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Sample records for eland tragelaphus oryx

  1. Serological survey of bovine viral diarrhoea virus in Namibian and South African kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and eland (Taurotragus oryx

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    Terence P. Scott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV is a pestivirus that affects members of the order Artiodactyla, including members of the subfamily Bovinae. Little is known about the seroprevalence of BVDV in southern Africa, especially the prevalence in wild ruminant populations such as kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros. A handful of random surveys suggested that seroprevalence ranged between 6% and 70% in southern African wild ruminants. The present study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of BVDV amongst kudu and eland (Taurotragus oryx from Namibia and South Africa. A BVDV-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed on 50 serum samples from kudu and eland from South Africa and Namibia. The seroprevalence of BVDV in South African kudu was 71%, identical to that in Namibian kudu. The seroprevalence in Namibian eland was 40%. The kudu and cattle farming (free ranging regions in Namibia predominantly overlap in the central regions, ensuring ample opportunity for cross-species transmission of BVDV. It is therefore important to determine the true prevalence of BVDV in southern Africa in both domesticated and wild animals. In addition, a potential link between BVDV incidence and a devastating rabies epidemic in Namibian kudu was proposed and such a notion could be supported or discredited by comparative prevalence data.

  2. (antidorcas marsupialis), eland (taurotragus oryx)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    black wildebeest calves at the age of about one month, while the young of the eland can be handled at any age. In captivity the young of game are usually fed on cow's milk, but most of them do not respond well to this ... Samples were obtained by digital manipulation from single animals of each species in captivity, except ...

  3. Common eland Taurotragus oryx on Mount Kilimanjaro, Tanzania: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More than 150 years after the first Europeans tackled Mount Kilimanjaro, the mammal fauna of Africa's highest mountain is still shrouded in mystery. This even applies to the common eland Taurotragus oryx, the world's second largest antelope, signs of which have been observed at altitudes between 3000 m and 5200 m, ...

  4. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (Pallas, 1766) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Techniques for the age determination of highveld eland in Natal were investigated. Tooth eruption and replacement sequence, and growth in horn length, were suitable criteria for the age determination of young eland with deciduous dentition. The most accurate technique for the age determination of post mortem adult ...

  5. Body growth of captive eland Taurotragus oryx in

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    P.O. Box 2SS, Lusaka, Zambia. J. Hanks. Institute of Natural Resources, University of Natal, ..... Oxford University. Press. 212 pp. SKINNER, J.D. 1972. Eland vs. Beef. Afr. Wildl. 26(1): 4-9. STAINTHORPE, H.L. 1972. Observations on captive eland in the. Loteni Nature Reserve. Lammergeyer 15: 27 - 38. TAYLOR, C.R. ...

  6. Age determination of eland Taurotragus oryx (pallas, 1766) in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animals without distinctive cementum annuli may be assigned ages from measurements of M3 crown height. The ages of live restrained eland could be derived from measurements of 11 occlusal width or 11 crown height. Horn morphology was adequate for age and sex classification of free-ranging eland up to adult status.

  7. Body growth of captive eland Taurotragus oryx in Natal | Jeffery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Asymptotic body dimensions were also higher in males, girth by 27%, height at withers by 13% and body length by 9%, these data illustrating the sexually dimorphic nature of growth in eland. In winter, body growth rates were significantly lower than in the summer, but these variations are not apparent from theoretical von ...

  8. eland (taurotragus oryx) and black wildebeest

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. One of the functions of the S.A. Lombard Nature Reserve is to rear and distribute game ... In captivity the young of game are usually fed on cow's milk, but most of them do not respond well to this ... Samples were obtained by digital manipulation from single animals of each species in captivity, except for the ...

  9. Characterization of male reproductive anatomy of the endangered Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eljarah, A; Al-Zghoul, M B; Jawasreh, K; Ababneh, M; Alsumadi, M; Alhalah, A; Ismail, Z Bani

    2012-07-01

    Reproductive tracts of four male Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Shaumari Nature Reserve in Jordan were examined to characterize their reproductive anatomy. Animals were allocated into two groups based on their age: Group 1 (n = 2, males were 12 and 14 mo old) and Group 2 (n = 2, males were 7 and 9 yrs old). Observations regarding the morphology, position and orientation of different reproductive organs were made. The external and internal genital organs of male oryx were similar to other domestic ruminant species with minor differences. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Brain and arterial blood temperatures of free-ranging oryx ( Oryx gazella).

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    Maloney, Shane K; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Graham; Mitchell, Duncan

    2002-01-01

    We used implanted miniature data loggers to measure brain and arterial blood temperatures every 5 min for up to 15 days in four free-ranging oryx ( Oryx gazella) in their natural habitat. Globe temperatures exceeded 45 degrees C and average peak radiant heat load was 800 W.m(-2). Arterial blood temperature exhibited a moderate amplitude nychthemeral rhythm of 1.8+/-0.3 degrees C (mean +/-SD). The amplitude of the nychthemeral rhythm was not influenced by variations in ambient heat load. Average brain temperature exceeded carotid arterial blood temperature by 0.29 degrees C but there was a range of body temperatures over which the brain could be up to 0.4 degrees C cooler or 0.5 degrees C warmer than arterial blood. At high body temperatures (>39.5 degrees C) at rest, three of the animals tended to maintain the brain cooler than arterial blood. During exercise the brain was always warmer than arterial blood. The slope of the regression line relating brain temperature to carotid blood temperature was less than one. At short time scales of 5-20 min, brain temperature varied significantly more than did carotid blood temperature. We attribute part of the variability in brain temperature to transient stress responses and the influence of sympathetic activation attenuating selective brain cooling. We conclude that, contrary to the widely cited postulate, the carotid rete does not protect the brain during hyperthermia. Oryx also do not show adaptive heterothermy and, over short time intervals, have a brain temperature more variable than carotid blood temperature.

  11. A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Report on the Sexual Cycle in the Kudu Bull Tragelaphus Strepsiceros Pallas and a Description of an Inter-Sex. JD Skinner, BJ Huntley. Abstract. Although Ansell (1960) reported that there was no seasonal calving pattern in kudu in Zambia, many workers in southern. Africa have since reported that there is a definite ...

  12. Reorganization at Oryx Energy focuses on teamwork, technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    As one of the largest independent oil and gas companies in the world, Oryx Energy Co. has become a strong international player, In an increasingly global business, they are competing with some very tough international companies. This competition calls for their continued focus on technology and innovative ways of conducting business, not only on the international scene but also in the U.S. Here the author focuses on ways his company is approaching U.S. activities, both onshore and in the Gulf of Mexico

  13. ORYX-E: ORIGEN yields and cross sections, nuclear transmutation and decay data from ENDF/B. [In FORTRAN IV for IBM 360

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    ORYX-E increases the versatility of CCC-217/ORIGEN, the isotope generation and depletion code package, by providing basic cross section and decay information for light element, fission-product, and actinide nuclides. This data library package results from data compiled for ORNL Chemical Technology Division's work with ORIGEN and from a 2-year effort of the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG) Fission Product Task Force. The data are generated from ENDF/B-IV, and are formated for input to the ORIGEN (CCC-217) code. Applications include calculations for waste projection, decay heat, nuclear safeguards, and fuel cycle economics. (RWR)

  14. Fecal parasite identification by microscopy and PCR in scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, managed at two sites

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    Cassandra Dawn Pauling

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The scimitar-horned oryx, Oryx dammah, an endangered species extinct in the wild, is managed in various captive management programs and is the focus of reintroduction efforts. Management variability can contribute to substantial parasite load differences, which can affect deworming programs and potentially transfer parasites to different regions with translocations. Parasite studies in O. dammah are lacking. In this study, we determined fecal egg/oocyst counts of O. dammah in two captive herds, Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC and Kansas City Zoo (KCZ. Fecal egg counts (FEC were performed on O. dammah feces collected seasonally using the modified McMaster method, and microscopy provided additional identification of parasite genera ova and oocysts. To identify parasites to species level, homogenized fecals provided DNA subjected to the polymerase chain reaction (PCR using genus specific primers. Microscopy and sequencing results indicated the presence of Strongylus (Strongylus vulgaris, Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Trichostrongylus (Haemonchus contortus, Camelostrongylus mentulatus, Trichuris (T. leporis, T. ovis, and T. discolor, Isospora (Isospora gryphoni and Eimeria (E. zuernii and E. bovis, with Strongylus being the most common. Nematodirus was identified through microscopy at FRWC. Fecal egg counts were significantly higher in (FRWC than in (KCZ in all samplings (P = <0.001. No significant difference was seen between parasite load and seasons (P = 0.103, nor site and season (P = 0.51. Both study sites maintained most animals within commonly accepted FEC levels found in domestic livestock. Individuals with high numbers of EPG or OPG were subordinate males, pregnant females, or neonates. Several significant interactions were found between genera of parasites, age, sex, season, and pregnancy status in the FRWC herd. Sampling limitations prevented further analysis of the KCZ herd. Understanding interactions between parasite loads and

  15. Anaesthesia of nyala (Tragelaphus angasi with a combination of thiafentanil (A3080, medetomidine and ketamine

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    D.V. Cooper

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available A combination of thiafentanil (A3080, medetomidine hydrochloride (MED and ketamine hydrochloride (KET was evaluated in 19 boma-habituated (12 female and 7 males and 9 free-ranging nyala (7 male and 2 females (Tragelaphus angasi to develop a safe and reliable anaesthesia protocol. Wide dosages were used safely during this study with ranges for A3080 of 45 + 8 mg/kg with MED of 69 + 19 mg/kg and KET of 3.7 + 1.0 mg/kg (200 mg/ animal. The dosages developed on boma-habituated nyala proved to be equally effective in 9 adult free-ranging nyala (7 males and 2 females. The optimum dosage for nyala was a combination of A3080 (40-50 mg/kg, MED (60-80 mg/kg plus 200 mg of KET/animal. The anaesthesia was characterised by a short induction, good muscle relaxation and mild hypoxaemia during monitoring the anaesthesia was rapidly and completely reversed by naltrexone hydrochloride (30mg/mgof A3080 and atipamezole hydrochloride (5mg/mg of MED given intramuscularly. There was no mortality or morbidity associated with this protocol.

  16. Assessing habitat quality of the mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the Bale Mountains, Ethiopia

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    Paul H. EVANGELISTA, John NORMAN III, Paul SWARTZINKI, Nicholas E. YOUNG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Populations of the endangered mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni are significantly threatened by the loss of critical habitat. Population estimates are tentative, and information on the species’ distribution and available habitat is required for formulating immediate management and conservation strategies. To support management decisions and conservation priorities, we integrated information from a number of small-scale observational studies, interviews and reports from multiple sources to define habitat parameters and create a habitat quality model for mountain nyala in the Bale Mountains. For our analysis, we used the FunConn model, an expertise-based model that considers spatial relationships (i.e., patch size, distance between the species and vegetation type, topography and disturbance to create a habitat quality surface. The habitat quality model showed that approximately 18,610 km2 (82.7% of our study area is unsuitable or poor habitat for the mountain nyala, while 2,857 km2 (12.7% and 1,026 km2 (4.6% was ranked as good or optimal habitat, respectively. Our results not only reflected human induced habitat degradation, but also revealed an extensive area of intact habitat on the remote slopes of the Bale Mountain’s southern and southeastern escarpments. This study provides an example of the roles that expert knowledge can still play in modern geospatial modeling of wildlife habitat. New geospatial tools, such as the FunConn model, are readily available to wildlife managers and allow them to perform spatial analyses with minimal software, data and training requirements. This approach may be especially useful for species that are obscure to science or when field surveys are not practical [Current Zoology 58 (4: 525–535, 2012].

  17. VALUES OF TRACE ELEMENTS SELENIUM, COPPER, ZINC, AND IODINE AND OF VITAMIN E IN CAPTIVE LESSER KUDUS (TRAGELAPHUS IMBERBIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Christine; Hoby, Stefan; Völlm, Jürg; Wenker, Christian

    2015-12-01

    Lesser kudus (Tragelaphus imberbis) have been kept in Zoo Basel since 1956. Juvenile mortality used to be high, and a recent study to reveal pathologic findings identified white muscle disease as a major contributor to this problem. Therefore, a retrospective study was initiated using 16 stored serum samples from lesser kudus from 2000 to 2013 to determine the concentration of selected trace elements, including selenium, copper, zinc, and iodine. Additionally, three serum samples were used to measure serum vitamin E values. Serum analysis revealed that copper, zinc, and iodine values were within reference ranges for domestic ruminants, and the supplementation status of these trace elements was assumed to be adequate. In contrast, vitamin E levels were low and selenium levels were scarce in several animals, indicating a deficiency of these essential micronutrients. The results of the analyses are compared with literature references.

  18. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

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    Dabelsteen Torben

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the costs of signalling, why do males often advertise their fighting ability to rivals using several signals rather than just one? Multiple signalling theories have developed largely in studies of sexual signals, and less is known about their applicability to intra-sexual communication. We here investigate the evolutionary basis for the intricate agonistic signalling system in eland antelopes, paying particular attention to the evolutionary phenomenon of loud knee-clicking. Results A principal components analysis separated seven male traits into three groups. The dominant frequency of the knee-clicking sound honestly indicated body size, a main determinant of fighting ability. In contrast, the dewlap size increased with estimated age rather than body size, suggesting that, by magnifying the silhouette of older bulls disproportionately, the dewlap acts as an indicator of age-related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion The results show that the multiple agonistic signals in eland reflect three separate components of fighting ability: (1 body size, (2 age and (3 presumably androgen-related aggression, which is reflected in three backup signals. The study highlights how complex agonistic signalling systems can evolve through the simultaneous action of several selective forces, each of which favours multiple signals. Specifically, loud knee-clicking is discovered to be an honest signal of body size, providing an exceptional example of the potential for non-vocal acoustic communication in mammals.

  19. Parasites of South African wildlife. II. Helminths of kudu, tragelaphus strepsiceros, from South West Africa/Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomker, J; Anthonissen, M; Horak, I G

    1988-12-01

    A total of 23 kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, were shot at 2-month intervals from June 1983 to April 1984 in the Etosha Game Reserve in the north of South West Africa/Namibia. The parasite survey conducted on these animals yielded 2 cestode and 12 nematode species. Haemonchus vegliai and Cooperia neitzi were the most prevalent nematodes and occurred in 13 animals each, followed by Cooperia acutispiculum and an Onchocerca sp. (9 animals each). The remaining nematodes were present in 4 (17%) or fewer of the antelope. C. neitzi was the most numerous nematode, a total of 3,564 being recovered from all the antelope, followed by C. acutispiculum (2,552) and H. vegliai (1,050). Individual total worm burdens varied from 4-1,326 with 2 kudu harbouring no worms. The mean burden of 399 worms was considered negligible. A single kudu was shot in the Namib-Naukluft Park in the south of the country. This animal harboured no parasites.

  20. Catastrophic die-off of globally threatened Arabian Oryx and Sand Gazelle in the fenced protected area of the arid central Saudi Arabia

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    M.Z. Islam

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of die-off of globally threatened Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx, and Arabian Sand Gazelle (Gazella subgutturosa marica were recorded from 1999 to 2008 in fenced Mahazat as-Sayd Protected Area (PA in western-central Saudi Arabia. Mortalities of animals have been recorded during summer months when the rainfall is negligible or insignificant. Deaths were due to starvation because of reduced availability, accessibility and quality of food plants in the area. In total, 560 oryx and 2815 sand gazelle deaths were recorded since the reintroduction projects began till the end of 2008. Mortalities of animals were higher in 1999-2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008. Grazing of oryx habitat depends on rainfall and animals move over great distances in response to rain. The fence around Mahazat as-Sayd PA prevents natural movements of animals, and artificially concentrates the ungulate populations into possibly unfavourable habitat. The sand gazelle is a highly gregarious and migratory species, moving long distances in search of good quality pastures. Populations of sand gazelle in Central Asia are also known to migrate over large distances, covering several hundred kilometers. It is therefore likely that by preventing natural movements of sand gazelles and oryx, fencing may have reinforced the effects of stressful conditions such as drought. To reduce the catastrophic effects, a Strategy and Action Plan was developed in August 2008 to manage oryx and gazelle within the reserve and with provision for food and water at the five camps in the reserve as emergency plan to minimize mortalities.

  1. Activity re-assignment and microclimate selection of free-living Arabian oryx: responses that could minimise the effects of climate change on homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetem, Robyn S; Strauss, W Maartin; Fick, Linda G; Maloney, Shane K; Meyer, Leith C R; Shobrak, Mohammed; Fuller, Andrea; Mitchell, Duncan

    2012-12-01

    Predicting whether behaviour could buffer the effects of climate change on long-lived mammals requires a better understanding of the long-term behavioural responses of mammals to environmental stress. Using biologging, we measured locomotor activity and microclimate selection, over eight months, in five Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) living free in a Saudi Arabian desert. The oryx displayed seasonal flexibility in activity patterns, shifting from a continuous 24-h activity pattern with crepuscular peaks in cooler months to a predominantly nocturnal activity pattern during the hottest months, without reducing the total 24-h activity level. The proportion of total 24-h activity that occurred during daylight hours was just 29±8% during the hottest months, versus 53±8% (mean±SD, n=5 oryx) in the other months. The attenuation in diurnal activity levels during the hot months was accompanied by the selection of cooler microclimates, presumably via shade seeking, during the heat of the day. Analysis of miniature black globe (miniglobe) temperature from a remote sensor on the collar of two female animals revealed that oryx selected microclimates cooler than the microclimates in direct sun at higher environmental heat loads across all periods, but with enhanced efficiency during the dry periods. We have quantified activity re-assignment and microclimate selection as responses to hot arid conditions in a free-living artiodactyl. Such flexible behavioural processes may act to buffer the adverse effects of the progressively hotter and drier conditions predicted to occur with climate change. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. TRAGELAPHUS SCRIPTUS SYLVATICUS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from. November 1971 to December ... buck ewes present in Queens Park Zoo at this time, it was decided to .... periods. A table and bibliography. Tech. Comm. 5, Commonwealth Bureau of Animal. Breeding and Genetics, Edinburgh. STEVENSON-HAMILTON, J. 1912. Animal life in.

  3. Tuberculosis in Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) and in a bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) on a game ranch in central province, Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, U; Pandey, G S; Kriek, N P; Cauldwell, A E

    1998-09-01

    Mycobacteriosis was diagnosed for the first time outside a national park in free-ranging wild animals on a game ranch in Zambia. A Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) was found dead with tuberculous lesions on a ranch near Lusaka. Acid-fast bacilli were found in the affected organs. Mycobacteria were isolated from these tissues. A bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus) was found dead on the same ranch with multiple superficial abscesses in the neck region, extensive granulomatous lesions in the lung, the bronchial and mediastinal lymph nodes and several nodular lesions in the spleen. Few acid-fast bacilli were found in the exudate from the abscesses and lesions in the affected organs. Histologically the lesions resembled those of tuberculosis, but mycobacteria could not be isolated. In addition, 1 Kafue lechwe among 37 wild ungulates of 13 species shot on the ranch showed typical tuberculous lesions in the lungs, but the diagnosis was not confirmed by bacterial isolation. The role of the Kafue lechwe as maintenance host for tuberculosis as well as in the possible spread of this disease to other wildlife are discussed.

  4. Habitat use by mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni determined using stem bite diameters at point of browse, bite rates, and time budgets in the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia

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    Solomon A. TADESSE, Burt P. KOTLER

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We studied the habitat use of mountain nyala Tragelaphus buxtoni in the northern edge of the Bale Mountains National Park, Ethiopia. The aims of this study were to: (1 measure and quantify habitat-specific stem bite diameters of mountain nyala foraging on common natural plant species in two major habitat types (i.e. grasslands versus woodlands, and (2 quantify the bite rates (number of bites per minute and the activity time budgets of mountain nyala as functions of habitat type and sex-age category. We randomly laid out three transects in each habitat type. Following each transect, through focal animal observations, we assessed and quantified stem diameters at point of browse (dpb, bite rates, and time budgets of mountain nyala in grasslands versus woodlands. Stem dpb provide a measure of natural giving-up densities (GUDs and can be used to assess foraging costs and efficiencies, with greater stem dpb corresponding to lower costs and greater efficiencies. The results showed that stem dpb, bite rates, induced vigilance, and proportion of time spent in feeding differed between habitats. In particular, mountain nyala had greater stem dpb, higher bite rates, and spent a greater proportion of their time in feeding and less in induced vigilance in the grasslands. In addition, adult females had the highest bite rates, and the browse species Solanum marginatum had the greatest stem dpb. Generally, grasslands provide the mountain nyala with several advantages over the woodlands, including offering lower foraging costs, greater safety, and more time for foraging. The study advocates how behavioural indicators and natural GUDs are used to examine the habitat use of the endangered mountain nyala through applying non-invasive techniques. We conclude that the resulting measures are helpful for guiding conservation and management efforts and could be applicable to a number of endangered wildlife species including the mountain nyala [Current Zoology 59 (6 : 707

  5. Crossing Human Boundaries: Apocalypse and Posthumanism in Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake and The Year of the Flood

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    Valeria Mosca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake (2003 and The Year of the Flood (2009 are the first and second novels in an as-yet-unfinished trilogy. The two works share a complex structure in which scenes from different moments in the future follow one another. A post-apocalyptic narrative line is intertwined with one that depicts events from a nearer future, all of them leading up to an environmental catastrophe of huge proportions. The nearest scenario is one of extreme genetic manipulation, in which the boundaries between species are blatantly crossed. Biopolitics strictly controls the environment and those who inhabit it; identities can be bought, and only some of them grant access to the Compounds – the only safe areas left after open spaces have become radioactive. In the meantime, all kinds of technological and genetic enhancements to human capabilities are being employed, some of them resulting in the creation of para-human populations. An environmental catastrophe follows, and both books feature last-man-on-earth narratives. Whether – or, more appropriately, how – the apocalyptic destruction is linked to an attempt to cross the boundary of the human is the issue this essay addresses. The first section deals with more classical interpretations of Atwood’s fiction as a cautionary tale about current environmental policies, whereas a new hypothesis is made in the second section, a post-humanist reading of Atwood's novels. Philosophical support will be provided by Jacques Derrida’s reflections on the fine line between animals and humans and Cary Wolfe’s theory of posthumanism.

  6. Ungulates rely less on visual cues, but more on adapting movement behaviour, when searching for forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Jan A; Prins, Herbert H T; Mashanova, Alla; Slotow, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Finding suitable forage patches in a heterogeneous landscape, where patches change dynamically both spatially and temporally could be challenging to large herbivores, especially if they have no a priori knowledge of the location of the patches. We tested whether three large grazing herbivores with a variety of different traits improve their efficiency when foraging at a heterogeneous habitat patch scale by using visual cues to gain a priori knowledge about potential higher value foraging patches. For each species (zebra ( Equus burchelli ), red hartebeest ( Alcelaphus buselaphus subspecies camaa ) and eland ( Tragelaphus oryx )), we used step lengths and directionality of movement to infer whether they were using visual cues to find suitable forage patches at a habitat patch scale. Step lengths were significantly longer for all species when moving to non-visible patches than to visible patches, but all movements showed little directionality. Of the three species, zebra movements were the most directional. Red hartebeest had the shortest step lengths and zebra the longest. We conclude that these large grazing herbivores may not exclusively use visual cues when foraging at a habitat patch scale, but would rather adapt their movement behaviour, mainly step length, to the heterogeneity of the specific landscape.

  7. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P extinction in PHX during 25 generations. Under such scenarios, maximum genetic diversities were achieved in the first generations before the effects of genetic drift became predominant. Although captive populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  8. Can captive populations function as sources of genetic variation for reintroductions into the wild? A case study of the Arabian oryx from the Phoenix Zoo and the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve, Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Alexander; Wells, Stuart A.; West, Gary; Al-Smadi, Ma’en; Redondo, Sergio A.; Sexton, Sydnee R.; Culver, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) historically ranged across the Arabian Peninsula and neighboring countries until its extirpation in 1972. In 1963–1964 a captive breeding program for this species was started at the Phoenix Zoo (PHX); it ultimately consisted of 11 animals that became known as the ‘World Herd’. In 1978–1979 a wild population was established at the Shaumari Wildlife Reserve (SWR), Jordan, with eight descendants from the World Herd and three individuals from Qatar. We described the mtDNA and nuclear genetic diversity and structure of PHX and SWR. We also determined the long-term demographic and genetic viability of these populations under different reciprocal translocation scenarios. PHX displayed a greater number of mtDNA haplotypes (n = 4) than SWR (n = 2). Additionally, PHX and SWR presented nuclear genetic diversities of N¯AN¯A = 2.88 vs. 2.75, H¯OH¯O = 0.469 vs. 0.387, and H¯EH¯E = 0.501 vs. 0.421, respectively. Although these populations showed no signs of inbreeding (F¯ISF¯IS ≈ 0), they were highly differentiated (G′′STGST′′ = 0.580; P < 0.001). Migration between PHX and SWR (Nm = 1, 4, and 8 individuals/generation) increased their genetic diversity in the short-term and substantially reduced the probability of extinction in PHX during 25 generations. Under such scenarios, maximum genetic diversities were achieved in the first generations before the effects of genetic drift became predominant. Although captive populations can function as sources of genetic variation for reintroduction programs, we recommend promoting mutual and continuous gene flow with wild populations to ensure the long-term survival of this species.

  9. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of androstenedione on growth, carcass composition and reproductive development of porkers. Abstract PDF · Vol 1, No 1 (1971) - Articles A note on the carcass composition of the common eland (Taurotragus oryx. Abstract PDF · Vol 7, No 1 (1977) - Articles Carcass composition of the giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis giraffa

  10. A preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A preliminary note on the effect of season on the reproductive tract of the eland bull Taurotragus oryx. J.D. Skinner, J.A.H. Heerden, J.H.M. van Zyl. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online.

  11. of the kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, in an agricultural

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Goode & Bean (1895) first suggested that the eel was a 'parasitic boring form', but at that time little was known about these eels .and nothing was known of the significance and use of their ... The mean group size of kudus in an agricultural area was. 3,9 and noticeably affected by hunting. A low male: female sex ratio was ...

  12. Feeding rank in the Derby eland: lessons for management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transfers to new breeding herds and supplementary feeding are crucial management steps for small populations of ungulates. However, the successful realisation of those steps is strongly dependent on social interactions among individuals. Agonistic encounters connected with feeding determine the quality and quantity of ...

  13. Conservation of fishes in the Elands River, Mpumalanga, South Africa: Past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon C. O’Brien

    2014-02-01

    Conservation implications: Continued conservation efforts are required to protect these fishes. This case study presented a rare example of how the impacts associated with the use of aquatic resources in South Africa can successfully be offset by conservation efforts.

  14. a note on the carcass composition of the comi\\{on eland (taurotragus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the sarna length of time. Note the larger amount of lat arountl the muscle in the bovine. Ruminants on the f{ighveld are subject o severe win- ter nutritional depressions as the dry grass has a low feeding value and edible bush and shrubs are not plentiful. Although the numbers were limited and the bulls shot at. S.A. Lombard ...

  15. Seasonal habitat selection by eland in arid savanna in southern Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-02-21

    Feb 21, 1990 ... rainfall variation, fire, vegetation and habitat physiognomy on a northern Cape animal community. S. Afr. J. WildJ. Res. 11: 87-104. DU TOrr,1.T. 1988. Patterns of resource use within the browsing ruminant guild in the central Kruger National Park. UnpUblished Ph.D. thesis, University of the Witwatersrand,.

  16. Adaptive assessment and management of riverine ecosystems: the Crocodile/Elands River case study

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, DJ

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The River Health Programme (RHP) is being designed to generate information regarding the ecological state of riverine ecosystems in South Africa. An adaptive assessment and management procedure is suggested as a means of linking the monitoring...

  17. A long-standing Pleistocene refugium in southern Africa and a mosaic of refugia in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Eline; Masembe, Charles; Arctander, Peter

    2010-01-01

    lineage showed pronounced geographic structuring, lower overall nucleotide diversity, higher population differentiation, and isolation-by-distance among populations. Main conclusions The data support the hypothesis of Pleistocene refugia occurring in East and southern Africa. In agreement......Aim Previous genetic studies of African savanna ungulates have indicated Pleistocene refugial areas in East and southern Africa, and recent palynological, palaeovegetation and fossil studies have suggested the presence of a long-standing refugium in the south and a mosaic of refugia in the east....... Phylogeographic analysis of the common eland antelope, Taurotragus oryx (Bovidae), was used to assess these hypotheses and the existence of genetic signatures of Pleistocene climate change. Location The sub-Saharan savanna biome of East and southern Africa. Methods Mitochondrial DNA control-region fragments (414...

  18. A successful land rehabilitation programme in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardouin, J.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Open strip mining for cement production, out of fossil coral limestone has left hectares of man-made quarry, a stone desert at Bamburi near Mombasa. A rehabilitation programme initiated in 1971, started with a Casuarina plantation and fish pond culture. Later on, the production of humus assisted by introducing millipedes created soils, which enabled the planting of other trees and the creation of a forest. Simultaneously, intensive Tilapia tank culture was developed to a pilot commercial scale. A small nature trail has also been set up with tortoises, hippopotamus, crocodiles, waterbucks, antelopes, and numerous other wild animals as well as plenty of birds. A small herd of oryx and elands is also successfully reared while snail, earthworm and wild fowl production experiments are under way. The principes adopted here constitute a very impressive example of how man can correct the environmental damage he is making, and that reafforestation and rehabilitation programmes can be effective under near desert like conditions.

  19. The diets of ungulates from the hominid fossil-bearing site of Elandsfontein, Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stynder, Deano D.

    2009-01-01

    The dietary regimes of 15 ungulate species from the middle Pleistocene levels of the hominid-bearing locality of Elandsfontein, South Africa, are investigated using the mesowear technique. Previous studies, using taxonomic analogy, classified twelve of the studied species as grazers ( Redunca arundinum, Hippotragus gigas, Hippotragus leucophaeus, Antidorcas recki, Homoiceras antiquus, Damaliscus aff. lunatus, Connochaetes gnou laticornutus, Rabaticerus arambourgi, Damaliscus niro, Damaliscus sp. nov., an unnamed "spiral horn" antelope and Equus capensis), one as a mixed feeder ( Taurotragus oryx) and two as browsers ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros and Raphicerus melanotis). Although results from mesowear analysis sustain previous dietary classifications in the majority of cases, five species were reclassified. Three species previously classified as grazers, were reclassified as mixed feeders ( H. gigas, D. aff. lunatus and R. arambourgi), one previously classified as a grazer, was reclassified as a browser (the "spiral horn" antelope), and one previously classified as a mixed feeder, was reclassified as a browser ( T. oryx). While current results broadly support previous reconstructions of the Elandsfontein middle Pleistocene environment as one which included a substantial C 3 grassy component, the reclassifications suggest that trees, broad-leaved bush and fynbos were probably more prominent than what was previously thought.

  20. The earliest figures of the Blaauwbok, Hippotragus Leucophaeus (Pallas, 1766) and of the Greater Kudu, Tragelaphus Strepsiceros (Pallas, 1766)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husson, A.M.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1975-01-01

    INTRODUCTION A recent study of the lectotype specimen of the Blaauwbok (Husson & Holthuis, 1969) had awakened our interest in this South African Antilope, which became extinct around 1800. One of us got the chance to procure a copy of the 1727 Dutch edition of Peter Kolb's account of Cape of Good

  1. Investigating the contributing factors to postmortem pH changes in springbok, eland, red hartebeest and kudu edible offal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess pH measurements between offal organs of different species and the association between pH taken 4 h post-slaughter and different predictor variables in the liver and lungs. A linear regression analysis was conducted on selected variables to identify the main predictors and their interactions affecting the pH of meat 4 h post-slaughter. In an increasing order of magnitude during winter, the pH achieved at 16 h – 36 h post-slaughter in springbok heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lungs was significantly (p < 0.05 higher than pH 6.0. The pH attained in springbok carcasses was (p < 0.05 below 6.0, whilst no significant differences were observed from the regulatory reference (pH 6.0 in the heart. There was a positive association between the pH of game meat 4 h post-slaughter and liver congestion. The pH of game meat 4 h post-slaughter increased by 0.11 units (p < 0.05 per millilitre increase in liver congestion and decreased by 0.04 units (p< 0.05 per minute increase in the shooting-to-bleeding interval, irrespective of the species. The lack of a statistically significant association between some selected variables and pH changes in this study suggested that either the factors may have a small effect which is only detectable with large data-sets and/or the effect may be modified by other unidentified factors. As some of the offal organs had final pH readings above 6.0, alternative measures are required to inactivate certain endogenous pathogens in edible wild game offal sourced from endemic areas.

  2. Investigating the contributing factors to postmortem pH changes in springbok, eland, red hartebeest and kudu edible offal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe Magwedere

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to assess pH measurements between offal organs of different species and the association between pH taken 4 h post-slaughter and different predictor variables in the liver and lungs. A linear regression analysis was conducted on selected variables to identify the main predictors and their interactions affecting the pH of meat 4 h post-slaughter. In an increasing order of magnitude during winter, the pH achieved at 16 h – 36 h post-slaughter in springbok heart, liver, spleen, kidney and lungs was significantly (p < 0.05 higher than pH 6.0. The pH attained in springbok carcasses was (p < 0.05 below 6.0, whilst no significant differences were observed from the regulatory reference (pH 6.0 in the heart. There was a positive association between the pH of game meat 4 h post-slaughter and liver congestion. The pH of game meat 4 h post-slaughter increased by 0.11 units (p < 0.05 per millilitre increase in liver congestion and decreased by 0.04 units (p< 0.05 per minute increase in the shooting-to-bleeding interval, irrespective of the species. The lack of a statistically significant association between some selected variables and pH changes in this study suggested that either the factors may have a small effect which is only detectable with large data-sets and/or the effect may be modified by other unidentified factors. As some of the offal organs had final pH readings above 6.0, alternative measures are required to inactivate certain endogenous pathogens in edible wild game offal sourced from endemic areas.

  3. Knee-clicks and visual traits indicate fighting ability in eland antelopes: multiple messages and back-up signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob; Dabelsteen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    -related traits such as fighting experience. Facemask darkness, frontal hairbrush size and body greyness aligned with a third underlying variable, presumed to be androgen-related aggression. A longitudinal study provided independent support of these findings. Conclusion: The results show that the multiple...

  4. A Student's Guide to German American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robl, Gregory

    This book is designed to help the novice in understanding how to conduct genealogical research for German ancestors. A brief introduction to each chapter offers ideas on topics for research and resources to consult. Chapters include: (1) "Why Trace Your Roots?"; (2) "The History of Germany and German Emigration"; (3)…

  5. A Student's Guide to Native American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavasch, E. Barrie

    This book provides a step-by-step guide to genealogical research in North America for Native Americans. The book also contains information on the history of Native Americans and their relationships with the United States. Chapters include: (1) "Grandmother Spider's Tangled Web"; (2) "Why Trace Your Roots?"; (3)…

  6. A Student's Guide to Polish American Genealogy. Oryx American Family Tree Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollyson, Carl Sokolnicki; Paddock, Lisa Olson

    This book offers a guide to the study of genealogy, or family history, through the use of historical documents, artifacts, and private records. Intended mainly for students who wish to trace their family roots, the book also can be used by anyone interested in the lives of Polish Americans throughout the years. Chapters describe how to find…

  7. Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação in vitro de alimentos incubados com inóculo microbiano de diferentes espécies de ruminantes Kinetic parameters of the ruminal in vitro degradation of feedstuffs given to different ruminant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R.G.F. Bezerra

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alguns alimentos utilizados para ruminantes de zoológicos foram estimados mediante incubação in vitro com líquido ruminal de audade (Ammotragus lervia, cervo sambar (Cervus unicolor, elande (Taurotragus oryx, bovino (Bos taurus, bubalino (Bubalus bubalis, caprino (Capra hircus e ovino (Ovis aries. Os parâmetros cinéticos foram estimados pela técnica da produção de gás, cujos dados foram ajustados pelos modelos de um e de duplo compartimento. Não foram detectadas diferenças nos parâmetros cinéticos que permitissem agrupar os alimentos (fibrosos × não fibrosos e os animais (domésticos × silvestres. O modelo de duplo compartimento foi o mais adequado para a estimação dos parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal. Inóculo microbiano oriundo de ruminantes domésticos não é recomendado para estimar parâmetros cinéticos da degradação ruminal de alimentos utilizados para ruminantes silvestres de zoológicos.The estimation of the ruminal kinetic parameters of pumpkin, potato-sweet, beet, broccoli, carrot, alfalfa hay, alfalfa pellet and bean, currently used for feeding wild and domestic ruminants raised in the Rio de Janeiro Zoo, was made through in vitro incubation of the feedstuffs together with ruminal fluid obtained from aoudad (Ammotragus lervia, sambar deer (Cervus unicolor, eland (Taurotragus oryx, cattle (Bos taurus, buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, goat (Capra hircus and sheep (Ovis aries. The gas production technique was used to obtain gas profiles, and the data were fitted by the mono or double compartmental model. The kinetic parameters were discrepant among both, animals and feedstuffs, and the double compartmental model gave the best estimation. Ruminal inocula from domestic ruminants can not be used to estimate the kinetic parameters of ruminal degradation of feedstuffs for wild ruminants.

  8. Développement rural et conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linet, C.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Développement rural et conservation. Open strip mining for cement production, out of fossil coral limestone has left hectares of man-made quarry, a stone desert at Bamburi near Mombasa. A rehabilitation programme initiated in 1971, started with a Casuarina plantation and fish pond culture. Later on, the production of humus assisted by introducing millipedes created soils, which enabled the planting of other trees and the creation of a forest. Simultaneously, intensive Tilapia tank culture was developed to a pilot commercial scale. A small nature trail has also been set up with tortoises, hippopotamus, crocodiles, waterbucks, antelopes, and numerous other wild animals as well as plenty of birds. A small herd of oryx and elands is also successfully reared while snail, earthworm and wild fowl production experiments are under way. The principes adopted here constitute a very impressive example of how man can correct the environmental damage he is making, and that reafforestation and rehabilitation programmes can be effective under near desert like conditions.

  9. 78 FR 4162 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities...), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or... (Rucervus eldii), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) from the captive herd...

  10. Reforming the Higher Education Curriculum. Internationalizing the Campus. American Council on Education/Oryx Press Series on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestenhauser, Josef A., Ed.; Ellingboe, Brenda J.

    The 13 chapters of this book attempt to challenge assumptions about international education and urge comprehensive curricular changes involving integration of international and global education into all disciplines. Chapters are organized into three parts that address internationalization for the 21st century, multidisciplinary perspectives on…

  11. Diet composition of western Derby eland (Taurotragus derbianus derbianus) in the dry season in a natural and a managed habitat in Senegal using faecal analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejcmanová, P.; Homolka, Miloslav; Antonínová, M.; Hejcman, M.; Podhájecká, V.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2010), s. 27-34 ISSN 0379-4369 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6093404 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : antelope * browsing * captivity * foraging * ecology * natural habitat * West Africa Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.875, year: 2010

  12. 78 FR 44961 - Endangered Species; Marine Mammals; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... specimens of Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somalicus) and Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) for the purpose of...'s zebra (Equus grevyi) South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris) Scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah...

  13. 78 FR 16292 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities... excess scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) from...

  14. 77 FR 20838 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... nasomaculatus), dama gazelle (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche), to enhance their propagation or... oryx (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and red lechwe (Kobus leche), from the captive herd...

  15. Impacts of ungulates on the demography and diversity of small mammals in central Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keesing, Felicia

    1998-09-01

    The impacts of ungulates on small mammals in an East African savanna habitat were investigated by monitoring the population and community responses of small mammals on replicated 4-ha plots from which ungulates had been excluded. The dominant small mammal in this habitat is the pouched mouse, Saccostomusmearnsi, a medium-sized murid rodent. Eight other small mammal species, including Arvicanthis sp., Mus sp., Mastomys sp., Dendromus sp., Crocidura sp., and, rarely, Tatera sp., Aethomys sp., and Acomys sp., were also captured. The dominant ungulates are elephant (Loxodonta africana), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), Grevy's and common zebra (Equus grevyi and E. burchelli), buffalo (Syncerus cafer), eland (Taurotragus oryx), Grant's gazelle (Gazella granti), and domestic cattle. Within 1 year, S. mearnsi populations had responded dramatically to the exclusion of large mammals by a two-fold increase in density, a difference that was maintained through pronounced seasonal fluctuations in the second year. Though individual pouched mice showed no significant differences in their use of space with and without ungulates, male S. mearnsi maintained significantly higher body weights in the absence of ungulates, indicating that habitat quality had increased. One other species, Mastomys sp., also increased in the absence of ungulates. Overall, the small mammal community maintained relatively constant species diversity on the plots to which ungulates did not have access. On the plots to which ungulates did have access, on the other hand, there was a rapid 75% decrease in diversity in the control plots during one trapping session. Ungulates are most likely affecting small mammals through their effects on food quality, since there were no detectable differences in their exposure to predators, as determined by vegetative cover, in the absence of ungulates. These results demonstrate that ungulates can have strong and rapid impacts on small mammal abundance and diversity in East

  16. The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA markers in constructing genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA markers in constructing genetic relationship among Oryx species. ... These data were used to provide the genetic kinship among different Oryx species. The complete cytochrome b gene ... Key words: Conservation, endangered species, Oryx, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers.

  17. Patterns of association, nestedness, and species co-occurrence of helminth parasites in the greater kudu, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, and the Etosha National Park, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fellis, K Joel; Negovetich, N J; Esch, G W; Horak, I G; Boomker, J

    2003-10-01

    The helminth parasites of the greater kudu from the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, and the Etosha National Park (ENP), Namibia, were examined to determine the major patterns of spatial and demographic variation in community structure and to evaluate nonrandomness in parasite community assembly. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling ordination procedures were used to test for differences in parasite community composition between hosts of the 2 parks and between hosts of different demographic groups within KNP. Infracommunities within KNP were also examined for patterns of nonrandomness using 2 null models, i.e., nestedness and species co-occurrence. Infracommunities of KNP and ENP were significantly different from each other, as were infracommunities of different host demographic groups within KNP. Parasite species in the greater kudu from KNP displayed significant levels of nestedness and were found to co-occur less frequently than expected by chance; however, this lack of co-occurrence was significant only when all demographic groups were considered. When restricted to any particular age class, co-occurrence patterns could not be distinguished from random. Overall, these data suggest that biogeography and host demographics are important factors in determining community organization of helminth parasites in the greater kudu.

  18. The role of African buffalos (syncerus caffer in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belsham Graham J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To study the role of African buffalos (Syncerus caffer in the maintenance of foot-and-mouth disease in Uganda, serum samples were collected from 207 African buffalos, 21 impalas (Aepyceros melampus, 1 giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis, 1 common eland (Taurotragus oryx, 7 hartebeests (Alcelaphus buselaphus and 5 waterbucks (Kobus ellipsiprymnus from four major National Parks in Uganda between 2005 and 2008. Serum samples were screened to detect antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV non-structural proteins (NSP using the Ceditest® FMDV NS ELISA. Solid Phase Blocking ELISAs (SPBE were used to determine the serotype-specificity of antibodies against the seven serotypes of FMDV among the positive samples. Virus isolation and sequencing were undertaken to identify circulating viruses and determine relatedness between them. Results Among the buffalo samples tested, 85% (95% CI = 80-90% were positive for antibodies against FMDV non-structural proteins while one hartebeest sample out of seven (14.3%; 95% CI = -11.6-40.2% was the only positive from 35 other wildlife samples from a variety of different species. In the buffalo, high serotype-specific antibody titres (≥ 80 were found against serotypes O (7/27 samples, SAT 1 (23/29 samples, SAT 2 (18/32 samples and SAT 3 (16/30 samples. Among the samples titrated for antibodies against the four serotypes O, SAT 1, SAT 2 and SAT 3, 17/22 (77%; CI = 59.4-94.6% had high titres against at least two serotypes. FMDV isolates of serotypes SAT 1 (1 sample and SAT 2 (2 samples were obtained from buffalo probang samples collected in Queen Elizabeth National Park (QENP in 2007. Sequence analysis and comparison of VP1 coding sequences showed that the SAT 1 isolate belonged to topotype IV while the SAT 2 isolates belonged to different lineages within the East African topotype X. Conclusions Consistent detection of high antibody titres in buffalos supports the view that African buffalos

  19. Extreme Wildlife Declines and Concurrent Increase in Livestock Numbers in Kenya: What Are the Causes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence of escalating wildlife losses worldwide. Extreme wildlife losses have recently been documented for large parts of Africa, including western, Central and Eastern Africa. Here, we report extreme declines in wildlife and contemporaneous increase in livestock numbers in Kenya rangelands between 1977 and 2016. Our analysis uses systematic aerial monitoring survey data collected in rangelands that collectively cover 88% of Kenya's land surface. Our results show that wildlife numbers declined on average by 68% between 1977 and 2016. The magnitude of decline varied among species but was most extreme (72-88% and now severely threatens the population viability and persistence of warthog, lesser kudu, Thomson's gazelle, eland, oryx, topi, hartebeest, impala, Grevy's zebra and waterbuck in Kenya's rangelands. The declines were widespread and occurred in most of the 21 rangeland counties. Likewise to wildlife, cattle numbers decreased (25.2% but numbers of sheep and goats (76.3%, camels (13.1% and donkeys (6.7% evidently increased in the same period. As a result, livestock biomass was 8.1 times greater than that of wildlife in 2011-2013 compared to 3.5 times in 1977-1980. Most of Kenya's wildlife (ca. 30% occurred in Narok County alone. The proportion of the total "national" wildlife population found in each county increased between 1977 and 2016 substantially only in Taita Taveta and Laikipia but marginally in Garissa and Wajir counties, largely reflecting greater wildlife losses elsewhere. The declines raise very grave concerns about the future of wildlife, the effectiveness of wildlife conservation policies, strategies and practices in Kenya. Causes of the wildlife declines include exponential human population growth, increasing livestock numbers, declining rainfall and a striking rise in temperatures but the fundamental cause seems to be policy, institutional and market failures. Accordingly, we thoroughly evaluate wildlife

  20. A case study of geo - ICT for e - government in Nigeria : does computerisation reduce corruption in the provision of land administration services?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akingbade, A.O.; Navarra, D.D.; Georgiadou, P.Y.; Zevenbergen, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the role of the Abuja geographic information systems as an e-government policy initiative for promoting the reduction in corruption in the provision of e-land administration services and good governance in general. The paper explores the contribution of e-land administration with

  1. 77 FR 15383 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... (Equus grevyi), Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus hartmannae), scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), addax... captive-bred wildlife registration under 50 CFR 17.21(g) for the Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi), Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus hartmannae), Eld's deer (Rucervus eldii), barasingha (Rucervus duvaucelii), bontebok...

  2. Lessons from independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauptfuhrer, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    The recent history of Oryx provides invaluable lessons for those who plan future energy strategies, relates the author of this paper. When Oryx became an independent oil and gas company, its reserves were declining, its stock was selling below asset values, and the price of oil seemed stuck below $15 per barrel. The message from Oryx management to Oryx employees was: We are in charge of our own destiny. We are about to create our own future. Oryx had developed a new, positive corporate culture and the corporate credit required for growth. This paper points to two basic principles that have guided the metamorphosis in Oryx's performance. The first objective was to improve operational efficiency and to identify the right performance indicators to measure this improvement. It states that the most critical performance indicator for an exploration and production company must be replacement and expansion of reserves at a competitive replacement cost. Oryx has cut its finding costs from $12 to $5 per barrel, while the BP acquisition provided proven reserves at a cost of only $4 per barrel. Another performance indicator measures Oryx's standing in the financial markets

  3. 77 FR 17494 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-26

    ..., export, and cull of excess scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), from the captive herd maintained at their...) Cotton-headed tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) Mandrill (Mandrillus sphinx) Diana monkey (Cercopithecus diana... interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of excess addax (Addax nasomaculatus), from the captive...

  4. 78 FR 53473 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... commerce, export, and cull of excess scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and...-13868B The applicant requests a permit authorizing interstate and foreign commerce, export, and cull of... variegata), red ruffed lemur (Varecia rubra), black lemur (Eulemur macaco), cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus...

  5. The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA markers in constructing genetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-30

    May 30, 2011 ... To date, only parts of mitochondrial DNA from cytochrome b, 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA and non-coding D- loop had been sequenced for different species of Oryx. Discrepancy in the genetic relationship among. Oryx species was previously revealed when combinations of these sequences were analyzed. In the.

  6. AN EVALUATION OF SEASONAL MOVEMENT IN GREATER KUDU ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AN EVALUATION OF SEASONAL MOVEMENT IN GREATER KUDU POPULA-. TIONS - TRAGELAPHUS STREPSICEROS PALLAS - IN THREE LOCALITIES. IN SOUTHERN AFRICA. C. DAVID SIMPSON". Caesar Kleberg Research Program in Wildlife Ecology,. Texas A & M University. With the emergence of more ...

  7. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Wassermann

    2015-04-01

    Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6, black-backed jackals (2 of 7 and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12. The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia taeniaeformis (lion, Taenia regis (lions and oryx and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx.

  8. Cloudy cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott RL, Zegabs M, Elander TR. Acanthamoeba keratits. In: Tasman W, Jaeger EA, eds. Duane's Ophthalmology 2013 edition . Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:vol 4, chap 18A. Batta ...

  9. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogutu, Joseph O; Kuloba, Bernard; Piepho, Hans-Peter; Kanga, Erustus

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC), located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996-2015. 1) Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996-2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2) Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3) Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson's gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4) Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5) Grant's gazelle, Grevy's zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell's zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6) Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and carnivores

  10. Wildlife Population Dynamics in Human-Dominated Landscapes under Community-Based Conservation: The Example of Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph O Ogutu

    Full Text Available Wildlife conservation is facing numerous and mounting challenges on private and communal lands in Africa, including in Kenya. We analyze the population dynamics of 44 common wildlife species in relation to rainfall variation in the Nakuru Wildlife Conservancy (NWC, located in the Nakuru-Naivasha region of Kenya, based on ground total counts carried out twice each year from March 1996 to May 2015. Rainfall in the region was quasi-periodic with cycle periods dependent on the rainfall component and varying from 2.8 years for the dry season to 10.9 years for the wet season. These oscillations are associated with frequent severe droughts and food scarcity for herbivores. The trends for the 44 wildlife species showed five general patterns during 1996-2015. 1 Steinbuck, bushbuck, hartebeest and greater kudu numbers declined persistently and significantly throughout 1996-2015 and thus merit the greatest conservation attention. 2 Klipspringer, mongoose, oribi, porcupine, cheetah, leopard, ostrich and Sykes monkey numbers also decreased noticeably but not significantly between 1996 and 2015. 3 Dik dik, eland, African hare, Jackal, duiker, hippo and Thomson's gazelle numbers first increased and then declined between 1996 and 2015 but only significantly for duiker and hippo. 4 Aardvark, serval cat, colobus monkey, bat-eared fox, reedbuck, hyena and baboon numbers first declined and then increased but only the increases in reedbuck and baboon numbers were significant. 5 Grant's gazelle, Grevy's zebra, lion, spring hare, Burchell's zebra, bushpig, white rhino, rock hyrax, topi, oryx, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe, and wildebeest numbers increased consistently between 1996 and 2015. The increase was significant only for rock hyrax, topi, vervet monkey, guinea fowl, giraffe and wildebeest. 6 Impala, buffalo, warthog, and waterbuck, numbers increased significantly and then seemed to level off between 1996 and 2015. The aggregate biomass of primates and

  11. 77 FR 54604 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... (Oryx dammah), and one male lechwe (Kobus leche) culled from captive herds in the United States for the...), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), dama gazelle (Nanger dama), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the...

  12. The effect of stress and season on some Haematological and Biochemical parameters of three antelope species in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F le R Fourie

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A seasonal study of some haematological and biochemical parameters of three antelope species (springbok Antidorcas marsupialis, oryx Oryx gazella and blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus was conducted during January, April and June in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park. A communal increase in two blood parameters during April was observed in all three species studied. These increases correlated with optimal range conditions. Active pursuit of individuals as well as drug induced immobilisation proved to place animals under stress influencing haematograms extensively.

  13. Observations on the lambing interval of the cape bushbuck ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A record of births from three Cape bushbuck ewes at Queens Park Zoo, East London, from November 1971 to December 1974, indicated that the mean lambing interval of Tragelaphus scriptus sylvaticus in captivity is 249 days and that ewes reach sexual maturity at approximately one year of age.

  14. The relation between herbivore density and relative resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological theory can help range scientists to understand the determinants of ecological animal density or, in range management terms, 'carrying capacity'. The relation between the relative density of resources and herbivore density is illustrated by regressions of the ecological density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on ...

  15. comparison of avifaunal assemblage and their association with plant

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    alpine habitat and populations of the rare and endemic species of Mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis). (Fishpool and Evans, 2001; OBARD, 2007). Data collection and analysis. A preliminary survey was conducted during the first two weeks of August 2011. The physical features of ...

  16. Selective predation and prey class behaviour as possible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To test these mechanisms, a study was conducted on Samara Private Game Reserve to investigate the potential impact cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) predation has had on the kudu (Tragelaphus strepciseros) population. Kudu age and sex data were collected across both predator-present and predator-absent sections using ...

  17. The relation between herbivore density and relative resource ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relation between the relative density of resources and herbivore density is illustrated by regressions of the ecological density of kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) on the relative density of habitat patches within landscapes for a semi-arid savanna. Habitat suitability models were used to isolate patches of suitable kudu ...

  18. wild vertebrate pests activities on agricultural crops at gashaka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gambian sun squirrel. 13. 8. 11. Thryonomys swinderianus. Cane rat/Grasscutter. 9. 11. 4. Phacochoerus africanus. Warthog. 6. 1. -. Tragelaphus scriptus. Bushbuck. 2. 2. 3. Numida meleagris. Guinea fowl. 2. 2. 9. Hystrix cristata. Porcupine. 6. -. -. Manis gigantea. Pangolin. 2. -. -. Potamochoerus porcus. Red River Hog. 2.

  19. Aspects of the feeding ecology of a browsing ruminant: the kudu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forbs form the preferred dietary component of the kudu (Tragelaphus sfrepsiceros). This preference was associated with the high nutrient content of their leaves and less fibrous stem material relative to trees and shrubs. Woody browse was most sought after during the early growing season when their new shoots are softest ...

  20. Potential impact on biodiversity in kwale's forest reserve by power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The fringe ecosystem is endowed with important conservation-status species like primate: Cercopithecus spp; family of artiodactyla, Tragelaphus scriptus, rodentia: Dendrohyrax arborea, Thryonomys swinderianus; carnivores Panthera leo, Vulpes pallida and numbers of avifauna species as well as reptilea. The natural high ...

  1. An FMRI Study of Olfactory Cues to Perception of Conspecific Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    skydive and exercise conditions, was 20 minutes. Potential participants were excluded from participation in the study if they had used deodorant ...Petrovic P, Ingvar M, Stone-Elander S, Petersson KM, Hansson P (1999) A PET activation study of dynamic mechanical allodynia in patients with

  2. 76 FR 42099 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chinook Salmon Bycatch Management in the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... staff at NMFS and the Alaska Department of Fish and Game. There are two basic eLandings report types... persons who conducted a Chinook salmon PSC transfer that was paid for with an exchange of money (called a... account for Chinook salmon PSC transfers and the amount of money exchanged for transfers between AFA...

  3. Experiment list: SRX143847 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available common inbred strain of laboratory mouse http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/eachData/bw/SRX14384...twareversion=ELAND || strain=C57BL/6 || strain description=C57 black 6, the most

  4. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic studies of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-26

    Sep 26, 2011 ... Park (SNP), the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), the Maswa. Game Reserves (MGR) and surrounding game controlled areas which act as important buffer zones between human and wildlife. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from 15 individuals of each of Grant's gazelle, hartebeest, eland, ...

  5. The Lertorpet Symposium View on a Generalized Inner Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elander, Nils; Brändas, Erkki

    Introduction Tore Berggren: The Regularization Method I Borbála Gyarmati and Tamás Vertse: The Regularization - Method II Erkki Brändas and Nils Elander : The Complex Scaling Method - and the Turn Over Rule Nimrod Moiseyev : The C-Product Summary

  6. Dietary overlap between Boer goats and indigenous browsers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The winter diet of free ranging Boer goats in Valley Bushveld, KwaZulu-Natal, was determined by direct observations and compared with the diet of indigenous browsers (kudu, eland, giraffe, black rhinoceros) in order to determine which browsers are most compatible with goats for ensuring more efficient use of savanna ...

  7. Detection of Multiple Serotypes of Foot-and Mouth Disease Virus in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy five (75%) foot-and-mouth diseases virus (FMDV) isolates stored at the laboratory were reserotyped. The isolates were obtained from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) eland (Taurotragus orynx), pigs and cattle during the period from 1971- to 2001. Serotypes O, A, SAT1 and SAT2 were identified from the cattle ...

  8. Polymorphic microsatellite markers for genetic studies of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many wild animal species lack informative genetic markers for analysing genetic variation and structure, which is essential for effective long term conservation and management. We present heterologous microsatellite markers in six Tanzanian antelope species including: grant's gazelle, hartebeest, eland, roan, impala and ...

  9. The effects of river flooding on the fish populations of two eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    waters of the Swartkops estuary are derived from the. Elands and Swartkops Rivers which originate in the Groot- winterhoek mountains. They flow parallel to each other in steep narrow valleys and join shortly after entering the flood pain about 31 km from the estuarine mouth. The. 97 main stream, the Swartkops, is dammed ...

  10. 78 FR 36122 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-17

    ... vessels to report their fishing activity, including fish ticket numbers, days fishing, and days transiting...., days fishing, days traveling, and days processing) and financial (i.e., landings by share type, sales... economic data from other sources (e.g. elandings, fish ticket, and Restricted Access Management [RAM] data...

  11. Spatial and temporal variation in the macroinvertebrate community ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Elands River, Mpumalanga, is an ecologically sensitive river that is constantly threatened by a variety of human activities. The influence of a pulp and paper mill on the river's macroinvertebrate assemblages was studied in March and June 2005, representing high- and low-flow seasons, respectively. Macroinvertebrates ...

  12. A comparison of several methods of assessing river condition using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examines the results obtained and the conclusions drawn using several recognised techniques for measuring aquatic macroinvertebrate communities. The physical, chemical and macroinvertebrate data used were collected upstream and downstream of a land-based trout farm situated on a tributary of the Elands ...

  13. Challenges in identifying and determining the impacts of infection with pestiviruses on the herd health of free ranging cervid populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although most commonly associated with the infection of domestic livestock, the replication of pestiviruses, in particular bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), occurs in a wide range of free ranging cervids including white-tailed deer, mule deer, fallow deer, elk, red deer, roe deer, eland and moused...

  14. The willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation of wild animals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data on the perception of and willingness to pay (WTP) for the conservation of the Derby Eland and the African Wild Dog in North Cameroon were collected from August to October 2004 using administered questionnaires. The results show a positive attitude of respondents towards wildlife conservation. They indicated ...

  15. 78 FR 33790 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-05

    ... 5,000 scimitar-horned oryx, 1,500 addax, and 750 dama gazelle in captivity worldwide (70 FR 52319... species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range,'' and a... that it is presently threatened with extinction, not only in all of its natural range, but in a...

  16. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 8, No 20 (2009), The efficiency of fan-pad cooling system in greenhouse and building up of internal greenhouse temperature map, Abstract PDF. Oz Hasan, A Atilgan, K Buyuktas, T Alagoz. Vol 10, No 22 (2011), The efficiency of mitochondrial DNA markers in constructing genetic relationship among Oryx species ...

  17. 78 FR 19731 - Endangered Species; Receipt of Applications for Permit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... leche) to enhance the species' propagation or survival. This notification covers activities to be... leche) from the captive herd maintained at their facility, for the purpose of enhancement of the... (Oryx dammah), addax (Addax nasomaculatus), and red lechwe (Kobus leche) to enhance the species...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taurotragus oryx, Abstract PDF. M von La Chevallerie, J.M. Erasmus, J.D. Skinner, J.H.M. van Zyl. Vol 1, No 1 (1971), A note on the comparative microanatomy of M. longissimus dorsi of the African elephant and domestic bull ...

  19. Algajate võidukäik / Krista Kaer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaer, Krista

    2003-01-01

    2003. a. kandideerisid Bookeri auhinnale Monica Ali (romaan "Brick Lane"), Zoë Heller ("Märkmeid skandaali kohta"), Margaret Atwood ("Oryx ja Crake"), DBC Pierre (tegel. Peter Finlay, "Vernon God Little"), Damon Galgut ("Hea arst") ning Clare Morrall ("Hämmastavad värvilaigud"). Auhinna võitis DBC Pierre

  20. Review of United Nations Environment Programme and Other Post-Conflict Environmental Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Afghanistan for 4 years, and other endangered species such as the Marco Polo sheep are illegally hunted for sport, for meat, or to supply the illicit fur...contributing factors. In some areas, species such as elephant, rhino , buffalo, giraffe, eland, and zebra are all but eradicated despite laws seeking to...other natural resource damage (e.g., uncontrolled harvesting of animal species for food). The most probable explanation for this difference is that

  1. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9),...

  2. A sylvatic lifecycle of Echinococcus equinus in the Etosha National Park, Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassermann, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Aschenborn, Julia; Mackenstedt, Ute; Romig, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Various species of Echinococcus have been described in the past from wild mammals of sub-Saharan Africa. However, it is only recently, that a few isolates have become available for molecular identification; therefore, the involvement of wildlife in the lifecycles of the various cryptic species within Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is still only partially known. A preliminary survey was undertaken in Etosha National Park, Namibia, from August to October 2012. Faecal samples were obtained from 34 individual wild carnivores, and metacestodes were collected from carcasses of 18 culled herbivores. Single eggs and metacestode tissue were lysed and identified from sequences of the mitochondrial nad1 gene. In case of metacestodes, the cox1 gene was additionally sequenced and haplotype networks were constructed. Echinococcus equinus was found in lions (4 of 6), black-backed jackals (2 of 7) and Burchell's zebras (11 of 12). The frequency of this parasite in the absence of domestic dogs, horses and donkeys strongly indicates its transmission in a wildlife cycle. Further, a variety of sequences were obtained from eggs and cysticerci from lions, cheetahs, caracals, spotted hyenas and oryx, which most closely clustered with species of Taenia. Only 3 of them, 2 of lion and 1 of hyena origin, could be allocated to Hydatigera (=Taenia) taeniaeformis (lion), Taenia regis (lions and oryx) and Taenia cf. crocutae (spotted hyena and oryx).

  3. Evaluating pain induced by venipuncture in pediatric patients with developmental delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benini, Franca; Trapanotto, Manuela; Gobber, Daniela; Agosto, Caterina; Carli, Giovanna; Drigo, Paola; Eland, Jo; Zacchello, Franco

    2004-01-01

    Little attention has been paid to the assessment of pain in children with developmental delay. The aim of this study was to explore several methods for assessing pain during venipuncture in this population of children, using classic and modified scales to evaluate the children's response to simplified tools. Sixteen children with mild or moderate developmental delay were evaluated using three standard self-rating scales (Visual Analog Scale [VAS], Eland Scale, and Faces Scale) and three modified methods (Cube Test, Modified Eland Scale, and Modified Faces Scale), recording subjective self-ratings and behavioral expressions of pain during a venipuncture procedure, apart from the initial fear. The children's pain and reaction time were assessed by an outside observer, while their pain and fear were also evaluated by the parents. The VAS was used without difficulty by all the children and revealed a good consistency with the Cube Test. The parents' and neutral observer's indirect pain assessment was also consistent with the child's evaluations. The Eland Scale proved difficult to use, especially for Down's syndrome children, while its modified version was easier. Results emerging from the original and modified Faces Scales were inconsistent. Frightened children attributed higher pain scores, demonstrating that negative emotions exacerbate the experience of pain in developmentally delayed children. The patients showed a limited capacity for verbal and behavioral expression in reaction to the painful stimulus (especially the Down's cases). These findings support the conviction that even developmentally delayed children can use self-rating methods effectively. This sector demands further, more extensive study, including the development of simplified tools, to ensure an adequate pain assessment and optimal antalgic approach to this particular pediatric population.

  4. Detection of Babesia spp. in free-ranging Pukus, Kobus vardonii, on a game ranch in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Munyeme, Musso; Nambota, Andrew Mubila; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo; Siamudaala, Victor M

    2011-12-01

    Babesia spp. were detected from 4 asymptomatic pukus captured on a game ranch in central Zambia in October 2008. Blood smears were examined in 4 species of aymptomatic free-ranging antelopes, namely the puku (Kobus vordanii), reedbuck (Redunca arundinum), bushbuck (Tragelaphus sylvaticus), and kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), and showed the presence of Babesia parasites only in the puku. In the puku, the prevalence of babesiosis was estimated at 33.3% (n = 12), while the overall prevalence in all examined animals was 8.5% (n = 47). The parasites showed morphological characteristics of paired ring-like stages with the length varying between 1.61 µm and 3.02 µm (mean = 2.12 µm, n = 27; SD = 0.76 µm). Both the infected and non-infected pukus showed good body condition scores (BCS), while the dominant tick species detected from all animals were Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, Rhipicephalus spp., and Boophilus spp. To our knowledge this is the first report of Babesia spp. infection in pukus in Zambia. These findings suggest that wildlife could play an important role in the epidemiology of babesiosis in Zambia.

  5. Is the climate right for pleistocene rewilding? Using species distribution models to extrapolate climatic suitability for mammals across continents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orien M W Richmond

    Full Text Available Species distribution models (SDMs are increasingly used for extrapolation, or predicting suitable regions for species under new geographic or temporal scenarios. However, SDM predictions may be prone to errors if species are not at equilibrium with climatic conditions in the current range and if training samples are not representative. Here the controversial "Pleistocene rewilding" proposal was used as a novel example to address some of the challenges of extrapolating modeled species-climate relationships outside of current ranges. Climatic suitability for three proposed proxy species (Asian elephant, African cheetah and African lion was extrapolated to the American southwest and Great Plains using Maxent, a machine-learning species distribution model. Similar models were fit for Oryx gazella, a species native to Africa that has naturalized in North America, to test model predictions. To overcome biases introduced by contracted modern ranges and limited occurrence data, random pseudo-presence points generated from modern and historical ranges were used for model training. For all species except the oryx, models of climatic suitability fit to training data from historical ranges produced larger areas of predicted suitability in North America than models fit to training data from modern ranges. Four naturalized oryx populations in the American southwest were correctly predicted with a generous model threshold, but none of these locations were predicted with a more stringent threshold. In general, the northern Great Plains had low climatic suitability for all focal species and scenarios considered, while portions of the southern Great Plains and American southwest had low to intermediate suitability for some species in some scenarios. The results suggest that the use of historical, in addition to modern, range information and randomly sampled pseudo-presence points may improve model accuracy. This has implications for modeling range shifts of

  6. Disease: H00146 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available H00146 Alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency, including: Schindler disease; K...ided into three types. Type 1 is Schindler disease, characterized by mental retardation, spasticity ,and myo...n alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase deficiency (Schindler/Kanzaki disease). ... JOURNAL ... J Hum Genet 49:1-8 (20... ... TITLE ... The 1.9 a structure of human alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase: The molecular basis of Schindler a...eland AM, de Jong JG, Wevers RA, Renier WO, Schindler D, Coll MJ, Chabas A, Sakuraba H, Suzuki Y, van Diggel

  7. Demise of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus) as a keystone species for aquatic ecosystem conservation in South Africa: the case of the Olifants River

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ashton, PJ

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available the Phalaborwa Barrage and lakes Loskop, Flag Boshielo and Massingir (Figure 1). The main stem of the Olifants River and several of its larger tributaries (e.g. the Wilge, Elands, Steelpoort, Blyde and Ga- Selati rivers) are important sources of water... agriculture contribute large quantities of suspended sediments and agricultural chemicals to the Olifants River (Ashton et al., 2001). Water released from the Phalaborwa Barrage can contain suspended sediment concentrations as high as 60,000 to 70,000 mg L-1...

  8. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii in exotic ruminants and camelids in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Eva; Kobédová, Kateřina; Lamka, Jiří; Kotrba, Radim; Vodička, Roman; Sedlák, Kamil

    2017-07-01

    Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii are the protozoan parasites with definitive hosts from order Carnivora. Due to vertical transmission, both parasites can cause abortions and neonatal mortality that lead to significant productive and economic losses in the domestic ruminants. The aim of this study was to describe N. caninum and T. gondii seroprevalence in the group of frequently farmed captive exotic ruminants (n = 184) including Bovidae (barbary sheep, bezoar goat, common eland, American bison, water buffalo, and yak) and Camelidae (bactrian camel, guanaco, llama, and alpaca). Antibodies were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Higher prevalence of T. gondii antibodies (31% in IFAT and 52% in ELISA) was detected compared to N. caninum (24% in IFAT and 17% in cELISA). Mixed infection was found in 18 (10%) and 22 (12%) animals by IFAT and ELISA, respectively. Higher seroprevalence of both N. caninum and T. gondii was found in Camelidae compared to Bovidae. To author knowledge, this is the first detection of T. gondii and N. caninum antibodies in common elands and bezoar goats.

  9. The Pleistocene archaeology and environments of the Wasiriya Beds, Rusinga Island, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, Christian A; Tyler Faith, J; Peppe, Daniel J; Fox, David L; McNulty, Kieran P; Jenkins, Kirsten; Dunsworth, Holly; Harcourt-Smith, Will

    2010-12-01

    Western Kenya is well known for abundant early Miocene hominoid fossils. However, the Wasiriya Beds of Rusinga Island, Kenya, preserve a Pleistocene sedimentary archive with radiocarbon age estimates of >33-45 ka that contains Middle Stone Age artifacts and abundant, well-preserved fossil fauna: a co-occurrence rare in eastern Africa, particularly in the region bounding Lake Victoria. Artifacts and fossils are associated with distal volcanic ash deposits that occur at multiple localities in the Wasiriya Beds, correlated on the basis of geochemical composition as determined by electron probe microanalysis. Sediment lithology and the fossil ungulates suggest a local fluvial system and associated riparian wooded habitat within a predominantly arid grassland setting that differs substantially from the modern environment, where local climate is strongly affected by moisture availability from Lake Victoria. In particular, the presence of oryx (Oryx gazella) and Grevy's zebra (Equus grevyi) suggest a pre-Last Glacial Maximum expansion of arid grasslands, an environmental reconstruction further supported by the presence of several extinct specialized grazers (Pelorovis antiquus, Megalotragus sp., and a small alcelaphine) that are unknown from Holocene deposits in eastern Africa. The combination of artifacts, a rich fossil fauna, and volcaniclastic sediments makes the Wasiriya Beds a key site for examining the Lake Victoria basin, a biogeographically important area for understanding the diversification and dispersal of Homo sapiens from Africa, whose pre-Last Glacial Maximum history remains poorly understood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The petroleum industry improving the bottom line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benner, R.I.

    1992-01-01

    The oil and gas exploration and production business environment has presented many challenges over the last decade, notably price volatility and rising costs. Managing the margin and changing a company's cost structure to improve the bottom line is a major issue with company executives. The experiences of Oryx Energy Company since its spinoff from Sun Company in 1988 are used as an example of a company makeover. A generalized exploration and production income statement is employed to present industry cost/portfolio relationships and strategies for improving the bottom line. At Oryx, three major strategies were set in place to enhance shareholder value: an increased emphasis on applied technology, including horizontal drilling, advanced 3-dimensional seismic prospecting, and intensive use of interactive computer workstations; international expansion; and an emphasis on the U.S. Gulf of Mexico, deemphasizing the onshore U.S. and the gas processing business. Specific strategies are outlined in the areas of increasing revenues, reducing production cost and exploration expense, and controlling general and administrative expenses. 8 refs., 18 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Evaluating Conservation Breeding Success for an Extinct-in-the-Wild Antelope.

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    Holly A Little

    Full Text Available With the number of threatened species increasing globally, conservation breeding is vitally important now more than ever. However, no previous peer-reviewed study has attempted to determine how the varying conditions across zoos have influenced breeding by an extinct-in-the-wild species. We therefore use questionnaires and studbook data to evaluate the influence of husbandry practices and enclosure design on scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah breeding success, at the herd level. Regression models were used to identify the variables that best predicted breeding success among 29 zoos across a five-year period. Calf survival decreased with herd age and the use of soft substrates in hardstand areas (yard area usually adjacent to the indoor housing, explaining 30.7% of overall variation. Calf survival also decreased where herds were small and where food provisions were not raised (and hence likely incited competition, although these were less influential. Likewise, birth rate decreased with soft substrates in hardstand areas and unraised food provisions, although these were less influential than for calf survival. Birth rate increased with year-round male presence, yet this decreased calf survival. Compared to previous studies, the number of enclosure/husbandry influences on breeding were relatively few. Nevertheless, these few enclosure/husbandry influences explained over one third of the variation in calf survival. Our data therefore suggest some potential improvements and hence that extinct-in-the-wild species stand a greater chance of survival with empirical design of zoo enclosures and husbandry methods.

  12. Estimating inbreeding rates in natural populations: Addressing the problem of incomplete pedigrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.; Ballou, Jonathan D.; Steel, E. Ashley

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and estimating inbreeding is essential for managing threatened and endangered wildlife populations. However, determination of inbreeding rates in natural populations is confounded by incomplete parentage information. We present an approach for quantifying inbreeding rates for populations with incomplete parentage information. The approach exploits knowledge of pedigree configurations that lead to inbreeding coefficients of F = 0.25 and F = 0.125, allowing for quantification of Pr(I|k): the probability of observing pedigree I given the fraction of known parents (k). We developed analytical expressions under simplifying assumptions that define properties and behavior of inbreeding rate estimators for varying values of k. We demonstrated that inbreeding is overestimated if Pr(I|k) is not taken into consideration and that bias is primarily influenced by k. By contrast, our new estimator, incorporating Pr(I|k), is unbiased over a wide range of values of kthat may be observed in empirical studies. Stochastic computer simulations that allowed complex inter- and intragenerational inbreeding produced similar results. We illustrate the effects that accounting for Pr(I|k) can have in empirical data by revisiting published analyses of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) and Red deer (Cervus elaphus). Our results demonstrate that incomplete pedigrees are not barriers for quantifying inbreeding in wild populations. Application of our approach will permit a better understanding of the role that inbreeding plays in the dynamics of populations of threatened and endangered species and may help refine our understanding of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the wild.

  13. Evaluating Conservation Breeding Success for an Extinct-in-the-Wild Antelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Holly A; Gilbert, Tania C; Athorn, Marie L; Marshall, Andrew R

    2016-01-01

    With the number of threatened species increasing globally, conservation breeding is vitally important now more than ever. However, no previous peer-reviewed study has attempted to determine how the varying conditions across zoos have influenced breeding by an extinct-in-the-wild species. We therefore use questionnaires and studbook data to evaluate the influence of husbandry practices and enclosure design on scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) breeding success, at the herd level. Regression models were used to identify the variables that best predicted breeding success among 29 zoos across a five-year period. Calf survival decreased with herd age and the use of soft substrates in hardstand areas (yard area usually adjacent to the indoor housing), explaining 30.7% of overall variation. Calf survival also decreased where herds were small and where food provisions were not raised (and hence likely incited competition), although these were less influential. Likewise, birth rate decreased with soft substrates in hardstand areas and unraised food provisions, although these were less influential than for calf survival. Birth rate increased with year-round male presence, yet this decreased calf survival. Compared to previous studies, the number of enclosure/husbandry influences on breeding were relatively few. Nevertheless, these few enclosure/husbandry influences explained over one third of the variation in calf survival. Our data therefore suggest some potential improvements and hence that extinct-in-the-wild species stand a greater chance of survival with empirical design of zoo enclosures and husbandry methods.

  14. Re-introduction of globally threatened Arabian Gazelles Gazella Arabica (Pallas, 1766 (Mammalia: Bovidae in fenced protected area in central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z. Islam

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Arabian Gazelle is a globally threatened antelope (Vulnerable in Saudi Arabia. Small relict populations remain in limited areas, while historically Arabian Gazelles occurred in Mahazat as-Sayd protected area in central Saudi Arabia but were exterminated by anthropogenic and other pressures, including habitat loss and hunting. Important habitat has been lost to agricultural developments, fencing of pasture for livestock and the construction of human settlements and roads. The reintroduction of Arabian Gazelles was undertaken in Mahazat during 2011-2014 to bring back this locally extinct species study its ecology and biology in a fenced protected area. We released a total of 49 (12 males, 37 females animals. A year after release animals started breeding and six calves have been recorded so far with more to come. The gazelles prefer to use more rocky areas where shrubs and acacia trees occur in the reserve, and do not move long distances except for one individual that moved more than 50km. Mahazat is fenced, which prevents local people from entering the reserve to poach or otherwise disturb animals. Management lessons include the need for continued monitor-ing of reintroduced populations. Interactions between Arabian and Sand Gazelles (Gazella subgutturosa marica and Arabian Oryx (Oryx leucoryx were also studied.

  15. Molecular biogeography: towards an integrated framework for conserving pan-African biodiversity.

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    Yoshan Moodley

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogeographic models partition ecologically similar species assemblages into discrete ecoregions. However, the history, relationship and interactions between these regions and their assemblages have rarely been explored.Here we develop a taxon-based approach that explicitly utilises molecular information to compare ecoregion history and status, which we exemplify using a continentally distributed mammalian species: the African bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus. We reveal unprecedented levels of genetic diversity and structure in this species and show that ecoregion biogeographic history better explains the distribution of molecular variation than phenotypic similarity or geography. We extend these data to explore ecoregion connectivity, identify core habitats and infer ecological affinities from them.This analysis defines 28 key biogeographic regions for sub-Saharan Africa, and provides a valuable framework for the incorporation of genetic and biogeographic information into a more widely applicable model for the conservation of continental biodiversity.

  16. Weather and Prey Predict Mammals' Visitation to Water.

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    Grant Harris

    Full Text Available Throughout many arid lands of Africa, Australia and the United States, wildlife agencies provide water year-round for increasing game populations and enhancing biodiversity, despite concerns that water provisioning may favor species more dependent on water, increase predation, and reduce biodiversity. In part, understanding the effects of water provisioning requires identifying why and when animals visit water. Employing this information, by matching water provisioning with use by target species, could assist wildlife management objectives while mitigating unintended consequences of year-round watering regimes. Therefore, we examined if weather variables (maximum temperature, relative humidity [RH], vapor pressure deficit [VPD], long and short-term precipitation and predator-prey relationships (i.e., prey presence predicted water visitation by 9 mammals. We modeled visitation as recorded by trail cameras at Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge, New Mexico, USA (June 2009 to September 2014 using generalized linear modeling. For 3 native ungulates, elk (Cervus Canadensis, mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus, and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, less long-term precipitation and higher maximum temperatures increased visitation, including RH for mule deer. Less long-term precipitation and higher VPD increased oryx (Oryx gazella and desert cottontail rabbits (Sylvilagus audubonii visitation. Long-term precipitation, with RH or VPD, predicted visitation for black-tailed jackrabbits (Lepus californicus. Standardized model coefficients demonstrated that the amount of long-term precipitation influenced herbivore visitation most. Weather (especially maximum temperature and prey (cottontails and jackrabbits predicted bobcat (Lynx rufus visitation. Mule deer visitation had the largest influence on coyote (Canis latrans visitation. Puma (Puma concolor visitation was solely predicted by prey visitation (elk, mule deer, oryx. Most ungulate visitation peaked during

  17. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including the mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Darracq Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV is a Pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus.

  18. The genus Hyalomma Koch, 1844. I. Reinstatement of Hyalomma (Euhyalomma glabrum Delpy, 1949 (Acari, Ixodidae as a valid species with a redescription of the adults, the first description of its immature stages and notes on its biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Apanaskevich

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For nearly 50 years the ixodid tick Hyalomma marginatum turanicum, reputedly introduced into South Africa on imported Persian sheep, has been considered identical to the Asian Hyalomma (Euhyalomma marginatum turanicum Pomerantzev, 1946. Comparisons of this tick with the Asian H. (E. m. turanicum and other subspecies of Hyalomma (Euhyalomma marginatum, however, reveal that it is an old taxon, namely Hyalomma rufipes glabrum Delpy, 1949. It is hereby reinstated as Hyalomma (Euhyalomma glabrum, and its adults are redescribed and its immature stages described for the first time. The preferred hosts of its adults are large herbivores such as zebras, gems bok and eland, on which it occurs during summer. The preferred hosts of its immature stages are scrub hares and ground-frequenting birds, on which it is present during autumn and winter. Data on its distribution and possible disease relationships are also provided.

  19. Detection of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife and domestic species in wildlife-livestock interface areas of Kenya by major surface protein 5 competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

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    J.J.N. Ngeranwa

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The seroprevalence of Anaplasma antibodies in wildlife (eland, blue wildebeest, kongoni, impala, Thomson's gazelle, Grant's gazelle, giraffe and plains zebra and domestic animal (cattle, sheep and goat populations was studied in wildlife / livestock interface areas of Kenya. Serum samples were analyzed by competitive inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA, using a recombinant antigen (MSP-5 from Anaplasma marginale surface membrane. A monoclonal antibody, FC-16, was used as the primary antibody, while anti-mouse conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used as the secondary antibody. The results indicate a high seroprevalence in both wildlife and livestock populations, in contrast to earlier reports from Kenya, which indicated a low seroprevalence. The differences are attributed to the accurate analytical method used (CI-ELISA, as compared with agglutination techniques, clinical signs and microscopy employed by the earlier workers.

  20. Rb/Sr and U/Pb isotopic ages in basement rocks of Mina Gonzalito and Arroyo Salado, Atlantic North-Patagonian Massif, Rio Negro, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varela, Ricardo; Sato, Ana M.; Cingolani, Carlos A.; Basei, Miguel A.S.; Siga, Oswaldo; Sato, Kei

    1998-01-01

    Isotopic ages from metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Atlantic area of North Patagonian basement indicate that the main crustal tectonic events occurred during the late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic times. Rb/Sr and U/Pb data in the 550-470 Ma interval suggest an old tecto-thermal activity during the upper Brazilian Cycle (Rio Doce Orogeny). At regional scale, the comparable Neo proterozoic basement of Ventania and sedimentary for eland cover of Tandilia continues to the Northeast, in the Dom Feliciano Belt. A possible correlation of the North Patagonian basement with igneous-metamorphic relics of Central Argentina (Pampean Ranges of San Luis-Cordoba and at La Pampa province) is also indicated. (author)

  1. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D.; Duprau, Jennifer L.; Wolff, Peregrine L.; Evermann, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus). PMID:26779126

  2. Persistent Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Infection in Domestic and Wild Small Ruminants and Camelids Including the Mountain Goat (Oreamnos americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Danielle D; Duprau, Jennifer L; Wolff, Peregrine L; Evermann, James F

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pestivirus best known for causing a variety of disease syndromes in cattle, including gastrointestinal disease, reproductive insufficiency, immunosuppression, mucosal disease, and hemorrhagic syndrome. The virus can be spread by transiently infected individuals and by persistently infected animals that may be asymptomatic while shedding large amounts of virus throughout their lifetime. BVDV has been reported in over 40 domestic and free-ranging species, and persistent infection has been described in eight of those species: white-tailed deer, mule deer, eland, mousedeer, mountain goats, alpacas, sheep, and domestic swine. This paper reviews the various aspects of BVDV transmission, disease syndromes, diagnosis, control, and prevention, as well as examines BVDV infection in domestic and wild small ruminants and camelids including mountain goats (Oreamnos americanus).

  3. Prey selection and feeding habits of the large carnivores in the Southern Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Prey selection and feeding habits of lions Panthera leo, spotted hyaenas Crocuta crocuta, cheetahs Acinonyx jubatus and leopards Panthera pardus are investigated. Lions kill mainly adult gemsbok Oryx gazella and blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, tending to select older animals of both species and males in the case of gemsbok. Spotted hyaenas also prey mainly on gemsbok and wildebeest, but select for juveniles, particularly from gemsbok. Cheetahs prey heavily on springbok Antidorcas marsupialis lambs and then on adult males and older individuals. Leopards also prey relatively heavily on springbok, but appear to have a wider diet than cheetahs do. It is concluded that predators generally have a small impact on their prey populations in the southern Kalahari, although in the case of springbok they do appear to influence the structure of the population.

  4. The Content of Tocols in South African Wheat; Impact on Nutritional Benefits

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    Maryke Labuschagne

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is a major component within human consumption, and due to the large intake of wheat, it has an impact on human nutritional health. This study aimed at an increased understanding of how the content and composition of tocols may be governed for increased nutritional benefit of wheat consumption. Therefore, ten South African wheat cultivars from three locations were fractionated into white and whole flour, the content and concentration of tocols were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, and vitamin E activity was determined. The content and composition of tocols and vitamin E activity differed with fractionation, genotype, environment, and their interaction. The highest tocol content (59.8 mg kg−1 was obtained in whole flour for the cultivar Elands grown in Ladybrand, while whole Caledon flour from Clarence resulted in the highest vitamin E activity (16.3 mg kg−1. The lowest vitamin E activity (1.9 mg kg−1 was found in the cultivar C1PAN3118 from Ladybrand. High values of tocotrienols were obtained in whole flour of the cultivars Caledon (30.5 mg kg−1 in Clarens, Elands (35.5 mg kg−1 in Ladybrand, and Limpopo (33.7 mg kg−1 in Bultfontein. The highest tocotrienol to tocopherol ratio was found in white flour (2.83 due to higher reduction of tocotrienols than of tocopherols at fractionation. The quantity and composition of tocols can be governed in wheat flour, primarily by the selection of fractionation method at flour production, but also complemented by selection of genetic material and the growing environment.

  5. Influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of captive lion Panthera leo cubs: Benefits of behavior enrichment

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    Sibonokuhle NCUBE, Hilton Garikai Taambuka NDAGURWA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of social upbringing on the activity pattern of lion Panthera leo cubs was investigated at three sites. In this study, stimulus objects such as sticks, grass, fresh dung (elephant Loxondota africana, zebra Equus quagga, impala Aepyceros melampus, duiker Sylvicapra grimmia, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros, giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis and wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and cardboard boxes, were utilized in an enrichment program aimed at encouraging active behaviors of captive lion cubs at Antelope Park and Masuwe. Lion cubs at Chipangali were not behaviorally enriched. Activity patterns were recorded for 10 days at each site. We recorded moving, resting, playing, grooming, visual exploration and display of hunting instincts. We found that behavioral enrichment enhanced the active behaviors of captive lion cubs. Orphan-raised cubs spent more time moving, playing and displaying hunting instincts than mother-raised cubs, but the time spent grooming was similar across areas and suggests that grooming is not influenced by enrichment. Mother-raised cubs spent more time engaged in visual exploration than orphan-raised cubs and this could be a behavior acquired from mothers or a result of confidence to explore because of their presence. Activity patterns were different among time treatments across our three study sites. Based on these findings, we suggest that lion cubs raised in captivity could benefit from behavioral enrichment to encourage active behaviors essential for eventual reintroduction into the wild [Current Zoology 56 (4: 389–394, 2010].

  6. Tuberculosis in Tanzanian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Mlengeya, T; Kazwala, R R; Michel, A; Kaare, M T; Jones, S L; Eblate, E; Shirima, G M; Packer, C

    2005-04-01

    Bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a pathogen of growing concern in free-ranging wildlife in Africa, but little is known about the disease in Tanzanian wildlife. Here, we report the infection status of Mycobacterium bovis in a range of wildlife species sampled from protected areas in northern Tanzania. M. bovis was isolated from 11.1% (2/18) migratory wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and 11.1% (1/9) topi (Damaliscus lunatus) sampled systematically in 2000 during a meat cropping program in the Serengeti ecosystem, and from one wildebeest and one lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) killed by sport hunters adjacent to Tarangire National Park. A tuberculosis antibody enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was used to screen serum samples collected from 184 Serengeti lions (Panthera leo) and 19 lions from Ngorongoro Crater sampled between 1985 and 2000. Samples from 212 ungulates collected throughout the protected area network between 1998 and 2001 also were tested by EIA. Serological assays detected antibodies to M. bovis in 4% of Serengeti lions; one positive lion was sampled in 1984. Antibodies were detected in one of 17 (6%) buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in Tarangire and one of 41 (2%) wildebeest in the Serengeti. This study confirms for the first time the presence of bovine tuberculosis in wildlife of northern Tanzania, but further investigation is required to assess the impact on wildlife populations and the role of different wildlife species in maintenance and transmission.

  7. A genome survey sequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) adds new aspects to the evolution of lineage specific retrotransposons in Ruminantia (Cetartiodactyla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallus, S; Kumar, V; Bertelsen, M F; Janke, A; Nilsson, M A

    2015-10-25

    Ruminantia, the ruminating, hoofed mammals (cow, deer, giraffe and allies) are an unranked artiodactylan clade. Around 50-60 million years ago the BovB retrotransposon entered the ancestral ruminantian genome through horizontal gene transfer. A survey genome screen using 454-pyrosequencing of the Java mouse deer (Tragulus javanicus) and the lesser kudu (Tragelaphus imberbis) was done to investigate and to compare the landscape of transposable elements within Ruminantia. The family Tragulidae (mouse deer) is the only representative of Tragulina and phylogenetically important, because it represents the earliest divergence in Ruminantia. The data analyses show that, relative to other ruminantian species, the lesser kudu genome has seen an expansion of BovB Long INterspersed Elements (LINEs) and BovB related Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) like BOVA2. In comparison the genome of Java mouse deer has fewer BovB elements than other ruminants, especially Bovinae, and has in addition a novel CHR-3 SINE most likely propagated by LINE-1. By contrast the other ruminants have low amounts of CHR SINEs but high numbers of actively propagating BovB-derived and BovB-propagated SINEs. The survey sequencing data suggest that the transposable element landscape in mouse deer (Tragulina) is unique among Ruminantia, suggesting a lineage specific evolutionary trajectory that does not involve BovB mediated retrotransposition. This shows that the genomic landscape of mobile genetic elements can rapidly change in any lineage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munang'andu, Hetron Mweemba; Siamudaala, Victor M.; Munyeme, Musso; Nalubamba, King Shimumbo

    2012-01-01

    Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n = 95) with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus); Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus) and puku (Kobus vardonii) for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis) had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein. PMID:22701163

  9. Detection of Parasites and Parasitic Infections of Free-Ranging Wildlife on a Game Ranch in Zambia: A Challenge for Disease Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hetron Mweemba Munang'andu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ex-situ conservancies are expanding alternatives to livestock production in Zambia albeit the lack of information on circulating infectious parasites from wildlife. Therefore, 12 wildlife species were examined on a game ranch were all species were found to be infected by Rhipecephalus spp. Haemoparasite infections were estimated at 7.37% (n=95 with Babesia spp. detected in bushbuck (Tragelaphus scriptus; Anaplasma marginale in impala (Aepyceros melampus and puku (Kobus vardonii for the first time in Zambia. The majority of worm species isolated from bovids were not detected in equids and, vice versa. Our findings intimate ecological and behavioural patterns of some animals as deterministic to exposure. Kafue lechwe (Kobus leche kafuensis had the widest range of worm species with more infected organs than other animals suggesting their semi aquatic nature contributory to prolonged worm exposure compared to other animals. On the other hand, Kafue lechwe had the least tick infections attributable more to shorter attachment periods as they spend prolonged periods submerged in water. Our findings indicate the vital role that wildlife plays in the epidemiology of parasitic diseases. To reduce the infection burden, control measures should be focused on reducing transmission to highly susceptible animal species as described herein.

  10. The Occurrence of Some Nonblood Protozoan Parasites in Wild and Domestic Mammals in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukášová, Radka; Halajian, Ali; Bártová, Eva; Kobédová, Kateřina; Swanepoel, Lourens H; O'Riain, M Justin

    2018-04-01

      Relatively little is known about protozoan parasites in African animals. Here we investigated the occurrence of protozoan parasites in mammals from South Africa. Oocysts of protozoan parasites were detected in 13 of 56 (23%) fecal samples using conventional microscopic examination methods. Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora spp. were detected in eight (14%) and five (9%) samples, respectively. Mixed parasitic infection of Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora spp. was recorded in banded mongoose ( Mungos mungo). Cryptosporidium spp. was detected for the first time in cheetah ( Acinonyx jubatus), spotted hyena ( Crocuta crocuta), and African polecat ( Ictonyx striatus). Antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in any of 32 sera tested. We detected T. gondii by PCR in tissues of five of 243 (2%) animals: domestic dog ( Canis lupus familiaris), gerbil ( Gerbilliscus spp.), greater kudu ( Tragelaphus strepsiceros), honey badger ( Mellivora capensis), and white-tailed mongoose ( Ichneumia albicauda). Our isolation of T. gondii from white-tailed mongoose and honey badger was a unique finding. All tissue samples were negative for N. caninum. The study increases our knowledge on the occurrence of protozoan parasites in populations of wild and domestic animals in South Africa.

  11. Bovine tuberculosis in Ethiopian wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschopp, R; Berg, S; Argaw, K; Gadisa, E; Habtamu, M; Schelling, E; Young, D; Aseffa, A; Zinsstag, J

    2010-07-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. However, the status of the disease in wildlife populations that often share habitat with livestock is unknown. We screened for BTB in wildlife in five regions in Ethiopia. Blood and tissue samples from 133 mammals of 28 species were collected from 2006 to 2008. We used a rapid serology test (RT) based on lateral flow technology, and performed culture of lymph node specimens inoculated onto Lowenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 media. Acid-fast colonies were further analyzed by molecular typing. Sera from 20 of 87 animals (23%) were positive for BTB by RT; acid-fast bacilli were cultured from 29 of 89 animals (32.5%). None of the positive cultures yielded mycobacteria from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex but many environmental mycobacteria were isolated. Among these, Mycobacterium terrae was the most common. We demonstrated a high prevalence of environmental mycobacteria in wildlife, the role of which is unknown. Flagship rare endemic species such as the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni) and the Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) may be at risk for BTB. We also assessed the utility of RT for field purposes.

  12. Surveillance and control of anthrax and rabies in wild herbivores and carnivores in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, H H

    1993-03-01

    Anthrax has been studied intensively in Etosha National Park, Namibia since 1966; in addition, since 1975, mortality due to rabies and all other causes has been recorded, totalling 6,190 deaths. Standard diagnostic procedures demonstrated that at least 811 deaths (13%) were due to anthrax and 115 deaths (2%) were caused by rabies. Of the total number of deaths due to anthrax, 97% occurred in zebra (Equus burchelli), elephant (Loxodonta africana), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus) and springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) while 96% of rabies deaths occurred in kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), jackal (Canis mesomelas), bat-eared fox (Otocyon megalotis) and lion (Panthera leo). Anthrax deaths were highest in the rainy season for zebra, wildebeest and springbok, while elephant mortality peaked during dry seasons. No statistical relationship existed between seasonal rainfall and overall incidence of either anthrax or rabies. Control of anthrax is limited to prophylactic inoculation when rare or endangered species are threatened. Incineration of anthrax carcasses and chemical disinfection of drinking water are not feasible at Etosha. Rabies control consists of the destruction of rabid animals and incineration of their carcasses when possible.

  13. An investigation of the effects of secondary processing on Mycobacterium spp. in naturally infected game meat and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Van der Merwe

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The risk for humans to contract bovine tuberculosis through the consumption of undercooked game meat as well as biltong (traditionally dried game meat is a concern. The survival potential of Mycobacterium bovis during the cooking and drying processes was researched in a preceding study on beef and the positive results compelled the authors to investigate the results with a similar preliminary study on game meat. Muscular, lymphatic and visceral tissues from skin test positive African buffalo (Syncerus caffer and greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros with tuberculous lesions were collected from the Hluhluwe iMfolozi Park during the park's culling programme. The different tissues were exposed to cooking and the muscular tissue to the drying process prior to culture. All acid-fast isolates were analysed by polymerase chain reaction for the presence of Mycobacterium bovis. All tissues were found negative for Mycobacterium bovis but non-tuberculous mycobacteria were isolated from kidney, liver, heart and lymph nodes. The results showed that these processes will kill Mycobacterium bovis but the unexpected recovery of non-tuberculous mycobacteria suggests possible survival and resistance characteristics of these strains which might be of veterinary public health interest.

  14. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  15. Ecological parameters of Lamproglena hoi (Copepoda: Lernaeidae infection on the Bushveld smallscale yellowfish, Labeobarbus polylepis (Boulenger, 1907

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    A. Austin

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the distribution and aspects of the ecology of Lamproglena hoi. Bushveld smallscale yellowfish, Labeobarbus polylepis (Boulenger, 1907 were collected during June 2006 from the Phongolo and Assegaai rivers, March 2005 and October 2006 from the Elands River, and January 2007 and June 2008 from the Komati River in Mpumalanga, South Africa and examined for the presence of parasites. Lamproglena hoi specimens were collected from the gill filaments of the host. Specimens were fixed with warm AFA (alcohol-formaldehyde-acetic acid and preserved in 70 % ethanol. The identification of parasites took place in the laboratories of the University of Johannesburg. Twenty-five copepods (prevalence 21 %, mean intensity = 4.17, abundance = 0.86 were collected on 29 fish in the Phongolo River and 46 copepods (prevalence 40 %, mean intensity = 3.83, abundance = 1.53 were collected on 30 fish in the Assegaai River. One hundred and sixty eight copepods (prevalence 52 %, mean intensity = 12.92, abundance = 6.72 were collected on 25 fish in 2005, and 527 copepods (prevalence 95 %, mean intensity = 27.74, abundance = 26.35 were collected on 20 fish in the Elands River. One hundred and sixteen copepods (prevalence 75 %, mean intensity = 7.73, abundance = 5.80 were collected on 20 fish in 2007, and 273 copepods (prevalence 63 %, mean intensity = 16.06, abundance = 10.11 were collected on 27 fish in 2008 in the Komati River. Labeobarbus polylepis from these four rivers was found to have a relatively high L. hoi infection. Inseminated L. hoi females (immature attach to the host in winter and their ovaries become conspicuous (mature. In spring fertilized eggs are stored in egg sacs hanging from the body (gravid, indicating that fertilized eggs start to hatch in spring and continued hatching into summer. Parasites prefer the median part of the second gill arch for attachment. No correlation exists between the number of parasites recorded on the gills and

  16. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

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    Keith T Ballingall

    Full Text Available Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries. We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201 differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901, which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T

  17. Trans-species polymorphism and selection in the MHC class II DRA genes of domestic sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballingall, Keith T; Rocchi, Mara S; McKeever, Declan J; Wright, Frank

    2010-06-30

    Highly polymorphic genes with central roles in lymphocyte mediated immune surveillance are grouped together in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in higher vertebrates. Generally, across vertebrate species the class II MHC DRA gene is highly conserved with only limited allelic variation. Here however, we provide evidence of trans-species polymorphism at the DRA locus in domestic sheep (Ovis aries). We describe variation at the Ovar-DRA locus that is far in excess of anything described in other vertebrate species. The divergent DRA allele (Ovar-DRA*0201) differs from the sheep reference sequences by 20 nucleotides, 12 of which appear non-synonymous. Furthermore, DRA*0201 is paired with an equally divergent DRB1 allele (Ovar-DRB1*0901), which is consistent with an independent evolutionary history for the DR sub-region within this MHC haplotype. No recombination was observed between the divergent DRA and B genes in a range of breeds and typical levels of MHC class II DR protein expression were detected at the surface of leukocyte populations obtained from animals homozygous for the DRA*0201, DRB1*0901 haplotype. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis groups Ovar-DRA*0201 with DRA sequences derived from species within the Oryx and Alcelaphus genera rather than clustering with other ovine and caprine DRA alleles. Tests for Darwinian selection identified 10 positively selected sites on the branch leading to Ovar-DRA*0201, three of which are predicted to be associated with the binding of peptide antigen. As the Ovis, Oryx and Alcelaphus genera have not shared a common ancestor for over 30 million years, the DRA*0201 and DRB1*0901 allelic pair is likely to be of ancient origin and present in the founding population from which all contemporary domestic sheep breeds are derived. The conservation of the integrity of this unusual DR allelic pair suggests some selective advantage which is likely to be associated with the presentation of pathogen antigen to T-cells and the

  18. DNA sequence analyses reveal co-occurrence of novel haplotypes of Fasciola gigantica with F. hepatica in South Africa and Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucheka, Vimbai T; Lamb, Jennifer M; Pfukenyi, Davies M; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-11-30

    The aim of this study was to identify and determine the genetic diversity of Fasciola species in cattle from Zimbabwe, the KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga provinces of South Africa and selected wildlife hosts from Zimbabwe. This was based on analysis of DNA sequences of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1 and 2) and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase 1 (CO1) regions. The sample of 120 flukes was collected from livers of 57 cattle at 4 abattoirs in Zimbabwe and 47 cattle at 6 abattoirs in South Africa; it also included three alcohol-preserved duiker, antelope and eland samples from Zimbabwe. Aligned sequences (ITS 506 base pairs and CO1 381 base pairs) were analyzed by neighbour-joining, maximum parsimony and Bayesian inference methods. Phylogenetic trees revealed the presence of Fasciola gigantica in cattle from Zimbabwe and F. gigantica and Fasciola hepatica in the samples from South Africa. F. hepatica was more prevalent (64%) in South Africa than F. gigantica. In Zimbabwe, F. gigantica was present in 99% of the samples; F. hepatica was found in only one cattle sample, an antelope (Hippotragus niger) and a duiker (Sylvicapra grimmia). This is the first molecular confirmation of the identity Fasciola species in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Knowledge on the identity and distribution of these liver flukes at molecular level will allow disease surveillance and control in the studied areas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Feeding association between cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis and mammal hosts in the central Free State

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    H.J.B. Butler

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Field observations undertaken during October 1995 to April 2001 in agricultural areas and nature reserves of the central Free State, indicate that cattle egrets mainly feed in commensalistic association with ungulates or even farm implements. A higher percentage farm animals than game was involved herewith. Based on calculated preference indices only three species, namely cattle, buffalo and white rhino, qualified as key hosts. Eland, gemsbok, impala and horses were classified as major hosts, while the rest of the thirteen observed host species were identified as minor hosts. More than half of all feeding associations (58,4% occurred during the early mornings followed by a decrease during the middle of the day with a slight increase again later in the afternoon. Depending on the host species involved, notable differences occurred in the time of association. Cattle were the only host species with which cattle egrets associated during any time of the day. Evidently, cattle egrets associated most often with larger host species which were actively grazing. In grassland habitats the birds mainly fed in front of grazing hosts, but behind those that moved too fast.

  20. Livelihoods and climate change : combining disaster risk reduction, natural resource management and climate change adaptation in a new approach to the reduction of vulnerability and poverty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, I.; Soussan, J.; Hammill, A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides a framework for researchers and policy-makers that are taking action on climate change adaptation. It presents innovative and sustainable ways to respond to the changing global climate. It focuses, in particular, on international research and policy initiatives on climate change, vulnerable communities and adaptation. The international and multi-disciplinary task force that put the framework together includes experts from the fields of disaster risk reduction, climate change, conservation and poverty reduction. The report emphasizes that successful climate change adaptation should be accomplished through actions that reduce the vulnerabilities of poor people and poor countries because people's livelihoods shape poverty and their ability to move out of poverty. The task force identifies the need to integrate a climate change adaptation approach based on the livelihoods of vulnerable communities in different parts of the world. The examples cited in this report include: (1) mangrove rehabilitation in Vietnam, (2) community-based rang eland rehabilitation for carbon sequestration in Sudan, (3) agro-ecological roots of resilience in Honduras, Nicaragua and Guatemala, and (4) watershed restoration and development in Maharashtra State, India. refs., figs

  1. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

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    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  2. Seasonal and demographic factors influencing gastrointestinal parasitism in ungulates of Etosha National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wendy C; Getz, Wayne M

    2010-10-01

    Host-parasite dynamics can be strongly affected by seasonality and age-related host immune responses. We investigated how observed variation in the prevalence and intensity of parasite egg or oocyst shedding in four co-occurring ungulate species may reflect underlying seasonal variation in transmission and host immunity. This study was conducted July 2005-October 2006 in Etosha National Park, Namibia, using indices of parasitism recorded from 1,022 fecal samples collected from plains zebra (Equus quagga), springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), blue wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), and gemsbok (Oryx gazella). The presence and intensity of strongyle nematodes, Strongyloides spp. and Eimeria spp. parasites, were strongly seasonal for most host-parasite combinations, with more hosts infected in the wet season than the dry season. Strongyle intensity in zebra was significantly lower in juveniles than adults, and in springbok hosts, Eimeria spp. intensity was significantly greater in juveniles than adults. These results provide evidence that acquired immunity is less protective against strongyle nematodes than Eimeria spp. infections. The seasonal patterns in parasitism further indicate that the long dry season may limit development and survival of parasite stages in the environment and, as a result, host contact and parasite transmission.

  3. The response of ungulates to rainfall along the riverbeds of the Southern Kalahari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. L Mills

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The responses of springbok Antidorcas marsupialis, gemsbok Oryx gazella, blue wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and red hartebeest Alcelaphus buselaphus to rainfall along the riverbeds of the southern Kalahari are analysed. Springbok reacted most rapidly to rainfall along the riverbeds and, by browsing in dry times, maintained a fairly stable presence throughout the year, although the actual number present in any one year was dependent on annual rainfall. Gemsbok responded more slowly to rainfall and reached their highest numbers in years of high rainfall when the grasses were tall and mature, after which they rapidly departed from the riverbeds. Red hartebeest also reached their highest numbers during the rainy season, but departed slightly more slowly than gemsbok. In dry years, they too, failed to come into the riverbeds. Blue wildebeest in the vicinity of the riverbeds tended to be more sedentary than the other species. The presence of potable artificial water appeared to be more important for wildebeest than for the other species and, although rainfall was undoubtedly an important factor in regulating their numbers along the riverbeds, they depended to a greater extent on breeding success and mortality factors, than on emigration and immigration. The overall seasonal pattern of ungulate abundance along the riverbeds in the southern Kalahari was one of wet season concentrations and dry season dispersion.

  4. Tuberculosis Caused by Mycobacterium orygis in Dairy Cattle and Captured Monkeys in Bangladesh: a New Scenario of Tuberculosis in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Z; Thapa, J; Fukushima, Y; van der Zanden, A G M; Gordon, S V; Suzuki, Y; Nakajima, C

    2017-12-01

    Mycobacterium orygis, commonly known as the oryx bacillus and a newly proposed Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex subspecies, was isolated from 18 cattle in a dairy farm and two captured rhesus monkeys in a zoo in Bangladesh. All the infected animals had tuberculosis lesions in their lungs, suggesting transmission and infection with M. orygis by an airborne route. The 20 isolates were analysed using a range of conventional and molecular typing methods, and RD-deletion typing and sequencing of selected genes confirmed the isolates as M. orygis. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) allowed the isolates to be divided into three clusters based on the relatedness of their MLVA profiles. The two monkey isolates shared the same MLVA pattern with 15 of the cattle isolates, whereas the remaining three cattle isolates had different patterns, even though the latter animals had been kept in the same dairy farm. The diversity observed among isolates may suggest the bacteria have been established in this area for a long period. This study along with other recent findings that report the detection of M. orygis from animals as well as humans originating from South Asia potentially indicate endemic distribution of M. orygis in South Asia. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Immunotherapeutic Potential of Oncolytic H-1 Parvovirus: Hints of Glioblastoma Microenvironment Conversion towards Immunogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelova, Assia L; Barf, Milena; Geletneky, Karsten; Unterberg, Andreas; Rommelaere, Jean

    2017-12-15

    Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors, is characterized by highly immunosuppressive microenvironment. This contributes to glioblastoma resistance to standard treatment modalities and allows tumor growth and recurrence. Several immune-targeted approaches have been recently developed and are currently under preclinical and clinical investigation. Oncolytic viruses, including the autonomous protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV), show great promise as novel immunotherapeutic tools. In a first phase I/IIa clinical trial (ParvOryx01), H-1PV was safe and well tolerated when locally or systemically administered to recurrent glioblastoma patients. The virus was able to cross the blood-brain (tumor) barrier after intravenous infusion. Importantly, H-1PV treatment of glioblastoma patients was associated with immunogenic changes in the tumor microenvironment. Tumor infiltration with activated cytotoxic T cells, induction of cathepsin B and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (iNOS) expression in tumor-associated microglia/macrophages (TAM), and accumulation of activated TAM in cluster of differentiation (CD) 40 ligand (CD40L)-positive glioblastoma regions was detected. These are the first-in-human observations of H-1PV capacity to switch the immunosuppressed tumor microenvironment towards immunogenicity. Based on this pilot study, we present a tentative model of H-1PV-mediated modulation of glioblastoma microenvironment and propose a combinatorial therapeutic approach taking advantage of H-1PV-induced microglia/macrophage activation for further (pre)clinical testing.

  6. Dietary plasticity of generalist and specialist ungulates in the Namibian Desert: a stable isotopes approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, David; Mfune, John Kazgeba Elijah; Gewers, Erick; Cloete, Johann; Brain, Conrad; Voigt, Christian Claus

    2013-01-01

    Desert ungulates live in adverse ecosystems that are particularly sensitive to degradation and global climate change. Here, we asked how two ungulate species with contrasting feeding habits, grazing gemsbok (Oryx g. gazella) and browsing springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis), respond to an increase in food availability during a pronounced rain period. We used a stable isotope approach to delineate the feeding habits of these two ungulates in the arid Kunene Region of Namibia. Our nineteen months field investigation included two time periods of drought when food availability for ungulates was lowest and an intermediate period with extreme, unusual rainfalls. We documented thirteen isotopically distinct food sources in the isotopic space of the study area. Our results indicated a relatively high dietary plasticity of gemsbok, which fed on a mixture of plants, including more than 30% of C3 plants during drought periods, but almost exclusively on C4 and CAM plant types when food was plentiful. During drought periods, the inferred gemsbok diets also consisted of up to 25% of Euphorbia damarana; an endemic CAM plant that is rich in toxic secondary plant compounds. In contrast, springbok were generalists, feeding on a higher proportion of C3 than C4/CAM plants, irrespective of environmental conditions. Our results illustrate two dietary strategies in gemsbok and springbok which enable them to survive and coexist in the hostile Kunene arid ecosystem.

  7. Interspecific interference competition at the resource patch scale: do large herbivores spatially avoid elephants while accessing water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Nicolas; Dray, Stéphane; Fritz, Hervé; Valeix, Marion

    2016-11-01

    Animals may anticipate and try to avoid, at some costs, physical encounters with other competitors. This may ultimately impact their foraging distribution and intake rates. Such cryptic interference competition is difficult to measure in the field, and extremely little is known at the interspecific level. We tested the hypothesis that smaller species avoid larger ones because of potential costs of interference competition and hence expected them to segregate from larger competitors at the scale of a resource patch. We assessed fine-scale spatial segregation patterns between three African herbivore species (zebra Equus quagga, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros and giraffe Giraffa camelopardalis) and a megaherbivore, the African elephant Loxodonta africana, at the scale of water resource patches in the semi-arid ecosystem of Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe. Nine waterholes were monitored every two weeks during the dry season of a drought year, and observational scans of the spatial distribution of all herbivores were performed every 15 min. We developed a methodological approach to analyse such fine-scale spatial data. Elephants increasingly used waterholes as the dry season progressed, as did the probability of co-occurrence and agonistic interaction with elephants for the three study species. All three species segregated from elephants at the beginning of the dry season, suggesting a spatial avoidance of elephants and the existence of costs of being close to them. However, contrarily to our expectations, herbivores did not segregate from elephants the rest of the dry season but tended to increasingly aggregate with elephants as the dry season progressed. We discuss these surprising results and the existence of a trade-off between avoidance of interspecific interference competition and other potential factors such as access to quality water, which may have relative associated costs that change with the time of the year. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology

  8. Incentivizing monitoring and compliance in trophy hunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Edwards, Charles T T; Atickem, Anagaw; Hailu, Fetene; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2013-12-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos. © 2013 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by

  9. The host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.G. Horak

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the host status of African buffaloes, Syncerus caffer, for the one-host tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus. To this end the R. (B. decoloratus burdens of ten buffaloes examined in three north-eastern KwaZulu-Natal Province (KZN nature reserves were compared with those of medium-sized to large antelope species in these reserves and in the southern Kruger National Park (KNP, Mpumalanga Province. The R. (B. decoloratus burdens of the buffaloes were considerably smaller than those of the antelopes in the KNP, but not those in the KZN reserves. The life-stage structure of the R. (B. decoloratus populations on the buffaloes, in which larvae predominated, was closer to that of this tick on blue wildebeest, Connochaetes taurinus, a tick-resistant animal, than to that on other antelopes. A single buffalo examined in the KNP was not infested with R. (B. decoloratus, whereas a giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis, examined at the same locality and time, harboured a small number of ticks. In a nature reserve in Mpumalanga Province adjacent to the KNP, two immobilized buffaloes, from which only adult ticks were collected, were not infested with R. (B. decoloratus, whereas greater kudus, Tragelaphus strepsiceros, examined during the same time of year in the KNP harboured large numbers of adult ticks of this species. African buffaloes would thus appear to be resistant to infestation with R. (B. decoloratus, and this resistance is expressed as the prevention of the majority of tick larvae from developing to nymphs.

  10. Logging concessions can extend the conservation estate for Central African tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C J; Poulsen, J R; Malonga, R; Elkan, P W

    2009-10-01

    The management of tropical forest in timber concessions has been proposed as a solution to prevent further biodiversity loss. The effectiveness of this strategy will likely depend on species-specific, population-level responses to logging. We conducted a survey (749 line transects over 3450 km) in logging concessions (1.2 million ha) in the northern Republic of Congo to examine the impact of logging on large mammal populations, including endangered species such as the elephant (Loxodonta africana), gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), and bongo (Tragelaphus eurycerus). When we estimated species abundance without consideration of transect characteristics, species abundances in logged and unlogged forests were not different for most species. When we modeled the data with a hurdle model approach, however, analyzing species presence and conditional abundance separately with generalized additive models and then combining them to calculate the mean species abundance, species abundance varied strongly depending on transect characteristics. The mean species abundance was often related to the distance to unlogged forest, which suggests that intact forest serves as source habitat for several species. The mean species abundance responded nonlinearly to logging history, changing over 30 years as the forest recovered from logging. Finally the distance away from roads, natural forest clearings, and villages also determined the abundance of mammals. Our results suggest that logged forest can extend the conservation estate for many of Central Africa's most threatened species if managed appropriately. In addition to limiting hunting, logging concessions must be large, contain patches of unlogged forest, and include forest with different logging histories.

  11. Prey selection of lions Panthera leo in a small, enclosed reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Power

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Annual trends in numbers of ungulate species on a 15 km² reserve from 1993 to 1998, were evaluated in the context of lion Panthera leo reintroduction during 1996, and subsequent predation by them. The ungulate prey base was enumerated annually by aerial counts and a road count that took place during 1998. The lion prey record was obtained from direct observations of a radio-located pride of eight lions and daily reserve management records. All ungulate species that underwent precipituous declines were also the most important prey to lions, comprising over 80 % of their prey, and they were preyed upon according to their availability. Lion predation was causal for the declines in wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus, Blesbok Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi and Warthog Phacochoerus africana, while the decline in Kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros was only partly ascribed to lions, as other non-lion related mortality sources were identified. The only ungulate species to increase subsequent to lion reintroduction was the Impala Aepyceros melampus, which was furthermore under-selected by lions. The uncontrolled population growth of Impala could have elicited ecological degradation, and it was advised to either not stock Impala, or otherwise control their numbers if lions are unable to do so. Lion hunting success and kill rate, were 21 % (n = 63 and 1 kill/4.4 days, respectively. Three bushpigs Potamochoerus larvatus were killed but not utilised,and this finding is corroborated by an intensive study in Kwazulu-Natal, and this aversion is discussed. Predators can cause unprecedented declines of their prey where the prey are confined to small reserves that have no refuge from predation. On an annual basis, prey may need to be augmented to sustain predators on small reserves

  12. Trophy Hunting and Sustainability: Temporal Dynamics in Trophy Quality and Harvesting Patterns of Wild Herbivores in a Tropical Semi-Arid Savanna Ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muposhi, Victor K; Gandiwa, Edson; Bartels, Paul; Makuza, Stanley M; Madiri, Tinaapi H

    2016-01-01

    The selective nature of trophy hunting may cause changes in desirable phenotypic traits in harvested species. A decline in trophy size of preferred species may reduce hunting destination competitiveness thus compromising the sustainability of trophy hunting as a conservation tool. We explored the trophy quality and trends in harvesting patterns (i.e., 2004-2015) of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), African elephant (Loxodonta africana), greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and sable (Hippotragus niger) in Matetsi Safari Area, northwest Zimbabwe. We used long-term data on horn and tusk size, age, quota size allocation and offtake levels of selected species. To analyse the effect of year, area and age on the trophy size, quota size and offtake levels, we used linear mixed models. One sample t-test was used to compare observed trophy size with Safari Club International (SCI) minimum score. Trophy sizes for Cape buffalo and African elephant were below the SCI minimum score. Greater kudu trophy sizes were within the minimum score threshold whereas sable trophy sizes were above the SCI minimum score between 2004 and 2015. Age at harvest for Cape buffalo, kudu and sable increased whilst that of elephant remained constant between 2004 and 2015. Quota size allocated for buffalo and the corresponding offtake levels declined over time. Offtake levels of African elephant and Greater kudu declined whilst the quota size did not change between 2004 and 2015. The quota size for sable increased whilst the offtake levels fluctuated without changing for the period 2004-2015. The trophy size and harvesting patterns in these species pose a conservation and management dilemma on the sustainability of trophy hunting in this area. We recommend: (1) temporal and spatial rotational resting of hunting areas to create refuge to improve trophy quality and maintenance of genetic diversity, and (2) introduction of variable trophy fee pricing system based on trophy size.

  13. Trophy Hunting and Sustainability: Temporal Dynamics in Trophy Quality and Harvesting Patterns of Wild Herbivores in a Tropical Semi-Arid Savanna Ecosystem.

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    Victor K Muposhi

    Full Text Available The selective nature of trophy hunting may cause changes in desirable phenotypic traits in harvested species. A decline in trophy size of preferred species may reduce hunting destination competitiveness thus compromising the sustainability of trophy hunting as a conservation tool. We explored the trophy quality and trends in harvesting patterns (i.e., 2004-2015 of Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer, African elephant (Loxodonta africana, greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros and sable (Hippotragus niger in Matetsi Safari Area, northwest Zimbabwe. We used long-term data on horn and tusk size, age, quota size allocation and offtake levels of selected species. To analyse the effect of year, area and age on the trophy size, quota size and offtake levels, we used linear mixed models. One sample t-test was used to compare observed trophy size with Safari Club International (SCI minimum score. Trophy sizes for Cape buffalo and African elephant were below the SCI minimum score. Greater kudu trophy sizes were within the minimum score threshold whereas sable trophy sizes were above the SCI minimum score between 2004 and 2015. Age at harvest for Cape buffalo, kudu and sable increased whilst that of elephant remained constant between 2004 and 2015. Quota size allocated for buffalo and the corresponding offtake levels declined over time. Offtake levels of African elephant and Greater kudu declined whilst the quota size did not change between 2004 and 2015. The quota size for sable increased whilst the offtake levels fluctuated without changing for the period 2004-2015. The trophy size and harvesting patterns in these species pose a conservation and management dilemma on the sustainability of trophy hunting in this area. We recommend: (1 temporal and spatial rotational resting of hunting areas to create refuge to improve trophy quality and maintenance of genetic diversity, and (2 introduction of variable trophy fee pricing system based on trophy size.

  14. Cloning, sequencing and expression of white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and the production of rhinoceros IFN-gamma specific antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morar, D; Tijhaar, E; Negrea, A; Hendriks, J; van Haarlem, D; Godfroid, J; Michel, A L; Rutten, V P M G

    2007-01-15

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park (KNP). In addition to buffalo, Mycobacterium bovis has been found in at least 14 other mammalian species in South Africa, including kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), Chacma baboon (Papio ursinus) and lion (Panthera leo). This has raised concern about the spillover into other potentially susceptible species like rhinoceros, thus jeopardising breeding and relocation projects aiming at the conservation of biodiversity. Hence, procedures to screen for and diagnose BTB in black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum) need to be in place. The Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) assay is used as a routine diagnostic tool to determine infection of cattle and recently African buffalo, with M. bovis and other mycobacteria. The aim of the present work was to develop reagents to set up a rhinoceros IFN-gamma (RhIFN-gamma) assay. The white rhinoceros IFN-gamma gene was cloned, sequenced and expressed as a mature protein. Amino acid (aa) sequence analysis revealed that RhIFN-gamma shares a homology of 90% with equine IFN-gamma. Monoclonal antibodies, as well as polyclonal chicken antibodies (Yolk Immunoglobulin-IgY) with specificity for recombinant RhIFN-gamma were produced. Using the monoclonals as capture antibodies and the polyclonal IgY for detection, it was shown that recombinant as well as native white rhinoceros IFN-gamma was recognised. This preliminary IFN-gamma enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), has the potential to be developed into a diagnostic assay for M. bovis infection in rhinoceros.

  15. Influence of habitat and seasonal variation on wild mammal diversity and distribution with special reference to the Trypanosoma brucei gambiense host-reservoir in Bipindi (Cameroon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massussi, Jacques Anselme; Djieto-Lordon, Champlain; Njiokou, Flobert; Laveissière, Claude; van der Ploeg, Jan Douwe

    2009-12-01

    To evaluate the role of wildlife in the resurgence and perenisation of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), we investigated the influence of habitat and seasonal variations on the diversity and spatial distribution of wild mammals, with special reference to those recognised as potential host-reservoirs of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Bipindi (southwestern Cameroon). To achieve this, we carried out transect surveys in four habitat types over two years. A total of 31 mammal species were recorded, of which 14 occurred in the undisturbed forest, 9 in cocoa plantations, 11 in farmlands and 11 in village-adjacent gallery forests. Among them, six species (Cephalophus monticola, Cephalophus dorsalis, Atherurus africanus, Cricetomys emini, Nandinia binotata and Cercopithecus nictitans), known as reservoir hosts of T. b. gambiense, occurred in all kinds of habitats suitable or unsuited to Glossina palpalis palpalis and in all seasons. These species are the most involved in the transmission cycle (human being/tsetse flies/wild animals). Cercopithecus cephus, Miopithecus talapoin and Heliosciurus rufobrachium host Trypanosoma brucei spp.; however, only C. cephus does not occur permanently in the suitable habitat of G. palpalis palpalis. In general, some species (C. monticola, Tragelaphus spekei and C. emini) showed a slight density increase from the long dry to the heavy rainy season within the undisturbed and farmland habitats, and a slight decrease within cocoa plantations and village-adjacent forests in the same period. The density of A. africanus increased greatly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season in the undisturbed forest while, the density of primates in this habitat decreased slightly from the long dry season to the heavy rainy season. These variations indicate a permanent movement of wild mammal reservoir or feeding hosts from one biotope to another over the seasons. Thryonomys swinderianus needs to be investigated because it occurs permanently in

  16. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pinho, Joana Roque; Grilo, Clara; Boone, Randall B; Galvin, Kathleen A; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191) as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them"), and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion). Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  17. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

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    George J. Chirima

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of

  18. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

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    Kathleen Anne Alexander

    Full Text Available Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana.Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000 were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA and included the African buffalo (247, bushbuck (1, eland (5, elephant (25, gemsbok (1, giraffe (9, hartebeest (12, impala (171, kudu (27, red lechwe (10, reedbuck (1, rhino (2, springbok (5, steenbok (2, warthog (24, waterbuck (1, wildebeest (33, honey badger (1, lion (43, and zebra (21. Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006.Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96% and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43% were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46% occurring in children (<14 years old and no cases were reported among people working in the agricultural sector.Low seroprevalence of brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from

  19. Changing distributions of larger ungulates in the Kruger National Park from ecological aerial survey data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George J. Chirima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Documenting current species distribution patterns and their association with habitat types is important as a basis for assessing future range shifts in response to climate change or other influences. We used the adaptive local convex hull (a-LoCoH method to map distribution ranges of 12 ungulate species within the Kruger National Park (KNP based on locations recorded during aerial surveys (1980–1993. We used log-linear models to identify changes in regional distribution patterns and chi-square tests to determine shifts in habitat occupation over this period. We compared observed patterns with earlier, more subjectively derived distribution maps for these species. Zebra, wildebeest and giraffe distributions shifted towards the far northern section of the KNP, whilst buffalo and kudu showed proportional declines in the north. Sable antelope distribution contracted most in the north, whilst tsessebe, eland and roan antelope distributions showed no shifts. Warthog and waterbuck contracted in the central and northern regions, respectively. The distribution of impala did not change. Compared with earlier distributions, impala, zebra, buffalo, warthog and waterbuck had become less strongly concentrated along rivers. Wildebeest, zebra, sable antelope and tsessebe had become less prevalent in localities west of the central region. Concerning habitat occupation, the majority of grazers showed a concentration on basaltic substrates, whilst sable antelope favoured mopane-dominated woodland and sour bushveld on granite. Buffalo showed no strong preference for any habitats and waterbuck were concentrated along rivers. Although widespread, impala were absent from sections of mopane shrubveld and sandveld. Kudu and giraffe were widespread through most habitats, but with a lesser prevalence in northern mopane-dominated habitats. Documented distribution shifts appeared to be related to the completion of the western boundary fence and widened provision of

  20. The Conflict between Cheetahs and Humans on Namibian Farmland Elucidated by Stable Isotope Diet Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Christian C.; Thalwitzer, Susanne; Melzheimer, Jörg; Blanc, Anne-Sophie; Jago, Mark; Wachter, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    Large areas of Namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. Because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. According to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: members of a C4 food web with high δ15N values (gemsbok, cattle, springhare and guinea fowl) and those with low δ15N values (hartebeest, warthog), and members of a C3 food web, namely browsers (eland, kudu, springbok, steenbok and scrub hare). We quantified the trophic discrimination of heavy isotopes in cheetah muscle in 9 captive individuals and measured an enrichment for 15N (3.2‰) but not for 13C in relation to food. We captured 53 free-ranging cheetahs of which 23 were members of groups. Cheetahs of the same group were isotopically distinct from members of other groups, indicating that group members shared their prey. Solitary males (n = 21) and males in a bachelor groups (n = 11) fed mostly on hartebeest and warthogs, followed by browsers in case of solitary males, and by grazers with high δ15N values in case of bachelor groups. Female cheetahs (n = 9) predominantly fed on browsers and used also hartebeest and warthogs. Mixing models suggested that the isotopic prey category that included cattle was only important, if at all, for males living in bachelor groups. Stable isotope analysis of fur, muscle, red blood cells and blood plasma in 9 free-ranging cheetahs identified most individuals as isotopic specialists, focussing on isotopically distinct prey categories as their food. PMID:25162403

  1. The conflict between cheetahs and humans on Namibian farmland elucidated by stable isotope diet analysis.

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    Christian C Voigt

    Full Text Available Large areas of Namibia are covered by farmland, which is also used by game and predator species. Because it can cause conflicts with farmers when predators, such as cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus, hunt livestock, we assessed whether livestock constitutes a significant part of the cheetah diet by analysing the stable isotope composition of blood and tissue samples of cheetahs and their potential prey species. According to isotopic similarities, we defined three isotopic categories of potential prey: members of a C4 food web with high δ15N values (gemsbok, cattle, springhare and guinea fowl and those with low δ15N values (hartebeest, warthog, and members of a C3 food web, namely browsers (eland, kudu, springbok, steenbok and scrub hare. We quantified the trophic discrimination of heavy isotopes in cheetah muscle in 9 captive individuals and measured an enrichment for 15N (3.2‰ but not for 13C in relation to food. We captured 53 free-ranging cheetahs of which 23 were members of groups. Cheetahs of the same group were isotopically distinct from members of other groups, indicating that group members shared their prey. Solitary males (n = 21 and males in a bachelor groups (n = 11 fed mostly on hartebeest and warthogs, followed by browsers in case of solitary males, and by grazers with high δ15N values in case of bachelor groups. Female cheetahs (n = 9 predominantly fed on browsers and used also hartebeest and warthogs. Mixing models suggested that the isotopic prey category that included cattle was only important, if at all, for males living in bachelor groups. Stable isotope analysis of fur, muscle, red blood cells and blood plasma in 9 free-ranging cheetahs identified most individuals as isotopic specialists, focussing on isotopically distinct prey categories as their food.

  2. Influence of aesthetic appreciation of wildlife species on attitudes towards their conservation in Kenyan agropastoralist communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Roque de Pinho

    Full Text Available The influence of human aesthetic appreciation of animal species on public attitudes towards their conservation and related decision-making has been studied in industrialized countries but remains underexplored in developing countries. Working in three agropastoralist communities around Amboseli National Park, southern Kenya, we investigated the relative strength of human aesthetic appreciation on local attitudes towards the conservation of wildlife species. Using semi-structured interviewing and free listing (n = 191 as part of a mixed methods approach, we first characterized local aesthetic judgments of wildlife species. With a Generalized Linear Mixed Models (GLMM approach, we then determined the influence of perceiving four species as beautiful on local support for their protection ("rescuing them", and of perceiving four other species as ugly on support for their removal from the area, while controlling for informant personal and household socioeconomic attributes. Perceiving giraffe, gazelles and eland as beautiful is the strongest variable explaining support for rescuing them. Ugliness is the strongest variable influencing support for the removal of buffalo, hyena, and elephant (but not lion. Both our qualitative and quantitative results suggest that perceptions of ugly species could become more positive through direct exposure to those species. We propose that protected areas in developing countries facilitate visitation by local residents to increase their familiarity with species they rarely see or most frequently see in conflict with human interests. Since valuing a species for its beauty requires seeing it, protected areas in developing countries should connect the people who live around them with the animals they protect. Our results also show that aesthetic appreciation of biodiversity is not restricted to the industrialized world.

  3. Morphological evaluation of genetic evidence for a Pleistocene extirpation of eastern African impala

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    Sally C. Reynolds

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Palaeontology typically relies on fossil studies, in particular morphological differences, to reconstruct and interpret patterns of vertebrate evolution. However, genetic studies of population histories of extant species provide data about past population events (e.g. local extinctions, recolonisations which are equally relevant to palaeontological questions. This study used morphological traits to evaluate a hypothesis based on genetic evidence that southern African impala (Aepyceros melampus are the founder population for all other living African impala populations, after an eastern African extirpation event dating to around 200 000 years ago. Measurements of three horn metrics and the presence or absence of a particular dental trait were compared across four regional impala samples. Eastern African impala possess a unique combination of larger horns and a significantly higher occurrence of entostyles when compared to other impala populations. These traits are likely to have characterised a small group of founding impala which recolonised this region. This pattern appears consistent with the genetic evidence that a subset of the southern African impala gave rise to the eastern African populations. Other species with complex population histories, such as wildebeest, eland, topi and hartebeest may also therefore be expected to express variation in certain morphological traits in the fossil record because of similar patterns of recolonisations. The process of local extinction and subsequent repopulation over shorter timescales (102 – 103 years may pass unnoticed in the fossil record, and lineages may appear uninterrupted. Instead, greater morphological variation within a species may be observed, which may be misinterpreted as reflecting a speciation event, or ecophenotypic variation. Combining data from genetic studies and palaeontology may provide further clues as to how faunal dispersals within Africa shaped the

  4. Buffalo, Bush Meat, and the Zoonotic Threat of Brucellosis in Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Methods Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995–2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974–2006). Findings Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%–8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0–38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (brucellosis in Botswana buffalo in a previous study in 1974 and again in this survey suggests an endemic status of the disease in this species. Buffalo, a preferred source of bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from zoonotic disease invasions. PMID:22412932

  5. Buffalo, bush meat, and the zoonotic threat of brucellosis in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kathleen Anne; Blackburn, Jason Kenna; Vandewalle, Mark Eric; Pesapane, Risa; Baipoledi, Eddie Kekgonne; Elzer, Phil H

    2012-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease of global importance infecting humans, domestic animals, and wildlife. Little is known about the epidemiology and persistence of brucellosis in wildlife in Southern Africa, particularly in Botswana. Archived wildlife samples from Botswana (1995-2000) were screened with the Rose Bengal Test (RBT) and fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and included the African buffalo (247), bushbuck (1), eland (5), elephant (25), gemsbok (1), giraffe (9), hartebeest (12), impala (171), kudu (27), red lechwe (10), reedbuck (1), rhino (2), springbok (5), steenbok (2), warthog (24), waterbuck (1), wildebeest (33), honey badger (1), lion (43), and zebra (21). Human case data were extracted from government annual health reports (1974-2006). Only buffalo (6%, 95% CI 3.04%-8.96%) and giraffe (11%, 95% CI 0-38.43%) were confirmed seropositive on both tests. Seropositive buffalo were widely distributed across the buffalo range where cattle density was low. Human infections were reported in low numbers with most infections (46%) occurring in children (bush meat, is utilized both legally and illegally in Botswana. Household meat processing practices can provide widespread pathogen exposure risk to family members and the community, identifying an important source of zoonotic pathogen transmission potential. Although brucellosis may be controlled in livestock populations, public health officials need to be alert to the possibility of human infections arising from the use of bush meat. This study illustrates the need for a unified approach in infectious disease research that includes consideration of both domestic and wildlife sources of infection in determining public health risks from zoonotic disease invasions.

  6. A historical assessment of sources and uses of wheat varietal innovations in South Africa

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    Charity R. Nhemachena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We undertook a historical review of wheat varietal improvements in South Africa from 1891 to 2013, thus extending the period of previous analyses. We identified popular wheat varieties, particularly those that form the basis for varietal improvements, and attempted to understand how policy changes in the wheat sector have affected wheat varietal improvements in the country over time. The empirical analysis is based on the critical review of information from policies, the varieties bred and their breeders, the years in which those varieties were bred, and pedigree information gathered from the journal Farming in South Africa, sourced mainly from the National Library of South Africa and the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT database. A database of the sources and uses of wheat varietal innovations in South Africa was developed using information from the above sources. The data, analysed using trend and graphical analysis, indicate that, from the 1800s, wheat varietal improvements in the country focused on adaptability to the production area, yield potential and stability and agronomic characteristics (e.g. tolerance to diseases, pests and aluminium toxicity. An analysis of the sources of wheat varietal improvements during the different periods indicates that wheat breeding was driven initially by individual breeders and agricultural colleges. The current main sources of wheat varietal improvements in South Africa are Sensako, the Agricultural Research Council’s Small Grain Institute (ARC–SGI and Pannar. The structural changes in the agricultural sector, particularly the establishment of the ARC–SGI and the deregulation of the wheat sector, have helped to harness the previously fragmented efforts in terms of wheat breeding. The most popular varieties identified for further analysis of cost attribution and the benefits of wheat varietal improvements were Gariep, Elands and Duzi.

  7. Oncolytic effects of parvovirus H-1 in medulloblastoma are associated with repression of master regulators of early neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Jeannine; Schlund, Franziska; Leuchs, Barbara; Adolph, Kathrin; Sturm, Dominik; Bender, Sebastian; Hielscher, Thomas; Pfister, Stefan M; Witt, Olaf; Rommelaere, Jean; Schlehofer, Jörg R; Witt, Hendrik

    2014-02-01

    Based on extensive pre-clinical studies, the oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) is currently applied to patients with recurrent glioblastoma in a phase I/IIa clinical trial (ParvOryx01, NCT01301430). Cure rates of about 40% in pediatric high-risk medulloblastoma (MB) patients also indicate the need of new therapeutic approaches. In order to prepare a future application of oncolytic parvovirotherapy to MB, the present study preclinically evaluates the cytotoxic efficacy of H-1PV on MB cells in vitro and characterizes cellular target genes involved in this effect. Six MB cell lines were analyzed by whole genome oligonucleotide microarrays after treatment and the results were matched to known molecular and cytogenetic risk factors. In contrast to non-transformed infant astrocytes and neurons, in five out of six MB cell lines lytic H-1PV infection and efficient viral replication could be demonstrated. The cytotoxic effects induced by H-1PV were observed at LD50s below 0.05 p. f. u. per cell indicating high susceptibility. Gene expression patterns in the responsive MB cell lines allowed the identification of candidate target genes mediating the cytotoxic effects of H-1PV. H-1PV induced down-regulation of key regulators of early neurogenesis shown to confer poor prognosis in MB such as ZIC1, FOXG1B, MYC, and NFIA. In MB cell lines with genomic amplification of MYC, expression of MYC was the single gene most significantly repressed after H-1PV infection. H-1PV virotherapy may be a promising treatment approach for MB since it targets genes of functional relevance and induces cell death at very low titers of input virus. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of UICC.

  8. Genome-wide sequence variations among Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis.

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    Chung-Yi eHsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (M. ap, the causative agent of Johne’s disease (JD, infects many farmed ruminants, wildlife animals and humans. To better understand the molecular pathogenesis of these infections, we analyzed the whole genome sequences of several M. ap and M. avium subspecies avium (M. avium strains isolated from various hosts and environments. Using Next-generation sequencing technology, all 6 M. ap isolates showed a high percentage of homology (98% to the reference genome sequence of M. ap K-10 isolated from cattle. However, 2 M. avium isolates (DT 78 and Env 77 showed significant sequence diversity from the reference strain M. avium 104. The genomes of M. avium isolates DT 78 and Env 77 exhibited only 87% and 40% homology, respectively, to the M. avium 104 reference genome. Within the M. ap isolates, genomic rearrangements (insertions/deletions, Indels were not detected, and only unique single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were observed among the 6 M. ap strains. While most of the SNPs (~100 in M. ap genomes were non-synonymous, a total of ~ 6000 SNPs were detected among M. avium genomes, most of them were synonymous suggesting a differential selective pressure between M. ap and M. avium isolates. In addition, SNPs-based phylo-genomic analysis showed that isolates from goat and Oryx are closely related to the cattle (K-10 strain while the human isolate (M. ap 4B is closely related to the environmental strains, indicating environmental source to human infections. Overall, SNPs were the most common variations among M. ap isolates while SNPs in addition to Indels were prevalent among M. avium isolates. Genomic variations will be useful in designing host-specific markers for the analysis of mycobacterial evolution and for developing novel diagnostics directed against Johne’s disease in animals.

  9. DETOMIDINE AND BUTORPHANOL FOR STANDING SEDATION IN A RANGE OF ZOO-KEPT UNGULATE SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouts, Tim; Dodds, Joanne; Berry, Karla; Arif, Abdi; Taylor, Polly; Routh, Andrew; Gasthuys, Frank

    2017-09-01

    General anesthesia poses risks for larger zoo species, like cardiorespiratory depression, myopathy, and hyperthermia. In ruminants, ruminal bloat and regurgitation of rumen contents with potential aspiration pneumonia are added risks. Thus, the use of sedation to perform minor procedures is justified in zoo animals. A combination of detomidine and butorphanol has been routinely used in domestic animals. This drug combination, administered by remote intramuscular injection, can also be applied for standing sedation in a range of zoo animals, allowing a number of minor procedures. The combination was successfully administered in five species of nondomesticated equids (Przewalski horse [ Equus ferus przewalskii; n = 1], onager [ Equus hemionus onager; n = 4], kiang [ Equus kiang ; n = 3], Grevy's zebra [ Equus grevyi ; n = 4], and Somali wild ass [ Equus africanus somaliensis; n = 7]), with a mean dose range of 0.10-0.17 mg/kg detomidine and 0.07-0.13 mg/kg butorphanol; the white ( Ceratotherium simum simum; n = 12) and greater one-horned rhinoceros ( Rhinoceros unicornis ; n = 4), with a mean dose of 0.015 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol; and Asiatic elephant bulls ( Elephas maximus ; n = 2), with a mean dose of 0.018 mg/kg of both detomidine and butorphanol. In addition, the combination was successfully used for standing sedation in six species of artiodactylids: giraffe ( Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata; n = 3), western bongo ( Tragelaphus eurycerus eurycerus; n = 2), wisent ( Bison bonasus ; n = 5), yak ( Bos grunniens ; n = 1), water buffalo ( Bubalus bubalis ; n = 4) and Bactrian camel ( Camelus bactrianus ; n = 5). The mean dose range for artiodactylid species except bongo was 0.04-0.06 mg/kg detomidine and 0.03-0.06 mg/kg butorphanol. The dose in bongo, 0.15-0.20 mg/kg detomidine and 0.13-0.15 mg/kg butorphanol, was considerably higher. Times to first effect, approach, and recovery after antidote were short. The use of detomidine and butorphanol has

  10. Distribution of a Community of Mammals in Relation to Roads and Other Human Disturbances in Gabon, Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthomme, Hadrien; Kolowski, Joseph; Korte, Lisa; Alonso, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We present the first community-level study of the associations of both roads and other human disturbances with the distribution of mammals in Gabon (central Africa). Our study site was in an oil concession within a littoral mosaic landscape. We conducted surveys along 199 line transects and installed camera traps on 99 of these transects to document mammal presence and abundance. We used generalized linear mixed-effect models to document associations between variables related to the ecosystem (land cover, topography, and hydrology), roads (coating, width of rights of way, condition, type of vehicle used on the road, traffic level, affiliation of users, and general type of road), and other human disturbances (urbanization, agriculture, hunting, logging, gathering, and industrial activities) and the abundance or presence of 17 species or groups of mammals including elephant (Loxodonta cyclotis), buffalo (Syncerus caffer), sitatunga (Tragelaphus spekei), red river hog (Potamochoerus porcus), smaller ungulates, gorilla (Gorilla gorilla), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), side-striped jackal (Canis adustus), carnivores, monkeys, and large rodents. Some types of roads and other human disturbances were negatively associated with the abundance or presence of elephants, buffalos, gorillas, sitatungas, some monkeys, and duikers. The pattern of associations of mammals with roads and other human disturbances was diverse and included positive associations with road presence (red river hog, some monkeys, and duikers), agriculture (sitatunga, small carnivores, and large rodents) and industrial activities (sitatunga, red river hog, red duikers, and side-striped jackal). Our results suggest that the community of mammals we studied was mostly affected by hunting, agriculture, and urbanization, which are facilitated by road presence. We recommend increased regulation of agriculture, hunting, and road building in the area. Distribución de una Comunidad de Mamíferos en Relaci

  11. Incentivizing Monitoring and Compliance in Trophy Hunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    BUNNEFELD, NILS; EDWARDS, CHARLES T T; ATICKEM, ANAGAW; HAILU, FETENE; MILNER-GULLAND, E J

    2014-01-01

    Conservation scientists are increasingly focusing on the drivers of human behavior and on the implications of various sources of uncertainty for management decision making. Trophy hunting has been suggested as a conservation tool because it gives economic value to wildlife, but recent examples show that overharvesting is a substantial problem and that data limitations are rife. We use a case study of trophy hunting of an endangered antelope, the mountain nyala (Tragelaphus buxtoni), to explore how uncertainties generated by population monitoring and poaching interact with decision making by 2 key stakeholders: the safari companies and the government. We built a management strategy evaluation model that encompasses the population dynamics of mountain nyala, a monitoring model, and a company decision making model. We investigated scenarios of investment into antipoaching and monitoring by governments and safari companies. Harvest strategy was robust to the uncertainty in the population estimates obtained from monitoring, but poaching had a much stronger effect on quota and sustainability. Hence, reducing poaching is in the interests of companies wishing to increase the profitability of their enterprises, for example by engaging community members as game scouts. There is a threshold level of uncertainty in the population estimates beyond which the year-to-year variation in the trophy quota prevented planning by the safari companies. This suggests a role for government in ensuring that a baseline level of population monitoring is carried out such that this level is not exceeded. Our results illustrate the importance of considering the incentives of multiple stakeholders when designing frameworks for resource use and when designing management frameworks to address the particular sources of uncertainty that affect system sustainability most heavily. Incentivando el Monitoreo y el Cumplimiento en la Caza de Trofeos Resumen Científicos conservacionistas cada vez se

  12. Investigation of dosimetric characteristics of the high sensitivity LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosemeter and its applications in diagnostic radiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, K.K.L

    2000-12-01

    evaluate the potential of this T.L. phosphor in the measurement of the very low level doses received by remote critical radiosensitive organs such as the gonads and thyroid eland from scattered X-ray photons. The use of conventional LiF:Mg,Ti T.L. dosemeters for these low level dose measurements is not always feasible. The applications studied in radiological procedures included: dose reduction in lumbar spine radiography utilizing the ''anode heel effect''; gonad dose variation with kV{sub p} in chest radiography; foetal dose comparison between computed tomography (CT) and computed radiography (CR) in X-ray pelvimetry; lens dose reduction with bismuth eye shields in CT brain studies; foetal dose assessment of early pregnancy in common high risk radiological examinations. It is anticipated that the unique and favourable dosimetric performance of LiF:Mg,Cu,P T.L. phosphor will be exploited further in measurements of low level dose received by patients and staff in diagnostic radiological procedures such as paediatric X-rays and interventional fluoroscopic examinations. (author)

  13. Forest mapping and change analysis, using satellite imagery in Zagros mountain Iran, Islamic Republic o

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torahi, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    degraded forest ( 21.9%, 24.89%, 27.5%). During a 16 year span period (1990-2006) about 10170.3 ha, 2963.4 ha, 351.7 ha and 3039.2 ha of forest lands were converted to rang eland, agriculture, water body and settlement. The overall five -class classification accuracies averaged 78.6%.Overall accuracy of land cover change maps, generated from post- classification change detection methods and evaluated using several approaches, was found to be 80.1%. Results quantify the land cover change patterns in the Zagros highlands and demonstrate the potential of multi temporal Landsat and ASTER data to provide an accurate, economical means to map and analyze changes in land cover over time that can be used as inputs to land management and policy decisions. (author)

  14. Electric Power Generation from Low to Intermediate Temperature Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosnold, William D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2015-06-18

    This project was designed to test the concept on the Eland-Lodgepole Field near Dickinson, North Dakota in the Williston Basin. The field is in secondary-recovery water-flood and consists of 12 producing oil wells, 5 water injection wells and one disposal well. Water production at the site averages approximately 320 gallons per minute (20.2 l s-1) and the temperature is 100 ⁰C. Engineers at Ormat estimated power production potential with the existing resource to be approximately 350 kWh. Unfortunately, ownership of the field was transferred from Encore, Inc., to Denbury, Inc., within the first week of the project. After two years of discussion and planning, Denbury decided not to pursue this project due to complications with the site location and its proximity to Patterson Lake. Attempts to find other partners operating in the Williston Basin were unsuccessful. Consequently, we were unable to pursue the primary objective of the project. However, during negations with Denbury and subsequent time spent contacting other potential partners, we focused on objectives 2 and 3 and developed a clear understanding of the potential for co-produced production in the Williston Basin and the best practices for developing similar projects. At least nine water bearing formations with temperatures greater than 90 ⁰C extend over areas of several 10s of km2. The total energy contained in the rock volume of those geothermal aquifers is 283.6 EJ (1 EJ = 1018 J). The total energy contained in the water volume, determined from porosities which range from 2 percent to 8 percent, is 6.8 EJ. The aquifers grouped by 10 ⁰C temperature bins (Table 1) include one or more formations due to the bowl-shape structure of the basin. Table 1. Summary of energy available in geothermal aquifers in the Williston Basin Analysis of overall fluid production from active wells, units, fields and formations in North Dakota showed that few sites co-produce sufficient fluid for significant power production