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Sample records for el61 collisional family

  1. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  2. COLLISIONALLY BORN FAMILY ABOUT 87 SYLVIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David; Bottke, William F.; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2010-01-01

    There are currently more than 1000 multi-opposition objects known in the Cybele population, adjacent and exterior to the asteroid main belt, allowing a more detailed analysis than was previously possible. Searching for collisionally born clusters in this population, we find only one statistically robust case: a family of objects about (87) Sylvia. We use a numerical model to simulate the Sylvia family long-term evolution due to gravitational attraction from planets and thermal (Yarkovsky) effects and to explain its perturbed structure in the orbital element space. This allows us to conclude that the Sylvia family must be at least several hundreds of million years old, in agreement with evolutionary timescales of Sylvia's satellite system. We find it interesting that other large Cybele-zone asteroids with known satellites-(107) Camilla and (121) Hermione-do not have detectable families of collisional fragments about them (this is because we assume that binaries with large primary and small secondary components are necessarily impact generated). Our numerical simulations of synthetic clusters about these asteroids show they would suffer a substantial dynamical depletion by a combined effect of diffusion in numerous weak mean-motion resonances and Yarkovsky forces provided their age is close to ∼4 billion years. However, we also believe that a complete effacement of these two families requires an additional component, very likely due to resonance sweeping or other perturbing effects associated with the late Jupiter's inward migration. We thus propose that both Camilla and Hermione originally had their collisional families, as in the Sylvia case, but they lost them in an evolution that lasted a billion years. Their satellites are the only witnesses of these effaced families.

  3. THE CREATION OF HAUMEA'S COLLISIONAL FAMILY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlichting, Hilke E.; Sari, Re'em

    2009-01-01

    Recently, the first collisional family was discovered in the Kuiper Belt. The parent body of this family, Haumea, is one of the largest objects in the Kuiper Belt and is orbited by two satellites. It has been proposed that the Haumea family was created from dispersed fragments that resulted from a giant impact. This proposed origin of the Haumea family is however in conflict with the observed velocity dispersion between the family members (∼ 140 m s -1 ) which is significantly less than the escape velocity from Haumea's surface (∼ 900 m s -1 ). In this paper we propose a different formation scenario for Haumea's collisional family. In our scenario the family members are ejected while in orbit around Haumea. This scenario, therefore, naturally gives rise to a lower velocity dispersion among the family members than expected from direct ejection from Haumea's surface. In our scenario Haumea's giant impact forms a single moon that tidally evolves outward until it suffers a destructive collision from which the family is created. We show that this formation scenario yields a velocity dispersion of ∼ 190 m s -1 among the family members which is in good agreement with the observations. We discuss an alternative scenario that consists of the formation and tidal evolution of several satellites that are ejected by collisions with unbound Kuiper Belt objects. However, the formation of the Haumea family in this latter way is difficult to reconcile with the large abundance of Kuiper Belt binaries. We, therefore, favor forming the family by a destructive collision of a single moon of Haumea. The probability for Haumea's initial giant impact in today's Kuiper Belt is less than 10 -3 . In our scenario, however, Haumea's giant impact can occur before the excitation of the Kuiper Belt and the ejection of the family members afterward. This has the advantage that one can preserve the dynamical coherence of the family and explain Haumea's original giant impact, which is several

  4. Spin states of asteroids in the Eos collisional family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanuš, J.; Delbo', M.; Alí-Lagoa, V.; Bolin, B.; Jedicke, R.; Ďurech, J.; Cibulková, H.; Pravec, P.; Kušnirák, P.; Behrend, R.; Marchis, F.; Antonini, P.; Arnold, L.; Audejean, M.; Bachschmidt, M.; Bernasconi, L.; Brunetto, L.; Casulli, S.; Dymock, R.; Esseiva, N.; Esteban, M.; Gerteis, O.; de Groot, H.; Gully, H.; Hamanowa, Hiroko; Hamanowa, Hiromi; Krafft, P.; Lehký, M.; Manzini, F.; Michelet, J.; Morelle, E.; Oey, J.; Pilcher, F.; Reignier, F.; Roy, R.; Salom, P. A.; Warner, B. D.

    2018-01-01

    Eos family was created during a catastrophic impact about 1.3 Gyr ago. Rotation states of individual family members contain information about the history of the whole population. We aim to increase the number of asteroid shape models and rotation states within the Eos collision family, as well as to revise previously published shape models from the literature. Such results can be used to constrain theoretical collisional and evolution models of the family, or to estimate other physical parameters by a thermophysical modeling of the thermal infrared data. We use all available disk-integrated optical data (i.e., classical dense-in-time photometry obtained from public databases and through a large collaboration network as well as sparse-in-time individual measurements from a few sky surveys) as input for the convex inversion method, and derive 3D shape models of asteroids together with their rotation periods and orientations of rotation axes. We present updated shape models for 15 asteroids and new shape model determinations for 16 asteroids. Together with the already published models from the publicly available DAMIT database, we compiled a sample of 56 Eos family members with known shape models that we used in our analysis of physical properties within the family. Rotation states of asteroids smaller than ∼ 20 km are heavily influenced by the YORP effect, whilst the large objects more or less retained their rotation state properties since the family creation. Moreover, we also present a shape model and bulk density of asteroid (423) Diotima, an interloper in the Eos family, based on the disk-resolved data obtained by the Near InfraRed Camera (Nirc2) mounted on the W.M. Keck II telescope.

  5. Collisional history of asteroids - evidence from Vesta and the Hirayama families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.R.; Chapman, C.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Greenberg, R.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical simulations of the collisional evolution of hypothetical initial asteroid populations have been run which are subject to three constraints: they must evolve to the current asteroid size distribution, preserve Vesta's basaltic crust, and produce at least the observed number of major Hirayama families. A runaway growth initial asteroid population distribution is found to best satisfy these constraints, and a model is developed for the calculation of fragment size distribution in the disruption of large, gravitationally bound bodies in which the material strength is enhanced by hydrostatic self-compression. This model predicts that large asteroids behave as intrinsically strong bodies despite histories of collisional fracture. 51 references

  6. Collisional family structure within the Nysa-Polana complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The Nysa-Polana complex is a group of low-inclination asteroid families in the inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the Mars-crossing region and the Jupiter 3:1 mean-motion resonance. This group is important as the most likely source region for the target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, (101955) Bennu; however, family membership in the region is complicated by the presence of several dynamically overlapping families with a range of surface reflectance properties. The large S-type structure in the region appears to be associated with the parent body (135) Hertha, and displays an (eP,aP) correlation consistent with a collision event near true anomaly of ∼180° with ejecta velocity vej ∼ 285m /s . The ejecta distribution from a collision with these orbital properties is predicted to have a maximum semimajor axis dispersion of δaej = 0.005 ± 0.008AU , which constitutes only a small fraction (7%) of the observed semimajor axis dispersion, the rest of which is attributed to the Yarkovsky effect. The age of the family is inferred from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 300-50+60 My. Objects in a smaller cluster that overlaps the large Hertha family in proper orbital element space have reflectance properties more consistent with the X-type (135) Hertha than the surrounding S-type family. These objects form a distinct Yarkovsky "V" signature in (aP, H) space, consistent with a more recent collision, which appears to also be dynamically connected to (135) Hertha. Production of two families with different reflectance properties from a single parent could result from the partial differentiation of the parent, shock darkening effects, or other causes. The Nysa-Polana complex also contains a low-albedo family associated with (142) Polana (called "New Polana" by Walsh et al. (Walsh, K.J. et al. [2013]. Icarus 225, 283-297)), and two other low-albedo families associated with (495) Eulalia. The second Eulalia family may be a high-aP , low-eP , low-iP component of the first

  7. Is the Eureka cluster a collisional family of Mars Trojan asteroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos A.; Borisov, Galin; Dell'Oro, Aldo; Cellino, Alberto; Bagnulo, Stefano

    2017-09-01

    We explore the hypothesis that the Eureka family of sub-km asteroids in the L5 region of Mars could have formed in a collision. We estimate the size distribution index from available information on family members; model the orbital dispersion of collisional fragments; and carry out a formal calculation of the collisional lifetime as a function of size. We find that, as initially conjectured by Rivkin et al. (2003), the collisional lifetime of objects the size of (5261) Eureka is at least a few Gyr, significantly longer than for similar-sized Main Belt asteroids. In contrast, the observed degree of orbital compactness is inconsistent with all but the least energetic family-forming collisions. Therefore, the family asteroids may be ejecta from a cratering event sometime in the past ∼ 1 Gyr if the orbits are gradually dispersed by gravitational diffusion and the Yarkovsky effect (Ćuk et al., 2015). The comparable sizes of the largest family members require either negligible target strength or a particular impact geometry under this scenario (Durda et al., 2007; Benavidez et al., 2012). Alternatively, the family may have formed by a series of YORP-induced fission events (Pravec et al., 2010). The shallow size distribution of the family is similar to that of small MBAs (Gladman et al., 2009) interpreted as due to the dominance of this mechanism for Eureka-family-sized asteroids (Jacobson et al., 2014). However, our population index estimate is likely a lower limit due to the small available number of family asteroids and observational incompleteness. Future searches for fainter family members, further observational characterisation of the known Trojans' physical properties as well as orbital and rotational evolution modelling will help distinguish between different formation models.

  8. ORBITS AND MASSES OF THE SATELLITES OF THE DWARF PLANET HAUMEA (2003 EL61)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragozzine, D.; Brown, M. E.

    2009-01-01

    Using precise relative astrometry from the Hubble Space Telescope and the W. M. Keck Telescope, we have determined the orbits and masses of the two dynamically interacting satellites of the dwarf planet (136108) Haumea, formerly 2003 EL61. The orbital parameters of Hi'iaka, the outer, brighter satellite, match well the previously derived orbit. On timescales longer than a few weeks, no Keplerian orbit is sufficient to describe the motion of the inner, fainter satellite Namaka. Using a fully interacting three-point-mass model, we have recovered the orbital parameters of both orbits and the mass of Haumea and Hi'iaka; Namaka's mass is marginally detected. The data are not sufficient to uniquely determine the gravitational quadrupole of the nonspherical primary (described by J 2 ). The nearly coplanar nature of the satellites, as well as an inferred density similar to water ice, strengthen the hypothesis that Haumea experienced a giant collision billions of years ago. The excited eccentricities and mutual inclination point to an intriguing tidal history of significant semimajor axis evolution through satellite mean-motion resonances. The orbital solution indicates that Namaka and Haumea are currently undergoing mutual events and that the mutual event season will last for next several years.

  9. The collisional Penrose process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnittman, Jeremy D.

    2018-06-01

    Shortly after the discovery of the Kerr metric in 1963, it was realized that a region existed outside of the black hole's event horizon where no time-like observer could remain stationary. In 1969, Roger Penrose showed that particles within this ergosphere region could possess negative energy, as measured by an observer at infinity. When captured by the horizon, these negative energy particles essentially extract mass and angular momentum from the black hole. While the decay of a single particle within the ergosphere is not a particularly efficient means of energy extraction, the collision of multiple particles can reach arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy in the limit of extremal black hole spin. The resulting particles can escape with high efficiency, potentially serving as a probe of high-energy particle physics as well as general relativity. In this paper, we briefly review the history of the field and highlight a specific astrophysical application of the collisional Penrose process: the potential to enhance annihilation of dark matter particles in the vicinity of a supermassive black hole.

  10. Collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear dimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, B.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.; Shlyapnikov, G.V.; Petrov, D.S.

    2008-01-01

    We consider collisional properties of weakly bound heteronuclear molecules (dimers) formed in a two-species mixture of atoms with a large mass difference. We focus on dimers containing light fermionic atoms as they manifest collisional stability due to an effective dimer-dimer repulsion originating

  11. Collisional processes in supersymmetric plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czajka, Alina; Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    Collisional processes in ultrarelativistic N=1 supersymmetric QED plasma are studied and compared to those in an electromagnetic plasma of electrons, positrons and photons. Cross sections of all binary interactions which occur in the supersymmetric plasma at the order of e 4 are computed. Some processes, in particular, the Compton scattering on selectrons, appear to be independent of momentum transfer and thus they are qualitatively different from processes in an electromagnetic plasma. It suggests that the transport properties of the supersymmetric plasma are different than those of its nonsupersymmetric counterpart. Energy loss and momentum broadening of a particle traversing the supersymmetric plasma are discussed in detail and the characteristics are shown to be surprisingly similar to those of QED plasma.

  12. Neoclassical transport including collisional nonlinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, J; Belli, E A

    2011-06-10

    In the standard δf theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction δf is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlüter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  13. Collisional transport in nonneutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubin, D.H.E.

    1999-01-01

    Classical transport theory grossly underestimates collisionally-driven cross-field transport for plasmas in the parameter regime of r c D , where r c ≡ v-bar/Ω c , λ D 2 ≡ T/4πe 2 n. In current experiments operating in this regime, cross-field test particle transport is observed to be a factor of 10 larger than the prediction of classical theory. Heat conduction is enhanced by up to 300 times over classical theory, and viscosity is up to 10 4 times larger. New guiding center theories of transport due to long-range collisions have been developed that agree with the measurements. Theory also predicts that emission and absorption of plasma waves may further enhance the thermal conduction and viscosity, providing a possible mechanism for anomalous thermal conductivity in the electron channel of fusion plasmas. (author)

  14. Sheath waves, non collisional dampings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marec, Jean Lucien Ernest

    1974-01-01

    When a metallic conductor is inserted into an ionised gas, an area of electron depletion is formed between the conductor and the plasma: the ionic sheath. Moreover, if the conductor is excited by an electric field, this ionic sheath plays an important role with respect to microwave properties. In this research thesis, the author addresses the range of frequencies smaller than the plasma frequency, and reports the study of resonance phenomena. After a presentation of the problem through a bibliographical study, the author recalls general characteristics of sheath wave propagation and of sheath resonances, and discusses the validity of different hypotheses (for example and among others, electrostatic approximations, cold plasma). Then, the author more particularly addresses theoretical problems related to non collisional dampings: brief bibliographical study, detailed presentation and description of the theoretical model, damping calculation methods. The author then justifies the design and performance of an experiment, indicates measurement methods used to determine plasma characteristics as well as other magnitudes which allow the description of mechanisms of propagation and damping of sheath waves. Experimental results are finally presented with respect to various parameters. The author discusses to which extent the chosen theoretical model is satisfying [fr

  15. Sum rules for collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Bar-Shalom, A.; Klapisch, M.

    1991-01-01

    We derive level-to-configuration sum rules for dielectronic capture and for collisional excitation and ionization. These sum rules give the total transition rate from a detailed atomic level to an atomic configuration. For each process, we show that it is possible to factor out the dependence on continuum-electron wave functions. The remaining explicit level dependence of each rate is then obtained from the matrix element of an effective operator acting on the bound orbitals only. In a large class of cases, the effective operator reduces to a one-electron monopole whose matrix element is proportional to the statistical weight of the level. We show that even in these cases, nonstatistical level dependence enters through the dependence of radial integrals on continuum orbitals. For each process, explicit analytic expressions for the level-to-configuration sum rules are given for all possible cases. Together with the well-known J-file sum rule for radiative rates [E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (University Press, Cambridge, 1935)], the sum rules offer a systematic and efficient procedure for collapsing high-multiplicity configurations into ''effective'' levels for the purpose of modeling the population kinetics of ionized heavy atoms in plasma

  16. Collisional stripping of planetary crusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Philip J.; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Elliott, Tim; Stewart, Sarah T.; Walter, Michael J.

    2018-02-01

    Geochemical studies of planetary accretion and evolution have invoked various degrees of collisional erosion to explain differences in bulk composition between planets and chondrites. Here we undertake a full, dynamical evaluation of 'crustal stripping' during accretion and its key geochemical consequences. Crusts are expected to contain a significant fraction of planetary budgets of incompatible elements, which include the major heat producing nuclides. We present smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations of collisions between differentiated rocky planetesimals and planetary embryos. We find that the crust is preferentially lost relative to the mantle during impacts, and we have developed a scaling law based on these simulations that approximates the mass of crust that remains in the largest remnant. Using this scaling law and a recent set of N-body simulations of terrestrial planet formation, we have estimated the maximum effect of crustal stripping on incompatible element abundances during the accretion of planetary embryos. We find that on average approximately one third of the initial crust is stripped from embryos as they accrete, which leads to a reduction of ∼20% in the budgets of the heat producing elements if the stripped crust does not reaccrete. Erosion of crusts can lead to non-chondritic ratios of incompatible elements, but the magnitude of this effect depends sensitively on the details of the crust-forming melting process on the planetesimals. The Lu/Hf system is fractionated for a wide range of crustal formation scenarios. Using eucrites (the products of planetesimal silicate melting, thought to represent the crust of Vesta) as a guide to the Lu/Hf of planetesimal crust partially lost during accretion, we predict the Earth could evolve to a superchondritic 176Hf/177Hf (3-5 parts per ten thousand) at present day. Such values are in keeping with compositional estimates of the bulk Earth. Stripping of planetary crusts during accretion can lead to

  17. Collisional damping rates for plasma waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigik, S. F., E-mail: sabrina.tigik@ufrgs.br; Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Yoon, P. H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    The distinction between the plasma dynamics dominated by collisional transport versus collective processes has never been rigorously addressed until recently. A recent paper [P. H. Yoon et al., Phys. Rev. E 93, 033203 (2016)] formulates for the first time, a unified kinetic theory in which collective processes and collisional dynamics are systematically incorporated from first principles. One of the outcomes of such a formalism is the rigorous derivation of collisional damping rates for Langmuir and ion-acoustic waves, which can be contrasted to the heuristic customary approach. However, the results are given only in formal mathematical expressions. The present brief communication numerically evaluates the rigorous collisional damping rates by considering the case of plasma particles with Maxwellian velocity distribution function so as to assess the consequence of the rigorous formalism in a quantitative manner. Comparison with the heuristic (“Spitzer”) formula shows that the accurate damping rates are much lower in magnitude than the conventional expression, which implies that the traditional approach over-estimates the importance of attenuation of plasma waves by collisional relaxation process. Such a finding may have a wide applicability ranging from laboratory to space and astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Orbital and Collisional Evolution of the Irregular Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesvorný, David; Alvarellos, Jose L. A.; Dones, Luke; Levison, Harold F.

    2003-07-01

    instabilities operating on longer time spans. The average orbits calculated from this experiment were then used to probe the collisional evolution of the irregular satellite systems. We found that (1) the large irregular moons must have collisionally eliminated many small irregular moons, thus shaping their population to the currently observed structures; (2) some dynamical families of satellites could have been formed by catastrophic collisions among the irregular moons; and (3) Phoebe's surface must have been heavily cratered by impacts from an extinct population of Saturnian irregular moons, much larger than the present one. We therefore suggest that the Cassini imaging of Phoebe in 2004 can be used to determine the primordial population of small irregular moons of Saturn. In such a case, we will also better understand the overall efficiency of the formation process of the irregular satellites and the physical conditions that existed during planetary formation. We discovered two dynamical families of tightly clustered orbits within the Jovian retrograde group. We believe that these two clusters may be the remnants of two collisionally disrupted bodies. We found that the entire Jovian retrograde group and the Saturnian inclination groups were not produced by single breakups, because the ejection velocities derived from the orbital structures of these groups greatly exceed values calculated by modern numerical models of collisional breakups. Taken together, the evidence presented here suggests that many properties of the irregular moons previously assigned to their formation process may have resulted from their later dynamical and collisional evolution. Finally, we have found that several irregular moons, namely, Pasiphae, Sinope, S/2001 J10, S/2000 S5, S/2000 S6, and S/2000 S3, have orbits characterized by secular resonances. The orbits of some of these moons apparently evolved by some slow dissipative process in the past and became captured in tiny resonant volumes.

  19. Kinetic equations for the collisional plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rij, W.I. Van; Meier, H.K.; Beasley, C.O. Jr.; McCune, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    Using the Collisional Plasma Model (CPM) representation, expressions are derived for the Vlasov operator, both in its general form and in the drift-kinetic approximation following the recursive derivation by Hazeltine. The expressions for the operators give easily calculated couplings between neighbouring components of the CPM representation. Expressions for various macroscopic observables in the drift-kinetics approximation are also given. (author)

  20. Generalized fluid equations for parallel transport in collisional to weakly collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawaideh, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    A new set of two-fluid equations which are valid from collisional to weakly collisional limits are derived. Starting from gyrokinetic equations in flux coordinates with no zeroth order drifts, a set of moment equations describing plasma transport along the field lines of a space and time dependent magnetic field are derived. No restriction on the anisotropy of the ion distribution function is imposed. In the highly collisional limit, these equations reduce to those of Braginskii while in the weakly collisional limit, they are similar to the double adiabatic or Chew, Goldberger, and Low (CGL) equations. The new transport equations are used to study the effects of collisionality, magnetic field structure, and plasma anisotropy on plasma parallel transport. Numerical examples comparing these equations with conventional transport equations show that the conventional equations may contain large errors near the sound speed (M approx. = 1). It is also found that plasma anisotropy, which is not included in the conventional equations, is a critical parameter in determining plasma transport in varying magnetic field. The new transport equations are also used to study axial confinement in multiple mirror devices from the strongly to weakly collisional regime. A new ion conduction model was worked out to extend the regime of validity of the transport equations to the low density multiple mirror regime

  1. Weakly Collisional and Collisionless Astrophysical Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berlok, Thomas

    are used to study weakly collisional, stratified atmospheres which offer a useful model of the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters. Using linear theory and computer simulations, we study instabilities that feed off thermal and compositional gradients. We find that these instabilities lead to vigorous...... investigate helium mixing in the weakly collisional intracluster medium of galaxy clusters using Braginskii MHD. Secondly, we present a newly developed Vlasov-fluid code which can be used for studying fully collisionless plasmas such as the solar wind and hot accretions flows. The equations of Braginskii MHD...... associated with the ions and is thus well suited for studying collisionless plasmas. We have developed a new 2D-3V Vlasov-fluid code which works by evolving the phase-space density distribution of the ions while treating the electrons as an inertialess fluid. The code uses the particle-incell (PIC) method...

  2. Kinetic simulation on collisional bounded plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, S.P.; Sato, Tetsuya; Tomita, Yukihiro; Hatori, Tadatsugu

    1998-01-01

    A self-consistent kinetic simulation model on collisional bounded plasma is presented. The electric field is given by solving Poisson equation and collisions among particles (including charged particles and neutral particles) are included. The excitation and ionization of neutral particle, and recombination are also contained in the present model. The formation of potential structure near a boundary for a discharge system was used as an application of this model. (author)

  3. Exact collisional moments for plasma fluid theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferle, David; Hirvijoki, Eero; Lingam, Manasvi

    2017-10-01

    The velocity-space moments of the often troublesome nonlinear Landau collision operator are expressed exactly in terms of multi-index Hermite-polynomial moments of the distribution functions. The collisional moments are shown to be generated by derivatives of two well-known functions, namely the Rosenbluth-MacDonald-Judd-Trubnikov potentials for a Gaussian distribution. The resulting formula has a nonlinear dependency on the relative mean flow of the colliding species normalised to the root-mean-square of the corresponding thermal velocities, and a bilinear dependency on densities and higher-order velocity moments of the distribution functions, with no restriction on temperature, flow or mass ratio of the species. The result can be applied to both the classic transport theory of plasmas, that relies on the Chapman-Enskog method, as well as to deriving collisional fluid equations that follow Grad's moment approach. As an illustrative example, we provide the collisional ten-moment equations with exact conservation laws for momentum- and energy-transfer rate.

  4. Anisotropic hydrodynamics with a scalar collisional kernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaalol, Dekrayat; Strickland, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Prior studies of nonequilibrium dynamics using anisotropic hydrodynamics have used the relativistic Anderson-Witting scattering kernel or some variant thereof. In this paper, we make the first study of the impact of using a more realistic scattering kernel. For this purpose, we consider a conformal system undergoing transversally homogenous and boost-invariant Bjorken expansion and take the collisional kernel to be given by the leading order 2 ↔2 scattering kernel in scalar λ ϕ4 . We consider both classical and quantum statistics to assess the impact of Bose enhancement on the dynamics. We also determine the anisotropic nonequilibrium attractor of a system subject to this collisional kernel. We find that, when the near-equilibrium relaxation-times in the Anderson-Witting and scalar collisional kernels are matched, the scalar kernel results in a higher degree of momentum-space anisotropy during the system's evolution, given the same initial conditions. Additionally, we find that taking into account Bose enhancement further increases the dynamically generated momentum-space anisotropy.

  5. Transition from Collisionless to Collisional MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Prateek; Hammett, Gregory W.; Quataert, Eliot

    2003-01-01

    Recent calculations by Quataert et al. (2002) found that the growth rates of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma can differ significantly from those calculated using MHD. This can be important in hot accretion flows around compact objects. In this paper, we study the transition from the collisionless kinetic regime to the collisional MHD regime, mapping out the dependence of the MRI growth rate on collisionality. A kinetic closure scheme for a magnetized plasma is used that includes the effect of collisions via a BGK operator. The transition to MHD occurs as the mean free path becomes short compared to the parallel wavelength 2*/k(sub)||. In the weak magnetic field regime where the Alfven and MRI frequencies w are small compared to the sound wave frequency k(sub)||c(sub)0, the dynamics are still effectively collisionless even if omega << v, so long as the collision frequency v << k(sub)||c(sub)0; for an accretion flow this requires n less than or approximately equal to *(square root of b). The low collisionality regime not only modifies the MRI growth rate, but also introduces collisionless Landau or Barnes damping of long wavelength modes, which may be important for the nonlinear saturation of the MRI

  6. Nonadiabatic effects in inelastic collisional processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, Andrey K

    2009-01-01

    The standard adiabatic Born-Oppenheimer approach to inelastic collisional processes is revised. It is shown that the widely used standard interpretation of this approach has fundamental limitations leading to physical artefacts or to uncertainties in numerical calculations due to neglecting the electron translation problem. It is demonstrated that the Born-Oppenheimer approach itself does not have such limitations. The particular full quantum solution of the electron translation problem within the Born-Oppenheimer approach by means of the reprojection procedure is discussed in the paper together with the practical applications.

  7. Collisional Penrose process with spinning particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sajal

    2018-03-01

    In this article, we have investigated collisional Penrose process (CPP) using spinning particles in a Kerr spacetime. Recent studies have shown that the collision between two spinning particles can produce a significantly high energy in the center of mass frame. Here, we explicitly compute the energy extraction and efficiency as measured by an observer at infinity. We consider the colliding particles as well as the escaping particles may contain spins. It has been shown that the energy extraction is larger than the non-spinning case and also their possibility to escape to infinity is wider than the geodesics.

  8. Wavepacket theory of collisional dissociation in molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulander, K.

    1980-01-01

    An explicit integration scheme is used to solve the time dependent Schroedinger equation for wavepackets which model collisions in the collinear H + H 2 system. A realistic LEPS-type potential energy surface is used. Collision energies considered are above the dissociation threshold and probabilities for collision induced dissociation are reported. Also quantum mechanical state-to-state transition probabilities are generated. These results are compared to extensive classical trajectory calculations performed on this same system. The time evolution of the wavepacket densities is studied to understand the dynamics of the collinear collisional dissociation process

  9. Radionuclide measurements using resonantly enhanced collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes development of a laser-enhanced collisional ionization method for direct radionuclide measurements that are independent of radioactive decay. The technique uses two nitrogen-laser-pumped dye lasers to selectively excite the target isotope to an electronic state near the ionization threshold. The excited actinide atoms then undergo collisions with a buffer gas and are efficiently ionized. The resulting ions can be detected by conventional methods. The attributes of this approach include highly sensitive isotope analysis with relatively inexpensive lasers and a simple vacuum system. 9 refs., 3 figs

  10. Resonantly enhanced collisional ionization measurements of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, T.J.; Bushaw, B.A.; Gerke, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The authors developed a new laser technique to analyze for radionuclides at extremely low levels. The technique, called resonantly enhanced collisional ionization (RECI), uses two nitrogen-laser pumped dye lasers to excite the target isotope to a high-energy Rydberg state. Atoms in these Rydberg states (within a few hundred wavenumbers in energy from the ionization threshold) efficiently ionize upon colliding with an inert gas and the ions can be detected by conventional means. The principal advantage of resonantly-enhanced collisional ionization is the extreme sensitivity coupled with its relative simplicity and low cost. Actinides typically have an ionization potential of about 6eV (uranium I.P. = 6.2 eV, plutonium I.P. = 5.7 eV). Two-step laser excitation to a state just below threshold requires wavelengths in the blue region of the visible spectrum. They showed that when both steps in the excitation process are resonant steps, relatively low-power lasers can populate the Rydberg state with almost unit efficiency. This is because the resonant excitations have much larger cross-sections than do photoionization processes. They also demonstrated that a few torr of a buffer gas will cause most of the excited-state atoms to be ionized

  11. Collisional model for granular impact dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Abram H; Petersen, Alec J; Behringer, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    When an intruder strikes a granular material from above, the grains exert a stopping force which decelerates and stops the intruder. Many previous studies have used a macroscopic force law, including a drag force which is quadratic in velocity, to characterize the decelerating force on the intruder. However, the microscopic origins of the force-law terms are still a subject of debate. Here, drawing from previous experiments with photoelastic particles, we present a model which describes the velocity-squared force in terms of repeated collisions with clusters of grains. From our high speed photoelastic data, we infer that "clusters" correspond to segments of the strong force network that are excited by the advancing intruder. The model predicts a scaling relation for the velocity-squared drag force that accounts for the intruder shape. Additionally, we show that the collisional model predicts an instability to rotations, which depends on the intruder shape. To test this model, we perform a comprehensive experimental study of the dynamics of two-dimensional granular impacts on beds of photoelastic disks, with different profiles for the leading edge of the intruder. We particularly focus on a simple and useful case for testing shape effects by using triangular-nosed intruders. We show that the collisional model effectively captures the dynamics of intruder deceleration and rotation; i.e., these two dynamical effects can be described as two different manifestations of the same grain-scale physical processes.

  12. Diffusion and transport phenomena in a collisional magnetoplasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Boltzmann-transport equation is analytically solved for two-component magnetoplasma using Chapman-Enskog analysis to include collisional diffusion transport having anisotropies in both streaming velocity and temperature components. The modified collisional integrals are analytically solved with flux integrals and ...

  13. Nonlinear magnetic reconnection in low collisionality plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ottaviani, M [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Porcelli, F [Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy)

    1994-07-01

    The magnetic reconnection in collisionless regimes, where electron inertia is responsible for the decoupling of the plasma motion from that of the field lines, is discussed. Since the linear theory of m=1 modes breaks down for very small magnetic island widths, a non linear analysis is called for. Thus, the behaviour of a collisionless, 2-D fluid slab model in the limit {rho}/d -> 0, is analyzed. The main result is that, when the island size is larger than the linear layer but smaller than the equilibrium scale length, the reconnection rate exhibits a quasi-explosive time behaviour, during which a current density sub-layer narrower than the skin depth is formed. It is believed that the inclusion of the electron initial term in Ohm`s law opens the possibility to understand the rapidity of relaxation process observed in low collisionality plasmas. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Collisional and radiative processes in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lister, Graeme G.

    2003-01-01

    Since electrode life is the major limiting factor in operating fluorescent lamps, many lighting companies have introduced 'electrodeless' fluorescent lamps, using inductively coupled discharges. These lamps often operate at much higher power loadings than standard lamps and numerical models have not been successful in reproducing experimental measurements in the parameter ranges of interest. A comprehensive research program was undertaken to study the fundamental physical processes of these discharges, co-funded by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and OSRAM SYLVANIA under the name of ALITE. The program included experiments and modeling of radiation transport, computations of electron-atom and atom-atom cross sections and the first comprehensive power balance studies of a highly loaded fluorescent lamp. Results from the program and their importance to the understanding of the physics of fluorescent lamps are discussed, with particular emphasis on the important collisional and radiative processes. Comparisons between results of experimental measurements and numerical models are presented

  15. Temperature relaxation in collisional non equilibrium plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potapenko, I.F.; Bobylev, A.V.; Azevedo, C.A.; Assis, A.S. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. We study the relaxation of a space uniform plasma composed of electrons and one species of ions. To simplified the consideration, standard approach is usually accepted: the distribution functions are considered to be a Maxwellian with time dependent electron T{sub e}(t) and ion T{sub i}(t) temperatures. This approach imposes a severe restriction on the electron/ion distributions that could be very far from the equilibrium. In the present work the problem is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear kinetic Fokker - Planck equation, which is widely used for the description of collisional plasmas. This equation has many applications in plasma physics as an intrinsic part of physical models, both analytical and numerical. A new detailed description of this classical problem of the collisional plasma kinetic theory is given. A deeper examination of the problem shows that the unusual perturbation theory can not be used. The part of the perturbation of the electron distribution has the character of a boundary layer in the neighborhood of small velocities. In this work the boundary layer is thoroughly studied. The correct distribution electron function is given. Nonmonotonic character of the distribution relaxation in the tail region is observed. The corrected formula for temperature equalization is obtained. The comparison of the calculation results with the asymptotic approach is made. We should stress the important role of the completely conservative different scheme used here, which keeps the symmetric properties of the nonlinear exact equation. This allows us to make calculations without numerical error accumulations, except for machine errors. (author)

  16. Generalized fluid equations for parallel transport in collisional to weakly collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawaideh, E.; Najmabadi, F.; Conn, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    A new set of two-fluid equations that are valid from collisional to weakly collisional limits is derived. Starting from gyrokinetic equations in flux coordinates with no zero-order drifts, a set of moment equations describing plasma transport along the field lines of a space- and time-dependent magnetic field is derived. No restriction on the anisotropy of the ion distribution function is imposed. In the highly collisional limit, these equations reduce to those of Braginskii, while in the weakly collisional limit they are similar to the double adiabatic or Chew, Goldberger, and Low (CGL) equations [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 236, 112 (1956)]. The new set of equations also exhibits a physical singularity at the sound speed. This singularity is used to derive and compute the sound speed. Numerical examples comparing these equations with conventional transport equations show that in the limit where the ratio of the mean free path lambda to the scale length of the magnetic field gradient L/sub B/ approaches zero, there is no significant difference between the solution of the new and conventional transport equations. However, conventional fluid equations, ordinarily expected to be correct to the order (lambda/L/sub B/) 2 , are found to have errors of order (lambda/L/sub u/) 2 = (lambda/L/sub B/) 2 /(1-M 2 ) 2 , where L/sub u/ is the scale length of the flow velocity gradient and M is the Mach number. As such, the conventional equations may contain large errors near the sound speed (Mroughly-equal1)

  17. Feeding supermassive black holes by collisional cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Christian; Dehnen, Walter

    2018-05-01

    The processes driving gas accretion on to supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are still poorly understood. Angular momentum conservation prevents gas within ˜10 pc of the black hole from reaching radii ˜10-3 pc where viscous accretion becomes efficient. Here we present simulations of the collapse of a clumpy shell of swept-up isothermal gas, which is assumed to have formed as a result of feedback from a previous episode of AGN activity. The gas falls towards the SMBH forming clumps and streams, which intersect, collide, and often form a disc. These collisions promote partial cancellations of angular momenta, resulting in further infall and more collisions. This continued collisional cascade generates a tail of gas with sufficiently small angular momenta and provides a viable route for gas inflow to sub-parsec scales. The efficiency of this process hardly depends on details, such as gas temperature, initial virial ratio and power spectrum of the gas distribution, as long as it is not strongly rotating. Adding star formation to this picture might explain the near-simultaneous formation of the S-stars (from tidally disrupted binaries formed in plunging gas streams) and the sub-parsec young stellar disc around Sgr A⋆.

  18. Streaming instabilities in a collisional dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A. A.; Shukla, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A pair of low-frequency electrostatic modes, which are very similar to those experimentally observed by Praburam and Goree [Phys. Plasmas 3, 1212 (1996)], are found to exist in a dusty plasma with a significant background neutral pressure and background ion streaming. One of these two modes is the dust-acoustic mode and the other one is a new mode which is due to the combined effects of the ion streaming and ion--neutral collisions. It has been shown that in the absence of the ion streaming, the dust-acoustic mode is damped due to the combined effects of the ion--neutral and dust--neutral collisions and the electron--ion recombination onto the dust grain surface. This result disagrees with Kaw and Singh [Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 423 (1997)], who reported collisional instability of the dust-acoustic mode in such a dusty plasma. It has also been found that a streaming instability with the growth rate of the order of the dust plasma frequency is triggered when the background ion streaming speed relative to the charged dust particles is comparable or higher than the ion--thermal speed. This point completely agrees with Rosenberg [J. Vac. Soc. Technol. A 14, 631 (1996)

  19. Modulational instability of electric helicons in a magnetized collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ashry, M.Y.; Papuashvili, N.A.

    1987-06-01

    The interaction of a rf electromagnetic wave with a magnetized collisional plasma in the ultra-relativistic case has been investigated to show the effect of the collisions on the modulational instability growth rate. (author). 5 refs

  20. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  1. The effect of collisionality and diamagnetism on the plasma dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, H.; Yagi, Y.; Hattori, K.; Hirano, Y.; Shimada, T.; Maejima, Y.; Hayase, K.; Almagri, A.F.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    Fluctuation-induced dynamo forces are measured over a wide range of electron collisionality in the edge of TPE-1RM20 Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). In the collisionless region the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo alone can sustain the parallel current, while in the collisional region a new dynamo mechanism resulting from the fluctuations in the electron diamagnetic drift becomes dominant. A comprehensive picture of the RFP dynamo emerges by combining with earlier results from MST and REPUTE RFPs

  2. Clocking Femtosecond Collisional Dynamics via Resonant X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, Q. Y.; Fernandez-Tello, E. V.; Burian, T.; Chalupský, J.; Chung, H.-K.; Ciricosta, O.; Dakovski, G. L.; Hájková, V.; Hollebon, P.; Juha, L.; Krzywinski, J.; Lee, R. W.; Minitti, M. P.; Preston, T. R.; de la Varga, A. G.; Vozda, V.; Zastrau, U.; Wark, J. S.; Velarde, P.; Vinko, S. M.

    2018-02-01

    Electron-ion collisional dynamics is of fundamental importance in determining plasma transport properties, nonequilibrium plasma evolution, and electron damage in diffraction imaging applications using bright x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs). Here we describe the first experimental measurements of ultrafast electron impact collisional ionization dynamics using resonant core-hole spectroscopy in a solid-density magnesium plasma, created and diagnosed with the Linac Coherent Light Source x-ray FEL. By resonantly pumping the 1 s →2 p transition in highly charged ions within an optically thin plasma, we have measured how off-resonance charge states are populated via collisional processes on femtosecond time scales. We present a collisional cross section model that matches our results and demonstrates how the cross sections are enhanced by dense-plasma effects including continuum lowering. Nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium collisional radiative simulations show excellent agreement with the experimental results and provide new insight on collisional ionization and three-body-recombination processes in the dense-plasma regime.

  3. Collisional drift fluids and drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, D.; Correa-Restrepo, D.

    1995-05-01

    The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effect of which is extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter is important as concerns charge separation and resulting electric fields which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial for the stability behaviour; it will be discussed via an example. New collisional multispecies drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields in a transparent way conservation of energy and total angular momentum, and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. Their relation to the ideal equations imply, however, also a relation to the ideal Lagrangian of which one can take advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T ν (x)=const. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theories; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. Linear instability is investigated via energy considerations and the implications of taking ohmic resistivity into account are discussed. (orig./WL)

  4. Collisional activation by the fast particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenzo

    1996-01-01

    Collisional activation of the matter induced by the bombardment of the fast particle is summarized. The particle with the velocity higher than the Bohr velocity (transit time through 5A shorter than 2.5x10 -16 s) experiences the electronic stopping power when it passes through the matter and induces dense electronic excitations and ionizations which results in the heavy sputtering of the matter. This kind of activation is usefully applied in the PDMS. When the particle velocity becomes lower than the Bohr velocity, the energy is mainly deposited to the matter by the nuclear stopping power, i.e., energy loss is governed by the screened Coulombic collisions of the atoms giving rise to the momentum transfer to the target nuclei. When the transit time of the particle through 5A is between 2.5x10 -16 -10 -14 s, the electronic excitation and ionization take place by the collision. These phenomena are fully utilized in the FAB/SIMS and CID techniques. With the transit time in the range of 10 -14 -2.5x10 -13 s, the velocity is not high enough for the electronic excitation and the particle loses its energy mainly by the vibrational and phonon excitation of the target. This range of the velocity corresponds to that of the massive cluster impact ionization. With the velocity equal to or lower than 2.5x10 -13 s, the energy of the incident particle is consumed mainly by the phonon excitation and the collision results in the modest heating of the colliding interface between the projectile and the target. This range of the velocity is successfully used in the ionized cluster beam technique developed by Takagi of the Kyoto University. (author). 59 refs

  5. Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drunen, Wouter Johannes van

    2008-07-07

    In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2]{sub 2} and the 3s'[1/2]{sub 0} metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m{sub J} = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10{sup -7}. After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10{sup 6} atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10{sup -5}. Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the {sup 3}D{sub 3} line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state for both bosonic isotopes {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne. For {sup 20}Ne we obtained {beta}=6{sup +5}{sub

  6. Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drunen, Wouter Johannes van

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2] 2 and the 3s'[1/2] 0 metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m J = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10 11 cm -3 , and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10 -7 . After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10 6 atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10 10 cm -3 were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10 -5 . Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the 3 D 3 line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the 3 P 0 metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the 3 P 0 metastable state for both bosonic isotopes 20 Ne and 22 Ne. For 20 Ne we obtained β=6 +5 -4 .10 -10 cm 3 /s and for 22 Ne β = 11 +7 -6 .10 -10 cm 3 /s. (orig.)

  7. Asteroid collisional history - Effects on sizes and spins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.R.; Weidenschilling, S.J.; Farinella, P.; Paolicchi, P.; Binzel, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of asteroid collisional history on sizes and spins of present-day objects are discussed. Collisional evolution studies indicate that collisions have altered the spin-rates of small bodies, but that the largest asteroids may have retained their primordial rotation rates. Most asteroids larger than 100 km diam have probably been shattered, but have gravitationally recaptured their fragments to form a rubble-pile structure. Large angular momentum asteroids appear to have Maclaurian spheroidal or Jacobi-ellipsoid-like shapes; some of them may have fissioned into binaries. An integrated size and spin collisional evolution model is presented, with two critical parameters: one which determines the spin rates for small fragments resulting from a shattering collision, and the other determines the fraction of impact angular momentum that is retained by the target. 36 refs

  8. Collisional damping of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, S.; Gokalp, A.; Yilmaz, O.; Ayik, S.

    2001-01-01

    Collisional damping widths of giant monopole and quadrupole excitations for 120 Sn and 208 Pb at zero and finite temperatures are calculated within Thomas-Fermi approximation by employing the microscopic in-medium cross-sections of Li and Machleidt and the phenomenological Skyrme and Gogny forces, and are compared with each other. The results for the collisional widths of giant monopole and quadrupole vibrations at zero temperature as a function of the mass number show that the collisional damping of giant monopole vibrations accounts for about 30 - 40% of the observed widths at zero temperature, while for giant quadrupole vibrations it accounts for only 20 - 30% of the observed widths at zero temperature. (orig.)

  9. Collisional redistribution effects on x-ray laser saturation behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.J.; Lee, R.W.; London, R.A.; Mrowka, S.; Underwood, J.H.; Batson, P.J.

    1994-06-01

    We recently published a detailed summary of our experimental and theoretical research on Ne-like Se x-ray laser line widths, and one of our conclusions was that collisional redistribution rates are likely to have an effect on the saturation behavior of the 206.4 angstrom Se x-ray laser. In this paper we focus on the effects of collisional redistribution on x-ray laser gain coefficients, and discuss ways of including these effects in existing laser line- transfer models

  10. Collisional drift waves in the H-mode edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.

    1994-01-01

    The stability of the collisional drift wave in a sheared slab geometry is found to be severely restricted at the H-mode edge plasma due to the very steep density gradient. However, a radially varying transverse velocity field is found to play the key role in stability. Velocity profiles usually found in the H-mode plasma stabilize drift waves. On the other hand, velocity profiles corresponding to the L-mode render collisional drift waves unstable even though the magnetic shear continues to play its stabilizing role. (author). 24 refs

  11. Asteroid families - Physical properties and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, C.R.; Paolicchi, P.; Zappala, V.; Binzel, R.P.; Bell, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    Asteroid families are considered to be fragments from collisional destruction of precursor bodies. However, results available on the inferred mineralogy, size distributions, and spins of family members do not confirm the expectations of the traditional model. Only a handful of nearly 100 proposed families, most of them populous, have distributions of inferred mineralogies consistent with simple cosmochemical models for parent bodies. It is suggested that most catastrophic collisions may not result in observable families, but rather in a spray of smaller particles, thus accounting for the small number of confirmed and consistent families, despite evidence for extensive collisional evolution of asteroids. 52 refs

  12. Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.

    2012-01-01

    The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.

  13. Drift wave dispersion relation for arbitrarily collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Justin R.; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The standard local linear analysis of drift waves in a plasma slab is generalized to be valid for arbitrarily collisional electrons by considering the electrons to be governed by the drift-kinetic equation with a BGK-like (Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook) collision operator. The obtained dispersion relation reduces to that found from collisionless kinetic theory when the collision frequency is zero. Electron temperature fluctuations must be retained in the standard fluid analysis in order to obtain good quantitative agreement with our general solution in the highly collisional limit. Any discrepancies between the fluid solution and our general solution in this limit are attributed to the limitations of the BGK collision operator. The maximum growth rates in both the collisional and collisionless limits are comparable and are both on the order of the fundamental drift wave frequency. The main role of the destabilizing mechanism is found to be in determining the parallel wave number at which the maximum growth rate will occur. The parallel wave number corresponding to the maximum growth rate is set by the wave-particle resonance condition in the collisionless limit and transitions to being set by the real frequency being on the order of the rate for electrons to diffuse a parallel wavelength in the collisional limit.

  14. Weakly nonlinear electron plasma waves in collisional plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecseli, H. L.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Tagare, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of a high frequency plasma wave in a weakly magnetized, collisional plasma is considered. In addition to the ponderomotive-force-nonlinearity the nonlinearity due to the heating of the electrons is taken into account. A set of nonlinear equations including the effect...

  15. Charging properties of a dust grain in collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khrapak, S.A.; Morfill, G.E.; Khrapak, A.G.; D'yachkov, L.G.

    2006-01-01

    Charging related properties of a small spherical grain immersed in a collisional plasma are investigated. Asymptotic expressions for charging fluxes, grain surface potential, long range electrostatic potential, and the properties of grain charge fluctuations due to the discrete nature of the charging process are obtained. These analytical results are in reasonable agreement with the available results of numerical modeling

  16. The limits of the Bohm criterion in collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentini, H.-B.; Kaiser, D.

    2015-01-01

    The sheath formation within a low-pressure collisional plasma is analysed by means of a two-fluid model. The Bohm criterion takes into account the effects of the electric field and the inertia of the ions. Numerical results yield that these effects contribute to the space charge formation, only, if the collisionality is lower than a relatively small threshold. It follows that a lower and an upper limit of the drift speed of the ions exist where the effects treated by Bohm can form a sheath. This interval becomes narrower as the collisionality increases and vanishes at the mentioned threshold. Above the threshold, the sheath is mainly created by collisions and the ionisation. Under these conditions, the sheath formation cannot be described by means of Bohm like criteria. In a few references, a so-called upper limit of the Bohm criterion is stated for collisional plasmas where the momentum equation of the ions is taken into account, only. However, the present paper shows that this limit results in an unrealistically steep increase of the space charge density towards the wall, and, therefore, it yields no useful limit of the Bohm velocity

  17. Collisional absorption of two laser beams in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohan, M.; Acharya, R.

    1977-04-01

    The collisional absorption of two laser beams is considered by solving the kinetic equation for the plasma electron. Results show that the simultaneous effect of two laser beams on the heating rate is greater as compared with the individual contribution of each laser beam when the two laser beams have a difference of frequencies equal to the plasma frequency

  18. A Collisional Database and Web Service within the Virtual Atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MOL-D database is a collection of cross-sections and rate coefficients for specific collisional processes and a web service within the Serbian Virtual Observatory ... Hydrogen and helium molecular ion data are important for calculation of solar and stellar atmosphere models and for radiative transport, as well as for kinetics of ...

  19. Diagram of collisional regimes for particle diffusion in a stochastic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misguich, J.H.; Balescu, R.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with static stochastic fields, where magnetic lines experience exponential separation and magnetic diffusion. It more particularly focuses on the diffusivity of collisional particles in such a fields and presents a general graph which describes most regimes of collisional and weakly collisional diffusion for guiding centers in a time-independent magnetic field. (TEC). 9 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Collisional shifts in optical-lattice atom clocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Band, Y. B.; Vardi, A.

    2006-01-01

    We theoretically study the effects of elastic collisions on the determination of frequency standards via Ramsey-fringe spectroscopy in optical-lattice atom clocks. Interparticle interactions of bosonic atoms in multiply occupied lattice sites can cause a linear frequency shift, as well as generate asymmetric Ramsey-fringe patterns and reduce fringe visibility due to interparticle entanglement. We propose a method of reducing these collisional effects in an optical lattice by introducing a phase difference of π between the Ramsey driving fields in adjacent sites. This configuration suppresses site-to-site hopping due to interference of two tunneling pathways, without degrading fringe visibility. Consequently, the probability of double occupancy is reduced, leading to cancellation of collisional shifts

  1. Physics of Collisional Plasmas Introduction to High-Frequency Discharges

    CERN Document Server

    Moisan, Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Physics of Collisional Plasmas deals with the plasma physics of interest to laboratory research and industrial applications, such as lighting, fabrication of microelectronics, destruction of greenhouse gases. Its emphasis is on explaining the physical mechanisms, rather than the detailed mathematical description and theoretical analysis. At the introductory level, it is important to convey the characteristic physical phenomena of plasmas, before addressing the ultimate formalism of kinetic theory, with its microscopic, statistical mechanics approach. To this aim, this text translates the physical phenomena into more tractable equations, using the hydrodynamic model; this considers the plasma as a fluid, in which the macroscopic physical parameters are the statistical averages of the microscopic (individual) parameters. This book is an introduction to the physics of collisional plasmas, as opposed to plasmas in space. It is intended for graduate students in physics and engineering . The first chapter intr...

  2. Collisional dynamics of perturbed particle disks in the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. W.; Stewart, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    Investigations of the collisional evolution of particulate disks subject to the gravitational perturbation of a more massive particle orbiting within the disk are underway. Both numerical N-body simulations using a novel collision algorithm and analytical kinetic theory are being employed to extend our understanding of perturbed disks in planetary rings and during the formation of the solar system. Particular problems proposed for investigation are: (1) The development and testing of general criteria for a small moonlet to clear a gap and produce observable morphological features in planetary rings; (2) The development of detailed models of collisional damping of the wavy edges observed on the Encke division of Saturn's A ring; and (3) The determination of the extent of runaway growth of the few largest planetesimals during the early stages of planetary accretion.

  3. ADAS tools for collisional-radiative modelling of molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, F.; O'Mullane, M.; Summers, H. P.

    2013-07-01

    New theoretical and computational tools for molecular collisional-radiative models are presented. An application to the hydrogen molecule system has been made. At the same time, a structured database has been created where fundamental cross sections and rates for individual processes as well as derived data (effective coefficients) are stored. Relative populations for the vibrational states of the ground electronic state of H2 are presented and this vibronic resolution model is compared electronic resolution where vibronic transitions are summed over vibrational sub-states. Some new reaction rates are calculated by means of the impact parameter approximation. Computational tools have been developed to automate process and simplify the data assembly. Effective (collisional-radiative) rate coefficients versus temperature and density are presented.

  4. Double layers in a modestly collisional electronegative discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Sheridan, T E

    1999-01-01

    The effect of ion-neutral collisions on the structure and ion flux emanating from a steady-state, planar discharge with two negative components is investigated. The positive ion component is modelled as a cold fluid subject to constant-mobility collisions, while the electrons and negative ions obey Boltzmann relations. The model includes the collisionless limit. When the negative ions are sufficiently cold three types of discharge structures are found. For small negative ion concentrations or high collisionality, the discharge is 'stratified', with an electronegative core and an electropositive edge. For the opposite conditions, the discharge is 'uniform' with the negative ion density remaining significant at the edge of the plasma. Between these cases lies the special case of a double-layer-stratified discharge, where quasi-neutrality is violated at the edge of the electronegative core. Double-layer-stratified solutions are robust in that they persist for moderate collisionality. Numerical solutions for fini...

  5. Collisional-electron detachment of Cl- on diatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annis, B.K.; Datz, S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent experimental results for collisional-electron detachment of Cl - by H 2 /D 2 , N 2 , O 2 , NO, and CO are discussed. The emphasis is on angular distributions and energy loss measurements for laboratory energies of a few hundred eV. Evidence for the possibility of bound excited states of N 2 Cl and COCl and the role of target negative-ion resonant states is presented

  6. SCROLL, a superconfiguration collisional radiative model with external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Shalom, A.; Oreg, J.; Klapisch, M.

    2000-01-01

    A collisional radiative model for calculating non-local thermodynamical-equilibrium (non-LTE) spectra of heavy atoms in hot plasmas has been developed. It takes into account the numerous excited an autoionizing states by using superconfigurations. These are split systematically until the populations converge. The influence of an impinging radiation field has recently been added to the model. The effect can be very important. (author)

  7. Laser spectroscopy of collisionally prepared target species: atomic caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, J.-P.; Tremblay, Julien; Knystautas, E.J.; Laperriere, S.C.; Larzilliere, Michel

    1989-01-01

    Fast ion beam bombardment was used to collisionally prepare a target gas in excited states, to which conventional laser spectroscopy was then applied. The versatility of this method is demonstrated with atomic targets of caesium, for a state of Cs + that is 16 eV above the ground state, as well as for a short-lived state (38 ns) of the neutral atom. The local temperature in the caesium oven is also obtained. (Author)

  8. Energizing and depletion of neutrals by a collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchtman, A

    2008-01-01

    Neutral depletion can significantly affect the steady state of low temperature plasmas. Recent theoretical analyses predicted previously unexpected effects of neutral depletion in both collisional and collisionless regimes. In this paper we address the effect of the energy deposited in the neutral gas by a collisional plasma. The fraction of power deposited in the neutrals is shown to be independent of the amount of power. The first case we address is of a thermalized neutral gas. It is shown that a low heat conductivity of the neutral gas is followed by a high neutral temperature that results in a high neutral depletion even if the plasma pressure is small. In the second case neutrals are accelerated through charge exchange with ions leading to what we call neutral pumping, which is equivalent to ion pumping in a collisionless plasma. Neutral depletion is found in the second case for both a closed system (no net mass flow) and an open system (a finite mass flow). A thruster that employs a collisional plasma and pumped neutrals is compared with the thruster analyzed before that employs collisionless plasma.

  9. Self-consistent electron transport in collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    A self-consistent scheme has been developed to model electron transport in evolving plasmas of arbitrary classical collisionality. The electrons and ions are treated as either multiple donor-cell fluids, or collisional particles-in-cell. Particle suprathermal electrons scatter off ions, and drag against fluid background thermal electrons. The background electrons undergo ion friction, thermal coupling, and bremsstrahlung. The components move in self-consistent advanced E-fields, obtained by the Implicit Moment Method, which permits Δt >> ω/sub p/ -1 and Δx >> lambda/sub D/ - offering a 10 2 - 10 3 -fold speed-up over older explicit techniques. The fluid description for the background plasma components permits the modeling of transport in systems spanning more than a 10 7 -fold change in density, and encompassing contiguous collisional and collisionless regions. Results are presented from application of the scheme to the modeling of CO 2 laser-generated suprathermal electron transport in expanding thin foils, and in multi-foil target configurations

  10. Collisional fragmentation of asteroids and its implication on the physical properties of Near-Earth Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P.

    Collisions are at the origin of catastrophic disruptions in the asteroid Main Belt. This is witnessed by the observation of asteroid families, each composed of asteroids which originated from a single parent body, broken-up by a collision with another asteroid. Understanding the collisional process and its outcome properties is not only necessary in order to study the collisional evolution of small body population or the planetary formation, it is also strongly required in the context of mitigation strategies aimed at deviating a threatening asteroid. In the last three years, for the first time we have successfully performed numerical simulations of high speed collisions between small bodies which account for the production of gravitationally reaccumulated bodies. More precisely, we have developped a procedure which divides the process into two phases. Using a 3D SPH hydrocode, the fragmentation of the solid target through crack propagation is first computed. Then the simulation of the gravitational evolution and possible piecewise reaccumulation of the parent body is performed using the parallel N-body code pkdgrav. Our first simulations using monolithic parent bodies have succeeded in reproducing fundamental properties of some well-identified asteroid families, showing that gravitational re-accumulations following disruptive collisions are the key process accounting for the existence of asteroid families. Then, we have investigated the effect of the internal structure of the parent body on the outcome properties. We have thus shown that family parent bodies are likely to have already been pre-shattered by small impacts before being disrupted by a major event. We then suggested that the most likely internal structure of large asteroids in the main belt is not monolithic but rather composed of macroscopic fractures and voids. We will make a review of these simulations in three different impact regimes, from highly catastrophic to barely disruptive. In particular we

  11. Collisional width of giant resonances and interplay with Landau damping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonasera, A.; Burgio, G.F.; Di Toro, M.; Wolter, H.H.

    1989-01-01

    We present a semiclassical method to calculate the widths of giant resonances. We solve a mean-field kinetic equation (Vlasov equation) with collision terms treated within the relaxation time approximation to construct a damped strength distribution for collective motions. The relaxation time is evaluated from the time evolution of distortions in the nucleon momentum distribution using a test-particle approach. The importance of an energy dependent nucleon-nucleon cross section is stressed. Results are shown for isoscalar giant quadrupole and octupole motions. A quite important interplay between self-consistent (Landau) and collisional damping is revealed

  12. Measurement of the Transverse Spitzer Resistivity during Collisional Magnetic Reconnection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trintchouk, F.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.; Kulsrud, R.M.; Carter, T.A.

    2000-01-01

    Measurement of the transverse resistivity was carried out in a reconnecting current sheet where the mean free path for the Coulomb collision is smaller than the thickness of the sheet. In a collisional neutral sheet without a guide field, the transverse resistivity is directly related to the reconnection rate. A remarkable agreement is found between the measured resistivity and the classical value derived by L. Spitzer. In his calculation the transverse resistivity for the electrons is higher than the parallel resistivity by a factor of 1.96. The measured values have verified this theory to within 30% errors

  13. Ions cross-B collisional diffusion and electromagnetic wave scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomchuk, B.P.; Gresillon, D.

    2000-01-01

    The calculation is presented of the averaged quadratic displacement of a collisional charged particle in a magnetic field. This calculation is used to obtain the statistical presentation of the electromagnetic field scattered by these particles. These results extend the previous calculations that were restricted to non-magnetized particles (Ornstein equation, Einstein diffusion, etc.). In addition this calculation foresees effects that are absent of the Ornstein equation: a modulation of the averaged quadratic displacement function at the cyclotron frequency and a maximum of the Cross-B diffusion coefficient when the cyclotron frequency is equal to the collision frequency (Bohm diffusion)

  14. Collisional effects in He I lines and helium abundances in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clegg, R.E.S.

    1987-01-01

    Attention is drawn to new, 19-state quantal calculations for collisional excitation by electron impact in neutral helium. Recommended empirical formulae are given for the collisional contribution to HeI recombination lines such as λλ4471, 5876 A in gaseous nebulae. Collisional ionization of metastable (2 3 S) He I is significant for high-temperature nebulae. Collisional transfers provide significant cooling in nebulae with low heavy-element abundances. Revised mean He/H ratios for three large samples of planetary nebulae are given. (author)

  15. Nonlinear transport processes in tokamak plasmas. I. The collisional regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonnino, Giorgio; Peeters, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear ('Onsager') transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for Joint European Torus (JET) plasmas are also reported. It is found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor that may be of the order 10 2 . The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor that may be of order 2. For JET, the discrepancy between experimental and theoretical results for the electron losses is therefore significantly reduced by a factor 10 2 when the nonlinear contributions are duly taken into account but, there is still a factor of 10 2 to be explained. This is most likely due to turbulence. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain unaltered. The low-collisional regimes, i.e., the plateau and the banana regimes, are analyzed in the second part of this work

  16. GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesvold, Erika R. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland Baltimore County 1000 Hilltop Circle Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Kuchner, Marc J., E-mail: Erika.Nesvold@umbc.edu, E-mail: Marc.Kuchner@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Code 667 Greenbelt, MD 21230 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t {sub coll} of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t {sub coll}){sup –0.04}, with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M {sub Jup}. We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris.

  17. Collisional-radiative model: a plasma spectroscopy theory for experimentalists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan); Sawada, Keiji

    1997-01-01

    The rate equation describing the population n(p) of an excited (and the ground state) level p of ions immersed in plasma is shown. In 1962, the method of quasi-steady state solution (collisional-radiative model) was proposed. Its idea is explained. The coupled differential equations reduce to a set of coupled linear equations for excited levels. The solution of these coupled equations is presented. The equations giving the ionization and recombination of this system of ions under consideration are described in terms of the effective rate coefficients. The collisional-radiative ionization and recombination rate coefficients are expressed in terms of the population coefficients for p > 1. As for ionizing plasma, the excited level populations, the populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, two regimes of the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons among the levels and so on are shown. As for recombining plasma, the excited level populations, the population distribution among the excited levels, the dominant flows of electrons and so on are shown. Ionization balance plasma may be considered. (K.I.)

  18. GAP CLEARING BY PLANETS IN A COLLISIONAL DEBRIS DISK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesvold, Erika R.; Kuchner, Marc J.

    2015-01-01

    We apply our 3D debris disk model, SMACK, to simulate a planet on a circular orbit near a ring of planetesimals that are experiencing destructive collisions. Previous simulations of a planet opening a gap in a collisionless debris disk have found that the width of the gap scales as the planet mass to the 2/7th power (α = 2/7). We find that gap sizes in a collisional disk still obey a power law scaling with planet mass, but that the index α of the power law depends on the age of the system t relative to the collisional timescale t coll of the disk by α = 0.32(t/t coll ) –0.04 , with inferred planet masses up to five times smaller than those predicted by the classical gap law. The increased gap sizes likely stem from the interaction between collisions and the mean motion resonances near the chaotic zone. We investigate the effects of the initial eccentricity distribution of the disk particles and find a negligible effect on the gap size at Jovian planet masses, since collisions tend to erase memory of the initial particle eccentricity distributions. Finally, we find that the presence of Trojan analogs is a potentially powerful diagnostic of planets in the mass range ∼1-10 M Jup . We apply our model to place new upper limits on planets around Fomalhaut, HR 4796 A, HD 202628, HD 181327, and β Pictoris

  19. Theory of the collisional presheath in an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riemann, K.

    1994-01-01

    In the limit of a small Debye length (λ D →0), the plasma boundary layer in front of a negative absorbing wall is split up into a collision-free planar space charge sheath and a quasineutral presheath, where the ions are accelerated to ion sound speed (Bohm criterion). Usually the presheath mechanism depends decisively on collisional friction of the ions, on ionization, or on geometric ion current concentration. If the ion dynamics in the presheath is dominated by a magnetic field (nearly) parallel to the wall, an additional effect must be considered to provide an ion transport to the wall. The special cases (a) of an ion transport by field lines intersecting the wall at a finite angle and (b) of an ion transport by collisions result in somewhat contradictory conclusions. To get a coherent picture, a hydrodynamic model of the presheath is investigated accounting for an oblique magnetic field and for collisions. The limiting cases (a) and (b) are discussed, and it is shown that (in plane geometry) the presheath ion acceleration depends always on elementary processes. The main effect of a strong magnetic field is to ''compress'' the collisional presheath into a thin layer with a characteristic extension of the ion gyroradius ρ i

  20. Generation of Suprathermal Electrons by Collective Processes in Collisional Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigik, S. F.; Ziebell, L. F.; Yoon, P. H.

    2017-11-01

    The ubiquity of high-energy tails in the charged particle velocity distribution functions (VDFs) observed in space plasmas suggests the existence of an underlying process responsible for taking a fraction of the charged particle population out of thermal equilibrium and redistributing it to suprathermal velocity and energy ranges. The present Letter focuses on a new and fundamental physical explanation for the origin of suprathermal electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in a collisional plasma. This process involves a newly discovered electrostatic bremsstrahlung (EB) emission that is effective in a plasma in which binary collisions are present. The steady-state EVDF dictated by such a process corresponds to a Maxwellian core plus a quasi-inverse power-law tail, which is a feature commonly observed in many space plasma environments. In order to demonstrate this, the system of self-consistent particle- and wave-kinetic equations are numerically solved with an initially Maxwellian EVDF and Langmuir wave spectral intensity, which is a state that does not reflect the presence of EB process, and hence not in force balance. The EB term subsequently drives the system to a new force-balanced steady state. After a long integration period it is demonstrated that the initial Langmuir fluctuation spectrum is modified, which in turn distorts the initial Maxwellian EVDF into a VDF that resembles the said core-suprathermal VDF. Such a mechanism may thus be operative at the coronal source region, which is characterized by high collisionality.

  1. Reduction of collisional-radiative models for transient, atomic plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Richard June; Karagozian, Ann; Bilyeu, David; Le, Hai

    2017-10-01

    Interactions between plasmas and any radiation field, whether by lasers or plasma emissions, introduce many computational challenges. One of these computational challenges involves resolving the atomic physics, which can influence other physical phenomena in the radiated system. In this work, a collisional-radiative (CR) model with reduction capabilities is developed to capture the atomic physics at a reduced computational cost. Although the model is made with any element in mind, the model is currently supplemented by LANL's argon database, which includes the relevant collisional and radiative processes for all of the ionic stages. Using the detailed data set as the true solution, reduction mechanisms in the form of Boltzmann grouping, uniform grouping, and quasi-steady-state (QSS), are implemented to compare against the true solution. Effects on the transient plasma stemming from the grouping methods are compared. Distribution A: Approved for public release; unlimited distribution, PA (Public Affairs) Clearance Number 17449. This work was supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR), Grant Number 17RQCOR463 (Dr. Jason Marshall).

  2. A new 6-part collisional model of the Main Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broz, Miroslav; Cibulkova, H.

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we constructed a new model for the collisional evolution of the Main Asteroid Belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law from the work of Benz & Asphaug (1999) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt, and to verify if the number of asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulated mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified Boulder code (Morbidelli et al., 2009), in which the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations from the work of Durda et al. (2007) are included. Because material characteristics can affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles (Benavidez et al., 2012). To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D = 1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (parent body size of the order of 1 km). The work of MB was supported by grant GACR 13-013085 of the Czech Science Foundation and the Research Programme MSM0021620860 of the Czech Ministry of Education.

  3. Oxygen auroral transition laser system excited by collisional and photolytic energy transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, J.R.; Powell, H.T.; Rhodes, C.K.

    1975-06-01

    The properties of laser media involving the auroral transition of atomic oxygen and analogous systems are examined. A discussion of the atomic properties, collisional mechanisms, excitation processes, and collisionally induced radiative phenomena is given. Crossing phenomena play a particularly important role in governing the dynamics of the medium

  4. Transient events in bright debris discs: Collisional avalanches revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, P.; Kral, Q.

    2018-01-01

    Context. A collisional avalanche is set off by the breakup of a large planetesimal, releasing vast amounts of small unbound grains that enter a debris disc located further away from the star, triggering there a collisional chain reaction that could potentially create detectable transient structures. Aims: We investigate this mechanism, using for the first time a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamical and collisional evolutions. We also quantify for the first time the photometric evolution of the system and investigate whether or not avalanches could explain the short-term luminosity variations recently observed in some extremely bright debris discs. Methods: We use the state-of-the-art LIDT-DD code. We consider an avalanche-favoring A6V star, and two set-ups: a "cold disc" case, with a dust release at 10 au and an outer disc extending from 50 to 120 au, and a "warm disc" case with the release at 1 au and a 5-12 au outer disc. We explore, in addition, two key parameters: the density (parameterized by its optical depth τ) of the main outer disc and the amount of dust released by the initial breakup. Results: We find that avalanches could leave detectable structures on resolved images, for both "cold" and "warm" disc cases, in discs with τ of a few 10-3, provided that large dust masses (≳1020-5 × 1022 g) are initially released. The integrated photometric excess due to an avalanche is relatively limited, less than 10% for these released dust masses, peaking in the λ 10-20 μm domain and becoming insignificant beyond 40-50 μm. Contrary to earlier studies, we do not obtain stronger avalanches when increasing τ to higher values. Likewise, we do not observe a significant luminosity deficit, as compared to the pre-avalanche level, after the passage of the avalanche. These two results concur to make avalanches an unlikely explanation for the sharp luminosity drops observed in some extremely bright debris discs. The ideal configuration for observing an

  5. Collisional excitation transfer between Rb(5P) states in 50–3000 Torr of 4He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sell, J F; Gearba, M A; Patterson, B M; Byrne, D; Jemo, G; Meeter, R; Knize, R J; Lilly, T C

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the mixing rates and cross sections for collisional excitation transfer between the 5P 1/2 and 5P 3/2 states of rubidium (Rb) in the presence of 4 He buffer gas are presented. Selected pulses from a high repetition rate, mode-locked femtosecond laser are used to excite either Rb state with the fluorescence due to collisional excitation transfer observed by time-correlated single-photon counting. The time dependence of this fluorescence is fitted to the solution of rate equations which include the mixing rate, atomic lifetimes and any quenching processes. The variation in the mixing rate over a large range of buffer gas densities allows the determination of both the binary collisional transfer cross section and a three-body collisional transfer rate. We do not observe any collisional quenching effects at 4 He pressures up to 6 atm and discuss in detail other systematic effects considered in the experiment. (paper)

  6. Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu; Krasheninnikov, Sergei I., E-mail: skrash@mae.ucsd.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Angus, J. R. [Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.

  7. A collisional-radiative average atom model for hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsnyai, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    A collisional-radiative 'average atom' (AA) model is presented for the calculation of opacities of hot plasmas not in the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The electron impact and radiative rate constants are calculated using the dipole oscillator strengths of the average atom. A key element of the model is the photon escape probability which at present is calculated for a semi infinite slab. The Fermi statistics renders the rate equation for the AA level occupancies nonlinear, which requires iterations until the steady state. AA level occupancies are found. Detailed electronic configurations are built into the model after the self-consistent non-LTE AA state is found. The model shows a continuous transition from the non-LTE to the LTE state depending on the optical thickness of the plasma. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  8. Species separation and kinetic effects in collisional plasma shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellei, C., E-mail: bellei1@llnl.gov; Wilks, S. C.; Amendt, P. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Rinderknecht, H.; Zylstra, A.; Rosenberg, M.; Sio, H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The properties of collisional shock waves propagating in uniform plasmas are studied with ion-kinetic calculations, in both slab and spherical geometry and for the case of one and two ion species. Despite the presence of an electric field at the shock front—and in contrast to the case where an interface is initially present [C. Bellei et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 044702 (2013)]—essentially no ion reflection at the shock front is observed due to collisions, with a probability of reflection ≲10{sup −4} for the cases presented. A kinetic two-ion-species spherical convergent shock is studied in detail and compared against an average-species calculation, confirming effects of species separation and differential heating of the ion species at the shock front. The effect of different ion temperatures on the DT and D{sup 3}He fusion reactivity is discussed in the fluid limit and is estimated to be moderately important.

  9. Dynamics of collisional particles in a fluctuating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spineanu, F.; Vlad, M.

    1995-01-01

    The equations of motion of a test particle in a stochastic magnetic field and interacting through collisions with a plasma are Langevin-type equations. Under reasonable assumptions on the statistical properties of the random processes (field and collisional velocity fluctuations), we perform an analytical calculation of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of the particle. The basic nonlinearity in the problem (Lagrangian argument of the random field) yields complicated averages, which we carry out using a functional formalism. The result is expressed as a series, and we find the conditions for its convergence, i.e. the limits of validity of our approach (essentially, we must restrict attention to non-chaotic regimes). Further, employing realistic bounds (spectral cut-off and limited time of observation), we derive an explicit formula for the MSD. We show that from this unique expression, we can obtain several previously known results. (author)

  10. LAD Dissertation Prize Talk: Molecular Collisional Excitation in Astrophysical Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle M.

    2017-06-01

    While molecular excitation calculations are vital in determining particle velocity distributions, internal state distributions, abundances, and ionization balance in gaseous environments, both theoretical calculations and experimental data for these processes are lacking. Reliable molecular collisional data with the most abundant species - H2, H, He, and electrons - are needed to probe material in astrophysical environments such as nebulae, molecular clouds, comets, and planetary atmospheres. However, excitation calculations with the main collider, H2, are computationally expensive and therefore various approximations are used to obtain unknown rate coefficients. The widely-accepted collider-mass scaling approach is flawed, and alternate scaling techniques based on physical and mathematical principles are presented here. The most up-to-date excitation data are used to model the chemical evolution of primordial species in the Recombination Era and produce accurate non-thermal spectra of the molecules H2+, HD, and H2 in a primordial cloud as it collapses into a first generation star.

  11. Modern methods in collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a compact yet comprehensive overview of recent developments in collisional-radiative (CR) modeling of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. It describes advances across the entire field, from basic considerations of model completeness to validation and verification of CR models to calculation of plasma kinetic characteristics and spectra in diverse plasmas. Various approaches to CR modeling are presented, together with numerous examples of applications. A number of important topics, such as atomic models for CR modeling, atomic data and its availability and quality, radiation transport, non-Maxwellian effects on plasma emission, ionization potential lowering, and verification and validation of CR models, are thoroughly addressed. Strong emphasis is placed on the most recent developments in the field, such as XFEL spectroscopy. Written by leading international research scientists from a number of key laboratories, the book offers a timely summary of the most recent progress in this area. It ...

  12. Resonant absorption of radar waves by a magnetized collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Aiping; Tong Honghui; Shen Liru; Tang Deli; Qiu Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of radar waves in a magnetized collisional plasma slab is studied numerically. It is found for uniform plasma that: first, the wave attenuation and absorbed power show a peak value, i.e., resonant absorption when the collision frequency f en = 0.1, 0.5, 1 GHz and the wave frequency nears upper hybrid frequency. Secondly, the attenuation, absorbed, and transmitted power curves become flat at f en = 5, 10 Ghz. thirdly, the attenuation and absorbed power increase with plasma density, and the attenuation and the proportion of absorbed power can reach 100 dB and 80%, respectively, at the plasma density n = 10 11 cm -3 . For nonuniform plasma, the peak value of reflected power is larger than that in uniform plasma. So, uniform magnetized plasma is of more benefit to plasma cloaking

  13. Energy-dependent collisional deactivation of vibrationally excited azulene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.; Barker, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Collisional energy transfer parameters for highly vibrationally excited azulene have been deduced from new infrared fluorescence (IRF) emission lifetime data with an improved calibration relating IRF intensity to vibrational energy [J. Shi, D. Bernfeld, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 88, XXXX (1988), preceding paper]. In addition, data from previous experiments [M. J. Rossi, J. R. Pladziewicz, and J. R. Barker, J. Chem. Phys. 78, 6695 (1983)] have been reanalyzed based on the improved calibration. Inversion of the IRF decay curves produced plots of energy decay, which were analyzed to determine , the average energy transferred per collision. Master equation simulations reproduced both the original IRF decays and the deduced energy decays. A third (simple) method of determination agrees well with the other two. The results show to be nearly directly proportional to the vibrational energy of the excited azulene from ∼8000 to 33 000 cm -1 . At high energies, there are indications that the energy dependence may be slightly reduced

  14. A collisional model for plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, V.; Lieberman, M.A.; Alves, M.V.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1990-01-01

    In plasma immersion ion implantation, a target is immersed in a plasma and a series of negative short pulses are applied to it to implant the ions. A new analytical model is being developed for the high pressure regimes in which the motion of the ions is highly collisional. The model provides values for ion flux, average ion velocity at the target, and sheath edge motion as a function of time. These values are being compared with those obtained from simulation and show good agreement. A review is also given (for comparison) of the earlier work done at low pressures, where the motion of ions in the sheath is collisionless, also showing good agreement between analysis and simulation. The simulation code is PDP1 which utilizes particle-in-cell techniques plus Monte-Carlo simulation of electron-neutral (elastic, excitation and ionization) and ion-neutral (scattering and charge-exchange) collisions

  15. Highly Resolved Measurements of a Developing Strong Collisional Plasma Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Hans G.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, J. S.; Amendt, P. A.; Higginson, D. P.; Wilks, S. C.; Haberberger, D.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Hoffman, N. M.; Kagan, G.; Keenan, B. D.; Vold, E. L.

    2018-03-01

    The structure of a strong collisional shock front forming in a plasma is directly probed for the first time in laser-driven gas-jet experiments. Thomson scattering of a 526.5 nm probe beam was used to diagnose temperature and ion velocity distribution in a strong shock (M ˜11 ) propagating through a low-density (ρ ˜0.01 mg /cc ) plasma composed of hydrogen. A forward-streaming population of ions traveling in excess of the shock velocity was observed to heat and slow down on an unmoving, unshocked population of cold protons, until ultimately the populations merge and begin to thermalize. Instabilities are observed during the merging, indicating a uniquely plasma-phase process in shock front formation.

  16. Collisional damping of Langmuir waves in the collisionless limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Linear Langmuir wave damping by collisions is studied in the limit of collision frequency ν approaching zero. In this limit, collisions are negligible, except in a region in velocity space, the boundary layer, centered about the phase velocity. If kappa, the ratio of the collisional equilibration time in the boundary layer to the Landau damping time, is small, the boundary layer width scales as ν/sup 1/3/, and the perturbed distribution function scales as ν/sup -1/3/. The damping rate is thus independent of ν, although essentially all the damping occurs in the collision-dominated boundary layer. Solution of the Fokker--Planck equation shows that the damping rate is precisely the Landau (collisionless) rate. The damping rate is independent of kappa, although the boundary layer thickness is not

  17. Collisional drift waves in a plasma with electron temperature inhomogeneity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.F.; Hassam, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    A fluid theory of collisional electrostatic drift waves in a plasma slab with magnetic shear is presented. Both electron temperature and density gradients are included. The equations are solved analytically in all relevant regions of the parameter space defined by the magnetic shear strength and the perpendicular wavelength and explicit expressions for the growth rates are given. For shear strengths appropriate for present-day tokamak discharges the temperature gradient produces potential wells which localize the mode in the electron resistive region, well inside the ion sound turning points. Mode stability arises from a competition between the destabilizing influence of the time dependent thermal force and the stabilizing influence of electron energy dissipation. Convective energy loss is not important for shear parameters of present-day fusion devices

  18. Nonlinear acoustic waves in partially ionized collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, N.N.; Kaup, D.J.; Shukla, P.K.

    1991-01-01

    Nonlinear propagation of acoustic-type waves in a partially ionized three-component collisional plasma consisting of electrons, ions and neutral particles is investigated. For bidirectional propagation, it is shown that the small- but finite-amplitude waves are governed by the Boussinesq equation, which for unidirectional propagation near the acoustic speed reduces to the usual Korteweg-de Vries equation. For large-amplitude waves, it is demonstrated that the relevant fluid equations are integrable in a stationary frame, and the parameter values for the existence of finite-amplitude solutions are explicitly obtained. In both cases, the different temperatures of the individual species, are taken into account. The relevance of the results to the earth's ionospheric plasma in the lower altitude ranges is pointed out. (author)

  19. Correlations between channel probabilities in collisional dissociation of D3+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abraham, S.; Nir, D.; Rosner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Measurements of the dissociation of D 3 + ions at 300--600 keV under single- and multiple-collision conditions in Ar- and H 2 -gas targets have been performed. A complete separation of all dissociation channels was achieved, including the neutral channels, which were resolved using a fine-mesh technique. Data analysis in the multiple-collision regime confirms the validity of the rate equations governing the charge exchange processes. In the single-collision region the analysis yields constant relations between channel probabilities. Data rearrangement shows probability factorization and suggests that collisional dissociation is a two-stage process, a fast electron exchange followed by rearrangement and branching to the exit channels

  20. Linking the collisional history of the main asteroid belt to its dynamical excitation and depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Harold F.

    2005-12-01

    The main belt is believed to have originally contained an Earth mass or more of material, enough to allow the asteroids to accrete on relatively short timescales. The present-day main belt, however, only contains ˜5×10 Earth masses. Numerical simulations suggest that this mass loss can be explained by the dynamical depletion of main belt material via gravitational perturbations from planetary embryos and a newly-formed Jupiter. To explore this scenario, we combined dynamical results from Petit et al. [Petit, J. Morbidelli, A., Chambers, J., 2001. The primordial excitation and clearing of the asteroid belt. Icarus 153, 338-347] with a collisional evolution code capable of tracking how the main belt undergoes comminution and dynamical depletion over 4.6 Gyr [Bottke, W.F., Durda, D., Nesvorny, D., Jedicke, R., Morbidelli, A., Vokrouhlický, D., Levison, H., 2005. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt. Icarus 175, 111-140]. Our results were constrained by the main belt's size-frequency distribution, the number of asteroid families produced by disruption events from diameter D>100 km parent bodies over the last 3-4 Gyr, the presence of a single large impact crater on Vesta's intact basaltic crust, and the relatively constant lunar and terrestrial impactor flux over the last 3 Gyr. We used our model to set limits on the initial size of the main belt as well as Jupiter's formation time. We find the most likely formation time for Jupiter was 3.3±2.6 Myr after the onset of fragmentation in the main belt. These results are consistent with the estimated mean disk lifetime of 3 Myr predicted by Haisch et al. [Haisch, K.E., Lada, E.A., Lada, C.J., 2001. Disk frequencies and lifetimes in young clusters. Astrophys. J. 553, L153-L156]. The post-accretion main belt population, in the form of diameter D≲1000 km planetesimals, was likely to have been 160±40 times the current main belt's mass. This corresponds to 0.06-0.1 Earth masses, only a small fraction

  1. Simulations of Collisional Disruption at the Catastrophic Impact Energy Threshold: Effect of the Target's Internal Structure and Diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, P.; Benz, W.; Richardson, D. C.

    2005-08-01

    Recent simulations of asteroid break-ups, including both the fragmentation of the parent body and the gravitational interactions of the fragments, have allowed to reproduced successfully the main properties of asteroid families formed in different regimes of impact energy. Here, using the same kind of simulations, we concentrate on a single regime of impact energy, the so-called catastrophic threshold usually designated by Qcrit, which results in the escape of half of the target's mass. Considering a wide range of diameter values and two kinds of internal structures of the parent body, monolithic and pre-shattered, we analyse their potential influences on the value of Qcrit and on the collisional outcome limited here to the fragment size and ejection speed distributions, which are the main outcome properties used by collisional models to study the evolutions of the different populations of small bodies. For all the considered diameters and the two internal structures of the parent body, we confirm that the process of gravitational reaccumulation is at the origin of the largest remnant's mass. We then find that, for a given diameter of the parent body, the impact energy corresponding to the catastrophic disruption threshold is highly dependent on the internal structure of the parent body. In particular, a pre-shattered parent body containing only damaged zones but no macroscopic voids is easier to disrupt than a monolithic parent body. Other kinds of internal properties that can also characterize small bodies in real populations will be investigated in a future work.

  2. Potential around a dust grain in collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulick, R., E-mail: moulick@gmail.com; Goswami, K. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics - Institute for Plasma Research Sonapur, Guwahati, Assam 782402 (India)

    2015-04-15

    The ion neutral collision can lead to interesting phenomena in dust charging, totally different from the expectations based on the traditional orbit motion limited theory. The potential around a dust grain is investigated for the collisional plasma considering the presence of ion neutral collisions. Fluid equations are solved for the one dimensional radial coordinate. It is observed that with the gradual increase in ion neutral collision, the potential structure around the dust grain changes its shape and is different from the usual Debye-Hückel potential. The shift however starts from a certain value of ion neutral collision and the electron-ion density varies accordingly. The potential variation is interesting and reconfirms the fact that there exists a region of attraction for negative charges. The collision modeling is done for the full range of plasma, i.e., considering the bulk and the sheath jointly. The potential variation with collision is also shown explicitly and the variation is found to cope up with the earlier observations.

  3. Updated Collisional Ionization Equilibrium Calculated for Optically Thin Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savin, Daniel Wolf; Bryans, P.; Badnell, N. R.; Gorczyca, T. W.; Laming, J. M.; Mitthumsiri, W.

    2010-03-01

    Reliably interpreting spectra from electron-ionized cosmic plasmas requires accurate ionization balance calculations for the plasma in question. However, much of the atomic data needed for these calculations have not been generated using modern theoretical methods and their reliability are often highly suspect. We have carried out state-of-the-art calculations of dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficients for the hydrogenic through Na-like ions of all elements from He to Zn as well as for Al-like to Ar-like ions of Fe. We have also carried out state-of-the-art radiative recombination (RR) rate coefficient calculations for the bare through Na-like ions of all elements from H to Zn. Using our data and the recommended electron impact ionization data of Dere (2007), we present improved collisional ionization equilibrium calculations (Bryans et al. 2006, 2009). We compare our calculated fractional ionic abundances using these data with those presented by Mazzotta et al. (1998) for all elements from H to Ni. This work is supported in part by the NASA APRA and SHP SR&T programs.

  4. COLLISIONAL DEBRIS AS LABORATORIES TO STUDY STAR FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boquien, M.; Duc, P.-A.; Wu, Y.; Charmandaris, V.; Lisenfeld, U.; Braine, J.; Brinks, E.; Iglesias-Paramo, J.; Xu, C. K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we address the question of whether star formation (SF) is driven by local processes or the large-scale environment. To do so, we investigate SF in collisional debris where the gravitational potential well and velocity gradients are shallower and compare our results with previous work on SF in noninteracting spiral and dwarf galaxies. We have performed multiwavelength spectroscopic and imaging observations (from the far-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared) of six interacting systems, identifying a total of 60 star-forming regions in their collision debris. Our analysis indicates that in these regions (1) the emission of the dust is at the expected level for their luminosity and metallicity, (2) the usual tracers of SFR display the typical trend and scatter found in classical star-forming regions, and (3) the extinction and metallicity are not the main parameters governing the scatter in the properties of intergalactic star-forming regions; age effects and variations in the number of stellar populations seem to play an important role. Our work suggests that local properties such as column density and dust content, rather than the large-scale environment seem to drive SF. This means that intergalactic star-forming regions can be used as a reliable tool to study SF.

  5. Electromagnetic-wave absorption by inhomogeneous, collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, D.J.; Santoru, J.; Schumacher, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Unmagnetized, collisional plasmas can be used as broadband EM-wave absorbers or refractors. In the absorption process, plasma electrons are first accelerated by the EM-wave fields and then collide with background-gas molecules, thereby transferring energy from the EM waves to the gas. A plasma absorber has several advantages compared to conventional materials. A plasma can be turned on and off very rapidly, thereby switching between absorbing and transparent conditions. Calculations indicate that plasma absorbers can also be tailored to provide broadband absorption (>40 dB) over multiple octaves. The authors have developed a one-dimensional model and a computer code to calculate the net power reflected from a plasma-enclosed EM-wave-reflecting target. They included three contributions to the reflected EM-wave power: reflections from the vacuum-plasma interface; reflections from the bulk plasma volume; and reflection of the attenuated EM wave that is transmitted through the plasma and reflected by the target

  6. Expansion of Collisional Radiative Model for Helium line ratio spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquegrani, David; Cooper, Chris; Forest, Cary; Milhone, Jason; Munoz-Borges, Jorge; Schmitz, Oliver; Unterberg, Ezekial

    2015-11-01

    Helium line ratio spectroscopy is a powerful technique of active plasma edge spectroscopy. It enables reconstruction of plasma edge parameters like electron density and temperature by use of suitable Collisional Radiative Models (CRM). An established approach is successful at moderate plasma densities (~1018m-3 range) and temperature (30-300eV), taking recombination and charge exchange to be negligible. The goal of this work is to experimentally explore limitations of this approach to CRM. For basic validation the Madison Plasma Dynamo eXperiment (MPDX) will be used. MPDX offers a very uniform plasma and spherical symmetry at low temperature (5-20 eV) and low density (1016 -1017m-3) . Initial data from MPDX shows a deviation in CRM results when compared to Langmuir probe data. This discrepancy points to the importance of recombination effects. The validated model is applied to first time measurement of electron density and temperature in front of an ICRH antenna at the TEXTOR tokamak. These measurements are important to understand RF coupling and PMI physics at the antenna limiters. Work supported in part by start up funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at the UW - Madison, USA and NSF CAREER award PHY-1455210.

  7. Collisional and radiative processes in high-pressure discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Kurt H.; Kurunczi, Peter F.; Schoenbach, Karl H.

    2002-05-01

    Discharge plasmas at high pressures (up to and exceeding atmospheric pressure), where single collision conditions no longer prevail, provide a fertile environment for the experimental study of collisions and radiative processes dominated by (i) step-wise processes, i.e., the excitation of an already excited atomic/molecular state and by (ii) three-body collisions leading, for instance, to the formation of excimers. The dominance of collisional and radiative processes beyond binary collisions involving ground-state atoms and molecules in such environments allows for many interesting applications of high-pressure plasmas such as high power lasers, opening switches, novel plasma processing applications and sputtering, absorbers and reflectors for electromagnetic waves, remediation of pollutants and waste streams, and excimer lamps and other noncoherent vacuum-ultraviolet light sources. Here recent progress is summarized in the use of hollow cathode discharge devices with hole dimensions in the range 0.1-0.5 mm for the generation of vacuum-ultraviolet light.

  8. HIDING IN THE SHADOWS. II. COLLISIONAL DUST AS EXOPLANET MARKERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobinson, Jack; Leinhardt, Zoë M.; Lines, Stefan; Carter, Philip J.; Dodson-Robinson, Sarah E.; Teanby, Nick A.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of the youngest planets (∼1–10 Myr for a transitional disk) will increase the accuracy of our planet formation models. Unfortunately, observations of such planets are challenging and time-consuming to undertake, even in ideal circumstances. Therefore, we propose the determination of a set of markers that can preselect promising exoplanet-hosting candidate disks. To this end, N-body simulations were conducted to investigate the effect of an embedded Jupiter-mass planet on the dynamics of the surrounding planetesimal disk and the resulting creation of second-generation collisional dust. We use a new collision model that allows fragmentation and erosion of planetesimals, and dust-sized fragments are simulated in a post-process step including non-gravitational forces due to stellar radiation and a gaseous protoplanetary disk. Synthetic images from our numerical simulations show a bright double ring at 850 μm for a low-eccentricity planet, whereas a high-eccentricity planet would produce a characteristic inner ring with asymmetries in the disk. In the presence of first-generation primordial dust these markers would be difficult to detect far from the orbit of the embedded planet, but would be detectable inside a gap of planetary origin in a transitional disk

  9. Constraining scalar fields with stellar kinematics and collisional dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro-Seoane, Pau; Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Rezzolla, Luciano

    2010-01-01

    The existence and detection of scalar fields could provide solutions to long-standing puzzles about the nature of dark matter, the dark compact objects at the centre of most galaxies, and other phenomena. Yet, self-interacting scalar fields are very poorly constrained by astronomical observations, leading to great uncertainties in estimates of the mass m φ and the self-interacting coupling constant λ of these fields. To counter this, we have systematically employed available astronomical observations to develop new constraints, considerably restricting this parameter space. In particular, by exploiting precise observations of stellar dynamics at the centre of our Galaxy and assuming that these dynamics can be explained by a single boson star, we determine an upper limit for the boson star compactness and impose significant limits on the values of the properties of possible scalar fields. Requiring the scalar field particle to follow a collisional dark matter model further narrows these constraints. Most importantly, we find that if a scalar dark matter particle does exist, then it cannot account for both the dark-matter halos and the existence of dark compact objects in galactic nuclei

  10. Parametric instabilities in a magnetized and collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phalswal, D R; Dube, A [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1980-09-01

    The dispersion relation for a magnetized, collisional and hot plasma in the presence of a pump wave is developed for the case where the pump frequency ..omega../sub 0/ is large compared with the cyclotron frequency ..omega..sub(c) and the plasma frequency ..omega..sub(p). Formulae for the growth rate, the damping rate for the free electron plasma wave and the threshold power are derived and discussed numerically under different conditions. It is found that in a hot plasma (for magnetic fields with ..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 1 and 10) the threshold power Psub(T) is less than or greater than that in a cold plamsa for the (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(+) or (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(-) modes respectively. In a weak magnetic field (..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 0.1), Psub(T) does not vary with the direction theta of the magnetic field for the (Re..omega../sub 2/) sub(+) mode. However, Psub(T) for the (Re..omega../sub 2/)sub(-) mode is a minimum at theta = 30deg. and 10deg. for ..omega..sub(c)/ ..omega..sub(p) = 1 and 10 respectively, and it becomes very large (10/sup 5/-10/sup 7/ times its value in a cold unmagnetized plasma) for ..omega..sub(c)/..omega..sub(p) = 0.1. The results for the growth are found to be just the reverse of those for the threshold power.

  11. Evolution of a Gaussian laser beam in warm collisional magnetoplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafari, M. J.; Jafari Milani, M. R., E-mail: mrj.milani@gmail.com [Plasma Physics Research School, NSTRI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknam, A. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    In this paper, the spatial evolution of an intense circularly polarized Gaussian laser beam propagated through a warm plasma is investigated, taking into account the ponderomotive force, Ohmic heating, external magnetic field, and collisional effects. Using the momentum transfer and energy equations, both modified electron temperature and electron density in plasma are obtained. By introducing the complex dielectric permittivity of warm magnetized plasma and using the complex eikonal function, coupled differential equations for beam width parameter are established and solved numerically. The effects of polarization state of laser and magnetic field on the laser spot size evolution are studied. It is observed that in case of the right-handed polarization, an increase in the value of external magnetic field causes an increase in the strength of the self-focusing, especially in the higher values, and consequently, the self-focusing occurs in shorter distance of propagation. Moreover, the results demonstrate the existence of laser intensity and electron temperature ranges where self-focusing can occur, while the beam diverges outside of these regions; meanwhile, in these intervals, there exists a turning point for each of intensity and temperature in which the self-focusing process has its strongest strength. Finally, it is found that the self-focusing effect can be enhanced by increasing the plasma frequency (plasma density).

  12. COLLISIONAL GROOMING MODELS OF THE KUIPER BELT DUST CLOUD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the Kuiper Belt (KB) dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of ∼10 -4 primarily show an azimuthally symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical KB. For models with lower optical depths (10 -6 and 10 -7 ), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's KB dust, and probably other aspects of the solar system dust complex; collisions erase all signs of azimuthal asymmetry from the submillimeter image of the disk at every dust level we considered. The model images switch from being dominated by resonantly trapped small grains ('transport dominated') to being dominated by the birth ring ('collision dominated') when the optical depth reaches a critical value of τ ∼ v/c, where v is the local Keplerian speed.

  13. Collisional Grooming Models of the Kuiper Belt Dust Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchner, Marc J.; Stark, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    We modeled the three-dimensional structure of the Kuiper Belt (KB) dust cloud at four different dust production rates, incorporating both planet-dust interactions and grain-grain collisions using the collisional grooming algorithm. Simulated images of a model with a face-on optical depth of approximately 10 (exp -4) primarily show an azimuthally- symmetric ring at 40-47 AU in submillimeter and infrared wavelengths; this ring is associated with the cold classical KB. For models with lower optical depths (10 (exp -6) and 10 (exp-7)), synthetic infrared images show that the ring widens and a gap opens in the ring at the location of Neptune; this feature is caused by trapping of dust grains in Neptune's mean motion resonances. At low optical depths, a secondary ring also appears associated with the hole cleared in the center of the disk by Saturn. Our simulations, which incorporate 25 different grain sizes, illustrate that grain-grain collisions are important in sculpting today's KB dust, and probably other aspects of the solar system dust complex; collisions erase all signs of azimuthal asymmetry from the submillimeter image of the disk at every dust level we considered. The model images switch from being dominated by resonantly trapped small grains ("transport dominated") to being dominated by the birth ring ("collision dominated") when the optical depth reaches a critical value of r approximately v/c, where v is the local Keplerian speed.

  14. A six-part collisional model of the main asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulková, H.; Brož, M.; Benavidez, P. G.

    2014-10-01

    In this work, we construct a new model for the collisional evolution of the main asteroid belt. Our goals are to test the scaling law of Benz and Asphaug (Benz, W., Asphaug, E. [1999]. Icarus, 142, 5-20) and ascertain if it can be used for the whole belt. We want to find initial size-frequency distributions (SFDs) for the considered six parts of the belt (inner, middle, “pristine”, outer, Cybele zone, high-inclination region) and to verify if the number of synthetic asteroid families created during the simulation matches the number of observed families as well. We used new observational data from the WISE satellite (Masiero et al., 2011) to construct the observed SFDs. We simulate mutual collisions of asteroids with a modified version of the Boulder code (Morbidelli, A., et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204, 558-573), where the results of hydrodynamic (SPH) simulations of Durda et al. (Durda, D.D., et al. [2007]. Icarus, 498-516) and Benavidez et al. (Benavidez, P.G., et al. [2012]. 219, 57-76) are included. Because material characteristics can significantly affect breakups, we created two models - for monolithic asteroids and for rubble-piles. To explain the observed SFDs in the size range D=1 to 10 km we have to also account for dynamical depletion due to the Yarkovsky effect. The assumption of (purely) rubble-pile asteroids leads to a significantly worse fit to the observed data, so that we can conclude that majority of main-belt asteroids are rather monolithic. Our work may also serve as a motivation for further SPH simulations of disruptions of smaller targets (with a parent body size of the order of 1 km).

  15. Modeling of collisional excited x-ray lasers using short pulse laser pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Akira; Moribayashi, Kengo; Utsumi, Takayuki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    A simple atomic kinetics model of electron collisional excited x-ray lasers has been developed. The model consists of a collisional radiative model using the average ion model (AIM) and a detailed term accounting (DTA) model of Ni-like Ta. An estimate of plasma condition to produce gain in Ni-like Ta ({lambda}=44A) is given. Use of the plasma confined in a cylinder is proposed to preform a uniform high density plasma from 1-D hydrodynamics calculations. (author)

  16. On calculation of collisional angular-momentum mixing of Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oreg, J.; Strauss, M.; Hazak, G.

    1983-09-01

    Exact solutions of the coupled differential equations for collisional mixing probabilities are presented for a sodium-helium system. The results show that complete mixing is not reached in this model. The main contribution to the collisional mixing cross-section of the sodium ''nd'' state comes from impact parameters b within the range n 2 2 . The total cross-sections obtained are in agreement with the experiment. (author)

  17. Collisionality dependence of Mercier stability in LHD equilibria with bootstrap currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichiguchi, Katsuji.

    1997-02-01

    The Mercier stability of the plasmas carrying bootstrap currents with different plasma collisionality is studied in the Large Helical Device (LHD). In the LHD configuration, the direction of the bootstrap current depends on the collisionality of the plasma through the change in the sign of the geometrical factor. When the beta value is raised by increasing the density of the plasma with a fixed low temperature, the plasma becomes more collisional and the collisionality approaches the plateau regime. In this case, the bootstrap current can flow in the direction so as to decrease the rotational transform. Then, the large Shafranov shift enhances the magnetic well and the magnetic shear, and therefore, the Mercier stability is improved. On the other hand, when the beta value is raised by increasing the temperature of the plasma with a fixed low density, the plasma collisionality becomes reduced to enter the 1/ν collisionality regime and the bootstrap current flows so that the rotational transform should be increased, which is unfavorable for the Mercier stability. Hence, the beta value should be raised by increasing the density rather than the temperature in order to obtain a high beta plasma. (author)

  18. Degenerate four-wave mixing and phase conjugation in a collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federici, J.F.; Mansfield, D.K.

    1986-06-01

    Although degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) has many practical applications in the visible regime, no successful attempt has been made to study or demonstrate DFWM for wavelengths longer than 10μm. Recently, Steel and Lam established plasma as a viable DFWM and phase conjugation (PC) medium for infrared, far-infrared, and microwaves. However, their analysis is incomplete since collisional effects were not included. Using a fluid description, our results demonstrate that when collisional absorption is small and the collisional mean-free path is shorter than the nonlinear density grating scale length, collisional heating generates a thermal force which substantially enhances the phase conjugate reflectivity. When the collisional attenuation length becomes comparable to the length of the plasma, the dominant effect is collisional absorption of the pump waves. Numerical estimates of the phase conjugate reflectivity indicate that for modest power levels, gains greater than or equal to1 are possible in the submillimeter to centimeter wavelength range. This suggests that a plasma is a viable PC medium at those long wavelengths. In addition, doubly DFWM is discussed

  19. Triangularity effects on the collisional diffusion for elliptic tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, P.; Castro, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this conference the effect of ellipticity and triangularity will be analyzed for axisymmetric tokamak in the collisional regime. Analytic forms for the magnetic field cross sections are taken from those derived recently by other authors [1,2]. Analytical results can be obtained in elliptic plasmas with triangularity by using an special system of tokamak coordinates recently published [3-5]. Our results show that triangularities smaller than 0.6, increases confinement for ellipticities in the range 1.2 to 2. This behavior happens for negative and positive triangularities; however this effect is stronger for positive than for negative triangularities. The maximum diffusion velocity is not obtained for zero triangularity, but for small negative triangularities. Ellipticity is also very important in confinement, but the effect of triangularity seems to be more important. High electric inductive field increases confinement, though this field is difficult to modify once the tokamak has been built. The analytic form of the current produced by this field is like that of a weak Ware pinch with an additional factor, which weakens the effect by an order of magnitude. The dependence of the triangularity effect with the Shafranov shift is also analyzed. References 1. - L. L. Lao, S. P. Hirshman, and R. M. Wieland, Phys. Fluids 24, 1431 (1981) 2. - G. O. Ludwig, Plasma Physics Controlled Fusion 37, 633 (1995) 3. - P. Martin, Phys. Plasmas 7, 2915 (2000) 4. - P. Martin, M. G. Haines and E. Castro, Phys. Plasmas 12, 082506 (2005) 5. - P. Martin, E. Castro and M. G. Haines, Phys. Plasmas 12, 102505 (2005)

  20. Collisional alignment and orientation of atomic outer shells. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, N.; Gallagher, J.W.; Hertel, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    The study of polarization of atomic radiation emitted after impact excitation has yielded an enormous wealth of detailed information on the mechanism and dynamics of collisional excitation and energy transfer, both in electron and heavy particle impact studies. In these studies, the beam of electrons, ions or fast atoms used to excite the target atoms provides a suitable quantization axis with respect to which the polarization of the fluorescent light of the excited atoms is detected. From these data information on the cross sections for the different magnetic substates of the excited atom is extracted, imparting a great deal of insight into impact mechanisms for both outer and inner shell excitation. It is our aim to provide a comprehensive review including all data available in the literature presented in a standardized and easily accessible fashion. In this review we include only alignment and orientation studies, which have a well-defined planar symmetry, i.e., in which the initial and final relative momentum of the interacting particles are well defined by differential scattering techniques. We do not make a major distinction between heavy-particle and electron impact excitation: In fact, one of our aims is to demonstrate similarities between the two fields from a technical as well as from a conceptual point of view. The review is divided into three parts: This first part (I) deals with direct excitation of atoms by electrons and fast atoms or ions. Section 2 gives an introduction to the general concepts and ideas behind this kind of study and a description of typical experimental setups. Section 3 deals with electron impact excitation of atoms, starting with the simplest case of electron-helium collisions which may be fully described by two parameters, followed by more complex cases such as electron impact excitation of hydrogen and the heavy rare gases. Section 4 describes the results for direct excitation by atomic impact. (orig./AH)

  1. Collisional drift fluid equations and implications for drift waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfirsch, Dieter; Correa-Restrepo, Dario

    1996-01-01

    The usual theoretical description of drift-wave turbulence (considered to be one possible cause of anomalous transport in a plasma), e.g. the Hasegawa-Wakatani theory, makes use of various approximations, the effects of which are extremely difficult to assess. This concerns in particular the conservation laws for energy and momentum. The latter law is important in relation to charge separation and the resulting electric fields, which are possibly related to the L-H transition. Energy conservation is crucial to the stability behaviour, it will be discussed by means of an example. New collisional multi-species drift-fluid equations were derived by a new method which yields, in a transparent way, conservation of energy and total angular momentum and the law for energy dissipation. Both electrostatic and electromagnetic field variations are considered. The only restriction involved is the validity of the drift approximation; in particular, there are no assumptions restricting the geometry of the system. The method is based primarily on a Lagrangian for dissipationless fluids in the drift approximation with isotropic pressures. The dissipative terms are introduced by adding corresponding terms to the ideal equations of motion and of the pressures. The equations of motion, of course, no longer result from a Lagrangian via Hamilton's principle. However, their relation to the ideal equations also implies a relation to the ideal Lagrangian, which can be used to advantage. Instead of introducing heat conduction one can also assume isothermal behaviour, e.g. T v (x) = constant. Assumptions of this kind are often made in the literature. The new method of introducing dissipation is not restricted to the present kind of theory; it can equally well be applied to theories such as multi-fluid theories without using the drift approximation of the present paper. (author)

  2. Visco-instability of shear viscoelastic collisional dusty plasma systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi-Gharavi, M.; Hajisharifi, K.; Mehidan, H.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, the stability of Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscoelastic collisional shear-velocity dusty plasmas is studied, using the framework of a generalized hydrodynamic (GH) model. Motivated by Banerjee et al.'s work (Banerjee et al., New J. Phys., vol. 12 (12), 2010, p. 123031), employing linear perturbation theory as well as the local approximation method in the inhomogeneous direction, the dispersion relations of the Fourier modes are obtained for Newtonian and non-Newtonian dusty plasma systems in the presence of a dust-neutral friction term. The analysis of the obtained dispersion relation in the non-Newtonian case shows that the inhomogeneous viscosity force depending on the velocity shear profile can be the genesis of a free energy source which leads the shear system to be unstable. Study of the dust-neutral friction effect on the instability of the considered systems using numerical analysis of the dispersion relation in the Newtonian case demonstrates that the maximum growth rate decreases considerably by increasing the collision frequency in the hydrodynamic regime, while this reduction can be neglected in the kinetic regime. Results show a more significant stabilization role of the dust-neutral friction term in the non-Newtonian cases, through decreasing the maximum growth rate at any fixed wavenumber and construction of the instable wavenumber region. The results of the present investigation will greatly contribute to study of the time evolution of viscoelastic laboratory environments with externally applied shear; where in these experiments the dust-neutral friction process can play a considerable role.

  3. BUOYANCY INSTABILITIES IN A WEAKLY COLLISIONAL INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, Matthew W.; Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S., E-mail: kunz@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tamarab@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    The intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is a weakly collisional plasma in which the transport of heat and momentum occurs primarily along magnetic-field lines. Anisotropic heat conduction allows convective instabilities to be driven by temperature gradients of either sign: the magnetothermal instability (MTI) in the outskirts of clusters and the heat-flux buoyancy-driven instability (HBI) in their cooling cores. We employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities, self-consistently including the effects of anisotropic viscosity (i.e., Braginskii pressure anisotropy), anisotropic conduction, and radiative cooling. We find that, in all but the innermost regions of cool-core clusters, anisotropic viscosity significantly impairs the ability of the HBI to reorient magnetic-field lines orthogonal to the temperature gradient. Thus, while radio-mode feedback appears necessary in the central few Multiplication-Sign 10 kpc, heat conduction may be capable of offsetting radiative losses throughout most of a cool core over a significant fraction of the Hubble time. Magnetically aligned cold filaments are then able to form by local thermal instability. Viscous dissipation during cold filament formation produces accompanying hot filaments, which can be searched for in deep Chandra observations of cool-core clusters. In the case of MTI, anisotropic viscosity leads to a nonlinear state with a folded magnetic field structure in which field-line curvature and field strength are anti-correlated. These results demonstrate that, if the HBI and MTI are relevant for shaping the properties of the ICM, one must self-consistently include anisotropic viscosity in order to obtain even qualitatively correct results.

  4. A lattice based solution of the collisional Boltzmann equation with applications to microchannel flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, B I; Vedula, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    An alternative approach for solution of the collisional Boltzmann equation for a lattice architecture is presented. In the proposed method, termed the collisional lattice Boltzmann method (cLBM), the effects of spatial transport are accounted for via a streaming operator, using a lattice framework, and the effects of detailed collisional interactions are accounted for using the full collision operator of the Boltzmann equation. The latter feature is in contrast to the conventional lattice Boltzmann methods (LBMs) where collisional interactions are modeled via simple equilibrium based relaxation models (e.g. BGK). The underlying distribution function is represented using weights and fixed velocity abscissas according to the lattice structure. These weights are evolved based on constraints on the evolution of generalized moments of velocity according to the collisional Boltzmann equation. It can be shown that the collision integral can be reduced to a summation of elementary integrals, which can be analytically evaluated. The proposed method is validated using studies of canonical microchannel Couette and Poiseuille flows (both body force and pressure driven) and the results are found to be in good agreement with those obtained from conventional LBMs and experiments where available. Unlike conventional LBMs, the proposed method does not involve any equilibrium based approximations and hence can be useful for simulation of highly nonequilibrium flows (for a range of Knudsen numbers) using a lattice framework. (paper)

  5. Measurements of long-range enhanced collisional velocity drag through plasma wave damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, M.; Anderegg, F.; Dubin, D. H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.

    2018-05-01

    We present damping measurements of axial plasma waves in magnetized, multispecies ion plasmas. At high temperatures T ≳ 10-2 eV, collisionless Landau damping dominates, whereas, at lower temperatures T ≲ 10-2 eV, the damping arises from interspecies collisional drag, which is dependent on the plasma composition and scales roughly as T-3 /2 . This drag damping is proportional to the rate of parallel collisional slowing, and is found to exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agrees with a new collision theory that includes long-range collisions. Centrifugal mass separation and collisional locking of the species occur at ultra-low temperatures T ≲ 10-3 eV, which reduce the drag damping from the T-3 /2 collisional scaling. These mechanisms are investigated by measuring the damping of higher frequency axial modes, and by measuring the damping in plasmas with a non-equilibrium species profile.

  6. The relationship between collisional phase defect distribution and cascade collapse efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, K.; Heinisch, H.L.; Ishino, S.; Sekimura, N.

    1994-01-01

    Defect distributions after the collisional phase of cascade damage processes were calculated using the computer simulation code MARLOWE, which is based on the binary collision approximation. The densities of vacant sites were evaluated in defect-dense regions at the end of the collisional phase in simulated ion irradiations of several pure metals (Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, Fe, Mo and W). The vacancy density distributions were compared to the measured cascade collapse efficiencies obtained from low-dose ion irradiations of thin foils reported in the literature to identify the minimum or ''critical'' values of the vacancy densities during the collisional phase corresponding to cascade collapse. The critical densities are generally independent of the cascade energy in the same metal. The relationships between physical properties of the target elements and the critical densities are discussed within the framework of the cascade thermal spike model. ((orig.))

  7. Numerical study of drift-kinetic evolution of collisional plasmas in tori

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, C.O. Jr.; Meier, H.K.; van Rij, W.I.; McCune, J.E.

    1976-03-01

    Preliminary numerical results for the dynamics of toroidally confined plasmas in the drift-kinetic, Fokker--Planck description are discussed. These solutions were obtained by using the techniques inherent to the collisional plasma model (CPM) described in detail elsewhere. An initial value problem is solved in the local approximation in which collisions and particle dynamics compete in a given magnetic field to set up a quasi-equilibrium. Both the plasma (guiding center) distribution function and many macroscopic quantities of interest are monitored. Good agreement with corresponding but more approximate theories is obtained over a wide range of collisionality, particularly with regard to the neoclassical particle flux. Encouraging confirmation of earlier results for the distribution function is achieved when due account is taken of the differing collisionality of particles with differing energies. These initial results indicate the potential importance of certain non-local effects as well as inclusion of self-consistency between fields and plasma currents and densities

  8. Cancellation of collisional frequency shifts in optical lattice clocks with Rabi spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangkyung; Park, Chang Yong; Lee, Won-Kyu; Yu, Dai-Hyuk

    2016-01-01

    We analyze both the s- and p-wave collision induced frequency shifts and propose an over-π pulse scheme to cancel the shifts in optical lattice clocks interrogated by a Rabi pulse. The collisional frequency shifts are analytically solved as a function of the pulse area and the inhomogeneity of the Rabi frequencies. Experimentally measured collisional frequency shifts in an Yb optical lattice clock are in good agreement with the analytical calculations. Based on our analysis, the over-π pulse combined with a small inhomogeneity below 0.1 allows a fractional uncertainty on a level of 10 −18 in both Sr and Yb optical lattice clocks by canceling the collisional frequency shift. (paper)

  9. Computation of the Spitzer function in stellarators and tokamaks with finite collisionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kernbichler Winfried

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The generalized Spitzer function, which determines the current drive efficiency in toka- maks and stellarators is modelled for finite plasma collisionality with help of the drift kinetic equation solver NEO-2 [1]. The effect of finite collisionality on the global ECCD efficiency in a tokamak is studied using results of the code NEO-2 as input to the ray tracing code TRAVIS [2]. As it is known [3], specific features of the generalized Spitzer function, which are absent in asymptotic (collisionless or highly collisional regimes result in current drive from a symmetric microwave spectrum with respect to parallel wave numbers. Due to this effect the direction of the current may become independent of the microwave beam launch angle in advanced ECCD scenarii (O2 and X3 where due to relatively low optical depth a significant amount of power is absorbed by trapped particles.

  10. Improving a radiative plus collisional energy loss model for application to RHIC and LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wicks, Simon; Gyulassy, Miklos

    2007-01-01

    With the QGP opacity computed perturbatively and with the global entropy constraints imposed by the observed dN ch /dy ∼ 1000, radiative energy loss alone cannot account for the observed suppression of single non-photonic electrons. Collisional energy loss is comparable in magnitude to radiative loss for both light and heavy jets. Two aspects that significantly affect the collisional energy loss are examined: the role of fluctuations and the effect of introducing a running QCD coupling as opposed to the fixed α s = 0.3 used previously

  11. Spatial mode structures of electrostatic drift waves in a collisional cylindrical helicon plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, C.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.

    2004-01-01

    In a cylindrical helicon plasma, mode structures of coherent drift waves are studied in the poloidal plane, the plane perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The mode structures rotate with a constant angular velocity in the direction of the electron diamagnetic drift and show significant...... radial bending. The experimental observations are compared with numerical solutions of a linear nonlocal cylindrical model for drift waves [ Ellis , Plasma Phys. 22, 113 (1980) ]. In the numerical model, a transition to bended mode structures is found if the plasma collisionality is increased....... This finding proves that the experimentally observed bended mode structures are the result of high electron collisionality. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  12. Theoretical Atomic Physics code development II: ACE: Another collisional excitation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.; Abdallah, J. Jr.; Csanak, G.; Mann, J.B.; Cowan, R.D.

    1988-12-01

    A new computer code for calculating collisional excitation data (collision strengths or cross sections) using a variety of models is described. The code uses data generated by the Cowan Atomic Structure code or CATS for the atomic structure. Collisional data are placed on a random access file and can be displayed in a variety of formats using the Theoretical Atomic Physics Code or TAPS. All of these codes are part of the Theoretical Atomic Physics code development effort at Los Alamos. 15 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  13. Do the Pop II field blue stragglers have a collisional origin?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, P.J.T.

    1993-01-01

    The hypothesis that the Pop II field blue stragglers have a collisional origin is considered. It appears unlikely that the majority of these stragglers were formed via collisions, but it is difficult to rule out the possibility that a small, but observable, fraction of them were

  14. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-01-01

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust 2 and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  15. Investigation of collisional effects within the bending magnet region of a DIII-D neutral beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, D.N.; Hong, R.; Kellman, D.H.

    1993-10-01

    The region between the pole faces of the DIII-D neutral beamline residual ion bending magnets is an area of transient high gas pressure which may cause beam defocusing and increased heating of beamline internal components due to collisional effects. An investigation of these effects helps in understanding residual ion trajectories and in providing information for studying in the beamline capability for operation with increased pulse duration. Examination of collisional effects, and of the possible existence of space charge blow-up, was carried out by injecting deuterium gas into the region between the magnet pole faces with rates varying from 0 to 18 torr-ell/sec. Thermocouple and waterflow calorimetry data were taken to measure the beamline component heating and beam powder deposition on the magnet pole shields, magnet louvers, ion dump, beam collimators, and calorimeter. Data was also taken at gas flow rates varying from 0 to 25 torr-ell/sec into the neutralizer cell and is compared with the magnet region gas injection data obtained. Results show that both collisional effects and space charge blow-up play a role in magnet region component heating and that neutralizer gas flow sufficiently reduces component heating without incurring unacceptable power losses through collisional effects

  16. Influence of the collisional recombination on the electrostatic fluctuation spectrum in an helium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baravian, G.; Bretagne, J.; Godart, J.; Sultan, G.

    1975-01-01

    The collisional recombination, in the afterglow of a dense plasma, is regarded as a source process for an overpopulation of the high energy tail of the electron velocity distribution function. The perturbation of the distribution function leads to an important enhancement of the fluctuations of the electrostatic field in a narrow range near the plasma frequency ωsub(p). (orig.) [de

  17. Near field imaging of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Momoko; Kado, Masataka; Hasegawa, Noboru; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Sukegawa, Kouta; Lu, Peixiang; Nagashima, Akira; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We observed the spatial profile of the transient collisional excitation Ni-like Ag laser (λ=13.9 nm) for various plasma lengths using the near field imaging method. The gain coefficient of the x-ray laser was estimated as 24 cm -1 . The gain region was a 50 μm crescent shape and included localized high gain areas. (author)

  18. Nonlinear theory of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial spread F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, P.K.; Ossakow, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The nonlinear behavior of the collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability is studied in equatorial Spread F by including a dominant two-dimensional nonlinearity. It is found that on account of this nonlinearity the instability saturates by generating damped higher spatial harmonics. The saturated power spectrum for the density fluctuations is discussed. A comparison between experimental observations and theory is presented

  19. Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    2016-01-01

    Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...

  20. Characterization of collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Upcraft, L. M.; Balcou, P.; Breger, P.; Zeitoun, P.; Le Pape, S.; Ros, D.; Klisnick, A.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Rus, Bedřich; Wyart, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 939-944 ISSN 0946-2171 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) 199900086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : X-ray lasers * optical-field-ionization * collisional excitation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004

  1. Dynamo transformation of the collisional R-T in a weakly ionized ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    where the interstellar neutrals undergo charge exchange collisions with ions in the solar wind [1]. ... regime of magnetically confined torroidal plasma. The author refutes their ... rate ´7К-М µ for the usual collisional R-T is given as. 7К-М g v Дp.

  2. Review and limitations of 3D plasma blob modeling with reduced collisional fluid equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angus, Justin R., E-mail: jangus@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Krashenninikov, Sergei I. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Recent 3D studies on plasma blobs (coherent structures found in the edge region of magnetic confinement devices) have demonstrated that the drift wave instability can strongly limit the blob’s coherency and cross field convective nature that is predicted by 2D theory. However, the dominant unstable drift wave modes that effect plasma blobs were found to exist in parameter regimes that only marginally satisfied several of the major assumptions considered for the validity of the reduced collisional fluid equations used in the study. Namely, the neglect of electron heat flow, finite electron mean free path effects, and thermal ions. A follow up study demonstrated how the drift wave instability might change if a set of equations that does not suffer from the limitations mentioned above were considered. In the present paper, the results of this later work are used to discuss the limitations on using the collisional fluid equations for 3D studies of plasma blobs.

  3. Continuous Emission Spectrum Measurement for Electron Temperature Determination in Low-Temperature Collisional Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Qiuyan; Li Hong; Chen Zhipeng; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2011-01-01

    Continuous emission spectrum measurement is applied for the inconvenient diagnostics of low-temperature collisional plasmas. According to the physical mechanism of continuous emission, a simplified model is presented to analyze the spectrum in low temperature plasma. The validity of this model is discussed in a wide range of discharge parameters, including electron temperature and ionization degree. Through the simplified model, the continuous emission spectrum in a collisional argon internal inductively coupled plasma is experimentally measured to determine the electron temperature distribution for different gas pressures and radio-frequency powers. The inverse Abel transform is also applied for a better spatially resoluted results. Meanwhile, the result of the continuous emission spectrum measurement is compared to that of the electrostatic double probes, which indicates the effectiveness of this method. (low temperature plasma)

  4. COLLISIONALLY EXCITED FILAMENTS IN HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE Hα AND Hβ IMAGES OF HH 1/2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raga, A. C.; Castellanos-Ramírez, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ap. 70-543, 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Reipurth, B.; Chiang, Hsin-Fang [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Bally, J., E-mail: raga@nucleares.unam.mx [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, UCB 389, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States)

    2015-01-01

    We present new Hα and Hβ images of the HH 1/2 system, and we find that the Hα/Hβ ratio has high values in ridges along the leading edges of the HH 1 bow shock and of the brighter condensations of HH 2. These ridges have Hα/Hβ = 4 → 6, which is consistent with collisional excitation from the n = 1 to the n = 3 and 4 levels of hydrogen in a gas of temperatures T = 1.5 → 10 × 10{sup 4} K. This is therefore the first direct evidence that the collisional excitation/ionization region of hydrogen just behind Herbig-Haro shock fronts is detected.

  5. The effect of catastrophic collisional fragmentation and diffuse medium accretion on a computational interstellar dust system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffman, Kurt

    1990-01-01

    The effects of catastrophic collisional fragmentation and diffuse medium accretion on a the interstellar dust system are computed using a Monte Carlo computer model. The Monte Carlo code has as its basis an analytic solution of the bulk chemical evolution of a two-phase interstellar medium, described by Liffman and Clayton (1989). The model is subjected to numerous different interstellar processes as it transfers from one interstellar phase to another. Collisional fragmentation was found to be the dominant physical process that shapes the size spectrum of interstellar dust. It was found that, in the diffuse cloud phase, 90 percent of the refractory material is locked up in the dust grains, primarily due to accretion in the molecular medium. This result is consistent with the observed depletions of silicon. Depletions were found to be affected only slightly by diffuse cloud accretion.

  6. Collisional Transport in a Low Aspect Ratio Tokamak -- Beyond the Drift Kinetic Formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; White, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Calculations of collisional thermal and particle diffusivities in toroidal magnetic plasma confinement devices order the toroidal gyroradius to be small relative to the poloidal gyroradius. This ordering is central to what is usually referred to as neoclassical transport theory. This ordering is incorrect at low aspect ratio, where it can often be the case that the toroidal gyroradius is larger than the poloidal gyroradius. We calculate the correction to the particle and thermal diffusivities at low aspect ratio by comparing the diffusivities as determined by a full orbit code (which we refer to as omni-classical diffusion) with those from a gyroaveraged orbit code (neoclassical diffusion). In typical low aspect ratio devices the omni-classical diffusion can be up to 2.5 times the calculated neoclassical value. We discuss the implications of this work on the analysis of collisional transport in low aspect ratio magnetic confinement experiments

  7. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  8. Inward particle transport at high collisionality in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G. Q.; Ma, J.; Weiland, J.; Zang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    We have made the first drift wave study of particle transport in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (Wan et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104011 (2009)). The results reveal that collisions make the particle flux more inward in the high collisionality regime. This can be traced back to effects that are quadratic in the collision frequency. The particle pinch is due to electron trapping which is not very efficient in the high collisionality regime so the approach to equilibrium is slow. We have included also the electron temperature gradient (ETG) mode to give the right electron temperature gradient, since the Trapped Electron Mode (TE mode) is weak in this regime. However, at the ETG mode number ions are Boltzmann distributed so the ETG mode does not give particle transport

  9. Parallel Transport with Sheath and Collisional Effects in Global Electrostatic Turbulent Transport in FRCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Jian; Lau, Calvin; Kuley, Animesh; Lin, Zhihong; Fulton, Daniel; Tajima, Toshiki; Tri Alpha Energy, Inc. Team

    2017-10-01

    Collisional and turbulent transport in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is studied in global particle simulation by using GTC (gyrokinetic toroidal code). The global FRC geometry is incorporated in GTC by using a field-aligned mesh in cylindrical coordinates, which enables global simulation coupling core and scrape-off layer (SOL) across the separatrix. Furthermore, fully kinetic ions are implemented in GTC to treat magnetic-null point in FRC core. Both global simulation coupling core and SOL regions and independent SOL region simulation have been carried out to study turbulence. In this work, the ``logical sheath boundary condition'' is implemented to study parallel transport in the SOL. This method helps to relax time and spatial steps without resolving electron plasma frequency and Debye length, which enables turbulent transports simulation with sheath effects. We will study collisional and turbulent SOL parallel transport with mirror geometry and sheath boundary condition in C2-W divertor.

  10. Collisional dynamics of perturbed particle disks in the solar system. Annual technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, W.W.; Stewart, G.R.

    1987-03-01

    Investigations of the collisional evolution of particulate disks subject to the gravitational perturbation of a more massive particle orbiting within the disk are underway. Both numerical N-body simulations using a novel collision algorithm and analytical kinetic theory are being employed to extend our understanding of perturbed disks in planetary rings and during the formation of the solar system. Particular problems proposed for investigation are: (1) The development and testing of general criteria for a small moonlet to clear a gap and produce observable morphological features in planetary rings; (2) The development of detailed models of collisional damping of the wavy edges observed on the Encke division of Saturn's A ring; and (3) The determination of the extent of runaway growth of the few largest planetesimals during the early stages of planetary accretion

  11. Intramolecular migration of amide hydrogens in protonated peptides upon collisional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J. D.; Gårdsvoll, H.; Ploug, M.

    2005-01-01

    Presently different opinions exist as to the degree of scrambling of amide hydrogens in gaseous protonated peptides and proteins upon collisional activation in tandem mass spectrometry experiments. This unsettled controversy is not trivial, since only a very low degree of scrambling is tolerable...... if collision-induced dissociation (CID) should provide reliable site-specific information from (1)H/(2)H exchange experiments. We have explored a series of unique, regioselectively deuterium-labeled peptides as model systems to probe for intramolecular amide hydrogen migration under low-energy collisional...... are protected against exchange with the solvent, while the amide hydrogens of the nonbinding sequences exchange rapidly with the solvent. We have utilized such long-lived complexes to generate peptides labeled with deuterium in either the binding or nonbinding region, and the expected regioselectivity...

  12. Dielectric constant and laser beam propagation in an underdense collisional plasma: effects of electron temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Xiongping; Qin Zhen; Xu Bin; Cai Zebin

    2011-01-01

    Dielectric constant and laser beam propagation in an underdense collisional plasma are investigated, using the wave and dielectric function equations, for their dependence on the electron temperature. Simulation results show that, due to the influence of the ponderomotive force there is a nonlinear variation of electron temperature in an underdense collisional plasma, and this leads to a complicated and interesting nonlinear variation of dielectric constant; this nonlinear variation of dielectric constant directly affects the beam propagation and gives rise to laser beam self-focusing in some spatial-temporal regions; in particular, the beam width and the beam intensity present an oscillatory variation in the self-focusing region. The influence of several parameters on the dielectric function and beam self-focusing is discussed.

  13. On various validity criteria for the configuration average in collisional-radiative codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service ' Photons, Atomes et Molecules' , Centre d' Etudes de Saclay, F91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2008-01-28

    The characterization of out-of-local-thermal-equilibrium plasmas requires the use of collisional-radiative kinetic equations. This leads to the solution of large linear systems, for which statistical treatments such as configuration average may bring considerable simplification. In order to check the validity of this procedure, a criterion based on the comparison between a partial-rate systems and the Saha-Boltzmann solution is discussed in detail here. Several forms of this criterion are discussed. The interest of these variants is that they involve each type of relevant transition (collisional or radiative), which allows one to check separately the influence of each of these processes on the configuration-average validity. The method is illustrated by a charge-distribution analysis in carbon and neon plasmas. Finally, it is demonstrated that when the energy dispersion of every populated configuration is smaller than the electron thermal energy, the proposed criterion is fulfilled in each of its forms.

  14. Behavior of collisional sheath in electronegative plasma with q-nonextensive electron distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgohain, Dima Rani; Saharia, K.

    2018-03-01

    Electronegative plasma sheath is addressed in a collisional unmagnetized plasma consisting of q-nonextensive electrons, Boltzmann distributed negative ions and cold fluid positive ions. Considering the positive ion-neutral collisions and ignoring the effects of ionization and collisions between negative species and positive ions (neutrals), a modified Bohm sheath criterion and hence floating potential are derived by using multifluid model. Using the modified Bohm sheath criterion, the sheath characteristics such as spatial profiles of density, potential and net space charge density have been numerically investigated. It is found that increasing values of q-nonextensivity, electronegativity and collisionality lead to a decrease of the sheath thickness and an increase of the sheath potential and the net space charge density. With increasing values of the electron temperature to negative ion temperature ratio, the sheath thickness increases and the sheath potential as well as the net space charge density in the sheath region decreases.

  15. Collisional pumping for the production of intense spin-polarized neutral beams: target considerations. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stearns, J.W.; Burrell, C.F.; Kaplan, S.N.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.; Schlachter, A.S.

    1985-04-01

    Polarized beams at intensity levels heretofore not considered feasible have recently been proposed for heating and fueling fusion plasmas. Polarized-beam fueling could increase fusion rates by 50% as well as allow control of the directionality of the fusion products. A process which we have recently described, and called collisional pumping, promises to produce beams of polarized ions vastly more intense than producible by current methods

  16. Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot collisional plasma by inverse Faraday effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, M.K.; Lawande, S.V.; Dutta, D.; Sarkar, S.; Khan, M.; Chakraborty, B.

    1996-01-01

    Generation of poloidal magnetic field in a hot and collisional plasma by an inverse Faraday effect is discussed. This field can either be induced by a circularly polarized laser beam (CPLB) or a plane-polarized laser beam (PPLB). For the CPLB, an average field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 0 λ∼11.6 MG could be produced in a DT plasma for a high intensity (I 0 =10 22 W/m 2 ) and shorter wavelength (λ=0.35 μm) laser. This field is essentially induced by the field inhomogeneity effect and dominates over that induced by the plasma inhomogeneity effect (left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 2/3 0 λ 7/3 ∼2.42 MG). The collisional and thermal contribution to left-angle Re x right-angle is just negligible for the CPLB. However, in the case of PPLB the poloidal field is generated only for a hot and collisional plasma and can be quite large for a longer wavelength laser (e.g., CO 2 laser, λ=10.6 μm). The collisional effect induces a field left-angle Re x right-angle ∼0.08 kG, which dominates near the turning point and is independent of the laser parameters. However, in the outer cronal region the thermal pressure effect dominates (e.g., left-angle Re x right-angle ∼I 5/3 0 λ 4/3 ∼3.0 MG). Further, left-angle Re x right-angle for the p-polarized beam is, in general, relatively smaller than that for the s-polarized beam. Practical implications of these results and their limitations are discussed. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Feasibility of large-scale phosphoproteomics with higher energy collisional dissociation fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; D'Souza, Rochelle C J; Cox, Juergen

    2010-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics now enables the analysis of thousands of phosphorylation sites in single projects. Among a wide range of analytical approaches, the combination of high resolution MS scans in an Orbitrap analyzer with low resolution MS/MS scans in a linear ion trap has proven......-scale phosphoproteome analysis alongside collisional induced dissociation, (CID) and electron capture/transfer dissociation (ECD/ETD)....

  18. Measurement of collisional self broadening of atomic resonance lines in selective reflection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    A method is developed to measure directly the collisional self broadening rate for a dense atomic vapor from selective reflection spectra. Experimental realization for the atomic D 1 and D 2 resonance lines of Rb confirms a validity of the proposed technique. The deflection of experimentally measured values is not more than 20% from theoretically predicted ones in the atomic number density range of 7· 10 16 - 7· 10 17 cm - 3 . 10 refs

  19. Collisional Histories of Comets and Trojan Asteroids: Insights from Forsterite and Enstatite Impact Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer. S. M.; Jensen, E. A.; Wooden, D. H.; Lindsay, S. S.; Smith, D. C.; Cintala, M. J.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Keller, L. P.

    2012-01-01

    Impacts into forsterite and orthoenstatite at speeds typically encountered by comets demonstrate that shock imparted by collisions is detectable in the infrared signatures of their dust. The spectral signatures can be traced to physical alterations in their crystalline structures, as observed in TEM imaging and modeled using a dipole approximation. These results yield tantalizing insights into the collisional history of our solar system, as well as the history of individual comets and Trojan asteroids.

  20. A High-Order Transport Scheme for Collisional-Radiative and Nonequilibrium Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-06

    400–422, 1987. [18] M. P. F. Bristow and I. I. Glass. Polarizability of singly ionized argon . Physics of Fluids, 15(11):2066–2067, 1972. [19] A. Bultel...unsteady calculations. Numerical simulations of ionizing shocks in argon are conducted to gain insight to the shock structure and help determine the source...parameters used in previous research. . . . . . . . . 4 9.1 Rate coefficients for collisional-radiative model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 9.2 Argon

  1. Collisional broadening of depolarized spectral lines of hydrogen gases at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hout, K.D. van den.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for the collisional broadening and shift of H 2 , D 2 and HD rotational Raman and depolarized Rayleigh lines at various temperatures between 25 K and 300 K. These are then discussed within the context of current theoretical concepts. For a few temperatures the line broadening cross sections are also reported as a function of the ortho-para composition for H 2 and D 2 . (C.F.)

  2. Comment on 'Ion collection by a sphere in a flowing collisional plasma' [Phys. Plasmas 14, 034502 (2007)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I. H.

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that the numerical solutions presented in a recent paper discussing a highly simplified model of collisional particle collection are unnecessary because simple analytic solutions of the quantities presented are available

  3. Impact of plasma triangularity and collisionality on electron heat transport in TCV L-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camenen, Y.; Pochelon, A.; Behn, R.; Bottino, A.; Bortolon, A.; Coda, S.; Karpushov, A.; Sauter, O.; Zhuang, G.

    2007-01-01

    The impact of plasma shaping on electron heat transport is investigated in TCV L-mode plasmas. The study is motivated by the observation of an increase in the energy confinement time with decreasing plasma triangularity which may not be explained by a change in the temperature gradient induced by changes in the geometry of the flux surfaces. The plasma triangularity is varied over a wide range, from positive to negative values, and various plasmas conditions are explored by changing the total electron cyclotron (EC) heating power and the plasma density. The mid-radius electron heat diffusivity is shown to significantly decrease with decreasing triangularity and, for similar plasma conditions, only half of the EC power is required at a triangularity of -0.4 compared with +0.4 to obtain the same temperature profile. Besides, the observed dependence of the electron heat diffusivity on the electron temperature, electron density and effective charge can be grouped in a unique dependence on the plasma effective collisionality. In summary, the electron heat transport level exhibits a continuous decrease with decreasing triangularity and increasing collisionality. Local gyro-fluid and global gyro-kinetic simulations predict that trapped electron modes are the most unstable modes in these EC heated plasmas with an effective collisionality ranging from 0.2 to 1. The modes stability dependence on the plasma triangularity is investigated

  4. Determination of microturbulence enhanced electron collisionality in magnetized coaxial accelerator channels by direct magnetic field measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.C.; Mayo, R.M.; Caress, R.W.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature magnetic probe array, consisting of 10 spatially separated coils, has been used to obtain profile information on the time varying magnetic field within the 2.54 cm wide flow channel of the coaxial plasma source experiment (CPS-1) [R. M. Mayo et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 4, 47 (1995)]. The magnetic field data have been used, together with a resistive, Hall magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model of applied field distortion by the flowing plasma, to obtain estimates of the microturbulent enhancement to electron collisionality within the CPS-1 flow channel. These measurements provide direct experimental evidence of anomalous electron collisionality, a previously predicted effect in these devices. The anomaly parameter, a=ν an /ν cl , determined both from the distortion of contours of constant magnetic flux, and from local B θ and B z measurements scales with the classical electron magnetization parameter (Ω cl =ω ce /ν e cl ), indicating that collisionality plays a strong role in determining the level of anomalous transport in the plasma. When this anomaly parameter scaling is cast in terms of the ratio ν e cl /ω lh , it is found that the resistivity enhancement scales with ν e cl /ω lh , and becomes significant at ν e cl /ω lh ≤1, suggesting that a lower hybrid drift instability may be the responsible mechanism for enhanced transport. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Influence of non-collisional laser heating on the electron dynamics in dielectric materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barilleau, L.; Duchateau, G.; Chimier, B.; Geoffroy, G.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-12-01

    The electron dynamics in dielectric materials induced by intense femtosecond laser pulses is theoretically addressed. The laser driven temporal evolution of the energy distribution of electrons in the conduction band is described by a kinetic Boltzmann equation. In addition to the collisional processes for energy transfer such as electron-phonon-photon and electron-electron interactions, a non-collisional process for photon absorption in the conduction band is included. It relies on direct transitions between sub-bands of the conduction band through multiphoton absorption. This mechanism is shown to significantly contribute to the laser heating of conduction electrons for large enough laser intensities. It also increases the time required for the electron distribution to reach the equilibrium state as described by the Fermi-Dirac statistics. Quantitative results are provided for quartz irradiated by a femtosecond laser pulse with a wavelength of 800 nm and for intensities in the range of tens of TW cm-2, lower than the ablation threshold. The change in the energy deposition induced by this non-collisional heating process is expected to have a significant influence on the laser processing of dielectric materials.

  6. Collisional-Radiative Modeling of Tungsten at Temperatures of 1200–2400 eV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Colgan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We discuss new collisional-radiative modeling calculations of tungsten at moderate temperatures of 1200 to 2400 eV. Such plasma conditions are relevant to ongoing experimental work at ASDEX Upgrade and are expected to be relevant for ITER. Our calculations are made using the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL collisional-radiative modeling ATOMIC code. These calculations formed part of a submission to the recent NLTE-8 workshop that was held in November 2013. This series of workshops provides a forum for detailed comparison of plasma and spectral quantities from NLTE collisional-radiative modeling codes. We focus on the LANL ATOMIC calculations for tungsten that were submitted to the NLTE-8 workshop and discuss different models that were constructed to predict the tungsten emission. In particular, we discuss comparisons between semi-relativistic configuration-average and fully relativistic configuration-average calculations. We also present semi-relativistic calculations that include fine-structure detail, and discuss the difficult problem of ensuring completeness with respect to the number of configurations included in a CR calculation.

  7. Diagnostics of helium plasma by collisional-radiative modeling and optical emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Wonwook; Kwon, Duck-Hee [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Optical diagnostics for the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and the electron density (n{sub e}) of fusion plasma is important for understanding and controlling the edge and the divertor plasmas in tokamak. Since the line intensity ratio method using the collisional-radiative modeling and OES (optical emission spectroscopy) is simple and does not disturb the plasma, many fusion devices with TEXTOR, JET, JT-60U, LHD, and so on, have employed the line intensity ratio method as a basic diagnostic tool for neutral helium (He I). The accuracy of the line intensity ratio method depends on the reliability of the cross sections and rate coefficients. We performed state-of-the-art R-matrix calculations including couplings up to n=7 states and the distorted wave (DW) calculations for the electron-impact excitation (EIE) cross sections of He I using the flexible atomic code (FAC). The collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed using the calculated the cross sections. The helium collisional-radiative model for He I was constructed to diagnose the electron temperature and the electron density of the plasma. The electron temperature and density were determined by using the line intensity ratio method.

  8. Jet energy loss in quark-gluon plasma. Kinetic theory with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collisional kernel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Cheng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong [Central China Normal University, Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Wuhan, Hubei (China); Jiang, Bing-feng [Hubei University for Nationalities, Center for Theoretical Physics and School of Sciences, Enshi, Hubei (China)

    2017-10-15

    The dielectric functions ε{sub L}, ε{sub T} of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) are derived within the framework of the kinetic theory with BGK-type collisional kernel. The collision effect manifested by the collision rate is encoded in the dielectric functions. Based on the derived dielectric functions we study the collisional energy loss suffered by a fast parton traveling through the QGP. The numerical results show that the collision rate increases the energy loss. (orig.)

  9. Astrophysical Gyrokinetics: Kinetic and Fluid Turbulent Cascades In Magentized Weakly Collisional Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schekochihin, A. A.; Cowley, S. C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Howes, G. G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.

    2009-04-23

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulentmotions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the "inertial range" above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-fieldstrength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations

  10. Astrophysical Gyrokinetics: Kinetic and Fluid Turbulent Cascades In Magnetized Weakly Collisional Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schekochihin, A.A.; Cowley, S.C.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.; Howes, G.G.; Quataert, E.; Tatsuno, T.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical framework for understanding plasma turbulence in astrophysical plasmas. It is motivated by observations of electromagnetic and density fluctuations in the solar wind, interstellar medium and galaxy clusters, as well as by models of particle heating in accretion disks. All of these plasmas and many others have turbulent motions at weakly collisional and collisionless scales. The paper focuses on turbulence in a strong mean magnetic field. The key assumptions are that the turbulent fluctuations are small compared to the mean field, spatially anisotropic with respect to it and that their frequency is low compared to the ion cyclotron frequency. The turbulence is assumed to be forced at some system-specific outer scale. The energy injected at this scale has to be dissipated into heat, which ultimately cannot be accomplished without collisions. A kinetic cascade develops that brings the energy to collisional scales both in space and velocity. The nature of the kinetic cascade in various scale ranges depends on the physics of plasma fluctuations that exist there. There are four special scales that separate physically distinct regimes: the electron and ion gyroscales, the mean free path and the electron diffusion scale. In each of the scale ranges separated by these scales, the fully kinetic problem is systematically reduced to a more physically transparent and computationally tractable system of equations, which are derived in a rigorous way. In the 'inertial range' above the ion gyroscale, the kinetic cascade separates into two parts: a cascade of Alfvenic fluctuations and a passive cascade of density and magnetic-field strength fluctuations. The former are governed by the Reduced Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) equations at both the collisional and collisionless scales; the latter obey a linear kinetic equation along the (moving) field lines associated with the Alfvenic component (in the collisional limit, these compressive fluctuations

  11. Self-consistent Kinetic Simulation of RMP-driven Transport: Collisionality and Rotation Effects on RMP Penetration and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, G.; Jeon, Y.; Kim, J., E-mail: gypark@nfri.re.kr [NFRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Control of the edge localized modes (ELMs) is one of the most critical issues for a more successful operation of ITER and the future tokamak fusion reactors. This paper reports ITER relevant simulation results from the XGC0 drift-kinetic code, with respect to the collisionality, plasma density, and rotation dependence of the RMP penetration and the RMP-driven transport in diverted DIII-D geometry with neutral recycling. The simulation results are consistent with the experimental results, and contribute to the physics understanding needed for more confident extrapolation of the present RMP experiments to ITER. It is found that plasma-responded stochasticity becomes weaker as the collisionality gets higher and RMP-driven transport (i.e., density pump-out) is much weaker in the high collisionality case compared with that in the low collisionality one, which is consistent with the recent experimental results on DIII-D and ASDEX-U tokamaks. As for rotation effect, low rotation is found not to affect the stochasticity much in the edge region, while high rotation significantly suppresses the RMPs in the core. The clear difference in RMP behavior between the low and high collisionality regimes can be understood by examining the perturbed current Fourier amplitude profiles within the range of resonant poloidal mode numbers (m = 8 - 15, n = 3). It can be seen that primary shielding currents are strongly concentrated around the steep pedestal region just inside the separatrix, which naturally produces very strong suppression of RMPs there, in low collisionality case. However, in high collisionality case, primary shielding currents are very weak and accumulating toward inner radii leading to the shielding of RMPs further into the plasma. Our kinetic simulation method is also applied to the modeling of RMP ELM control experiments on KSTAR tokamak and the results will be presented together. (author)

  12. Olivine on Vesta as exogenous contaminants brought by impacts: Constraints from modeling Vesta's collisional history and from impact simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turrini, D.; Svetsov, V.; Consolmagno, G.; Sirono, S.; Pirani, S.

    2016-12-01

    The survival of asteroid Vesta during the violent early history of the Solar System is a pivotal constraint on theories of planetary formation. Particularly important from this perspective is the amount of olivine excavated from the vestan mantle by impacts, as this constrains both the interior structure of Vesta and the number of major impacts the asteroid suffered during its life. The NASA Dawn mission revealed that olivine is present on Vesta's surface in limited quantities, concentrated in small patches at a handful of sites not associated with the two large impact basins Rheasilvia and Veneneia. The first detections were interpreted as the result of the excavation of endogenous olivine, even if the depth at which the detected olivine originated was a matter of debate. Later works raised instead the possibility that the olivine had an exogenous origin, based on the geologic and spectral features of the deposits. In this work, we quantitatively explore the proposed scenario of a exogenous origin for the detected vestan olivine to investigate whether its presence on Vesta can be explained as a natural outcome of the collisional history of the asteroid over the last one or more billion years. To perform this study we took advantage of the impact contamination model previously developed to study the origin and amount of dark and hydrated materials observed by Dawn on Vesta, a model we updated by performing dedicated hydrocode impact simulations. We show that the exogenous delivery of olivine by the same impacts that shaped the vestan surface can offer a viable explanation for the currently identified olivine-rich sites without violating the constraint posed by the lack of global olivine signatures on Vesta. Our results indicate that no mantle excavation is in principle required to explain the observations of the Dawn mission and support the idea that the vestan crust could be thicker than indicated by simple geochemical models based on the Howardite

  13. Multispecies density peaking in gyrokinetic turbulence simulations of low collisionality Alcator C-Mod plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D. R., E-mail: dmikkelsen@pppl.gov; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Hill, K. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T.; Hughes, J. W.; Rice, J. E. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Reinke, M. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Podpaly, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); AAAS S and T Fellow placed in the Directorate for Engineering, NSF, 4201 Wilson Blvd., Arlington, Virginia 22230 (United States); Ma, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 175 Albany St., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Peaked density profiles in low-collisionality AUG and JET H-mode plasmas are probably caused by a turbulently driven particle pinch, and Alcator C-Mod experiments confirmed that collisionality is a critical parameter. Density peaking in reactors could produce a number of important effects, some beneficial, such as enhanced fusion power and transport of fuel ions from the edge to the core, while others are undesirable, such as lower beta limits, reduced radiation from the plasma edge, and consequently higher divertor heat loads. Fundamental understanding of the pinch will enable planning to optimize these impacts. We show that density peaking is predicted by nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations based on measured profile data from low collisionality H-mode plasma in Alcator C-Mod. Multiple ion species are included to determine whether hydrogenic density peaking has an isotope dependence or is influenced by typical levels of low-Z impurities, and whether impurity density peaking depends on the species. We find that the deuterium density profile is slightly more peaked than that of hydrogen, and that experimentally relevant levels of boron have no appreciable effect on hydrogenic density peaking. The ratio of density at r/a = 0.44 to that at r/a = 0.74 is 1.2 for the majority D and minority H ions (and for electrons), and increases with impurity Z: 1.1 for helium, 1.15 for boron, 1.3 for neon, 1.4 for argon, and 1.5 for molybdenum. The ion temperature profile is varied to match better the predicted heat flux with the experimental transport analysis, but the resulting factor of two change in heat transport has only a weak effect on the predicted density peaking.

  14. First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dif-Pradalier, G

    2008-10-15

    This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While

  15. The influence of collisional and anomalous radial diffusion on parallel ion transport in edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, P.; Hazeltine, R.D.; Catto, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    The orderings in the kinetic equations commonly used to study the plasma core of a tokamak do not allow a balance between parallel ion streaming and radial diffusion, and are, therefore, inappropriate in the plasma edge. Different orderings are required in the edge region where radial transport across the steep gradients associated with the scrape-off layer is large enough to balance the rapid parallel flow caused by conditions close to collecting surfaces (such as the Bohm sheath condition). In the present work, we derive and solve novel kinetic equations, allowing for such a balance, and construct distinctive transport laws for impure, collisional, edge plasmas in which the perpendicular transport is (i) due to Coulomb collisions of ions with heavy impurities, or (ii) governed by anomalous diffusion driven by electrostatic turbulence. In both the collisional and anomalous radial transport cases, we find that one single diffusion coefficient determines the radial transport of particles, momentum and heat. The parallel transport laws and parallel thermal force in the scrape-off layer assume an unconventional form, in which the relative ion-impurity flow is driven by a combination of the conventional parallel gradients, and new (i) collisional or (ii) anomalous terms involving products of radial derivatives of the temperature and density with the radial shear of the parallel velocity. Thus, in the presence of anomalous radial diffusion, the parallel ion transport cannot be entirely classical, as usually assumed in numerical edge computations. The underlying physical reason is the appearance of a novel type of parallel thermal force resulting from the combined action of anomalous diffusion and radial temperature and velocity gradients. In highly sheared flows the new terms can modify impurity penetration into the core plasma

  16. First-principle description of collisional gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dif-Pradalier, G.

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation starts in chapter 1 with a comprehensive introduction to nuclear fusion, its basic physics, goals and means. It especially defines the concept of a fusion plasma and some of its essential physical properties. The following chapter 2 discusses some fundamental concepts of statistical physics. It introduces the kinetic and the fluid frameworks, compares them and highlights their respective strengths and limitations. The end of the chapter is dedicated to the fluid theory. It presents two new sets of closure relations for fluid equations which retain important pieces of physics, relevant in the weakly collisional tokamak regimes: collective resonances which lead to Landau damping and entropy production. Nonetheless, since the evolution of the turbulence is intrinsically nonlinear and deeply influenced by velocity space effects, a kinetic collisional description is most relevant. First focusing on the kinetic aspect, chapter 3 introduces the so-called gyrokinetic framework along with the numerical solver - the GYSELA code - which will be used throughout this dissertation. Very generically, code solving is an initial value problem. The impact on turbulent nonlinear evolution of out of equilibrium initial conditions is discussed while studying transient flows, self-organizing dynamics and memory effects due to initial conditions. This dissertation introduces an operational definition, now of routine use in the GYSELA code, for the initial state and concludes on the special importance of the accurate calculation of the radial electric field. The GYSELA framework is further extended in chapter 4 to describe Coulomb collisions. The implementation of a collision operator acting on the full distribution function is presented. Its successful confrontation to collisional theory (neoclassical theory) is also shown. GYSELA is now part of the few gyrokinetic codes which can self-consistently address the interplay between turbulence and collisions. While

  17. New insights on the collisional escape of light neutrals from Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Marko; Zahnle, Kevin

    2017-04-01

    Photodissociative recombination (PDR) of atmospheric molecules on Mars is a major mechanism of production of hot (suprathermal) atoms with sufficient kinetic energy to either directly escape to space or to eject other atmospheric species. This collisional ejection mechanism is important for evaluating the escape rates of all light neutrals that are too heavy to escape via Jeans escape. In particular, it plays a role in estimating the total volume of escaped water constituents (i.e., O and H) from Mars, as well as influences evolution of the atmospheric [D]/[H] ratio1. We present revised estimates of total collisional escape rates of neutral light elements including H, He, and H2, based on recent (years 2015-2016) atmospheric density profiles obtained from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission. We also estimate the contribution to the collisional escape from Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENAs) produced in charge-exchange of solar wind H+ and He+ ions with atmospheric gases2,3. Scattering of hot oxygen and atmospheric species of interest is modeled using fully-quantum reactive scattering formalism1,3. The escape rates are evaluated using a 1D model of the atmosphere supplemented with MAVEN measurements of the neutrals. Finally, new estimates of contributions of these non-thermal mechanisms to the estimated PDR escape rates from young Mars4 are presented. [1] M. Gacesa and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal escape of molecular hydrogen from Mars", Geophys. Res. Lett., 39, L10203 (2012). [2] N. Lewkow and V. Kharchenko, "Precipitation of Energetic Neutral Atoms and Escape Fluxes induced from the Mars Atmosphere", Astroph. J., 790, 98 (2014). [3] M. Gacesa, N. Lewkow, and V. Kharchenko, "Non-thermal production and escape of OH from the upper atmosphere of Mars", Icarus 284, 90 (2017). [4] J. Zhao, F. Tian, Y. Ni, and X. Huang, "DR-induced escape of O and C from early Mars", Icarus 284, 305 (2017).

  18. Collisional ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.

    1985-07-01

    In low density, thin plasmas (such as stellar coronae, interstellar medium, intracluster medium) the ionization process is governed by collision between electrons and ions in their ground state. In view of the recent improvements we thought an updating of ionization rates was really needed. The work is based on both experimental data and theoretical works and give separate estimates for the direct and autoionization rates

  19. Neoclassical transport in a multiple-helicity torsatron in the low-collisionality (1/#betta#) regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K.C.; Hokin, S.A.

    1983-02-01

    For a sufficiently high number of field periods (m/iota > l), the magnetic field of a multiple helicity torsatron can be reduced to a simple form such that the second adiabatic invariant J can be calculated. It is found that the particle and the heat fluxes for a multiple helicity torsatron in the low collisionality (1/#betta#) regime have the same geometric dependences. An optimization of both quantities is carried out for a given equilibrium constraint. It is shown that the transport fluxes can be smaller than those of the conventional stellarator by an order of magnitude. The effect of finite plasma beta on the neoclassical fluxes is also studied

  20. Self-sustained collisional drift-wave turbulence in a sheared magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    Although collisional drift waves in a sheared slab configuration are linearly damped, it is found that the corresponding turbulence is self-sustaining if initialized at nonlinear amplitude. The influence of the free-energy source represented by the temperature and density gradients on the turbulent system involving bidirectional spectral energy transfer is responsible for this change of regime. Several important features of tokamak edge fluctuations are reproduced by these single-rational-surface nonlinear dynamics. As a result, drift-wave turbulence must still be considered as an underlying dynamic of anomalous transport in tokamak edges

  1. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata.

    1977-06-01

    The relation between the current generation by RF travelling field and the accompanied power absorption is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gas pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (auth.)

  2. Collisional redistribution of circularly polarized light in barium perturbed by argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alford, W.J.; Andersen, N.; Belsley, M.; Cooper, J.; Warrington, D.M.; Burnett, K.

    1984-01-01

    We have measured the orientation of the Ba 6p 1 P level produced by collision-induced excitation from the ground state by circularly polarized light. The detuning dependence of the far-wing excited state orientation can be interpreted in terms of reorientation of molecular orbitals which occur during the collision. Effects due to rotational coupling are seen to occure at large blue wing detunings. We have also determined the collisional rate for destruction of orientation by measuring the pressure dependence of the excited state orientation. (orig.)

  3. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)

  4. Study of carbon ion behavior by using collisional radiative model in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Kubota, Yuusuke; Saito, Masashi; Matama, Ken; Itakura, Akiyoshi; Cho, Teruji; Kato, Takako

    2006-01-01

    In a plasma experiment, collisional radiative model (CRM) is very useful model to evaluate impurity behaviors and plasma parameters with line emission from a plasma. CRMs for carbon and oxygen have been developed. However verification and application of the model for analysis of experimental results are not enough. Then we applied CRM calculation results to observed impurity spectra in the GAMMA 10 tandem mirror to evaluate the impurity density profile and the particle balance of each charge state of carbon ion. We calculated the effective ionization rate for each charge state of carbon ion and obtained the density profile of each ion. Moreover, we calculated absolute emission intensities from all carbon ions. (author)

  5. Experimental evidence for collisional shock formation via two obliquely merging supersonic plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Elizabeth C., E-mail: emerritt@lanl.gov; Adams, Colin S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States); Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C., E-mail: scotthsu@lanl.gov; Dunn, John P.; Miguel Holgado, A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Gilmore, Mark A. [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We report spatially resolved measurements of the oblique merging of two supersonic laboratory plasma jets. The jets are formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns using injected argon, and have electron density ∼10{sup 14} cm{sup −3}, electron temperature ≈1.4 eV, ionization fraction near unity, and velocity ≈40 km/s just prior to merging. The jet merging produces a few-cm-thick stagnation layer, as observed in both fast-framing camera images and multi-chord interferometer data, consistent with collisional shock formation [E. C. Merritt et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 085003 (2013)].

  6. Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability and shear-flow in equatorial Spread-F plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chakrabarti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Collisional Rayleigh-Taylor (RT instability is considered in the bottom side of the equatorial F-region. By a novel nonmodal calculation it is shown that for an applied shear flow in equilibrium, the growth of the instability is considerably reduced. Finite but small amounts of diffusion enhances the stabilization process. The results may be relevant to the observations of long-lived irregularities at the bottom-side of the F-layer.Key words. Ionosphere (ionospheric irregularities, equatorial ionosphere, plasma waves and instabilities

  7. Gyrokinetic simulations in general geometry and applications to collisional damping of zonal flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Hahm, T.S.; Lee, W.W.; Tang, W.M.; White, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional gyrokinetic particle code using magnetic coordinates for general geometry has been developed and applied to the investigation of zonal flows dynamics in toroidal ion-temperature-gradient turbulence. Full torus simulation results support the important conclusion that turbulence-driven zonal flows significantly reduce the turbulent transport. Linear collisionless simulations for damping of an initial poloidal flow perturbation exhibit an asymptotic residual flow. The collisional damping of this residual causes the dependence of ion thermal transport on the ion-ion collision frequency even in regimes where the instabilities are collisionless

  8. Simulation of collisional effects on divertor pumping in JT-60SA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleason-González, C., E-mail: cristian.gleason@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Baden-Württemberg 76344 (Germany); Varoutis, S.; Luo, X. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Baden-Württemberg 76344 (Germany); Shimizu, K.; Nakano, T.; Hoshino, K.; Kawashima, H.; Asakura, N. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Day, Chr. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, Baden-Württemberg 76344 (Germany); Sakurai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The exhausted (sub-divertor) gas flows calculations in tokamaks by means of three approaches: ProVac3D, DIVGAS and NEUT2D. • Exhausted neutral gas flow is modeled for two scenarios of a simplified JT-60SA sub-divertor geometry. • A modelled scenario with a simplified setup is done by using two intrinsic collisionless approaches: ProVac3D and NEUT2D and a third approach: DIVGAS, which has been used without its collision module for a direct comparison with the other two. The solvers are cross-checked in terms of the reproduction of the transmission probability. • A second case study is based on the Scenario # 2 of JT-60SA, where the assessment of collisionality in the sub-divertor was done. The gas flow is simulated by using DIVGAS with and without consideration of collisions. • The results include the transmission probability in JT-60SA sub-divertor, the Knudsen number, which characterizes the collisionality of the flow, velocity profiles, pressure and temperature distributions. - Abstract: In this work, the exhausted neutral gas flow is modeled for two cases of a simplified JT-60SA sub-divertor geometry and compared via three different approaches, namely (i) a collisionless approach based on the ProVac3D code, (ii) the DSMC approach based on the DIVGAS code that can be run with and without consideration of particle collisions, and (iii) the NEUT2D approach which has been extensively used in the past for the JT-60 design. In a first case study, the transmission probability was calculated by the 3 approaches and very good agreement is found between NEUT2D-ProVac3D whereas discrepancies between DIVGAS and NEUT2D are found and further analyzed. In the second case, the assessment of collisions is done by means of DIVGAS. Simulations showed that the flow is found in the transitional regime with Kn numbers between 0.1 and 0.4. The DIVGAS collisionless case yielded lower values of temperature than the collisional one by factors of 0.5–0.8 in

  9. Collisional boundary layer analysis for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K. C.; Cahyna, P.; Becoulet, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Chu, M. S.

    2008-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the pitch angle integrals in the transport fluxes in the ν regime calculated in K. C. Shang [Phys. Plasmas 10, 1443 (2003)] are divergent as the trapped-circulating boundary is approached. Here, ν is the collision frequency. The origin of this divergence results from the logarithmic dependence in the bounce averaged radial drift velocity. A collisional boundary layer analysis is developed to remove the singularity. The resultant pitch angle integrals now include not only the original physics of the ν regime but also the boundary layer physics. The transport fluxes, caused by the particles inside the boundary layer, scale as √(ν)

  10. Stochastic theory of relaxation and collisional broadening of spectral line shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faid, K.

    1986-01-01

    A complete stochastic theory of relaxation is developed in terms of a homogeneous equation for the averaged density matrix of a system immersed in a thermal bath. This theory is then used as the basis of a new stochastic approach to the phenomenon of collisional broadening of spectral line shapes. Single-photon and multiphoton processes are studied. The features of a line shape are linked by simple expressions to the statistical properties of a stochastic hermitian Hamiltonian. The ordinary line shape predicted by Kubo's approach is generalized. The present approach predicts broadening as well as asymmetry and shift. A representation of line shapes in multiphoton processes by diagrams is also developed

  11. A phenomenological model for collisional coherence transfer in an optically pumped atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khanbekyan, K; Bevilaqua, G; Mariotti, E; Moi, L [Universita degli Studi di Siena, Siena, 53100 (Italy); Khanbekyan, A; Papoyan, A, E-mail: karen.khanbekyan@gmail.com [Institute for Physical Research, National Academy of Sciences, Ashtarak 2 (Armenia)

    2011-03-14

    We consider a dual {Lambda}-system under double laser excitation to investigate the possibility of indirect coherence transfer between atomic ground states through an excited state. The atomic system is excited by a frequency modulated pump laser and probed by a low-power cw laser. All the decoherence mechanisms are discussed and taken into account. Adjustment of parameters of the two radiations aimed at maximization of coherence transfer is addressed. The study can help to understand the phenomena as collisional transfer of coherence and can find application in the experimental realization of atomic sensors.

  12. A one-dimensional collisional model for plasma-immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vahedi, V.; Lieberman, M.A.; Alves, M.V.; Verboncoeur, J.P.; Birdsall, C.K.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma-immersion ion implantation (also known as plasma-source ion implantation) is a process in which a target is immersed in a plasma and a series of large negative-voltage pulses are applied to it to extract ions from the plasma and implant them into the target. A general one-dimensional model is developed to study this process in different coordinate systems for the case in which the pressure of the neutral gas is large enough that the ion motion in the sheath can be assumed to be highly collisional

  13. Velocity-changing collisional effects in nonlinear atomic spectroscopy and photon echo decay in gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    A general theory of atomic dipole coherence under the influence of collisional phase changes, inelastic effects and optically active atom velocity changes, including those due to anisotropic interactions is presented. Velocity change effects are obtained in closed form. Line shapes appear as convolutions of standard pressure broadening contours with velocity-change contours. Width and shift parameters for the He-broadened Na D lines at 2 m bar pressure, 380 K are calculated, as are He-induced photon echo decay rates for these lines. Overall agreement with xperiment is reasonably good.

  14. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  15. A quiver kinetic formulation of radio frequency heating and confinement in collisional edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catto, P.J.; Myra, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The near fields in the collisional edge plasma of a radio frequency heated tokamak can cause one or more charged species to oscillate in the applied field with a quiver (or jitter) speed comparable to its thermal speed. By assuming the quiver motion dominates over drifts and gyromotion a completely new kinetic description of the flows in an edge plasma is formulated which retains Coulomb collisions and the relevant atomic processes. Moment equations are employed to obtain a description in which only a lowest order quiver kinetic equation need be solved to evaluate the slow time particle fluxes and current induced by the applied fields. The electron heating by collisional randomization of their quiver motion (inverse bremsstrahlung) is balanced by impact excitation losses since equilibration with the ions is too weak. A model plasma of electrons, neutrals, and a single cold ion species is considered to illustrate the utility of the quiver kinetic formulation. The model predicts local electrostatic potential changes and a local /rvec E//times//rvec B/ convective flux that is of the same magnitude and scaling as would be predicted by Bohm diffusion. 30 refs

  16. Collisional effects in the ion Weibel instability for two counter-propagating plasma streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Fiuza, F.; Huntington, C. M.; Ross, J. S.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Experiments directed towards the study of the collisionless interaction between two counter-streaming plasma flows generated by high-power lasers are designed in such a way as to make collisions between the ions of the two flows negligibly rare. This is reached by making flow velocities v as high as possible and thereby exploiting the 1/v{sup 4} dependence of the Rutherford cross-section. At the same time, the plasma temperature of each flow may be relatively low so that collisional mean-free paths for the intra-stream particle collisions may be much smaller than the characteristic spatial scale of the unstable modes required for the shock formation. The corresponding effects are studied in this paper for the case of the ion Weibel (filamentation) instability. Dispersion relations for the case of strong intra-stream collisions are derived. It is shown that the growth-rates become significantly smaller than those stemming from a collisionless model. The underlying physics is mostly related to the increase of the electron stabilizing term. Additional effects are an increased “stiffness” of the collisional ion gas and the ion viscous dissipation. A parameter domain where collisions are important is identified.

  17. Radiative transport and collisional transfer of excitation energy in Cs vapors mixed with Ar or He

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadla, Cedomil; Horvatic, Vlasta; Niemax, Kay

    2003-01-01

    This paper is a review (with a few original additions) on the radiative transport and collisional transfer of energy in laser-excited cesium vapors in the presence of argon or helium. Narrow-band excitation of lines with Lorentz, Doppler and Voigt profiles is studied in order to calculate effective rates for pumping of spectral lines with profiles comprising inhomogeneous broadening components. The radiative transport of excitation energy is considered, and a new, simple and robust, but accurate theoretical method for quantitative treatment of radiation trapping in relatively optically thin media is presented. Furthermore, comprehensive lists of experimental values for the excitation energy transfer cross-sections related to thermal collisions in Cs-Ar and Cs-He mixtures are given. Within the collected cross-section data sets, specific regularities with respect to the energy defect, as well as the temperature, are discerned. A particular emphasis is put on the radiative and collisional processes important for the optimization of resonance-fluorescence imaging atomic filters based on Cs-noble gas systems

  18. Collisional ionization of Na by HBr in weak to strong electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safinya, K.A.; Gallagher, T.F.; Sandner, W.; Gounand, F.

    1985-01-01

    We report the effect of static electric fields on the collisional ionization of highly excited sodium atoms by HBr. The binding energy dependence of the collisional ionization cross section is measured at zero field and in static electric fields up to that point at which the atom field ionizes. The applied electric field lowers the ionization threshold of the atom from its zero field value. Therefore an atom near the ionization threshold in an electric field is of smaller size than a free field atom with the same binding energy. Thus measuring the binding energy dependence of the cross section at different values of the electric field allows us to study the effects of the physical size of the atom on the cross section. The effect of the electric field was to lower the measured ionization cross section. However, the binding energy dependence of the cross section remains unchanged at the level of our measurement accuracy. The measured cross sections are larger for larger atoms, exhibit a drop with increasing binding energy characteristic of rotational to electronic excitation transfer, and are of order 10 -12 --10 -11 cm 2 . A simple calculation based on dipole (J→ J-1) excitation transfer from the molecule to the atom predicts, with good agreement, the binding energy dependence of the cross section. The electric field dependence of the data however, is not shown in the theory

  19. Development of collisional data base for elementary processes of electron scattering by atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marinković, Bratislav P., E-mail: bratislav.marinkovic@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Applied Studies, Vojvode Stepe 283, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Vujčić, Veljko [Astronomical Observatory Belgade, Volgina 7, 11050 Belgrade (Serbia); Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Jove Ilića 154, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sushko, Gennady [MBN Research Center, Altenhöferallee 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Vudragović, Dušan [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Marinković, Dara B. [Faculty of Organizational Sciences, University of Belgrade, Jove Ilića 154, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Đorđević, Stefan; Ivanović, Stefan; Nešić, Milutin [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Applied Studies, Vojvode Stepe 283, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jevremović, Darko [Astronomical Observatory Belgade, Volgina 7, 11050 Belgrade (Serbia); Solov’yov, Andrey V. [MBN Research Center, Altenhöferallee 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mason, Nigel J. [The Open University, Department of Physical Sciences, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    Highlights: • BEAMDB database maintaining electron/atom-molecule collisional data has been created. • The DB is MySQL, the web server is Nginx and Python application server is Gunicorn. • Only data that have been previously published and formally refereed are included. • Data protocol for exchanging and representing data is in the “xsams” xml format. • BEAMDB becomes a node within the VAMDC consortium and radiation damage RADAM basis. - Abstract: We present a progress report on the development of the Belgrade electron/molecule data base which is hosted by The Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade and The Astronomical Observatory Belgrade. The data base has been developed under the standards of Virtual Atomic Molecular Data Centre (VAMDC) project which provides a common portal for several European data bases that maintain atomic and molecular data. The Belgrade data base (BEAMDB) covers collisional data of electron interactions with atoms and molecules in the form of differential (DCS) and integrated cross sections as well as energy loss spectra. The final goal of BEAMDB becoming both a node within the VAMDC consortium and within the radiation damage RADAM data base has been achieved.

  20. Use of nonlocal helium microplasma for gas impurities detection by the collisional electron spectroscopy method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly A., E-mail: akud@ak2138.spb.edu [St. Petersburg State University, 7-9 Universitetskaya nab., 199034 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Stefanova, Margarita S.; Pramatarov, Petko M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee blvd., 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2015-10-15

    The collisional electron spectroscopy (CES) method, which lays the ground for a new field for analytical detection of gas impurities at high pressures, has been verified. The CES method enables the identification of gas impurities in the collisional mode of electron movement, where the advantages of nonlocal formation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are fulfilled. Important features of dc negative glow microplasma and probe method for plasma diagnostics are applied. A new microplasma gas analyzer design is proposed. Admixtures of 0.2% Ar, 0.6% Kr, 0.1% N{sub 2}, and 0.05% CO{sub 2} are used as examples of atomic and molecular impurities to prove the possibility for detecting and identifying their presence in high pressure He plasma (50–250 Torr). The identification of the particles under analysis is made from the measurements of the high energy part of the EEDF, where maxima appear, resulting from the characteristic electrons released in Penning reactions of He metastable atoms with impurity particles. Considerable progress in the development of a novel miniature gas analyzer for chemical sensing in gas phase environments has been made.

  1. Band-structure-based collisional model for electronic excitations in ion-surface collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faraggi, M.N.; Gravielle, M.S.; Alducin, M.; Silkin, V.M.; Juaristi, J.I.

    2005-01-01

    Energy loss per unit path in grazing collisions with metal surfaces is studied by using the collisional and dielectric formalisms. Within both theories we make use of the band-structure-based (BSB) model to represent the surface interaction. The BSB approach is based on a model potential and provides a precise description of the one-electron states and the surface-induced potential. The method is applied to evaluate the energy lost by 100 keV protons impinging on aluminum surfaces at glancing angles. We found that when the realistic BSB description of the surface is used, the energy loss obtained from the collisional formalism agrees with the dielectric one, which includes not only binary but also plasmon excitations. The distance-dependent stopping power derived from the BSB model is in good agreement with available experimental data. We have also investigated the influence of the surface band structure in collisions with the Al(100) surface. Surface-state contributions to the energy loss and electron emission probability are analyzed

  2. Dust effect on the collisional pumping of the H2O cosmic maser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolgova, G.T.; Strel'nitskij, V.S.; Shmeld, I.K.

    1977-01-01

    The rate equations for the pupulations of 48 ortho-H 2 O rotational levels are solved simultaneously with the equations of the radiative transfer in the rotational lines, accounting for the continuous absorption and emission of resonance photon by dust grains. The radiative transport was treated in a model of a homogeneous isothermal plane-parallel slab, approximating the region of collisional pumping behind a shock front. It is found, that continuous absorption and emission may strongly influence the character of the distribution of the rotational level populations. Depending on the relation between the kinetic temperature Tsub(k) and the dust temperature Tsub(d) the ''turning on'' of the dust may either greatly increase the inversion of the 6 16 -5 23 transition (when Tsub(d) < Tsub(k)) or, on the contrary, greatly decrease and even liquidate the inversion (when Tsub(d)=Tsub(k)). The sink of the rotational photons on the cold dust reduces the thermalizing effect of the radiation trapping, reestablishing the inversion of many transitions provided by the collisional pumping

  3. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  4. Collisional quenching of cometary emission in the 18 centimeter OH transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schloerb, F.P.

    1988-01-01

    A model of collisional quenching of the OH 2Pi(3/2) J = 3/2 Lambda doublet in cometary comae is presented. It is found that collisions with ions and electrons in the outer coma have a strong quenching effect on the Swings-effect inversion of the Lambda doublet that is responsible for the OH radio emission at 18 cm wavelength. For the conditions of Halley's comet, collisional quenching should lead radio observers to systematically underestimate the OH parent production rate by a factor of approximately 3 relative to its actual value, and in general, radio-derived production rates should always be less than or equal to UV-derived production rates, which are relatively unaffected by this process. The observation that UV production rates exceed those derived by radio techniques is well known; the direct measurement of this ratio, using a consistent coma model, should provide information about the ion and electron content of the cometary coma. 22 references

  5. Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model for internal energy excitation and dissociation in hypersonic flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munafò, A; Panesi, M; Magin, T E

    2014-02-01

    A Boltzmann rovibrational collisional coarse-grained model is proposed to reduce a detailed kinetic mechanism database developed at NASA Ames Research Center for internal energy transfer and dissociation in N(2)-N interactions. The coarse-grained model is constructed by lumping the rovibrational energy levels of the N(2) molecule into energy bins. The population of the levels within each bin is assumed to follow a Boltzmann distribution at the local translational temperature. Excitation and dissociation rate coefficients for the energy bins are obtained by averaging the elementary rate coefficients. The energy bins are treated as separate species, thus allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. The proposed coarse-grained model is applied to the study of nonequilibrium flows behind normal shock waves and within converging-diverging nozzles. In both cases, the flow is assumed inviscid and steady. Computational results are compared with those obtained by direct solution of the master equation for the rovibrational collisional model and a more conventional multitemperature model. It is found that the proposed coarse-grained model is able to accurately resolve the nonequilibrium dynamics of internal energy excitation and dissociation-recombination processes with only 20 energy bins. Furthermore, the proposed coarse-grained model provides a superior description of the nonequilibrium phenomena occurring in shock heated and nozzle flows when compared with the conventional multitemperature models.

  6. Nonlinear coherent structures of Alfvén wave in a collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jana, Sayanee; Chakrabarti, Nikhil; Ghosh, Samiran

    2016-01-01

    The Alfvén wave dynamics is investigated in the framework of two-fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the finite amplitude limit, the dynamics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave is found to be governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation (mKdVB). In this mKdVB equation, the electron inertia is found to act as a source of dispersion, and the electron-ion collision serves as a dissipation. The collisional dissipation is eventually responsible for the Burgers term in mKdVB equation. In the long wavelength limit, this weakly nonlinear Alfvén wave is shown to be governed by a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, these nonlinear equations are analyzed by means of analytical calculation and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Results reveal that nonlinear Alfvén wave exhibits the dissipation mediated shock, envelope, and breather like structures. Numerical simulations also predict the formation of dissipative Alfvénic rogue wave, giant breathers, and rogue wave holes. These results are discussed in the context of the space plasma.

  7. Laser plasma physics in shock ignition – transition from collisional to collisionless absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimo O.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Shock Ignition is considered as a relatively robust and efficient approach to inertial confinement fusion. A strong converging shock, which is used to ignite the fuel, is launched by a high power laser pulse with intensity in the range of 1015 − 1016 W/cm2 (at the wavelength of 351 nm. In the lower end of this intensity range the interaction is dominated by collisions while the parametric instabilities are playing a secondary role. This is manifested in a relatively weak reflectivity and efficient electron heating. The interaction is dominated by collective effects at the upper edge of the intensity range. The stimulated Brillouin and Raman scattering (SBS and SRS respectively take place in a less dense plasma and cavitation provides an efficient collisionless absorption mechanism. The transition from collisional to collisionless absorption in laser plasma interactions at higher intensities is studied here with the help of large scale one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell (PIC simulations. The relation between the collisional and collisionless processes is manifested in the energy spectrum of electrons transporting the absorbed laser energy and in the spectrum of the reflected laser light.

  8. MODELING COLLISIONAL CASCADES IN DEBRIS DISKS: STEEP DUST-SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gáspár, András; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Rieke, George H.; Özel, Feryal

    2012-01-01

    We explore the evolution of the mass distribution of dust in collision-dominated debris disks, using the collisional code introduced in our previous paper. We analyze the equilibrium distribution and its dependence on model parameters by evolving over 100 models to 10 Gyr. With our numerical models, we confirm that systems reach collisional equilibrium with a mass distribution that is steeper than the traditional solution by Dohnanyi. Our model yields a quasi-steady-state slope of n(m) ∼ m –1.88 [n(a) ∼ a –3.65 ] as a robust solution for a wide range of possible model parameters. We also show that a simple power-law function can be an appropriate approximation for the mass distribution of particles in certain regimes. The steeper solution has observable effects in the submillimeter and millimeter wavelength regimes of the electromagnetic spectrum. We assemble data for nine debris disks that have been observed at these wavelengths and, using a simplified absorption efficiency model, show that the predicted slope of the particle-mass distribution generates spectral energy distributions that are in agreement with the observed ones.

  9. The effect of plasma collisionality on pedestal current density formation in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, D M; Leonard, A W; Osborne, T H; Groebner, R J; West, W P; Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    The evolution and performance limits for the pedestal in H-mode are dependent on the two main drive terms for instability: namely the edge pressure gradient and the edge current density. These terms are naturally coupled though neoclassical (Pfirsch-Schluter and bootstrap) effects. On DIII-D, local measurements of the edge current density are made using an injected lithium beam in conjunction with Zeeman polarimetry and compared with pressure profile measurements made with other diagnostics. These measurements have confirmed the close spatial and temporal correlation that exists between the measured current density and the edge pressure in H- and QH-mode pedestals, where substantial pressure gradients exist. In the present work we examine the changes in the measured edge current for DIII-D pedestals which have a range of values for the ion and electron collisionalities {l_brace}{upsilon}{sub i}*,{upsilon}{sub e}*{r_brace} due to fuelling effects. Such changes in the collisionality in the edge are expected to significantly alter the level of the bootstrap current from the value predicted from the collisionless limit and therefore should correspondingly alter the pedestal stability limits. We find a clear decrease in measured current as {nu} increases, even for discharges having similar edge pressure gradients.

  10. Investigation of collisional excitation-transfer processes in a plasma by laser perturbation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Takeki

    1983-01-01

    The theoretical background and the experimental method of the laser perturbation method applied to the study of collisional excitation transfer process in plasma are explained. The atomic density at some specified level can be evaluated theoretically. By using the theoretical results and the experimentally obtained data, the total attenuation probability, the collisional transfer probability and natural emission probability were estimated. For the experiments, continuous wave laser (cw) and pulse laser are employed. It is possible by using pulse dye laser to observe the attenuation curve directly, and to bring in resonance to any atomic spectra. At the beginning, the experimental studies were made on He-Ne discharge. The pulse dye laser has been used for the excitation of alkali atoms. The first application of pulse laser to the study of plasma physics was the study on He. The cross section of disalignment has also been studied by the laser perturbation. The alignment of atoms, step and cascade transfer, the confinement of radiation and optogalvanic effect are discussed in this paper. (Kato, T.)

  11. Nonlinear coherent structures of Alfvén wave in a collisional plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jana, Sayanee; Chakrabarti, Nikhil [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Ghosh, Samiran [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta, 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2016-07-15

    The Alfvén wave dynamics is investigated in the framework of two-fluid approach in a compressible collisional magnetized plasma. In the finite amplitude limit, the dynamics of the nonlinear Alfvén wave is found to be governed by a modified Korteweg-de Vries Burgers equation (mKdVB). In this mKdVB equation, the electron inertia is found to act as a source of dispersion, and the electron-ion collision serves as a dissipation. The collisional dissipation is eventually responsible for the Burgers term in mKdVB equation. In the long wavelength limit, this weakly nonlinear Alfvén wave is shown to be governed by a damped nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Furthermore, these nonlinear equations are analyzed by means of analytical calculation and numerical simulation to elucidate the various aspects of the phase-space dynamics of the nonlinear wave. Results reveal that nonlinear Alfvén wave exhibits the dissipation mediated shock, envelope, and breather like structures. Numerical simulations also predict the formation of dissipative Alfvénic rogue wave, giant breathers, and rogue wave holes. These results are discussed in the context of the space plasma.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Collisional Cascades at the Roche Limits of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2017-08-01

    We consider the long-term collisional and dynamical evolution of solid material orbiting in a narrow annulus near the Roche limit of a white dwarf. With orbital velocities of 300 {km} {{{s}}}-1, systems of solids with initial eccentricity e≳ {10}-3 generate a collisional cascade where objects with radii r ≲ 100{--}300 {km} are ground to dust. This process converts 1-100 km asteroids into 1 μm particles in 102-106 yr. Throughout this evolution, the swarm maintains an initially large vertical scale height H. Adding solids at a rate \\dot{M} enables the system to find an equilibrium where the mass in solids is roughly constant. This equilibrium depends on \\dot{M} and {r}0, the radius of the largest solid added to the swarm. When {r}0 ≲ 10 km, this equilibrium is stable. For larger {r}0, the mass oscillates between high and low states; the fraction of time spent in high states ranges from 100% for large \\dot{M} to much less than 1% for small \\dot{M}. During high states, the stellar luminosity reprocessed by the solids is comparable to the excess infrared emission observed in many metallic line white dwarfs.

  13. Tungsten Ions in Plasmas: Statistical Theory of Radiative-Collisional Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Demura

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The statistical model for calculations of the collisional-radiative processes in plasmas with tungsten impurity was developed. The electron structure of tungsten multielectron ions is considered in terms of both the Thomas-Fermi model and the Brandt-Lundquist model of collective oscillations of atomic electron density. The excitation or ionization of atomic electrons by plasma electron impacts are represented as photo-processes under the action of flux of equivalent photons introduced by E. Fermi. The total electron impact single ionization cross-sections of ions Wk+ with respective rates have been calculated and compared with the available experimental and modeling data (e.g., CADW. Plasma radiative losses on tungsten impurity were also calculated in a wide range of electron temperatures 1 eV–20 keV. The numerical code TFATOM was developed for calculations of radiative-collisional processes involving tungsten ions. The needed computational resources for TFATOM code are orders of magnitudes less than for the other conventional numerical codes. The transition from corona to Boltzmann limit was investigated in detail. The results of statistical approach have been tested by comparison with the vast experimental and conventional code data for a set of ions Wk+. It is shown that the universal statistical model accuracy for the ionization cross-sections and radiation losses is within the data scattering of significantly more complex quantum numerical codes, using different approximations for the calculation of atomic structure and the electronic cross-sections.

  14. Collisional activation by MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry induces intramolecular migration of amide hydrogens in protonated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Bache, Nicolai; Roepstorff, Peter

    2005-01-01

    of doubly protonated peptides that the original regioselective deuterium pattern of these peptides is completely erased (Jørgensen, T. J. D., Gårdsvoll, H., Ploug, M., and Roepstorff, P. (2005) Intramolecular migration of amide hydrogens in protonated peptides upon collisional activation. J. Am. Chem. Soc...... randomization among all exchangeable sites (i.e. all N- and O-linked hydrogens) also occurs upon high energy collisional activation of singly protonated peptides. This intense proton/deuteron traffic precludes the use of MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry to obtain reliable information...

  15. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Correlations and Fluctuations in Weakly Collisional Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiff, Frederick [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Plasma is a state of matter that exhibits a very rich range of phenomena. To begin with, plasma is both electrical and mechanical - bringing together theories of particle motion and the electromagnetic field. Furthermore, and especially important for this project, a weakly-collisional plasma, such as is found in high-temperature (fusion energy) experiments on earth and the majority of contexts in space and astrophysics, has many moving parts. For example, sitting in earth’s atmosphere we are immersed in a mechanical wave field (sound), a possibly turbulent fluid motion (wind), and an electromagnetic vector wave field with two polarizations (light). This is already enough to produce a rich range of possibilities. In plasma, the electromagnetic field is coupled to the mechanical motion of the medium because it is ionized. Furthermore, a weakly-collisional plasma supports an infinite number of mechanically independent fluids. Thus, plasmas support an infinite number of independent electromechanical waves. Much has been done to describe plasmas with "reduced models" of various kinds. The goal of this project was to both explore the validity of reduced plasma models that are in use, and to propose and validate new models of plasma motion. The primary means to his end was laboratory experiments employing both electrical probes and laser spectroscopy. Laser spectroscopy enables many techniques which can separate the spectrum of independent fluid motions in the ion phase-space. The choice was to focus on low frequency electrostatic waves because the electron motion is relatively simple, the experiments can be on a spatial scale of a few meters, and all the relevant parameters can be measured with a few lasers systems. No study of this kind had previously been undertaken for the study of plasmas. The validation of theories required that the experimental descriptions be compared with theory and simulation in detail. It was found that even multi-fluid theories leave out a

  16. Collisional erosion and the non-chondritic composition of the terrestrial planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Hugh St C; Palme, Herbert

    2008-11-28

    The compositional variations among the chondrites inform us about cosmochemical fractionation processes during condensation and aggregation of solid matter from the solar nebula. These fractionations include: (i) variable Mg-Si-RLE ratios (RLE: refractory lithophile element), (ii) depletions in elements more volatile than Mg, (iii) a cosmochemical metal-silicate fractionation, and (iv) variations in oxidation state. Moon- to Mars-sized planetary bodies, formed by rapid accretion of chondrite-like planetesimals in local feeding zones within 106 years, may exhibit some of these chemical variations. However, the next stage of planetary accretion is the growth of the terrestrial planets from approximately 102 embryos sourced across wide heliocentric distances, involving energetic collisions, in which material may be lost from a growing planet as well as gained. While this may result in averaging out of the 'chondritic' fractionations, it introduces two non-chondritic chemical fractionation processes: post-nebular volatilization and preferential collisional erosion. In the latter, geochemically enriched crust formed previously is preferentially lost. That post-nebular volatilization was widespread is demonstrated by the non-chondritic Mn/Na ratio in all the small, differentiated, rocky bodies for which we have basaltic samples, including the Moon and Mars. The bulk silicate Earth (BSE) has chondritic Mn/Na, but shows several other compositional features in its pattern of depletion of volatile elements suggestive of non-chondritic fractionation. The whole-Earth Fe/Mg ratio is 2.1+/-0.1, significantly greater than the solar ratio of 1.9+/-0.1, implying net collisional erosion of approximately 10 per cent silicate relative to metal during the Earth's accretion. If this collisional erosion preferentially removed differentiated crust, the assumption of chondritic ratios among all RLEs in the BSE would not be valid, with the BSE depleted in elements according to their

  17. Pan African Collisional Tectonics Along the Moroccan West African Craton Continued to Ediacaran-Cambrian Boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Samson, S. D.; Rice, K.; Soulaimani, A.

    2016-12-01

    Precision geochronologic dating and field mapping in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco document a Neoproterozoic Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three distinct orogenic events: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (760-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (680-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620 Ma to either 555 or 544 Ma). The Iriri-Tichibanine and Bou Azzer orogenies involved northward directed subduction beneath island arc volcanic terranes. These orogenic events generated calc-alkaline magmatism and supra-subduction zone ophiolites exposed in the Bou Azzer and Siroua erosional inliers. The WACadomian orogeny involved subduction and collision of the Cadomia arc complex with the West African Craton and generation of clastic sedimentary basins. The termination of the WACadomian orogeny has been the subject of debate as calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and folding continued to 544 Ma: Was 620-544 Ma calc-alkaline to high K magmatism and clastic basin development due to a) continental rift basin tectonics or b) southward directed subduction and collisional tectonics with associated back arc basin tectonism? We present field and geochemical data supporting the continuation of subduction-collisional tectonics to the Ediacaran-Cambrian boundary 544 Ma. Field mapping in the Central Anti-Atlas (Agadir Melloul) clearly documents an angular unconformity between Ouarzazate Group and Adoudounian limestones (N 30°31'28.91", W07°48'29.12"). Volcaniclastic rocks of Ouarzazate Group (615-545 Ma) are clearly folded and unconformably overlain by Adoudou Formation (541-529 Ma) limestones to the north. Geochemical discrimination diagrams on Latest Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline to high K igneous rocks throughout the Anti-Atlas plot in subduction and collisional arc magma domains. Back arc basin tectonism is likely responsible for localized extensional basins but continental rift tectonics and passive margin sedimentation did not begin in the Anti-Atlas Mountains until Early

  18. Angular correlation of autoionization electrons and photons emitted from collisionally aligned atomic states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, J.; Fritsch, W.

    1976-01-01

    The angular correlation of autoionization electrons or of photons ejected from collisionally aligned excited atoms is calculated assuming unpolarized beam and target, and polarization-insensitive detectors. Starting from the two-step hypothesis for the formation and decay of the intermediate excited atoms, the angular correlation is expressed in terms of the density matrix describing the excited system. Using the symmetries of the density matrix, a minimal set of independent matrix elements is given and the conditions for which a complete determination of this set is experimentally possible are discussed. For the case of electron emission, simple examples are pointed out in which the angular correlation is independent of the reduced Coulomb matrix elements describing the decay. (author)

  19. Collisional tearing in a field-reversed sheet pinch assuming nonparallel propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quest, K.B.; Coroniti, F.V.

    1985-01-01

    We examine the linear stability properties of the collisional tearing mode in a reversed-field sheet pinch assuming that the wave vector is not parallel to B, where B is the equilibrium magnetic field. We show that pressure balance in the direction of the equilibrium current requires a nonzero perturbed current component deltaJ/sub z/ that is driven toward tyhe center of the pinch. At the center of the pinch, deltaJ/sub z/ goes to zero, and momentum is balanced by coupling to the ion-acoustic mode. In order to achieve current closure, a large perturbed field-aligned current is generated that is strongly localized about the dissipative tearing layer. The relation of this work to the collisionless case is discussed

  20. Laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    We present theory and numerical analysis which demonstrate laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under the weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity. Plasma equilibrium density is modified due to the ohmic heating of electrons, the collisions, and the weak relativistic-ponderomotive force during the interaction of a laser pulse with plasmas. First, within one-dimensional analysis, the longitudinal self-compression mechanism is discussed. Three-dimensional analysis (spatiotemporal) of laser pulse propagation is also investigated by coupling the self-compression with the self-focusing. In the regime in which the laser becomes self-focused due to the weak relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity, we provide results for enhanced pulse compression. The results show that the matched interplay between self-focusing and self-compression can improve significantly the temporal profile of the compressed pulse. Enhanced pulse compression can be achieved by optimizing and selecting the parameters such as collision frequency, ion-temperature, and laser intensity.

  1. Laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mamta; Gupta, D. N., E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, North Campus, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India)

    2016-05-15

    We present theory and numerical analysis which demonstrate laser-pulse compression in a collisional plasma under the weak-relativistic ponderomotive nonlinearity. Plasma equilibrium density is modified due to the ohmic heating of electrons, the collisions, and the weak relativistic-ponderomotive force during the interaction of a laser pulse with plasmas. First, within one-dimensional analysis, the longitudinal self-compression mechanism is discussed. Three-dimensional analysis (spatiotemporal) of laser pulse propagation is also investigated by coupling the self-compression with the self-focusing. In the regime in which the laser becomes self-focused due to the weak relativistic-ponderomotive nonlinearity, we provide results for enhanced pulse compression. The results show that the matched interplay between self-focusing and self-compression can improve significantly the temporal profile of the compressed pulse. Enhanced pulse compression can be achieved by optimizing and selecting the parameters such as collision frequency, ion-temperature, and laser intensity.

  2. Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya, E-mail: pratphd@tezu.ernet.in; Das, Nilakshi [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.

  3. Quantum mechanical theory of collisional ionization in the presence of intense laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellum, J. C.; George, T. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a quantum mechanical formalism for treating ionizing collisions occurring in the presence of an intense laser field. Both the intense laser radiation and the internal electronic continuum states associated with the emitted electrons are rigorously taken into account by combining discretization techniques with expansions in terms of electronic-field representations for the quasi-molecule-plus-photon system. The procedure leads to a coupled-channel description of the heavy-particle dynamics which involves effective electronic-field potential surfaces and continua. It is suggested that laser-influenced ionizing collisions can be studied to verify the effects of intense laser radiation on inelastic collisional processes. Calculation procedures for electronic transition dipole matrix elements between discrete and continuum electronic states are outlined.

  4. Experimentally determined distribution of granular-flow characteristics in collisional bed load transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matoušek Václav

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of laboratory experiments on turbulent open-channel two-phase flow in a form of intense bed load transport is reported. Measurements in a laboratory tilting flume included camera based imaging techniques to identify the structure of the flow at the local level. Obtained experimental distributions of two-phase flow related parameters - granular velocity, concentration, and temperature - across a collisional transport layer are discussed. The results are analysed together with additional measured quantities (discharges of mixture and grains, flow depth, bed slope etc. Our major goal is to evaluate the distribution of granular stresses across the transport layer with a special attention paid to the interface between the transport layer and the bed. Furthermore, comparisons are discussed between the experimental results and predictions produced by suitable kinetic-theory based models.

  5. Collisional particle-in-cell modeling for energy transport accompanied by atomic processes in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, R.; Beg, F. N. [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Leblanc, P.; Sentoku, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States); Wei, M. S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Fully relativistic collisional Particle-in-Cell (PIC) code, PICLS, has been developed to study extreme energy density conditions produced in intense laser-solid interaction. Recent extensions to PICLS, such as the implementation of dynamic ionization, binary collisions in a partially ionized plasma, and radiative losses, enhance the efficacy of simulating intense laser plasma interaction and subsequent energy transport in resistive media. Different ionization models are introduced and benchmarked against each other to check the suitability of the model. The atomic physics models are critical to determine the energy deposition and transport in dense plasmas, especially when they consist of high Z (atomic number) materials. Finally we demonstrate the electron transport simulations to show the importance of target material on fast electron dynamics.

  6. Collisional-radiative model for the visible spectrum of W{sup 26+} ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Xiaobin, E-mail: dingxb@nwnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Liu, Jiaxin [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Koike, Fumihiro [Department of Physics, Sophia University, Tokyo, 102-8554 (Japan); Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Nakamura, Nobuyuki [Institute for Laser Science, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Dong, Chenzhong [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)

    2016-02-22

    Plasma diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion plasmas by using visible spectrum strongly depends on the knowledge of fundamental atomic properties. A detailed collisional-radiative model of W{sup 26+} ions has been constructed by considering radiative and electron excitation processes, in which the necessary atomic data had been calculated by relativistic configuration interaction method with the implementation of Flexible Atomic Code. The visible spectrum observed at an electron beam ion trap (EBIT) in Shanghai in the range of 332 nm to 392 nm was reproduced by present calculations. Some transition pairs of which the intensity ratio is sensitive to the electron density were selected as potential candidates of plasma diagnostics. Their electron density dependence is theoretically evaluated for the cases of EBIT plasmas and magnetic confinement fusion plasmas.

  7. On the two weighting scheme for δf collisional transport simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.; Nakajima, N.; Wang, W.

    1999-08-01

    The validity is given to the newly proposed two weighting δf scheme (Wang et al., Research Report of National Institute for Fusion Science NIFS-588, 1999) for collisional or neoclassical transport calculations, which can solve the drift kinetic equation taking account of effects of steep plasma gradients, large radial electric field, finite banana width, and the non-standard orbit topology near the axis. The marker density functions in weight equations are successively solved by using the idea of δf method and a hierarchy of equations for weight and marker density functions is obtained. These hierarchy equations are solved by choosing an appropriate source function for each marker density. Thus the validity of the two weighting δf scheme is mathematically proved. (author)

  8. The influence of collisional transfer effects on measured C2 Swan band transition probabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erman, P.

    1980-01-01

    Lifetime and relative intensities of the C 2 (d - a) Swan bands have been remeasured using the High Frequency Deflection technique, yielding tau(d, γ = 0-6) = 120 +- 4ns. With increasing pressure of the C 2 H 2 target gas strong second lifetime components occur revealing collisional transfers from other C 2 levles with rate coefficients around 6 X 10 -11 cm 3 s -1 mol -1 . These transfers are also observed with a number of other catalyser gases such as He, Ne, Ar, N 2 , and CO 2 . The transfer processes explain the considerably longer lifetimes reported in several earlier lifetime investigations and could be a clue to the formation mechanism of the carbon high pressure bands. (Auth.)

  9. Development of transient collisional excitation x-ray laser with ultra short-pulse laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kado, Masataka; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Noboru; Tanaka, Momoko; Sukegawa, Kouta; Nagashima, Keisuke; Kato, Yoshiaki

    2001-01-01

    We have observed lasing on Ne-like 3s-3p line from titanium (32.4 nm), Ni-like 4p-4d line from silver (13.9 nm) and tin (11.9 nm) with the transient collisional excitation (TCE) scheme that uses combination of a long pre-pulse (∼ns) and a short main pulse (∼ps). A gain coefficient of 23 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 4 mm with silver slab targets. We have also observed lasing on Ne-like and Ni-like lines with new TCE scheme that used pico-seconds laser pulse to generate plasma and observed strong improvement of x-ray laser gain coefficient. A gain coefficient of 14 cm -1 was measured for plasma length up to 6 mm with tin targets. (author)

  10. Collisional Fragmentation Is Not a Barrier to Close-in Planet Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, Joshua; Tremaine, Scott [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Chambers, John, E-mail: joshuajw@princeton.edu [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution for Science, Washington, DC 20015 (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Collisional fragmentation is shown to not be a barrier to rocky planet formation at small distances from the host star. Simple analytic arguments demonstrate that rocky planet formation via collisions of homogeneous gravity-dominated bodies is possible down to distances of order the Roche radius ( r {sub Roche}). Extensive N -body simulations with initial bodies ≳1700 km that include plausible models for fragmentation and merging of gravity-dominated bodies confirm this conclusion and demonstrate that rocky planet formation is possible down to ∼1.1 r {sub Roche}. At smaller distances, tidal effects cause collisions to be too fragmenting to allow mass buildup to a final, dynamically stable planetary system. We argue that even differentiated bodies can accumulate to form planets at distances that are not much larger than r {sub Roche}.

  11. Collisional spin-oriented Sherman function in electron-hole semiconductor plasmas: Landau damping effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2018-04-01

    The influence of Landau damping on the spin-oriented collisional asymmetry is investigated in electron-hole semiconductor plasmas. The analytical expressions of the spin-singlet and the spin-triplet scattering amplitudes as well as the spin-oriented asymmetry Sherman function are obtained as functions of the scattering angle, the Landau parameter, the effective Debye length, and the collision energy. It is found that the Landau damping effect enhances the spin-singlet and spin-triplet scattering amplitudes in the forward and back scattering domains, respectively. It is also found that the Sherman function increases with an increase in the Landau parameter. In addition, the spin-singlet scattering process is found to be dominant rather than the spin-triplet scattering process in the high collision energy domain.

  12. Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi

    2016-01-01

    Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.

  13. Checking the validity of Busquet's ionization temperature with detailed collisional radiative models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapisch, M.; Bar-Shalom, A.

    1997-12-01

    Busquet's RADIOM model for effective ionization temperature Tz is an appealing and simple way to introduce non LTE effects in hydrocodes. The authors report checking the validity of RADIOM in the optically thin case by comparison with two collisional radiative models, MICCRON (level-by-level) for C and Al and SCROLL (superconfiguration- by-superconfiguration) for Lu and Au. MICCRON is described in detail. The agreement between the average ion charge >ZBusquet is very good in most cases. There is however room for improvement when the departure from LTE is more pronounced for heavy atoms and for emissivity. Improvement appears possible because the concept of ionization temperature seems to hold in a broader range of parameters.

  14. Optogalvanic monitoring of collisional transfer of laser excitation energy in a neon RF plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, T.D.

    1994-01-01

    The optogalvanic signals produced by pulsed laser excitation of 1s5--2p8 and 1s5-2p9 (Paschen notation) transition by a ∼29 MHz radiofrequency (rf) discharge at ∼5 torr have been investigated. The optogalvanic signal produced by 1s5-2p9 excitations indicates that there is transfer of energy from the 2p9 state to some other state. The state to which this energy is transferred is believed to be mainly the 2p8 state because of the very small energy gap between the 2p9 and 2p8 states. To verify this transfer, the 1s5-2p8 transition was investigated. The similarity of the temporal profiles of the optogalvanic signals in both excitations confirms the collisional transfer of laser excitation energy from 2p9 to 2p8

  15. ELM suppression in low edge collisionality H-mode discharges using n = 3 magnetic perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Evans, T E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Doyle, E J [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Fenstermacher, M E [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Leonard, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Moyer, R A [University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Snyder, P B [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Thomas, P R [CEA Cadarache EURATOM Association, Cadarache (France); West, W P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Boedo, J A [University of California, San Diego, California (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Gohil, P; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Lasnier, C J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Reimerdes, H [Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Rhodes, T L [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Scoville, J T [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Thomas, D M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States); Wang, G [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States); Watkins, J G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (United States); Zeng, L [University of California, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2005-12-15

    Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces pedestal current density and maximum edge pressure gradient below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport.

  16. Statistical moments of the angular spectrum of normal waves in a turbulent collisional magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aistov, A.V.; Gavrilenko, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    The normal incidence of a small-amplitude electromagnetic wave upon a semi-infinite turbulent collisional plasm with an oblique external magnetic field is considered. Within a small-angle-scattering approximation of the radiative transport theory, a system of differential equations is derived for statistical moments of the angular power spectrum of radiation. The dependences of the spectrum centroid, dispersion, and asymmetry on the depth of penetration are studied numerically. The nonmonotonic behavior of the dispersion is revealed, and an increase in the spectrum width with absorption anisotropy is found within some depth interval. It is shown that, at large depths, the direction of the displacement of the spectrum centroid, does not always coincide with the direction of minimum absorption

  17. Collisional drag may lead to disappearance of wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maity, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Nikhil

    2013-01-01

    The inhomogeneity in the magnetic field in a cold electron-ion non-dissipative homogeneous plasma leads to the breaking of lower hybrid modes via phase mixing phenomenon [Maity et al. Phys. Plasmas 19, 102302 (2012)]. In this work, we show that an inclusion of collisional drag force in fluid equations may lead to the disappearance of the wave-breaking phenomenon of lower hybrid oscillations. The nonlinear analysis in Lagrangian variables provides an expression for a critical value of damping rate, above which spikes in the plasma density profile may disappear. The critical damping rate depends on the perturbation and magnetic field inhomogeneity amplitudes as well as the ratio of the magnetic field inhomogeneity and perturbation scale lengths.

  18. Influence of Kohn singularity on the occurrence scattering time in degenerate quantum collisional plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae; Jung, Young-Dae

    2017-10-01

    The influence of Kohn singularity on the occurrence scattering time for the electron-ion interaction is investigated in degenerate quantum collisional plasmas. The first-order eikonal analysis is used to obtain the scattering amplitude and the occurrence scattering time. The result shows that the Friedel oscillation due to the Kohn singularity suppresses the advance phenomena of occurrence scattering time in both forward and backward scattering domains. It is shown that the increase of plasmon energy would reduce the time advance for both forward and backward scattering domains. However, the increase of Fermi energy would enhance the phenomena of time advance. It is also found that the time advance with high collision frequency is larger than that with low collision frequency for the forward scattering domain and vice versa for the backward scattering domain. We have shown that the time advance is stronger in general for the forward scattering domain than that for the backward scattering domain.

  19. ELM suppression in low edge collisionality H-mode discharges using n = 3 magnetic perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K H; Evans, T E; Doyle, E J; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Leonard, A W; Moyer, R A; Osborne, T H; Schaffer, M J; Snyder, P B; Thomas, P R; West, W P; Boedo, J A; Garofalo, A M; Gohil, P; Jackson, G L; La Haye, R J; Lasnier, C J; Reimerdes, H; Rhodes, T L; Scoville, J T; Solomon, W M; Thomas, D M; Wang, G; Watkins, J G; Zeng, L

    2005-01-01

    Using resonant magnetic perturbations with toroidal mode number n = 3, we have produced H-mode discharges without edge localized modes (ELMs) which run with constant density and radiated power for periods up to about 2550 ms (17 energy confinement times). These ELM suppression results are achieved at pedestal collisionalities close to those desired for next step burning plasma experiments such as ITER and provide a means of eliminating the rapid erosion of divertor components in such machines which could be caused by giant ELMs. The ELM suppression is due to an enhancement in the edge particle transport which reduces pedestal current density and maximum edge pressure gradient below the threshold for peeling-ballooning modes. These n = 3 magnetic perturbations provide a means of active control of edge plasma transport

  20. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research. Annual report, October 1, 1985-July 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Research on this grant can be divided into two general topics: (1) determination of electron capture cross sections between impurity ions and hydrogen atoms needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas, and (2) studies into reactions important in neutral beam ion source work. For topic (1) during last year, we completed cross section calculations for B 3+ and Be 2+ on H using the molecular state approach for energies between 50 eV/u and 10 keV/u. At higher energies, 40 keV/u to 140 keV/u, we have completed classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations to determine the nl electron capture cross sections for He 2+ , C 6+ , N 7+ and O 8+ on H collisions. For ion source work, topic (2), collisional studies were completed for negative ion formation in the process H + Na → H - + Na +

  1. First Test of Long-Range Collisional Drag via Plasma Wave Damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Matthew

    2017-10-01

    In magnetized plasmas, the rate of particle collisions is enhanced over classical predictions when the cyclotron radius rc is less than the Debye length λD. Classical theories describe local velocity scattering collisions with impact parameters ρ exchange energy and momentum over the range rc regime, the measured damping rates exceed classical predictions of collisional drag damping by as much as an order of magnitude, but agree with the new long-range enhanced collision theory. The enhanced slowing is most significant for strong magnetization and low temperatures. For example, the slowing of anti-protons at a density of 107 cm-3 and a temperature of 10 K in a 6 T trap is enhanced by a factor of 30. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1414570 and DOE Grant DE-SC0002451. In collaboration with F. Anderegg, D.H.E. Dubin, and C.F. Driscoll.

  2. Rate coefficients for collisional population transfer between 3p54p argon levels at 300 0K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.D.; Sadeghi, N.

    1978-01-01

    The population transfer between excited 3p 5 4p argon levels induced by the collisional process Ar* (3p 5 4p)/sub i/ + Ar( 1 S 0 ) arrow-right-left Ar* (3p 5 4p)/sub j/ + Ar( 1 S 0 ) + ΔE was studied in the afterglow of an argon pulsed discharge, at the pressure range of 0.2--1 Torr. Selective population of one particular argon 3p 5 4p level was achieved by laser excitation from one metastable state by use of a tunable cw dye laser. The populations of the laser-excited level and of the collisional excited levels were determined by intensity measurements of the fluorescence line and of the sensitized fluorescence lines. The time-dependence study of the populations of the metastable state, of the laser-excited state, and of the collisional excited states was carried out to ascertain the product channel and to determine the collisional transfer rate coefficients

  3. An efficient, selective collisional ejection mechanism for inner-shell population inversion in laser-driven plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHROEDER,W. ANDREAS; NELSON,THOMAS R.; BORISOV,A.B.; LONGWORTH,J.W.; BOYER,K.; RHODES,C.K.

    2000-06-07

    A theoretical analysis of laser-driven collisional ejection of inner-shell electrons is presented to explain the previously observed anomalous kilovolt L-shell x-ray emission spectra from atomic Xe cluster targets excited by intense sub-picosecond 248nrn ultraviolet radiation. For incident ponderomotively-driven electrons photoionized by strong above threshold ionization, the collisional ejection mechanism is shown to be highly l-state and significantly n-state (i.e. radially) selective for time periods shorter than the collisional dephasing time of the photoionized electronic wavefunction. The resulting preference for the collisional ejection of 2p electrons by an ionized 4p state produces the measured anomalous Xe(L) emission which contains direct evidence for (i) the generation of Xe{sup 27+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 10}) and Xe{sup 28+}(2p{sup 5}3d{sup 9}) ions exhibiting inner-shell population inversion and (ii) a coherent correlated electron state collision responsible for the production of double 2p vacancies. For longer time periods, the selectivity of this coherent impact ionization mechanism is rapidly reduced by the combined effects of intrinsic quantum mechanical spreading and dephasing--in agreement with the experimentally observed and extremely strong {minus}{lambda}{sup {minus}6} pump-laser wavelength dependence of the efficiency of inner-shell (2p) vacancy production in Xe clusters excited in underdense plasmas.

  4. Hydrogen atom scrambling in selectively labeled anionic peptides upon collisional activation by MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Nicolai; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Roepstorff, Peter

    2008-01-01

    have now measured the level of hydrogen scrambling in a deprotonated, selectively labeled peptide using MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Our results conclusively show that hydrogen scrambling is prevalent in the deprotonated peptide upon collisional activation. The amide hydrogens ((1)H....../(2)H) have migrated extensively in the anionic peptide, thereby erasing the original regioselective deuteration pattern obtained in solution....

  5. Kinetic particle simulation study of parallel heat transport in scrape-off layer plasmas over a wide range of collisionalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froese, Aaron; Takizuka, Tomonori; Yagi, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Fluid models are not generally applicable to fusion edge plasmas without external provision of kinetic factors: closure parameters and boundary conditions inside the sheath region. We explain the PARASOL-1D simulation, a particle-in-cell code with a binary collision Monte-Carlo model, and use it to determine four kinetic factors commonly needed in fluid codes. These are the electron and ion heat flux limiting factors, α e and α i , the ion adiabatic index, γ A , and the electron and ion temperature anisotropy, T ‖ /T ⊥ . We survey these factors over a wide range of collisionalities and find that, as predicted, the conductive heat flux is accurately described by the Spitzer-Härm expression in the collisional limit and asymptotes to a constant value in the collisionless limit. However, unique behavior occurs in the weakly collisional regime when the ratio of the mean free path to connection length is 0.1 < λ mfp /L ‖ < 10, when the SOL is between the conduction- and sheath-limited regimes. We find that α e can peak, becoming larger than the collisionless limit, γ A is less than unity, and only the ions are anisotropic. The effects of electron energy radiation and Langevin heating are explored. Finally, the strong deviations of the energy distribution function from Maxwellian in the weakly collisional and collisionless regimes are explained. (author)

  6. Collisional flow of vibrational energy into surrounding vibrational fields within S1 benzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, K.Y.; Parmenter, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    Vapor phase fluorescence spectra are used to determine the absolute rate constants for the collisional transfer of vibrational energy from initial single vibronic levels of S 1 benzene into the surrounding S 1 vibronic field. 11 initial levels are probed with vibrational energies ranging to 2368 cm -1 where the level density is about 10 per cm -1 . CO, isopentane, and S 0 benzene are the collision partners. Benzene rate constants are three to four times gas kinetic for all levels, and electronic energy switching between the initial S 1 molecule and the S 0 collision partner probably makes important contributions. Isopentane efficiencies range from one to two times gas kinetic. Most of the transfer from low S 1 levels occurs with excitation of vibrational energy within isopentane. These V--V contributions decline to only about 10% for the high transfer. CO-induced transfer is by V-T,R processes for all levels. The CO efficiency rises from about 0.1 for low regions to about unity for levels above 1500 cm -1 . The CO efficiencies retain significant sensitivity to initial level identity even in the higher regions. Propensity rules derived from collisional mode-to-mode transfer among lower levels of S 1 benzene are used to calculate the relative CO efficiencies. The calculated efficiencies agree well enough with the data to suggest that it may be meaningful to model vibrational equilibration with the use of propensity rules. The rules suggest that only a small number of levels among the thousands surrounding a high initial level contribute significantly to the total relaxation cross section and that this number is rather independent of the level density

  7. Collisional Processes Probed by using Resonant Four-Wave Mixing Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, E. F.; Stampanoni, A.; Hemmerling, B.

    2000-06-01

    Collisionally-induced decay processes in excited-state nitric oxide (NO) have been measured by using time-resolved two-color, resonant four-wave mixing (TC-RFWM) spectroscopy and polarization spectroscopy (PS). Markedly different time dependencies were observed in the data obtained by using TC-RFWM when compared to PS. Oscillations in the PS signal as a function of delay between the pump and probe laser pulses were observed and it was determined that their characteristics depend very sensitively on laser polarization. Analysis reveals that the oscillations in the decay curves are due to coherent excitation of unresolved hyperfine structure in the A state of NO. A comparison of beat frequencies obtained by taking Fourier transforms of the time data to the predicted hyperfine structure of the A state support this explanation. Further, based on a time-dependent model of PS as a FWM process, the signal’s dependence as a function of time on polarization configuration and excitation scheme can be predicted. By using the beat frequency values, fits of the model results to experimental decay curves for different pressures allows a study of the quenching rate in the A state due to collisional processes. A comparison of the PS data to laser-induced fluorescence decay measurements reveals different decay rates which suggests that the PS signal decay depends on the orientation and alignment of the excited molecules. The different behavior of the decay curves obtained by using TC-RFWM and PS can be understood in terms of the various contributions to the decay as described by the model and this has a direct bearing on which technique is preferable for a given set of experimental parameters.

  8. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  9. Mechanism and models for collisional energy transfer in highly excited large polyatomic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, R. G.

    1995-01-01

    Collisional energy transfer in highly excited molecules (say, 200-500 kJ mol -1 above the zero-point energy of reactant, or of product, for a recombination reaction) is reviewed. An understanding of this energy transfer is important in predicting and interpreting the pressure dependence of gas-phase rate coefficients for unimolecular and recombination reactions. For many years it was thought that this pressure dependence could be calculated from a single energy-transfer quantity, such as the average energy transferred per collision. However, the discovery of 'super collisions' (a small but significant fraction of collisions which transfer abnormally large amounts of energy) means that this simplistic approach needs some revision. The 'ordinary' (non-super) component of the distribution function for collisional energy transfer can be quantified either by empirical models (e.g., an exponential-down functional form) or by models with a physical basis, such as biased random walk (applicable to monatomic or diatomic collision partners) or ergodic (for polyatomic collision partners) treatments. The latter two models enable approximate expressions for the average energy transfer to be estimated from readily available molecular parameters. Rotational energy transfer, important for finding the pressure dependence for recombination reactions, can for these purposes usually be taken as transferring sufficient energy so that the explicit functional form is not required to predict the pressure dependence. The mechanism of 'ordinary' energy transfer seems to be dominated by low-frequency modes of the substrate, whereby there is sufficient time during a vibrational period for significant energy flow between the collision partners. Super collisions may involve sudden energy flow as an outer atom of the substrate is squashed between the substrate and the bath gas, and then is moved away from the interaction by large-amplitude motion such as a ring vibration or a rotation; improved

  10. Hektor - an exceptional D-type family among Jovian Trojans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozehnal, J.; Brož, M.; Nesvorný, D.; Durda, D. D.; Walsh, K.; Richardson, D. C.; Asphaug, E.

    2016-11-01

    In this work, we analyse Jovian Trojans in the space of suitable resonant elements and we identify clusters of possible collisional origin by two independent methods: the hierarchical clustering and a so-called randombox. Compared to our previous work, we study a twice larger sample. Apart from Eurybates, Ennomos and 1996 RJ families, we have found three more clusters - namely families around asteroids (20961) Arkesilaos, (624) Hektor in the L4 libration zone and (247341) 2001 UV209 in L5. The families fulfill our stringent criteria, I.e. a high statistical significance, an albedo homogeneity and a steeper size-frequency distribution than that of background. In order to understand their nature, we simulate their long term collisional evolution with the Boulder code and dynamical evolution using a modified SWIFT integrator. Within the framework of our evolutionary model, we were able to constrain the age of the Hektor family to be either 1-4 Gyr or, less likely, 0.1-2.5 Gyr, depending on initial impact geometry. Since (624) Hektor itself seems to be a bilobed-shape body with a satellite, I.e. an exceptional object, we address its association with the D-type family and we demonstrate that the moon and family could be created during a single impact event. We simulated the cratering event using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics. This is also the first case of a family associated with a D-type parent body.

  11. Ground-state populations of atomic hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions in nonthermal plasmas, and collisional-radiative recombination and ionization coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drawin, H.W.; Emard, F.

    1978-01-01

    The populations of atomic hydrogen and hydrogen-like ions have been calculated using a collisional-radiative model. The global collisional-radiative excitation coefficients rsub(j)sup((0)) and rsub(j)sup((1)) valid for homogeneous-stationary and/or quasi-homogeneous quasi-stationary plasmas were published recently. The present paper contains in tabulated form the ground state populations and Saha decrements for the homogeneous stationary state, and the collisional-radiative recombination and ionization coefficients. (Auth.)

  12. Experimental study and numerical simulations of the spectral properties of XUV lasers pumped by collisional excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, L.

    2012-01-01

    Improving the knowledge of the spectral and temporal properties of plasma-based XUV lasers is an important issue for the ongoing development of these sources towards significantly higher peak power. The spectral properties of the XUV laser line actually control several physical quantities that are important for applications, such as the minimum duration that can be achieved (Fourier-transform limit). The shortest duration experimentally achieved to-date is ∼1 picosecond. The demonstrated technique of seeding XUV laser plasmas with a coherent femtosecond pulse of high-order harmonic radiation opens new and promising prospects to reduce the duration to a few 100 fs, provided that the gain bandwidth can be kept large enough.XUV lasers pumped by collisional excitation of Ni-like and Ne-like ions have been developed worldwide in hot plasmas created either by fast electrical discharge, or by various types of high-power lasers. This leads to a variety of XUV laser sources with distinct output properties, but also markedly different plasma parameters (density, temperature) in the amplification zone. Hence different spectral properties are expected. The purpose of our work was then to investigate the spectral behaviour of the different types of existing collisional excitation XUV lasers, and to evaluate their potential to support amplification of pulses with duration below 1 ps in a seeded mode.The spectral characterization of plasma-based XUV lasers is challenging because the extremely narrow bandwidth (typically Δλ/λ ∼10 -5 ) lies beyond the resolution limit of existing spectrometers in this spectral range. In our work the narrow linewidth was resolved using a wavefront-division interferometer specifically designed to measure temporal coherence, from which the spectral linewidth is inferred. We have characterized three types of collisional XUV lasers, developed in three different laboratories: transient pumping in Ni-like Mo, capillary discharge pumping in Ne

  13. Assessing Backwards Integration as a Method of KBO Family Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benfell, Nathan; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The age of young asteroid collisional families can sometimes be determined by using backwards n-body integrations of the solar system. This method is not used for discovering young asteroid families and is limited by the unpredictable influence of the Yarkovsky effect on individual specific asteroids over time. Since these limitations are not as important for objects in the Kuiper belt, Marcus et al. 2011 suggested that backwards integration could be used to discover and characterize collisional families in the outer solar system. But various challenges present themselves when running precise and accurate 4+ Gyr integrations of Kuiper Belt objects. We have created simulated families of Kuiper Belt Objects with identical starting locations and velocity distributions, based on the Haumea Family. We then ran several long-term test integrations to observe the effect of various simulation parameters on integration results. These integrations were then used to investigate which parameters are of enough significance to require inclusion in the integration. Thereby we determined how to construct long-term integrations that both yield significant results and require manageable processing power. Additionally, we have tested the use of backwards integration as a method of discovery of potential young families in the Kuiper Belt.

  14. Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Family therapy Overview Family therapy is a type of psychological counseling (psychotherapy) that can help family members improve communication and resolve conflicts. Family therapy is usually provided by a psychologist, ...

  15. Dissolved families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    The situation in the family preceding a family separation is studied here, to identify risk factors for family dissolution. Information registers covering prospective statistics about health aspects, demographic variables, family violence, self-destructive behaviour, unemployment, and the spousal...

  16. Barkas effect, shell correction, screening and correlation in collisional energy-loss straggling of an ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Sigmund, P

    2003-01-01

    Collisional electronic energy-loss straggling has been treated theoretically on the basis of the binary theory of electronic stopping. In view of the absence of a Bloch correction in straggling the range of validity of the theory includes both the classical and the Born regime. The theory incorporates Barkas effect and projectile screening. Shell correction and electron bunching are added on. In the absence of shell corrections the Barkas effect has a dominating influence on straggling, but much of this is wiped out when the shell correction is included. Weak projectile screening tends to noticeably reduce collisional straggling. Sizable bunching effects are found in particular for heavy ions. Comparisons are made with selected results of the experimental and theoretical literature. (authors)

  17. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.

  18. Generation of post-collisional normal calc-alkaline and adakitic granites in the Tongbai orogen, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Zhu, Liu-Qin; Wang, Hao; Wu, Yuan-Bao

    2018-01-01

    Post-collisional granites are generally generated by partial melting of continental crust during orogenic extension. The occurrence of normal calc-alkaline granites following adakitic granites in a collisional orogen is frequently supposed as a sign of tectonic regime transition from compression to extension, which has been debated yet. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study of zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopes, as well as whole-rock major and trace elements and Sr-Nd isotopes, for Tongbai and Jigongshan post-collisional granitic plutons in the Tongbai orogen. Zircon U-Pb dating yields intrusion ages of ca. 140 and 135 Ma for the Tongbai and Jigongshan plutons, respectively, suggesting they are post-collisional granites. These granites are high-K calc-alkaline series, metaluminous to weakly peraluminous with A/CNK ratios of 0.85-1.08. The Tongbai gneissic granites are normal calc-alkaline granite, having variable SiO2 (61.93-76.74 wt%) and Sr/Y (2.9-38.9) and (La/Yb)N (1.7-30.1) ratios with variably negative Eu anomalies (0.41-0.92). They have relatively high initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.707571 to 0.710317, and low εNd(t) (- 15.74 to - 11.09) and εHf(t) (- 17.6 to - 16.9) values. Their Nd and Hf model ages range from 2.2 to 1.8 Ga and 2.3 to 2.2 Ga. On the contrary, the Jigongshan granites show higher SiO2 (66.56-72.11 wt%) and Sr/Y (30.1-182.0) and (La/Yb)N (27.4-91.4) ratios with insignificant Eu anomalies (0.73-1.00), belonging to adakitic granite. They have Isr = 0.707843-0.708366, εNd(t) = - 19.83 to - 17.59, and εHf(t) = - 26.0 to - 23.5. Their Nd and Hf model ages vary from ca. 2.5 to 2.4 Ga and ca. 2.8 to 2.6 Ga. The Tongbai and Jigongshan granites are characterized by mantle-like zircon δ18O values (5.17-5.46‰). These geochemical features suggest that the Tongbai and Jigongshan granites were derived from partial melting of Paleoproterozoic and Archean continental crust, respectively. Fractional crystallization affected the geochemical

  19. Collisional scattering for binary Coulomb interactions that are cut off at a distance different than the Debye length

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, J.R.; Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.

    2005-01-01

    Collisional scattering is considered within a system of charged particles experiencing binary Coulomb interactions when the scale length for the range of each interaction is not isotropic and is not necessarily equal to the Debye length. For example, one or more dimensions of the system could be smaller than the Debye length. The effect is assessed by evaluating integrals over the impact cross section. Cutoffs on both the impact parameter and the Coulomb interaction potential are employed, and no assumption is made regarding the value of the Coulomb logarithm. Two expressions are found that have a dependence on the cutoff lengths, with one of the expressions being associated with the Coulomb logarithm. Collisional scattering within an electrostatic ion trap is considered by way of example

  20. Laser enhancement of the collisional broadening of the 4713 and 3188 A lines in a helium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pignolet, P.

    1986-01-01

    The enhancement of the electron collisional broadening of the 4s 3 S 1 and 4p 3 P 0 sub(2,1,0) levels in a helium glow discharge (nsub(e) = 10 13 -10 14 cm -3 ), induced by the non-resonant interaction of the 4s 3 S 1 and 4p 3 P 0 sub(2,1,0) levels with a CO 2 laser field, is reported. This extra broadening depends on the product of the electron density with the laser field amplitude and manifests itself on the 4713 and 3188 A linewidths. This effect results from the destruction, by electronic collisions, of the coherence induced by the laser field between the 4s 3 S 1 and 4p 3 P 0 sub(2,1,0) levels, and can be viewed as an electron-atom collisional fluorescence redistribution process at relatively large laser detuning. (author)

  1. Collisional charging of individual submillimeter particles: Using ultrasonic levitation to initiate and track charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; James, Nicole M.; Waitukaitis, Scott R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2018-03-01

    Electrostatic charging of insulating fine particles can be responsible for numerous phenomena ranging from lightning in volcanic plumes to dust explosions. However, even basic aspects of how fine particles become charged are still unclear. Studying particle charging is challenging because it usually involves the complexities associated with many-particle collisions. To address these issues, we introduce a method based on acoustic levitation, which makes it possible to initiate sequences of repeated collisions of a single submillimeter particle with a flat plate, and to precisely measure the particle charge in situ after each collision. We show that collisional charge transfer between insulators is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the contacting surfaces. We use glass, which we modify by attaching nonpolar molecules to the particle, the plate, or both. We find that hydrophilic surfaces develop significant positive charges after contacting hydrophobic surfaces. Moreover, we demonstrate that charging between a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic surface is suppressed in an acidic environment and enhanced in a basic one. Application of an electric field during each collision is found to modify the charge transfer, again depending on surface hydrophobicity. We discuss these results within the context of contact charging due to ion transfer, and we show that they lend strong support to O H- ions as the charge carriers.

  2. Collisional energy transfer in Na(4p--3d)--He,H2 collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiber, P.D.; Wong, T.H.; Bililign, S.

    1993-01-01

    We have investigated the direct collisional energy transfer process Na*(4p)+M→Na*(3d)+M, where M=He,H 2 under gas cell conditions. We have measured the temporal profiles of the Na(3d--3p) sensitized fluorescence as a function of quenching gas pressure and fit the profiles to a two-state rate equation model to obtain the quenching rate coefficients from the Na*(4p) state. The total energy transfer rate coefficient out of the 4p state for He is small [(0.5±0.2)x10 -10 cm 3 /s]. The total quenching rate coefficient out of the 4p state is much larger for H 2 [(3.9±0.5)x10 -10 cm 3 /s]. Evidence suggests that the energy transfer rate coefficient for the 4p--3d process is ∼2.0x10 -10 cm 3 /s with the remainder of the 4p quenching being predominantly reactive. We also compare the far-red wing absorption line shapes for the NaHe and NaH 2 systems

  3. Experimental studies of collisional plasma shocks and plasma interpenetration via merging supersonic plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, S. C.; Moser, A. L.; Merritt, E. C.; Adams, C. S.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past 4 years on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) at LANL, we have studied obliquely and head-on-merging supersonic plasma jets of an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture. The jets are formed/launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. In successive experimental campaigns, we characterized the (a) evolution of plasma parameters of a single plasma jet as it propagated up to ~ 1 m away from the railgun nozzle, (b) density profiles and 2D morphology of the stagnation layer and oblique shocks that formed between obliquely merging jets, and (c) collisionless interpenetration transitioning to collisional stagnation between head-on-merging jets. Key plasma diagnostics included a fast-framing CCD camera, an 8-chord visible interferometer, a survey spectrometer, and a photodiode array. This talk summarizes the primary results mentioned above, and highlights analyses of inferred post-shock temperatures based on observations of density gradients that we attribute to shock-layer thickness. We also briefly describe more recent PLX experiments on Rayleigh-Taylor-instability evolution with magnetic and viscous effects, and potential future collisionless shock experiments enabled by low-impurity, higher-velocity plasma jets formed by contoured-gap coaxial guns. Supported by DOE Fusion Energy Sciences and LANL LDRD.

  4. Insights into Collisional between Small Bodies: Comparison of Impacted Magnesium-rich Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, Susan M.; Jensen, E. A.; Strojia, C.; Smith, D. C.; Keller, L. P.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Berger, E. L.; Lindsay, S. S.; Wooden, D. H.; Cintala, M. J.; hide

    2013-01-01

    Impacts are sustained by comets and asteroids throughout their lives, especially early in the Solar system's history, as described by the Nice model. Identifying observable properties that may be altered due to impacts can lead to a better understanding their collisional histories. Here, we investigate spectral effects and physical shock features observed in infrared spectra and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) images, respectively, of magnesium-rich minerals subjected to shock through impact experiments. Samples of magnesium-rich forsterite (Mg2SiO4, olivine), orthoenstatite (Mg2SiO3, pyroxene), diopside (MgCaSi2O6, monoclinic pyroxene), and magnesite (MgCO3, carbonate) were impacted at speeds of 2.4 km/s, 2.6 km/s and 2.8 km/s. Impact experiments were conducted in the Johnson Space Center Experimental Impact Laboratory using the vertical gun. Clear signatures are observed in both the mid-IR spectra (shift in wavelengths of the spectral peaks and relative amplitude changes) of all minerals except magnesite, and in TEM images (planar dislocations) of both the forsterite and orthoenstatite samples. Further discussion on forsterite and enstatite analyses can be found in Jensen et al., this meeting.

  5. A Note on the Radiative and Collisional Branching Ratios in Polarized Radiation Transport with Coherent Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casini, R.; del Pino Alemán, T.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2017-02-01

    We discuss the implementation of physically meaningful branching ratios between the CRD and partial redistribution contributions to the emissivity of a polarized multi-term atom in the presence of both inelastic and elastic collisions. Our derivation is based on a recent theoretical formulation of partially coherent scattering, and it relies on a heuristic diagrammatic analysis of the various radiative and collisional processes to determine the proper form of the branching ratios. The expression we obtain for the emissivity is {\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}=[{{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(1)-{{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}{{f}.{{s}}.}(2)]+{{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(2), where {{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(1) and {{\\boldsymbol{\\varepsilon }}}(2) are the emissivity terms for the redistributed and partially coherent radiation, respectively, and where “f.s.” implies that the corresponding term must be evaluated assuming a flat-spectrum average of the incident radiation. This result is shown to be in agreement with prior literature on the subject in the limit of the unpolarized multi-level atom.

  6. The correlation of defect distribution in collisional phase with measured cascade collapse probability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, K.; Ishino, S.; Sekimura, N.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distributions of atomic displacement at the end of the collisional phase of cascade damage processes were calculated using the computer simulation code MARLOWE, which is based on the binary collision approximation (BCA). The densities of the atomic displacement were evaluated in high dense regions (HDRs) of cascades in several pure metals (Fe, Ni, Cu, Ag, Au, Mo and W). They were compared with the measured cascade collapse probabilities reported in the literature where TEM observations were carried out using thin metal foils irradiated by low-dose ions at room temperature. We found that there exists the minimum or ''critical'' values of the atomic displacement densities for the HDR to collapse into TEM-visible vacancy clusters. The critical densities are generally independent of the cascade energy in the same metal. Furthermore, the material dependence of the critical densities can be explained by the difference in the vacancy mobility at the melting temperature of target materials. This critical density calibration, which is extracted from the ion-irradiation experiments and the BCA simulations, is applied to estimation of cascade collapse probabilities in the metals irradiated by fusion neutrons. (orig.)

  7. Collisional-radiative model including recombination processes for W27+ ion★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Izumi; Sasaki, Akira; Kato, Daiji; Koike, Fumihiro

    2017-10-01

    We have constructed a collisional-radiative (CR) model for W27+ ions including 226 configurations with n ≤ 9 and ł ≤ 5 for spectroscopic diagnostics. We newly include recombination processes in the model and this is the first result of extreme ultraviolet spectrum calculated for recombining plasma component. Calculated spectra in 40-70 Å range in ionizing and recombining plasma components show similar 3 strong lines and 1 line weak in recombining plasma component at 45-50 Å and many weak lines at 50-65 Å for both components. Recombination processes do not contribute much to the spectrum at around 60 Å for W27+ ion. Dielectronic satellite lines are also minor contribution to the spectrum of recombining plasma component. Dielectronic recombination (DR) rate coefficient from W28+ to W27+ ions is also calculated with the same atomic data in the CR model. We found that larger set of energy levels including many autoionizing states gave larger DR rate coefficients but our rate agree within factor 6 with other works at electron temperature around 1 keV in which W27+ and W28+ ions are usually observed in plasmas. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, and Grzegorz Karwasz.

  8. Comparison of particle trajectories and collision operators for collisional transport in nonaxisymmetric plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landreman, M., E-mail: mattland@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Smith, H. M.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Mollén, A. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden)

    2014-04-15

    In this work, we examine the validity of several common simplifying assumptions used in numerical neoclassical calculations for nonaxisymmetric plasmas, both by using a new continuum drift-kinetic code and by considering analytic properties of the kinetic equation. First, neoclassical phenomena are computed for the LHD and W7-X stellarators using several versions of the drift-kinetic equation, including the commonly used incompressible-E × B-drift approximation and two other variants, corresponding to different effective particle trajectories. It is found that for electric fields below roughly one third of the resonant value, the different formulations give nearly identical results, demonstrating the incompressible E × B-drift approximation is quite accurate in this regime. However, near the electric field resonance, the models yield substantially different results. We also compare results for various collision operators, including the full linearized Fokker-Planck operator. At low collisionality, the radial transport driven by radial gradients is nearly identical for the different operators; while in other cases, it is found to be important that collisions conserve momentum.

  9. Influence of the plasma pedestal parameters on ELM mitigation at low collisionality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leuthold, Nils [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Universitaet Bayreuth, Universitaetsstrasse 30, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Suttrop, Wolfgang [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The control of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) is of great importance for future fusion devices in order to provide longevity of the plasma facing components and a better overall plasma performance. In recent magnetic perturbation ELM mitigation experiments in ASDEX Upgrade at low pedestal collisionality, the dependence of ELM losses on pedestal parameters is investigated. It is found that the reduction of the stored energy loss associated with ELMs occurs in correlation with a reduction of edge density and edge pedestal pressure induced by the applied magnetic perturbation (''pedestal pump-out''). Significant ELM mitigation occurs at lowest densities, in a region of pedestal n-T parameter space that has not been accessible in ASDEX Upgrade without magnetic perturbations, and which is occupied by type-IV ELMs in DIII-D. The role of magnetic perturbations for ELM mitigation will be discussed in this context and attempts to counteract the confinement loss by increasing neutral beam injection power or pellet injection increases the ELM energy losses.

  10. Anomalous transport of charged dust grains in a magnetized collisional plasma: A molecular dynamics study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi

    2018-05-01

    Anomalous diffusion of charged dust grains immersed in a plasma in the presence of strong ion-neutral collision, flowing ions, and a magnetic field has been observed. Molecular Dynamics simulation confirms the deviation from normal diffusion in an ensemble of dust grains probed in laboratory plasma chambers. Collisional effects are significant in governing the nature of diffusion. In order to have a clear idea on the transport of particles in a real experimental situation, the contribution of streaming ions and the magnetic field along with collision is considered through the relevant interaction potential. The nonlinear evolution of Mean Square Displacement is an indication of the modification in particle trajectories due to several effects as mentioned above. It is found that strong collision and ion flow significantly affect the interparticle interaction potential in the presence of the magnetic field and lead to the appearance of the asymmetric type of Debye Hückel (D H) potential. Due to the combined effect of the magnetic field, ion flow, and collision, dusty plasma exhibits a completely novel behavior. The coupling parameter Γ enhances the asymmetric D H type potential arising due to ion flow, and this may drive the system to a disordered state.

  11. Understanding non-equilibrium collisional and expansion effects in the solar wind with Parker Solar Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korreck, K. E.; Klein, K. G.; Maruca, B.; Alterman, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of the solar wind from the corona to the Earth and throughout the heliosphere is a complex interplay between local micro kinetics and large scale expansion effects. These processes in the solar wind need to be separated in order to understand and distinguish the dominant mechanism for heating and acceleration of the solar wind. With the upcoming launch in 2018 of Parker Solar Probe and the launch of Solar Orbiter after, addressing the local and global phenomena will be enabled with in situ measurements. Parker Solar Probe will go closer to the Sun than any previous mission enabling the ability to examine the solar wind at an early expansion age. This work examines the predictions for what will be seen inside of the 0.25 AU (54 solar radii) where Parker Solar Probe will take measurements and lays the groundwork for disentangling the expansion and collisional effects. In addition, methods of thermal plasma data analysis to determine the stability of the plasma in the Parker Solar Probe measurements will be discussed.

  12. A collisional radiative model of hydrogen plasmas developed for diagnostic purposes of negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iordanova, Snejana, E-mail: snejana@phys.uni-sofia.bg; Paunska, Tsvetelina [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, BG-1164 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2016-02-15

    A collisional radiative model of low-pressure hydrogen plasmas is elaborated and applied in optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The model accounts for the main processes determining both the population densities of the first ten states of the hydrogen atom and the densities of the positive hydrogen ions H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +}. In the calculations, the electron density and electron temperature are varied whereas the atomic and molecular temperatures are included as experimentally obtained external parameters. The ratio of the H{sub α} to H{sub β} line intensities is calculated from the numerical results for the excited state population densities, obtained as a solution of the set of the steady-state rate balance equations. The comparison of measured and theoretically obtained ratios of line intensities yields the values of the electron density and temperature as well as of the degree of dissociation, i.e., of the parameters which have a crucial role for the volume production of the negative ions.

  13. FDTD simulation of radar cross section reduction by a collisional inhomogeneous magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroutan, V.; Azarmanesh, M. N.; Foroutan, G.

    2018-02-01

    The recursive convolution finite difference time domain method is addressed in the scattered field formulation and employed to investigate the bistatic radar cross-section (RCS) of a square conductive plate covered by a collisional inhomogeneous magnetized plasma. The RCS is calculated for two different configurations of the magnetic field, i.e., parallel and perpendicular to the plate. The results of numerical simulations show that, for a perpendicularly applied magnetic field, the backscattered RCS is significantly reduced when the magnetic field intensity coincides with the value corresponding to the electron cyclotron resonance. By increasing the collision frequency, the resonant absorption is suppressed, but due to enhanced wave penetration and bending, the reduction in the bistatic RCS is improved. At very high collision frequencies, the external magnetic field has no significant impact on the bistatic RCS reduction. Application of a parallel magnetic field has an adverse effect near the electron cyclotron resonance and results in a large and asymmetric RCS profile. But, the problem is resolved by increasing the magnetic field and/or the collision frequency. By choosing proper values of the collision frequency and the magnetic field intensity, a perpendicular magnetic field can be effectively used to reduce the bistatic RCS of a conductive plate.

  14. Interplay between one-body and collisional damping of collective motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolomietz, V.M.; Plujko, V.A.; Shlomo, S.

    1996-01-01

    Damping of giant collective vibrations in nuclei is studied within the framework of the Landau-Vlasov kinetic equation. A phenomenological method of independent sources of dissipation is proposed for taking into account the contributions of one-body dissipation, the relaxation due to the two-body collisions and the particle emission. An expression for the intrinsic width of slow damped collective vibrations is obtained. In the general case, this expression cannot be represented as a sum of the widths associated with the different independent sources of the damping. This is a peculiarity of the collisional Landau-Vlasov equation where the Fermi-surface distortion effect influences both the self-consistent mean field and the memory effect at the relaxation processes. The interplay between the one-body, the two-body, and the particle emission channels which contribute to the formation of the total intrinsic width of the isoscalar 2 + and 3 - and isovector 1 - giant multipole resonances in cold and hot nuclei is discussed. We have shown that the criterion for the transition temperature T tr between the zero-sound and first-sound regimes in hot nuclei is different from the case of infinite nuclear matter due to the contribution from the one-body relaxation and the particle emission. In the case of the isovector GDR the corresponding transition can be reached at temperature T tr =4 endash 5 MeV. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  15. Effect of isotopic substitution on the collisional quenching of vibronically excited CO+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katayama, D.H.; Welsh, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Rovibronic levels of the A 2 Pi/sub i/ state for 12 C 16 O + and 13 C 16 O + have been selectively excited by a pulsed, tunable dye laser and their time resolved fluorescence obtained as a function of helium pressure. These ions are formed by reaction of neutral carbon monoxide with helium metastable atoms created in a dc discharge. Since 13 CO + has essentially the same potential energy curves as 12 CO + , but differs primarily in its vibrational energy spacings, this experiment accentuates the role, in the collisional deactivation process, of the high lying ground state vibrational levels which are adjacent to the laser populated vibronic levels of the A 2 Pi/sub i/ state. Quenching rates are determined for the v' = 0, 1, and 2 levels which have relatively insignificant isotope shifts of a few wave numbers for the two isotopes. The difference in rates for the two isotopic ions demonstrates the importance of the positions for the high lying v'' = 10 and 11 ground state levels which have large isotope shifts of hundreds of wave numbers. A discussion of the deactivation process is given in terms of perturbations, Franck--Condon factors, energy gaps, and other considerations

  16. Destabilization of hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves in a finite pressure collisional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, J.T.

    1974-01-01

    In a finite beta (β = 8πn 0 kT 0 /B 0 2 ) plasma, where the plasma pressure n 0 kT 0 is an appreciable fraction of the confining magnetic field energy-density B 0 2 /8π, density-gradient driven drift waves couple with Alfven waves when the phase velocities of the two waves become comparable. The resulting hydromagnetic drift-Alfven waves separate into two branches--a drift mode and an Alfven mode, with both modes exhibiting magnetic field and localized density fluctuations near the coupling point. The dispersion relation of the collisional drift-Alfven wave is derived by using a slab-geometry, two-fluid model which includes finite beta, electron-ion collisions, ion-ion collisions, finite ion larmar radius, temperature fluctuations, and an axial electron current. A hydromagnetic drift mode is found to be unstable in a moderately dense plasma. A localized ''Alfven'' mode is destabilized only with the passage of an axial current along the plasma column. In order to check the theoretical predictions an experiment is performed in a finite-beta plasma of density n 0 = 10 13 -10 15 cm -3 and temperature T/sub e/ approximately T/sub i/ = 1-7 eV. (U.S.)

  17. ABSORPTIONS IN THE VISIBLE OF PROTONATED PYRENE COLLISIONALLY COOLED TO 15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, F.-X.; Gause, O.; Rice, C. A.; Maier, J. P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 80, 4056-CH Basel (Switzerland)

    2013-12-01

    Protonated polycyclic hydrocarbons have been added to the list of suggested carriers of diffuse interstellar absorptions. To test this proposition requires laboratory spectra measured under interstellar conditions, in particular with the rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom equilibrated to low temperatures. This has been achieved for protonated pyrene with absorption bands in the visible, using an ion trap and collisional cooling to ≈15 K. A two-photon excitation-dissociation scheme was employed to record the (1) {sup 1} A' ← X {sup 1} A' electronic spectrum on around 10{sup 5} ions per duty cycle. The origin band of the absorption spectrum of this relatively large polycyclic aromatic species with 27 atoms is located at 4858.86 Å. Two further comparably intense spectral features are present at 4834.48 and 4809.32 Å. This is one of the largest protonated aromatics studied in the gas phase and compared to astronomical observations; however, it is not a carrier of known diffuse interstellar bands.

  18. Space-charge waves in magnetized and collisional quantum plasma columns confined in carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagheri, Mehran; Abdikian, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    We study the dispersion relation of electrostatic waves propagating in a column of quantum magnetized collisional plasma embraced completely by a metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes. The analysis is based on the quantum linearized hydrodynamic formalism of collective excitations within the quasi-static approximation. It is shown when the electronic de Broglie's wavelength of the plasma is comparable in the order of magnitude to the radius of the nanotube, the quantum effects are quite meaningful and our model anticipates one acoustical and two optical space-charge waves which are positioned into three propagating bands. With increasing the nanotube radius, the features of the acoustical branch remain unchanged, yet two distinct optical branches are degenerated and the classical behavior is recovered. This study might provide a platform to create new finite transverse cross section quantum magnetized plasmas and to devise nanometer dusty plasmas based on the metallic carbon nanotubes in the absence of either a drift or a thermal electronic velocity and their existence could be experimentally examined

  19. Collisional oscillations of trapped boson-fermion mixtures in the approach to the collapse instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capuzzi, P.; Minguzzi, A.; Tosi, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    We study the collective modes of a confined gaseous cloud of bosons and fermions with mutual attractive interactions at zero temperature. The cloud consists of a Bose-Einstein condensate and a spin-polarized Fermi gas inside a spherical harmonic trap and the coupling between the two species is varied by increasing either the magnitude of the interspecies s-wave scattering length or the number of bosons. The mode frequencies are obtained in the collisional regime by solving the equations of generalized hydrodynamics and are compared with the spectra calculated in the collisionless regime within a random-phase approximation. We find that, as the mixture is driven towards the collapse instability, the frequencies of the modes of fermionic origin show a blue shift which can become very significant for large numbers of bosons. Instead the modes of bosonic origin show a softening, which becomes most pronounced in the very proximity of collapse. Explicit illustrations of these trends are given for the monopolar spectra, but similar trends are found for the dipolar and quadrupolar spectra except for the surface (n=0) modes which are essentially unaffected by the interactions

  20. Validity of the Taylor hypothesis for linear kinetic waves in the weakly collisional solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howes, G. G.; Klein, K. G.; TenBarge, J. M.

    2014-01-01

    The interpretation of single-point spacecraft measurements of solar wind turbulence is complicated by the fact that the measurements are made in a frame of reference in relative motion with respect to the turbulent plasma. The Taylor hypothesis—that temporal fluctuations measured by a stationary probe in a rapidly flowing fluid are dominated by the advection of spatial structures in the fluid rest frame—is often assumed to simplify the analysis. But measurements of turbulence in upcoming missions, such as Solar Probe Plus, threaten to violate the Taylor hypothesis, either due to slow flow of the plasma with respect to the spacecraft or to the dispersive nature of the plasma fluctuations at small scales. Assuming that the frequency of the turbulent fluctuations is characterized by the frequency of the linear waves supported by the plasma, we evaluate the validity of the Taylor hypothesis for the linear kinetic wave modes in the weakly collisional solar wind. The analysis predicts that a dissipation range of solar wind turbulence supported by whistler waves is likely to violate the Taylor hypothesis, while one supported by kinetic Alfvén waves is not.

  1. Effect of Radiation on Chromospheric Magnetic Reconnection: Reactive and Collisional Multi-fluid Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez Laguna, A.; Poedts, S. [Centre for Mathematical Plasma-Astrophysics, KU Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Lani, A.; Deconinck, H. [Aeronautics and Aerospace Department, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Sint-Genesius-Rode (Belgium); Mansour, N. N. [NASA Ames Research Center, MS 230-3, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We study magnetic reconnection under chromospheric conditions in five different ionization levels from 0.5% to 50% using a self-consistent two-fluid (ions + neutrals) model that accounts for compressibility, collisional effects, chemical inequilibrium, and anisotropic heat conduction. Results with and without radiation are compared, using two models for the radiative losses: an optically thin radiation loss function, and an approximation of the radiative losses of a plasma with photospheric abundances. The results without radiation show that reconnection occurs faster for the weakly ionized cases as a result of the effect of ambipolar diffusion and fast recombination. The tearing mode instability appears earlier in the low ionized cases and grows rapidly. We find that radiative losses have a stronger effect than was found in previous results as the cooling changes the plasma pressure and the concentration of ions inside the current sheet. This affects the ambipolar diffusion and the chemical equilibrium, resulting in thin current sheets and enhanced reconnection. The results quantify this complex nonlinear interaction by showing that a strong cooling produces faster reconnections than have been found in models without radiation. The results accounting for radiation show timescales and outflows comparable to spicules and chromospheric jets.

  2. Collisional energy dependence of molecular ionization by metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.M.; Parr, T.P.

    1979-01-01

    The collisional energy dependence of several molecular total ionization cross sections by metastable rare gas atoms was studied over the thermal energy region using the crossed molecular beam time-of-flight method. Results are reported for the collision systems He, Ne, and Ar ionizing the geometric isomers cis- and trans-dichloroethylene and ortho- and para-dichlorobenzene. The He ionization cross sections oscillate about an energy dependence of E/sup -1/2/ over the energy range 0.004--1.0 eV, and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene cross section oscillates about an energy dependence of E/sup -2/5/ over the energy range 0.011--0.64 eV. The remaining systems are characterized by ''bent'' E/sup -m/ dependences with m values of 0.56--0.70 at low energies changing to 0.07--0.29 at higher energies. Comparison with the slopes of the He* systems and the Ar*+para-dichlorobenzene system shows that the ''bent'' and ''oscillating'' energy dependences are similar except for the form of the cross section functions at the lowest energies. No systematic differences are found between the cross section energy dependences for ionization of different geometric isomers or for ionization by the different metastable rare gas atoms

  3. Nonlinear saturation of stimulated Raman scattering in a collisional homogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinstrie, C.J.

    1985-11-01

    Using multiple scale analysis, the nonlinear saturation of the stimulated Raman scattering instability is examined in a collisional homogeneous plasma. The first problem considered is the temporal problem in an infinite plasma, with a ubiquitous driver and arbitrary damping for each wave. The second problem considered is the absolute Raman instability in a finite plasma. The incident wave amplitude exceeds the absolute instability threshold by the fractional amount Δ. In the marginally unstable regime, the complete time dependence and spatial variation of each wave amplitude is obtained. An expression for the reflected light intensity is determined analytically, and is proportional to Δ. The conditions under which the steady-state results can be extended to the moderately unstable regime are discussed. The reflected light intensity is compared to values predicted for the convective instability, for the same incident intensity. In ''short'' plasmas, i.e., ones which extend over only a few linear convective gain lengths, the reflected intensity is found to be much higher when the absolute instability is excited

  4. Variations on Debris Disks. IV. An Improved Analytical Model for Collisional Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2017-04-01

    We derive a new analytical model for the evolution of a collisional cascade in a thin annulus around a single central star. In this model, r max the size of the largest object changes with time, {r}\\max \\propto {t}-γ , with γ ≈ 0.1-0.2. Compared to standard models where r max is constant in time, this evolution results in a more rapid decline of M d , the total mass of solids in the annulus, and L d , the luminosity of small particles in the annulus: {M}d\\propto {t}-(γ +1) and {L}d\\propto {t}-(γ /2+1). We demonstrate that the analytical model provides an excellent match to a comprehensive suite of numerical coagulation simulations for annuli at 1 au and at 25 au. If the evolution of real debris disks follows the predictions of the analytical or numerical models, the observed luminosities for evolved stars require up to a factor of two more mass than predicted by previous analytical models.

  5. Collisional Penrose process near the horizon of extreme Kerr black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejger, Michał; Piran, Tsvi; Abramowicz, Marek; Håkanson, Frida

    2012-09-21

    Collisions of particles in black hole ergospheres may result in an arbitrarily large center-of-mass energy. This led recently to the suggestion [M. Bañados, J. Silk, and S. M. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 111102 (2009)] that black holes can act as ultimate particle accelerators. If the energy of an outgoing particle is larger than the total energy of the infalling particles, the energy excess must come from the rotational energy of the black hole and hence, a Penrose process is involved. However, while the center-of-mass energy diverges, the position of the collision makes it impossible for energetic particles to escape to infinity. Following an earlier work on collisional Penrose processes [T. Piran and J. Shaham, Phys. Rev. D 16, 1615 (1977)], we show that even under the most favorable idealized conditions the maximal energy of an escaping particle is only a modest factor above the total initial energy of the colliding particles. This implies that one should not expect collisions around a black hole to act as spectacular cosmic accelerators.

  6. Fluorescence spectra and collisional energy transfer of YO (A2PIsub(1/2, 3/2)) molecules in flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijchers, T.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was (a) to determine, from fluorescence spectra in the visible, the normalized, radiatively induced extra populations of vibronic levels of a diatomic metal compound; (b) to calculate therefrom the normalized collisional transition probabilities between vibrational levels in an excited electronic state. Yttrium monoixde (YO) was chosen as the metal compound and A 2 PIsub(1/2,3/2) as the state(s) to be investigated. (Auth.)

  7. LIDT-DD: A New Self-Consistent Debris Disc Model Including Radiation Pressure and Coupling Dynamical and Collisional Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kral, Q.; Thebault, P.; Charnoz, S.

    2014-01-01

    The first attempt at developing a fully self-consistent code coupling dynamics and collisions to study debris discs (Kral et al. 2013) is presented. So far, these two crucial mechanisms were studied separately, with N-body and statistical collisional codes respectively, because of stringent computational constraints. We present a new model named LIDT-DD which is able to follow over long timescales the coupled evolution of dynamics (including radiation forces) and collisions in a self-consistent way.

  8. Collisional rate coefficients of C3H2 and the determination of physical conditions in molecular clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, L. W.; Green, Sheldon

    1989-01-01

    Collisional excitation rates for C3H2, calculated using the coupled states approximation at temperatures of 10-30 K, are presented. C3H2 produces a number of spectral line pairs whose members are close together in frequency but arise from levels with different excitation energies. The rates are used in statistical equilibrium calculations to illustrate the excitation properties and density-dependent behavior of various C3H2 line ratios.

  9. Effects of Collisionality on the Nonlinear Characteristics of Boundary Turbulence and Blob/hole Transport in Tokamak Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, J.; Yasuaki, K., E-mail: lijq@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Cheng, J.; Longwen, Y.; Jiaqi, D. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Blob/hole dynamics near tokamak separatrix is of striking importance in determining the boundary transport. Based on simulations using an extended 2-region (edge/SOL) fluid model, we found that blob/hole dynamics are sensitively influenced by the plasma collisionality, i.e., ion-electron and ion-neutral collisions. Namely, the holes are enhanced in highly collisional edge whereas the blobs are weakened at the SOL, causing larger particle convection. These blob/hole dynamics are closely correlated with potential dipoles. The trends are experimentally evidenced on the HL-2A tokamak. Moreover, as the neutral-ion collision increases, the blobs at the SOL tend to develop into streamers propagating outwards with reduced amplitude while the holes inwards are suppressed, showing a key role in nonlinear structure regulation and resultant transport suppression. Results suggest that adjusting the plasma collisionality by fueling, e.g., gas puffing, could serve as a method to nonlinearly select turbulent structures, i.e., blobs, holes or streamers, to access the control of boundary transport. (author)

  10. Positron production in superheavy collisional systems - a sensitive probe for new atomic as well as nuclear physical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsertos, H.

    1985-04-01

    In the present thesis a systematic study of the integral and spectral properties of the positron production in the collisional systems U+Pd, Pb+Th, U+Th and U+U for incident energies near the Coulomb threshold (5.9 MeV/u) was performed. Additionally for the system U+U the incident energy was varied between 5.7 MeV/u and 6.2 MeV/u with a constant step width of about 0.1 MeV/u. It could uniquely be shown that the positron production in the lighter system U+Pd can be solely explained by the nuclear production process while in the other three collisional systems both the dynamical and the nuclear positron production are experimentally verificable. The energy-integrated positron production in dependence both on the combined nuclear charge number of the collisional energy and on the impact parameter respectively the incident energy show the expected slope of a scattering process determined by the dynamics of the heavy ion collision which can be well described by the theoretical calculation. From this in the transition from the subcritical system Pb+Th to the supercritical systems U+Th and U+U no significant deviation can be observed, and so no statement about spontaneous positron emission in the supercritical system is possible. (orig./HSI) [de

  11. Syn-collisional felsic magmatism and continental crust growth: A case study from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt at the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuo; Niu, Yaoling; Xue, Qiqi

    2018-05-01

    The abundant syn-collisional granitoids produced and preserved at the northern Tibetan Plateau margin provide a prime case for studying the felsic magmatism as well as continental crust growth in response to continental collision. Here we present the results from a systematic study of the syn-collisional granitoids and their mafic magmatic enclaves (MMEs) in the Laohushan (LHS) and Machangshan (MCS) plutons from the North Qilian Orogenic Belt (NQOB). Two types of MMEs from the LHS pluton exhibit identical crystallization age ( 430 Ma) and bulk-rock isotopic compositions to their host granitoids, indicating their genetic link. The phase equilibrium constraints and pressure estimates for amphiboles from the LHS pluton together with the whole rock data suggest that the two types of MMEs represent two evolution products of the same hydrous andesitic magmas. In combination with the data on NQOB syn-collisional granitoids elsewhere, we suggest that the syn-collisional granitoids in the NQOB are material evidence of melting of ocean crust and sediment. The remarkable compositional similarity between the LHS granitoids and the model bulk continental crust in terms of major elements, trace elements, and some key element ratios indicates that the syn-collisional magmatism in the NQOB contributes to net continental crust growth, and that the way of continental crust growth in the Phanerozoic through syn-collisional felsic magmatism (production and preservation) is a straightforward process without the need of petrologically and physically complex processes.

  12. TECTONIC POSITION OF MARBLE MELANGES IN THE EARLY PALEOZOIC ACCRETION-COLLISIONAL SYSTEM OF THE WESTERN PRIBAIKALIE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Fedorovsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Early Paleozoic collisional system located in the Olkhon region at the western shores of Lake Baikal resulted from collision of the Siberian paleocontinent and a complex aggregate composed by fragments of a microcontinent, island arcs, back-arc structures and accretionary prisms. The main events were associated with complete manifestation of shear tectogenesis initiated by oblique collision. The current structure includes tectonically displaced components of ancient geodynamic systems that used to have been located dozens and hundreds of kilometres apart. Horizontal amplitudes of tectonic displacement seem to have been quite high; however, numerical data are still lacking to support this conclusion. Information about the structure of the upper crust in the Paleozoic is also lacking as only deep metamorphic rocks (varying from epidote-amphibolite to granulite facies are currently outcropped. Formations comprising the collisional collage are significantly different in composition and protoliths, and combinations of numerous shifted beds give evidence of a 'bulldozer' effect caused by the collisional shock followed by movements of crushed components of the ocean-continent zone along the margin of the Siberian paleocontinent. As evidenced by the recent cross-section, deep horizons of the Early Paleozoic crust comprise the collisional system between the Siberian craton and the Olkhon composite terrain. A permanent inclusion in the collisional combinations of rocks are unusual synmetamorphic injected bodies of carbonate rocks. Such rocks comprise two groups, marble melanges and crustal carbonate melted rocks. Obviously, carbonate rocks (that composed the original layers and horizons of stratified beds can become less viscous to a certain degree at some locations during the process of oblique collision and acquire unusual properties and can thus intrude into the surrounding rocks of silicate composition. Such carbonate rocks behave as protrusions

  13. Collidoscope: An Improved Tool for Computing Collisional Cross-Sections with the Trajectory Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Simon A.; Donor, Micah T.; Wilson, Jesse W.; Prell, James S.

    2017-04-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) can be a powerful tool for determining structural information about ions in the gas phase, from small covalent analytes to large, native-like or denatured proteins and complexes. For large biomolecular ions, which may have a wide variety of possible gas-phase conformations and multiple charge sites, quantitative, physically explicit modeling of collisional cross sections (CCSs) for comparison to IMS data can be challenging and time-consuming. We present a "trajectory method" (TM) based CCS calculator, named "Collidoscope," which utilizes parallel processing and optimized trajectory sampling, and implements both He and N2 as collision gas options. Also included is a charge-placement algorithm for determining probable charge site configurations for protonated protein ions given an input geometry in pdb file format. Results from Collidoscope are compared with those from the current state-of-the-art CCS simulation suite, IMoS. Collidoscope CCSs are within 4% of IMoS values for ions with masses from 18 Da to 800 kDa. Collidoscope CCSs using X-ray crystal geometries are typically within a few percent of IM-MS experimental values for ions with mass up to 3.5 kDa (melittin), and discrepancies for larger ions up to 800 kDa (GroEL) are attributed in large part to changes in ion structure during and after the electrospray process. Due to its physically explicit modeling of scattering, computational efficiency, and accuracy, Collidoscope can be a valuable tool for IM-MS research, especially for large biomolecular ions.

  14. Interdisciplinary approach to exploit the tectonic memory in the continental crust of collisional belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosso, G.; Marotta, A. M.; Rebay, G.; Regorda, A.; Roda, M.; Spalla, M. I.; Zanoni, D.; Zucali, M.

    2015-12-01

    Collisional belts result by thoroughly competing thermo-mechanical disaggregation and coupling within both continental and oceanic lithospheric slices, during construction of tectono-metamorphic architectures. In multiply reworked metamorphics, tectonic units may be contoured nowadays on the base of coherent thermo-baric and structural time-sequences rather than simply relying on lithologic affinities. Sequences of equilibrium assemblages and related fabric imprints are an approach that appears as a more reliable procedure, that enables to define tectonic units as the volume of crustal slices that underwent corresponding variations during the dynamics of an active margin and takes into account a history of physical imprints. The dimensions of these tectonic units may have varied over time and must be reconstructed combining the tracers of structural and metamorphic changes of basement rocks, since such kind of tectono-metamorphic units (TMUs) is a realistic configuration of the discrete portions of orogenic crust that experienced a coherent sequence of metamorphic and textural variations. Their translational trajectories, and bulk shape changes during deformation, cannot simply be derived from the analysis of the geometries and kinematics of tectonic units, but are to be obtained by adding the reconstruction of quantitative P-T-d-t paths making full use of fossil mineral equilibria. The joint TMU field-and-laboratory definition is an investigation procedure that bears a distinct thermo-tectonic connotation, that, through modelling, offers the opportunity to test the physical compatibilities of plate-scale interconnected variables, such as density, viscosity, and heat transfer, with respect to what current interpretative geologic histories may imply. Comparison between predictions from numerical modelling and natural data obtained by this analytical approach can help to solve ambiguities on geodynamic significance of structural and thermal signatures, also as a

  15. Fine and hyperfine collisional excitation of C6H by He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Kyle M.; Lique, François; Dawes, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogenated carbon chains have been detected in interstellar and circumstellar media and accurate modelling of their abundances requires collisional excitation rate coefficients with the most abundant species. Among them, the C6H molecule is one of the most abundant towards many lines of sight. Hence, we determined fine and hyperfine-resolved rate coefficients for the excitation of C6H(X2Π) due to collisions with He. We present the first interaction potential energy surface for the C6H-He system, obtained from highly correlated ab initio calculations and characterized by a large anisotropy due to the length of the molecule. We performed dynamical calculations for transitions among the first fine structure levels (up to J = 30.5) of both spin-orbit manifolds of C6H using the close-coupling method, and rate coefficients are determined for temperatures ranging from 5 to 100 K. The largest rate coefficients for even ΔJ transitions conserve parity, while parity-breaking rate coefficients are favoured for odd ΔJ. Spin-orbit changing rate coefficients are several orders of magnitude lower than transitions within a single manifold. State-to-state hyperfine-resolved cross-sections for the first levels (up to J = 13.5) in the Ω = 3/2 spin-orbit manifold are deduced using recoupling techniques. Rate coefficients are obtained and the propensity rule ΔJ = ΔF is seen. These new data will help determine the abundance of C6H in astrophysical environments such as cold dense molecular clouds, star-forming regions and circumstellar envelopes, and will help in the interpretation of the puzzling C6H-/C6H abundance ratios deduced from observations.

  16. Vibrational and electronic collisional-radiative model in air for Earth entry problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annaloro, Julien, E-mail: Julien.Annaloro@cnes.fr [CNES, 18 Avenue Edouard Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 9 (France); CORIA - UMR 6614, Normandie Université, CNRS - Université et INSA de Rouen, Campus Universitaire du Madrillet, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France); Bultel, Arnaud, E-mail: Arnaud.Bultel@coria.fr [CORIA - UMR 6614, Normandie Université, CNRS - Université et INSA de Rouen, Campus Universitaire du Madrillet, 76800 Saint-Etienne du Rouvray Cedex (France)

    2014-12-15

    The two-temperature collisional-radiative model CoRaM-AIR, working over a wide range for pressure and temperatures, has been developed for the flow conditions around a space vehicle entering the Earth's atmosphere. The species N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, NO, N, O, Ar, N{sub 2}{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +}, NO{sup +}, N{sup +}, O{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and free electrons are taken into account. The model is vibrationally specific on the ground electronic state of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and NO, and electronically specific for all species, with a total of 169 vibrational states and 829 electronic states, respectively. A wide set of elementary processes is considered under electron and heavy particle impact given the temperatures involved (up to 30 000 K). This set corresponds to almost 700 000 forward and backward elementary processes. The relaxation from initial thermal or chemical nonequilibrium is studied for dissociation-ionization situations in conditions related to the FIRE II flight experiment. Boltzmann plots clearly prove that the vibrational and electronic excitation distributions are far from being Boltzmanian. In particular, high-lying vibrational levels remain underpopulated for most of the duration of the relaxation. This relaxation can be separated in a first phase characterized by the dissociation and the excitation of the molecular species, and a second phase leading to the excitation and the ionization of the dissociation products. Owing to the vibrational relaxation, the time scales are slightly higher than the ones predicted by former kinetic mechanisms usually used in flow simulations. In the present FIRE II conditions, radiation does not play a significant role.

  17. Analyzing Internal Fragmentation of Electrosprayed Ubiquitin Ions During Beam-Type Collisional Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Kenneth R.; Skinner, Owen S.; Fellers, Ryan T.; Kelleher, Neil L.

    2015-05-01

    Gaseous fragmentation of intact proteins is multifaceted and can be unpredictable by current theories in the field. Contributing to the complexity is the multitude of precursor ion states and fragmentation channels. Terminal fragment ions can be re-fragmented, yielding product ions containing neither terminus, termed internal fragment ions. In an effort to better understand and capitalize upon this fragmentation process, we collisionally dissociated the high (13+), middle (10+), and low (7+) charge states of electrosprayed ubiquitin ions. Both terminal and internal fragmentation processes were quantified through step-wise increases of voltage potential in the collision cell. An isotope fitting algorithm matched observed product ions to theoretical terminal and internal fragment ions. At optimal energies for internal fragmentation of the 10+, nearly 200 internal fragments were observed; on average each of the 76 residues in ubiquitin was covered by 24.1 internal fragments. A pertinent finding was that formation of internal ions occurs at similar energy thresholds as terminal b- and y-ion types in beam-type activation. This large amount of internal fragmentation is frequently overlooked during top-down mass spectrometry. As such, we present several new approaches to visualize internal fragments through modified graphical fragment maps. With the presented advances of internal fragment ion accounting and visualization, the total percentage of matched fragment ions increased from approximately 40% to over 75% in a typical beam-type MS/MS spectrum. These sequence coverage improvements offer greater characterization potential for whole proteins with no needed experimental changes and could be of large benefit for future high-throughput intact protein analysis.

  18. The role of collisional tectonics in the metallogeny of the Central Andean tin belt [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2005-12-01

    The Inner Arc of the Central Andes, broadly corresponding to the Eastern Cordillera, is the location of a rich Tertiary and Triassic Sn-W-(Ag-base metal) metallogenic province, commonly referred to as the Bolivian tin belt. We propose that the Tertiary metallogeny, which generated most of the tin ores, was a direct consequence of discrete "collisions" between the South American plate and the Nazca slab and sub-slab mantle, during the ongoing Andean orogeny. Evidence supporting this proposal include: (1) the coincidence of the tin province and the Inner Arc in a marked "hump" in the Andean orogen, which may represent tectonic indentation; (2) the symmetry of the tin province with respect to the Bolivian orocline, the axis of which corresponds to the direction of highest compression; (3) the relative symmetry of the magmatism and tin mineralization with respect to this axis; (4) the concurrent timing of mineralization and compressional pulses; (5) the similar host rock geochemistry and ore lead isotope data, testifying to a common crustal reservoir; and (6) the striking similarity of the igneous suites, associated with the ore deposits to those from "typical" collisional orogens. A number of studies have called upon a persistent tin anomaly to explain the metallogeny of the region. We propose, instead, that the latter is better explained by periodic compressional interaction between the Farallon/Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continent. This led to the generation of peraluminous magmas, which during fractional crystallization exsolved the fluids responsible for the voluminous Sn-W mineralization.

  19. A PARALLEL MONTE CARLO CODE FOR SIMULATING COLLISIONAL N-BODY SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattabiraman, Bharath; Umbreit, Stefan; Liao, Wei-keng; Choudhary, Alok; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Memik, Gokhan; Rasio, Frederic A., E-mail: bharath@u.northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL (United States)

    2013-02-15

    We present a new parallel code for computing the dynamical evolution of collisional N-body systems with up to N {approx} 10{sup 7} particles. Our code is based on the Henon Monte Carlo method for solving the Fokker-Planck equation, and makes assumptions of spherical symmetry and dynamical equilibrium. The principal algorithmic developments involve optimizing data structures and the introduction of a parallel random number generation scheme as well as a parallel sorting algorithm required to find nearest neighbors for interactions and to compute the gravitational potential. The new algorithms we introduce along with our choice of decomposition scheme minimize communication costs and ensure optimal distribution of data and workload among the processing units. Our implementation uses the Message Passing Interface library for communication, which makes it portable to many different supercomputing architectures. We validate the code by calculating the evolution of clusters with initial Plummer distribution functions up to core collapse with the number of stars, N, spanning three orders of magnitude from 10{sup 5} to 10{sup 7}. We find that our results are in good agreement with self-similar core-collapse solutions, and the core-collapse times generally agree with expectations from the literature. Also, we observe good total energy conservation, within {approx}< 0.04% throughout all simulations. We analyze the performance of the code, and demonstrate near-linear scaling of the runtime with the number of processors up to 64 processors for N = 10{sup 5}, 128 for N = 10{sup 6} and 256 for N = 10{sup 7}. The runtime reaches saturation with the addition of processors beyond these limits, which is a characteristic of the parallel sorting algorithm. The resulting maximum speedups we achieve are approximately 60 Multiplication-Sign , 100 Multiplication-Sign , and 220 Multiplication-Sign , respectively.

  20. On the kinetic collisional theory of beam-plasma system (relativistic dielectric tensor). Vol. 2.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Sh M; Sayed, Y A; Zaki, N G [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Calculation of the dielectric tensor is useful for calculating and oscillations the stability of an inhomogeneous plasma. If the dielectric tensor is known, the problem of oscillations is reduced the derivation of the Maxwellian equations. In this case, there is no need to derive the equations of the motion of charged particles every time. The properties of the plasma, especially those connected to its instability, may be equally well specified through permittivity as through conductivity. The features of plasma instabilities and the plasma dielectric tensor are essentially affected by the presence of collision. Coloumb collisions (C.C.) are very important in the process of no linear saturation of some plasma instabilities (e.g., ion cyclotron instability, electron-ion two stream instability). For C.C., two basic properties are considered; (i) the cross section decreases rapidly as the particle velocity increases, (ii) the dominate contribution arises from a commutative effect of small-angle scattering or small-momentum transfer processes. If allowance is made for C.C. to derive the kinetic wave equations in a homogeneous plasma, it will remove the divergance in the matrix elements describing nonlinear interactions. In this paper, the collisional kinetic wave equation in cylindrical hot plasma is studied. The dielectric and polarizing tensor elements which describes the kinetic relativistic electron beam (REB) interaction with magnetized plasma into consideration the effect of pair C.C. is derived. Most research carried out in this direction has neglected the effect of C.C. In the absence of collisions, a `plauste` is formed on the distribution function, and the adsorption of the energy by the plasma stops. 1 fig.

  1. Petrogenesis of shoshonitic granitoids, eastern India: Implications for the late Grenvillian post-collisional magmatism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Goswami

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Many elongated, lenticular plutons of porphyritic granitoids are distributed mainly near the southern and northern margin of the Chhotanagpur Gneissic Complex (CGC which belongs to the EW to ENE–WSW tending 1500 km long Proterozoic orogenic belt amalgamating the North and South Indian cratonic blocks. The late Grenvillian (1071 ± 64 Ma Raghunathpur porphyritic granitoid gneiss (PGG batholith comprising alkali feldspar granite, granite, granodiorite, tonalite, quartz syenite and quartz monzonite intruded into the granitoid gneisses of southeastern part of CGC in the Purulia district, West Bengal and is aligned with ENE–WSW trending North Purulia shear zone. Mineral chemistry, geochemistry, physical condition of crystallization and petrogenetic model of Raghunathpur PGG have been discussed for the first time. The petrographic and geochemical features (including major and trace-elements, mineral chemistry and 87Sr/86Sr ratio suggest these granitoids to be classified as the shoshonitic type. Raghunathpur batholith was emplaced at around 800 °C and at 6 kbar pressure tectonic discrimination diagrams reveal a post-collision tectonic setting while structural studies reveal its emplacement in the extensional fissure of North Purulia shear zone. The Raghunathpur granitoid is compared with some similar granitoids of Europe and China to draw its petrogenetic model. Hybridization of mantle-generated enriched mafic magma and crustal magma at lower crust and later fractional crystallization is proposed for the petrogenesis of this PGG. Mafic magma generated in a post-collisional extension possibly because of delamination of subducting slab. Raghunathpur batholith had emplaced in the CGC during the final amalgamation (∼1.0 Ga of the North and South Indian cratonic blocks. Granitoid magma, after its generation at depth, was transported to its present level along megadyke channel, ways within shear zones.

  2. A PARALLEL MONTE CARLO CODE FOR SIMULATING COLLISIONAL N-BODY SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattabiraman, Bharath; Umbreit, Stefan; Liao, Wei-keng; Choudhary, Alok; Kalogera, Vassiliki; Memik, Gokhan; Rasio, Frederic A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a new parallel code for computing the dynamical evolution of collisional N-body systems with up to N ∼ 10 7 particles. Our code is based on the Hénon Monte Carlo method for solving the Fokker-Planck equation, and makes assumptions of spherical symmetry and dynamical equilibrium. The principal algorithmic developments involve optimizing data structures and the introduction of a parallel random number generation scheme as well as a parallel sorting algorithm required to find nearest neighbors for interactions and to compute the gravitational potential. The new algorithms we introduce along with our choice of decomposition scheme minimize communication costs and ensure optimal distribution of data and workload among the processing units. Our implementation uses the Message Passing Interface library for communication, which makes it portable to many different supercomputing architectures. We validate the code by calculating the evolution of clusters with initial Plummer distribution functions up to core collapse with the number of stars, N, spanning three orders of magnitude from 10 5 to 10 7 . We find that our results are in good agreement with self-similar core-collapse solutions, and the core-collapse times generally agree with expectations from the literature. Also, we observe good total energy conservation, within ∼ 5 , 128 for N = 10 6 and 256 for N = 10 7 . The runtime reaches saturation with the addition of processors beyond these limits, which is a characteristic of the parallel sorting algorithm. The resulting maximum speedups we achieve are approximately 60×, 100×, and 220×, respectively.

  3. DETECTING AND CONSTRAINING N2 ABUNDANCES IN PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES USING COLLISIONAL PAIRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Misra, Amit; Robinson, Tyler D.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn

    2015-01-01

    Characterizing the bulk atmosphere of a terrestrial planet is important for determining surface pressure and potential habitability. Molecular nitrogen (N 2 ) constitutes the largest fraction of Earth's atmosphere and is likely to be a major constituent of many terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. Due to its lack of significant absorption features, N 2 is extremely difficult to remotely detect. However, N 2 produces an N 2 –N 2 collisional pair, (N 2 ) 2 , which is spectrally active. Here we report the detection of (N 2 ) 2 in Earth's disk-integrated spectrum. By comparing spectra from NASA's EPOXI mission to synthetic spectra from the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model, we find that (N 2 ) 2 absorption produces a ∼35% decrease in flux at 4.15 μm. Quantifying N 2 could provide a means of determining bulk atmospheric composition for terrestrial exoplanets and could rule out abiotic O 2 generation, which is possible in rarefied atmospheres. To explore the potential effects of (N 2 ) 2 in exoplanet spectra, we used radiative transfer models to generate synthetic emission and transit transmission spectra of self-consistent N 2 –CO 2 –H 2 O atmospheres, and analytic N 2 –H 2 and N 2 –H 2 –CO 2 atmospheres. We show that (N 2 ) 2 absorption in the wings of the 4.3 μm CO 2 band is strongly dependent on N 2 partial pressures above 0.5 bar and can significantly widen this band in thick N 2 atmospheres. The (N 2 ) 2 transit transmission signal is up to 10 ppm for an Earth-size planet with an N 2 -dominated atmosphere orbiting within the habitable zone of an M5V star and could be substantially larger for planets with significant H 2 mixing ratios

  4. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Family Meals KidsHealth / For Parents / Family Meals What's in ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  5. Family Arguments

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Arguments Page Content Article Body We seem to ...

  6. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  7. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Some have two parents, while others have a single parent. Sometimes there is no parent and grandparents raise grandchildren. Some children live in foster families, adoptive families, or in stepfamilies. Families are much ...

  8. Family Disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Life Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Family Disruptions Page Content Article Body No matter how ...

  9. HALF-BROTHERS IN THE SCHULHOF FAMILY?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vokrouhlicky, David; Nesvorny, David

    2011-01-01

    Disruptive collisions in the asteroid belt produced groups of fragments known as the asteroid families. The studies of identified asteroid families help us to better understand issues related to impact physics, space weathering, asteroid interior, and collisional evolution of the main belt. Here, we analyze a family near the central main belt asteroid (2384) Schulhof. We show that the previously found group of objects around (81337) 2000 GP36 is actually a sub-cluster in the larger Schulhof family. Using backward integrations we demonstrate that the orbits of sub-cluster asteroids converge to that of (2384) Schulhof at 780 ± 100 kyr ago, suggesting that the breakup event happened very recently. Interestingly, a similar analysis of the two newly discovered members of the Schulhof family may indicate a second event ∼< 100 kyr ago (e.g., secondary collision, fission, satellite instability). If confirmed, the formation history of the Schulhof family would suggest that small asteroids may have very colorful lifetimes. Additional astrometric observations of the two new member asteroids will be needed to improve their present orbit and better constrain their past histories.

  10. Micrometer-sized Water Ice Particles for Planetary Science Experiments: Influence of Surface Structure on Collisional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, Sabrina; Gundlach, Bastian; Headen, Thomas F.; Ratte, Judy; Oesert, Joachim; Gorb, Stanislav N.; Youngs, Tristan G. A.; Bowron, Daniel T.; Blum, Jürgen; Fraser, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Models and observations suggest that particle aggregation at and beyond the snowline is aided by water ice. As icy particles play such a crucial role in the earliest stages of planet formation, many laboratory studies have exploited their collisional properties across a wide range of parameters (particle size, impact velocity, temperature T, and pressure P).However, not all of these parameters have always been varied systematically, leading to apparently contradictory results on collision outcomes. Previous experiments only agreed that a temperature dependence set in above ≈210 K. Open questions remain as to what extent the structural properties of the particles themselves dictate collision outcomes. The P–T gradients in protoplanetary disks mean that the ices are constantly processed, undergoing phase changes between different solid phases and the gas phase. To understand how effectively collision experiments reproduce protoplanetary disk conditions, environmental impacts on particle structure need to be investigated.We characterized the bulk and surface structure of icy particles used in collision experiments, exploiting the unique capabilities of the NIMROD neutron scattering instrument. Varying temperature at a constant pressure of around 30 mbar, we studied structural alterations to determine which of the observed properties matches the temperature dependencies observed in collisional behaviour.Our icy grains are formed under liquid nitrogen and heated from 103 to 247 K. As a result, they undergo changes in the crystalline ice-phase, sublimation, sintering and surface pre-melting. An increase in the thickness of the diffuse surface layer from ≈10 to ≈30 Å (≈2.5 to 12 bilayers) suggests increased molecular mobility at temperatures above ≈210 K.Because none of the other changes ties in with the temperature trends in collisional outcomes, we conclude that the diffuse interface plays a key role in collision experiments at these temperatures

  11. DETECTING AND CONSTRAINING N{sub 2} ABUNDANCES IN PLANETARY ATMOSPHERES USING COLLISIONAL PAIRS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwieterman, Edward W.; Meadows, Victoria S.; Misra, Amit [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States); Robinson, Tyler D.; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn, E-mail: eschwiet@uw.edu [NAI Virtual Planetary Laboratory, Seattle, WA 98115 (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Characterizing the bulk atmosphere of a terrestrial planet is important for determining surface pressure and potential habitability. Molecular nitrogen (N{sub 2}) constitutes the largest fraction of Earth's atmosphere and is likely to be a major constituent of many terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. Due to its lack of significant absorption features, N{sub 2} is extremely difficult to remotely detect. However, N{sub 2} produces an N{sub 2}–N{sub 2} collisional pair, (N{sub 2}){sub 2}, which is spectrally active. Here we report the detection of (N{sub 2}){sub 2} in Earth's disk-integrated spectrum. By comparing spectra from NASA's EPOXI mission to synthetic spectra from the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory three-dimensional spectral Earth model, we find that (N{sub 2}){sub 2} absorption produces a ∼35% decrease in flux at 4.15 μm. Quantifying N{sub 2} could provide a means of determining bulk atmospheric composition for terrestrial exoplanets and could rule out abiotic O{sub 2} generation, which is possible in rarefied atmospheres. To explore the potential effects of (N{sub 2}){sub 2} in exoplanet spectra, we used radiative transfer models to generate synthetic emission and transit transmission spectra of self-consistent N{sub 2}–CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O atmospheres, and analytic N{sub 2}–H{sub 2} and N{sub 2}–H{sub 2}–CO{sub 2} atmospheres. We show that (N{sub 2}){sub 2} absorption in the wings of the 4.3 μm CO{sub 2} band is strongly dependent on N{sub 2} partial pressures above 0.5 bar and can significantly widen this band in thick N{sub 2} atmospheres. The (N{sub 2}){sub 2} transit transmission signal is up to 10 ppm for an Earth-size planet with an N{sub 2}-dominated atmosphere orbiting within the habitable zone of an M5V star and could be substantially larger for planets with significant H{sub 2} mixing ratios.

  12. Collisional Activation of Peptide Ions in FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.

    2003-01-01

    . Combining collisional energy-resolved data with RRKM-based modeling revealed the effect of peptide size and identity on energy transfer in collisions? very important characteristics of ion activation from both fundamental and the analytical perspectives. Finally, the combination of FT-ICR with SID was utilized to carry out the first time-resolved experiments, which examine the kinetics of peptide fragmentation. This has lead to the discovery that the time dependence of ion dissociation varies smoothly up to certain collision energy and then shifts dramatically to a time independent, extensive dissociation. This near instantaneous?shattering? of the ion generates a large number of relatively small fragment ions. Shattering of ions on surfaces opens up a variety of dissociation pathways that are not accessible using multiple-collision and multiphoton excitation

  13. Magnetic Field Effects and Electromagnetic Wave Propagation in Highly Collisional Plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Steven Paul

    The homogeneity and size of radio frequency (RF) and microwave driven plasmas are often limited by insufficient penetration of the electromagnetic radiation. To investigate increasing the skin depth of the radiation, we consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a weakly ionized plasma immersed in a steady magnetic field where the dominant collision processes are electron-neutral and ion-neutral collisions. Retaining both the electron and ion dynamics, we have adapted the theory for cold collisionless plasmas to include the effects of these collisions and obtained the dispersion relation at arbitrary frequency omega for plane waves propagating at arbitrary angles with respect to the magnetic field. We discuss in particular the cases of magnetic field enhanced wave penetration for parallel and perpendicular propagation, examining the experimental parameters which lead to electromagnetic wave propagation beyond the collisional skin depth. Our theory predicts that the most favorable scaling of skin depth with magnetic field occurs for waves propagating nearly parallel to B and for omega << Omega_{rm e} where Omega_{rm e} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The scaling is less favorable for propagation perpendicular to B, but the skin depth does increase for this case as well. Still, to achieve optimal wave penetration, we find that one must design the plasma configuration and antenna geometry so that one generates primarily the appropriate angles of propagation. We have measured plasma wave amplitudes and phases using an RF magnetic probe and densities using Stark line broadening. These measurements were performed in inductively coupled plasmas (ICP's) driven with a standard helical coil, a reverse turn (Stix) coil, and a flat spiral coil. Density measurements were also made in a microwave generated plasma. The RF magnetic probe measurements of wave propagation in a conventional ICP with wave propagation approximately perpendicular to B show an increase in

  14. The Acapulco Parent Planetesimal: An Early Collisional History in the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marti, K.; Kim, Y.

    2007-05-01

    The Acapulco, Mexico, meteorite was recovered in 1976 from a crater of approx. 30 cm diameter. An old crystallization age of 4.60 (error 0.03) Ga (Prinzhofer et al., 1992) establishes that its parent object is one of the oldest known planetesimals in the solar system, although not in a pristine form. Other dating systems indicated somewhat younger ages and isotopic variabilities in several elements documented a complex early history. The younger ages date the closure times in secondary minerals. The initial parent object was in a partially molten state when isotopically distinct foreign matter invaded the chondritic parent and some of the isotopic signatures survived. Nitrogen in the primitive achondrite Acapulco was found to have distinct isotopic signatures for the metal and silicate phases and also in different morphologies of graphites (El Goresy, 1995, 2005). The delayed collisional event probably disrupted the parent object, as Acapulco cooled very rapidly. Nitrogen in the injected metal and graphite did not isotopically exchange with the host silicates. We observed nitrogen isotopic signatures of several separated mineral phases which cover a range of delta 15N values from -150 permil to +13 permil. The lightest nitrogen signatures observed in metal separates are comparable to those in some morphologies of Acapulco graphites. The heavy N signatures observed in several silicate minerals are consistent with each other, while nitrogen in chromite is distinctly light (delta 15N of -80 permil), intermediate between those of metal and silicates. The incipient rapid cooling history is well documented down to approx. 120° C, as recorded by U/Th-4He ages in phosphates (Min et al., 2003). The history of the Acapulco parent object was uneventful after its early evolution in an environment where no perturbation by collisions occurred, until the meteorite's recent (6.0 Ma ago) injection into an earth-crossing orbit. References: El Goresy, A., Zinner, E., and Marti, K

  15. 'Collisional Activation of Peptide Ions in FT-ICR Mass Spectrometry'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laskin, Julia; Futrell, Jean H.

    2003-01-01

    . Combining collisional energy-resolved data with RRKM-based modeling revealed the effect of peptide size and identity on energy transfer in collisions? very important characteristics of ion activation from both fundamental and the analytical perspectives. Finally, the combination of FT-ICR with SID was utilized to carry out the first time-resolved experiments, which examine the kinetics of peptide fragmentation. This has lead to the discovery that the time dependence of ion dissociation varies smoothly up to certain collision energy and then shifts dramatically to a time independent, extensive dissociation. This near instantaneous?shattering? of the ion generates a large number of relatively small fragment ions. Shattering of ions on surfaces opens up a variety of dissociation pathways that are not accessible using multiple-collision and multiphoton excitation.

  16. Collisional Damping of Electron Bernstein Waves and its Mitigation by Evaporated Lithium Conditioning in Spherical-Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S. J.; Caughman, J. B.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The first experimental verification of electron Bernstein wave (EBW) collisional damping, and its mitigation by evaporated Li conditioning, in an overdense spherical-tokamak plasma has been observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial measurements of EBW emission, coupled from NSTX plasmas via double-mode conversion to O-mode waves, exhibited <10% transmission efficiencies. Simulations show 80% of the EBW energy is dissipated by collisions in the edge plasma. Li conditioning reduced the edge collision frequency by a factor of 3 and increased the fundamental EBW transmission to 60%.

  17. Electron heat transport analysis of low-collisionality plasmas in the neoclassical-transport-optimized configuration of LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Sadayoshi; Yamada, Hiroshi; Wakasa, Arimitsu

    2002-01-01

    Electron heat transport in low-collisionality LHD plasma is investigated in order to study the neoclassical transport optimization effect on thermal plasma transport with an optimization level typical of so-called ''advanced stellarators''. In the central region, a higher electron temperature is obtained in the optimized configuration, and transport analysis suggests the considerable effect of neoclassical transport on the electron heat transport assuming the ion-root level of radial electric field. The obtained experimental results support future reactor design in which the neoclassical and/or anomalous transports are reduced by magnetic field optimization in a non-axisymmetric configuration. (author)

  18. Rovibrationally Resolved Time-Dependent Collisional-Radiative Model of Molecular Hydrogen and Its Application to a Fusion Detached Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Sawada

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel rovibrationally resolved collisional-radiative model of molecular hydrogen that includes 4,133 rovibrational levels for electronic states whose united atom principal quantum number is below six is developed. The rovibrational X 1 Σ g + population distribution in a SlimCS fusion demo detached divertor plasma is investigated by solving the model time dependently with an initial 300 K Boltzmann distribution. The effective reaction rate coefficients of molecular assisted recombination and of other processes in which atomic hydrogen is produced are calculated using the obtained time-dependent population distribution.

  19. Collisional plasma transport: two-dimensional scalar formulation of the initial boundary value problem and quasi one-dimensional models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugge, J.W.

    1979-10-01

    The collisional plasma transport problem is formulated as an initial boundary value problem for general characteristic boundary conditions. Starting from the full set of hydrodynamic and electrodynamic equations an expansion in the electron-ion mass ratio together with a multiple timescale method yields simplified equations on each timescale. On timescales where many collisions have taken place for the simplified equations the initial boundary value problem is formulated. Through the introduction of potentials a two-dimensional scalar formulation in terms of quasi-linear integro-differential equations of second order for a domain consisting of plasma and vacuum sub-domains is obtained. (Auth.)

  20. Family Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Family privilege is defined as "strengths and supports gained through primary caring relationships." A generation ago, the typical family included two parents and a bevy of kids living under one roof. Now, every variation of blended caregiving qualifies as family. But over the long arc of human history, a real family was a…

  1. Searching for a Differentiated Asteroid Family: A Spectral Survey of the Massalia, Merxia, and Agnia Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cristina A.; Moskovitz, Nicholas; Lim, Lucy F.; Trilling, David E.

    2017-10-01

    Asteroid families were formed by catastrophic collisions or large cratering events that caused fragmentation of the parent body and ejection of asteroidal fragments with velocities sufficient to prevent re-accretion. Due to these formation processes, asteroid families provide us with the opportunity to probe the interiors of the former parent bodies. Differentiation of a large initially chondritic parent body is expected to result in an “onion shell" object with an iron-nickel core, a thick olivine-dominated mantle, and a thin plagioclase/pyroxene crust. However, most asteroid families tend to show similar spectra (and therefore composition) among the members. Spectroscopic studies have observed a paucity of metal-like materials and olivine-dominated assemblages within Main Belt asteroid families.The deficit of olivine-rich mantle material in the meteorite record and in asteroid observations is known as the “Missing Mantle" problem. For years the best explanation has been the “battered to bits" hypothesis: differentiated parent bodies (aside from Vesta) were disrupted very early in the Solar System and the olivine-rich material was collisionally broken down over time. Alternatively, Elkins-Tanton et al. (2013) have suggested that previous work has overestimated the amount of olivine produced by the differentiation of a chondritic parent body.We have completed a visible and near-infrared wavelength spectral survey of asteroids in the Massalia, Merxia, and Agnia S-type Main Belt asteroid families. These families were carefully chosen for the spectroscopic survey because they have compositions most closely associated with a history of thermal metamorphism and because they represent a range of collisional formation scenarios. Additionally, members of the Merxia and Agnia families were identified as products of differentiation by Sunshine et al. (2004).Our spectral analyses suggest that the observed families contain products of partial differentiation. We will

  2. How plasmas dissipate: cascade and the production of internal energy and entropy in weakly collisional plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Yang, Y.; Servidio, S.; Parashar, T.; Chasapis, A.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2017-12-01

    Turbulence cascade transfers energy from large scale to small scale but what happens once kinetic scales are reached? In a collisional medium, viscosity and resistivity remove fluctuation energy in favor of heat. In the weakly collisional solar wind, (or corona, m-sheath, etc.), the sequence of events must be different. Heating occurs, but through what mechanisms? In standard approaches, dissipation occurs though linear wave modes or instabilities and one seeks to identify them. A complementary view is that cascade leads to several channels of energy conversion, interchange and spatial rearrangement that collectively leads to production of internal energy. Channels may be described using compressible MHD & multispecies Vlasov Maxwell formulations. Key steps are: Conservative rearrangement of energy in space; Parallel incompressible and compressible cascades - conservative rearrangment in scale; electromagnetic work on particles that drives flows, both macroscopic and microscopic; and pressure-stress interactions, both compressive and shear-like, that produces internal energy. Examples given from MHD, PIC simulations and MMS observations. A more subtle issue is how entropy is related to this degeneration (or, "dissipation") of macroscopic, fluid-scale fluctuations. We discuss this in terms of Boltzmann and thermodynamic entropies, and velocity space effects of collisions.

  3. Effects of ionization and ion loss on dust ion- acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma with suprathermal electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribeche, Mouloud; Mayout, Saliha

    2016-07-01

    The combined effects of ionization, ion loss and electron suprathermality on dust ion- acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma are examined. Carrying out a small but finite amplitude analysis, a damped Korteweg- de Vries (dK-- dV) equation is derived. The damping term decreases with the increase of the spectral index and saturates for Maxwellian electrons. Choosing typical plasma parameters, the analytical approximate solution of the dK- dV equation is numerically analyzed. We first neglect the ionization and ion loss effects and account only for collisions to estimate the relative importance between these damping terms which can act concurrently. Interestingly, we found that as the suprathermal character of the electrons becomes important, the strength of the collisions related dissipation becomes more important and causes the DIA solitary wave amplitude to decay more rapidly. Moreover, the collisional damping may largely prevail over the ionization and ion loss related damping. The latter becomes more effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. Our results complement and provide new insights into previously published work on this problem.

  4. Vertical displacement during late-collisional escape tectonics (Brasiliano Orogeny) in the Ribeira Belt, São Paulo State, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackspacher, P. C.; Godoy, A. M.

    1999-07-01

    During the Brasiliano-Pan-African Orogeny, West Gondwana formed by collisional processes around the São Francisco-Congo Craton. The Ribeira belt, in southeastern Brazil, resulted from northwestward collision (650-600 Ma), followed by large-scale northeast-southwest dextral strike-slip shear movements related to late-collisional escape tectonics ( ca 600 Ma). In São Paulo State, three groups, also interpreted as terranes, are recognised in the Ribeira Belt, the Embu, Itapira and São Roque Groups. The Embu and Itapira Groups are formed of sillimanite-gneisses, schists and migmatites intruded by Neoproterozoic calc-alkaline granitoids, all thrusted northwestward. The São Roque Group is composed of metasediments and metavolcanics in greenschist-facies. Its deformation indicates a transpressional regime associated with tectonic escape. Sub-alkaline granites were emplaced in shallow levels during this regime. Microstructural studies along the Itu, Moreiras and Taxaquara Shear Zones demonstrate the coexistence of horizontal and vertical displacement components during the transpressional regime. The vertical component is regarded as responsible for the lateral juxtaposition of different crustal levels.

  5. 2D collisional-radiative model for non-uniform argon plasmas: with or without ‘escape factor’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xi-Ming; Tsankov, Tsanko Vaskov; Luggenhölscher, Dirk; Czarnetzki, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Collisional-radiative models for excited rare-gas atoms in low-temperature plasmas are a widely investigated topic. When these plasmas are optically thick, an ‘escape factor’ is introduced into the models to account for the reabsorption of photons (so-called radiation trapping process). This factor is usually obtained assuming a uniform density profile of the excited species; however, such an assumption is often not satisfied in a bounded plasma. This article reports for the first time a self-consistent collisional-radiative model without using an ad hoc ‘escape factor’ for excited Ar atoms in the 2p states (in Paschen’s notation). Rather, the rate balance equations—i.e. the radiation transfer equations—of the 2p states are numerically solved to yield the actual density profiles. The predictions of this self-consistent model and a model based on the escape factor concept are compared with spatially-resolved emission measurements in a low-pressure inductive Ar plasma. The self-consistent model agrees well with the experiment but the ‘escape factor’ model shows considerable deviations. By the comparative analysis the limitations and shortcomings of the escape factor concept as adopted in a significant number of works are revealed. (paper)

  6. Particle and parallel momentum balance equations with inclusion of drifts, for modelling strong- to weakly-collisional edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chankin, A. V.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2006-01-01

    A system of plasma particle and parallel momentum balance equations is derived appropriate for understanding the role of drifts in the edge and for edge modelling, particularly in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of tokamaks, stellarators and other magnetic confinement devices. The formulation allows for strong collisionality-but also covers the case of weak collisionality and strong drifts, a combination often encountered in the SOL. The most important terms are identified by assessing the magnitude of characteristic velocities and fluxes for the plasma edge region. Explanations of the physical nature of each term are provided. A number of terms that are sometimes not included in edge modelling has been included in the parallel momentum balance equation after detailed analysis of the parallel component of the gradient of the total pressure-stress tensor. This includes terms related to curvature and divergence of the field lines, as well as further contributions coming from viscous forces related mainly to the ion centrifugal drift. All these terms are shown to be roughly of the same order of magnitude as convective momentum fluxes related to drifts and therefore should be included in the momentum balance equation

  7. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  8. Post-collisional deformation of the Anatolides and motion of the Arabian indenter: A paleomagnetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piper, J; Tatar, O; Gursoy, H; Mesci, B L; Kocbulut, F; Huang, B

    2008-01-01

    In the Anatolides of Turkey the neotectonic (post collisional) phase of deformation embraces the period since final closure of the southern arm of Neotethys in mid-Miocene times. The Arabian Shield indenter has continued to deform into the weak Anatolian accretionary collage resulting from subduction of this ocean by a combination of differential movement relative to the African Plate and counterclockwise (CCW) rotation. Much of resulting deformation has been accommodated by slip along major transforms comprising the North Anatolian Fault Zone (NAFZ), the East Anatolian Fault Zone (EAFZ) and the northward extension of the Dead Sea Fault Zone (DSFZ) but has also been distributed as differential block rotations through the zone of weak crust in between. Facets of this deformation comprise crustal thickening and uplift to produce the Anatolian Plateau, establishment of transform faults and tectonic escape as Arabia has continued to impinge into the Anatolian collage. Paleomagnetic analysis of this deformation is facilitated by the widespread distribution of neotectonic volcanism and graben infills, and rotations relative to the Eurasian reference frame are recognised on two scales. Rapid rotation (up to 5 0 /10,000 years) of small fault blocks is identified between master faults along the intracontinental transforms but deformation does not extend away from these zones and shows that seismogenic upper crust is decoupled from a lower continental lithosphere undergoing continuum deformation. The broad area of weak accreted crust between the transforms is dissected into large fault blocks which exhibit much lower rotation rates (mostly 0 /100,000 years) that vary systematically across the Anatolides. Large CCW rotations near the Arabian indenter diminish westwards to become zero then CW near the limit of tectonic escape in western Turkey. The view that the collage has rotated anticlockwise as a single plate, either uniformly or episodically, during the Neotectonic era is

  9. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    alteration state of the crust), the variable thermo-baric conditions of magma formation, coupled with variable molar concentrations of CO 2 and H 2O in the fluid phase released by the subducting plates are the most important. Compared to classic collisional settings (e.g., Himalayas), the central-western Mediterranean area shows a range of unusual geological and magmatological features. These include: a) the rapid formation of extensional basins in an overall compressional setting related to Africa-Europe convergence; b) centrifugal wave of both compressive and extensional tectonics starting from a 'pivotal' region around the Gulf of Lyon; c) the development of concomitant Cenozoic subduction zones with different subduction and tectonic transport directions; d) subduction 'inversion' events (e.g., currently along the Maghrebian coast and in northern Sicily, previously at the southern paleo-European margin); e) a repeated temporal pattern whereby subduction-related magmatic activity gives way to magmas of intraplate geochemical type; f) the late-stage appearance of magmas with collision-related 'exotic' (potassic to ultrapotassic) compositions, generally absent from simple subduction settings; g) the relative scarcity of typical calcalkaline magmas along the Italian peninsula; h) the absence of igneous activity where it might well be expected (e.g., above the hanging-wall of the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Adria-Europe subduction system in the Alps); i) voluminous production of subduction-related magmas coeval with extensional tectonic régimes (e.g., during Oligo-Miocene Sardinian Trough formation). To summarize, these salient central-western Mediterranean features, characterizing a late-stage of the classic 'Wilson Cycle' offer a 'template' for interpreting magmatic compositions in analogous settings elsewhere.

  10. landforms evolution in collisional-dominated settings: the case of Northern Sicily (Central Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, Fabrizio; Renda, Pietro; Favara, Rocco

    2010-05-01

    In the young mountain chains underwent to emersion, the different crustal blocks which compose the belt may be subjected to differentiate tilting during uplift. The tilting process may be revealed both by the stratal pattern of the syn-uplifting deposits or deduced by the function altitude/area ratio. The prevailing of the uplift rate with respect to the tilting rate (and vice versa) result from the shape of this function. So, in young mountains the hypsometric analysis may results a useful tool for decipher how the crustal blocks are underwent to uplift. An integrate analysis based on stratigraphy, structural and morphometric data represents the correctly approach for characterise the landform evolution in regions underwent to active tectonics. In the aim to evaluate the recent tectonic history from topography in regions underwent to active deformations, by deducing the effect of tectonisms on landforms, the definition of the boundary conditions (regarding the crustal deformation) is fundamental for morphometric analysis. In fact, the morphologic style and the morphometric pattern in tectonically active settings are closely related to the dominance of rock masses exceeding for uplift (or failure for subsidence) with respect to the exogenous erosional processes. Collisional geodynamic processes induce crustal growth for faulting and folding. In this earth's sectors, the uplift of crustal blocks is a very common effect of compressional deformation. It reflects for example fold amplification and thrusting, but it is a very common process also in settings dominated by crustal thinning, where the viscoelastic properties of the lithosphere induce tilting and localised uplift of normal-faulted crustal blocks. The uplift rate is rarely uniform for wide areas within the orogens on the passive margins, but it changes from adjacent crustal blocks as the effect of space-variation of kinematics conditions or density. It also may change within a single block, as the effect of

  11. Eastern Turkish high plateau as a small Turkic-type orogen: Implications for post-collisional crust-forming processes in Turkic-type orogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şengör, A. M. Celâl; Özeren, Mehmet Sinan; Keskin, Mehmet; Sakınç, Mehmet; Özbakır, Ali Değer; Kayan, İlhan

    Post-collisional magmatism may be generated by extensive crustal melting in Tibet-type collisional environments or by falling out of slabs from under giant subduction-accretion complexes in Turkic-type collisional orogens giving rise to decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle replacing the removed oceanic lithosphere. In Turkic-type post-collisional magmatism, the magmatic products are dominantly alkalic to peralkalic and greatly resemble those of extensional regions giving rise to much confusion especially in interpreting old collisional orogenic belts. Such magmatic regions are also host to a variety of economically valuable ore deposits, including gold. One place in the world where today active, Turkic-type post-collisional magmatism is present is the eastern Anatolian high plateau, produced after the terminal Arabia/Eurasia collision in the late Miocene. The plateau is mostly underlain by the late Cretaceous to Oligocene East Anatolian Accretionary Complex, which formed south of the Rhodope-Pontide magmatic arc. This subduction-accretion complex has been further shortening since the collision, but it has also since been domed and became almost entirely covered by at least 15,000 km 3 of volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks are calc-alkalic in the north, transitional in the middle, and alkalic in the south of the plateau. Where the crust is thinnest today (less than 38 km), the volcanics are derived almost entirely from an enriched mantle. The ages of the volcanics also become younger from north to south, from about 11 Ma to possibly 17th century AD. We interpret the origin of the magmatic rocks as the result of decompression melting of the asthenospheric mantle sucked towards the exposed base of the East Anatolian Accretionary Complex as the oceanic lithosphere beneath it fell out. The lower density of the hot asthospheric material was the cause of the doming. We believe that similar processes dominated the post-collisional tectonics of such vast

  12. Asymmetric fission and evaporation of C60r+ (r = 2-4) fullerene ions in ion-C60 collisions: II. Dependence on collisional processes?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a quantitative comparison of our experimental data for the asymmetrical fission (AF) and neutral evaporation of the C 60 molecule under proton impact (part I) is made with data published by other authors and often obtained in rather different collisional systems. The comparison with multicharged ions for which more quantitative data are available is focused on. It is demonstrated that size distributions of fragments, averaged fragment sizes, branching ratios between AF and evaporation or between AF channels, are common to all the collisional systems. Differences only appear when the comparison includes the undissociated stable fullerene ion signals

  13. Familial gigantism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.W. de Herder (Wouter)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractFamilial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  14. Familial gigantism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter W. de Herder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial GH-secreting tumors are seen in association with three separate hereditary clinical syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, Carney complex, and familial isolated pituitary adenomas.

  15. Family Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... es Autismo? Family Issues Home / Living with Autism / Family Issues Stress Siblings A child’s autism diagnosis affects every member of the family in different ways. Parents/caregivers must now place their ... may put stress on their marriage, other children, work, finances, and ...

  16. Jamaican families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Dianne Cooney

    2003-01-01

    The study of the family in the Caribbean originated with European scholars who assumed the universality of the patriarchal nuclear family and the primacy of this structure to the healthy functioning of society. Matrifocal Caribbean families thus were seen as chaotic and disorganized and inadequate to perform the essential tasks of the social system. This article provides a more current discussion of the Jamaican family. It argues that its structure is the result of the agency and adaptation of its members and not the root cause of the increasing marginalization of peoples in the developing world. The article focuses on families living in poverty and how the family structure supports essential family functions, adaptations, and survival.

  17. Detection prospects for GeV neutrinos from collisionally heated gamma-ray bursts with IceCube/DeepCore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartos, I; Beloborodov, A M; Hurley, K; Márka, S

    2013-06-14

    Jet reheating via nuclear collisions has recently been proposed as the main mechanism for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. In addition to producing the observed gamma rays, collisional heating must generate 10-100 GeV neutrinos, implying a close relation between the neutrino and gamma-ray luminosities. We exploit this theoretical relation to make predictions for possible GRB detections by IceCube + DeepCore. To estimate the expected neutrino signal, we use the largest sample of bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1991-2000. GRB neutrinos could have been detected if IceCube + DeepCore operated at that time. Detection of 10-100 GeV neutrinos would have significant implications, shedding light on the composition of GRB jets and their Lorentz factors. This could be an important target in designing future upgrades of the IceCube + DeepCore observatory.

  18. High beta tokamak operation in DIII-D limited at low density/collisionality by resistive tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum operational high beta in single-null divertor (SND) long pulse tokamak discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with a cross-sectional shape similar to the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device is found to be limited by the onset of resistive instabilities that have the characteristics of neoclassically destabilized tearing modes. There is a soft limit due to the onset of an m/n=3/2 rotating tearing mode that saturates at low amplitude and a hard limit at slightly higher beta due to the onset of an m/n=2/1 rotating tearing mode that grows, slows down and locks. By operating at higher density and thus collisionality, the practical beta limit due to resistive tearing modes approaches the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  19. Preliminary report of numerical simulatons of intermediate wavelength collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in equatorial spread F

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskinen, M.J.; Ossakow, S.L.; Chaturvedi, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Computer simulations of the intermediate wavelength (100--1000 m) collisional Rayleigh-Taylor instability in local unstable regions of the postsunset bottomside (300 km) equatorial F region ionosphere have been performed. For ambient electron density gradient scale lengths L=5, 10, 15 km we find that the linearly unstable horizontal modes saturate by nonlinear generation of linearly damped vertical modes with the result that in the nonlinear regime, power laws are observed in the horizontal P(k/sub x/) proportional k/sub x//sup -n/ and vertical P(k/sub y/) proportional k/sub y//sup -n/ one-dimensional power spectra with n=2--2.5. These results are consistent both with in situ experimental data and with theoretical prediction

  20. Optically thick model for radiative and collisional effects in nonequilibrium argon plasma flows in a circular tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroyuki; Tabei, Katsuine; Koaizawa, Hisashi.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies were made to gain a deeper understanding of the radiative properties of nonequilibrium argon plasma flows in a circular tube. The self-absorption effects were taken into account as rigorously as possible. Experimentally, the radial profiles of the population densities of argon atoms at the excited 4s, 4p, 5p, and 5d levels were obtained from the lateral distributions of the absolute intensities of ArI spectral lines originating from these levels. On the other hand, theoretical profiles of the population densities for the same levels were calculated based on the optically thick model for collisional and radiative processes proposed by Bates et al. and experimentally measured atom temperature, electron temperature, electron density and gas pressure. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical results showed a reasonably good agreement and the importance of the self-absorption effects. (author)

  1. Dynamics of trapped two-component Fermi gas: Temperature dependence of the transition from collisionless to collisional regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toschi, F.; Vignolo, P.; Tosi, M.P.; Succi, S.

    2003-01-01

    We develop a numerical method to study the dynamics of a two-component atomic Fermi gas trapped inside a harmonic potential at temperature T well below the Fermi temperature T F . We examine the transition from the collisionless to the collisional regime down to T=0.2 T F and find a good qualitative agreement with the experiments of B. DeMarco and D.S. Jin [Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 040405 (2002)]. We demonstrate a twofold role of temperature on the collision rate and on the efficiency of collisions. In particular, we observe a hitherto unreported effect, namely, the transition to hydrodynamic behavior is shifted towards lower collision rates as temperature decreases

  2. Self-consistent collisional-radiative model for hydrogen atoms: Atom–atom interaction and radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonna, G.; Pietanza, L.D.; D’Ammando, G.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Self-consistent coupling between radiation, state-to-state kinetics, electron kinetics and fluid dynamics. Highlight: ► A CR model of shock-wave in hydrogen plasma has been presented. ► All equations have been coupled self-consistently. ► Non-equilibrium electron and level distributions are obtained. ► The results show non-local effects and non-equilibrium radiation. - Abstract: A collisional-radiative model for hydrogen atom, coupled self-consistently with the Boltzmann equation for free electrons, has been applied to model a shock tube. The kinetic model has been completed considering atom–atom collisions and the vibrational kinetics of the ground state of hydrogen molecules. The atomic level kinetics has been also coupled with a radiative transport equation to determine the effective adsorption and emission coefficients and non-local energy transfer.

  3. Terahertz radiation generation by beating of two laser beams in a collisional plasma with oblique magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hematizadeh, Ayoob; Jazayeri, Seyed Masud; Ghafary, Bijan

    2018-02-01

    A scheme for excitation of terahertz (THz) radiation is presented by photo mixing of two super-Gaussian laser beams in a rippled density collisional magnetized plasma. Lasers having different frequencies and wave numbers but the same electric fields create a ponderomotive force on the electrons of plasma in the beating frequency. Super-Gaussian laser beam has the exclusive features such as steep gradient in laser intensity distribution, wider cross-section in comparison with Gaussian profiles, which make stronger ponderomotive force and higher THz radiation. The magnetic field is considered oblique to laser beams propagation direction; in this case, depending on the phase matching conditions different mode waves can propagate in plasma. It is found that amplitude and efficiency of the emitted THz radiation not only are sensitive to the beating frequency, collision frequency, and magnetic field strength but to the angle between laser beams and static magnetic field. The efficiency of THz radiation can be optimized in a certain angle.

  4. Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Collisional Complexes in Dense Hydrogen-Helium Gas Mixtures at Thousands of Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Martin; Frommhold, Lothar; Li, Xiaoping; Hunt, Katharine L. C.

    2011-06-01

    The interaction-induced absorption by collisional pairs of H{_2} molecules is an important opacity source in the atmospheres of the outer planets and cool stars. The emission spectra of cool white dwarf stars differ significantly in the infrared from the expected blackbody spectra of their cores, which is largely due to absorption by collisional H{_2}-H{_2}, H{_2}-He, and H{_2}-H complexes in the stellar atmospheres. Using quantum-chemical methods we compute the atmospheric absorption from hundreds to thousands of kelvin. Laboratory measurements of interaction-induced absorption spectra by H{_2} pairs exist only at room temperature and below. We show that our results reproduce these measurements closely, so that our computational data permit reliable modeling of stellar atmosphere opacities even for the higher temperatures. L. Frommhold, Collision-Induced Absorption in Gases, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, New York, 1993 and 2006 Xiaoping Li, Katharine L. C. Hunt, Fei Wang, Martin Abel, and Lothar Frommhold, "Collision-Induced Infrared Absorption by Molecular Hydrogen Pairs at Thousands of Kelvin", International Journal of Spectroscopy, vol. 2010, Article ID 371201, 11 pages, 2010. doi: 10.1155/2010/371201 M. Abel, L. Frommhold, X. Li, and K. L. C. Hunt, "Collision-induced absorption by H{_2} pairs: From hundreds to thousands of Kelvin," J. Phys. Chem. A, published online, DOI: 10.1021/jp109441f L. Frommhold, M. Abel, F. Wang, M. Gustafsson, X. Li, and K. L. C. Hunt, "Infrared atmospheric emission and absorption by simple molecular complexes, from first principles", Mol. Phys. 108, 2265, 2010

  5. Comprehensive and accurate tracking of carbon origin of LC-tandem mass spectrometry collisional fragments for 13C-MFA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappelmann, Jannick; Klein, Bianca; Geilenkirchen, Petra; Noack, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    In recent years the benefit of measuring positionally resolved 13 C-labeling enrichment from tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) collisional fragments for improved precision of 13 C-Metabolic Flux Analysis ( 13 C-MFA) has become evident. However, the usage of positional labeling information for 13 C-MFA faces two challenges: (1) The mass spectrometric acquisition of a large number of potentially interfering mass transitions may hamper accuracy and sensitivity. (2) The positional identity of carbon atoms of product ions needs to be known. The present contribution addresses the latter challenge by deducing the maximal positional labeling information contained in LC-ESI-MS/MS spectra of product anions of central metabolism as well as product cations of amino acids. For this purpose, we draw on accurate mass spectrometry, selectively labeled standards, and published fragmentation pathways to structurally annotate all dominant mass peaks of a large collection of metabolites, some of which with a complete fragmentation pathway. Compiling all available information, we arrive at the most detailed map of carbon atom fate of LC-ESI-MS/MS collisional fragments yet, comprising 170 intense and structurally annotated product ions with unique carbon origin from 76 precursor ions of 72 metabolites. Our 13 C-data proof that heuristic fragmentation rules often fail to yield correct fragment structures and we expose common pitfalls in the structural annotation of product ions. We show that the positionally resolved 13 C-label information contained in the product ions that we structurally annotated allows to infer the entire isotopomer distribution of several central metabolism intermediates, which is experimentally demonstrated for malate using quadrupole-time-of-flight MS technology. Finally, the inclusion of the label information from a subset of these fragments improves flux precision in a Corynebacterium glutamicum model of the central carbon metabolism.

  6. Family Polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    safety and flexibility at the level of multi-object systems. We are granted the flexibility of using different families of kinds of objects, and we are guaranteed the safety of the combination. This paper highlights the inability of traditional polymorphism to handle multiple objects, and presents family...... polymorphism as a way to overcome this problem. Family polymorphism has been implemented in the programming language gbeta, a generalized version of Beta, and the source code of this implementation is available under GPL....

  7. Family literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehested, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    I Projekt familielæsning, der er et samarbejde mellem Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning og Hillerød Bibliotek, arbejder vi med at få kontakt til de familier, som biblioteket ellers aldrig ser som brugere og dermed også de børn, der vokser op i familier, for hvem bøger og oplæsningssituationer ikk...... er en selvfølgelig del af barndommen. Det, vi vil undersøge og ønsker at være med til at udvikle hos disse familier, er det, man kan kalde family literacy....

  8. Community families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte Groth; Lou, Stina; Aagaard, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    : Qualitative interviews with members of volunteer families. Discussion: The families were motivated by helping a vulnerable person and to engaging in a rewarding relationship. However, the families often doubted their personal judgment and relied on mental health workers to act as safety net. Conclusion......Background: Social interventions targeted at people with severe mental illness (SMI) often include volunteers. Volunteers' perspectives are important for these interventions to work. The present paper investigates the experiences of volunteer families who befriend a person with SMI. Material...

  9. This is My Family

    OpenAIRE

    Yeğen, Hale Nur; Çetin, Merve

    2017-01-01

    Me and my family, Families poem, Mother-Father, Brother-Sister, Grandparents, Uncle-Aunt, Cousin, Family, Family handgame, My family tree, Activities (Three In a Family), Digital Games, A family poem, Quiz

  10. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these ''families'' is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  11. Family problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldman, T.

    1984-01-01

    Even Grand Unified Theories may not explain the repetitive pattern of fermions in the Standard Model. The abysmal absence of dynamical information about these families is emphasized. The evidence that family quantum numbers exist, and are not conserved, is reviewed. It is argued that rare kaon decays may be the best means to obtain more information on this important question

  12. Familial hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Tests A physical exam may show fatty skin growths called xanthomas and cholesterol deposits in the eye (corneal arcus). The health care provider will ask questions about your personal and family medical history. There may be: A strong family history of ...

  13. FAMILY PYRGOTIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Ramon Luciano; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Pyrgotidae is a family of endoparasitics flies of beetles with worldwide distribution. The Neotropical fauna is composed by 59 valid species names disposed in 13 genera. The occurrence of Pyrgota longipes Hendel is the first record of the family in Colombia.

  14. Modeling the Dynamical Structure of the Haumea Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proudfoot, Benjamin; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    Collisions are known to be critical in explaining the full story of the outer Solar System. The dwarf planet Haumea provides a unique empirical view into this, as Haumea is the only known example of a collisional family in the Kuiper Belt. Although there have been many Haumea formation hypotheses presented in the literature, none are fully self-consistent. In particular, it is challenging to explain the low ejection velocity of the family. With the addition of many new Haumea family members (Maggard & Ragozzine 2018, in prep.), we further investigate how we can use collision models to recreate the current dynamical distribution of Haumea family members in (proper) a-e-i-dv-H space. Using synthetic families created using different collision models, we use a Bayesian methodology to infer the posterior distribution of our model parameters that best matches the current family. Our newest results continue to exclude the planar distribution of family members that would result from a ‘graze-and-merge’ type collision (e.g., Leinhardt et al. 2010) based on a lack of a-e-i correlation (Proudfoot & Ragozzine, DPS 2017, DDA 2017). We present here our results from more models. We have also validated a statistical method for automatically and self-consistently identifying interlopers from the background population.

  15. Early Permian intrusions of the Alai range: Understanding tectonic settings of Hercynian post-collisional magmatism in the South Tien Shan, Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopelko, D.; Wilde, S. A.; Seltmann, R.; Romer, R. L.; Biske, Yu. S.

    2018-03-01

    We present geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope data as well as the results of single grain U-Pb zircon dating for ten granitoid and alkaline intrusions of the Alai segment of Kyrgyz South Tien Shan (STS). The intrusions comprise four geochemically contrasting series or suites, including (1) I-type and (2) shoshonitic granitoids, (3) peraluminous granitoids including S-type leucogranites and (4) alkaline rocks and carbonatites, closely associated in space. New geochronological data indicate that these diverse magmatic series of the Alai segment formed in a post-collisional setting. Five single grain U-Pb zircon ages in the range 287-281 Ma, in combination with published ages, define the main post-collisional magmatic pulse at 290-280 Ma, which is similar to ages of post-collisional intrusions elsewhere in the STS. An age of 287 ± 4 Ma, obtained for peraluminous graniodiorite of the Liayliak massif, emplaced in amphibolite-facies metamorphic rocks of the Zeravshan-Alai block, is indistinguishable from ca. 290 Ma age of peraluminous granitoids emplaced coevally with Barrovian-type metamorphism in the Garm block, located ca. 40 km south-west of the research area. The Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions of the studied intrusions are consistent with the reworking of crustal material with 1.6-1.1 Ga average crustal residence times, indicating the formation of the Alai segment on a continental basement with Mesoproterozoic or older crust. The pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the Alai segment, characterized by emplacement of I-type and shoshoninitic granitoids in combination with coeval Barrovian-type metamorphism, is markedly different from the pattern of post-collisional magmatism in the adjacent Kokshaal segment of the STS with predominant A-type granitoids that formed on a former passive margin of the Tarim Craton. We suggest that during the middle-late Carboniferous the Alai segment probably comprised a microcontinent with Precambrian basement located between

  16. Family matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2013-01-01

    brain injury participated. Family and brain injury characteristics were reported by the ill and healthy parents. Children self-reported post-traumatic stress symptoms (PSS) using the Child Impact of Events revised (CRIES). Emotional and behavioural problems among the children were also identified...... by the parents using the Achenbach’s Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). RESULTS: The family stress variables relating to the healthy spouse in all six comparisons were significant (p... scores for the children. For the adjusted associations, we again found the family stress variables in the healthy spouse to be related to the risk of emotional and behavioral problems in the children. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that in ABI families, the children’s emotional functioning...

  17. Small Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children of larger families. The financial costs of maintaining a household are lower. It is easier for ... separated from you, hindering the development of new relationships with peers. In fact, you may have that ...

  18. Familial hypercholesterolaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a monogenic disorder of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) metabolism. It is characterised .... Figure 2: Cumulative prevalence of physical signs in adult FH patients at the. GSH Lipid .... microvascular trauma.

  19. Family Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... family members to do your laundry, walk the dog, or update others on your progress. You may ... parenting while living with cancer . The importance of communication As demonstrated above, good communication is important in ...

  20. Familial dysautonomia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... condition. FD occurs most often in people of Eastern European Jewish ancestry (Ashkenazi Jews). It is caused ... also be used for prenatal diagnosis. People of Eastern European Jewish background and families with a history ...

  1. Recommended atomic data for collisional-radiative model of Li-like ions and gain calculation for Li-like Al ions in the recombining plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, T.; Kawachi, T.; Nishihara, K.; Fujimoto, T.

    1995-09-01

    We have assessed atomic data for lithium-like ions for the purpose of constructing a reliable collisional-radiative model. We show several examples of the atomic data for aluminum and oxygen ions, and comparison of data from several sources is done in detail. For ions with nuclear charge z, the scaling formulas and fitting parameters, which are based on the data of oxygen ions, are presented. By use of these data, we have constructed two collisional-radiative models: the one for aluminum ions and the one for ions according to the scaling for z. The population inversion and the amplification gain of the soft x-ray laser lines in the recombining aluminum plasma are calculated for several electron temperatures. We also examine the effects of ion collisions for Δn=0 transitions on the excited level populations

  2. Determination of Non-Maxwellian Electron Energy Distributions in Low-Pressure Plasmas by Using the Optical Emission Spectroscopy and a Collisional-Radiative Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ximing; Pu Yikang

    2011-01-01

    A Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF) is often assumed when using the optical emission line-ratio method to determine the electron temperature in low-temperature plasmas. However, in many cases, non-Maxwellian EEDFs can be formed due to the non-local electron heating or the inelastic-collisional energy loss processes. In this work, with a collisional-radiative model, we propose an approach to obtain the non-Maxwellian EEDF with a 'two-temperature structure' from the emission line-ratios of Paschen 2p levels of argon and krypton atoms. For applications of this approach in reactive gas (CF 4 , O 2 , etc) discharges that contain argon and krypton, recommendations of some specific emission line-ratios are provided, according to their sensitivities to the EEDF variation. The kinetic processes of the relevant excited atoms are also discussed in detail. (cai awardee's article)

  3. Numerical Simulations of Gaseous Disks Generated from Collisional Cascades at the Roche Limits of White Dwarf Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Scott J.; Bromley, Benjamin C.

    2017-11-01

    We consider the long-term evolution of gaseous disks fed by the vaporization of small particles produced in a collisional cascade inside the Roche limit of a 0.6 {M}⊙ white dwarf. Adding solids with radius {r}0 at a constant rate {\\dot{M}}0 into a narrow annulus leads to two distinct types of evolution. When {\\dot{M}}0≳ {\\dot{M}}0,{crit}≈ 3× {10}4 {({r}0/1{km})}3.92 {{g}} {{{s}}}-1, the cascade generates a fairly steady accretion disk where the mass transfer rate of gas onto the white dwarf is roughly {\\dot{M}}0 and the mass in gas is {M}g≈ 2.3× {10}22 ({\\dot{M}}0/{10}10 {{g}} {{{s}}}-1) (1500 {{K}}/{T}0) ({10}-3/α ) g, where T 0 is the temperature of the gas near the Roche limit and α is the dimensionless viscosity parameter. If {\\dot{M}}0≲ {\\dot{M}}0,{crit}, the system alternates between high states with large mass transfer rates and low states with negligible accretion. Although either mode of evolution adds significant amounts of metals to the white dwarf photosphere, none of our calculations yield a vertically thin ensemble of solids inside the Roche limit. X-ray observations can place limits on the mass transfer rate and test this model for metallic line white dwarfs.

  4. Comparison of collisional radiative models for edge electron density reconstruction from Li I (2s-2p) emission profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoschus, H.; Hudson, B.; Munoz Burgos, J. M. [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-0117 (United States); Thomas, D. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Schweinzer, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Four collisional radiative models (CRMs) for reconstruction of the edge electron density profile from the measured Li I (2s-2p) emission profile of an accelerated lithium beam are compared using experimental data from DIII-D. It is shown for both L- and H-mode plasmas that edge density profiles reconstructed with the CRMs DDD2, ABSOLUT, [Sasaki et al. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1699 (1993)] and a new model developed at DIII-D agree in a density scan from n{sub e}{sup ped}= (2.0-6.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} within 20%, 20%, <5%, and 40%, respectively, of the pedestal density measured with Thomson scattering. Profile shape and absolute density vary in a scan of the effective ion charge Z{sub eff}= 1-6 up to a factor of two but agree with Thomson data for Z{sub eff}= 1-2 within the error bars.

  5. Resolved Dual-Frequency Observations of the Debris Disk Around AU Mic: Strengths of Bodies in the Collisional Cascade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Evan; Hughes, A. Meredith; Daley, Cail; Flaherty, Kevin; Pan, Margaret; Schlichting, Hilke; Chiang, Eugene; MacGregor, Meredith Ann; Wilner, David; Dent, Bill; Carpenter, John; Andrews, Sean; Moor, Attila; Kospal, Agnes

    2018-01-01

    Debris disks are hallmarks of mature planetary systems, with second-generation dust produced via collisions between pluto-like planetesimals. The vertical structure of a debris disk encodes unique information about the dynamical state of the system, particularly at millimeter wavelengths where gravitational effects dominate over the effects of stellar radiation. We present 450 μm Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the edge-on debris disk around AU Mic, a nearby (d = 9.91 ± 0.10 pc) M1-type star. The 0.3'' angular resolution of the data allows us to spatially resolve the scale height of the disk, complementing previous observations at a wavelength of 1.3 mm. By resolving the vertical structure of the disk at these two widely-separated frequencies, we are able to spatially resolve the spectral index and study variations in the grain size distribution as a function of disk radius. The comparison of scale heights for two different wavelengths and therefore particle sizes also constrains the velocity dispersion as a function of grain size, which allows us to probe the strengths of bodies in the collisional cascade for the first time outside the Solar System.

  6. Stress states in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt from passive margin to collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navabpour, Payman; Barrier, Eric

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Zagros fold-and-thrust belt of SW-Iran corresponds to the former Arabian passive continental margin of the southern Neo-Tethyan basin since the Permian-Triassic rifting, undergoing later collisional deformation in mid-late Cenozoic times. In this paper an overview of brittle tectonics and palaeostress reconstructions of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt is presented, based on direct stress tensor inversion of fault slip data. The results indicate that, during the Neo-Tethyan oceanic opening, an extensional tectonic regime affectedthe sedimentary cover in Triassic-Jurassic times with an approximately N-S trend of the σ3 axis, oblique to the margin, which was followed by some local changes to a NE-SW trend during Jurassic-Cretaceous times. The stress state significantly changed to thrust setting, with a NE-SW trend of the σ1 axis, and a compressional tectonic regime prevailed during the continental collision and folding of the sedimentary cover in Oligocene-Miocene times. This compression was then followed by a strike-slip stress state with an approximately N-S trend of the σ1 axis, oblique to the belt, during inversion of the inherited extensional basement structures in Pliocene-Recent times. The brittle tectonic reconstructions, therefore, highlighted major changes of the stress state in conjunction with transitions between thin- and thick-skinned structures during different extensional and compressional stages of continental deformation within the oblique divergent and convergent settings, respectively.

  7. Plasma out of thermodynamical equilibrium: influence of the plasma environment on atomic structure and collisional cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belkhiri, Madeny

    2014-01-01

    In hot dense plasmas, the free-electron and ion spatial distribution may strongly affect the atomic structure. To account for such effects we have implemented a potential correction based on the uniform electron gas model and on a Thomas-Fermi Approach in the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC). This code has been applied to obtain energies, wave-functions and radiative rates modified by the plasma environment. In hydrogen-like ions, these numerical results have been successfully compared to an analytical calculation based on first-order perturbation theory. In the case of multi-electron ions, we observe level crossings in agreement with another recent model calculation. Various methods for the collision cross-section calculations are reviewed. The influence of plasma environment on these cross-sections is analyzed in detail. Some analytical expressions are proposed for hydrogen-like ions in the limit where Born or Lotz approximations apply and are compared to the numerical results from the FAC code. Finally, from this work, we study the influence of the plasma environment on our collisional-radiative model so-called Foch. Because of this environment, the mean charge state of the ions increases. The line shift is observed on the bound-bound emission spectra. A good agreement is found between our work and experimental data on a Titanium plasma. (author) [fr

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Collisional excitation of sulfur dioxide, SO2, in cold molecular c

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicharo, J.; Spielfiedel, A.; Balanca, C.; Dayou, F.; Senent, M.-L.; Feautrier, N.; Faure, A.; Cressiot-Vincent, L.; Wiesenfeld, L.; Pardo, J. R.

    We present collisional rate coefficients for SO2 with ortho an molecular hydrogen for the physical conditions prevailing in dark molecular clouds. Rate coefficients for the first 31 rotational levels of this species (energies up to 55K) and for temperatures between 5 and 30K are provided. We have found that these rate coefficients are about ten times more than those previously computed for SO2 with helium. We calculated the expected emission of the centimeter wavelength lines of SO2. We find that the transition connecting the metastable 202 level with the 111 one is in absorption against the cosmic background for a wide range of densities. The 404-313 line is found to be inverted for densities below a few 104cm-3. We observed the 111-202 transition with the 100m Green Bank Telescope towards some dark clouds. The line is observed, as expected, in absorption and provides an abundance of SO2 in these objects of a few 10-10^. The potential use of millimeter lines of SO2 as tracers of the physical conditions of dark clouds is discussed. (3 data files).

  9. Collisional redistribution of the Na-D lines in a Ne, Xe filled vapour cell and depolarization in a flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieuwesteeg, K.J.B.M.

    1986-01-01

    1. Measurements of collisionally perturbed, 'complete' spectral profiles, i.e. core plus line wings of the Na-D lines, at the highest possible temperature in a fluorescence cell are reported. Both the shape of the profiles obtained in these experiments and the temperature dependence give information about the internuclear forces. Neon and xenon are chosen as perturbing atoms in order to extend and test potential shapes that have emerged from earlier beam experiments. 2. Possible ways are discussed of accurately calculating the cross sections of all elastic and inelastic processes in a Na- noble-gas system for any likely shape of the potentials involved. The main purpose of this discussion is to test these potentials by comparing the calculated cross sections with experimental data. Also a detailed comparison is made of the measured far-wing profile and the quasi-static profile calculated using these potentials. 3. In order to assess the validity of the approximations made in the theoretical model that was used for calculating the fluorescence-excitation profiles, the predictions of this model are compared with measurements of the polarization and the intensity ratio of the collision-induced Na-D fluorescence and Rayleigh scattering in an N 2 -diluted flame at 1 atm pressure. Using the Utrecht High-resolution Fourier Interferometer in the visible range, the Rayleigh peak and the collision-induced fluorescence were separated for the first time at laser detunings within the absorption line width. (Auth.)

  10. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of N2H+ by H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spielfiedel, Annie; Balança, Christian; Feautrier, Nicole; Senent, Maria Luisa; Kalugina, Yulia; Scribano, Yohann; Lique, François

    2015-01-01

    We compute a new potential energy surface (PES) for the study of the inelastic collisions between N 2 H + and H 2 molecules. A preliminary study of the reactivity of N 2 H + with H 2 shows that neglecting reactive channels in collisional excitation studies is certainly valid at low temperatures. The four dimensional (4D) N 2 H + –H 2 PES is obtained from electronic structure calculations using the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation level of theory. The atoms are described by the augmented correlation consistent triple zeta basis set. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. The potential energy surface exhibits a well depth of ≃2530 cm −1 . Considering this very deep well, it appears that converged scattering calculations that take into account the rotational structure of both N 2 H + and H 2 should be very difficult to carry out. To overcome this difficulty, the “adiabatic-hindered-rotor” treatment, which allows para-H 2 (j = 0) to be treated as if it were spherical, was used in order to reduce the scattering calculations to a 2D problem. The validity of this approach is checked and we find that cross sections and rate coefficients computed from the adiabatic reduced surface are in very good agreement with the full 4D calculations

  11. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of N2H(+) by H2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielfiedel, Annie; Senent, Maria Luisa; Kalugina, Yulia; Scribano, Yohann; Balança, Christian; Lique, François; Feautrier, Nicole

    2015-07-14

    We compute a new potential energy surface (PES) for the study of the inelastic collisions between N2H(+) and H2 molecules. A preliminary study of the reactivity of N2H(+) with H2 shows that neglecting reactive channels in collisional excitation studies is certainly valid at low temperatures. The four dimensional (4D) N2H(+)-H2 PES is obtained from electronic structure calculations using the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation level of theory. The atoms are described by the augmented correlation consistent triple zeta basis set. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. The potential energy surface exhibits a well depth of ≃2530 cm(-1). Considering this very deep well, it appears that converged scattering calculations that take into account the rotational structure of both N2H(+) and H2 should be very difficult to carry out. To overcome this difficulty, the "adiabatic-hindered-rotor" treatment, which allows para-H2(j = 0) to be treated as if it were spherical, was used in order to reduce the scattering calculations to a 2D problem. The validity of this approach is checked and we find that cross sections and rate coefficients computed from the adiabatic reduced surface are in very good agreement with the full 4D calculations.

  12. Petrogenesis and tectonic implication of the Late Triassic post-collisional volcanic rocks in Chiang Khong, NW Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Wang, Yuejun; Feng, Qinglai; Zi, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yuzhi; Chonglakmani, Chongpan

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic rocks exposed within the Chiang Khong-Lampang-Tak igneous zone in NW Thailand provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Paleotethys ocean. An andesite sample from the Chiang Khong area yields a zircon U-Pb age of 229 ± 4 Ma, significantly younger than the continental-arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks (ca. 238-241 Ma). The Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are characterized by low MgO (1.71-6.72 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (15.03-17.76 wt.%). They are enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in HFSEs, and have 87Sr/86Sr (i) ratios of 0.7050-0.7065, εNd (t) of - 0.32 to - 1.92, zircon εHf (t) and δ18O values of 3.5 to - 11.7 and 4.30-9.80 ‰, respectively. The geochemical data for the volcanic rocks are consistent with an origin from the enriched lithospheric mantle that had been modified by slab-derived fluid and recycled sediments. Based on available geochronological and geochemical evidences, we propose that the Late Triassic Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are equivalent to the contemporaneous volcanic rocks in the Lancangjiang igneous zone in SW China. The formation of these volcanic rocks was possibly related to the upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle during the Late Triassic, shortly after slab detachment, which induced the melting of the metasomatized mantle wedge.

  13. Effects of the radial electric field on confinement and trapping for non collisional electrons in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of radial electric fields on the non collisional losses, asymmetries at plasma border and on the Vacuum Vessel and trapping fractions for 0.1 1 KeV electrons in TJ-II are analysed. This study complements a series, already published, for ions, therefore only the main differences are stressed. Many of these effect are similar for electrons and ions, mainly the drastic decrease of losses with the electric field, the increasing peripherical loss concentration, the strong accumulation on the Hard Core (HC), the modification in the direction of the induced poloidal rotation, similar angular distributions for trapped particles, etc. Nevertheless, there appear also important differences, that in many cases are originated by the higher electron mobility, in particular a higher sensitivity to the electric field, as well to the intensity as to the sign, producing a faster drop in electron losses for positive potential and a higher asymmetry in the sign dependence. Most of these electron losses exit through the upper side of the plasma, the opposite happens for ions. The strong concentration on the HC appears, many, on the PL-1 plate (the one that is placed upside for toroidal angle φ=0 degree centigree), instead of the opposite PL-2 plate for ions.Finally, for the analysed energy range, there is no variation of electron trapping with the potential nor resonant effect. (Author) 8 refs

  14. Quantum and classical studies of collisional excitation in H + CO and two other projects in theoretical chemical dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geiger, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of four projects in theoretical chemical dynamics. In the first two projects collisional excitation in H + CO was studied using the quasiclassical trajectory method and the quantum infinite order sudden approximation (QIOS). Integral cross sections calculated using these methods were found to agree well with experimental and classical IOS results. The trajectory study was also used to examine the effects of potential energy surface features on the dynamics. Two surfaces were examined: a fitted surface based on ab initio points and a global ab initio surface. Next, the quasiclassical trajectory method was used to obtain cross sections and rate constants for O + H 2 → OH + H and analogous deuterium isotope reactions. The results using the Johnson and Winter surface agreed well with those of transition state theory (TST) and experiment, except for O + HD → OH + D. TST rate constants were calculated using an ab initio surface. These results were in poor agreement with calculations using the Johnson and Winter surface. A theory of action-angle variables for coupled oscillator systems was developed in the fourth project

  15. Correction of the near threshold behavior of electron collisional excitation cross-sections in the plane-wave Born approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcrease, D. P.; Brookes, S.

    2013-12-01

    The modeling of NLTE plasmas requires the solution of population rate equations to determine the populations of the various atomic levels relevant to a particular problem. The equations require many cross sections for excitation, de-excitation, ionization and recombination. A simple and computational fast way to calculate electron collisional excitation cross-sections for ions is by using the plane-wave Born approximation. This is essentially a high-energy approximation and the cross section suffers from the unphysical problem of going to zero near threshold. Various remedies for this problem have been employed with varying degrees of success. We present a correction procedure for the Born cross-sections that employs the Elwert-Sommerfeld factor to correct for the use of plane waves instead of Coulomb waves in an attempt to produce a cross-section similar to that from using the more time consuming Coulomb Born approximation. We compare this new approximation with other, often employed correction procedures. We also look at some further modifications to our Born Elwert procedure and its combination with Y.K. Kim's correction of the Coulomb Born approximation for singly charged ions that more accurately approximate convergent close coupling calculations.

  16. Spectroscopic and Collisional Data for Tungsten from 1 eV to 20 keV. Summary Report of the Final Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, H.-K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Müller, A.; Ralchenko, Yu.; Braams, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    The final Research Coordination Meeting of a coordinated research project (CRP) on spectroscopic and collisional data for tungsten ions in fusion plasma was held at IAEA Headquarters with 17 external experts representing 14 research groups and staff from the International Atomic Energy Agency. Participants summarized their research during the CRP and made plans for a final report. The proceedings and conclusions of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  17. Spectroscopic and Collisional Data for Tungsten from 1 eV to 20 keV. Summary Report of the First Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, B.J.; Chung, H.-K.

    2012-06-01

    Experts representing 14 research groups and the International Atomic Energy Agency met at IAEA Headquarters for the first research coordination meeting of a coordinated research project (CRP) on spectroscopic and collisional data for tungsten ions in fusion plasma. Participants presented their research following which a work plan was developed for the remainder of the CRP and outstanding data needs were identified. The proceedings and conclusions of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  18. Family welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  19. The evolution of Neoproterozoic magmatism in Southernmost Brazil: shoshonitic, high-K tholeiitic and silica-saturated, sodic alkaline volcanism in post-collisional basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sommer Carlos A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neoproterozoic shoshonitic and mildly alkaline bimodal volcanism of Southernmost Brazil is represented by rock assemblages associated to sedimentary successions, deposited in strike-slip basins formed at the post-collisional stages of the Brasilian/Pan-African orogenic cycle. The best-preserved volcano sedimentary associations occur in the Camaquã and Campo Alegre Basins, respectively in the Sul-riograndense and Catarinense Shields and are outside the main shear belts or overlying the unaffected basement areas. These basins are characterized by alternation of volcanic cycles and siliciclastic sedimentation developed dominantly on a continental setting under subaerial conditions. This volcanism and the coeval plutonism evolved from high-K tholeiitic and calc-alkaline to shoshonitic and ended with a silica-saturated sodic alkaline magmatism, and its evolution were developed during at least 60 Ma. The compositional variation and evolution of post-collisional magmatism in southern Brazil are interpreted as the result mainly of melting of a heterogeneous mantle source, which includes garnet-phlogopite-bearing peridotites, veined-peridotites with abundant hydrated phases, such as amphibole, apatite and phlogopite, and eventually with the addition of an asthenospheric component. The subduction-related metasomatic character of post-collisional magmatism mantle sources in southern Brazil is put in evidence by Nb-negative anomalies and isotope features typical of EM1 sources.

  20. On the age of the Nele asteroid family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carruba, V.; Vokrouhlický, D.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.

    2018-06-01

    The Nele group, formerly known as the Iannini family, is one of the youngest asteroid families in the main belt. Previously, it has been noted that the pericentre longitudes ϖ and nodal longitudes Ω of its largest member asteroids are clustered at the present time, therefore suggesting that the collisional break-up of parent body must have happened recently. Here, we verify this conclusion by detailed orbit-propagation of a synthetic Nele family and show that the current level of clustering of secular angles of the largest Nele family members requires an approximate age limit of 4.5 Myr. Additionally, we make use of an updated and largely extended Nele membership to obtain, for the first time, an age estimate of this family using the backward integration method. Convergence of the secular angles in a purely gravitational model and in a model including the non-gravitational forces caused by the Yarkovsky effect are both compatible with an age younger than 7 Myr. More accurate determination of the Nele family age would require additional data about the spin state of its members.

  1. Familial macrocephaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsuno, Masaru; Hayashi, Michiko; Iwamoto, Hiroko

    1984-01-01

    We reported 63 macrocephalic children with special emphasis on 16 cases with familial macrocephaly. Of the 16 children with familial macrocephaly, 13 were boys. Foureen parents (13 fathers and 1 mother) had head sizes above 98th percentile. Three of 5 brothers and 5 of 8 sisters also had large heads. The head circumference at birth was known for 14 of the children and it was above the 98th percentile in 7 patients. Subsequent evaluations have shown the head size of these children to be following a normal growth curve. Some of the children were hypotonic as infants, but their development was generally normal. CT scans usually clearly distinguished these children from those with hydorocephalus. The familial macrocephalic children had ventricular measurements which were within the normal range, but absolute measurements of the ventricular size may be misleading, because the CT appearance was of mildly dilated ventricles in half of them. (author)

  2. Family Structure and Family Processes in Mexican American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2011-01-01

    Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct,...

  3. Super families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, N.; Maldonado, R.H.C.

    1989-01-01

    The study on phenomena in the super high energy region, Σ E j > 1000 TeV revealed events that present a big dark spot in central region with high concentration of energy and particles, called halo. Six super families with halo were analysed by Brazil-Japan Cooperation of Cosmic Rays. For each family the lateral distribution of energy density was constructed and R c Σ E (R c ) was estimated. For studying primary composition, the energy correlation with particles released separately in hadrons and gamma rays was analysed. (M.C.K.)

  4. Family Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Robert E.

    1989-01-01

    Researchers and policymakers have begun to recognize the extent and severity of family violence, particularly its effects on children. But there is much disagreement about the definition of violence, its development, the consequences for victims, and the most effective avenues for intervention. Advances recommendations for further research.…

  5. Family arizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Croes, M.J.G.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Chen, L.; Djajadingrat, T.; Feijs, L.M.G.; Hu, J.; Kufin, S.H.M.; Rampino, L.; Rodriguez, E.; Steffen, D.

    2015-01-01

    In this demo we show the two main components of the Family Arizing system which allows parents to stay in contact with their child and, in cases of distress, provide the child with a remote comforting hug. The two components to be shown are the active necklace and the active snuggle.

  6. Family Genericity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Type abstraction in object-oriented languages embody two techniques, each with its own strenghts and weaknesses. The first technique is extension, yielding abstraction mechanisms with good support for gradual specification. The prime example is inheritance. The second technique is functional abst...... the result as family genericity. The presented language design has been implemented....

  7. FAMILY ASILIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Marta; Lamas, Carlos José Einicker

    2016-06-14

    Asilidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 7,000 recognized species worldwide. All their species are predators on arthropods, mainly insects. This catalogue presents 71 species distributed in 26 genera, ten tribes or generic groups and four subfamilies. For each species we present the available geographical information and relevant references.

  8. Family Hypnotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoz, Daniel L.; Negley-Parker, Esther

    1985-01-01

    A therapeutic model to help families activate experiential and right hemispheric functioning through hypnosis is presented in detail, together with a clinical illustration. Different situations in which this model is effective are mentioned and one such set of circumstances is described. (Author)

  9. Familial hypercholesterolaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Versmissen, Jorie; Vongpromek, Ranitha; Yahya, Reyhana

    2016-01-01

    cholesterol efflux capacity between male familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) patients with and without CHD relative to their non-FH brothers, and examined HDL constituents including sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and its carrier apolipoprotein M (apoM). RESULTS: Seven FH patients were asymptomatic and six had...... in asymptomatic FH patients may play a role in their apparent protection from premature CHD....

  10. Understanding Breaks in Flare X-Ray Spectra: Evaluation of a Cospatial Collisional Return-current Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Meriem; Holman, Gordon D.

    2017-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) spectral breaks are explained in terms of a one-dimensional model with a cospatial return current. We study 19 flares observed by the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager with strong spectral breaks at energies around a few deka-keV, which cannot be explained by isotropic albedo or non-uniform ionization alone. We identify these breaks at the HXR peak time, but we obtain 8 s cadence spectra of the entire impulsive phase. Electrons with an initially power-law distribution and a sharp low-energy cutoff lose energy through return-current losses until they reach the thick target, where they lose their remaining energy through collisions. Our main results are as follows. (1) The return-current collisional thick-target model provides acceptable fits for spectra with strong breaks. (2) Limits on the plasma resistivity are derived from the fitted potential drop and deduced electron-beam flux density, assuming the return current is a drift current in the ambient plasma. These resistivities are typically 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than the Spitzer resistivity at the fitted temperature, and provide a test for the adequacy of classical resistivity and the stability of the return current. (3) Using the upper limit of the low-energy cutoff, the return current is always stable to the generation of ion-acoustic and electrostatic ion-cyclotron instabilities when the electron temperature is nine times lower than the ion temperature. (4) In most cases, the return current is most likely primarily carried by runaway electrons from the tail of the thermal distribution rather than by the bulk drifting thermal electrons. For these cases, anomalous resistivity is not required.

  11. Chandra Observations of a Collisionally and Optically Thin Charge Exchange System - Comet 2P/Encke 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, D. J.; Lisse, C. M.; Dennerl, K.; Wolk, S. J.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M. R.; Hoekstra, R.; Makinen, J. T. T.; Weaver, H. A.

    2004-11-01

    The highly favorable perigee passage of the x-ray bright comet 2P/Encke in late 2003 provided an excellent opportunity to use Chandra's high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution to study cometary x-ray emission in the low neutral target density, low x-ray flux regime. The 1997 ROSAT/EUVE observations of Encke (Lisse et al. 1999) and the nucleus rotation studies of Luu and Jewitt (1990, most likely rotation period = 15 hours) suggested a simple Chandra experiment - continuous ACIS-S observations of Encke over 15 hours during the time of its closest approach to Earth. Here we report initial results from our X-ray observations. X-ray emission from comet Encke was found only in a small, asymmetric region between 1500 km - 40,000 km from the nucleus. The Encke ACIS-S3 200 -- 1000 eV spectrum shows many of the same x-ray emission lines previously observed from comets (C+5, O+6,O+7), including confirmation of several emission lines in the 800 to 1000 eV range. However, the Encke spectrum shows very different line ratios in the 200 - 700 eV range than any previous comet. A lightcurve with peak-to-peak amplitude of 20% and period 11.7 hours was found over the 15 hour observing period. Comparing the observations to contemporaneous measurements of the coma and solar wind made by other means, we find the combination of a low density, collisionally thin (to charge exchange) coma and a post-massive X-flare, high temperature, moderate density solar wind can explain our unusual Encke x-ray observations.

  12. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223-229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C₃H₇), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME.

  13. A 2D-model of planetary atmospheres based on a collisional approach : application to Mars and Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boqueho, V.; Blelly, P. L.; Peymirat, C.

    A 2D model of planetary atmospheres has been developed, based on a collisional approach. The multi-moment multi-species transport equations allow to study the atmospheric regions from the ground to the thermosphere and the exosphere in an only one self-consistent model. A 13-moment approximation is used: concentration, velocities, temperature, heat flows and stress tensor are then solved for each species. On Mars, we consider 8 species in the altitude - longitude plane, from surface to 450 km, the altitude above which atomic hydrogen becomes the major species. Main chemical and photodissociation processes are included, and thermal processes are considered above 80 km. On Titan, 3 species are considered in the altitude range 800 - 3000 km, and UV heating and HCN radiative cooling are accounted for. Different solar conditions have been considered, and simulations have been performed in the equatorial region. Results of the model for Mars are compared to Viking and Mariner data and to Bougher et al. [1988] model. Concerning Titan, the results are compared to Müller-Wodarg et al. [2000] model. Temperature profiles on Mars appear to be consistent with experimental data, but horizontal winds are very different from Bougher et al. [1988]. On Titan, results appear to be close to Müller-Wodarg et al. [2000] in the thermosphere; nevertheless, the change in the behavior above the exobase is as important as on Mars. The differences between models are analyzed, and contributions of a multi-moment multi-species approach in 2D are discussed.

  14. Purification and Quantification of an Isomeric Compound in a Mixture by Collisional Excitation in Multistage Mass Spectrometry Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne Dit Fouque, Dany; Maroto, Alicia; Memboeuf, Antony

    2016-11-15

    The differentiation, characterization, and quantification of isomers and/or isobars in mixtures is a recurrent problem in mass spectrometry and more generally in analytical chemistry. Here we present a new strategy to assess the purity of a compound that is susceptible to be contaminated with another isomeric side-product in trace levels. Providing one of the isomers is available as pure sample, this new strategy allows the detection of isomeric contamination. This is done thanks to a "gas-phase collisional purification" inside an ion trap mass spectrometer paving the way for an improved analysis of at least similar samples. This strategy consists in using collision induced dissociation (CID) multistage mass spectrometry (MS 2 and MS 3 ) experiments and the survival yield (SY) technique. It has been successfully applied to mixtures of cyclic poly( L -lactide) (PLA) with increasing amounts of its linear topological isomer. Purification in gas phase of PLA mixtures was established based on SY curves obtained in MS 3 mode: all samples gave rise to the same SY curve corresponding then to the pure cyclic component. This new strategy was sensitive enough to detect traces of linear PLA (<3%) in a sample of cyclic PLA that was supposedly pure according to other characterization techniques ( 1 H NMR, MALDI-HRMS, and size-exclusion chromatography). Moreover, in this case, the presence of linear isomer was undetectable according to MS/MS or MS/MS/MS analysis only as fragment ions are also of the same m/z values. This type of approach could easily be implemented in hyphenated mass spectrometric techniques to improve the structural and quantitative analysis of complex samples.

  15. Collisional radiative model for Ar-O2 mixture plasma with fully relativistic fine structure cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priti, Gangwar, Reetesh Kumar; Srivastava, Rajesh

    2018-04-01

    A collisional radiative (C-R) model has been developed to diagnose the rf generated Ar-O2 (0%-5%) mixture plasma at low temperatures. Since in such plasmas the most dominant process is an electron impact excitation process, we considered several electron impact fine structure transitions in an argon atom from its ground as well as excited states. The cross-sections for these transitions have been obtained using the reliable fully relativistic distorted wave theory. Processes which account for the coupling of argon with the oxygen molecules have been further added to the model. We couple our model to the optical spectroscopic measurements reported by Jogi et al. [J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 335206 (2014)]. The plasma parameters, viz. the electron density (ne) and the electron temperature (Te) as a function of O2 concentration have been obtained using thirteen intense emission lines out of 3p54p → 3p54s transitions observed in their spectroscopic measurements. It is found that as the content of O2 in Ar increases from 0%-5%, Te increases in the range 0.85-1.7 eV, while the electron density decreases from 2.76 × 1012-2.34 × 1011 cm-3. The Ar-3p54s (1si) fine-structure level populations at our extracted plasma parameters are found to be in very good agreement with those obtained from the measurements. Furthermore, we have estimated the individual contributions coming from the ground state, 1si manifolds and cascade contributions to the population of the radiating Ar-3p54p (2pi) states as a function of a trace amount of O2. Such information is very useful to understand the importance of various processes occurring in the plasma.

  16. Collisional-radiative model for neutral helium in plasma. Excitation cross section and singlet-triplet wavefunction mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, Motoshi [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Fujimoto, Takashi

    1997-10-01

    We have revised the collisional-radiative (CR) model code of neutral helium (T. Fujimoto, JQSRT 21, 1979). The spin-orbit interaction gives rise to mixing of the wavefunctions of the singlet and triplet states. The degree of the mixing depends on the magnetic field, and at the field strength of the level-anticrossings complete mixing, or complete breakdown of the L-S coupling scheme, occurs. We have approximately incorporated this effect into the code. We have reviewed the excitation cross section data for electron impacts. For transitions starting from the ground state, the recent assessment by the group led by Dr. de Heer is judged satisfactory. For transitions from the metastable levels the assessment by the same group appears rather conservative; there remains a question about the cross section values near the threshold. For transitions between different-l levels within the same multiplicity and same n, a semi-empirical formula based on the Born cross section gives a good agreement with experiment. Proton impacts are also considered for these transitions. We compare the new cross sections with those used in the original version. These cross sections for transitions starting from the metastable levels are fitted by analytical formulas and the parameter values are given. We also give parameter values for the excitation rate coefficient for these transitions as well as for transitions starting from the ground state. With all the above revisions incorporated into the CR model code, we have calculated the energy loss rates and the line intensity ratios for the purpose of plasma diagnostics, where the effect of a magnetic field is noted. The calculated population distribution over excited levels are compared with experiment, and a tentative conclusion is drawn concerning the excitation cross section from the metastable level. (author)

  17. Local thermodynamic equilibrium and related metrological issues involving collisional-radiative model in laser-induced aluminum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travaille, G.; Peyrusse, O.; Bousquet, B.; Canioni, L.; Pierres, K. Michel-Le; Roy, S.

    2009-01-01

    We present a collisional-radiative approach of the theoretical analysis of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) plasmas. This model, which relies on an optimized effective potential atomic structure code, was used to simulate a pure aluminum plasma. The description of aluminum involved a set of 220 atomic levels representative of three different stages of ionization (Al 0 , Al + and Al ++ ). The calculations were carried for stationary plasmas, with input parameters (n e and T e ) ranging respectively between 10 13-18 cm -3 and 0.3-2 eV. A comparison of our atomic data with some existing databases is made. The code was mainly developed to address the validity of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) assumption. For usual LIBS plasma parameters, we did not reveal a sizeable discrepancy of the radiative equilibrium of the plasma towards LTE. For cases where LTE was firmly believed to stand, the Boltzmann plot outputs of this code were used to check the physical accuracy of the Boltzmann temperature, as it is currently exploited in several calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) studies. In this paper, a deviation ranging between 10 and 30% of the measured Boltzmann temperature to the real excitation temperature is reported. This may be due to the huge dispersion induced on the line emissivities, on which the Boltzmann plots are based to extract this parameter. Consequences of this fact on the CF-LIBS procedure are discussed and further insights to be considered for the future are introduced.

  18. Micrometer-sized Water Ice Particles for Planetary Science Experiments: Influence of Surface Structure on Collisional Properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gärtner, S.; Fraser, H. J. [School of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Gundlach, B.; Ratte, J.; Blum, J. [Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, TU Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Headen, T. F.; Youngs, T. G. A.; Bowron, D. T. [ISIS Facility, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Oesert, J.; Gorb, S. N., E-mail: sabrina.gaertner@stfc.ac.uk, E-mail: helen.fraser@open.ac.uk [Zoologisches Institut, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Am Botanischen Garten 1-9, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)

    2017-10-20

    Models and observations suggest that ice-particle aggregation at and beyond the snowline dominates the earliest stages of planet formation, which therefore is subject to many laboratory studies. However, the pressure–temperature gradients in protoplanetary disks mean that the ices are constantly processed, undergoing phase changes between different solid phases and the gas phase. Open questions remain as to whether the properties of the icy particles themselves dictate collision outcomes and therefore how effectively collision experiments reproduce conditions in protoplanetary environments. Previous experiments often yielded apparently contradictory results on collision outcomes, only agreeing in a temperature dependence setting in above ≈210 K. By exploiting the unique capabilities of the NIMROD neutron scattering instrument, we characterized the bulk and surface structure of icy particles used in collision experiments, and studied how these structures alter as a function of temperature at a constant pressure of around 30 mbar. Our icy grains, formed under liquid nitrogen, undergo changes in the crystalline ice-phase, sublimation, sintering and surface pre-melting as they are heated from 103 to 247 K. An increase in the thickness of the diffuse surface layer from ≈10 to ≈30 Å (≈2.5 to 12 bilayers) proves increased molecular mobility at temperatures above ≈210 K. Because none of the other changes tie-in with the temperature trends in collisional outcomes, we conclude that the surface pre-melting phenomenon plays a key role in collision experiments at these temperatures. Consequently, the pressure–temperature environment, may have a larger influence on collision outcomes than previously thought.

  19. Transition from the constant ion mobility regime to the ion-atom charge-exchange regime for bounded collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poggie, Jonathan; Sternberg, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    A numerical and analytical study of a planar, collisional, direct-current, plasma-wall problem is presented. The fluid model for the problem is first validated by comparing numerical solutions with experimental data for low-pressure (∼0.1 Pa) electrode sheaths with wall potentials on the order of -100 V. For electric potential, ion number density, and ion velocity, good agreement was found between theory and experiment from within the sheath out to the bulk plasma. The frictional drag resulting from ion-neutral collisions is described by a model incorporating both linear and quadratic velocity terms. In order to study the transition from the constant ion mobility regime (linear friction) to the ion-atom charge-exchange collision regime (quadratic friction), the theoretical model was examined numerically for a range of ion temperatures and ion-neutral collision rates. It was found that the solution profiles in the quasineutral plasma depend on the ion temperature. For low ion temperatures they are governed mainly by the ion-atom charge-exchange regime, whereas for high temperatures they are governed by the constant ion mobility regime. Quasineutral plasma models corresponding to these two limiting cases were solved analytically. In particular, an analytical plasma solution is given for the ion-atom charge exchange regime that includes the effects of ion inertia. In contrast to the quasineutral plasma, the sheath is always governed for low to moderate collision rates by the ion-atom charge-exchange regime, independent of the ion temperature. Varying the collision rate, it was shown that when the wall potential is sufficiently high, the sheath cannot be considered collisionless, even if the collision rate is quite small

  20. [Family violence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoudi, F; Chagh, R; Es-soussi, M; Asri, F; Tazi, I

    2013-09-01

    Family violence is a serious public health problem, the scale of which is seriously increasing in Morocco. Although it has existed for a long time, we ignore the real characteristics of this plague in our country; our work consisted in an epidemiological approach of family violence in Marrakech during 2006. After elaborating a questionnaire, which allows the study of the demographic and social profile of the families, the study of violence exercised in the family and the evaluation of the depression in the women, we led an inquiry amongst 265 women. Analysis of the results obtained has allowed us to underline the following characteristics: 16.6% of the women in our sample had been physically beaten; the young age is a risk factor; the age range most affected by violence is in women between the ages of 30 and 40 and which represent 39% of the battered women; domestic violence touches all the social, economic and cultural classes: in our study, 63% of the women having undergone violence were housewives, 25% were managers and 3% senior executives; family problems were the most important cause of violence in our study, representing 32.32%. Requests for money was the cause in 11.3% of the cases, and imposed sexual relations were found in 6.8% of the cases; alcoholism is an aggravating factor of family violence; 27.3% of the spouses who assaulted their wives were drunk; 52% of the assaulted women were victims of violence in childhood and 36% had been witness to their father's violence; in 63.6% of the cases of violence, the children were witnesses, and in 25% of the cases the children were victims of violence at the same time as their mothers; 50% of the women victims of violence did not react, while 38.6% left home, and 9.1 filed for divorce. Thirty-two percent of the assaulted woman had been traumatised by the aggression; the association of depression and violence was very high, 343% of the battered women in our study suffered from severe depression. This work

  1. FAMILY BOMBYLIIDAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Carlos José Einicker; Evenhuis, Neal L

    2016-06-14

    Bombyliidae is one of the largest Diptera families with more than 4,500 recognized species worldwide. Their species vary from robust to thin, and may be small to large (2-20mm) and looks like bees or wasps. They also present great variation in color. Adults can often be seen either resting and sunning themselves on trails, rocks or twigs or feeding on flowering plants as they are nectar feeders. All reared bee flies are predators or parasitoids of arthropods. The Colombian fauna of bombyliids comprises at the moment 22 species, and 12 genera, of which, six are endemic species. Nonetheless, this number may be much higher, as Colombia is a megadiverse country and there are not many specimens of this family deposited in collections all over the world.

  2. N-body simulation for self-gravitating collisional systems with a new SIMD instruction set extension to the x86 architecture, Advanced Vector eXtensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanikawa, Ataru; Yoshikawa, Kohji; Okamoto, Takashi; Nitadori, Keigo

    2012-02-01

    We present a high-performance N-body code for self-gravitating collisional systems accelerated with the aid of a new SIMD instruction set extension of the x86 architecture: Advanced Vector eXtensions (AVX), an enhanced version of the Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE). With one processor core of Intel Core i7-2600 processor (8 MB cache and 3.40 GHz) based on Sandy Bridge micro-architecture, we implemented a fourth-order Hermite scheme with individual timestep scheme ( Makino and Aarseth, 1992), and achieved the performance of ˜20 giga floating point number operations per second (GFLOPS) for double-precision accuracy, which is two times and five times higher than that of the previously developed code implemented with the SSE instructions ( Nitadori et al., 2006b), and that of a code implemented without any explicit use of SIMD instructions with the same processor core, respectively. We have parallelized the code by using so-called NINJA scheme ( Nitadori et al., 2006a), and achieved ˜90 GFLOPS for a system containing more than N = 8192 particles with 8 MPI processes on four cores. We expect to achieve about 10 tera FLOPS (TFLOPS) for a self-gravitating collisional system with N ˜ 10 5 on massively parallel systems with at most 800 cores with Sandy Bridge micro-architecture. This performance will be comparable to that of Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) cluster systems, such as the one with about 200 Tesla C1070 GPUs ( Spurzem et al., 2010). This paper offers an alternative to collisional N-body simulations with GRAPEs and GPUs.

  3. Population decay time and distribution of exciton states analyzed by rate equations based on theoretical phononic and electron-collisional rate coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, Kensuke; Ma, Bei; Ishitani, Yoshihiro

    2017-11-01

    Population distributions and transition fluxes of the A exciton in bulk GaN are theoretically analyzed using rate equations of states of the principal quantum number n up to 5 and the continuum. These rate equations consist of the terms of radiative, electron-collisional, and phononic processes. The dependence of the rate coefficients on temperature is revealed on the basis of the collisional-radiative model of hydrogen plasma for the electron-collisional processes and theoretical formulation using Fermi's "golden rule" for the phononic processes. The respective effects of the variations in electron, exciton, and lattice temperatures are exhibited. This analysis is a base of the discussion on nonthermal equilibrium states of carrier-exciton-phonon dynamics. It is found that the exciton dissociation is enhanced even below 150 K mainly by the increase in the lattice temperature. When the thermal-equilibrium temperature increases, the population fluxes between the states of n >1 and the continuum become more dominant. Below 20 K, the severe deviation from the Saha-Boltzmann distribution occurs owing to the interband excitation flux being higher than the excitation flux from the 1 S state. The population decay time of the 1 S state at 300 K is more than ten times longer than the recombination lifetime of excitons with kinetic energy but without the upper levels (n >1 and the continuum). This phenomenon is caused by a shift of population distribution to the upper levels. This phonon-exciton-radiation model gives insights into the limitations of conventional analyses such as the ABC model, the Arrhenius plot, the two-level model (n =1 and the continuum), and the neglect of the upper levels.

  4. Spectroscopic and Collisional Data for Tungsten from 1 eV to 20 keV. Summary Report of the Second Research Coordination Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.

    2014-08-01

    The second Research Coordination Meeting of a coordinated research project (CRP) on spectroscopic and collisional data for tungsten ions in fusion plasma was held 29-31 August 2012 at Max-Planck- Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg, Germany. Thirteen projects participate in the CRP and were represented at the meeting together with 8 further experts and 2 IAEA scientific staff. Participants presented their research following which outstanding data needs were identified and a work plan was developed for the remainder of the CRP. The proceedings and conclusions of the meeting are summarized here. (author)

  5. Collisional Removal of OH (X (sup 2)Pi, nu=7) by O2, N2, CO2, and N2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Karen; Dyer, Mark J.; Copeland, Richard A.

    1996-01-01

    Collisional removal rate constants for the OH (X 2PI, nu = 7) radical are measured for the colliders O2, CO2, and N2O, and an upper limit is established for N2. OH(nu = 4) molecules, generated in a microwave discharge flow cell by the reaction of hydrogen atoms with ozone, are excited to v = 7 by the output of a pulsed infrared laser via direct vibrational overtone excitation. The temporal evolution of the P = 7 population is probed as a function of the collider gas partial pressure by a time-delayed pulsed ultraviolet laser. Fluorescence from the B 21 + state is detected in the visible spectral region.

  6. Family roles as family functioning regulators

    OpenAIRE

    STEPANYAN ARMINE

    2015-01-01

    The author examines the problems of formation and functioning of family roles. Having social roots, family roles appear on individual level by performing the social function of the formation of family as a social institute.

  7. The Role of Family in Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Marianne Bertrand; Antoinette Schoar

    2006-01-01

    History is replete with examples of spectacular ascents of family businesses. Yet there are also numerous accounts of family businesses brought down by bitter feuds among family members, disappointed expectations between generations, and tragic sagas of later generations unable to manage their wealth. A large fraction of businesses throughout the world are organized around families. Why are family firms so prevalent? What are the implications of family control for the governance, financing an...

  8. Asteroid family dynamics in the inner main belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykhuis, Melissa Joy

    The inner main asteroid belt is an important source of near-Earth objects and terrestrial planet impactors; however, the dynamics and history of this region are challenging to understand, due to its high population density and the presence of multiple orbital resonances. This dissertation explores the properties of two of the most populous inner main belt family groups --- the Flora family and the Nysa-Polana complex --- investigating their memberships, ages, spin properties, collision dynamics, and range in orbital and reflectance parameters. Though diffuse, the family associated with asteroid (8) Flora dominates the inner main belt in terms of the extent of its members in orbital parameter space, resulting in its significant overlap with multiple neighboring families. This dissertation introduces a new method for membership determination (the core sample method) which enables the distinction of the Flora family from the background, permitting its further analysis. The Flora family is shown to have a signature in plots of semimajor axis vs. size consistent with that expected for a collisional family dispersed as a result of the Yarkovsky radiation effect. The family's age is determined from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 950 My. Furthermore, a survey of the spin sense of 21 Flora-region asteroids, accomplished via a time-efficient modification of the epoch method for spin sense determination, confirms the single-collision Yarkovsky-dispersed model for the family's origin. The neighboring Nysa-Polana complex is the likely source region for many of the carbonaceous near-Earth asteroids, several of which are important targets for spacecraft reconnaissance and sample return missions. Family identification in the Nysa-Polana complex via the core sample method reveals two families associated with asteroid (135) Hertha, both with distinct age and reflectance properties. The larger of these two families demonstrates a correlation in semimajor axis and eccentricity

  9. Roles within the Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Text Size Email Print Share Roles Within the Family Page Content Article Body Families are not democracies. ...

  10. Effects of ionization and ion loss on dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma with suprathermal electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayout, Saliha; Gougam, Leila Ait [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Tribeche, Mouloud, E-mail: mouloudtribeche@yahoo.fr, E-mail: mtribeche@usthb.dz [Faculty of Physics, Theoretical Physics Laboratory, Plasma Physics Group, University of Bab-Ezzouar, USTHB, B.P. 32, El Alia, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Algerian Academy of Sciences and Technologies, Algiers (Algeria)

    2016-03-15

    The combined effects of ionization, ion loss, and electron suprathermality on dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma are examined. Carrying out a small but finite amplitude analysis, a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK–dV) equation is derived. The damping term decreases with the increase of the spectral index and saturates for Maxwellian electrons. Choosing typical plasma parameters, the analytical approximate solution of the dK-dV equation is numerically analyzed. We first neglect the ionization and ion loss effects and account only for collisions to estimate the relative importance between these damping terms which can act concurrently. Interestingly, we found that as the suprathermal character of the electrons becomes important, the strength of the collisions related dissipation becomes more important and causes the dust ion-acoustic solitary wave amplitude to decay more rapidly. Moreover, the collisional damping may largely prevail over the ionization and ion loss related damping. The latter becomes more effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. Our results complement and provide new insights into previously published work on this problem.

  11. Effects of ionization and ion loss on dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma with suprathermal electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayout, Saliha; Gougam, Leila Ait; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2016-01-01

    The combined effects of ionization, ion loss, and electron suprathermality on dust ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisional dusty plasma are examined. Carrying out a small but finite amplitude analysis, a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK–dV) equation is derived. The damping term decreases with the increase of the spectral index and saturates for Maxwellian electrons. Choosing typical plasma parameters, the analytical approximate solution of the dK-dV equation is numerically analyzed. We first neglect the ionization and ion loss effects and account only for collisions to estimate the relative importance between these damping terms which can act concurrently. Interestingly, we found that as the suprathermal character of the electrons becomes important, the strength of the collisions related dissipation becomes more important and causes the dust ion-acoustic solitary wave amplitude to decay more rapidly. Moreover, the collisional damping may largely prevail over the ionization and ion loss related damping. The latter becomes more effective as the electrons evolve far away from their thermal equilibrium. Our results complement and provide new insights into previously published work on this problem.

  12. Measurements of NH3 linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients in N2, O2, CO2, and H2O near 1103.46cm-1

    KAUST Repository

    Owen, Kyle

    2013-05-01

    Laser-based ammonia gas sensors have useful applications in many fields including combustion, atmospheric monitoring, and medical diagnostics. Calibration-free trace gas sensors require the spectroscopic parameters including linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients to be known. Ammonia\\'s strong ν2 vibrational band between 9 - 12 μm has the high absorption strength needed for sensing small concentrations. Within this band, the 1103.46cm-1 feature is one of the strongest and has minimal interference from CO2 and H2O. However, the six rotational transitions that make up this feature have not been studied previously with absorption spectroscopy due to their small line spacing ranging from 0.004 to 0.029cm-1. A tunable quantum cascade laser was used to accurately study these six transitions. A retrieval program was used to determine the linestrengths and collisional broadening coefficients based on Voigt and Galatry profiles. The experiments were performed with ammonia mixtures in nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide at room temperature in an optical cell. These data are going to aid in the development of quantitative ammonia sensors utilizing this strong absorption feature. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Family Psychology and Family Therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameguchi, Kenji; Murphy-Shigematsu, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Reviews the development of family psychology and family therapy in Japan, tracing the origins of these movements, explaining how these fields were activated by the problem of school refusal, and describing an approach to family therapy that has been developed to work with families confronting this problem, as well as preventive programs of family…

  14. Origin of pegmatites and fluids at Ponta Negra (RJ, Brazil) during late- to post-collisional stages of the Gondwana Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongiolo, Everton Marques; Renac, Christophe; Piza, Patricia d'Almeida de Toledo; Schmitt, Renata da Silva; Mexias, André Sampaio

    2016-01-01

    The Ponta Negra Pegmatites (PNP), part of a pegmatitic province in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, crop out along an intensely deformed, medium- to high-grade metamorphic area that is proximal to a crustal-scale thrust zone developed during the Brasiliano/Pan-African Orogeny. Fieldwork shows that the pegmatites formed in two distinct stages: (i) syn-collisional leucosome veins (Group I) conformable with the tectonic foliation of the gneissic host rocks and (ii) late- to post-collisional dykes (Group II) that cross-cut the same tectonic foliation at a high angle. In this paper, we use geochemistry of whole-rock and mineral separates (alkali-feldspar and biotite), fluid inclusion microthermometry and stable isotopic (δ18O, δD, δ13C) determinations on minerals (quartz, alkali-feldspar, biotite and magnetite) and fluid inclusions to provide insights into the composition of the pegmatite-forming melts, associated fluids, and their geotectonic significance. U-Pb SHRIMP dating of the Cajú syenogranite was performed to evaluate and compare the timing of magmatic events along the Cabo Frio Tectonic Domain as this is the closest post-collisional pluton to the studied pegmatites. The calculated temperature for the Group I syn-collisional veins (740 °C) is similar to previous estimates for the peak metamorphic conditions in the study area. Variations in the temperature of the Group II pegmatite dykes obtained from stable isotopes (380 to 720 °C), and microthermometric data from primary fluid inclusions with traces of N2 (Th = 280 to 360 °C), may reflect the thermodynamics of the pegmatite crystallization, exsolution textures and isotopic exchange. The composition of fluids in equilibrium within the pegmatite dykes consists of magmatic and metamorphic components. The minimum pressures calculated for the emplacement of the pegmatites are equivalent to a shallow crustal depth between 1.7 and 3.5 km, which corresponds to the exhumation of the orogen since the emplacement of

  15. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G; Negroni, Lirio K; Hesselbrock, Michie N

    2010-01-01

    The study examined the effectiveness of a culturally-adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9-12 year old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted with each family. Parental stress, parent-child dysfunctional relations, and child behavior problems were reduced in the families receiving the intervention; family hardiness and family attachment were improved. Findings contribute to the validation of the SFP with Latinos, and can be used to inform social work practice with Puerto Rican families.

  16. The Ilha Anchieta Quartz Monzonite: the southernmost expression of ca. 500 Ma post-collisional magmatism in the Ribeira Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Azevedo Sobrinho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Ilha Anchieta Quartz Monzonite (IAQM occupies most of the homonymous island in the coast of the state of São Paulo, and is intrusive into foliated rocks of the ~565 Ma Ubatuba Charnockite. The main petrographic variety is a porphyritic biotite-hornblende quartz monzonite with 2-4 cm tabular microcline megacrysts set in a medium-grained groundmass and magmatic foliation. Outcrop-scale structures indicate cumulative processes (modal and grain-size magmatic banding and interaction with basic magmas (mafic microgranular enclaves. Lithogeochemical data indicates that the main variety is intermediate to acid (S1O2 = 63-67%, alkali-calcic, metaluminous and magnesian (mg# ~30, showing moderate Sr (300-400 ppm and Ba (~1500 ppm contents and relatively high HFSE (Nb = 40 ppm; Zr = 550-700 ppm. The older charnockites are more silicic (S1O2 = 71-78%, ferroan(mg# = 12-16, and have very low Sr (13-80 ppm contents, resulting in Ba/Sr ratios remarkably higher than the IAQM (10 versus 4. LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb zircon dating of the IAQM yielded 499.7 ± 5.9 Ma. This is the youngest magmatic age identified so far in the crystalline basement of the state of São Paulo, and indicates that the pluton is the southernmost expression of the post-collisional "G5" magmatism in the Ribeira Belt.O Quartzo Monzonito Ilha Anchieta (QMIA ocupa a maior parte da ilha homônima na região costeira do Estado de São Paulo, e é intrusivo em rochas foliadas do Charnockito Ubatuba (~565 Ma. A principal variedade petrográfica é um biotitahornblenda quartzo monzonito porfirítico com foliação magmática e megacristais tabulares de microclínio com 2-4 cm em matriz de granulação média. Estruturas em afloramento indicam processos cumuláticos (bandamento modal e granulométrico e interação com magmas básicos (enclaves microgranulares máficos. Dados geoquímicos indicam que a variedade principal é intermediária a ácida (SiO2 = 63-67%, tem caráter

  17. Recurring extensional and strike-slip tectonics after the Neoproterozoic collisional events in the southern Mantiqueira province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato P. Almeida

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In Eastern South America, a series of fault-bounded sedimentary basins that crop out from Southern Uruguay to Southeastern Brazil were formed after the main collisional deformation of the Brasiliano Orogeny and record the tectonic events that affected the region from the Middle Ediacaran onwards. We address the problem of discerning the basin-forming tectonics from the later deformational events through paleostress analysis of more than 600 fault-slip data, mainly from the Camaquã Basin (Southern Brazil, sorted by stratigraphic level and cross-cutting relationships of superposed striations, and integrated with available stratigraphic and geochronological data. Our results show that the Camaquã Basin was formed by at least two distinct extensional events, and that rapid paleostress changes took place in the region a few tens of million years after the major collision (c.a. 630 Ma, probably due to the interplay between local active extensional tectonics and the distal effects of the continued amalgamation of plates and terranes at the margins of the still-forming Gondwana Plate. Preliminary paleostress data from the Castro Basin and published data from the Itajaí Basin suggest that these events had a regional nature.No Leste da América do Sul, um conjunto de bacias sedimentares que afloram do sul do Uruguai ao sudeste do Brasil formou-se após os eventos colisionais da Orogenia Brasiliana, registrando os eventos tectônicos que afetaram a região a partir do Mesoediacarano. O problema da distinção entre a tectônica formadora das bacias e os eventos deformacionais posteriores é aqui abordado através da análise de paleotensões de mais de 600 dados de falhas com estrias, obtidos principalmente na Bacia Camaquã (Sul do Brasil, que foram classificados por nível estratigráfico e relações de corte entre estrias sobrepostas, e intergrados a dados estratigráficos e geocronológicos disponíveis. Nossos resultados revelam que a Bacia Camaqu

  18. Asymmetric fission and evaporation of C{sub 60}{sup r+} (r = 2-4) fullerene ions in ion-C{sub 60} collisions: II. Dependence on collisional processes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rentenier, A; Bordenave-Montesquieu, A; Moretto-Capelle, P; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D [LCAR-IRSAMC, UMR 5589 Universite Paul Sabatier-CNRS, 118 rte de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)

    2004-06-28

    In this paper, a quantitative comparison of our experimental data for the asymmetrical fission (AF) and neutral evaporation of the C{sub 60} molecule under proton impact (part I) is made with data published by other authors and often obtained in rather different collisional systems. The comparison with multicharged ions for which more quantitative data are available is focused on. It is demonstrated that size distributions of fragments, averaged fragment sizes, branching ratios between AF and evaporation or between AF channels, are common to all the collisional systems. Differences only appear when the comparison includes the undissociated stable fullerene ion signals.

  19. Family Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel de Riquer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The scene is at the court of James I of Aragon in the mid-13th c., the place is the royal palace of Barcelona or any of the crown's other possessions, and the dramatis personae include the heir to the throne, prince Peire (future king Peire the Great, and the court's most famous troubadour, Cerverí de Girona (fl. 1259-85. Author of the largest corpus of any Occitan troubadour (114 poems, Cerverì distinguishes himself by the surprises and challenges he presents to his audience: an alba (the most openly erotic genre to the Virgin Mary, the Cobla in sis lengatges (Cobla in Six Languages, the apparently nonsensical Vers estrayn. Cerverì borrows equally from the folk-inspired Galician-Portuguese poetry and from the French tradition, including the chanson de malmariée, where a young woman bemoans being sold off by her family to an old man (gilos, "Jealous" and separated from her youthful doulz amis, some even praying for the death of their husband. Both within that tradition and among Cerverì's three chansons de malmariée, the Gelosesca stands out as "especially determined" to lose her husband, using every "solution" (prayer, black magic, potion or experimenta.

  20. Bequeathing Family Continuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanier, Graham B.

    1989-01-01

    Notes that many children who experience abuse, family disruption, or poverty reach adulthood with a strong commitment to family life. Questions whether changes in American families are indicators of pathology, deterioration, and instability; and asks how dysfunctional families transmit commitment to the concept of family to succeeding generations.…

  1. The Reconstituted Family

    OpenAIRE

    Talbot, Yves

    1981-01-01

    The reconstituted or step-family is becoming more prevalent. The physician who cares for families should be acquainted with the different aspects of such family structure and family functioning. This will enable professionals to better understand and assist their patients, by anticipating the different stresses related to the new family formation, and supporting their adaptation.

  2. 3D modelling of the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps: dataset management and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monopoli, Bruno; Bistacchi, Andrea; Bertolo, Davide; Dal Piaz, Giovanni; Gouffon, Yves; Massironi, Matteo; Sartori, Mario; Vittorio Dal Piaz, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    We know since the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to mapping and structural studies by the Italian Regio Servizio Geologico (Franchi et al., 1908) and Argand's work (1909; 1911; 1916), that the Austroalpine-Penninic collisional wedge of the NW Alps is spectacularly exposed across the Aosta Valley and Valais ranges (Italy and Switzerland). In the 150th anniversary of the first ascent to Ruskin's "most noble cliff in Europe" - the Cervino/Matterhorn (Whymper, July 14th 1865), first described in a geological profile by Giordano (1869) and in a detailed map by Gerlach (1869; 1871), we have seen the conclusion of very detailed mapping projects carried out in the last years over the two regions, with collaborative efforts across the Italy-Switzerland border, constellated by 4000 m-high peaks. These projects have pictured with an unprecedented detail (up to 1:10.000 scale) the geology of this complex region, resulting from pre-Alpine events, Alpine subduction- and collision-related ductile deformations, and finally late-Alpine brittle deformations from the Oligocene to the Present. Based on this dataset, we use up-to-date technology and software to undertake a 3D modelling study aimed at: i) reconstructing the 3D geometry of the principal tectonic units, ii) detecting and unravelling problems and incongruences in the 2D geometrical models, iii) modelling the kinematics of the Oligocene and Miocene brittle fault network using 2D and 3D balancing and palinspastic restoration techniques. In this contribution we mainly discuss the prerequisites of the project. Common geomodelling paradigms (mainly developed for the hydrocarbon industry) cannot be applied in this project due to (i) the little scale, (ii) the source of the data - fieldwork, and (iii) the polyphase ductile and brittle deformations in the metamorphic nappe stack. Our goals at the moment are to model the post-metamorphic fault network and the boundaries of the principal tectonic units, which will be

  3. Analytical investigation on domain of decentered parameter for self-focusing of Hermite-cosh-Gaussian laser beam in collisional plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valkunde, Amol T.; Patil, Sandip D.; Vhanmore, Bandopant D.; Urunkar, Trupti U.; Gavade, Kusum M.; Takale, Mansing V.; Fulari, Vijay J.

    2018-03-01

    In the present paper, an analytically investigated domain of decentered parameter and its effect on the self-focusing of Hermit-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) laser beams in a collisional plasma have been studied theoretically. The nonlinearity in the dielectric constant of plasma arising due to the nonuniform heating of carriers along the wavefront of the laser beam has been employed in the present investigation. The nonlinear differential equation of beam width parameter for various laser modes of HChG beam is obtained by following the standard Akhamanov's parabolic equation approach under Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin and paraxial approximations. The analytical treatment has enabled us to define three distinct regions: self-focusing, self-trapping and defocusing, which are presented graphically.

  4. Collisional Removal of O2 (c(sup 1) Sigma(sup-)(sub u), nu=9) by O2, N2, and He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Richard A.; Knutsen, Karen; Onishi, Marc E.; Yalcin, Talat

    1996-01-01

    The collisional removal Of 02 molecules in selected vibrational levels of the c state is studied using a two-laser double-resonance technique. The output of the first laser excites the 02 to nu = 9 or 10 of the c Sigma - state, and the ultraviolet output of the second laser monitors specific rovibrational levels via resonance-enhanced ionization. The temporal evolution of the c Sigma u state vibrational level is observed by scanning the time delay between the two pulsed lasers. As the rate constants for 02 and N2 are similar in magnitude, N2 collisions dominate the removal rate in the earth's atmosphere. For v= 10 colliding with 02, we find a removal rate constant that is 2-5 times that for v=9 and that single quantum collision cascade is an important pathway for removal.

  5. Family Capital: Implications for Interventions with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcher, John R.; Peckuonis, Edward V.; Deforge, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Social capital has been extensively discussed in the literature as building blocks that individuals and communities utilize to leverage system resources. Similarly, some families also create capital, which can enable members of the family, such as children, to successfully negotiate the outside world. Families in poverty confront serious…

  6. Observation of an energy threshold for large ΔE collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine (Evib=31 000-41 000 cm-1) by CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elioff, Michael S.; Wall, Mark C.; Lemoff, Andrew S.; Mullin, Amy S.

    1999-03-01

    Energy dependent studies of the collisional relaxation of highly vibrationally excited pyrazine through collisions with CO2 were performed for initial pyrazine energies Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. These studies are presented along with earlier results for pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1. High-resolution transient IR laser absorption of individual CO2 (0000) rotational states (J=56-80) was used to investigate the magnitude and partitioning of energy gain into CO2 rotation and translation, which comprises the high energy tail of the energy transfer distribution function. Highly vibrationally excited pyrazine was prepared by absorption of pulsed UV light at seven wavelengths in the range λ=281-324 nm, followed by radiationless decay to pyrazine's ground electronic state. Nascent CO2 (0000) rotational populations were measured for each UV excitation wavelength and distributions of nascent recoil velocities for individual rotational states of CO2 (0000) were obtained from Doppler-broadened transient linewidth measurements. Measurements of energy transfer rate constants at each UV wavelength yield energy-dependent probabilities for collisions involving large ΔE values. These results reveal that the magnitude of large ΔE collisional energy gain in CO2 (0000) is fairly insensitive to the amount of vibrational energy in pyrazine for Evib=31 000-35 000 cm-1. A comparison with earlier studies on pyrazine with Evib=36 000-41 000 cm-1 indicates that the V→RT energy transfer increases both in magnitude and probability for Evib>36 000 cm-1. Implications of incomplete intramolecular vibrational relaxation, electronic state coupling, and isomerization barriers are discussed in light of these results.

  7. Part 1: aspects of lithospheric evolution on Venus. Part 2: thermal and collisional histories of chondrite parent bodies. Ph.D. Thesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    The geological evolution of distinctly different kinds of solar system objects is addressed. Venus has been observed over the past decade by orbital radars on both American and Soviet spacecraft. These surface measurements provide clues to the structure and evolution of the lithosphere. The parent bodies of chondritic meteorites, thought to resemble asteroids, represent the other end of the size spectrum of terrestrial objects. Their early thermal and collisional histories may be constrained by the chemical and textural record preserved in meteorite samples. Impact craters on Venus have been observed by the Soviet Venera 15/16 spacecraft. A formalism is presented by which the size-frequency distribution of impact craters may be used to estimate upper bounds on the mean global rates of volcanic resurfacing and lithospheric recycling on that planet over the past several hundred million years. The impact crater density reported from Venera observations, indicates a mean volcanic flux no greater than 2 cu km/y. For the lowest estimated mean crater retention age of the surface of Venus imaged by Venera 15/16, the rate of lithospheric recycling on Venus does not exceed 1.5 sq km/y. Ordinary chondrite meteorites show textural and chemical patterns indicative of varying intensities of thermal metamorphism. The conventional onion-shell model, envisions highly metamorphosed material in the core and less intensely heated rocks near the surface, but none has been observed. A metamorphosed-planetesimal model is devised to explain this discrepancy. Thermal and collisional constraints are examined, and the model is found to be applicable only to highly insulating Al-26-rich planetesimals. An alternative model is presented

  8. Simple Analytic Collisional Rates for non-LTE Vibrational Populations in Astrophysical Environments: the Cases of Circumstellar SiO Masers and Shocked H2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Ronald

    2008-05-01

    Rates for collisionally induced transitions between molecular vibrational levels are important in modeling a variety of non-LTE processes in astrophysical environments. Two examples are SiO masering in circumstellar envelopes in certain late-type stars [1] and the vibrational populations of molecular hydrogen in shocked interstellar medium [cf 2]. A simple exponential-potential model of molecular collisions leads to a two-parameter analytic expression for state-to-state and thermally averaged rates for collisionally induced vibrational-translational (VT) transitions in diatomic molecules [3,4]. The thermally averaged rates predicted by this formula have been shown to be in excellent numerical agreement with absolute experimental and quantum mechanical rates over large temperature ranges and initial vibrational excitation levels in a variety of species, e.g., OH, O2, N2 [3] and even for the rate of H2(v=1)+H2, which changes by five orders of magnitude in the temperature range 50-2000 K [4]. Analogous analytic rates will be reported for vibrational transitions in SiO due to collisions with H2 and compared to the numerical fit of quantum-mechanical rates calculated by Bieniek and Green [5]. [1] Palov, A.P., Gray, M.D., Field, D., & Balint-Kurti, G.G. 2006, ApJ, 639, 204. [2] Flower, D. 2007, Molecular Collisions in the Interstellar Medium (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press) [3] Bieniek, R.J. & Lipson, S.J. 1996, Chem. Phys. Lett. 263, 276. [4] Bieniek, R.J. 2006, Proc. NASA LAW (Lab. Astrophys. Workshop) 2006, 299; http://www.physics.unlv.edu/labastro/nasalaw2006proceedings.pdf. [5] Bieniek, R.J., & Green, S. 1983, ApJ, 265, L29 and 1983, ApJ, 270, L101.

  9. Lithospheric delamination in post-collisional setting: Evidence from intrusive magmatism from the North Qilian orogen to southern margin of the Alxa block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqi; Zhang, Hongfei; Zhang, Shasha; Xiong, Ziliang; Luo, Biji; Yang, He; Pan, Fabin; Zhou, Xiaochun; Xu, Wangchun; Guo, Liang

    2017-09-01

    Post-collisional granitoids are widespread in the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block and their petrogenesis can provide important insights into the lithospheric processes in a post-collisional setting. This paper carries out an integrated study of U-Pb zircon dating, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions for five early Paleozoic intrusive plutons from the North Qilian to southern margin of the Alxa block. The geochronological and geochemical results show that their magmatism can be divided into three periods with distinct geochemical features. The early-period intrusive rocks ( 440 Ma) include the Lianhuashan (LHS) and Mengjiadawan (MJDW) granodiorites. Both of them display high Sr/Y ratios (52-91), coupled with low Y and HREE contents, implying that they were derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust, with garnet in the residue. The middle-period intrusive rocks ( 430 Ma), including the MJDW quartz diorites and Yangqiandashan (YQDS) granodiorites, are high-K calc-alkaline with low Sr/Y values. The geochemical and isotopic data suggest that they are generated from partial melting of lower crust without garnet in the residue. The late-period intrusive rocks (414-422 Ma), represented by the Shengrongsi (SRS) and Xinkaigou (XKG) plutons, are A-type or alkali-feldspar granites. They are possibly derived from partial melting of felsic crustal material under lower pressure condition. Our data show decreasing magma crystallization ages from MJDW pluton in the north and LHS pluton in the south to the SRS and XKG plutons in the central part of the study area. We suggest that such spatial and temporal variations of magmatic suites were caused by lithospheric delamination after the collision between the Central Qilian and the Alxa block. A more plausible explanation is that the delamination propagated from the margin part of the thickened lithosphere to inward beneath the North Qilian and southern margin of the Alxa block.

  10. Determination of electron temperature and density at plasma edge in the Large Helical Device with opacity-incorporated helium collisional-radiative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, M.; Sawada, K.

    2014-01-01

    Spectra of neutral helium in the visible wavelength range are measured for a discharge in the Large Helical Device (LHD). The electron temperature (T e ) and density (n e ) are derived from the intensity distribution of helium emission lines. For that purpose, a collisional-radiative model developed by Sawada et al. [Plasma and Fusion Res. 2010;5:001] which takes the reabsorption effect into account is used. It is found that incorporation of the reabsorption effect is necessary to obtain a set of T e and n e giving consistent line intensity distribution with the measurement, and that those parameters obtained vary as the line-averaged n e changes in the course of time. The position where the helium line emission dominantly takes place is located with the help of T e and n e profiles measured by the Thomson scattering system. The result indicates that the emission position is almost fixed at the place where the connection length of the magnetic field lines to the divertor plate leaps beyond 10 m. Because intense neutral atom line emission suggests the vigorous ionization of neutral atoms, the helium line emission location determined here can be regarded as the effective boundary of the plasma. - Highlights: • The reabsorption effect is included in the helium collisional-radiative model. • Electron temperature and density are derived for the Large Helical Device (LHD). • Line emission location is found to be little changed during the discharge. • This measurement method can be used to determine the position of effective plasma boundary

  11. The alkaline peralkaline granitic post-collisional Tin Zebane dyke swarm (Pan-African Tuareg shield, Algeria): prevalent mantle signature and late agpaitic differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Kaddour, Zakia; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Demaiffe, Daniel; Caby, Renaud

    1998-12-01

    The Tin Zebane dyke swarm was emplaced at the end of the Pan-African orogeny along a mega-shear zone separating two contrasting terranes of the Tuareg shield. It is located along the western boundary of the Archaean In Ouzzal rigid terrane, but inside the adjacent Tassendjanet terrane, strongly remobilized at the end of the Precambrian. The Tin Zebane swarm was emplaced during post-collisional sinistral movements along the shear zone at 592.2±5.8 Ma (19WR Rb-Sr isochron). It is a dyke-on-dyke system consisting of dykes and stocks of gabbros and dykes of metaluminous and peralkaline granites. All rock types have Sr and Nd isotopic initial ratios (Sr i=0.7028 and ɛNd=+6.2) typical of a depleted mantle source, similar to the prevalent mantle (PREMA) at that period. No crustal contamination occurred in the genesis of the Tin Zebane swarm. Even the samples showing evidence of fluid interaction (essentially alkali mobility) have the same isotopic signature. The peralkaline granites have peculiar geochemical characteristics that mimic subduction-related granites: this geochemical signature is interpreted in terms of extensive differentiation effects due to late cumulates comprising aegirine, zircon, titanite, allanite and possibly fergusonite, separated from the liquid in the swarm itself due to magmatic flow turbulence. The Tin Zebane dyke swarm is thus of paramount importance for constraining the differentiation of mantle products to generate highly evolved alkaline granites without continental crust participation, in a post-collisional setting.

  12. Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Training Home Conditions Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis Make an Appointment Find a Doctor Ask a ... more members within the same family have Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) or any other form of Idiopathic Interstitial ...

  13. Family Activities for Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses how families can increase family togetherness and improve physical fitness. The author provides easy ways to implement family friendly activities for improving and maintaining physical health. These activities include: walking, backyard games, and fitness challenges.

  14. Normal Functioning Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Normal Functioning Family Page Content Article Body Is there any way ...

  15. Improving Family Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Family Life Medical Home Family Dynamics Adoption & Foster Care ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Improving Family Communications Page Content Article Body How can I ...

  16. Families and family therapy in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Ng, Roger M K; Tonsing, Kareen N; Ran, Maosheng

    2012-04-01

    Family therapy views humans not as separate entities, but as embedded in a network of relationships, highlighting the reciprocal influences of one's behaviours on one another. This article gives an overview of family demographics and the implementation of family therapy in Hong Kong. We start with a review of the family demographics in Hong Kong and brief notes on families in mainland China. Demographics show that the landscape has changed markedly in the past decade, with more cross-border marriages, an increased divorce rate, and an ageing overall population - all of which could mean that there is increasing demand for professional family therapy interventions. However, only a limited number of professionals are practising the systems-based approach in Hong Kong. Some possible reasons as to why family therapy is not well disseminated and practised are discussed. These reasons include a lack of mental health policy to support family therapy, a lack of systematic family therapy training, and a shortage of skilled professionals. Furthermore, challenges in applying the western model in Chinese culture are also outlined. We conclude that more future research is warranted to investigate how family therapy can be adapted for Chinese families.

  17. Family doctors' involvement with families in Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lember Margus

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family doctors should care for individuals in the context of their family. Family has a powerful influence on health and illness and family interventions have been shown to improve health outcomes for a variety of health problems. The aim of the study was to investigate the Estonian family doctors' (FD attitudes to the patients' family-related issues in their work: to explore the degree of FDs involvement in family matters, their preparedness for management of family-related issues and their self-assessment of the ability to manage different family-related problems. Methods A random sample (n = 236 of all FDs in Estonia was investigated using a postal questionnaire. Altogether 151 FDs responded to the questionnaire (response rate 64%, while five of them were excluded as they did not actually work as FDs. Results Of the respondents, 90% thought that in managing the health problems of patients FDs should communicate and cooperate with family members. Although most of the family doctors agreed that modifying of the health damaging risk factors (smoking, alcohol and drug abuse of their patients and families is their task, one third of them felt that dealing with these problems is ineffective, or perceived themselves as poorly prepared or having too little time for such activities. Of the respondents, 58% (n = 83 were of the opinion that they could modify also relationship problems. Conclusions Estonian family doctors are favourably disposed to involvement in family-related problems, however, they need some additional training, especially in the field of relationship management.

  18. NON-LINEAR VISCO-RESISTIVE COLLISIONAL TRANSPORT IN TOROIDAL ELLIPTICAL PLASMAS WITH TRIANGULARITY AND HOLE CURRENTS: A REVIEW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Pablo; Castro, Enrique; Puerta, Julio

    2009-01-01

    Non-linear plasma diffusion effects due to hole currents in tokamaks is analyzed in this work. Since the recent discovery of hole currents in tokamaks, this matter has become very important in confinement and instabilities in tokamaks plasmas. The analysis here presented includes non-linear flows as well as hole currents. In the case of low vorticity plasmas our treatment is performed using MHD equations, an it is more suitable for plasmas with very low levels of turbulence, as in the H-mode. The present treatment follows the lines of previous works, and some of the equations and results look like those obtained on these papers. However, the form of the family of the magnetic surfaces is very different to previous treatment, since the hole current modifies those families in a very important way. Elliptic plasmas with triangularity are considered. Pfirsch-Schlueter type currents are obtained for these generalized cases. Diffusion with and without holes are calculated and compared for several values of ellipticity and triangularity. Negative and positive triangularities are considered. In most of the calculations triangularity improves confinement, but the results are different for the positive than for the negative case.

  19. Competitiveness of Family Businesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A.A.M. Leenders (Mark); E. Waarts (Eric)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study is to systematically examine the advantages and disadvantages of different types of family businesses. We distinguish four different types of family businesses based on their family and business orientation: (1) House of Business, (2) Family Money Machine, (3)

  20. Families in Transition .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Michael L., Ed.; Gumaer, James, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on disrupted families and the role of the school counselor in helping children adjust. Describes characteristics of healthy families, and discusses the transition to the blended family, effects of divorce groups on children's classroom behavior, counseling children in stepfamilies, single-parent families, and parenting strengths of single…

  1. Pure γ-families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunaevskii, A.M.

    1977-01-01

    The subject of this work are pure gamma families consisting of the gamma quanta produced in the early stages of cosmic cascades. The criteria of selecting these families from the all measured families are presented. The characteristics of these families are given and some conclusions about the mechanism of the nuclear-electromagnetic cascades are extracted. (S.B.)

  2. Yarkovsky effect and V-shapes: New method to compute family ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoto, F.; Milani, A.; Cellino, A.; Knezevic, Z.; Novakovic, B.; Paolicchi, P.

    2014-07-01

    The computation of family ages is a high-priority goal. As a matter of principle, it can be achieved by using V-shape plots for the families old enough to have the Yarkovsky effect dominating the spread of the proper a and large enough for a statistically significant analysis of the shape. By performing an asteroid family classification with a very enlarged dataset, the results are not just ''more families'', but there are interesting qualitative changes. These are due to the large-number statistics, but also to the larger fraction of smaller objects contained in recently numbered asteroids. We are convinced that our method is effective in adding many smaller asteroids to the core families. As a result, we have a large number of families with very well defined V-shapes, thus with a good possibility of age estimation. We have developed our method to compute ages, which we believe is better than those used previously because it is more objective. Since there are no models for error in absolute magnitude H and for albedo, we have also developed a model of the error in the inverse of the diameter and then we have performed a weighted least-squares fit. We report at least 5/6 examples of dynamical families for which the computation of the V-shape is possible. These examples show the presence of different internal structure of the families, e.g., in the dynamical family of (4) Vesta, we have found two collisional families. The main problem in estimating the ages is the calibration. The difficulty in the Yarkovsky calibration, due to the need to extrapolate from near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) with measured da/dt to main-belt asteroids, is in most cases the main limitation to the accuracy of the age estimation. We obtain an age estimation by scaling the results for the NEA for which there is the best Yarkovsky effect determination, namely (101955) Bennu.

  3. Barbarians in the Watsonia family: Interpretation and open problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellino, A.; Bagnulo, S.; Tanga, P.; Novakovic, B.; Delbó, M.

    2014-07-01

    The so-called Barbarian asteroids, which take their name from the prototype of their class, asteroid (234) Barbara, are characterized by anomalous polarimetric properties. They exhibit a so-called ''negative polarization branch'' which is much wider than usual. This behavior is strikingly different with respect to that exhibited by the vast majority of asteroids. Barbarians are relatively rare. Before the results of the investigation described in this work, only 6 Barbarians were known to exist. A couple of them (980 Anacostia and 387 Aquitania) were known to be within or very close to the Watsonia dynamical family, thought to consist of fragments coming from the collisional disruption of a high-inclination parent body (Novakovic et al., 2011). We have therefore carried out a campaign of spectroscopic observations of members of the Watsonia family using the ESO VLT. The results are striking: 7 out of 9 targets have been found to be Barbarians. This result not only more than doubles the inventory of known Barbarians, but it shows that the Barbarian behavior is due to properties which are not simply due to mere surface properties, but characterize also the overall composition of the interior of the bodies. In this respect, the fact that a number of Barbarians have been found to have also anomalous abundances of the spinel mineral on their surfaces opens exciting lines of investigation, since it is possible that these asteroids could be extremely primitive. Their rarity remains also to be explained.

  4. Work-family harmony

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari,Pralhad

    2018-01-01

    The phenomenon of positively thinking about work and organization during the family hours by a worker is called work-family harmony. On the fag opposite of work-family conflict is work-family harmony. The work extends/intrudes into the family life of the worker, but in a positive way. This kind of positive thinking about the organization helps person's subjective well-being grow and his mental health is also nourished.

  5. Family emotional expressiveness and family structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čotar-Konrad Sonja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper scrutinizes the relationship between family emotional expressiveness (i.e., the tendency to express dominant and/or submissive positive and negative emotions and components of family structure as proposed in Olson’s Circumplex model (i.e., cohesion and flexibility, family communication, and satisfaction in families with adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample of 514 Slovenian adolescents, who filled out two questionnaires: the Slovenian version of Family Emotional Expressiveness - FEQ and FACES IV. The results revealed that all four basic dimensions of family functioning were significantly associated with higher/more frequent expressions of positive submissive emotions, as well as with lower/less frequent expressions of negative dominant emotions. Moreover, expressions of negative submissive emotions explained a small, but significant amount of variance in three out of four family functioning variables (satisfaction, flexibility, and communication. The importance of particular aspects of emotional expressiveness for family cohesion, flexibility, communication, and satisfaction is discussed, and the relevance of present findings for family counselling is outlined.

  6. Nontraditional family romance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, K

    2001-07-01

    Family stories lie at the heart of psychoanalytic developmental theory and psychoanalytic clinical technique, but whose family? Increasingly, lesbian and gay families, multiparent families, and single-parent families are relying on modern reproductive technologies to form families. The contemplation of these nontraditional families and the vicissitudes of contemporary reproduction lead to an unknowing of what families are, including the ways in which psychoanalysts configure the family within developmental theory. This article focuses on the stories that families tell in order to account for their formation--stories that include narratives about parental union, parental sexuality, and conception. The author addresses three constructs that inform family stories and that require rethinking in light of the category crises posed by and for the nontraditional family: (1) normative logic, (2) family reverie and the construction of a family romance, and (3) the primal scene. These constructs are examined in tandem with detailed clinical material taken from the psychotherapy of a seven-year-old boy and his two mothers.

  7. Trends in family tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike A. Schänzel

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Families represent a large and growing market for the tourism industry. Family tourism is driven by the increasing importance placed on promoting family togetherness, keeping family bonds alive and creating family memories. Predictions for the future of family travel are shaped by changes in demography and social structures. With global mobility families are increasingly geographically dispersed and new family markets are emerging. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the trends that shape the understanding of families and family tourism. Design/methodology/approach – This paper examines ten trends that the authors as experts in the field identify of importance and significance for the future of family tourism. Findings – What emerges is that the future of family tourism lies in capturing the increasing heterogeneity, fluidity and mobility of the family market. Originality/value – The paper contributes to the understanding about the changes taking place in family tourism and what it means to the tourism industry in the future.

  8. Strengthening Family Practices for Latino Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Karen G.; Negroni, Lirio K.; Hesselbrock, Michie N.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a culturally adapted Strengthening Families Program (SFP) for Latinos to reduce risks for alcohol and drug use in children. Latino families, predominantly Puerto Rican, with a 9- to 12-year-old child and a parent(s) with a substance abuse problem participated in the study. Pre- and post-tests were conducted…

  9. Intra-family messaging with family circles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schatorjé, R.J.W.; Markopoulos, P.; Neustaedter, C.; Harrison, S.; Sellen, A.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter makes the argument that intra-family communication is not an issue of connectivity anytime anywhere, but of providing communication media that are flexible and expressive allowing families to appropriate them and fit their own idiosyncratic ways of communicating with each other. We

  10. Family Therapy for the "Truncated" Nuclear Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Gerald H.

    1980-01-01

    The truncated nuclear family consists of a two-generation group in which conflict has produced a polarization of values. The single-parent family is at special risk. Go-between process enables the therapist to depolarize sharply conflicted values and reduce pathogenic relating. (Author)

  11. Loosely coupled class families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    2001-01-01

    are expressed using virtual classes seem to be very tightly coupled internally. While clients have achieved the freedom to dynamically use one or the other family, it seems that any given family contains a xed set of classes and we will need to create an entire family of its own just in order to replace one...... of the members with another class. This paper shows how to express class families in such a manner that the classes in these families can be used in many dierent combinations, still enabling family polymorphism and ensuring type safety....

  12. Pan-Gondwanaland post-collisional extension marked by 650 500 Ma alkaline rocks and carbonatites and related detrital zircons: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veevers, J. J.

    2007-07-01

    Pan-Gondwanaland (650-500 Ma) tectonics is dominated by transcurrent motions driven by post-collisional oblique stresses. Extension is commonly marked by the intrusion of alkaline rocks, in particular A-type granite, nepheline syenite, and carbonatites (ARCs), during or after collision, as well as by field studies. ARCs of this age are common in Africa, South America, India, Antarctica, and Australia, and are indicated by related detrital zircons of 650-500 Ma age in Permian-Triassic and younger sediments from Australia, Antarctica, southern Africa, and India. Structural studies suggest that ARCs fill openings at releasing bends along transcurrent fractures and during reversal of the sense of motion as well as during relaxation of stress after collision. On the Paleo-Pacific margin, 550-500 Ma ARCs of the Koettlitz Glacier Alkaline Province were emplaced syn-tectonically within the Ross orogen during oblique subduction. The concentration of ARC magmas emplaced during the amalgamation of Gondwanaland is correlated with the transtension generated by the 650-570 Ma oblique subduction between Avalonia-Cadomia and the West African craton, and the 550-490 Ma oblique subduction of the Paleo-Pacific underneath Antarctica. In the Eastern Ghats and the Prince Charles Mountains of East Antarctica, ARCs and related zircons were generated 1000-900 Ma during an earlier continental collision.

  13. The application of "double isolation" in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry to remove labile isobaric impurities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Paul J; Lopes, Norberto P; Pinto, Emani; Colepicolo, Pio; Cardozo, Karina H M

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the application of "double isolation" in sustained off-resonance irradiation collisionally-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrometry (SORI-CID-MS/MS) to remove radio- frequency (RF) fragment ions of very close mass isobaric ions (0.02 m/z apart). Analyses were performed with a fraction of a biological extract isolated from a macroalgae containing the mycosporine-like amino acid asterina-330. Direct isolation of the precursor ion by narrowing the isolation window proved ineffective as it impinged upon the required ion thus substantially reducing its intensity. By increasing the correlated sweep time, ejection efficiency of the isolation was improved, but caused the unwanted side-effect of RF fragmentation of labile ions. Finally, by skipping the ion activation step and performing a second isolation (in the MS(3) module) the RF fragments from the first isolation were removed leaving a very pure isolation of the required precursor ion and allowed a very clean CID fragmentation. We demonstrated that the m/z 272.1351 ion is derived from the loss of NH(3) from m/z 289.1620 isobaric impurity and is not related to asterina-330. This application represents a powerful tool to remove unwanted ions in the MS/MS spectrum that result from fragmentation of isobaric ions.

  14. Cross sections for the vibrational excitation of the H2 X 1Σ+g(v) levels generated by electron collisional excitation of the higher singlet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiskes, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    The excitation cross sections, σ(v,v double-prime), for an H 2 molecule initially in any one of the 15 vibrational levels, v belonging to the ground electronic state and excited to a final vibrational level, v double-prime are evaluated for direct excitations via all members of the excited electronic singlet spectrum. Account is taken of predissociation, autoionization, and radiative decay of the excited electronic spectrum that leads to a final population distribution for the ground electronic state, X 1 Σ + g (v double-prime). For v=0, account is taken explicitly of transitions via the B, C, B', and D electronic states in evaluating the cross sections. The additional contribution of excitations via all Rydberg states lying above the D state enhances these cross sections by approximately 10%. For v>0, cross sections are evaluated taking explicit account of transitions through the B and C states; higher singlet excitations enhance these values by 25%. The choice of the reference total cross sections remains a subjective one, causing the values calculated here to have a possible uncertainty of +20% -30% . For excitations occurring within a hydrogen discharge, collisional excitation-ionization events among the intermediate singlet states will effectively quench the v, v double-prime excitation process for discharge densities in excess of the range 10 15 --10 16 electrons/cm -3

  15. Maxima and minima of the orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p+-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon Jung-Sik; Jung Young-Dae

    1999-01-01

    Orientation phenomena for direct 1s→2p +-1 electron-ion collisional excitations in weakly coupled plasma are investigated using the semiclassical trajectory method including the close-encounter effects. In weakly coupled plasmas, the electron-ion interaction potential is given by the classical nonspherical Debye-Hueckel model. The semiclassical screened hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method is applied to describe the motion of the projectile electron in order to investigate the variation of the orientation parameter as a function of the impact parameter, projectile energy, and Debye length. A comparison is also given for the hyperbolic-orbit and straight-line trajectory methods. The results show that the orientation parameters obtained by the hyperbolic-orbit trajectory method have maxima and minima for small impact parameter regions. In other words, there are complete 1s→2p +1 (maxima) and complete 1s→2p -1 (minima) transitions for certain impact parameters. These maxima cannot be found using the straight-line trajectory method. The variation of the propensity of the 1s→2p -1 transitions due to the plasma screening effects on the atomic wave functions is also discussed

  16. Radiative lifetimes and two-body collisional deactivation rate constants in argon for Kr(4p 55p) and Kr(4p 55p') states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, R.S.F.; Horiguchi, H.; Setser, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes and collisional deactivation rate constants, in argon, of eight Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 1/2/]5p and [ 2 P/sub 3/2/]5p) levels have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in a flowing afterglow apparatus. The measured radiative lifetimes are compared with other experimental values and with theoretical calculations. Radiative branching ratios of these excited states also were measured in order to assign the absolute transition probabilities of the Kr(5p,5p'--5s, 5s') transition array from the radiative lifetimes. In addition to the total deactivation rate constants, product states from two-body collisions between Kr(5p and 5p') atoms and ground state argon atoms were identified from the laser-induced emission spectra, and product formation rate constants were assigned. Two-body intermultiplet transfer from Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 1/2/]5p) to the Kr(4p 5 [ 2 P/sub 3/2/]4d) levels occurs with ease. Intermultiplet transfer from the lowest level in the (4p 5 5p) configuration to the Kr(4p 5 5s and 5s') manifold was fast despite the large energy defect. However, this was the only Kr(5p) level that gave appreciable transfer to the Kr(5s or 5s') manifold. Generally the favored product states are within a few kT of the entrance channel

  17. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of N{sub 2}H{sup +} by H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spielfiedel, Annie; Balança, Christian; Feautrier, Nicole, E-mail: nicole.feautrier@obspm.fr [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS-UMR 8112, F-92195 Meudon (France); Senent, Maria Luisa [Departamento de Química y Física Teóricas, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, Madrid 28006 (Spain); Kalugina, Yulia [LOMC—UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France); Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Scribano, Yohann [LUPM—UMR 5299, CNRS-Université de Montpellier, Place Eugene Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex (France); Lique, François, E-mail: francois.lique@univ-lehavre.fr [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS-UMR 8112, F-92195 Meudon (France); LOMC—UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 1123, 76063 Le Havre (France)

    2015-07-14

    We compute a new potential energy surface (PES) for the study of the inelastic collisions between N{sub 2}H{sup +} and H{sub 2} molecules. A preliminary study of the reactivity of N{sub 2}H{sup +} with H{sub 2} shows that neglecting reactive channels in collisional excitation studies is certainly valid at low temperatures. The four dimensional (4D) N{sub 2}H{sup +}–H{sub 2} PES is obtained from electronic structure calculations using the coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitation level of theory. The atoms are described by the augmented correlation consistent triple zeta basis set. Both molecules were treated as rigid rotors. The potential energy surface exhibits a well depth of ≃2530 cm{sup −1}. Considering this very deep well, it appears that converged scattering calculations that take into account the rotational structure of both N{sub 2}H{sup +} and H{sub 2} should be very difficult to carry out. To overcome this difficulty, the “adiabatic-hindered-rotor” treatment, which allows para-H{sub 2}(j = 0) to be treated as if it were spherical, was used in order to reduce the scattering calculations to a 2D problem. The validity of this approach is checked and we find that cross sections and rate coefficients computed from the adiabatic reduced surface are in very good agreement with the full 4D calculations.

  18. A new ab initio potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of HCN by para- and ortho-H{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denis-Alpizar, Otoniel, E-mail: otonieldenisalpizar@gmail.com [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, CNRS UMR 5255, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 (Cuba); Kalugina, Yulia [LOMC - UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 540, 76058, Le Havre (France); Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, Tomsk State University, 36 Lenin av., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Stoecklin, Thierry [Université de Bordeaux, ISM, CNRS UMR 5255, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); Vera, Mario Hernández [LOMC - UMR 6294, CNRS-Université du Havre, 25 rue Philippe Lebon, BP 540, 76058, Le Havre (France); Instituto Superior de Tecnologías y Ciencias Aplicadas, Quinta de Los Molinos, Plaza, La Habana 10600 (Cuba); Lique, François, E-mail: francois.lique@univ-lehavre.fr [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Matanzas, Matanzas 40100 (Cuba)

    2013-12-14

    We present a new four-dimensional potential energy surface for the collisional excitation of HCN by H{sub 2}. Ab initio calculations of the HCN–H{sub 2} van der Waals complex, considering both molecules as rigid rotors, were carried out at the explicitly correlated coupled cluster with single, double, and perturbative triple excitations [CCSD(T)-F12a] level of theory using an augmented correlation-consistent triple zeta (aVTZ) basis set. The equilibrium structure is linear HCN–H{sub 2} with the nitrogen pointing towards H{sub 2} at an intermolecular separation of 7.20 a{sub 0}. The corresponding well depth is −195.20 cm{sup −1}. A secondary minimum of −183.59 cm{sup −1} was found for a T-shape configuration with the H of HCN pointing to the center of mass of H{sub 2}. We also determine the rovibrational energy levels of the HCN–para-H{sub 2} and HCN–ortho-H{sub 2} complexes. The calculated dissociation energies for the para and ortho complexes are 37.79 cm{sup −1} and 60.26 cm{sup −1}, respectively. The calculated ro-vibrational transitions in the HCN–H{sub 2} complex are found to agree by more than 0.5% with the available experimental data, confirming the accuracy of the potential energy surface.

  19. Les granitoïdes hercyniens post-collisionnels du Maroc oriental : une province magmatique calco-alcaline à shoshonitiqueThe post-collisional Hercynian granitoids from eastern Morocco: a calc-alkaline to shoshonitic magmatic province

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hadi, Hassan; Tahiri, Abdelfatah; Reddad, Aicha

    2003-11-01

    The post-collisional Hercynian granitoids crop out in the easternmost part of the Moroccan Hercynian belt. Petrographical and geochemical studies show a composition similarity in the various granitoids. The granitoids belong to per-aluminous and metaluminous magmatic associations. They have evolved according to a scheme similar to high-K calc-alkaline to shoshonitic associations. To cite this article: H. El Hadi et al., C. R. Geoscience 335 (2003).

  20. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Treatment Of MSUD The MSUD Family Support Group has provided funds to Buck Institute for its ... of the membership of the MSUD Family Support Group, research for improved treatments and potential cure was ...

  1. National Military Family Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MilitaryFamily.org © 2017 - National Military Family Association Twitter Facebook Pinterest Instagram Charity Navigator Four Star Charity GuideStar Exchange Better Business Bureau Charity Watch Independent Charity of America nonprofit ...

  2. IGSF9 Family Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Maria; Walmod, Peter Schledermann

    2013-01-01

    The Drosophila protein Turtle and the vertebrate proteins immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF), member 9 (IGSF9/Dasm1) and IGSF9B are members of an evolutionarily ancient protein family. A bioinformatics analysis of the protein family revealed that invertebrates contain only a single IGSF9 family gene......, the longest isoforms of the proteins have the same general organization as the neural cell adhesion molecule family of cell adhesion molecule proteins, and like this family of proteins, IGSF9 family members are expressed in the nervous system. A review of the literature revealed that Drosophila Turtle...... facilitates homophilic cell adhesion. Moreover, IGSF9 family proteins have been implicated in the outgrowth and branching of neurites, axon guidance, synapse maturation, self-avoidance, and tiling. However, despite the few published studies on IGSF9 family proteins, reports on the functions of both Turtle...

  3. Family Caregiver Alliance

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on your schedule. Look for our launch soon! FAMILY CARE NAVIGATOR ─ Click on Your State AL AK ... AiA18 Smart Patients Caregivers Community In partnership with Family Caregiver Alliance Learn more Caregiver Research Studies show ...

  4. Resilience of refugee families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batić Dragana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study attempted to find a correlation between the trauma of family members of war and exile, and the characteristics of family functioning and lasted from 1992-1995. The term “family resilience” refers to the processes of adaptation and coping in the family as a functional unit. This paper presents a study of refugee families from Bosnia, who lived in refugee camps in Macedonia during the war of 1992- 1995. Data were obtained by interviews, observations, and a number of psychological instruments especially for children and parents, which measured the effects of psychological stress and family relationships. Based on the results obtained by quantitative and qualitative analysis, and application of theoretical models of systemic theory and family therapy, existence for four types of refugee families has been found and described, depending on the structure and the level of functionality.

  5. Unique Family Living Situations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Yet, what if the family home changes for reasons of divorce, death, or economics? Factors, such as shifting between ... for a child of any age. If the reason is due to divorce, work together as a family (both parents and ...

  6. Xeroderma Pigmentosum - A Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garg Anush

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A family of xeroderma pigmentosum is reported. Four children of different ages were afflicted with varying clinical presentation. Sequential development and progression of the disease from freckling to malignancy within the family are discussed.

  7. Essays on Family Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Haoyong

    2012-01-01

    The dissertation examines corporate performance and capital structure of family firms, contributing to the limited empirical research on family firms. Family firms are prevalent in national economies all over the world. It is the prevalence that makes family firms receive increasing attentions from academia. The dissertation consists of an introduction and three chapters. Each chapter is an independent paper. The first chapter is a joint work with Professor Morten Bennedsen and...

  8. Family Obligations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Nielsen, Inger

    How is the balance in obligations between the Family and the Danish Welfare State? Can we observe a trend to shift the responsibility back to the family? This booklet intends to sketch the legal framework around the division of responsibilities between the Family and the state and to analyse...... to what extent and where the unit of rights and obliagations is the individual and where it is the family or household....

  9. Genetics of familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however...

  10. Family Counseling Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levant, Ronald F., ed.

    1983-01-01

    Describes programs for family counseling which use psychological-educational and skills training methods to remediate individual and family problems or enhance family life. The six articles discuss client-centered skills training, behavioral approaches, cognitive behavioral marital therapy, Adlerian parent education, and couple communication. (JAC)

  11. Year of the Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Agriculture, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This special issue focuses on problems and challenges confronting the California family and on research and extension efforts to provide at least partial answers. Research briefs by staff include "Challenges Confront the California Family" (state trends in poverty, divorce, single-parent families, child abuse, delinquency, teen births,…

  12. Rethinking Family Power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranichfeld, Marion L.

    1987-01-01

    Men's power is emphasized in the family power literature on marital decision making. Little attention has been paid to women's power, accrued through their deeper embeddedness in intrafamilial roles. Micro-level analysis of family power demonstrates that women's positions in the family power structure rest not on the horizontal marital tie but…

  13. Disrupted Refugee Family Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Ditte Krogh

    2017-01-01

    Fleeing civil war involves managing life threatening events and multiple disruptions of everyday life. The theoretical potentials of analysing the recreation of everyday family life among Syrian refugees in Denmark is explored based on conceptualizations that emphasize the collective agency...... of family members in social historical contexts. Studying the multiple perspectives of family members shows how social support conceptualized as care practises is conflictual in the changing everyday family practices that are transformed by policy. The purpose of studying how families manage to flee civil...... war and struggle to recreate an everyday life in exile is to contribute with contextualization and expansion of mainstream understandings of family life, suffering, and resilience in refugee family trajectories in multiple contexts....

  14. Inside the Family Firm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Morten; Nielsen, Kasper; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a unique dataset from Denmark to investigate (1) the role of family characteristics in corporate decision making, and (2) the consequences of these decisions on firm performance. We focus on the decision to appoint either a family or an external chief executive officer (CEO). We...... show that a departing CEO's family characteristics have a strong predictive power in explaining CEO succession decisions: family CEOs are more frequently selected the larger the size of the family, the higher the ratio of male children and when the departing CEOs had only had one spouse. We...... then analyze the impact of family successions on performance. We overcome endogeneity and omitted variables problems of previous papers in the literature by using the gender of a departing CEO's first-born child as an instrumental variable (IV) for family successions. This is a plausible IV as male first...

  15. Multiplex families with epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afawi, Zaid; Oliver, Karen L.; Kivity, Sara; Mazarib, Aziz; Blatt, Ilan; Neufeld, Miriam Y.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Goldberg-Stern, Hadassa; Misk, Adel J.; Straussberg, Rachel; Walid, Simri; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Lerman-Sagie, Tally; Ben-Zeev, Bruria; Kahana, Esther; Masalha, Rafik; Kramer, Uri; Ekstein, Dana; Shorer, Zamir; Wallace, Robyn H.; Mangelsdorf, Marie; MacPherson, James N.; Carvill, Gemma L.; Mefford, Heather C.; Jackson, Graeme D.; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Bahlo, Melanie; Gecz, Jozef; Heron, Sarah E.; Corbett, Mark; Mulley, John C.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Korczyn, Amos D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the clinical syndromes and inheritance patterns of multiplex families with epilepsy toward the ultimate aim of uncovering the underlying molecular genetic basis. Methods: Following the referral of families with 2 or more relatives with epilepsy, individuals were classified into epilepsy syndromes. Families were classified into syndromes where at least 2 family members had a specific diagnosis. Pedigrees were analyzed and molecular genetic studies were performed as appropriate. Results: A total of 211 families were ascertained over an 11-year period in Israel. A total of 169 were classified into broad familial epilepsy syndrome groups: 61 generalized, 22 focal, 24 febrile seizure syndromes, 33 special syndromes, and 29 mixed. A total of 42 families remained unclassified. Pathogenic variants were identified in 49/211 families (23%). The majority were found in established epilepsy genes (e.g., SCN1A, KCNQ2, CSTB), but in 11 families, this cohort contributed to the initial discovery (e.g., KCNT1, PCDH19, TBC1D24). We expand the phenotypic spectrum of established epilepsy genes by reporting a familial LAMC3 homozygous variant, where the predominant phenotype was epilepsy with myoclonic-atonic seizures, and a pathogenic SCN1A variant in a family where in 5 siblings the phenotype was broadly consistent with Dravet syndrome, a disorder that usually occurs sporadically. Conclusion: A total of 80% of families were successfully classified, with pathogenic variants identified in 23%. The successful characterization of familial electroclinical and inheritance patterns has highlighted the value of studying multiplex families and their contribution towards uncovering the genetic basis of the epilepsies. PMID:26802095

  16. Exogenous origin of hydration on asteroid (16) Psyche: the role of hydrated asteroid families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdellidou, C.; Delbo', M.; Fienga, A.

    2018-04-01

    Asteroid (16) Psyche, which for a long time was the largest M-type with no detection of hydration features in its spectrum, was recently discovered to have a weak 3-μm band and thus it was eventually added to the group of hydrated asteroids. Its relatively high density, in combination with the high radar albedo, led researchers to classify the asteroid as a metallic object. It is believed that it is possibly a core of a differentiated body, a remnant of `hit-and-run' collisions. The detection of hydration is, in principle, inconsistent with a pure metallic origin for this body. Here, we consider the scenario in which the hydration on its surface is exogenous and was delivered by hydrated impactors. We show that impacting asteroids that belong to families whose members have the 3-μm band can deliver hydrated material to Psyche. We developed a collisional model with which we test all dark carbonaceous asteroid families, which contain hydrated members. We find that the major source of hydrated impactors is the family of Themis, with a total implanted mass on Psyche of the order of ˜1014 kg. However, the hydrated fraction could be only a few per cent of the implanted mass, as the water content in carbonaceous chondrite meteorites, the best analogue for the Themis asteroid family, is typically a few per cent of their mass.

  17. Family governance practices and teambuilding : Paradox of the enterprising family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berent-Braun, M.M.; Uhlaner, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between family governance practices and financial performance of the business and family assets of business-owning families. A business-owning family that shares a focus on preserving and growing wealth as a family is defined as the enterprising family. Results

  18. [Family therapy of encopresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitczok von Brisinski, Ingo; Lüttger, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Encopresis is a taboo symptom, which is connected with great suffering from mental pressure not only for the children concerned, but also their relatives. Family related approaches are indispensable to understand encopresis, because as a result of high symptom persistence and psychological comorbidity in many cases a purely behavior-therapeutic, symptom focused approach is not sufficient, and further psychotherapeutic interventions are necessary. There is a strong temporal correlation between family interaction and frequency of soiling and changes of interaction influence changes in soiling more than the other way round. In a literature review different family relationship patterns and approaches of family therapy are represented regarding encopresis. Meaningful differences for family therapy are represented regarding primary/secondary encopresis, encopresis with/without comorbid psychiatric disorder as well as encopresis with/without dysfunctional family interaction. Distinctions are made between symptom focused, not-symptom focused and combined family therapeutic approaches, which are illustrated with case examples of outpatient and inpatient treatment. Symptom focused family therapy like e.g. externalizing of the soiling is helpful also if no dysfunctional family interaction patterns are present, because all family members can contribute to treatment success according to their own resources.

  19. Extended family medicine training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Steve; Ross, Shelley; Lawrence, Kathrine; Archibald, Douglas; Mackay, Maria Palacios; Oandasan, Ivy F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine trends in family medicine training at a time when substantial pedagogic change is under way, focusing on factors that relate to extended family medicine training. Design Aggregate-level secondary data analysis based on the Canadian Post-MD Education Registry. Setting Canada. Participants All Canadian citizens and permanent residents who were registered in postgraduate family medicine training programs within Canadian faculties of medicine from 1995 to 2013. Main outcome measures Number and proportion of family medicine residents exiting 2-year and extended (third-year and above) family medicine training programs, as well as the types and numbers of extended training programs offered in 2015. Results The proportion of family medicine trainees pursuing extended training almost doubled during the study period, going from 10.9% in 1995 to 21.1% in 2013. Men and Canadian medical graduates were more likely to take extended family medicine training. Among the 5 most recent family medicine exit cohorts (from 2009 to 2013), 25.9% of men completed extended training programs compared with 18.3% of women, and 23.1% of Canadian medical graduates completed extended training compared with 13.6% of international medical graduates. Family medicine programs vary substantially with respect to the proportion of their trainees who undertake extended training, ranging from a low of 12.3% to a high of 35.1% among trainees exiting from 2011 to 2013. Conclusion New initiatives, such as the Triple C Competency-based Curriculum, CanMEDS–Family Medicine, and Certificates of Added Competence, have emerged as part of family medicine education and credentialing. In acknowledgment of the potential effect of these initiatives, it is important that future research examine how pedagogic change and, in particular, extended training shapes the care family physicians offer their patients. As part of that research it will be important to measure the breadth and uptake of

  20. Ar-Ar dating and petrogenesis of the Early Miocene Taşkapı-Mecitli (Erciş-Van) granitoid, Eastern Anatolia Collisional Zone, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyan, Vural

    2018-06-01

    The Early Miocene Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid that is located in the northern section of the Eastern Anatolia Collision Zone has typical I-type, metaluminous and calk-alkaline characteristics. It also contains mafic microgranular / magmatic enclaves (MMEs). New Ar-Ar dating results show that the age of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid is ∼23 Ma and it crystallised in the Early Miocene, in contrast to its previously known Cretaceous age. Identical crystallisation ages (∼23 Ma), similar mineral assemblages and geochemical compositions, and indistinguishable isotopic compositions of MMEs and host rocks imply that the MMEs are most consistent with a cumulate origin formed at earlier stages of the same magmatic system that produced the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid. MELTS modelling suggests that magma of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid was the result of fractionation under a crustal pressure of 4 kbar, with a H2O content of 1.5%. EC-AFC model calculation reveals that the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid includes from 0.5% to 2% crustal assimilation rates. These rates indicate that crustal contamination can be negligible when compared to fractional crystallisation in the evolution of the magma beneath the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid. The partial melting model calculations and MORB-normalised trace element concentrations of the least evolved samples of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid are consistent with those of mafic melts obtained from partial melting of interacting mantle- lower crust with a melting degree of 18%. The age (23 Ma) of the post- or syn-collisional Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid suggests that the collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates could be before/around ∼23 Ma (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene).

  1. Structural characterization of saturated branched chain fatty acid methyl esters by collisional dissociation of molecular ions generated by electron ionization[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran-Ressler, Rinat R.; Lawrence, Peter; Brenna, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) are present as complex mixtures in numerous biological samples. The traditional method for structure elucidation, electron ionization (EI) mass spectrometry, sometimes does not unambiguously enable assignment of branching in isomeric BCFA. Zirrolli and Murphy (Zirrolli , J. A. , and R. A. Murphy. 1993. Low-energy tandem mass spectrometry of the molecular ion derived from fatty acid methyl esters: a novel method for analysis of branched-chain fatty acids. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 4: 223–229.) showed that the molecular ions of four BCFA methyl ester (BCFAME) yield highly characteristic fragments upon collisional dissociation using a triple quadrupole instrument. Here, we confirm and extend these results by analysis using a tabletop 3-D ion trap for activated molecular ion EI-MS/MS to 30 BCFAME. iso-BCFAME produces a prominent ion (30-100% of base peak) for [M-43] (M-C3H7), corresponding to the terminal isopropyl moiety in the original iso-BCFAME. Anteiso-FAME yield prominent ions (20-100% of base peak) corresponding to losses on both side of the methyl branch, [M-29] and [M-57], and tend to produce more prominent m/z 115 peaks corresponding to a cyclization product around the ester. Dimethyl and tetramethyl FAME, with branches separated by at least one methylene group, yield fragment on both sides of the sites of methyl branches that are more than 6 C away from the carboxyl carbon. EI-MS/MS yields uniquely specific ions that enable highly confident structural identification and quantification of BCFAME. PMID:22021637

  2. Collisional energy transfer between highly excited vibrational levels of K2 (11Σu+, V=46∼61) and H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Liping; Cai Qin; Luan Nannan; Dai Kang; Shen Yifan

    2011-01-01

    Using the CARS (Coherent Anti-stokes Raman Spectroscopy) detection technique, the electronic-to-rovibrational levels energy transfer between electronically excited K 2 (which is in the state of 1 1 ∑ u + , V=46∼61) and H 2 has been investigated. The scanned CARS spectra reveals that H 2 molecules are produced only at the V=1, J=2 and V=2, J=0, 1, 2 rovibrational levels during energy transfer processes. From scanned CARS spectral peaks the population ratios are obtained. The n 1 /n 4 9 n 2 /n 4 , and n 3 /n 4 are 3.3±0.5, 2.2±0.3 and 2.0±0.3, respectively, where n 1 , n 2 , n 3 and n 4 represent the number densities of H 2 at rovibrational levels (2, 0), (2, 1), (2, 2) and (1, 2), respectively. The population ratios indicate that the H 2 molecules produced by the energy transfer process are 88% populated at the V=2 level and 12% at V=1. The relative fractions (, , ) of average energy disposal are derived as (0.53, 0.01, 0.46), having major vibrational and translational energy release. Through simple kinetic model at the experimental conditions of T=573 K and P(H 2 ) =5 X 10 3 Pa, collisional transfer rate coefficients k 12 =(3.3±0.7) X 10 -14 and k 2 =(1.4±0.3) X 10 -14 cm 3 s -1 have been obtained. (authors)

  3. Electronic-state distribution of Ar* produced from Ar+(2P3/2)/2e- collisional radiative recombination in an argon flowing afterglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Masaharu; Matsuzaki, Toshinori; Tsuji, Takeshi

    2002-01-01

    The Ar + /2e - collisional radiative recombination has been studied by observing UV and visible emissions of Ar* in an Ar flowing afterglow. In order to clarify recombination mechanism, the Ar + ( 2 P 3/2 ) spin-orbit component was selected by using a filter gas of the Ar + ( 2 P 1/2 ) component. Spectral analysis indicated that 34 Ar*(4p, 4d, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 6d, 4p ' , 4d ' , 5p ' , 5d ' , 6s ' ) states in the 13.08-15.33 eV range are produced. The electronic-state distribution decreased with an increase in the excitation energy of Ar*, which was expressed by a Boltzmann electronic temperature of 0.54 eV. The formation ratios of the 4p: 4d + 5p + 5d + 6s + 6p + 6d: 4p ' : 4d ' + 5p ' + 5d ' + 6s ' states were 43%, 2.8%, 54%, and 0.31%, respectively. The high formation ratio of the 4p ' state having an Ar + ( 2 P 1/2 ) ion core in the Ar + ( 2 P 3/2 )/2e - recombination indicated that such a two-electron process as an electron transfer to an inner 3p orbital followed by excitation of a 3p electron to an outer 4p orbital occurs significantly. The higher formation ratios of 4d + 5p + 5d + 6s + 6p + 6d than those of 4d ' + 5p ' + 5d ' + 6s ' led us to conclude the formation of these upper states dominantly proceeds through one electron transfer to an outer nl orbital of Ar + ( 2 P 3/2 )

  4. Internationalization of Family Businesses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Hollensen, Svend; Goto, Toshio

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the international joint venture formation process of family businesses. The reasoning behind Danfoss’ decision to cooperate with two competing family businesses in Japan and China as well as two nonfamily businesses in Canada and Britain will be analysed. In......-depth qualitative interviews reveal the driving forces on both sides and show how the psychic distance can be reduced between the different parent firms including the joint venture (JV) child. The purpose of this study is to compare equal split or equity joint ventures of non-family and family firms regarding...... the formation process including competences and cultures. The study indicates what core competences of a family business matter when cooperating in equal split joint ventures. Implications for family business owners and ideas for future research are discussed....

  5. Advancing family psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiese, Barbara H

    2016-02-01

    To realize the broad and complex nature of the field of family psychology, I have slightly revised the mission statement of the Journal of Family Psychology (JFP) to capture contemporary scholarship in family psychology and to advance systems perspectives in this top-tier scientific journal. Over the next 6 years, I hope that authors will consider JFP as an outlet for their best work in the following areas: (1) JFP addresses societal challenges faced by families today; (2) JFP publishes important studies on what makes couple and family relationships work; (3) JFP is a leader in publishing reports that use cutting-edge sophisticated approaches to research design and data analysis; and (4) JFP imparts knowledge about effective therapy and prevention programs relevant to couples and families. The journal is also expanding its publication rate to eight issues per year. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  7. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  8. The DLGAP family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Andreas H; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Silahtaroglu, Asli

    2017-01-01

    downstream signalling in the neuron. The postsynaptic density, a highly specialized matrix, which is attached to the postsynaptic membrane, controls this downstream signalling. The postsynaptic density also resets the synapse after each synaptic firing. It is composed of numerous proteins including a family...... in the postsynapse, the DLGAP family seems to play a vital role in synaptic scaling by regulating the turnover of both ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptors in response to synaptic activity. DLGAP family has been directly linked to a variety of psychological and neurological disorders. In this review we...... focus on the direct and indirect role of DLGAP family on schizophrenia as well as other brain diseases....

  9. Life in Remarriage Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Ann Sale; And Others

    1987-01-01

    In preliminary findings from research interviews with nonclinical remarriage families who were not receiving treatment, both marital satisfaction and children's adjustment were described in primarily positive terms, especially after the first few years. Families reported that the process of managing complexities, uncertainties, and mixed feelings…

  10. Family Open House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search Family Open House Join us for an afternoon of science fun. The Fermilab Family Open House is a party for children of all ages to learn about the world of physics. The Open House is supported by Open House? Check out our YouTube video to learn more! Explore physics concepts with hands-on

  11. Family Support and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lou Ann

    2013-01-01

    Family involvement is essential to the developmental outcome of infants born into Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). In this article, evidence has been presented on the parent's perspective of having an infant in the NICU and the context of family. Key points to an educational assessment are also reviewed. Throughout, the parent's concerns and…

  12. Changing Families, Changing Workplaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    American families and workplaces have both changed dramatically over the past half-century. Paid work by women has increased sharply, as has family instability. Education-related inequality in work hours and income has grown. These changes, says Suzanne Bianchi, pose differing work-life issues for parents at different points along the income…

  13. Family Perspectives on Prematurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero to Three (J), 2003

    2003-01-01

    In this article, seven families describe their experiences giving birth to and raising a premature baby. Their perspectives vary, one from another, and shift over time, depending on each family's circumstances and the baby's developmental course. Experiences discussed include premature labor, medical interventions and the NICU, bringing the baby…

  14. Families Falling Apart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynihan, Daniel Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Reviews trends in Black male unemployment, out-of-wedlock births, and the number of Aid to Families with Dependent Children cases over the past 25 years. Argues that family breakdown is creating a state of urban social chaos that could lead to martial law. (FMW)

  15. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  16. Family intervention for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharoah, F M; Mari, J J; Streiner, D

    2000-01-01

    It has been showed that people with schizophrenia from families that express high levels of criticism, hostility, or over involvement, have more frequent relapses than people with similar problems from families that tend to be less expressive of their emotions. Psychosocial interventions designed to reduce these levels of expressed emotions within families now exist for mental health workers. These interventions are proposed as adjuncts rather than alternatives to drug treatments, and their main purpose is to decrease the stress within the family and also the rate of relapse. To estimate the effects of family psychosocial interventions in community settings for the care of those with schizophrenia or schizophrenia-like conditions compared to standard care. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Library (Issue 2, 1998), the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Register (June 1998), EMBASE (1981-1995) and MEDLINE (1966-1995) were undertaken and supplemented with reference searching of the identified literature. Randomised or quasi-randomised studies were selected if they focused on families of people with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and compared community-orientated family-based psychosocial intervention of more than five sessions to standard care. Data were reliably extracted, and, where appropriate and possible, summated. Peto odds ratios (OR), their 95% confidence intervals (CI) and number needed to treat (NNT) were estimated. The reviewers assume that people who died or dropped out had no improvement and tested the sensitivity of the final results to this assumption. Family intervention may decrease the frequency of relapse (one year OR 0.57 CI 0.4-0.8, NNT 6.5 CI 4-14). The trend over time of this main finding is towards the null and some small but negative studies may not have been identified by the search. Family intervention may decrease hospitalisation and encourage compliance with medication but data are few and equivocal. Family intervention does not

  17. Fighting for the family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Maj Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    ‘relational spaces’ that allow them to preserve intimate relationships despite geographical distances. Besides dealing with the practical responsibilities of everyday life, soldiers’ partners also fight to maintain the sense of closeness associated with normative ideals about family relations and a ‘good......The article explores how military deployment affects the everyday lives of Danish soldiers’ families. By approaching the challenges faced by soldiers and their partners from an anthropological perspective of the family, the article provides new insights into the social consequences of military...... deployment and the processes of militarization at home. Drawing on ethnographic examples from recent fieldwork among women, children, and soldiers at different stages of deployment, the article demonstrates how soldiers and their families attempt to live up to ideals about parenthood and family by creating...

  18. Maintenance of family networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    marsico, giuseppina; Chaudhary, N; Valsiner, Jaan

    2015-01-01

    Families are social units that expand in time (across generations) and space (as a geographically distributed sub-structures of wider kinship networks). Understanding of intergenerational family relations thus requires conceptualization of communication processes that take place within a small...... collective of persons linked with one another by a flexible social network. Within such networks, Peripheral Communication Patterns set the stage for direct everyday life activities within the family context. Peripheral Communication Patterns are conditions where one family network member (A) communicates...... manifestly with another member (B) with the aim of bringing the communicative message to the third member (C) who is present but is not explicitly designated as the manifest addressee of the intended message. Inclusion of physically non-present members of the family network (elders living elsewhere, deceased...

  19. Negotiating Family Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtslund, Anders; Bøge, Ask Risom; Sonne Damkjær, Maja

    This presentation explores the question: What motivates the use of tracking technologies in families, and how does the use transform the relations between parent and child? The purpose is to investigate why tracking technologies are used in families and how these technologies potentially change...... the relation between parents and children. The use of tracking technologies in families implicate negotiations about the boundaries of trust and intimacy in parent-child relations which can lead to strategies of resistance or modification (Fotel and Thomsen, 2004; Rooney, 2010; Steeves and Jones, 2010......). In the presentation, we report from a qualitative study that focuses on intergenerational relations. The study draws on empirical data from workshops with Danish families as well as individual and group interviews. We aim to gain insights about the sharing habits and negotiations in intimate family relations...

  20. Family Functioning and Child Psychopathology: Individual Versus Composite Family Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Jolanda J. J. P.; Koot, Hans M.; Verhulst, Frank C.; De Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Oud, Johan H. L.

    1997-01-01

    Examines the relationship of individual family members' perceptions and family mean and discrepancy scores of cohesion and adaptability with child psychopathology in a sample of 138 families. Results indicate that family mean scores, contrary to family discrepancy scores, explain more of the variance in parent-reported child psychopathology than…