to engineered tissues and extremely delicate materials in order to obtain a quick estimate of the material’s elastic modulus. PMID:24159244

  18. Effects of layer interface slip on the response and performance of elastic multi-layered flexible airport pavement systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Maina, JW


    Full Text Available , namely; vertical, horizontal (shear), torsion, moment and centripetal forces. Airport pavement responses due to multiple loadings are determined by using the superposition concept applicable to linear elastic theory, where responses from each wheel load...

  19. Mechanics of finite cracks in dissimilar anisotropic elastic media considering interfacial elasticity (United States)

    Juan, Pierre-Alexandre; Dingreville, Rémi


    Interfacial crack fields and singularities in bimaterial interfaces (i.e., grain boundaries or dissimilar materials interfaces) are considered through a general formulation for two-dimensional (2-D) anisotropic elasticity while accounting for the interfacial structure by means of an interfacial elasticity paradigm. The interfacial elasticity formulation introduces boundary conditions that are effectively equivalent to those for a weakly bounded interface. This formalism considers the 2-D crack-tip elastic fields using complex variable techniques. While the consideration of the interfacial elasticity does not affect the order of the singularity, it modifies the oscillatory effects associated with problems involving interface cracks. Constructive or destructive "interferences" are directly affected by the interface structure and its elastic response. This general formulation provides an insight on the physical significance and the obvious coupling between the interface structure and the associated mechanical fields in the vicinity of the crack tip.

  20. Failure of classical elasticity in auxetic foams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roh, J. H; Giller, C. B; Mott, P. H; Roland, C. M


    .... We find that for the first two materials, having ν ≥ 0.2, the experimental determinations of Poisson's ratio are in good agreement with values calculated from the shear and tensile moduli using the equations of classical elasticity...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Wagner Ballarin


    Full Text Available This paper contributed to the elastic characterization of Eucalyptus citriodora grown inBrazil, considering an orthotropic model and evaluating its most important elastic constants.Considering this as a reference work to establish basic elastic ratios — several important elasticconstants of Brazilian woods were not determined yet - the experimental set-up utilized one tree of 65years old from plantations of “Horto Florestal Navarro de Andrade”, at Rio Claro-SP, Brazil. All theexperimental procedures attended NBR 7190/97 – Brazilian Code for wooden structures –withconventional tension and compression tests. Results showed statistical identity between compressionand tension modulus of elasticity. The relation observed between longitudinal and radial modulus ofelasticity was 10 (EL/ER ≈ 10 and same relation, considering shear modulus (modulus of rigidity was20 (EL/GLR ≈ 20. These results, associated with Poisson’s ratios herein determined, allow theoreticalmodeling of wood mechanical behavior in structures.

  2. ILO - International Migration Programme. (United States)

    Boudraa, Miriam


    In a wide International Context characterised not only by the economical development but also by the social, cultural, political and individual development, we witness more and more to a exchange between the developed and the developing countries, which can be translated especially in the migration of the work force. In theory, all countries are either countries of origin either countries of transit or destination, and they are all responsible for the rights of migrant workers by promoting the rights, by monitoring and by preventing the abusive conditions. The process of migration of the workforce can be divided into three stages: the first coincides with the period prior to departure, the second is represented by the aftermath of the departure and the period of stay in the country of destination, the third stage corresponds to the return in the country of origin. The workers must be protected throughout this process by the international organizations that perform the catalytic role of communication and exchange between countries, for the only purpose of protecting the rights of immigrant and/or immigrants workers. The responsibility for the protection of workers is divided among the various players in the International Labour Organisation. Every country has to apply measures according to the international standards regarding workers' rights, standards that guide the various countries in the formulation and implementation of their policies and legislation. These standards are suggested by International Conventions, the ILO Conventions and other international instruments such as the human rights instrument. There has been a big step forward once the ILO Fundamental Conventions and Conventions on Migrant Workers where implemented and this implementation represented the use of the Guidelines "ILO Multilateral Framework on Labour Migration".

  3. A nonlinear approach of elastic reflection waveform inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Qiang


    Elastic full waveform inversion (EFWI) embodies the original intention of waveform inversion at its inception as it is a better representation of the mostly solid Earth. However, compared with the acoustic P-wave assumption, EFWI for P- and S-wave velocities using multi-component data admitted mixed results. Full waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly nonlinear problem and this nonlinearity only increases under the elastic assumption. Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) can mitigate the nonlinearity by relying on transmissions from reflections focused on inverting low wavenumber components of the model. In our elastic endeavor, we split the P- and S-wave velocities into low wavenumber and perturbation components and propose a nonlinear approach to invert for both of them. The new optimization problem is built on an objective function that depends on both background and perturbation models. We utilize an equivalent stress source based on the model perturbation to generate reflection instead of demigrating from an image, which is applied in conventional RWI. Application on a slice of an ocean-bottom data shows that our method can efficiently update the low wavenumber parts of the model, but more so, obtain perturbations that can be added to the low wavenumbers for a high resolution output.

  4. Rubber elasticity for percolation network consisting of Gaussian chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishi, Kengo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Shibayama, Mitsuhiro, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Sakai, Takamasa, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Bioengineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)


    A theory describing the elastic modulus for percolation networks of Gaussian chains on general lattices such as square and cubic lattices is proposed and its validity is examined with simulation and mechanical experiments on well-defined polymer networks. The theory was developed by generalizing the effective medium approximation (EMA) for Hookian spring network to Gaussian chain networks. From EMA theory, we found that the ratio of the elastic modulus at p, G to that at p = 1, G{sub 0}, must be equal to G/G{sub 0} = (p − 2/f)/(1 − 2/f) if the position of sites can be determined so as to meet the force balance, where p is the degree of cross-linking reaction. However, the EMA prediction cannot be applicable near its percolation threshold because EMA is a mean field theory. Thus, we combine real-space renormalization and EMA and propose a theory called real-space renormalized EMA, i.e., REMA. The elastic modulus predicted by REMA is in excellent agreement with the results of simulations and experiments of near-ideal diamond lattice gels.

  5. Mating system and the critical migration rate for swamping selection. (United States)

    Hu, Xin-Sheng


    Crow et al. (1990) and Barton (1992) have examined the critical migration rate for swamping selection in the nuclear system. Here, I use the same methodology to examine the critical migration rate in the cytonuclear system for hermaphrodite plants with a mixed mating system. Two selection schemes for a nuclear gene (heterozygote disadvantage and directional selection) and the directional selection scheme for organelle genes are considered. Results show that under random mating, the previous results are applicable to plant species by appropriate re-parameterization of the migration rate for nuclear and paternal organelle genes. A simple complementary relationship exists between seed and pollen flow in contributing to the critical migration rate. Under the mixed mating system, the critical migration rate of seeds and pollen for nuclear and paternal organelle genes can be changed due to the effects of selection and the cytonuclear linkage disequilibrium generated by migration and inbreeding. A negative but not complementary relationship exists between seed and pollen flow in contributing to the critical migration rate, varying with the mating system. Partial selfing can also adjust the critical seed flow for the maternal organelle gene, with a small critical migration rate for species of a high selfing rate. Both concordance and discordance among cytonuclear genes can occur under certain conditions during the process of swamping selection. This theory predicts the presence of various contributions of seed versus pollen flow to genetic swamping for plants with diverse mating systems.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sergeevna Matveevskaya


    Full Text Available Background research consists in exacerbating migration crisis in Europe, accompanied by many thousands of illegal border crossings of the EU, the death of migrants suffering a disaster in the Mediterranean Sea while trying to reach European coast, as well as changes in the asylum system.The subject of research is the migration policy of the European Union, reacting to new threats and challenges of the migration crisis.The aim of the article is to examine the decisions taken by the EU institutions and documents, as well as analysis of joint international activities of EU Member States in solving the current migration problems.Method of research is a theoretical analysis of the effect of migration on the economic and social life of the EU; comparative method for estimating the effectiveness of the European countries documents aimed to resolve migration problems.The results showed that the EU’s migration policy has achieved some significant results, such as the solution of the problem on rescue of migrants in distress in the Mediterranean Sea, or the security of the external borders of the EU. But in general, it should be noted, low efficiency and productivity of EU migration policy, which is associated with a number of economic, political and geopolitical factors.Field of application results. The results can serve as a basis for further development and improvement of the immigration policy of the EU.

  7. International Migration of Couples


    Junge, Martin; Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu


    We analyze emigration and return decisions of Danish couples. Our main questions are how emigration and return migration decisions depend on education, earnings, and the number and age of children. We use register data on full population from 1982 to 2006, focusing on opposite-gender couples in which the female is aged 23 to 37, and the male 25 to 39. We find that power couples in which both are highly educated are most likely to emigrate, but also most likely to return. Couples in which only...

  8. Globalization, migration and health. (United States)

    Burnett, Angela


    The term 'globalization' describes the integration of economic systems through improved communication, but it also represents increased insecurity for those with few resources--particularly refugees. This article examines why people migrate, their numbers, constraints on their movement and their particular health care needs. Immigrants have much to contribute to their recipient countries, but at some loss to their homelands. Both economically and morally, more liberal immigration policies would be beneficial. Policies towards asylum seekers should not be more restrictive in the aftermath of 11 September 2001 and detention should be the exception rather than the rule. Globalization should be managed so as to improve people's lives throughout the world.

  9. [Obesity, migration and adolescence]. (United States)

    Chamay-Weber, Catherine; Shehu-Brovina, Shqipe; Narring, Françoise


    Weight management interventions during adolescence are challenging. Migration adds complexity to this problem, making migrant families more vulnerable. Teenagers confront families to new values transmitted by the host society: opulence, junk food, video games. Obesity should not be seen as a single issue of calories-excess, but must be considered as being part of a larger problem, which takes into account the context of the familial and societal life of the migrants. The caregivers must have an overall view of the situation to provide appropriate approaches to weight management.

  10. Urbanization, Migration, Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin Lidin


    Full Text Available In the contemporary world urbanization becomes a large-scale process. Huge flows of people migrate from poorer districts to the cities with a higher level of consumption. It takes migrants about 15-25 years to give up their traditional ascetic way of life. In this period the ‘new citizens’ try to arrange compact settlements with an archaic way of life, insanitary conditions, high criminogenity and an authoritative local self-government. The processes of formation and decay of the ascetic enclave are viewed through the example of the ‘Shanghai’ trading neighborhood in Irkutsk.

  11. Migration and loving


    Gevrek, Deniz


    This paper explores the relationship between anti-miscegenation laws, interracial marriage and black males' geographical distribution in the U.S. during and after the Great Migration. The U.S. Supreme Court decision in the case of Loving v. Virginia in 1967, which forced the last 16 Southern states to strike down their anti-miscegenation laws, creates a unique opportunity to explore the impact of an exogenous change in a state's laws regulating interracial marriages. Analyzing the U.S. Census...

  12. Flow of Tunable Elastic Microcapsules through Constrictions


    do Nascimento, D?bora F.; Avenda?o, Jorge A.; Mehl, Ana; Moura, Maria J. B.; Carvalho, Marcio S.; Duncanson, Wynter J.


    We design and fabricate elastically tunable monodisperse microcapsules using microfluidics and cross-linkable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The overall stiffness of the microcapsules is governed by both the thickness and cross-link ratio of the polymer shell. Flowing suspensions of microcapsules through constricted spaces leads to transient blockage of fluid flow, thus altering the flow behavior. The ability to tune microcapsule mechanical properties enables the design of elastic microcapsules...

  13. Elastic flow instability in nanotube suspensions. (United States)

    Lin-Gibson, S; Pathak, J A; Grulke, E A; Wang, H; Hobbie, E K


    We report an elastic instability associated with flow-induced clustering in semidilute non-Brownian colloidal nanotubes. Rheo-optical measurements are compared with simulations of mechanical flocculation in sheared fiber suspensions, and the evolving structure is characterized as a function of confinement and shear stress. The transient rheology is correlated with the evolution of highly elastic vorticity-aligned aggregates, with the underlying instability being somewhat ubiquitous in complex fluids.

  14. Import price elasticities: reconsidering the evidence


    Hélène Erkel-Rousse; Daniel Mirza


    Recent economic geography and trade empirical studies based on monopolistic competition suggest high levels of trade price elasticities (between 3 and 11). However, price elasticity estimations in trade equations using unit values as price proxies usually lead to lower values of around unity. We show that those inconclusive results may be due to some misspecification in these equations as well as measurement errors in prices. When suitable instrumental variables are used, within a panel of in...

  15. Fracture imaging with converted elastic waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Myer, L.R.


    This paper examines the seismic signatures of discrete, finite-length fractures, and outlines an approach for elastic, prestack reverse-time imaging of discrete fractures. The results of this study highlight the importance of incorporating fracture-generated P-S converted waves into the imaging method, and presents an alternate imaging condition that can be used in elastic reverse-time imaging when a direct wave is recorded (e.g., for crosswell and VSP acquisition geometries).

  16. Metabolic syndrome and arterial elasticity in youth. (United States)

    Gardner, Andrew W; Parker, Donald E; Krishnan, Sowmya; Chalmers, Laura J


    To compare arterial elasticity in children, adolescents, and young adults with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS), and to assess which MetS components, demographic measures, and body composition measures are associated with arterial elasticity. Two-hundred six subjects (107 females and 99 males) between the ages of 10 and 20years were recruited by local newspaper advertisements, university email advertisements, and informational flyers. Subjects were assessed on MetS components, demographic measures, body composition measures, and arterial elasticity via radial tonometry. Forty-five subjects (22%) had MetS, as defined by the International Diabetes Federation, and 161 subjects (78%) did not. The primary novel finding was that group differences were not observed for large artery elasticity index (LAEI) (MetS=16.1±4.4 (ml×mmHg(-1))×10 (mean±SD), control=15.4±4.9, (ml×mmHg(-1))×10, p=0.349), and small artery elasticity index (SAEI) (MetS=9.2±2.7 (ml×mmHg(-1))×100, control=8.4±2.9, (ml×mmHg(-1))×100, p=0.063). In the MetS group, fat free mass was positively associated with arterial elasticity, and was the strongest multivariate predictor of LAEI (partial R(2)=0.41) and SAEI (partial R(2)=0.29). Youth with MetS did not exhibit differences in LAEI and SAEI compared to controls. Furthermore, fat free mass of youth with MetS was positively associated with arterial elasticity, and was the strongest predictor of both LAEI and SAEI. The clinical implication is that exercise intervention designed to increase fat free mass might increase arterial elasticity in youth, particularly in youth with MetS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Migration Performance for Legacy Data Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kam Woods


    Full Text Available We present performance data relating to the use of migration in a system we are creating to provide web access to heterogeneous document collections in legacy formats. Our goal is to enable sustained access to collections such as these when faced with increasing obsolescence of the necessary supporting applications and operating systems. Our system allows searching and browsing of the original files within their original contexts utilizing binary images of the original media. The system uses static and dynamic file migration to enhance collection browsing, and emulation to support both the use of legacy programs to access data and long-term preservation of the migration software. While we provide an overview of the architectural issues in building such a system, the focus of this paper is an in-depth analysis of file migration using data gathered from testing our software on 1,885 CD-ROMs and DVDs. These media are among the thousands of collections of social and scientific data distributed by the United States Government Printing Office (GPO on legacy media (CD-ROM, DVD, floppy disk under the Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP over the past 20 years.

  18. International migration, international relations and foreign policy. (United States)

    Mitchell, C


    Recent literature on migration, international relations, and foreign policy is reviewed in this article, stressing applications of global systems paradigms, studies of state entry and exit rules, and anatomies of domestic policy-setting processes on migration. After a concise assessment of the contemporary theory of global political economy, the paper argues for seeking mid-range generalizations on the international relations of migration. It also suggests that analysis begin with the policy-setting processes of the state. Especially through the use of comparative perspectives available from domestic policy making studies and from the field of international comparative public policy, this approach offers the opportunity to fix empirically the political roles of transnational social forces, which often present themselves as participants in domestic policy contests. Promising future directions in the study of state-to-state relations are also evaluated, with the anticipation that verifying regional or other intermediate patterns of world migration politics may contribute to more general theories of international political economy.

  19. Mechanical metamaterials at the theoretical limit of isotropic elastic stiffness (United States)

    Berger, J. B.; Wadley, H. N. G.; McMeeking, R. M.


    A wide variety of high-performance applications require materials for which shape control is maintained under substantial stress, and that have minimal density. Bio-inspired hexagonal and square honeycomb structures and lattice materials based on repeating unit cells composed of webs or trusses, when made from materials of high elastic stiffness and low density, represent some of the lightest, stiffest and strongest materials available today. Recent advances in 3D printing and automated assembly have enabled such complicated material geometries to be fabricated at low (and declining) cost. These mechanical metamaterials have properties that are a function of their mesoscale geometry as well as their constituents, leading to combinations of properties that are unobtainable in solid materials; however, a material geometry that achieves the theoretical upper bounds for isotropic elasticity and strain energy storage (the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds) has yet to be identified. Here we evaluate the manner in which strain energy distributes under load in a representative selection of material geometries, to identify the morphological features associated with high elastic performance. Using finite-element models, supported by analytical methods, and a heuristic optimization scheme, we identify a material geometry that achieves the Hashin-Shtrikman upper bounds on isotropic elastic stiffness. Previous work has focused on truss networks and anisotropic honeycombs, neither of which can achieve this theoretical limit. We find that stiff but well distributed networks of plates are required to transfer loads efficiently between neighbouring members. The resulting low-density mechanical metamaterials have many advantageous properties: their mesoscale geometry can facilitate large crushing strains with high energy absorption, optical bandgaps and mechanically tunable acoustic bandgaps, high thermal insulation, buoyancy, and fluid storage and transport. Our relatively simple

  20. Income Elasticity Literature Review | Science Inventory | US ... (United States)

    Following advice from the SAB Council, when estimating the economic value of reductions in air pollution-related mortality and morbidity risk, EPA accounts for the effect of personal income on the willingness to pay to reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes. These income growth adjustment factors are calculated using a combination of income elasticity estimates and income growth projections, both of which have remained essentially unchanged since 1999. These income elasticity estimates vary according to the severity of illness. EPA recently received advice from the SAB regarding the range of income elasticities to apply as well as the research standards to use when selecting income elasticity estimates. Following this advice, EPA consulted with a contractor to update its income elasticity and income growth projections, and generate new income growth adjustment factors. The SAB would evaluate the income elasticity estimates identified in the EPA-provided literature review, determining the extent to which these estimates are appropriate to use in human health benefits assessments.