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Sample records for el-sadat city egypt

  1. Characterization of the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat City by joint inversion of VES and TEM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, Usama; Kenawy, Abeer A.; Ragab, El-Said A.; Abbas, Abbas M.; El-Kosery, Heba M.

    2014-12-01

    Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) and Transient ElectroMagnetic (TEM) survey have been applied for characterizing the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat industrial area. El-Sadat city is one of the most important industrial cities in Egypt. It has been constructed more than three decades ago at about 80 km northwest of Cairo along the Cairo-Alexandria desert road. Groundwater is the main source of water supplies required for domestic, municipal and industrial activities in this area due to the lack of surface water sources. So, it is important to maintain this vital resource in order to sustain the development plans of this city. In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along 3 profiles trending NE-SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid-like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line-line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geoelectrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water-bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

  2. Production of glass-ceramic materials obtained from sewage sludge treatment plant for urban wastewater in El-Sadat city (Egypt); Materiales vitroceramicos a partir de lodos procedentes de una estacion de depuracion de aguas residuales urbanas (en la Ciudad de El-Sadat, Egipto).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valles, M.; Aly, M. H.; El-Fadaly, E.; Hafez, H. S.; Nogues, J.; Martinez, S.

    2011-07-01

    Urban wastewater security is a source of significant volumes of sludge which is to be managed. This paper presents the possibility of applying a management process based on vitrification and by which, in addition to inert contaminants in sludge, you get a ceramic material with a significant added value. As a base of different analysis of the sludges, chemical (XRF), mineralogical (XRD) and thermal (DTA-TG), we obtain the original glass composition and its energy. By DTATG, dilatometry and SEM, it was determined the temperature of maximum nucleation rate, growth temperature and the morphology and size of developed nuclei, in this case are nano scale. Briefly, it was found as the management of municipal solid waste by vitrification as an alternative to landfills and incineration. (Author)

  3. LDC nuclear power: Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selim, M.E.S.

    1982-01-01

    This chapter reviews the evolution of Egypt's nuclear program, the major factors that influenced the successive series of nuclear decisions, and the public debate over the far-reaching program attempted by the late President Anwar El-Sadat. Egypt's program is important, not only because it was the first Arab country to enter the nuclear age, but because it is an ambitious program that includes the installation of eight reactors at a time when many countries are reducing their commitment to nuclear power. Major obstacles remain in terms of human, organizational, and natural resource constraints. 68 references, 1 table

  4. Radon Measurements in underground metro stations in Cairo City, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, A.F.; Hussein, A.S.; Rasheed, N.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radon activity concentration were measured continuously during the year 1998-1999 at two different underground MERTO stations, namely, Mubarak and El-Sadat. The measurements were performed using the diffusion cups equipped with CR-39 and LR-115 polymeric nuclear track detectors. Using the experimentally measured calibration coefficients of the used detectors and the measured track densities (bare and filtered), the yearly mean radon concentration C=23 Bq m -3 , equilibrium factor F= 0,10 and effective dose E=0,06 mSv y -1 for the employed personal as well as E=5 mu Sv y -1 for the commuter were obtained

  5. Characterization of the groundwater aquifers at El Sadat City by joint inversion of VES and TEM data

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    Usama Massoud

    2014-12-01

    In this study, VES and TEM data were identically measured at 24 stations along 3 profiles trending NE–SW with the elongation of the study area. The measuring points were arranged in a grid-like pattern with both inter-station spacing and line–line distance of about 2 km. After performing the necessary processing steps, the VES and TEM data sets were inverted individually to multi-layer models, followed by a joint inversion of both data sets. Joint inversion process has succeeded to overcome the model-equivalence problem encountered in the inversion of individual data set. Then, the joint models were used for the construction of a number of cross sections and contour maps showing the lateral and vertical distribution of the geoelectrical parameters in the subsurface medium. Interpretation of the obtained results and correlation with the available geological and hydrogeological information revealed TWO aquifer systems in the area. The shallow Pleistocene aquifer consists of sand and gravel saturated with fresh water and exhibits large thickness exceeding 200 m. The deep Pliocene aquifer is composed of clay and sand and shows low resistivity values. The water-bearing layer of the Pleistocene aquifer and the upper surface of Pliocene aquifer are continuous and no structural features have cut this continuity through the investigated area.

  6. Prevalence and Identity of Taenia multiceps cysts "Coenurus cerebralis" in Sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; ElKhatam, Ahmed; Fukuda, Yasuhiro; Bakr, Lamia I; Zidan, Shereif; Elsify, Ahmed; Mohamed, Mostafa A; Tada, Chika; Nakai, Yutaka

    2017-12-01

    Coenurosis is a parasitic disease caused by the larval stage (Coenurus cerebralis) of the canids cestode Taenia multiceps. C. cerebralis particularly infects sheep and goats, and pose a public health concerns. The present study aimed to determine the occurrence and molecular identity of C. cerebralis infecting sheep in Egypt. Infection rate was determined by postmortem inspection of heads of the cases that showed neurological manifestations. Species identification and genetic diversity were analyzed based on PCR-sequence analysis of nuclear ITS1 and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase (COI) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (ND1) gene markers. Out of 3668 animals distributed in 50 herds at localities of Ashmoun and El Sadat cities, El Menoufia Province, Egypt, 420 (11.45%) sheep showed neurological disorders. Postmortem examination of these animals after slaughter at local abattoirs indicated to occurrence of C. cerebralis cysts in the brain of 111 out of 420 (26.4%), with overall infection rate 3.03% of the involved sheep population. Molecular analysis of representative samples of coenuri at ITS1 gene marker showed extensive intra- and inter-sequence diversity due to deletions/insertions in the microsatellite regions. On contrast to the nuclear gene marker, considerably low genetic diversity was seen in the analyzed mitochondrial gene markers. Phylogenetic analysis based on COI and ND1 gene sequences indicated that the generated sequences in the present study and the reference sequences in the database clustered in 4 haplogroups, with more or less similar topologies. Clustering pattern of the phylogenetic tree showed no effect for the geographic location or the host species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Attention in this discussion of Egypt is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government and political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Egypt and the US. The population totaled 50.5 million in 1986 with an annual growth rate of 2.8%. The infant mortality rate is 102/1000 (1986), and life expectancy is 58.3 years. Located in the northeastern corner of Africa, Egypt has a land area of about 1 million square kilometers and is bounded by the Mediterranean Sea, Libya, Sudan, the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aqaba, and Israel. Egypt is the most populous country in the Arab world. Egyptians are a fairly homogenous people of Hamitic origin. Mediterranean and Arab influences appear in the north, and there is some mixing in the south with the Nubians of northern Sudan. Egypt has been a unified state for over 5000 years, and archeological evidence indicates that a developed Egyptian society has existed for considerably longer. The constitution of Egypt provides for a strong executive with authority vested in an elected president who can appoint 1 or more vice presidents, a prime minister, and a cabinet. Egypt's legislative body has 458 members -- 448 popularly elected and 10 appointed by the president. Power is concentrated in the hands of the president and the National Democratic Party's majority in the People's Assembly, but opposition parties organize, publish their views, and represent their followers at various levels in the political system. The process of gradual political liberalization begun by Sadat has continued under Mubarak. In fiscal year 1987 the gross domestic product (GDP) reached about US$30 billion. Agriculture and services each contribute about 1/3 of GDP; the remainder comes from industry, petroleum, mining, electricity, and construction. At this time, the Egyptian economy faces several challenges. In 1986 the government of Egypt initiated a major review of economic policy and initiated an economic

  8. Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book covers Egyptian history from the Predynastic to the late Roman Period. It also introduces early contemporary literary references to ancient Egypt and uses a number of theoretical approaches to interrogate the archaeological and textual data. Egyptology and Egyptian archaeology are often...... to demonstrate the emerging interdisciplinary nature in Ancient Egyptian studies and the first to suggest new avenues of approach whilst seeking to open a discussion about how the Egyptian past can be known and understood. The book engages with wider trends from the humanities, which have found currency...

  9. Prevalence of multiple sclerosis in Al Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt

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    El-Tallawy HN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Wafaa M A Farghaly,1 Reda Badry,1 Nabil A Metwally,2 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 Mahmoud R Kandil1 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Assiut University Hospital, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Al Azhar University Hospital, Assiut Branch, Assiut, Egypt Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS is a chronic and disabling disorder with considerable social effects and economic sequelae. It is one of the major causes of disability in young adults.Objectives: This study aimed at detecting the prevalence of MS among the population of Al Quseir city.Methods: This study is a part of door-to-door survey of major neurological disorders that was conducted in Al Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. The sample size was 33,285 persons. The youngest patient was 17 years old. The number of people at and above 17 years of age was 21,827. They were screened by three neurologists. Then, the positive cases were subjected to meticulous clinical evaluation by three staff members of Department of Neurology, Assiut University Hospital, Egypt. Essential investigations were done.Results: A total of three cases of MS were diagnosed with an age-specific prevalence ≥17 years of 13.7/100,000. Keywords: prevalence, multiple sclerosis, Al Quseir, door-to-door survey 

  10. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheer, Alhussein A.; Mansour, Khamis Q.; Abdalla, Mohammed A.

    2014-12-01

    New Borg El-Arab City, 60 km to the southwest of Alexandria City, is one of new industrial cities planned by the Egyptian Government through its program to transfer the population from the condensed Nile Delta to other places in Egypt. Because such a city includes airport, huge buildings, factories, and worker settlements, a careful geophysical study is planned to reveal the groundwater condition. This will help in defining the places of wells that are supposed to be drilled. Therefore more industrial and agricultural activities will be flourished. The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES'es) and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM) to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  11. Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring Network Over Alexandria City And The Nile DELTA, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Raey, M.; Shalaby, E.; Guirguis, S.; Ghatass, Z.; Said, H.H.; Zahran, A.; Rashad, M.; Sivertsen, B.

    2007-01-01

    The Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) has established a National Air Pollution Network for Egypt. A part of this network covers Alexandria and the Nile delta region and is being operated by the Institute of Graduate Studies and Research (IGSR), University of Alexandria. This paper presents a description of the network, the QA/QC program as well as results from automatic monitors and manually operated instruments . . Preliminary interpretations and implications of air pollution levels have also been discussed. The network monitors ambient air quality indicators including SO 2 , NO 2 , CO, O 3 and PM 10 . The sites for measurements were selected to represent industrial, traffic and domestic sources. Eight stations are established over Alexandria City and seven stations are distributed over Nile delta major cities Damanhur, Kafr EI-Dawwar, Kafr EI-Zayat, Mahala, Tanta, Damietta and Mansoura. The results represent the first long term air quality data for the southern Mediterranean region, which have been properly quality assured and quality controlled. The main results indicate that measured NO 2 concentrations have not exceeded the national air quality limit (AQL) values given for Egypt. The same occurred for SO 2 except at one site located in Kafr Elzayat in the Delta, where large emissions from brick factories impact the site. The 8-hour average CO concentrations were exceeded at a few occasions. PM 10 concentrations have been identified as the major air pollution problem. Concentrations exceeding 70 μm 3 (AQL) have been observed over many sites most of the time. It is suggested that a strong program for tree cultivation on the western desert may be essential for protection

  12. Measurement of natural radioactivity in building materials in Qena city, Upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nour Khalifa

    2005-01-01

    Building materials cause direct radiation exposure because of their radium, thorium and potassium content. In this paper, samples of commonly used building materials (bricks, cement, gypsum, ceramics, marble, limestone and granite) in Qena city, Upper Egypt have been collected randomly over the city. The samples were tested for their radioactivity contents by using gamma spectroscopic measurements. The results show that the highest mean value of 226 Ra activity is 205 ± 83 Bq kg -1 measured in marble. The corresponding value of 232 Th is 118 ± 14 Bq kg -1 measured in granite. For 40 K this value is (8.7 ± 3.9) x 10 2 Bq kg -1 measured in marble. The average concentrations of the three radionuclides in the different building materials are 116 ± 54, 64 ± 34 and (4.8 ± 2.2) x 10 2 Bq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K, respectively. Radium equivalent activities and various hazard indices were also calculated to assess the radiation hazard. The maximum mean of radium equivalent activity Ra eq is 436 ± 199 Bq kg -1 calculated in marble. The highest radioactivity level and dose rate in air from these materials were calculated in marble

  13. Incidence of Nocardia species in raw milk collected from different localities of Assiut City of Egypt

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    Nahed Mohamad Wahba

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to isolate and enumerate Nocardiae from the examined raw milk samples. 240 random milk samples were collected from cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats from different localities in Assiut city- Egypt. The incidences of Nocardia spp. were 47.8, 43.3, 53.3 and 66.7% with average counts of 3.8 x104, 4.5x104, 1.4x104 and 7.6x103/CFUmL of the examined samples, respectively. Pathogenicity of the isolates was also studied. N. otitidiscavarium and N. brasiliensis caused sudden death of rats while, N. farcinica and N. carnea strains were non pathogenic. Other species caused several lesions. It was concluded from the study that, Nocardia species are existed in retailed and fresh milk of different farm animals. Most of the isolated strains were highly pathogenic to rats. Consequently, preventive measures should be taken to protect consumers from being infected. [Vet. World 2011; 4(5.000: 201-204

  14. Prevalence and molecular characterization of Salmonella serovars in milk and cheese in Mansoura city, Egypt

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    Amira Hussein El-Baz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The present study confirms the presence of Salmonella in milk and cheese samples in Mansoura, Egypt, indicating that the dairy products can act as potential sources of Salmonella infection. Thus, appropriate hygienic measures are suggestive for combating Salmonellosis in Egypt. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2017; 4(1.000: 45-51

  15. Knowledge and attitude of epilepsy among secondary schools students (epileptic and non-epileptic) in Assiut city Egypt.

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    Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Mahran, Dalia G

    2011-06-01

    This study was designed to assess knowledge and attitude with respect to epilepsy among secondary school students (epileptic and none) in Assiut city, Egypt. A cross sectional study was applied among secondary school students in Assiut city, Egypt. A 13-item questionnaire was self administered by 2226 students who selected randomly. All students either epileptic or non-epileptic had been heard about epilepsy. Only 7.1% of epileptic students and 8.5% of non-epileptic students thought that the epilepsy is a brain disease. Out of 2198 non-epileptic students, 28.4% thought that person with epilepsy (PWE) should not marry and 92% of them refused to marry from PWE. The correct knowledge of epilepsy was significantly positive correlated with positive attitude towards PWE. However, students still feel persons with epilepsy are stigmatized and are different from others. Secondary school students in Egypt have a vague knowledge about the etiology of epilepsy. Misconceptions about and negative attitudes towards epilepsy are unexpectedly high among those students. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Deposition of Fungal Particles in the Lung of Workers in a Spin Factory (Minia City/ Egypt)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, M.; Moustafa, M.; Hofmann, W.; Winkler-Heil, R.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of particle air pollution have been associated with decreased lung function, increased respiratory symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, wheezing and asthma attacks, as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer (World Health Organisation, 2002). Recently, characterization of biological particles has become an important issue because of the related health effects of exposure to bio aerosols in the indoor environment influencing the intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms, such as nasal and pharyngeal mucous membrane irritations, skin dryness, itchy eyes, breathlessness, wheezing, headache, concentration problems or fatigue. Dust particles often act as a carrier for biological particles either naturally occurring or artificially generated. In cotton-spinning mills cotton dust is the major carrier for biological particles that contribute to such respiratory problems and its effect on pulmonary function among workers employed in the factory. Therefore, the aim of our study was to determine the deposition of bio aerosol particles in the human respiratory tract applying a stochastic lung model using the standard breathing parameters (ICRP, 1994) for light exercise activity. We use the size distribution parameters of bio aerosols from our previous experimental study in a cotton spin factory in Minya city (Egypt). It was found that the number of deposited particles in the lung is higher in the carding and blowing department (high cotton dust exposure) than the predicted value for the spinning department (low cotton dust exposure). The results also reveal significant dependence of fungal deposition in the lung on their composition (genera and species), concentration and size where the number of deposited Aspergillus niger particles is higher than that of the Penicillium particles in both departments

  17. Door-to-door survey of major neurological disorders (project in Al Quseir City, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt

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    El Tallawy HN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy NA El Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Nabil A Metwally,2 Esam A El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed A Sayed,3 Ahmed A Waris,1 Yaser Hamed,2 Islam Shaaban,2 Mohamed A Hamed,1 Mahmoud Raafat Kandil11Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, EgyptAbstract: A door-to-door survey, including every household, was conducted for all inhabitants of Al Quseir City (33,283, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt by three specialists of neurology as well as nine senior staff members of neurology and 15 female social workers to assess the epidemiology of major neurological disorders. Over six phases, from July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, screening of all eligible people in the population was carried out, by which case ascertainment of all major neurological disorders included in the study was done according to the accepted definitions and diagnostic criteria of the World Health Organization. The order of frequency of prevalence of the studied neurological disorders was dementia (3.83% for those aged > 60 years, migraine (2.8% for those aged > 8 years, stroke (6.2/1000 for those aged > 20 years, epilepsy (5.5/1000, Parkinson’s disease (452.1/100,000 for those aged > 40 years, cerebral palsy (3.6/1000 among children 37 years, chorea (21.03/100,000, athetosis (15/100,000, and multiple sclerosis (13.74/100,000. The incidence rates of stroke, epilepsy, and Bell’s palsy were 181/100,000, 48/100,000, and 98.9/100,000 per year, respectively.Keywords: prevalence, incidence, neurological disorders

  18. Self-Medication in University Students from the City of Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, R M; Abou-ElWafa, H S

    2017-01-01

    Background . Self-medication is a common practice in developed and developing countries. Objectives . To explore the prevalence of self-medication practices among university students, probable reasons, symptoms requiring self-medication, and sources of advice. Methods . A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura University, Egypt, and included 1st and last year students of both medical and nonmedical faculties. Results . Prevalence of self-medication was 62.9%. Younger age, female, medical, and ever-married students and those having home pharmacy tended to self-medicate more than their peers with significant difference between them. Being medical student, being from urban area, having good current health condition, being careless about health, and having drugs stored at home pharmacy were independently associated with the likelihood of self-medicating. Conclusion . Prevalence of self-medication among university students is high which constitutes a health problem that needs intervention.

  19. Investigation of avian influenza infection in wild birds in Ismailia and Damietta cities, Egypt

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    Fadel, Hanaa Mohamed; Afifi, Rabab

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to monitor avian influenza (AI) infection in wild birds in Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 wild birds were examined for the presence of H5, H7, and H9 hemagglutination inhibition antibodies. Organs and swab samples of 75 birds were screened by multiplex real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) to detect AI subtypes H5, H7, and H9 matrix genes. Results: The highest seropositive result was recorded in cattle egrets (90.9%) followed by crows (88.6%), semi-captive pigeons (44.8%), and moorhens (39.1%). In cattle egrets, semi-captive pigeons and moorhens, H5 antibodies predominated. In crows, H9 antibodies predominated. Multiple infections with two or three virus subtypes were highest in crows (6/39, 15.4%) followed by cattle egrets (3/30, 10%) and moorhens’ (1/9, 11.1%) positive samples. Multiplex RRT-PCR results revealed two positive samples in cattle egrets and moorhens. Conclusion: The results indicated high seropositive rates against AI virus subtypes H5 and H9 in the examined wild birds. Multiple infections with more than one AI virus (AIV) subtypes were detected in some birds. This requires a collaboration of efforts to monitor AIV infection in wild birds and implement suitable early intervention measures. PMID:28717324

  20. Paleopathology of the commoners at Tell Amarna, Egypt, Akhenaten's capital city

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    Jerome C Rose

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten initiated worship of a single god and established a new capital city (Tell Amarna that was built and occupied only once from 1350-1330 BCE. This single short occupation offers a unique opportunity to study a short time period. The royal tombs have long been known and studied, but the location of graves for the common inhabitants has been an archaeological puzzle for more than 50 years. Recently four cemeteries have been located and the analysis of commingled bones from the South Tombs cemetery is presented here. The remains yield the following demographic profile: 53 adults with 19 females and 18 males; 14 juveniles between the ages of 5 and 17; and 3 infants. Arthritis and degenerative joint disease of the spine and joints indicates that DJD was not excessive. Only 2 to 8% of the adult population exhibits arthritis. There are 3 healed fractures of the arm (2 to 8% of the adult sample. There is 1 healed compressed fracture of the skull suggesting violence. The adult infection rate is between 2 and 8% with 3 healed and 1 active case of periostitis and no severe infections. Anemia is implicated by 23% of adult frontals exhibiting cribra orbitalia. Life for the common residents of Amarna appears to not have been as good as initially postulated.

  1. Paleopathology of the commoners at Tell Amarna, Egypt, Akhenaten's capital city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jerome C

    2006-12-05

    The Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten initiated worship of a single god and established a new capital city (Tell Amarna) that was built and occupied only once from 1350-1330 BCE. This single short occupation offers a unique opportunity to study a short time period. The royal tombs have long been known and studied, but the location of graves for the common inhabitants has been an archaeological puzzle for more than 50 years. Recently four cemeteries have been located and the analysis of commingled bones from the South Tombs cemetery is presented here. The remains yield the following demographic profile: 53 adults with 19 females and 18 males; 14 juveniles between the ages of 5 and 17; and 3 infants. Arthritis and degenerative joint disease of the spine and joints indicates that DJD was not excessive. Only 2 to 8% of the adult population exhibits arthritis. There are 3 healed fractures of the arm (2 to 8% of the adult sample). There is 1 healed compressed fracture of the skull suggesting violence. The adult infection rate is between 2 and 8% with 3 healed and 1 active case of periostitis and no severe infections. Anemia is implicated by 23% of adult frontals exhibiting cribra orbitalia. Life for the common residents of Amarna appears to not have been as good as initially postulated.

  2. Studying the Variation of Radon Level in Some Houses in Alexandria City, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Zaher, M.; Fahmi, N.M.

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon has been recognized as one of the health hazards. In the present work a set of indoor radon measurements was carried out, in different Egyptian houses in Alexandria city, built of the same type of building materials, using time-integrated passive radon dosimeters containing LR-115 Type II solid state nuclear track detector. Measurements were carried out from October 2007 to June 2008. The results show that, the radon concentrations and the annual effective dose in these houses varied from (38.62 to 120.39) Bq m-3 and (0.96 to 3.06) mSv y-1 respectively. The mean values of radon concentrations in living rooms, bedrooms, bathrooms, and kitchens were: (50.93±7.14), (63.75±7.63), (105.3± 14.67) and (82.38±8.35) Bq m -3 respectively. Also the mean values of annual effective dose were (1.26±0.17), (1.58±0.185), (2.63±0.36) and (2.0± 0.20) mSv y -1 , respectively. This data shows that, bathrooms and kitchens have significantly higher radon concentrations and annual radon dose

  3. Potential effects of groundwater and surface water contamination in an urban area, Qus City, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fathy; Khalil, Ramadan

    2018-05-01

    The potential effects of anthropogenic activities, in particular, unsafe sewage disposal practices, on shallow groundwater in an unconfined aquifer and on surface water were evaluated within an urban area by the use of hydrogeological, hydrochemical, and bacteriological analyses. Physicochemical and bacteriological data was obtained from forty-five sampling points based on33 groundwater samples from variable depths and 12 surface water samples. The pollution sources are related to raw sewage and wastewater discharges, agricultural runoff, and wastewater from the nearby Paper Factory. Out of the 33 groundwater samples studied, 17 had significant concentrations of NO3-, Cl- and SO42-, and high bacteria counts. Most of the water samples from the wells contained high Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Cr. The majority of surface water samples presented high NO3- concentrations and high bacteria counts. A scatter plot of HCO3- versus Ca indicates that 58% of the surface water samples fall within the extreme contamination zone, while the others are within the mixing zone; whereas 94% of groundwater samples showed evidence of mixing between groundwater and wastewater. The bacteriological assessment showed that all measured surface and groundwater samples contained Escherichia coli and total coliform bacteria. A risk map delineated four classes of contamination, namely, those sampling points with high (39.3%), moderate (36.3%), low (13.3%), and very low (11.1%) levels of contamination. Most of the highest pollution points were in the middle part of the urban area, which suffers from unmanaged sewage and industrial effluents. Overall, the results demonstrate that surface and groundwater in Qus City are at high risk of contamination by wastewater since the water table is shallow and there is a lack of a formal sanitation network infrastructure. The product risk map is a useful tool for prioritizing zones that require immediate mitigation and monitoring.

  4. Correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability in Alexandria City (Egypt) using time series SAR interferometry and optical Earth observation data

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    Seleem, T.; Stergiopoulos, V.; Kourkouli, P.; Perrou, T.; Parcharidis, Is.

    2017-10-01

    The main scope of this study is to investigate the potential correlation between land cover and ground vulnerability over Alexandria city, Egypt. Two different datasets for generating ground deformation and land cover maps were used. Hence, two different approaches were followed, a PSI approach for surface displacement mapping and a supervised classification algorithm for land cover/use mapping. The interferometric results show a gradual qualitative and quantitative differentiation of ground deformation from East to West of Alexandria government. We selected three regions of interest, in order to compare the obtained interferometric results with the different land cover types. The ground deformation may be resulted due to different geomorphic and geologic factors encompassing the proximity to the active deltaic plain of the Nile River, the expansion of the urban network within arid regions of recent deposits, the urban density increase, and finally the combination of the above mentioned parameters.

  5. Heterogeneity of Soil and Vegetation in the Urban Habitats of New Industrial Cities in the Desert Landscape of Egypt

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    Monier Abd EL-GHANI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between vegetation and soil supporting the habitats in 4 new industrial cities were assessed. Five main habitats were distinguished from inner city toward outskirts: lawns, home gardens, public gardens, waste lands and desert outskirts. After application of Twinspan, 26 vegetation groups were identified in the 5 recognized habitats, demonstrating that some groups are chatracteristic of a certain city, e.g. Asphodelus aestivus - Deverra tortuosa - Thymelaea hirsuta group was confined to the desert habitat of Burg El-Arab city; Thymelaea hirsuta - Linaria albifrons and Atriplex halimus - Atriplex lindleyi subsp. inflata - Suaeda vermiculata - Typha domingensis groups were found in the waste lands of Burg El-Arab city; Conyza bonariensis - Cynodon dactylon - Sonchus oleraceus group in the home garden habitat of 10th Ranadan city; Cynodon dactylon group in the lawns of Burg El-Arab city; Bassia indica - Plantago major group in the public gardens of Burg El-Arab city; Oxalis corniculata - Plantago lagopus group in the public gardens of 10th Ramadan city; Sonchus oleraceus - Cynodon dactylon and Dactyloctenium aegyptium - Leptochloa fusca - Phragmites australis groups in the public gardens of 6th October city. Silt, clay, organic matter, carbonates and carbon contents showed significant diffrences among the 5 habitats.

  6. Reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails among residents in Mansoura city, Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortada, Waelin I.; Sobh, Mohamed A.; El-Defrawy, Mohamed M.; Farahat, Sami E.

    2002-01-01

    A random sample of 68 males and 25 females who reside in Mansoura city, Egypt, was examined for concentrations of cadmium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, hair, and nails. The effect of gender and smoking on such levels was studied. The influence of dental amalgam on the levels of mercury in these biological samples were also examined. The results obtained show that only blood lead, which increased among males, was affected by gender. Blood levels of cadmium and lead as well as hair lead appeared to increase with smoking habit. Mercury levels in blood and urine were related to the presence of dental amalgam fillings. International comparisons between our results and the corresponding levels in other localities in the world showed that there ere environmentally related variations in terms of cadmium levels in hair, lead levels in blood, urine, hair, and nails, and mercury levels in blood, air, and nails. In conclusion, reference intervals of cadmium, lead, and mercury in the biological samples are environmentally related parameters. Some factors, such as gender, smoking habit, and the presence of dental amalgam fillings, may affect such levels and therefore should be considered

  7. A study on the prevalence of house dust mites in Al-Arish city, North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Gihad T; El-Sherbini, Eman T; Saled, Nagla Mostafa K; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-04-01

    Free living mites comprise a huge and various groups of tiny arthropods in the class Arachida, mainly of the Pyroglyphidae family. Exposure to allergens derived from house dust mite (HDM) feces is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development and asthma morbidity. However, practical and effective method to mitigate these allergens in low-income, urban home environments remains elusive. It well known that (HDM) physiology is greatly affected by hydrothermal microclimatic condition. El Arish has subtropical climate and warm humid summer, such situation are favourable to proliferate house dust mites. As no valid data are available for house dust mites fauna of El Arish, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and contamination rates of homes in El Arish city. Samples of house dust collected in 2008 from 50 houses in El Arish city were subjected to acarological examination. Acri were found in (34.6 %) of the samples collected from these homes. Results indicated that dust mites were present in all humid environments. Also, hypersensitivity to dust mites was common among patients with asthma.

  8. Air pollution impact on aerosol variability over mega cities using remote sensing technology: case study, Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Askary, H.

    2006-01-01

    Air pollution problems over mega cities differ greatly and are influenced by a number of factors, including topography, demography, meteorology, level and rate of industrialization and socioeconomic development. Cairo is considered a key city for economy, education, politics industry and technology in the Middle East.Increasing business and industrial activities in the city accompanied by shortage of the institutional capabilities for monitoring and control, in addition to environmental impact negligence that prevails over many of the production sectors, have contributed to excessive air pollution problems that have reached the level of crisis. A contributor to this problem is natural and man made effects such as dust and aerosols uptakes. Such pollution episodes are observed during the months of October showing the so called B lack Cloud . Such pollution leads to wide variability of aerosols behavior over Cairo. Hence, aerosol related parameters obtained from satellite measurements have been studied here. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) behavior showed a dual maxima nature in each year from 2000 till 2005 during the months of (April, May) and October confirming dust and air pollution events, respectively. Such behavior is confirmed by the high negative correlation with the aerosol fine mode fraction (FMF) reaching -0.75. FMF product confirms a higher value during the months of October representing the Black Cloud episodes due to fine particles contribution in these events rather than during the dust events. However, lower values are observed in the last two years due to the new control measures enforced by the government for the environment protection. The difference between the AOD and FMF showed a higher contribution of the fine grains during the Black Cloud events rather than coarser grains during dust events as expected. Among the sources known to contribute to the black cloud formation is the fire burns over the Nile Delta region during the months of September

  9. Quarry blasts assessment and their environmental impacts on the nearby oil pipelines, southeast of Helwan City, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel M.E. Mohamed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations induced by blasting in the cement quarries are one of the fundamental problems in the quarrying industry and may cause severe damage to the nearby utilities and pipelines. Therefore, a vibration control study plays an important role in the minimization of environmental effects of blasting in quarries. The current paper presents the influence of the quarry blasts at the National Cement Company (NCC on the two oil pipelines of SUMED Company southeast of Helwan City, by measuring the ground vibrations in terms of Peak Particle Velocity (PPV. The seismic refraction for compressional waves deduced from the shallow seismic survey and the shear wave velocity obtained from the Multi channel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW technique are used to evaluate the closest site of the two pipelines to the quarry blasts. The results demonstrate that, the closest site of the two pipelines is of class B, according to the National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP classification and the safe distance to avoid any environmental effects is 650 m, following the deduced Peak Particle Velocity (PPV and scaled distance (SD relationship (PPV = 700.08 × SD−1.225 in mm/s and the Air over Pressure (air blast formula (air blast = 170.23 × SD−0.071 in dB. In the light of prediction analysis, the maximum allowable charge weight per delay was found to be 591 kg with damage criterion of 12.5 mm/s at the closest site of the SUMED pipelines.

  10. Assessment of natural and artificial radioactivity levels and radiation hazards and their relation to heavy metals in the industrial area of Port Said city, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, T E; Shendi, E H; Shehata, M A

    2015-02-01

    A detailed gamma ray spectrometry survey was carried out to make an action in environmental impact assessment of urbanization and industrialization on Port Said city, Egypt. The concentrations of the measured radioelements U-238, Th-232 in ppm, and K-40 %, in addition to the total counts of three selected randomly dumping sites (A, B, and C) were mapped. The concentration maps represent a base line for the radioactivity in the study area in order to detect any future radioactive contamination. These concentrations are ranging between 0.2 and 21 ppm for U-238 and 0.01 to 13.4 ppm for Th-232 as well as 0.15 to 3.8 % for K-40, whereas the total count values range from 8.7 to 123.6 uR. Moreover, the dose rate was mapped using the same spectrometer and survey parameters in order to assess the radiological effect of these radioelements. The dose rate values range from 0.12 to 1.61 mSv/year. Eighteen soil samples were collected from the sites with high radioelement concentrations and dose rates to determine the activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 using HPGe spectrometer. The activity concentrations of Ra-226, Th-232, and K-40 in the measured samples range from 18.03 to 398.66 Bq kg(-1), 5.28 to 75.7 Bq kg(-1), and 3,237.88 to 583.12 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In addition to analyze heavy metal for two high reading samples (a 1 and a 10) which give concentrations of Cd and Zn elements (a 1 40 ppm and a 10 42 ppm) and (a 1 0.90 ppm and a 10 0.97 ppm), respectively, that are in the range of phosphate fertilizer products that suggested a dumped man-made waste in site A. All indicate that the measured values for the soil samples in the two sites of three falls within the world ranges of soil in areas with normal levels of radioactivity, while site A shows a potential radiological risk for human beings, and it is important to carry out dose assessment program with a specifically detailed monitoring program periodically.

  11. Solar Energy for Rural Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Tarek I.; Darwish, Ziad; Hatem, Tarek M.

    Egypt is currently experiencing the symptoms of an energy crisis, such as electricity outage and high deficit, due to increasing rates of fossil fuels consumption. Conversely, Egypt has a high solar availability of more than 18.5 MJ daily. Additionally, Egypt has large uninhabited deserts on both sides of the Nile valley and Sinai Peninsula, which both represent more than 96.5 % of the nation's total land area. Therefore, solar energy is one of the promising solutions for the energy shortage in Egypt. Furthermore, these vast lands are advantageous for commissioning large-scaled solar power projects, not only in terms of space availability, but also of availability of high quality silicon (sand) required for manufacturing silicon wafers used in photovoltaic (PV) modules. Also, rural Egypt is considered market a gap for investors, due to low local competition, and numerous remote areas that are not connected to the national electricity grid. Nevertheless, there are some obstacles that hinder the progress of solar energy in Egypt; for instance, the lack of local manufacturing capabilities, security, and turbulent market in addition to other challenges. This paper exhibits an experience of the authors designing and installing decentralized PV solar systems, with a total rated power of about 11 kW, installed at two rural villages in at the suburbs of Fayoum city, in addition to a conceptual design of a utility scale, 2 MW, PV power plant to be installed in Kuraymat. The outcomes of this experience asserted that solar PV systems can be a more technically and economically feasible solution for the energy problem in rural villages.

  12. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Eating Disorders in Weight Management Centers in Tanta, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha Eladawi

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: EDs are prevalent among individuals attending the weight management centers in a northern city in Egypt. Specific management strategies are warranted to address this commonly prevalent disease.

  13. Biomphalaria alexandrina in Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-06-04

    Jun 4, 2013 ... species within Egypt. The National Schistosoma Control Program has made great strides with respect to the .... barley and flax (Caminos 1997). Egyptian ..... Duke L 2008 Schistosomiasis in Ancient Egypt: The 'AAA' De- bate.

  14. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abuo El-Ela A. Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba–Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  15. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  16. An Environmentally-Friendly Tourist Village in Egypt Based on a Hybrid Renewable Energy System––Part One: What Is the Optimum City?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahd Diab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to select the optimum city from five touristic Egyptian cities (Luxor, Giza, Alexandria, Qena and Aswan to establish an environmentally-friendly tourist village. The selection of the city, according to the economic cost (cost of energy (COE, net present cost (NPC and the amount of greenhouse gases (GHG emitted, is carried out with respect to four cases, based on the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties. According to the simulation results, using the well-known Homer software, Alexandria is the economic city for hybrid photovoltaics (PV/wind/diesel/battery and wind/diesel/battery systems, while Aswan is the most economic city for a hybrid PV/diesel/battery system. However, for a diesel/battery system there is no significant economic difference between the cities in the study. On the other hand, according to the amount of GHG emitted from a hybrid PV/wind/diesel/battery system, Qena is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered. However, if the GHG emission penalties are applied, Aswan will be the optimum city. Furthermore, Alexandria is the optimum city if the effects of ambient temperature are considered and the GHG emission penalties are applied. Additionally, the effects of ambient temperature and applying GHG emission penalties are studied on hybrid PV/diesel/battery, wind/diesel/battery and diesel/battery systems in this study.

  17. In Situ Surgery: Is It Safe ? (Experience with 60 cases) | El Sadat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: NSU is a safe place for performing in-situ surgery (ISS) without increased risk of infection. Successful operative intervention within NSU requires good planning and cooperation between anesthesiologist, surgeons, neonatologist and nursing staff. Maximum benefit is observed in neonates who have definite risk ...

  18. Anwar El Sadat and the Art of the Possible: A Look at the Yom Kippur War

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Spofford, Cosmas R; Henderson, Warren L

    2001-01-01

    .... In the 1967 War, the Israelis successfully executed a preemptive attack that defeated the Egyptian army and seized large parts of the Sinai and the Suez Canal, greatly humiliating the Egyptians...

  19. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  20. Wind Atlas for Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Said Said, Usama; Badger, Jake

    2006-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive, 8-year wind resource assessment programme in Egypt are presented. The objective has been to provide reliable and accurate wind atlas data sets for evaluating the potential wind power output from large electricityproducing wind turbine installations. The regional wind...... climates of Egypt have been determined by two independent methods: a traditional wind atlas based on observations from more than 30 stations all over Egypt, and a numerical wind atlas based on long-term reanalysis data and a mesoscale model (KAMM). The mean absolute error comparing the two methods is about...... 10% for two large-scale KAMM domains covering all of Egypt, and typically about 5% for several smaller-scale regional domains. The numerical wind atlas covers all of Egypt, whereas the meteorological stations are concentrated in six regions. The Wind Atlas for Egypt represents a significant step...

  1. Mitigation options for the industrial sector in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelil, I.A.; El-Touny, S.; Korkor, H. [Organization for Energy Conservation and Planning (OECP), Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-12-31

    Though its contribution to the global Greenhouse gases emission is relatively small, Egypt has signed and ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UN FCCC) and has been playing an active role in the international efforts to deal with such environmental challenges. Energy efficiency has been one of the main strategies that Egypt has adopted to improve environmental quality and enhance economic competitiveness. This paper highlights three initiatives currently underway to improve energy efficiency of the Egyptian industry. The first is a project that has been recently completed by OECP to assess potential GHG mitigation options available in Egypt`s oil refineries. The second initiative is an assessment of GHG mitigation potential in the Small and Medium size Enterprises (SME) in the Mediterranean city of Alexandria. The third one focuses on identifying demand side management options in some industrial electricity consumers in the same city.

  2. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC began to support research in. Egypt. Five years ... Cutting red tape for business. In Egypt ... 85% of jobs in the private sector, and. 40% of all ... sector to drive economic growth over the next ... and reducing poverty in the Middle East and.

  3. Napoleon in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, Brian

    1989-01-01

    Recounts the 1798 Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte, whose Scientific and Artistic Commission documented and described the glories of ancient Egypt. The expedition was a disaster by military standards, but the cultural legacies included the Rosetta Stone, and a chronicle entitled "Description de L'Egypte," which did much to…

  4. Multi scenario seismic hazard assessment for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Shaimaa Ismail; Abd el-aal, Abd el-aziz Khairy; El-Eraki, Mohamed Ahmed

    2018-05-01

    Egypt is located in the northeastern corner of Africa within a sensitive seismotectonic location. Earthquakes are concentrated along the active tectonic boundaries of African, Eurasian, and Arabian plates. The study area is characterized by northward increasing sediment thickness leading to more damage to structures in the north due to multiple reflections of seismic waves. Unfortunately, man-made constructions in Egypt were not designed to resist earthquake ground motions. So, it is important to evaluate the seismic hazard to reduce social and economic losses and preserve lives. The probabilistic seismic hazard assessment is used to evaluate the hazard using alternative seismotectonic models within a logic tree framework. Alternate seismotectonic models, magnitude-frequency relations, and various indigenous attenuation relationships were amended within a logic tree formulation to compute and develop the regional exposure on a set of hazard maps. Hazard contour maps are constructed for peak ground acceleration as well as 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.5-, 1-, and 2-s spectral periods for 100 and 475 years return periods for ground motion on rock. The results illustrate that Egypt is characterized by very low to high seismic activity grading from the west to the eastern part of the country. The uniform hazard spectra are estimated at some important cities distributed allover Egypt. The deaggregation of seismic hazard is estimated at some cities to identify the scenario events that contribute to a selected seismic hazard level. The results of this study can be used in seismic microzonation, risk mitigation, and earthquake engineering purposes.

  5. Assessment of Radiological and Chemical Pollutants and Their Effects on the Marine Ecosystems A long the Mediterranean Sea Coast Between Alexandria and Port Said City-Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Salama, M.H.; Monged, M.H.

    2017-01-01

    The Environmental Monitoring Program for the Egyptian coastal waters of the Mediterranean Sea was established to initiate a monitoring data base system. This was done by applying quality control assessments to evaluate and protect the coastal zone, which ensure its sustainable use. An environmental risk assessment was performed, including a screening level ecological risk assessment (SLERA) and a human health risk assessment (HHRA). The aim of SLERA risk assessment was to determine which classes of chemical pollutants could possibly cause adverse ecological effects to benthic species and to determine whether hot spots exist or not. Investigation of the sediments revealed that the region which extends from the Alexandria harbor area to Port Said City is enriched with trace metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organo chlorine pesticides. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected but in lower concentrations compared to the other organic compounds. The spatial distribution of the different contaminants investigated here showed that the Nile Delta region is more influenced by waste water discharge than the rest of the Egyptian coastal regions. In addition to sediments, two mussel species (Mactra corallina and Tapes decussate) were successfully used as bio indicators of marine environmental quality. The concentrations of most pollutants investigated (except organo chlorine pesticides, and some trace metals) were higher in the tissues of the mussels, especially M. caerulein, than in sediments. The highest concentration of PAHs in sediments and mussels were observed in front of the Alexandria harbor and Nile Delta, they possibly affected by shipping activities. Natural radioactivity of surface sediments and sea water samples were measured along the coastal Mediterranean Sea between Alexandria and Port Said City. The main source of radiation along the area is the black sands, which is rich in radionuclides. The measured values of "2"3"8U and "2"3"2Th for

  6. Impact of Some Ecological Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig City, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Elsadek Fakhr

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E. coli existence. Locations of E. coli positive samples were investigated in relation to population density, water source, and type of water pipe. Sixteen E. coli strains were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was done and enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enterohaemorrhagic virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Probability of fecal contamination correlated with higher population density, with increased distance from Zagazig water plant, and with asbestos cement water pipes. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial drug was found in all isolates. Virulence genes were detected in a rate of 26.27%, 13.13%, 20%, 6.67%, and 33.33% for LT, ST, stx1, stx2, and eae genes, respectively. This relatively high frequency of fecal contamination points towards the high risk of developing diarrhea by antibiotic resistant DEC in low socioeconomic communities particularly with old fashion distribution systems.

  7. CSEM IMAGING OF THE NEAR SURFACE DYNAMICS AND ITS IMPACT FOR FOUNDATION STABILITY AT QUARTER 27, 15th OF MAY CITY, HELWAN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Hemali Ibrahim A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, we involve the Control Source Electromagnetic (CSEM Technique to image the dynamic migration center of the near surface fractures, fissures, and cracks in a new dwelling area at 15th of May city close to Cairo. This area forms the center of the zonal weakness of the subsoil, which in turn, interact with the weight center of the construction leading to catastrophiccollapses.The control source electromagnetic technique has been developed recently to monitor the migration of the weakness center represented as the accumulative fissures and cracks in thenear surface. Three composite profiles of wide and planshet mesh data have been collected in 2008. This survey has been followed by performing two profiles in 2010; one of these profiles has been repeated to observe the situation changes, and the second profile has been measured between the other two profiles of2008. The last profile had been performed to study the mutual relation between the measurements of the two cycles. The objectives of the whole process are to validate the capability of the technique to pick the minor changes of the weakness center, consequently, study its relation to the weight center of the adjacent construction to produce a recommended procedure to minimizethe destruction resources at the site of investigation.The measured data has been interpreted and represented in graphs showing the distribution of the heterogeneity of the geoelectric parameters in the subsoil, furthermore, in a series of geoelectric cross section representing the applied frequencies used during the survey. The study concludes that (1 the center of the cracked zone is moving upward closer to the surface of the ground and heaver, (2 the water content is moving downward producing soil dryness at the shallow depths, and (3 the site became more stable in 2010 than 2008, however, the destruction resources remain warning with collapse events. Furthermore, the situation reflects

  8. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Up-to-date Probabilistic Earthquake Hazard Maps for Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaber, Hanan; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Badawy, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    An up-to-date earthquake hazard analysis has been performed in Egypt using a probabilistic seismic hazard approach. Through the current study, we use a complete and homogenous earthquake catalog covering the time period between 2200 BC and 2015 AD. Three seismotectonic models representing the seismic activity in and around Egypt are used. A logic-tree framework is applied to allow for the epistemic uncertainty in the declustering parameters, minimum magnitude, seismotectonic setting and ground-motion prediction equations. The hazard analysis is performed for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5° in terms of types of rock site for the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2-, 0.5-, 1.0- and 2.0-s periods. The hazard is estimated for three return periods (72, 475 and 2475 years) corresponding to 50, 10 and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years. The uniform hazard spectra for the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan and Nuwbia are constructed. The hazard maps show that the highest ground acceleration values are expected in the northeastern part of Egypt around the Gulf of Aqaba (PGA up to 0.4 g for return period 475 years) and in south Egypt around the city of Aswan (PGA up to 0.2 g for return period 475 years). The Western Desert of Egypt is characterized by the lowest level of hazard (PGA lower than 0.1 g for return period 475 years).

  10. Youth employment in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Eekelen, Willem van; De Luca, Loretta; Ismail, Magwa

    2001-01-01

    Examines economic and social factors affecting youth employment in Egypt and describes three national programmes for the promotion of youth employment based on human resources development, direct job creation and support in self-employment and enterprise creation. Describes one public-private project in each case.

  11. IDRC in Egypt

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Some current activities. In Egypt, IDRC-supported research focuses on job creation, shaping climate change adaptation, enhancing women's safety and political participation, and testing the power of social media to address sexual harassment. □ Job creation after the Arab Spring. Funding: $112,400. Duration: 2012–2013.

  12. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  13. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  14. Geotechniques of landfill design in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elleboudy, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    The remarkable pollution and the deteriorating environmental conditions in the capital city and other major cities in Egypt have created serious health problems and had great impact on social and economical development. This situation has urged the government to establish a new ministry for environment. The ministry put a national action plan to overcome all the local environmental problems. Among them, the tremendous amounts of solid wastes that are produced daily by the overpopulated cities used to be dumped in open areas causing a terrible unbearable pollution. The ministry has recently initiated several projects for solid and hazardous waste management and disposal to be executed according to the international standards. The Ministry of Environment has appointed a team of multidisciplinary experts to carry out the environmental impact assessment of site selection and the engineering design of landfills. I was fortunate enough to join the team as a geotechnical consulting engineer to review the design of the proposed landfills from the geotechnical point of view. The criteria for landfill design included the physical size, its proximity and access, topography, geotechnical and geological aspects, surface water, ground water hydrology, and future site development and land use. Several sites have been selected to start the project; in Nasr City, 15th of May City, and Assalam City, which are districts of Cairo, Abu-Zaabal in Kalubia Governrate, Shabramont in Giza, Shawa in Dakahlia, Borg El-Arab near Alexandria, two sites in Monofia, and another one in El-Katamia. The paper presents the studies carried out for site selection, geotechnical design, and the possible impact on the environment of the surrounding areas. The studies also included the hydro-geological conditions and the assessment of the ground water conditions in each site and the potential contamination. Socioeconomic measures and public participation in decision making were also taken into consideration

  15. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  16. Allegiance: Egypt Security Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    Sadat began a policy of economically opening Egypt to the West which led to mandatory subsidy reductions on cooking fuel, rice , bread and other...by a distance from one another. The Emergency Law was not violated, but protestors could look around and see others wearing a black or white shirt...expected after the uprising of 2011 never truly materialized; the Interior Ministry instituted various cosmetic changes, but its basic construct and

  17. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  18. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2003-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  19. Egypt-United States Relations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mark, Clyde R

    2005-01-01

    .... Experience gained from Egyptian-U.S. joint military exercises proved valuable in easing coordination during the February 1991 Desert Storm operation to reverse Iraqi aggression against Kuwait. Egypt is seen by U.S...

  20. Solar Energy Perspectives In Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2010-01-01

    Egypt belongs to the global sun-belt. The country is in advantageous position with solar energy. In 1991 solar atlas for Egypt was issued indicating that the country enjoys 2900-3200 hours of sunshine annually with annual direct normal energy density 1970-3200 kWh/m2 and technical solar-thermal electricity generating potential of 73.6 Peta watt hour (PWh). Egypt was among the first countries to utilize solar energy. In 1910, a practical industrial scale solar system engine was built at Maadi south to Cairo using solar thermal parabolic collectors. The engine was used to produce steam which drove a series of large water pumps for irrigation. Nowadays utilization of solar energy includes use of photovoltaic cells, solar water heating and solar thermal power. Use of solar thermal technology may include both electricity generation and water desalination, which is advantageous for Egypt taking in consideration its shortage in water supply. The article discusses perspectives of solar energy in Egypt and developmental trends till 2050

  1. Russia and Egypt: Reproachment Trend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mohamed Abdou Hassan Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the analysis of Egypt’s foreign policy after Muhammed Morsi’s dismissal as a result of the political crisis in July 2013. The author considers the shift in the regional balance of power and draws a special attention to political, military and economic aspects of the collaboration between Egypt and Russia.

  2. Egypt's fundamentalists say condoms immoral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, S

    1995-06-01

    The first AIDS case in Egypt was reported almost 10 years ago, yet Egypt still does not have reliable statistics on the HIV/AIDS epidemic (officially, 513 HIV infections and 88 AIDS cases; more likely, 3000 and 10,000, respectively). HIV/AIDS bears a stigma. The government claims that every HIV-infected Egyptian acquired the infection through a blood transfusion while in the Gulf or through sexual intercourse in Europe. Cultural, social, and religious norms that discourage promiscuity may explain the low HIV/AIDS rate but these same taboos put women at risk by making it difficult for them to protect themselves. Islamic fundamentalist women reinforce the Islamic principle of forbidding sex education. They consider AIDS a plague of immoral Western society. They refuse to accept the fact that many men do not practice safer sex. These women consider condoms immoral. They think God will curse women who refuse to have sexual intercourse at their husbands' bidding. Many nongovernmental organizations consider an intensive education program as the only means to avert disaster. Egypt has yet to implement its model AIDS program. All hospitals in Cairo and some hospitals in rural areas have equipment to test for HIV. Surveillance systems have been limited to high risk groups. In Egypt, it is mandatory to test foreigners for HIV. Prisoners, prostitutes, homosexuals, and blood donors are tested randomly without their consent. Positive results are often reported to authorities before the persons learn their HIV status. A campaign for widespread sex education is the only action recommended so far. It includes a mass media component and community meetings and conferences. An Egyptian physician has found an anti-viral drug that stimulates the immune system, but his work does not receive much coverage outside Egypt. Egyptians need to tackle their cultural taboos about discussion of sex to curb the HIV/AIDS epidemic.

  3. General characteristics of current in front of Port Said, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. Elsharkawy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a preliminary investigation of the general characteristics of the current in front of the coastal Mediterranean city: Port Said, Egypt. The study of the current regime in front of Port Said helps environmental engineers to tackle problems as marine port sedimentation and shoreline changes. Surface and bottom current recordings at a single offshore station of depth 104 m located at 31° 34.90′ N, 32° 30.01′ E have been subject to statistical analysis. The measurements showed unexpectedly that bottom currents were relatively stronger than surface currents during May-99.

  4. Gas industry development in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roze, J.; Longueville, P.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt is a country with major gas potential and its gas industry has grown rapidly over the last ten years. Proven natural gas reserves total an estimated 1,050 billion m 3 . According to the re-evaluation of reserves made in January 2000, probable reserves stand at 3,400 billion m 3 , placing Egypt in ninth position as a potential world producer. These reserves are contained in 120 fields located mainly in the Nile Delta and Mediterranean regions and, to a lesser extent, in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez. Over the last two years, 54 new gas field have been discovered and registered. Consumption of oil, Egypt's main primary energy source, has declined steadily since the early 1980's in favour of natural gas, which has enjoyed steady growth. The penetration of natural gas is due to the growth of industries consuming large quantities of gas (chemical, fertilizers, etc), the development of new gas fields and the use of gas as a substitute for oil and coal, especially in the power industry which accounts for a major share of energy consumption, i.e., two-thirds of production in 1997. However, as Egypt is currently neither an importer or exporter of natural gas, the growth in consumption has naturally followed that of production, and the lack of infrastructure explains the limited penetration of gas in the residential sector (less than 2 % in 1997). According to the gas development plan drawn up by the Egyptian authorities, internal consumption should increase from 13.5 billion m 3 per year in 1998 to around 45.5 billion m 3 per year in 2017. This consumption increase will be accelerated to respond to domestic needs and, in particular, to favour the implementation of the national redevelopment plan (distribution of the population over 25% of the country by 2020, compared to 4% day). The energy vector of this urban policy is gas. Moreover, this policy should offset the drop in income resulting from declining oil production. The Egyptian authorities, via a range

  5. Inequality of Opportunity in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hassine, Nadia Belhaj

    2012-01-01

    The article evaluates the contribution of inequality of opportunity to earnings inequality in Egypt and analyzes its evolution across three time periods and different population groups. It provides parametric and nonparametric estimates of a lower bound for the degree of inequality of opportunity for wage and salary workers. On average, the contribution of opportunity-shaping circumstances to earnings inequality declined from 22 percent in 1988 to 15 percent in 2006. Levels of inequality of o...

  6. Probabilistic earthquake hazard analysis for Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2016-04-01

    Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the sixteenth largest metropolitan area in the world. It was founded in the tenth century (969 ad) and is 1046 years old. It has long been a center of the region's political and cultural life. Therefore, the earthquake risk assessment for Cairo has a great importance. The present work aims to analysis the earthquake hazard of Cairo as a key input's element for the risk assessment. The regional seismotectonics setting shows that Cairo could be affected by both far- and near-field seismic sources. The seismic hazard of Cairo has been estimated using the probabilistic seismic hazard approach. The logic tree frame work was used during the calculations. Epistemic uncertainties were considered into account by using alternative seismotectonics models and alternative ground motion prediction equations. Seismic hazard values have been estimated within a grid of 0.1° × 0.1 ° spacing for all of Cairo's districts at different spectral periods and four return periods (224, 615, 1230, and 4745 years). Moreover, the uniform hazard spectra have been calculated at the same return periods. The pattern of the contour maps show that the highest values of the peak ground acceleration is concentrated in the eastern zone's districts (e.g., El Nozha) and the lowest values at the northern and western zone's districts (e.g., El Sharabiya and El Khalifa).

  7. Mapping sexual harassment in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-03-28

    Mar 28, 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at ... HarassMap's map of Cairo shows the location and type of incidents that ... HarassMap: Mapping Sexual Harassment and Violence in Egypt.

  8. Gender, Sibship Composition, and Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfaily, Rania

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between gender, sibship, and education over time in Egypt, focusing on how the number, sex, and birth order configuration of siblings affected boys' and girls' education during 1991-2008, a period characterized by significant social and economic changes in Egypt. This study disaggregates schooling into…

  9. The satellite archaeological survey of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    A recent announcement of some pyramids, buried under the sand of Egypt and discovered by means of infrared remote sensing, renewed the interest on the archaeological surveys aided by satellites. Here we propose the use of images, obtained from those of Google Maps after some processing to enhance their details, to locate archaeological remains in Egypt.

  10. Salafis in Political Life of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Сабери Фахиме

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In today's world Salafism, which has evolved from insignificant and apolitical to the very influential movement is the subject of active discussion. This article discusses and analyzes the historical background, the conditions of formation and propagation of Salafi movement in Egypt. In addition, the author disclosed the role and the place of this movement in modern political life of Egypt.

  11. Single Finds. The case of Roman Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    2006-01-01

    Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins......Survery of single or stray finds from Roman Egypt and discussion of them as evidence for the circulation and use of coins...

  12. Impact of Geoethics in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdelMakosud, kholoud Mohamed; Ezzat, Nada

    2016-04-01

    Geoethics, is a new term that could be unknown in the Arab world,where its translation in Arabic language make some kind of problems,with special emphasis on Egypt; spreading this term and the importance of it to professionals and un professionals is not an easy task.Culture and awareness problems face us on dealing with it. In this working paper the researchers study two levels of educational samples, the first one is of young geo-scientists and the other one is of young people of different disciplines to make over view survey (monitoring the base level) about knowing geoethics and another survey after applying some lectures and workshops to the same samples to monitor the second level. The aim of the research is to find out how people will accept this term and its application and how we can spread it through community with different effective ways. In Egypt there are some kind of culture problems could affect on spreading of any new concept, these problems could be overcome by some scientific, social and culture recommendations, these recommendations could be applied in both Arab countries and African Countries with few modifications.

  13. Radiometric Data Collection for Environmental Studies in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Fattah, A.T.; Ramadan, A.A.; Gomaa, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Radiation protection and monitoring in Egypt covers most fields of activities dealing with radioactivity. Such protection measures necessitate measurements of radiation levels, exposure or contamination whatever they are due to natural or man-made sources. A radiation level in foodstuff samples collected from selected main cities in Egypt was followed for several years after Chernobyl accident. Potassium-40 was found to be the main source of radioactivity. It ranges from 9 Bq/kg for macaroni to about 363 Bq/kg for watercress and broad beans. 137 Cs was found in trace amounts. Radiation measurements were carried out in soil samples collected from sixteen locations all over the country. The natural radiation level of 238 U, 232 Th and 40 K was found to be 7-27 Bq/kg, 3.8-24.4 Bq/kg and 105,7-448.9 Bq/kg respectively. This level was found to be higher in eastern parts of Egypt than in the western parts. Radiological control is precisely undertaken on the entry of food items and certain chemical materials used in industry. Contaminated food, higher than international trading levels, is rejected. Chemical materials containing radioactivity are followed during their uses. The annual effective dose from terrestrial gamma rays was determined for most Egyptian Governorates (106-371 UVv/y). Accordingly,the annual collective dose due to natural background radiation (terrestrial gamma rays and cosmic rays) is about 27,253 Man Sv. As a national need together with international attitude a monitoring network has been established few years after Chernobyl accident. It consists of 42 stations for gamma monitors in air,43 stations in water, 44 stations for beta aerosols, and 15 stations for conventional pollutants. The measured radiation levels are transmitted to control station via digital communication every 15 minutes

  14. 500 Cities: City Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This city boundary shapefile was extracted from Esri Data and Maps for ArcGIS 2014 - U.S. Populated Place Areas. This shapefile can be joined to 500 Cities...

  15. Wang Haili, The History of Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Jianwei[1

    2015-01-01

    The History of Egypt is the first monograph on Egyptian history written by a single Chinese author. As a comprehensive study both in Egyptology and in Egyptian history, it represents a new level of Egyptian historical research in Chinese academia.

  16. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zuhur, Sherifa

    2007-01-01

    .... Egyptian failures of governance have taken place through three eras: monarchy and the liberal experiment, the period of Arab socialism, and Egypt's reopening to the West under Presidents Sadat and Mubarak...

  17. Egypt receives computers from CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2013-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 October, CERN officially celebrated sending IT equipment to Egypt, the fifth country to benefit from such donations after Morocco, Ghana, Bulgaria and Serbia. Although no longer adequate for CERN's cutting-edge research, these machines are still suitable for less demanding applications.   Rolf Heuer and Amr Radi, during the official ceremony. In a ceremony to mark the occasion, Rolf Heuer, CERN Director-General, and Egyptian physicist Amr Radi, team leader of ASRT (Egypt’s Academy of Scientific Research and Technology) within the CMS collaboration, who has played a major part in the operation, expressed their enthusiasm for the project. A total of 196 servers and 10 routers will be installed on the ASRT premises in Cairo, where they will be used to analyse data from the ALICE and CMS experiments. For more information about CERN’s donations of IT equipment, see this Bulletin article.

  18. Is Tourism Marriage of Young Girls in Egypt a Form of Child Sexual Abuse? A Family Exploitation Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Hussein Hassan; Alsharqawi, Nagwa Ibrahim; Younis, Mustafa Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Tourism marriage in Egypt is considered a part of the child marriage phenomenon, as parents following false interpretations of Islamic teachings offer up their daughters for short-term sexual relationships in return for money from tourists. This exploratory study used qualitative methods to interview 42 parents who reside in the city of Darasa, Giza, Egypt, whose daughters were persuaded to engage in tourism marriage. Eight social work students utilized an interview guide that contained 10 questions exploring how parents strike deals with tourists and avoid all legal and traditional procedures of marriage in Egypt. The findings of this study were summarized in six distinct themes, which show evidence of family exploitation of young women. This experience likely increases the child's vulnerability to psychological, social, and physical consequences.

  19. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  20. A global vision for small business in Egypt | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Egypt's Ministry of Finance in Enhancing Competitiveness of SMEs in Egypt: General ... SMEPol then supported the policy formulation process, in part by providing urgently needed ... Research also focused on strategies for increasing exports.

  1. Rainwater in Egypt: quantity, distribution and harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.I. ABDEL-SHAFY

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has limited water resources, and it will be under water stress within the year 2030. Therefore, Egypt should consider the natural and non-conventional water resources to overcome such problem. Rain harvesting is one solution; but not all; particularly on the north coast by the Mediterranean Sea and the Red sea. In this paper, the rainwater issue is reviewed and discussed in terms of the quantities and distribution at different selected areas in Egypt. The amount of rain falls at different location in Egypt was collected for a period of 16 months. The data indicated that rainfall in Egypt is very scarce, with an annual average of 12 mm and ranges from 0 mm/year in the desert to 200 mm/year in the north coastal region. The maximum total amount of rain does not exceed 1.8 billion m3per year. However, the average annual amount of rainfall water that is effectively utilized for agriculture purposes is estimated to be 1 billion m3. Harvesting pilot plant was constructed and implemented in Alexandria directly on the Mediterranean Sea. The harvested rain was used for irrigation and treated for drinking. It was, therefore, recommended to develop sustainable catchments at appropriate locations in the rain-fed areas at the north coast as well as cost effective grafting of the indigenous technologies with the innovative techniques.

  2. Radiopharmaceuticals production activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raieh, M.

    1998-01-01

    Applications of radiopharmaceuticals and labelled compounds in the field of nuclear medicine in Egypt have increased so rapidly in the last few years. At present, a large number of hospitals are utilizing these radioisotopic techniques for both diagnosis and treatment. The following production activities are taking place in the Egyptian Radioisotope Production laboratories. By utilizing the research reactor a large number of radioisotopes which find wide applications in nuclear medicine were produced, such as iodine-131, phosphorus-32, sodium-24, potassium-42 and molybdenum-99 / technetium-99m generators. Gallium-67, indium-111 and iodine-123 will be produced locally after installation of the cyclotron at the end of 1998. A large number of Tc-99m based kits for diagnostic medical applications have been produced. Also, many radiopharmaceuticals labelled with iodine-131 were produced. The radioisotope production laboratory is able to supply many hospitals with the radioimmunoassay kits of the thyroid related hormones (T4, T3 and TSH). Research and development activities are taking place in the field of monoclonal antibodies and tumor markers with special consideration of AFP, CEA, PSA and βhCG. (author)

  3. Status of fertility control in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefnawi, F I

    1982-01-01

    The concern for fertility control is not alien to the cultural and religious heritage of Egypt. Historically, Egyptian interest in fertility dates to the Pharoahs. Contraceptive recipes written at least 15-18 centuries B.C. have been found. Romans may have borrowed some of the more effective methods from Egypt when it became part of the Roman Empire as evidenced by the decline in size of aristocratic Roman families at the beginning of the Christian era. Muslim conquerors of Egypt encouraged fertility control. In the 9th century differences of opinion about the legality of contraception appeared among the interpreters of Islamic law. Some methods found in the writings of Muslim doctors as al-Razi and Avicenna still survive in the folk medicine of Egypt. In modern times use of barrier methods of contraception were encouraged by family planning organizations in Egypt. The medical profession was not deeply involved since these methods did not require much medical assistance. In 1936 a religiouss verdict declared contraception to be a lawful act of Islam. National programs in family planning in the 1960's encouraged the use of the Lippes Loop IUD. The medical problem of blood loss associated with the IUD caused anxiety because of the high incidence of anemia in the female Egyptian population. There was also a cultural limitation on the wide use of the IUD. "Spotting" due to the IUD resulted in females being ritually unclean and therefore unfit to pray or observe the Islamic fast. The Pill, initially favored caused complications due to its effect on breast milk which is the universal source of nutrition for infants in Egypt. Replacement of the Pill by depo-provera injections during the post partum period of lactation is a practical solution. Permanent sterilization is limited to females and only performed when medically indicated. Abortion is illegal and permitted only as a therapeutic measure.

  4. Renewable-energy applications in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The paper illustrates the main activities carried out concerning development and application of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt. Main attention is devoted to biogas technology, solar and wind energy technologies. The main constraints for implementation of renewable-energy technologies in Egypt and the activities carried out for its release are highlighted. The coordination between the Islamic and other developing countries is highly needed, to achieve marked progress in implementation of renewable energy and sustainable development. Establishment of a network for renewable energy among the Islamic countries can play an active role in these aspects. (author)

  5. Reaching women in Egypt: a success story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mousa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Women in Egypt are more likely than men to suffer from low vision or blindness from avoidable causes.1–3 This is, in large part, because women are not using eye care services as frequently as men, especially in rural areas.4–5 A 2002 community-based survey of 4,500 people in Al Minya Governorate, Upper Egypt showed that the prevalence of cataract in women was double that in men and that trachomatous trichiasis was four times as prevalent in women as in men

  6. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...... in the context of Egyptian-European relations. The article argues that the EU policies, which earlier have been dominated by a pragmatic approach towards the Mubarak regime, now have to be rethought considering an Egyptian polity, where the contours of a new constitutionalism are developing....

  7. Updating radiation protection regulations in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.; El-Naggar, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this treatise is to present -the rational steps taken in the process of updating the Radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt. The contents of the review will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities. Furthermore, the various committees formed with responsibilities for specific issues are indicated, including the role of the Ministry of Health (MOH), and that of the Atomic Energy Authority (AEA). Finally, the efforts made towards updating the radiation Protection Regulations in Egypt are highlighted. (author)

  8. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Bashurov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most complete information about the medicine in Ancient Egypt two papyrus provided: a large medical papyrus of G. Ebers and papyrus about the surgery of E. Smith. Smith’s papyrus is of particular interest as it contains the information on the status of surgery in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus consists of descriptions of the clinical cases. To the present time, 48 cases have survived; it is arranged in order of location - from the head down to the feet. Orthopedic deformities were reflected in the figures on the walls of the pyramids and temples as well as the description of the mummies and archaeological finds.

  9. Women in Post-Revolutionary Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Toft; Hervik, Peter

    and in drawings. Based on the analysis of this material the reader gets insights into personal experiences, believes and opinions of a diverse group of women in terms of age, economic class, education, geography, culture, religion, ethnicity, marital status, and political orientation. The detail-rich empirical......This book addresses how identity, structures, and agency affect women’s everyday lives in post-revolutionary Egypt. The authors analyse the topic both on a macro- as well as on a micro-level. Through interviews and workshops, women around Egypt express their own experiences in dialogue, in groups...

  10. Alexandria revived: new realizations of an ancient city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Butler

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The city of Alexandria exerts a powerfl hold on the Western imagination, as part of, but distinct from, the rest of Egypt. The recent undersea discovery of part of the Pharos (lighthouse and Cleopatra's palace, and the resurrection on land of the ancient Mouseion-Library, are transforming perceptions of Alexandria's cultural heritage.

  11. Transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols across Alexandria, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Askary, H. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics Computational Science and Engineering; Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Center of Excellence in Earth Observing; Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; National Authority for Remote Sensing and Space Science (NARSS), Cairo (Egypt); Farouk, R. [Alexandria Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Environmental Sciences; Ichoku, C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States). Climate and Radiation Branch; Kafatos, M. [Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics Computational Science and Engineering; Chapman Univ., Orange, CA (United States). Center of Excellence in Earth Observing

    2009-07-01

    The flow of pollutants from Europe and desert dust to Europe from the Sahara desert both affects the air quality of the coastal regions of Egypt. As such, measurements from both ground and satellite observations assume great importance to ascertain the conditions and flow affecting the Nile Delta and the large city of Alexandria. We note that special weather conditions prevailing in the Mediterranean Sea result in a westerly wind flow pattern during spring and from North to South during the summer. Such flow patterns transport dust-loaded and polluted air masses from the Sahara desert and Europe, respectively, through Alexandria, and the Nile Delta in Egypt. We have carried out measurements acquired with a ground- based portable sun photometer (Microtops II) and the satellite-borne TERRA/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor during the periods of October 1999-August 2001 and July 2002-September 2003. These measurements show a seasonal variability in aerosol optical depth (AOD) following these flow patterns. Maximum aerosol loadings accompanied by total precipitable water vapor (W) enhancements are observed during the spring and summer seasons. Pronounced changes have been observed in the Aangstroem exponent ({alpha}) derived from ground-based measurements over Alexandria (31.14 N, 29.59 E) during both dust and pollution periods. We have followed up the observations with a 3-day back-trajectories model to trace the probable sources and pathways of the air masses causing the observed aerosol loadings. We have also used other NASA model outputs to estimate the sea salt, dust, sulfates and black carbon AOD spatial distributions during different seasons. Our results reveal the probable source regions of these aerosol types, showing agreement with the trajectory and Aangstroem exponent analysis results. It is confirmed that Alexandria is subjected to different atmospheric conditions involving dust, pollution, mixed aerosols and clean sky. (orig.)

  12. Occidentalisms. Images of 'the West' in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltering, Robbert Antonius Fransiscus Leonardus

    2009-01-01

    This thesis researches images of ‘the West’ in contemporary Egyptian non-fiction. These images – or: Occidentalisms - are found to have a history going back to the early nineteenth century, and are clearly related to political and social developments in Egypt and the wider Arab world, in which

  13. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-27

    right to govern; the more the Brotherhood charges ahead, the more it confirms the others’ belief of its monopolistic designs over power. Even if...appropriate market -reform and economic growth activities.” Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations Congressional Research Service 18 according to the State

  14. Egypt | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Our research support in Egypt has shifted focus with the country's changing needs. ... With support from IDRC and other partners, the university established the Alexandria Research Centre for ... stimulate technology start ups; prepare youth for in high-demand jobs in retail, hospitality, ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  15. Microsatellite analysis of Fasciola spp. in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Yasser; Amer, Said; Courtioux, Bertrand; Dreyfuss, Gilles

    2011-12-01

    Recently, the topic of diversity in Fasciola population in Egypt is controversial. The present study was performed to study the genetic diversity of isolated flukes based on microsatellites markers. Fasciola worms were collected from different hosts and geographical locations in Egypt. Control samples of Fasciola hepatica from France as well as Fasciola gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study. Collected flukes were identified morphologically and subjected for analysis using four microsatellite markers. Results of microsatellite profile (FM1 and FM2) proved that both species of Fasciola are distributed in Egypt irrespective of geographical location and host. Nevertheless, the microsatellite profile of some analyzed loci (FM2 and FM3) proved that Egyptian flukes showed more alleles compared to the reference ones. Differences of microsatellite profile in Egyptian isolates than that of corresponding reference samples indicate the remarkable diversity of these isolates. The present results highlighted the utility of microsatellite profile to discriminate between Fasciola species and to elucidate the diversity within the species. To our knowledge, this is the first time to study microsatellite polymorphism in Fasciola populations in Egypt.

  16. Experience with the INES scale in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.

    1997-01-01

    Thirty years experience with Egypt first Research Reactor (ET-RR-1) operation, was introduced focusing on the famous events that were initiated and the procedures that were taken for their recovery or mitigation is given. Four out of seven events can be attributed to human errors, the events if classified using the INES

  17. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-25

    exhortations to report critics of the government to the authorities; and censorship , prosecution, and attacks on journalists.” 19  Reporters Without...upon between the above-mentioned representatives.” See Agreement between the United States of America and Egypt, signed at Cairo, August 16, 1978

  18. Unprotected Palestinians in Egypt since 1948

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    £E: Egyptian pound. FMRS: Forced Migration Refugee Studies Program. GAP: ...... Generally, our research team located Palestinians by word of mouth. After finding the ...... I then applied for a tourist visa to Egypt and I got one for two weeks.

  19. Adolescent tramadol use and abuse in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiony, Medhat M; Salah El-Deen, Ghada M; Yousef, Usama; Raya, Yasser; Abdel-Ghani, Mohamed M; El-Gohari, Hayam; Atwa, Samar A

    2015-05-01

    Tramadol abuse liability is underestimated and the evidence of abuse and dependence is emerging. It has many health and social consequences especially in adolescents. Tramadol abuse has not been well studied in Egypt. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated correlates of tramadol use and abuse among school students in Egypt. A total of 204 students, aged 13-18 years, from six schools in Zagazig, Egypt, were screened for tramadol use using The Drug Use Disorders Identification Test and a urine screen for tramadol. The prevalence of tramadol use was 8.8% among school students and the average age at onset of tramadol use was 16.5 ± 1.1. Some 83% of the users were using tramadol alone while the rest (17%) were using a combination of tramadol, alcohol, and cannabis. Two-thirds of these students started with tramadol as the first drug after the onset of tobacco smoking. Over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems and 6% had dependence. There was a significant association between tramadol use and older age, male gender, and smoking. Drug-related problems were negatively correlated with age at onset of tramadol use. Tramadol use was common among adolescents and over one third of tramadol users had drug-related problems. Population-based longitudinal studies are needed to investigate tramadol use and the possible role of tramadol as a gateway drug in the development of substance abuse in Egypt.

  20. Tourism in Egypt | Raslan | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Algeria (5); Benin (2); Botswana (3); Burkina Faso (3); Cameroon (8); Congo, Republic (1); Côte d'Ivoire (4); Egypt, Arab Rep. (14); Eritrea (1); Ethiopia (30); Ghana (27); Kenya (29); Lesotho (1); Libya (2); Madagascar (1); Malawi (4); Mauritius (3); Mozambique (1); Nigeria (221); Rwanda (3); Senegal (6); Sierra Leone (1) ...

  1. Optimization of the cropping pattern in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Osama

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous increase of population in Egypt, limited fresh water, poor maintenance and low efficiency of irrigation systems lead to a real burden on the Egyptian natural water resources. Accordingly, for Egypt, land and water resources management is considered an absolutely strategic priority. In this study, a linear optimization model is developed to maximize the net annual return from the three old regions of Egypt. Data for 28 crops in five years from 2008 to 2012 are being analyzed. The spatial variations of crops, irrigation water needs, crop yields and food requirements are incorporated in the model. The results show that there is a significant reduction in the allocated areas for onion, garlic, barley, flax, fenugreek, chickpeas, lentil and lupine since they are considered as non-strategic crops. On the other side, the allocated areas for strategic crops such as wheat, maize, clover, rice, sugar products and cotton remained almost the same to satisfy their actual food requirements. However, crops with high net returns such as tomatoes have increased substantially. The trend for the gross net benefit is decreasing and is expected to reach a lower value in year 2017. Different approaches and scenarios are analyzed. The developed model proposes a change in the cropping pattern in the old lands of Egypt to increase the gross net return without adding further any other expenses. Keywords: Cropping pattern, Linear programming, Net return, Optimization

  2. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  3. Another approaching storm on the desert. Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, D

    1991-01-01

    Examining Egypt's health care crisis, this article discusses the political factors that have led to such a state. Although Egypt possesses considerable resources and receives vast amounts of US foreign aid, the health status of its people is poor. Infant mortality rate stands at 67/1000 live births; the poor nutritional status of children has not improved over the past 10 years; 1/3 of all children are moderately to severely stunted in growth. The author attributes these woeful conditions to the country's political and economic policies. At one time or another, Egypt has allied itself with USSR or the US, and has generally retained only the worst features of socialism and the free market. While operating as a police state, Egypt has moved towards a free market that has led to the concentration of wealth. The author points out how medical care and medical school reflect the political and economic system. The government guarantees free health care for all and a job to all medical school graduates. But doctors now have to wait 7 years to obtain a post. Many have begun practicing private medicine, and many have become corrupt. The author also singles out the country's diarrhea control program as an indication of the impending health care disaster. Though hailed as high successful, the cost has been exceptionally high, and USAID funding will soon cease. Furthermore, mothers have not been taught self-reliance, but have been made to depend on commercially produced oral rehydration packets. Despite the severity of the social problems, Egypt's security forces have so far succeeded in suppressing popular opposition. But the author does detect hopeful signs in the many active progressive groups, and in particular, in the great social accomplishments of the governor of the providence of Ismailia.

  4. Interior Design Styles and Socio-demographic Characteristics in Egypt: From the concept of Zeitgeist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasha Mahmoud Ali El-Zeiny

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interior design plays an important role in reflecting the social and cultural environments of countries and showing the characteristics of the age. The previous literature has suggested that people’s preferences for interior design styles are influenced by social distinctions, based on education level and age. In this study, we have argued more precisely socio – demographic factors (gender, age, income, major and city that affect the Egyptians’ preferences for interior design styles, and have discussed to what extent do the people preferences reflect Zeitgeist in Egypt. The findings supported the idea that socio-demographic factors can explain people’s design preferences.

  5. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.S. Zalesny; S.R.  Evett; N.F. Kandil; C.  Soriano; John Stanturf

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt’s freshwater supply. Egypt’s share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo began...

  6. Franchising in the Middle East: The Example of Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Elsaman, Radwa S.

    2017-01-01

    With the largest population in the Arab Middle East and a central location between Europe and East Asia, Egypt offers one of the biggest sources of franchising markets in the world for new business opportunities. Egypt, however, does not have specialized laws regulating franchising, which results in real challenges for investors who are seeking to franchise their businesses in Egypt, along with their legal advisors. It also creates problems for the courts who must rule on disputes arising fro...

  7. All projects related to Egypt | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... POLITICAL REFORM, ECONOMIC REFORM, WOMEN, EMPOWERMENT, Gender ... IDRC's Women's Rights and Citizenship (WRC) program initiative is ... Asia, Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, Kuwait.

  8. Management of Disused Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt - 13512

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Y.T.; Hasan, M.A.; Lasheen, Y.F.

    2013-01-01

    The future safe development of nuclear energy and progressive increasing use of sealed sources in medicine, research, industry and other fields in Egypt depends on the safe and secure management of disused radioactive sealed sources. In the past years have determined the necessity to formulate and apply the integrated management program for radioactive sealed sources to assure harmless and ecological rational management of disused sealed sources in Egypt. The waste management system in Egypt comprises operational and regulatory capabilities. Both of these activities are performed under legislations. The Hot Laboratories and Waste Management Center HLWMC, is considered as a centralized radioactive waste management facility in Egypt by law 7/2010. (authors)

  9. Image city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities.......Image city exhibition explores a condition of mediation, through a focus on image and sound narratives with a point of departure on a number of Asian cities....

  10. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment....... Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  11. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the A ir Pollution Unit w ithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  12. Benchmarking performance: Environmental impact statements in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badr, El-Sayed A.; Zahran, Ashraf A.; Cashmore, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) was formally introduced in Egypt in 1994. This short paper evaluates 'how well' the EIA process is working in practice in Egypt, by reviewing the quality of 45 environmental impact statements (EISs) produced between 2000 and 2007 for a variety of project types. The Lee and Colley review package was used to assess the quality of the selected EISs. About 69% of the EISs sampled were found to be of a satisfactory quality. An assessment of the performance of different elements of the EIA process indicates that descriptive tasks tend to be performed better than scientific tasks. The quality of core elements of EIA (e.g., impact prediction, significance evaluation, scoping and consideration of alternatives) appears to be particularly problematic. Variables that influence the quality of EISs are identified and a number of broad recommendations are made for improving the effectiveness of the EIA system.

  13. The demand for military spending in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Qarn, A. S.; Dunne, J. P.; Abdelfattah, Y.; Zaher, S.

    2013-01-01

    Egypt plays a pivotal role in the security of the Middle East as the doorway to Europe and its military expenditure reflects its involvement in the machinations of such an unstable region, showing considerable variation over the last forty years. These characteristics make it a particularly interesting case study of the determinants of military spending. This paper specifies and estimates an econometric model of the Egyptian demand for military spending, taking into account important strategi...

  14. Turkish and Malaysian experiences: Lessons for Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rezeg, Ali Abo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Egyptian uprising was triggered on January 25, 2011 after thirty years of political and economic corruption through Mubarak‟s administration. The thirst for development, political freedom, and social equality were the most significant factors behind thisuprising. There are widespread discussions on which developmental experience Egypt might adopt in the post-Mubarak era. Turkey and Malaysia are the two cases that are mostly referred to aspossible models for the Egyptian case. Th...

  15. Egypt: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-12

    contributions from Germany , Japan, and Switzerland. For more information on the MFO, see http://www.mfo.org/Default.asp?bhcp=1. Egypt: Background and...2008 Report, Egypt’s pace of business reforms and deregulation between 2006 and 2007 ranked first worldwide. In recent years, the state has...reinvigorated its privatization program by divesting shares in the state-dominated banking and insurance sectors. Additionally, the government removed import

  16. Egypt: Security, Political, and Islamist Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Islamist militance has been developing in a wide variety of social and economic settings, including England, France , 6 Germany, and elsewhere. We might...political wedge between the United States and Egypt led to Nasir’s nationalization of the Suez Canal. Britain then plotted with France and Israel...than the membership, which, at the time, came from the petit bourgeoisie , or were migrants to urban areas. Shukri Mustafa, leader of TWH, was

  17. Consumer Demand for Major Foods in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Fayaad; Stanley R. Johnson; Mohamed El-Khishin

    1995-01-01

    This study provides information on the structure of the consumer demand for major foods in Egypt. The information is in the form of key parameters for consumer demand systems. The modern theory of consumer behavior is the basis for estimating systems of demand equations. These systems yield estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities. The Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) model is applied in estimating a system of demand equations for food commodities. A full demand matrix results ...

  18. Lyme borreliosis: A neglected zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhelw, Rehab A; El-Enbaawy, Mona I; Samir, Ahmed

    2014-12-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the causal organism of Lyme borreliosis. In Egypt, available data about the occurrence of Lyme disease are scarce and no structured studies documented the presence of Lyme borreliosis in Egyptian animals and tick reservoirs verifying its zoonotic evidence. Besides, no successful trials to isolate B. burgdorferi from clinical samples have occurred. This study was conducted to investigate B. burgdorferi infection as an emerging zoonosis neglected in Egypt. A total number of 92 animals, tick and human companion specimens were collected and subjected for culture, PCR and/or serodetection. B. burgdorferi has been detected and isolated from Egyptian animal breeds. We also detected the presence of outer surface protein A gene of B. burgdorferi by PCR as well as anti-B. burgdorferi IgM by ELISA in human contacts who were suffering from fever of unknown origin. This report represents the first systematic study on animals associated with patients suffering from febrile illness to confirm the emerging of such neglected zoonosis in Egypt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Integrated Human Futures Modeling in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passell, Howard D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aamir, Munaf Syed [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bernard, Michael Lewis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Beyeler, Walter E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fellner, Karen Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hayden, Nancy Kay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jeffers, Robert Fredric [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Keller, Elizabeth James Kistin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Malczynski, Leonard A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mitchell, Michael David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Silver, Emily [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Tidwell, Vincent C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Villa, Daniel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vugrin, Eric D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Engelke, Peter [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Burrow, Mat [Atlantic Council, Washington, D.C. (United States); Keith, Bruce [United States Military Academy, West Point, NY (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Human Futures Project provides a set of analytical and quantitative modeling and simulation tools that help explore the links among human social, economic, and ecological conditions, human resilience, conflict, and peace, and allows users to simulate tradeoffs and consequences associated with different future development and mitigation scenarios. In the current study, we integrate five distinct modeling platforms to simulate the potential risk of social unrest in Egypt resulting from the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam (GERD) on the Blue Nile in Ethiopia. The five platforms simulate hydrology, agriculture, economy, human ecology, and human psychology/behavior, and show how impacts derived from development initiatives in one sector (e.g., hydrology) might ripple through to affect other sectors and how development and security concerns may be triggered across the region. This approach evaluates potential consequences, intended and unintended, associated with strategic policy actions that span the development-security nexus at the national, regional, and international levels. Model results are not intended to provide explicit predictions, but rather to provide system-level insight for policy makers into the dynamics among these interacting sectors, and to demonstrate an approach to evaluating short- and long-term policy trade-offs across different policy domains and stakeholders. The GERD project is critical to government-planned development efforts in Ethiopia but is expected to reduce downstream freshwater availability in the Nile Basin, fueling fears of negative social and economic impacts that could threaten stability and security in Egypt. We tested these hypotheses and came to the following preliminary conclusions. First, the GERD will have an important short-term impact on water availability, food production, and hydropower production in Egypt, depending on the short- term reservoir fill rate. Second, the GERD will have a very small impact on

  20. Eco and Green cities as new approaches for planning and developing cities in Egy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam K. El Ghorab

    2016-03-01

    This paper will introduce the first practice in planning and developing Green and Eco new city in Egypt (located at Eastern Desert, Sohaj governorate, on the corridor of Upper Egypt⧹Red Sea, including elaboration of its urban structure, land use and its green systems which produce most of its needed infrastructure (specially electricity power network, integrated sewage and solid waste management systems without making any pressures on the national and local existing infrastructure systems. Finally, the paper will conclude lessons learned from the introduced practice, and present recommendations to improve Egyptian cities and make it more sustainable.

  1. Evaluation of seismic hazard at the northwestern part of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, M.; Shokry, M. M. F.; Mohamed, A. M. E.; Helal, A. M. A.; Mohamed, Abuoelela A.; El-Hadidy, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the seismic hazard at the northwestern Egypt using the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment approach. The Probabilistic approach was carried out based on a recent data set to take into account the historic seismicity and updated instrumental seismicity. A homogenous earthquake catalogue was compiled and a proposed seismic sources model was presented. The doubly-truncated exponential model was adopted for calculations of the recurrence parameters. Ground-motion prediction equations that recently recommended by experts and developed based upon earthquake data obtained from tectonic environments similar to those in and around the studied area were weighted and used for assessment of seismic hazard in the frame of logic tree approach. Considering a grid of 0.2° × 0.2° covering the study area, seismic hazard curves for every node were calculated. Hazard maps at bedrock conditions were produced for peak ground acceleration, in addition to six spectral periods (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 s) for return periods of 72, 475 and 2475 years. The unified hazard spectra of two selected rock sites at Alexandria and Mersa Matruh Cities were provided. Finally, the hazard curves were de-aggregated to determine the sources that contribute most of hazard level of 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for the mentioned selected sites.

  2. Bioconversion of Egypt's agricultural wastes into biogas and compost

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Elfeki, M.; Elbestawy, E.; Tkadlec, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 6 (2017), s. 2445-2453 ISSN 1230-1485 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : agricultural wastes * biogas in Egypt * bioconversion * compost in Egypt * organic wastes Subject RIV: DM - Solid Waste and Recycling OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 0.793, year: 2016

  3. Egypt and the Augustan Cultural Revolution : an interpretative archaeological overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aerde, (Marike) van M.E.J.J.

    2015-01-01

    As part of the VIDI 'Cultural innovation in a globalising society: Egypt in the Roman world', this research explores manifestations of Egypt in the material culture of Augustan Rome. This period was a crucial turning point for the urban landscape of Rome, which was characterised by cultural

  4. The Antiquities Trade in Egypt 1880-1930

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Frederik Norland; Ryholt, Kim

    these objects came to be here. The book presents the first in-depth analysis of this market during its “golden age” in Egypt in the late 19th and early 20th Century. It is primarily based on the archival material of the Danish Egyptologist H. O. Lange (1863-1943) who, during two prolonged stays in Egypt (1899...

  5. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  6. The Zoril, Ictonyx striatus erythreae De Winton, 1898 in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Zoril Ictonyx striatus is one of the rarest mammals of Egypt, known from only two specimens collected more than 50 years ago. The collection of two new specimens and the observation of others in the Gabal Elba area provide new data on this little-known animal in Egypt. In this paper we provide information on the ...

  7. Three New Records of Pottiaceae (Musci) from Egypt | Shabbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three taxa of Pottiacea; Barbula sardoa (Schimp.) J.P. Frahm, Didymodon ceratodentus (Müll.Hal.) Dixon and Syntrichia fragilis (Taylor) Ochyra collected from Nile Delta are new records to Egypt. This increases the number of taxa known from Egypt to 187. D. ceratodentus and S. fragilis are new records to North Africa.

  8. Cultural Diversity or Cultural Imperialism: Liberal Education in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, David R.

    1998-01-01

    A faculty member's experience at the American University in Cairo (Egypt) reveals that pluralism and tolerance are western concepts, even within the college curriculum. National identity affords cultural stability: where the American melting-pot experience is reinforced by the notion of cultural diversity, the national identity of Egypt is…

  9. First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt (Cairo, Egypt, May 21, 2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gara, Chloe

    This document is comprised of the papers presented at the First Ladies' Symposium on Early Childhood in Egypt in May 2001. Participating in the symposium were representatives from the World Bank, the Amsterdam Institute for International Development, the Children's Project, and the Academy for Educational Development. The symposium opened with an…

  10. Framing Egypt : Roman literary perceptions of Egypt from Cicero to Juvenal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemreize, M.E.C.

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive study of Roman literary references to Egypt without preference for one particular period, author or subject, in contrast to most previous scholarship. In doing so, it shows that these references vary greatly, are context-dependent, and cannot be rightly understood when

  11. City PLANTastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , any attempt to create a green city is motivated by certain ecological, political and esthetical perspectives. Therefore the role of plants in tomorrows cities is everything but straightforward. Rather, a broad range of possibilities unfolds. City PLANTastic is the title of the 8th World in Denmark...

  12. INSTANT CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans

    2013-01-01

    of an experimental and social en- gaged city environment? The analysis shows that the specific city life at the instant city, Roskilde Festival, can be characterized by being ‘open minded’, ‘playful’ and ‘inclusive’, but also by ‘a culture of laughter’ that penetrates the aesthetics and the urban scenography....

  13. Regulatory Body of Egypt: Practices and Challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Messiry, A.

    2016-01-01

    In past, Egypt issued the law No. 59 of year 1969 for regulating the use of ionizing radiations inside the country, this law assigns the responsibilities of Egypt Atomic Energy Authority EAEA to control reactors, open sources, and all nuclear and radiation facilities inside its premises, while the ministry of health was responsible for controlling x-ray machine, sealed sources and accelerators. In 1982 EAEA established within its structure a new regulatory body called national centre for Nuclear Safety and radiation Control NC-NSRC as a dependent regulatory body, science EAEA is the operator of reactors and many nuclear and radiation facilities. On 30 March 2010 Egypt issued a nuclear law No 7 of year 2010, followed by its executive regulation in October 2011, the new law replaced the old law 59 of year 1969, in addition, the prime minster issued a decree on march 5td 2012 of establishing an independent regulatory body reported directly to him, it has the name of Egypt Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority ENRRA, it is responsible for regulating all nuclear and radiation facilities and activities inside the country, except X-ray machines and linear accelerators for the medical uses, that still remains under the control of ministry of health. The new nuclear law defines the responsibility of the government to establish, support and determine the authorization and the responsibilities of the independent regulatory body. ENRRA is managed by a board of directors comprises from chairman, vice chairman, head of national security, interior, exterior, customs, export & import, standards, environment, justice organizations, besides two scientific experts from ENRRA. The board of council is the supreme authority of the dominant, and the conduct of ENRRA affairs, and take decisions within the framework of the national plan of Egypt, to achieve the objectives for which the ENRRA was established. ENRRA was organized from the old NC-NSRC staff into three regulatory

  14. Area Handbook Series: Egypt: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    iI~torical Settinlg Sphinx and pyramids at Giza (Al jizah) THE ROOTS OF EGYPTIAN civilization go back more than 6,000 years to the beginning of...built by Snoferu, the first king of the Fourth Dynasty. His son and successor, Kheops, built the Great Pyramid at Giza (AlJizah); this, with its two... Pyramid and Sphinx at Giza , Fourth Dynasty, ca. 2540 B. C. Courtesy Boris Boguslavsky 19 Egypt: A Country Study In June 640, reinforcements for the Arab

  15. Egypt site of first CSM marketing audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The 1st application of the marketing audit concept to a CSM project was implemented in Egypt's Family of the Future (FOF) contraceptive social marketing program in 1982. The audit defined the basic mission of the FOF as one of assisting the government in achieving its long range family planning goals. The stated FOF objectives are as follows: to create an awareness or an increase in demand for family planning services, particularly among the lower socioeconomic strata in urban Egypt; to establish and maintain a reliable supply mechanism to make FOF products more readily acceptable and available from pharmacies; and to consolidate the CSM operations and services first in the greater Cairo area and then expand to other urban areas in Egypt. The core strategy of the FOF incorporates several elements, including intensive media based advertising and personal promotion to promote the concept of family planning and to educate the general public about contraceptive alternatives. FOF product prices are considerably lower than commercial prices. Dr. Alan R. Andreasen, who conducted the audit on behalf of the FOF technical assistance contractor, noted that the FOF is growing rapidly and stated that the audit recommendations were intended to help FOF management. Dr. Andreasen conducted interviews with all the senior personnel at FOF and met with various specialized staff members such as the Public Relations Manager. Dr. Andreasen noted that at the time of the audit the FOF could claim major accomplishments in creating an awareness of the need for family planning and in product sales. From the time products were launched in 1979 through 1981 condom sales increased 260%. Foaming tablet sales increased more than 320% and IUD sales increased nearly 330%. The introduction of the Copper 7 IUD accounted for 35% of the growth of IUD sales in 1981. Couple years of protection (CYP) provided by all products increased from 45,533 in 1979 to 190,831 in 1981, an increase over 300%. The

  16. Egypt satellite images for land surface characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay

    images used for mapping the vegetation cover types and other land cover types in Egypt. The mapping ranges from 1 km resolution to 30 m resolution. The aim is to provide satellite image mapping with land surface characteristics relevant for roughness mapping.......Satellite images provide information on the land surface properties. From optical remote sensing images in the blue, green, red and near-infrared part of the electromagnetic spectrum it is possible to identify a large number of surface features. The report briefly describes different satellite...

  17. Epidemiology and clinical presentation of stroke in Upper Egypt (desert area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El Tallawy,1 Wafaa M Farghaly,1 Reda Badry,1 Nermin A Hamdy,2 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Tarek A Rageh,1 Nabil A Metwally,3 Enas M Hassan,2 Sayed S Elsayed,2 Mohamed A Yehia,2 Wael T Soliman2 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Assiut University, Assiut, 2Department of Neurology, El Minia University, El-Minia City, 3Department of Neurology, Al-Azhar University (Assuit Branch, Assiut, Egypt Background: Stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Four out of five strokes occur in the low- and middle-income countries. This study aims to find lifetime prevalence of stroke in Upper Egypt and to identify clinical presentations and possible risk factors of stroke in this population.Methods: This is a door-to-door (every door study conducted on all inhabitants in Al Kharga district (representative of western desert and Al Quseir city (representative of eastern desert. The study was conducted in two stages, and every stage consisted of three phases (screening, diagnostic, and investigatory.Results: The total lifetime prevalence of stroke was 8.5/1,000 in the population aged 20 years and more. It increased with advancing age and was higher among males than females among all age groups except in the childbearing period (20 years to <40 years of age. Lifetime prevalence of ischemic stroke (7.2/1,000 was higher than hemorrhagic stroke (1.1/1,000. Hemiparesis and hemiplegia were the commonest presentation of stroke. Headache, vomiting, and vertigo were found to be significantly more common accompaniments of hemorrhagic stroke. The most common risk factor was hypertension, followed by hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus.Conclusion: The total lifetime prevalence of stroke in the population aged 20 years and more in Upper Egypt (desert area lies within the range that is recorded in developing countries. Clinical presentation and risk factors are similar to those recorded from developing and developed countries. Keywords: stroke

  18. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korkor, H.; AI-Alf, A.; EI-Behairy, S.

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems

  19. Mercury Removal from Natural Gas in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkor, H; AI-Alf, A; EI-Behairy, S [EGAS, Cairo (Egypt)

    2004-07-01

    Worldwide natural gas is forecasted to be the fastest growing primary energy source. In Egypt, natural gas is recently playing a key role as one of the major energy sources. This is supported by adequate gas reserves, booming gas industry, and unique geographical location. Egypt's current proven gas reserves accounted for about 62 TCF, in addition to about 100 TCF as probable gas reserves. As a result, it was decided to enter the gas exporting market, where gas is transported through pipelines as in the Arab Gas pipelines project and as a liquid through the liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects in Damietta, and ld ku. With the start up of these currently implemented LNG projects that are dealing with the very low temperatures (down to -162 degree c), the gas has to be subjected to a regular analysis in order to check the compliance with the required specifications. Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands, and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment: while other traces exist in production, transportation and processing systems.

  20. Aid for family planning in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-02-01

    A $5 million credit has been approved by the International Development Association, an affilate of the World Bank, to help finance a population project in Egypt. The project provides for the construction, equipping and furnishing of 22 general health centers, 12 polyclinics, 3 centers for training nursing teachers and 3 centers for in service training. 100 and 50 multipurpose vehicles will be provided to improve mobility of family planning services. Also included are a study on the maintenance of health facilities, 3 evaluation studies of family planning acceptors, an experimental home visiting program to inform and motivate people on family planning, and assistance in the production of health education material useful for family planning information and motivation. Simple demographic facts illustrate the seriousness of the population problem in Egypt. The current population of 35 million will be double by the year 2000 if the present 2.5% annual increase continues. This will put strains on a country whose population density quadrupled during the last century, and which stands to day at 950 persons per square kilometer of habitable land, a density rivalled by only 2 or 3 other countries in the world. The IDA credit will cover about 1/2 of the project's expense. The Egyptian government will finance the local costs. full text

  1. Obstetricians' perspective towards cesarean section delivery based on professional level: experience from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaaban, Mohamed M; Sayed Ahmed, Waleed Ali; Ahmed, Waleed S; Khadr, Zeinab; El-Sayed, Hesham F

    2012-08-01

    (1) To investigate Egyptian obstetricians' views towards cesarean delivery on maternal request, (2) to investigate Egyptian obstetricians' views towards some of the "potentially neglected" or controversial obstetrical skills or maneuvers as external cephalic version (ECV), fetal scalp pH measurement or tubal ligation during CS and (3) to examine the effect of professional level on the above factors. This is a descriptive study performed at the 8th annual Obstetrics and Gynecology conference of Suez Canal University held at Ismailia city in Egypt in June 2011 via a structured self administered questionnaire. Questionnaire was distributed to 223 conference attendants from the three professional levels (consultants, specialists and registrars) working at the two major institutions in Egypt: University and Ministry of Health. The structured questionnaire was based on informed opinion and professional guidelines. In total, 167 (75%) completed the questionnaire. Cesarean delivery on maternal request was accepted by 66% of the studied group and acceptance was significantly higher among consultants. There was no difference in all physicians' practices of cesarean section in both private and public settings. Limited access to medical equipment such as cardiotocogram (CTG) was shown in consultant group reflecting improper private sector preparations. The study revealed that 59% of obstetricians accepted vaginal breech delivery, and only 14% would consider ECV. Fetal scalp pH taking in cases of abnormal CTG was accepted by only 16.3% and 49% rejected the practice of instrumental delivery. There were significant differences among the three professional and the two institutional groups regarding these attitudes. There were different views regarding tubal sterilization during CS. Lack of knowledge, the need to improve some clinical skills and some professional attitudes may shed light on rising CS rates in Egypt.

  2. Unprotected: Palestinians in Egypt since 1948 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... With limited basic human rights and in the context of very poor living ... HarassMap and Uber Egypt partner to raise awareness about sexual harassment ... Syrian refugees: Shifting from crisis response to opportunity.

  3. All projects related to egypt | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Refugees and migrants in transit countries such as Egypt have links to wider diaspora ... In its 2006-2011 Strategic Plan, IDRC's Acacia program identified small-scale agriculture, including environment and natural ... Program: Climate Change.

  4. All projects related to Egypt | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Region: Middle East, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain, ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... POLICY MAKING, MIDDLE EAST, Civil society, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

  5. All projects related to egypt | Page 4 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Arab Families and Youth : a Century of War, Migration and Displacement ... North of Sahara, South of Sahara, North and Central America, Central Asia, South Asia, Egypt ... ISLAM, HUMAN RIGHTS, CIVIL RIGHTS, WOMEN'S RIGHTS, Gender.

  6. Epidemiology of workplace violence against nursing staff in Ismailia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Moustafa A; Fiala, Lamiaa A; Abdel Rahman, Amira G; Fahim, Ayman E

    2010-01-01

    Violence against health care workers (HCW) or workplace violence in general is a major problem affecting health and productivity of HCWs. To determine the prevalence and nature of workplace violence against nurses in Ismailia governorate, Egypt, and to identify its risk factors and how nurses manage it. Cross-sectional study, using a questionnaire for data collection, which includes demographic data, characteristics of workplace violence events, and risk factors contributing to workplace violence. All nursing staff in four hospitals and twelve Primary Health Care (PHC) Centers, randomly selected from Ismailia city were recruited. Out of 1600 distributed questionnaires, a total of completed 970 were returned (a 55% response rate). 269 (27.7%) of nurses reported abuse of any kind, 187 (69.5%) verbal abuse; and 25 (9.3%) physical abuse. Males were more exposed to violence events during the past 12 months than females (35.3% versus 24.2%, pWorkplace violence against nurses is a significant problem in health care settings all over the world and in Ismailia, Egypt. There is a need to increase awareness of the problem among health care workers as well as the general public. Further large-scale studies should be conducted to more closely examine the problem.

  7. Instability improvement of the subgrade soils by lime addition at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Shinawi, A.

    2017-06-01

    Subgrade soils can affect the stability of any construction elsewhere, instability problems were found at Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt. This paper investigates geoengineering properties of lime treated subgrade soils at Borg El-Arab. Basic laboratory tests, such as water content, wet and dry density, grain size, specific gravity and Atterberg limits, were performed for twenty-five samples. Moisture-density (compaction); California Bearing Ratio (CBR) and Unconfined Compression Strength (UCS) were conducted on treated and natural soils. The measured geotechnical parameters of the treated soil shows that 6% lime is good enough to stabilize the subgrade soils. It was found that by adding lime, samples shifted to coarser side, Atterberg limits values of the treated soil samples decreased and this will improve the soil to be more stable. On the other hand, Subgrade soils improved as a result of the bonding fine particles, cemented together to form larger size and reduce the plastiCity index which increase soils strength. The environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) is point to the presence of innovative aggregated cement materials which reduce the porosity and increase the strength as a long-term curing. Consequently, the mixture of soil with the lime has acceptable mechanical characteristics where, it composed of a high strength base or sub-base materials and this mixture considered as subgrade soil for stabilizations and mitigation the instability problems that found at Borg Al-Arab, Egypt.

  8. Eating Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg; Fisker, Anna Marie; Clausen, Katja Seerup

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzed the development of a city based sustainable food strategy for the city of Aalborg. It’s based on 3 cases of food service: food for the elderly as operated by the Municipality, food the hospital patients as operated by the region and food for defense staff as operated...

  9. Political Participation and Power Relations in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shehata, Mostafa

    2017-01-01

    The political use of media in Egypt post-2011 revolution brought about drastic transformations in political activism and power structures. In the context of communication power theory, this article investigates the effects of newspapers and social network sites on political participation...... and political power relations. The research employed a mixed methodology, comprised of a survey of 527 Egyptian youth and semi-structured interviews of 12 political activists and journalists. The results showed a significant relationship between reading newspapers and youth’s political participation......, but not between using social network sites and political participation. In addition, newspapers and social network sites were platforms for a series of conflicts and coalitions that emerged between pro- and anti-revolution actors. Despite the importance of social network sites as key tools for informing...

  10. Status of marine protected areas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samy, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Egypt has sought to protect its natural resources and marine biodiversity by establishing a network of six MPAs that are generally located in the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea; most of them include interconnected marine and terrestrial sectors based on conserving coral reefs and accompanying systems. We assessed the present status of MPA networks that showed a set of important results manifested in some strengths (i.e. proper selection according to specific criteria, management plans, etc., and also some weaknesses (i.e. a relatively small protected proportion of the Egyptian marine territorial waters, significant pressures mainly by tourism activities, etc.. Finally, some recommendations are proposed from this work (i.e. incorporate more habitats that are not well represented in the network, especially on the Mediterranean Sea; establishing a touristic carrying capacity of each area; etc. to improve the current situation.

  11. Economic study of rice irradiation in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.; Elgmeel, E.A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper discusses the economics of rice irradiation and the effect of various parameters on unit processing costs. It provides a model for calculating specific unit processing costs by correlating known capital costs with annual operation cost and annual throughputs. It is intended to provide the investors with a general knowledge of how unit processing costs are derived. The investment criteria utilized for commercial evaluation were internal rate of return (I.I.R), pay back period (P.B.P), and average rate of return (A.R.R). The irradiation cost and the additional income are also discussed. The result of the analysis showed that the installation of an irradiation unit in Egypt would be economically feasible

  12. The global and UV-B radiation over Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    BASSET, H. A.; KORANY, M. H.

    2007-01-01

    This work studies the relation between UV-B radiation and global radiation over Egypt. The relationships between the global solar radiation and UV-B radiation at four stations in Egypt have been studied, and linear empirical formulas for estimating UV-B from global radiation at these stations has been deduced. The deduced equations were applied to calculate the UV-B radiation for other stations where measurements were unavailable, using records of global radiation at these stations. Because o...

  13. Determinants of Transitions across Formal/Informal sectors in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Tansel, Aysit; Ozdemir, Zeynel / A.

    2014-01-01

    Informality is a salient feature of labor market in Egypt as it is the case with many developing countries. This is the first study of the determinants of worker transitions between various labor market states using panel data from Egypt. We first provide a diagnosis of dynamic worker flows across different labor market states. We develop transition probabilities by gender across different labor market states utilizing Markov transition processes. Next we identify the effects of individual, h...

  14. Development of the Qattara Project, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The River Nile, as a huge source of cheap hydroelectric energy, was fully exploited in Egypt upstream of Aswan in 1968 by the construction of the famous Aswan and High Dam Hydroelectric Complex. The growth of demand for electrical power is such that an additional large source of energy is required. The Qattara Project would offer not only an ideal source of low cost power production, but a vital boost for Egypt's national economy. The fundamental idea of the scheme is to channel Mediterranean Sea water into the Qattara Depression, using the difference in levels to produce hydroelectric power. The rate of discharge of sea water into the depression should be equivalent to the rate of evaporation from the lake surface. This situation will arise ten years after starting to fill the lake, when the water has reached a level of 60 m below sea level. The possibility of using PNE to excavate a Mediterranean Sea - Qattara Depression canal was first postulated by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Establishment in 1971. In 1973 a pre-feasibility study was prepared, based on preliminary site investigations performed during the period 1964-1965, namely geological and cartographic surveys, as well as on comparative economic evaluation of various solutions. The study showed clearly that the project including both base-load and peak-load hydroelectric power stations and using nuclear excavation of a canal between the sea and the depression offers a competitive solution for cheap power production. A subsequent feasibility study, which was started in 1975, investigates alternative ways of constructing the canal/tunnel system, using conventional tunnelling and PNE. For the nuclear solution, two cases are considered, one using unlimited yields and another with 150 kt maximum yield. A preliminary assessment of the effects of the explosion and costs of the nuclear component of the project are given. (author)

  15. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  16. Factors Affecting Accidents Risks among Truck Drivers In Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshamly Ahmed Fathalla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt is ranked among the countries with the highest rates of road accidents. According to the American Chamber of Commerce more than 96% of Egypt's goods are transported by trucks and due to their large volume and excessive weight, the severity and number of truck accident fatalities are much higher than other vehicles in Egypt. The present study aims at identifying truck driver's behavior and its influence on crash involvement. Due to the shortage in recording accident data and the inaccurate road accident audit, data was collected from several governorates in Egypt through questionnaire. Questionnaire forms were filled out through personal interviews with truck drivers. The total number of respondents was 643. The final analysis was made on the 615 questionnaires with complete answers. The data was analyzed and logistic regression was applied to accident related data to examine the contributing factors affecting accident occurrence of truck drivers. Results showed that fatigue in terms of driving hours (continuous and total and lack of sleep, drug use during driving, and driver obesity are the most influencing factors on the occurrence of truck accidents in Egypt. The findings of this research highlight the important role human factors have on the risk of crash involvement amongst Egypt's truck drivers and the need to improve their work conditions.

  17. An assessment for technical, economic, and environmental challenges facing renewable energy strategy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El Aziz Mohi El Din, Ehab Mohamed Farouk

    2011-01-01

    Securing energy demand for next generations is one of the most challenges aspects facing any sustained development plans, due to the growing electric energy demand and Egypt as a country of limited fossil fuel resources has to diversify its energy portfolio by utilization of its renewable energy resources, mainly wind due to its economic potential and solar as proved by Egypt's wind and solar atlases. In the year 2009/2010, the total installed capacity in Egypt was 24726 MW with electricity generation 139,000 GWh, of which 89 % was delivered by thermal plants and about 10% from Hydro power with total installed 2800 MW and electricity generated is about 12863 GWh and 1% from Wind energy with total installed 550 MW and electricity generated 1542 GWh. In the solar energy field, the first solar thermal power plant of 140 MW with a solar share of 20 MW using parabolic trough technology was started the initial work since the 1 st of July with estimated total energy generated of 852GWh/year. Recently, Egypt has adopted an ambitious plan to cover 20% of the generated electricity by renewable energy by 2020, including a 12% contribution from wind energy, translating more than 7200 MW grid-connected wind farms. Such plan gives a room enough to the private investment to play the major role in realizing this goal. The plan includes also a 100 MW Solar thermal energy CSP with parabolic trough technology in Kom Ombo city, and also two PV plants in Hurgada and Kom Ombo with a total installed capacity 20 MW each. Due to the high investment cost of solar energy technologies, still limited in spread all over the world on the other hand wind energy has an economic potential and becomes a commercial technology but the future potential for solar energy due to the limited land for wind energy. Current study will evaluate the Egyptian strategy for renewable energy up to 2020 and find how much the planned projects from the Egyptian government will fulfill its target, the economic study

  18. Eco2 Cities : Ecological Cities as Economic Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Dastur, Arish; Moffatt, Sebastian; Yabuki, Nanae; Maruyama, Hinako

    2010-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the World Bank's Eco2 cities : ecological cities as economic cities initiative. The objective of the Eco2 cities initiative is to help cities in developing countries achieve a greater degree of ecological and economic sustainability. The book is divided into three parts. Part one describes the Eco2 cities initiative framework. It describes the approach, be...

  19. Study of some environmental problem in egypt using neutron activation analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Karim, A.H.M.G.

    2003-01-01

    this thesis deals with the investigation of the possibility of using the new (second) egyptian research reactor (ETRR-2) at Inshas (22 MW) for the neutron activation analysis (ANN) of trace elements, particularly in air dust, collected from cairo and some other cities of egypt. in this concern chapter 1 gives an introduction about the activation methods in general, describing the various techniques used and a comparison of the methods with other instrumental methods of analysis . as a main classification, the neutron activation methods involve prompt γ-ray NAA and delayed γ-ray NAA; cyclic NAA (repeated activation) was also outlined. the methodology of NAA involves the absolute method, the relative method and the mono standard (single comparator) method , which is in between the absolute and relative methods

  20. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciger, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The Flying Cities artistic installation brings to life imaginary cities made from the speech input of visitors. In this article we describe the original interactive process generating real time 3D graphics from spectators' vocal inputs. This example of cross-modal interaction has the nice property....... As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective now is to cross the bridge between art and the potential applications to the rehabilitation of people with reduced mobility or for the treatment of language impairments....

  1. Flying Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herbelin, Bruno; Lasserre, Sebastien; Ciger, Jan

    2008-01-01

    Flying Cities is an artistic installation which generates imaginary cities from the speech of its visitors. Thanks to an original interactive process analyzing people's vocal input to create 3D graphics, a tangible correspondence between speech and visuals opens new possibilities of interaction....... This cross-modal interaction not only supports our artistic messages, but also aims at providing anyone with a pleasant and stimulating feedback from her/his speech activity. As the feedback we have received when presenting Flying Cities was very positive, our objective is now to cross the bridge between art...

  2. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  3. Epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke and transient ischemic attacks in Al Quseir, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy HN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy N El-Tallawy,1 Wafaa MA Farghaly,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Nabil M Abdel-Hakeem,2 Tarek A Rageh,1 Reda Badry,1 Mahmoud R Kandil1 1Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University Hospital, 2Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Assiut branch, Assuit, Egypt Background and purpose: Stroke is a medical emergency that can cause permanent neurological damage, complications, and disability. We aim to determine the epidemiology of non-fatal cerebrovascular stroke (CVS and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs in Al Quseir City, Red Sea, Egypt. Methods: The total population (n=33,285 was screened through a door to door study by three specialists of neurology and 15 female social workers (for demographic data collection. All suspected stroke patients were subjected to a full clinical examination, computerized tomography (CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of their brain, blood sugar, lipogram, serum uric acid, complete blood cells, blood urea, and serum creatinine, as well as evaluated by Barthel Index and Scandinavian Stroke Scale. Carotid doppler, echocardiography, and thyroid functions were done for selected cases. Results: CVS was recorded among 130 patients out of 19,848 subjects aged 20 years and more, yielding a total prevalence of 6.55/1,000 population. From June 1, 2010 to May 31, 2011, 36 patients were recorded to have stroke within 1-year, yielding an incidence rate of 1.81/1,000. Prevalence and incidence rates were higher among males than females, and both indices increased steadily with advancing age to reach the highest prevalence (37.02/1,000 and incidence rate (9.5/1,000 among aged persons 60 years and more. Conclusion: The prevalence of non-fatal stroke in Al Quseir city (6.55/1,000 was at the lower range of that recorded in developing countries (5–10/1,000 and slightly higher than that recorded in industrialized countries (5/1,000 population. Ischemic stroke is the most

  4. Use of freehand sketching: Documenting heritage buildings, Gamal Abdel Nasser Street (1830–1930, Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menna M. Imam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Freehand sketching – as one of the methods to discover cities – plays main role to understand the image of the heritage city. It is considered as an important tool to analyze and document heritage buildings. The image produced by freehand sketching heightens awareness of these buildings. Previous studies conducted on the methods of architectural heritage documentation revealed that very little researches have been undertaken to use freehand sketching in the process of data survey and documentation. These researches break the deadlock in the textual documents and express the human experience clearly unlike other methods of documentation. Therefore, this article intends to document ten heritage buildings in the study area, Gamal Abdel Nasser street, Alexandria city, Egypt. – One of the most ancient streets in Alexandria that still maintain its old character and identity – using analytical freehand sketches, the sketches and analysis was created by the researcher. The results showed that these buildings seem homogeneous and have a common character despite their different architectural styles which means it respects each other within building regulations. Briefly, the results help to find out how freehand sketching successfully analyzes these buildings that assist the architects and planners to understand the design principles used in ancient times.

  5. HarassMap and Uber Egypt partner to raise awareness about ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-12-11

    Dec 11, 2017 ... HarassMap has also led to another profound impact in Egypt: Cairo ... of sexual harassment in Egypt is empowering women and changing men's attitudes. ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change ...

  6. Egypt v literatuře před polovinou 19. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baďurová, Anežka

    -, č. 4 (2013) E-ISSN 1805-2800 Keywords : egypt ian literature * literature * Week of science and technology 2013 http://www.lib.cas.cz/casopis-informace/ egypt -v-literature-pred-polovinou-19-stoleti/

  7. New Media and Political Dissent in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschkind, Charles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores some of the ways that the Internet, and particularly the practice of blogging, has opened up new political possibilities in Egypt. As I examine, political bloggers in this country (Islamist as well as secularist have pioneered new language forms and video styles in order to articulate an arena of political life they refer to as “the street.” Egyptian bloggers render visible and publicly speakable practices of state violence that other media outlets cannot easily disclose. In discussing the sensory epistemology informing these blogging practices, I give particular attention to the way traditions concerning the sonority of the Arabic language and the relation of written to spoken forms are exploited and reworked by some of Egypt’s most prominent political bloggers. I also examine how these language practices find a visual and aural analogy in the grainy cellphone video recordings found on many of Egypt’s political blogs. This paper analyzes such practices in relation to emergent forms of political agency and contestation in contemporary Egypt.

    El autor explora algunos de los modos como Internet, en particular el escribir y publicar en un blog, ha abierto nuevas posibilidades políticas en Egipto. El estudio revela que los blogueros políticos en este país (que incluye tanto a islamistas como a laicistas han creado nuevas formas de lenguaje y nuevos estilos de vídeo con los que vertebrar un espacio de vida política al que se refieren como “la calle”. Los blogueros egipcios hacen visibles y motivo de debate público acciones violentas del Estado que otros medios informativos no pueden divulgar con la misma facilidad. El autor se detiene especialmente en el modo como los blogueros políticos más sobresalientes del país recurren y adaptan las tradiciones relativas a la sonoridad de la lengua árabe y a la conexión que existe en ella entre las formas habladas y las escritas. Asimismo, examina el modo como

  8. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Kandeel, Amr; Dawson, Patrick; Labib, Manal; Said, Mayar; El-Refai, Samir; El-Gohari, Amani; Talaat, Maha

    2016-01-01

    Background Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt?s influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system. Methods Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were ...

  9. Opportunities for woody crop production using treated wastewater in Egypt. I. Afforestation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald S. Zalesny Jr.; John A. Stanturf; Steven R. Evett; Nabil F. Kandil; Christopher Soriano

    2011-01-01

    The Nile River provides nearly 97% of Egypt's freshwater supply. Egypt's share of Nile waters is fixed at 55.5 billion cubic meters annually. As a result, Egypt will not be able to meet increasing water demand using freshwater from the Nile and has been developing non-conventional wastewater reuse strategies to meet future demands. The USAID Mission in Cairo...

  10. Views of Ancient Egypt. Teacher's Guide. School Arts: Looking/Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Linda; Brenner, Carla

    This teaching guide discusses ancient Egyptian culture, the lithographs made by Napoleon's scientists in 1798-99 to study and record every aspect of Egypt, the world's subsequent fascination with Egypt, ancient Egyptian architecture, Egyptian writing, and archeologists' illustrations of Egypt. The guide suggests activities for elementary school,…

  11. Renewable energy potential from biomass residues in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said, N.; Zamorano, M. [Civil Engineering Dept., Univ. of Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, Granada (Spain); El-Shatoury, S.A. [Botany Dept., Faculty of Sciences, Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-11-01

    Egypt has been one of the developing countries following successful programs for the development of renewable energy resources, with special emphasis on solar, wind and biomass. Utilization of biomass as a source of energy is important from energetic as well as environmental viewpoint. Furthermore, Egypt produces millions of biomass waste every year causing pollution and health problems. So, the incorporation of biomass with other renewable energy will increase the impact of solving energy and environmental problem. There is a good potential for the utilization of biomass energy resources in Egypt. Four main types of biomass energy sources are included in this study: agricultural residues, municipal solid wastes, animal wastes and sewage sludge. Analysis of the potential biomass resource quantity and its theoretical energy content has been computed according to literature review. The agriculture crop residue represents the main source of biomass waste with a high considerable amount of the theoretical potential energy in Egypt. Rice straw is considered one of the most important of such residue due to its high amount and its produced energy through different conversion techniques represent a suitable candidate for crop energy production in Egypt.

  12. Future studies and research in Egypt. Overview, examples, perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goell, Edgar

    2012-02-15

    During the last decade there have been several distinct activities and efforts with regards to future research in Egypt. Several institutions and capacities have been created. Although these capacities do not always meet high scientific standards, their results and studies offer important and well-grounded elements for future-oriented discussions and political decisions. Not least because of the Egypt revolt which started in January 2011 and the ongoing complex and conflicting societal struggles in Egypt the objective needs as well as the demand for systematic future thinking and future studies will very likely increase further. For that reason this report presents an overview about the context conditions, experiences and forms of future research in Egypt. The major challenges as well as the major issues are described. The main part is the description of the most important institutions, which are conducting future research, their projects and in addition two concrete projects, which try to practice Sustainable Development in different ways. Finally, several (self-)critical assessments and perspectives from selected experts of the future research community in Egypt will be presented.

  13. Hepatitis C in Egypt – past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgharably A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Elgharably,1,2 Asmaa I Gomaa,2 Mary ME Crossey,1,2 Peter J Norsworthy,1 Imam Waked,2 Simon D Taylor-Robinson1 1Division of Digestive Health, Department of Surgery and Cancer, St Mary’s Hospital, Imperial College London, London, UK; 2National Liver Institute, Menoufiya University, Shebeen El Kom, Egypt Abstract: Hepatitis C viral infection is endemic in Egypt with the highest prevalence rate in the world. It is widely accepted that the implementation of mass population antischistosomal treatment involving administration of tartar emetic injections (from 1950s to 1980s led to widespread infection. What is less well known, however, is that these schemes were implemented by the Egyptian Ministry of Health on the advice of the World Health Organization. There has been a spectrum of treatments to target the public health disaster represented by the hepatitis C problem in Egypt: from the use of PEGylated interferon to the recent use of direct acting antiviral drugs. Some new treatments have shown >90% efficacy. However, cost is a key barrier to access these new medicines. This is coupled with a growing population, limited resources, and a lack of infection control practices which means Egypt still faces significant disease control issues today. Keywords: hepatitis C, Egypt, schistosomiasis

  14. Egypt's policy concerning food irradiation research and technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews current research in Egypt in the field of radiation preservation of food to accumulate the necessary data for drafting Egypts' policy towards prospects for application. Research activities in Egypt have been oriented to solving problems of local economic importance, e.g. inhibition of sprouting in potatoes, onions and garlic, extension of shelf-life of vegetables and fruits, disinfestation of stored grains and grain products, preservation of meat, meat products, fish, fats and oils, and elimination of parasites and microorganisms from animal feed. Extensive studies have been performed to determine the lowest radiation level required for short-term storage, changes in organoleptic, physical, chemical and microbiological values of irradiated food and wholesomeness studies to give evidence of the safety of irradiated food for human consumption. The paper summarizes Egypt's national planning for the transfer of such new technology, the establishment of the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology to build up the national infrastructure for food irradiation research and application, and the formation of a Supreme Committee for Radiation Preservation of Food. Finally, the paper also surveys the locally available irradiators and correlates the design, capacity and capital cost against the actual needs of Egypt and the experience acquired. (author)

  15. Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Diversity in Cephalosporium maydis from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Amgad A; Zeller, Kurt A; Ismael, Abou-Serie M; Fahmy, Zeinab M; El-Assiuty, Elhamy M; Leslie, John F

    2003-07-01

    ABSTRACT Cephalosporium maydis, the causal agent of late wilt of maize, was first described in Egypt in the 1960s, where it can cause yield losses of up to 40% in susceptible plantings. We characterized 866 isolates of C. maydis collected from 14 governates in Egypt, 7 in the Nile River Delta and 7 in southern (Middle and Upper) Egypt, with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers. The four AFLP primer-pair combinations generated 68 bands, 25 of which were polymorphic, resulting in 52 clonal haplotypes that clustered the 866 isolates into four phylogenetic lineages. Three lineages were found in both the Nile River Delta and southern Egypt. Lineage IV, the most diverse group (20 haplotypes), was recovered only from governates in the Nile River Delta. In some locations, one lineage dominated (up to 98% of the isolates recovered) and, from some fields, only a single haplotype was recovered. Under field conditions in Egypt, there is no evidence that C. maydis reproduces sexually. The nonuniform geographic distribution of the pathogen lineages within the country could be due to differences in climate or in the farming system, because host material differs in susceptibility and C. maydis lineages differ in pathogenicity.

  16. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Abulezz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome.

  17. Dermatoses among automobile mechanics in Mansoura, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-ElWafa, Hala Samir; Albadry, Ahmed A; El-Gilany, Abdel-Hady; Ismael, Ahmed Fawzi

    2018-01-02

    This cross-sectional study was carried out in Mansoura, Egypt to assess the prevalence of occupational dermatoses and their possible risk factors on a convenience sample of car mechanics. Sociodemographic and occupational data were collected, and clinical examination was done. Prevalence of skin diseases was 45.4% and that of exclusively occupational skin diseases was 9.2%. Irritant contact dermatitis, eczema, and tar/oil acne were the most common types (4.6%, 3.1%, 3.1%, respectively). The logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of occupational dermatoses increased significantly with lack of use of personal protective equipment, longer duration of work, and presence of workplace chemicals (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI] were 7.2 [2.7, 19.0], 4.3 [1.7, 10.9], and 3.7 [1.3, 10.5], respectively). Health education and safety measures are essential for prevention and control of hazardous workplace practices and exposure.

  18. Safe transport of radioactive materials in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.

    1994-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the gained experience. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the canal from 1963 and 1991 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. A review of the present situation of the radioactive wastes storage facilities at the Atomic Energy site at Inshas is given along with the regulation for safe transportation and disposal of radioactive wastes. (Author)

  19. Drone City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2016-01-01

    for a new urban condition where cities are networked and connected (as well as disconnected) from the local block to global digital spheres. In the midst of many of the well-known data-creating devices (e.g. Bluetooth, radio-frequency identification (RFID), GPS, smartphone applications) there is a “new kid......This paper address the phenomenon of drones and their potential relationship with the city from the point of view of the so-called “mobilities turn”. This is done in such a way that turns attention to a recent redevelopment of the “turn” towards design; so the emerging perspective of “mobilities...... design” will be used as a background perspective to reflect upon the future of drones in cities. The other perspective used to frame the phenomenon is the emerging discourse of the “smart city”. A city of proliferating digital information and data communication may be termed a smart city as shorthand...

  20. Violent and Nonviolent Changes in the Images of Cities in the Arab Spring Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serag, Yehya

    2017-10-01

    The Arab Spring transformations have caused tangible impacts on the urban environment throughout the Middle East with varying levels. In some cities in countries like Libya, Yemen and Syria, deliberate and accidental destruction has taken place, resulting in severe transformations in the image of these cities that could be considered as lasting or difficult to amend. In some cities, the damage caused to urban built environment could be considered a co-lateral damage as a result of internal fighting between the people and their regimes, or the fighting between the different factions in the country or from external interference of regional or international powers. Urbicide, which is defined as a deliberate destruction of cities is also another form of damaging the built environment or the city image, in which parties in an internal conflict tend to destroy symbols or quarters of their rivals to inflict a tangible damage to their social and moral believes. The impacts on the built environment and the image of the city, can result as well from non-destructive measures, for example changes in land uses or decisions to demolish specific buildings that belong to the former era will also result in a clear change in the city image. This paper highlights the types of transformation of the city images that took place as a result of the Arab Spring revolutions. The cases discussed in this paper focus mainly on cities from both Syria and Egypt. This highlighting is done in regard to the nature of change, as mentioned above, the violent transformation in the case of Syrian cities and few cases in Egypt and the nonviolent transformation with the examples from Egypt. In case of the Syrian cities the transformation is caused and sparked by the civil conflict, however the course of reconstruction of these cities after the conflict ends is argued to take one of three paths; reconstruction, renovation or redevelopment. While in case of the nonviolent transformation that is taking

  1. Long-Term, High-Resolution Survey of Atmospheric Aerosols over Egypt with NASA’s MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Shokr

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A decadal survey of atmospheric aerosols over Egypt and selected cities and regions is presented using daily aerosol optical depth (AOD data from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS at 550 nm wavelength onboard the Aqua satellite. We explore the AOD spatio-temporal variations over Egypt during a 12-year record (2003 to 2014 using the MODIS high-resolution (10 km Level 2 data product. Five cities and two geographic regions that feature different landscape and human activities were selected for detailed analysis. For most of the examined areas, AOD is found to be most frequent in the 0.2–0.3 range, and the highest mean AOD was found to be over Cairo, Alexandria, and the Nile Delta region. Severe events are identified based on AOD higher than a selected threshold. Most of these events are engendered by sand and dust storms that originate from the Western Desert during January–April. Spatial analysis indicates that they cover the Nile Delta region, including cities of Cairo and Alexandria, on the same day. Examination of the spatial gradient of AOD along the four cardinal directions originating from the city’s center reveals seasonally dependent gradients in some cases. The gradients have been linked to locations of industrial activity. No trend of AOD has been observed in the studied areas during the study period, though data from Cairo and Asyut reveal a slight linear increase of AOD. Considering Cairo is commonly perceived as a city of poor air quality, the results show that local events are fairly constrained. The study highlights spatial and seasonal distributions of AOD and links them to geographic and climatic conditions across the country.

  2. Expanding cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    A number of cities in Africa experience very rapid spatial growth without the benefit of a systematic process of planning and implementation of planning decisions. This process has challenged the road and transport system, created high levels of congestion, and hampered mobility and accessibility...... to both central and new peripheral areas. This paper reports on studies carried out in Accra and Dar es Salaam to address and link 1) mobility practices of residents, 2) local strategies for ‘post-settlement’ network extension, and 3) the city-wide performance of the transport system. The studies draw...... in advance. However, such solutions are often impeded by costly and cumbersome land-acquisition processes, and because of the reactive and often piecemeal approach to infrastructure extensions, the development will often be more costly. Moreover, the lack of compliance to a city-wide development plan...

  3. Vatican City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-11-01

    Vatican City, the administrative and spiritual capital of the Roman catholic Church, has a population of 1000. Citizenship is generally accorded only to those who reside in Vatican City for reasons of office of employment. Supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power is currentily exercised by Pope John Paul II, the 1st non-italian pope in 5 centuries. The State of Vatican City is recognized by many nations as an independent sovereign state under the temporal jurisdiction of the Pope. By 1984, 108 countries had established diplomatic relations with the Holy See, most of which are not Roman Catholic. Third World countries comprise a large proportion of countries that have recently established relations with the Holy See. The US re-established relations with the Vatican in 1984 and there is frequent contact and consultation between the 2 states on key international issues.

  4. Needs versus bottlenecks in utilization of wind energy in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Semery, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    The company AOI Engine Factory in Cairo, Egypt, is involved in the production of renewable energy systems. It is shown, that with respect to wind, Egypt has a good potential. However, along the river Nile wind speed is moderate (<4,4 m/s). The three main wind energy developments in Egypt are discussed. Four 100 kW machines for grid connection have been imported from Denmark. These machines have been adapted for local production and operation circumstances. After a testing period the first batch of 100 turbines is now being manufactured. For water pumping in isolated areas, a 15 kW wind generator with two submergible electric pumps have been tested. For small wind generators a considerable market exists, but a design, suitable for local production and adapted to the local wind regime, is not available yet

  5. Green buildings for Egypt: a call for an integrated policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bampou, P.

    2017-11-01

    As global warming is on the threshold of each country worldwide, Middle East and North African (MENA) region has already adopted energy efficiency (EE) policies on several consuming sectors. The present paper valuates the impact of temperature increase in the residential building sector of Egypt that is the most integrated example of the 7 out of the 20 MENA countries that have started their green efforts upon building environment. Furthermore, as it is based on a literature research upon socio-economic characteristics, existing building stock, existing legal and institutional framework, it elaborates a quantitative evaluation of Egypt's energy-saving potential, outlining basic constraints upon energy conservation, in order for Egypt to be able to handle the high energy needs due to its warm climate. Last but not least, the paper proposes a policy pathway for the implementation of green building codes and concludes with the best available technologies to promote EE in the Egyptian building sector.

  6. Marketing and economic analysis of mango irradiation processing in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkhateeb, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing and economic feasibility of a project for mango irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market was analyzed considering the production size and cultivated area distributed over several years,the percentage of the total loss of mango that can be avoided by irradiation, the market tests in Egypt and other countries was presented and the normal distribution channels of mango when using radiation technology. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of pallet carrier unite for the irradiation of mango was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation: benefit-cost ratio, pay back period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of mango in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is be used as a multipurpose facility

  7. Sustainable Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georg, Susse; Garza de Linde, Gabriela Lucía

    Judging from the number of communities and cities striving or claiming to be sustainable and how often eco-development is invoked as the means for urban regeneration, it appears that sustainable and eco-development have become “the leading paradigm within urban development” (Whitehead 2003....../assessment tool. The context for our study is urban regeneration in one Danish city, which had been suffering from industrial decline and which is currently investing in establishing a “sustainable city”. Based on this case study we explore how the insights and inspiration evoked in working with the tool...

  8. City 2020+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, C.; Buttstädt, M.; Merbitz, H.; Sachsen, T.; Ketzler, G.; Michael, S.; Klemme, M.; Dott, W.; Selle, K.; Hofmeister, H.

    2010-09-01

    This research initiative CITY 2020+ assesses the risks and opportunities for residents in urban built environments under projected demographic and climate change for the year 2020 and beyond, using the City of Aachen as a case study. CITY 2020+ develops scenarios, options and tools for planning and developing sustainable future city structures. We investigate how urban environment, political structure and residential behavior can best be adapted, with attention to the interactions among structural, political, and sociological configurations and with their consequences on human health. Demographers project that in the EU-25-States by 2050, approximately 30% of the population will be over age 65. Also by 2050, average tem¬peratures are projected to rise by 1 to 2 K. Combined, Europe can expect enhanced thermal stress and higher levels of particulate matter. CITY 2020+ amongst other sub-projects includes research project dealing with (1) a micro-scale assessment of blockages to low-level cold-air drainage flow into the city centre by vegetation and building structures, (2) a detailed analysis of the change of probability density functions related to the occurrence of heat waves during summer and the spatial and temporal structure of the urban heat island (UHI) (3) a meso-scale analysis of particulate matter (PM) concentrations depending on topography, local meteorological conditions and synoptic-scale weather patterns. First results will be presented specifically from sub-projects related to vegetation barriers within cold air drainage, the assessment of the UHI and the temporal and spatial pattern of PM loadings in the city centre. The analysis of the cold air drainage flow is investigated in two consecutive years with a clearing of vegetation stands in the beginning of the second year early in 2010. The spatial pattern of the UHI and its possible enhancement by climate change is addressed employing a unique setup using GPS devices and temperature probes fixed to

  9. Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of bacterial meningitis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaban Lamyaa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Infectious diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developing world. In Egypt bacterial diseases constitute a great burden, with several particular bacteria sustaining the leading role of multiple serious infections. This article addresses profound bacterial agents causing a wide array of infections including but not limited to pneumonia and meningitis. The epidemiology of such infectious diseases and the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis and Haemophilus influenzae are reviewed in the context of bacterial meningitis. We address prevalent serotypes in Egypt, antimicrobial resistance patterns and efficacy of vaccines to emphasize the importance of periodic surveillance for appropriate preventive and treatment strategies.

  10. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    OpenAIRE

    Galal H El-Gazzaz; Azza H El-Elemi

    2010-01-01

    Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT) abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up w...

  11. Excite City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Kiib, Hans; Jensen, Ole B.

    This paper takes its point of departure in the pressure of the experience economy on European cities - a pressure which in recent years has found its expression in a number of comprehensive transformations of the physical and architectural environments, and new eventscapes related to fun and cult...

  12. City Branding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimann, Søren; Stigel, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    Succesful corporate branding requires that questions related to communication, publicity, and organizational structures are adressed. An uncritical adoption of approaches known from tradition product branding will inevitable give problems as the properties of tangible commodities and services...... to face - these differences will inevitably hamper such branding efforts because of the consequential inconsistencies. Finally, paths to more effective city branding are indicated...

  13. Fun City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  14. FUN CITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Once the blues guitarist B.B. King sang that when he "didn't wanna live no more", he would go shopping instead. Now, however, shopping has become a lifestyle... The city of today has become "Disneyfied" and "Tivolized". It has become a scene for events. The aim of the book is to encircle and pin ...

  15. Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The case study by Ejigu reveals a tension inherent in urban development in the ... In fact, the price of viable land in the Global South cities is sometimes as high as the ... He discusses the 'piecemeal' construction practice typical of the informal ...

  16. Whose city?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Die Stadt als Beute. But where most of these films follow the money and dissect the power relations in today’s urban planning, Whose city? instead moves back in time to the almost forgotten, but defining architectural disputes of the 1990s. With the fall of the Berlin Wall and the rest of the Iron...

  17. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  18. LAND SUITABILITY SCENARIOS FOR ARID COASTAL PLAINS USING GIS MODELING: SOUTHWESTERN SINAI COASTAL PLAIN, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Wahid

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Site selection analysis was carried out to find the best suitable lands for development activities in an example of promising coastal plains, southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Two GIS models were developed to represent two scenarios of land use suitability in the study area using GIS Multi Criteria Analysis Modeling. The factors contributed in the analysis are the Topography, Land cover, Existing Land use, Flash flood index, Drainage lines and Water points. The first scenario was to classify the area according to various gradual ranges of suitability. According to this scenario, the area is classified into five classes of suitability. The percentage of suitability values are 51.16, 6.13, 22.32, 18.49 and 1.89% for unsuitable, least suitable, low suitable, suitable and high suitable, respectively. The second scenario is developed for a particular kind of land use planning; tourism and recreation projects. The suitability map of this scenario was classified into five values. Unsuitable areas represent 51.18% of the study area, least suitable 16.67%, low suitable 22.85%, suitable 8.61%, and high suitable 0.68%. The best area for locating development projects is the area surrounding El-Tor City and close to the coast. This area could be an urban extension of El-Tor City with more economical and environmental management.

  19. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Eating Disorders in Weight Management Centers in Tanta, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eladawi, Noha; Helal, Randah; Niazy, Nermeen A; Abdelsalam, Sherehan

    2018-01-05

    Eating disorders (EDs) are serious illnesses associated with medical complications and have been increased, especially among societies with an excessive concern about weight, shape, or appearance. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of EDs among the individuals attending weight management centers and its associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out among individuals attending four weight management centers in Tanta, Gharbia Governorate, Egypt during the period from July to December 2016. Precoded interview questionnaires were used to identify the following data: sociodemographic characteristics and medical history of depression or psychological disorders and the Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40) was used to assess the attitudes, behavior, and traits associated with the EDs. A total of 400 participants (112 males and 288 females) were included in the study. According to EAT-40 questionnaires, the prevalence of positive and negative EDs was 65.0% (n = 260) and 35.0% (n = 140), respectively. EDs were more likely reported by females, married singles, rural residents, those with higher education, and nonworking or part-time working patients, those who were overweight or obese, and who were suffering from depression or any psychological problems. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the independent predictors of EDs were age (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.06), nonworking (adjusted OR: 2.32) or part-time working (adjusted OR: 2.18), increased body weight (adjusted OR: 2.66 for overweight and adjusted OR: 1.24 for obese), and having a history of depression or any psychological problem (adjusted OR: 2.76). Factor analysis of EAT-40 revealed four factors (eating behavior, diet-related lifestyle, weight concern, and food preoccupation) that were responsible for 33.2% of the total variance. EDs are prevalent among individuals attending the weight management centers in a northern city in Egypt. Specific management strategies are warranted to address

  20. Metropolitan food supply in Egypt : hydroponics production of leafy vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldhauer, N.; Broek, van den W.H.A.M.; Soethoudt, J.M.; Boerrigter, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study incorporates the follow up activities of the two earlier missions of Wageningen UR/Food & Biobased Research (FBR) to Egypt, the exploration mission of 2013 (Broek and Boerrigter, 2014a) and the commitment mission of 2014 (Broek, Boerrigter and Waldhauer, 2014b), targeting the

  1. Unmet need for postpartum family planning in Alexandria, Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Amenorrhea, breast feeding, fear of side effects, discontinuation due to health concerns and pressure from the surroundings were the most common cited reasons for non-use. Conclusion: Integration of family planning education during antenatal, natal and postnatal care services in Egypt should be actively initiated. Women ...

  2. Wind atlas for Egypt: Measurements, micro- and mesoscale modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, N.G.; Hansen, J.C.; Badger, J.

    2006-01-01

    – close to consumers and the electrical grid. The KAMM simulations seem to capture the main features of the wind climate of Egypt, but in regions where the horizontal wind gradients are large, the uncertainties are large as well and additional measurements are required. The results are now published...

  3. Mapping sexual harassment in Egypt | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    28 mars 2017 ... More than 95 per cent of women in Egypt have experienced sexual harassment at least once, but many citizens there turn a blind eye when it happens. The HarassMap project is aiming to change that attitude at home and abroad, empowering women and changing the attitudes of men in the process.

  4. Egypt beyond representation : materials and materiality of Aegyptiaca Romana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müskens, S.W.G.

    2017-01-01

    This study develops and applies a new approach to study Aegyptiaca Romana from a bottom-up, Roman perspective. Current approaches to these objects are often still plagued by top-down projections of modern definitions and understandings of Egypt and Egyptian material culture onto the Roman world.

  5. Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in

  6. Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-12-01

    It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

  7. Cytochrome b conservation between six camel breeds reared in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman E. Othman

    2017-06-01

    It is concluded that cyto b sequence is highly conserved among all camel breeds reared in Egypt which belong to Camelus dromedaries in addition to the advantage of cyto b in differentiation between different livestock sources which enables it to widely use for the adulteration detection in mixed meat.

  8. Air Quality Monitoring and Information System for Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivertsen, B.

    1996-06-01

    The publication relates to the main objectives and design of a modern monitoring and information system developed in Norway. The system is to be installed in Egypt. Themes being discussed cover technical features of the system, meteorological data, environmental indicators, data transfer and quality assurance, the data bases, data presentation - graphics and GIS, and environmental information to the public. 11 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Avian fossils from the Early Miocene Moghra Formation of Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Avian remains from the Early Miocene (~17 Ma) Moghra Formation of Egypt include new records of 'waterbirds' (storks, herons, pelicans and allies) and a ratite. Only a single avian fossil has been previously reported from Wadi Moghra and, thus, additional knowledge of the avifauna complements previously documented ...

  10. Cladistic analysis of the antlions (Myrmeleontidae) of Egypt | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cladistic analysis of the antlions (Myrmeleontidae) of Egypt. Hiam El-Hamoley, Samy Zalat, Sohair Gad Allah. Abstract. Egyptian Journal of Biology Vol.2 2000: 85-96. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO ...

  11. Site selection and evaluation of nuclear power units in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnefille, R.

    1980-01-01

    The selection of sites for nuclear power units in Egypt by SOFRATOME for Nuclear Plants Authority is carried on using a method based on interaction between different criteria. The method and the main results on criterion 'radio-ecological impact' are sketched briefly [fr

  12. Numerical taxonomic studies of some tribes of Brassicaceae from Egypt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdel Khalik, K.; Maesen, van der L.J.G.; Koopman, W.J.M.; Berg, van den R.G.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic study of 45 taxa belonging to 23 genera of tribes Arabideae, Euclidieae, Hesperideae, Lunarieae, Matthioleae and Sisymbrieae of Brassicaceae from Egypt was conducted by means of numerical analysis based on sixty two morphological characters, including vegetative parts, pollen grains and

  13. African Refugees in Egypt: Trauma, Loss, and Cultural Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Hani M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of pre-immigration trauma on the acculturation process of refugees, as reflected in the manifestations of their continuing bonds with native cultures. Six African refugees who sought refuge in Egypt because of wars and political persecution were interviewed about the circumstances of their departure from their…

  14. Uruguay Round of GATT: Potential Opportunities for Egypt, The

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Oerter; William H. Meyers

    1995-01-01

    What agricultural opportunities may be opened to countries such as Egypt due to the liberalization of world trade? This paper discusses the effects of changes in market access, domestic support, and export competition outlined in the recent General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), and explains how these changes will affect world agricultural trade in rice, cotton, potatoes, tomatoes, onions, oranges, and dates.

  15. The cyst nematodes Heterodera and Globodera species in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information concerning the occurrence and distribution of the cyst nematodes (Heterodera spp. and Globodera spp.) in Egypt is important to assess their potential to cause economic damage to many crop plants. A nematode survey was conducted in Alexandria, El Behera and Sohag governorates during 2012-...

  16. Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Obesity Risk Prediction among Women of Upper Egypt: The impact of FTO ... with increased obesity risk but there is a lack of association with diabetes. ... (as certain foods or gene therapy) will prevent the percentage of women who is affected ...

  17. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  18. Egypt : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... l'érosion du tissu social et sapent son développement économique potentiel. ... Région: Middle East, Libya, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, Egypt, Yemen, Bahrain ... le pouvoir judiciaire, les institutions religieuses étatiques et les médias publics, ...

  19. Adaptations of International Standards on Educational Leadership Preparation in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purinton, Ted; Khalil, Dalia

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a case study of one leadership preparation program, utilizing US school leadership standards and practices, offered in Egypt. This case study illuminates how cultural and policy distinctions impact differing necessities of educational leadership, and how those necessities conflict or concur with the international standards and…

  20. Perfectionism and Self Concept among Primary School Children in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofaha, Gamal Al Sayed; Ramon, Patricia Robledo

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: The main purpose of this study is to explore the correlation between dimensions of perfectionism and self-concepts among school aged students in Egypt. Method: Two hundred-eighty four children (fifth and sixth graders) participated in this study. The mean age of the participants was 144.37 months, SD 6.36. Pearson correlation…

  1. Communicative English Language Teaching in Egypt: Classroom Practice and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mona Kamal; Ibrahim, Yehia A.

    2017-01-01

    Following a "mixed methods" approach, this research is designed to examine whether teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in Egypt's public schools matches the communicative English language teaching (CELT) approach. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected from 50 classroom observations, 100 questionnaire responses from…

  2. Women's Family Power and Gender Preference in Minya, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yount, Kathryn M.

    2005-01-01

    Structural and ideational theories are adapted to explore the influence of women's resources and ideational exposures on their family power and gender preferences in Minya, Egypt. Data from a household survey of 2,226 married women aged 15-54 years show that residence with marital kin decreases women's family power. Women in endogamous marriages…

  3. A new species of Antonia Loew (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Francis

    Department of Entomology, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Abstract. A new species of Bombyliidae belonging to the genus Antonia Loew is described. This species was proposed by Efflatoun Bey in an unpublished manuscript, and his proposed name (Antonia gabalensis sp. nov.) is maintained. I present ...

  4. Using Social Studies Themes to Investigate Modern Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Janie

    2010-01-01

    Many elementary teachers explore the marvels of ancient Egypt with their students, as evidenced by the numerous available websites on this topic for teaching elementary history. The drama and mystery of ancient civilizations with treasures such as mummies, King Tut, and the Giza Pyramids are intriguing to children, yet there is another layer of…

  5. Angles of Elevation of the Pyramids of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Arthur F.

    1982-01-01

    The nature and history of the construction of pyramids in Egypt is detailed. It is noted that one can only theorize about why the Egyptians used particular angles of elevation. It is thought, perhaps, that new clues will provide a clear solution to this mystery as additional artifacts and hieroglyphics are discovered. (MP)

  6. [Egypt: Selected Readings, Egyptian Mummies, and the Egyptian Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC.

    This resource packet presents information and resources on ancient Egypt. The bibliography includes readings divided into five sections: (1) "General Information" (46 items); (2) "Religion" (8 items); (3) "Art" (8 items); (4) "Hieroglyphics" (6 items); and (5) selections "For Young Readers" (11…

  7. The Great Pyramid Builders: An Integrated Theme on Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a themed classroom project designed to teach about the culture and civilization of ancient Egypt. In preparing the project, it is noted that teachers should remember that different learning styles, including activities that provide meaningful experiences, are appropriate in accommodating the various ways children learn.…

  8. from Egypt Hanaa M Shabbara*, Mahmoud S Refai and Manal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Francis

    INTRODUCTION. Pottiaceae is one of the largest families of the acrocarpous mosses. Its species represent more than 10% of the moss species known, up till now, from the whole world (Buck & Goffinet. 2000), and they are widespread in all phytogeographical regions of the world. In Egypt Pottiaceae, as in some other ...

  9. A new species of Antonia Loew (Bombyliidae, Diptera) from Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This species was proposed by Efflatoun Bey in an unpublished manuscript, and his proposed name (Antonia gabalensis sp. nov.) is maintained. I present a key to differentiate the new species from Antonia suavissima Loew, the other Antonia species represented in Egypt, together with illustrations of the genitalia and wings ...

  10. Aeromycobiota of Western Desert of Egypt | Ismail | African Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of airborne mycobiota at six different regions of Western desert (5 regions) and Eastern desert (1) of Egypt was determined using the exposed-plate method. A total of 44 genera, 102 species and one variety in addition to some unidentified yeasts and dark sterile mycelia were collected. Of the above, only 5 ...

  11. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: 10-year experience in upper Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose To evaluate our experience with 45 patients with sacrococcygeal teratoma (SCT) in our community (upper Egypt) over a period of 10 years between 2001 and 2011 and determine the outcome of the management and recommendations for treatment strategies. Patients and methods A retrospective study was ...

  12. Arab Spring Impact on Executive Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafa, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study the impact of the Arab Spring on public administration programs in Egypt, with a special focus on executive education programs. Design/Methodology/Approach: The study draws on stakeholder analysis, and uses both primary and secondary data. Findings: The author describes the impact of the Arab Spring…

  13. The northern lakes of Egypt: Encounters with a wetland environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parmenter, B.M.

    1991-01-01

    Five lakes fringe the northern coast of Egypt. Together they represent 25% of the remaining wetland habitat in the Mediterranean basin. Residents of these lakes traditionally exploited a wide variety of resources. Today these lakes face a number of threats to their existence, including large-scale reclamation and water pollution. Agricultural authorities, engineers, fishery managers, and conservationists in Egypt and abroad debate about how best to manage and develop the lake region's resources, but few of these groups understand or communicate with one another, or with residents of lake communities. This study explores how these various groups encounter the coastal lakes of Egypt, focusing particularly on Lakes Manzala and Burullus. Its purpose is to explore the ways in which the lakes, their resources and their inhabitants have been evaluated, and to analyze how underlying preconceptions, goals and structures of professional discourse influence such evaluations. The thesis is that environmental management is in reality not a rational plan but a process. Egypt is currently attempting to develop a coherent strategy to remedy its environmental problems without adversely affecting economic growth

  14. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  15. Analysis and Assessment of Land Use Change in Alexandria, Egypt Using Satellite Images, GIS, and Modelling Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou Azaz, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Alexandria is the second largest urban governorate in Egypt and has seen significant urban growth in its modern and contemporary history. This study investigates the urban growth phenomenon in Alexandria, Egypt, using the integration of remote sensing and GIS. The urban physical expansion and change were detected using Landsat satellite images. The satellite images of years 1984 and 1993 were first geo referenced, achieving a very small RMSE that provided high accuracy data for satellite image analysis. Then, the images were classified using a tailored classification scheme with accuracy of 93.82% and 95.27% for 1984 and 1993 images respectively. This high accuracy enabled detecting land use/land cover changes with high confidence using a post-classification comparison method. One of the most important findings here is the loss of cultivated land in favour of urban expansion. If the current loss rates continued, 75% of green lands would be lost by year 2191. These hazardous rates call for an urban growth management policy that can preserve such valuable resources to achieve sustainable urban development. Modelling techniques can help in defining the scenarios of urban growth. In this study, the SLEUTH urban growth model was applied to predict future urban expansion in Alexandria until the year 2055. The application of this model in Alexandria of Egypt with its different environmental characteristics is the first application outside USA and Europe. The results revealed that future urban growth would continue along the edges of the current urban extent. This means that the cultivated lands in the east and the southeast of the city will be decreased. To deal with such crisis, there is a serious need for a comprehensive urban growth management programme that can be based on the best practices in similar situations

  16. Solar cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roaf, S.; Fuentes, M.; Gupta, R.

    2005-01-01

    Over the last decade, climate change has moved from being the concern of few to a widely recognized threat to humanity itself and the natural environment. The 1990s were the warmest decade on record, and ever-increasing atmospheric levels of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO/sub 2/), could, if left unchecked lead to serious consequences globally, including increased risks of droughts, floods and storms, disruption to agriculture, rising sea levels and the spread of disease. The contribution of anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide has been recognized as the principal cause of the atmospheric changes that drive these climate trends. Globally, buildings are the largest source of indirect carbon emissions. In 2000, the UK Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution estimated that in order to stabilise carbon emissions at levels, which avoid catastrophic alterations in the climate, we would have to reduce emissions from the built environment by at least 60% by 2050 and 80% by 2100 relative to 1997 levels. Studies of the Oxford Ecohouse have demonstrated that it is not difficult to reduce carbon emissions from houses by 60% or more through energy efficiency measures, but it is only possible to reach the 90% level of reductions required by using renewable energy technologies. Solar energy technologies have been the most successfully applied of all renewable to date largely because they are the only systems that can be incorporated easily into the urban fabric. In addition, the short fossil fuel horizons that are predicted (c. 40 years left for oil and 65 years for gas) will drive the markets for solar technologies. For these reasons, the cities of the future will be powered by solar energy, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the city form and location. In recognition of the need to move rapidly towards a renewable energy future, a group of international cities, including Oxford, have started the Solar City Network. In this paper we outline the

  17. Prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir, Egypt: methodological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Tallawy H

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Hamdy El-Tallawy,1 Wafa Farghaly,1 Nabil Metwally,2 Tarek Rageh,1 Ghaydaa A Shehata,1 Reda Badry,1 Esam El Moselhy,2 Mahmoud Hassan,2 Mohamed M Sayed,3 Ahmed A Abdelwarith,1 Y Hamed,2 I Shaaban,2 Talal Mohamed,4 Mohamed Abd El Hamed,1 MR Kandil1 1Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt; 2Department of Neurology and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University (Assiut branch, Assiut, Egypt; 3Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt; 4Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine, Qena University, Qena, Egypt Abstract: Methodology and strategy play a very important role in epidemiological studies. Determination of the study area, geographical features, facilities, difficulties, and key personnel from the same area are important factors for successful methodology. Over 31 months (July 1, 2009 to January 31, 2012, a screening and an examination survey were carried out to ascertain the prevalence of epilepsy, stroke, dementia, cerebellar ataxia, migraine, cerebral palsy, Parkinsonism, chorea, athetosis, dystonia, trigeminal neuralgia, Bell's palsy, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord disorders, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders in Al Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt. A total of 33,285 people were screened by three neurologists in a door-to-door manner, including every door, using a standardized Arabic questionnaire to detect any subject with a neurological disorder. The methodological aspects of this project were carried out through eight phases: (1 data collection; (2 preparation; (3 screening; (4 case ascertainment; (5 investigations; (6 classifications; (7 data entry; and (8 statistics and tabulations. The results of this study reveal that the total prevalence of neurological disorders in Al Quseir was 4.6% and higher among females (5.2% than males (3.9%. The highest prevalence was recorded in the elderly population (60+ years [8.0%] and among the age

  18. Integrated Management Program for Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt IMPRSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, A.; El-Adham, K.

    2004-01-01

    Sealed sources are usually in capsules made of stainless steel. They are the size of a pen or a finger and contain one of hundreds of radioactive elements (e.g., Iridium, Radium) or their isotopes. They are air-tight and very durable, contain the radioactive material but not radiation. They are used in the health sector, industry, military, and universities. Incidents occurred in Met Halfa, Egypt, 2000 (Iridium-192); Goiania, Brazil, 1987 (Cesium-137); Mexico and Southwest U.S., 1977 -1984 (Cobalt-60); Peru, 1999 (Iridium-1992); Poland 2001 (Cobalt-60). The IMPRSS Mission is based on a joined partnership between the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority, the Egyptian Ministry of Health, the Sandia National Laboratories, the International Atomic Energy Agency and others. The IMPRSS Mission protects human health and the environment in Egypt from mismanaged sealed sources, is developed jointly with MOH and EAEA, provides capabilities for managing radioactive sealed sources in Egypt, increases public awareness, provides education and training, improves emergency response capabilities, develops a permanent disposal facility, ensures the program is self-sustaining and ensures close coordination with the IAEA. Infrastructure how to manage sealed sources is discussed. It includes awareness, tracking and inventory control, security, recovery, conditioning and storage, recycling and disposal. Emergency response, regulatory reform, education and training and its targets are provided. The government of Egypt can protect the people of Egypt and is ready for emergencies. Prevention is the first line of defence and detection is the second line of defence. Adequate Emergency Response saves lives and adequate control reduces risk of mismanaged uses or deliberate misuses of sources. A Cradle-to-Grave approach is built on existing capabilities at EAEA and MOH

  19. City Marketing : Case: Moscow

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzina, Irina

    2017-01-01

    Nowadays cities compete with each other for attracting investments and people, which make them implement new city marketing and city branding strategies. There are many factors that can influence city image and its perception in customers’ minds. The purpose of this thesis is to realize how a well-selected city marketing strategy benefits the city and gain a deeper understanding of city marketing possibilities. The final goal is to offer suggestions for the city of Moscow, which can help to i...

  20. Materiales vitrocerámicos a partir de lodos procedentes de una estación de depuración de aguas residuales urbanas (en la Ciudad de El-Sadat, Egipto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia-Valles, M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban wastewater security is a source of significant volumes of sludge which is to be managed. This paper presents the possibility of applying a management process based on vitrification and by which, in addition to inert contaminants in sludge, you get a ceramic material with a significant added value. As a base of different analysis of the sludges, chemical (XRF, mineralogical (XRD and thermal (DTA-TG, we obtain the original glass composition and its energy. By DTATG, dilatometry and SEM, it was determined the temperature of maximum nucleation rate, growth temperature and the morphology and size of developed nuclei, in this case are nanoscale. Briefly, it was found as the management of municipal solid waste by vitrification as an alternative to landfills and incineration.

    La depuración de las aguas residuales urbanas es fuente de importantes volúmenes de lodos los cuales es preciso gestionar. En este trabajo se expone la posibilidad de aplicarles un proceso de gestión basado en la vitrificación y mediante el cual, además de inertizar los elementos contaminantes presentes en los lodos, se obtiene un material vitrocerámico con un importante valor añadido. Partiendo de la caracterización química (FRX, mineralógica (DRX y térmica (ATD-TG de estos lodos, se determina la formulación del vidrio original y su poder energético. Mediante ATD-TG, dilatometría y MEB, se ha determinado la temperatura de máxima velocidad de nucleación y la temperatura de crecimiento así como la morfología y tamaño de los núcleos formados que, en este caso, son nanométricos. En definitiva, se ha comprobado como la gestión de los residuos sólidos urbanos mediante la vitrificación es una alternativa a los vertederos y a la incineración.

  1. Communication dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The Director General has received a Note Verbale dated 1 February 2005 from the Permanent Mission of the Arab Republic of Egypt, concerning implementation of the NPT Safeguards Agreement of Egypt, attaching the text of a Press Statement dated 25 January 2005. The Note Verbale and, as requested therein, the Press Statement, are reproduced herewith for the information of Member States

  2. Sharing City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This magazine offers an insight into the growing commercial innovation, civic movements, and political narratives surrounding sharing economy services, solutions and organisational types. It presents a cross-section of the manifold sharing economy services and solutions that can be found in Denmark....... Moreover, 15 thought leading experts - professionals and academic - have been invited to give their perspective on sharing economy for cities. This magazine touches upon aspects of the sharing economy as mobility, communities, sustainability, business development, mobility, and urban-rural relation....

  3. A serological survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in animals in the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Murad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A surveillance survey was conducted over a period of 12 months between September 2004 and August 2005 by the Tropical Medicine Department of Zagazig University in collaboration with Naval Medical Research Unit No. 3 (NAMRU-3, Egypt, to evaluate the role of ruminants as a reservoir host for Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. A total of 1 022 serum samples from 313 cattle, 264 water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis, 270 sheep and 175 goats were included in the survey. All samples were collected from the Sharkia Governorate of Egypt and were examined for anti-CCHFV IgG. Of the total of 1 022 samples examined, 32 (3.13% were positive to IgG ELISA. Out of 270 sheep examined, 17 (6.30% were confirmed to have anti-CCHFV IgG with the highest titre recorded at 1:800. However, CCHFV-specific IgG-positive cases among the cattle, buffalo and goats were 3.83%, 0.38% and 1.14%, respectively. Positive cases in age group B (=2 years old were significantly higher (p<0.001 than those in age group A (<2 years old (5.7% versus 1.6%. Belbis City was found to have the highest number of positive cases compared to all other localities (p<0.001.

  4. Team player styles, team design variables and team work effectiveness in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kot, Ghada Awed Hassan

    2001-01-01

    The literature has revealed few studies of management in Arab countries in general and particularly in Egypt. Many Egyptian organisations implemented the team concept a number of years ago, however, there do not appear to be any studies investicitaýt inc",D team work effectiveness in Egypt. The literature review and the findings of a pilot study emphasised the need for empirical research in team work in Egypt. Team effectiveness models are examined in order to identify the fact...

  5. Earthquake risk assessment of Alexandria, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Gaber, Hanan; Ibrahim, Hamza

    2015-01-01

    Throughout historical and recent times, Alexandria has suffered great damage due to earthquakes from both near- and far-field sources. Sometimes, the sources of such damages are not well known. During the twentieth century, the city was shaken by several earthquakes generated from inland dislocations (e.g., 29 Apr. 1974, 12 Oct. 1992, and 28 Dec. 1999) and the African continental margin (e.g., 12 Sept. 1955 and 28 May 1998). Therefore, this study estimates the earthquake ground shaking and the consequent impacts in Alexandria on the basis of two earthquake scenarios. The simulation results show that Alexandria affected by both earthquakes scenarios relatively in the same manner despite the number of casualties during the first scenario (inland dislocation) is twice larger than the second one (African continental margin). An expected percentage of 2.27 from Alexandria's total constructions (12.9 millions, 2006 Census) will be affected, 0.19 % injuries and 0.01 % deaths of the total population (4.1 millions, 2006 Census) estimated by running the first scenario. The earthquake risk profile reveals that three districts (Al-Montazah, Al-Amriya, and Shark) lie in high seismic risks, two districts (Gharb and Wasat) are in moderate, and two districts (Al-Gomrok and Burg El-Arab) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Al-Montazah is the highest vulnerable district whereas 73 % of expected damages were reported there. The undertaken analysis shows that the Alexandria urban area faces high risk. Informal areas and deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated earthquake risks (buildings damages) are concentrated at the most densely populated (Al-Montazah, Al-Amriya, and Shark) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts.

  6. Learning Cities as Healthy Green Cities: Building Sustainable Opportunity Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses a new generation of learning cities we have called EcCoWell cities (Economy, Community, Well-being). The paper was prepared for the PASCAL International Exchanges (PIE) and is based on international experiences with PIE and developments in some cities. The paper argues for more holistic and integrated development so that…

  7. Recovery of Rare Earth Elements from Solid Residue of El-Sela Ore, South Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.A.; Sharaby, C.M.; Elnagar, W.A.; Khawassek, Y.M.; Abdo, Sh.M.

    2015-01-01

    The study area of Gabal El Sela at Halaib environ is located at about 20 km west of Abu Ramad City, Egypt. An uraniferous ore material associated with REE was subjected to sulphuric acid leaching for extraction of uranium mainly followed by solid liquid separation through filtration then washing. Physical upgrading was performed upon the dry residue. Chemical treatment by 50% NaOH was carried out where about 250 g residue ground at - 200 mesh were agitated at solid / liquid ratio of 1/2 for one hour. The cake was filtered then dri ed at 100 º C . T he dried cake was subject ed to dissolution by conc. HCl at 80 º C at a solid / liquid ratio 1:1 for one hour . More than 98% of REE was leached out , and then the leach liquor was subjected to selective precipitation by HF and oxalic acid then calcination of REE oxalate

  8. Assessment of Atmospheric heavy metal deposition in North Egypt aerosols using neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Araby, E.H.; Abd El-Wahab, M.; Diab, H.M.; El-Desouky, T.M.; Mohsen, M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the current level of atmospheric heavy metal pollution of aerosols in different cities of North Egypt using the neutron activation analysis and optical emission inductively coupled plasma techniques. The results revealed that the highest concentrations of particulate matter PM 10 and total suspended particulate matter were close to industrial areas. From the results of the enrichment factor calculations, the most significant elements of anthropogenic origin are Ba, Sb, Ce and Zn. - Highlights: → Average concentration of Cd using OE-ICP is below detection limit for all the samples. → Maximum average concentration of Pb in PM10 and TSP is 5425 and 570.3, respectively. → Concentration of 20 elements in PM 10 and TSP aerosols are determined using the NAA. → EF revealed that Pb, Ba, Br, Ce, Hf, La Sb and Zn are of anthropogenic origin.

  9. Regional and national radiation protection activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomaa, M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation protection activities in Egypt go back to 1957 where the Egyptian Atomic Energy Commission (EAEC) Law was issued. Radiation protection and civil defense department was one of EAEC eighth departments. Ionizing radiation law was issued in 1960 and its executive regulation in 1962. The main aim of the present work is to through some light on the current radiation protection activities in Egypt. This includes not only the role of governmental organizations but also to the non governmental organizations. Currently a new Nuclear Safety law is understudy. Regional activities such as holding the second all African IRPA regional radiation protection congress which was held in April 2007 and national training and workshops are held regularly through EAEA, AAEA and MERRCAC. (author)

  10. Categorization of In-use Radioactive Sealed Sources in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasan, M.A.; Mohamed, Y.T.; El Haleim, K.A.

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive sealed sources have widespread applications in industry, medicine, research and education. While most sources are of relatively low activity, there are many of medium or very high activity. The mismanagement of high activity sources is responsible for most of the radiological accidents that result in loss of life or disabling injuries. Because of the variety of applications and activities of radioactive sources, a categorization system is necessary so that the controls that are applied to the sources are adequate with its radiological risk. The aim of this work is to use the international Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) categorization system to provide a simple, logical system for grading radioactive sealed sources in Egypt. The categorizations of radioactive sealed sources are based on their potential to cause harm to human health. This study revealed that total of 1916 sources have been used in Egypt in the different applications with a total activity of 89400 Ci according to available data in October 2005. (authors)

  11. Entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Bierbach, Sandra

    2016-04-01

    The study investigates the entropy of Egypt's virtual water trade gravity distribution, in order to provide a chart of Egypt's embodied water balance in agricultural trade, in relation to distances with its major counterparties. Moreover, our calculations on the amount of the embodied water traded between Egypt and each of its partners take place according to a combination of available data on the blue, green and grey water footprints as well as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) database of traded amounts per crop type. A study on the virtual water trade gravity, enables us to enrich former related studies (Fracasso 2014; Fracasso, Sartori and Schiavo 2014) via examining Egypt's water supply dependence on the Nile River and if comparative advantages -purely from the side of water quantities- can be identified via recognizing which water footprint categories are particularly high. Additionally, this methodology can comprise -from a fundamental level- a guide for revealing the importance of water footprint types for Egypt's agricultural sector; hence, Egypt's potential comparative advantages, as far as quantitative water endowments are exclusively concerned (without consideration of water or crop prices). Although it is pointed out very correctly by various authors (Antonelli and Sartori 2014) that the virtual water trade concept does not incorporate many important aspects of water supply -such as heavy water price subsidizing- to be used accurately for the identification of comparative advantages, we consider that the purely quantitative examination can provide strong fundamental indications -especially for green and grey water footprints, which are hypothesized to be less sensitive to subsidizing. In overall, this effect can very well provide a primary indication on the organization of the global alimentation trade network (Yang et al. 2006). The gravity equation used contains water footprint data for the 15 top traded crops and the distances for Egypt

  12. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Potatoes Irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.; El-Hayawan, H.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing, economic and financial feasibility of a project for potatoes irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of potatoes was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method, distribution channels and packing materials. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of a pallet conveyor unit for the irradiation of potatoes was also carried out . The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit - cost radio , payback period, average rate of return and net present value . The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of potatoes in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  13. Epidemiological review of human and animal fascioliasis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Maha F M

    2008-06-01

    One of the neglected food-borne-diseases in the international public health arena is fascioliasis. It is a serious infectious parasitic disease infecting humans and animals worldwide and tops all the zoonotic helminthes. Human cases are being increasingly reported from Europe, the Americas, Oceania, Africa and Asia. Hence, human fascioliasis is considered now as a zoonosis of major global and regional importance. In Egypt, animal and human fascioliasis is an endemic clinical and epidemiological health problem. Doubtless, understanding the epidemiology of the parasitic diseases and factors affecting their incidence provides the foundation upon which effective prevention and control programs should be established. This article reviews the history, life cycles, transmission, incidence, geographical distribution, and environmental and human determinants that contribute to the epidemiological picture of fascioliasis with special reference to Egypt.

  14. Hopes for a New Energy Independency in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auge, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    The recent discovery of the giant Zohr's gas field will drastically change the energy future of Egypt, which is today increasingly dependent on imports to meet its growing domestic demand. The country can foresee a possible gas independency around 2019 and could even expect to export Liquefied Natural Gas again within the next decade. The field development will probably be very rapid as Egyptian authorities gave all the necessary guarantees, providing the operator Eni with a long term visibility. The state will be the sole customer and the gas price was negotiated for the whole contract period. The very long oil and gas history in Egypt can facilitate the development of a huge project such as Zohr thanks to the high skilled civil servants working in the different bodies in charge of the sector, especially when the Egyptian president Abdel Fattah al-Sissi considers energy security as a state priority

  15. Marketing and Economic Analysis of Garlic Irradiation in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Khateeb, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this work is to examine the marketing , economic and financial feasibility of a project for garlic irradiation in Egypt. The Egyptian market of garlic was described and analyzed considering the production size distributed over several years, methods of preservation and storage, percentage of loss and cost for each method and distribution channels. The financial and economic analysis of the establishment of A tote Box unit for the irradiation of garlic was also carried out. The following investment criteria were utilized for the commercial evaluation : benefit-cost ratio, payback period, average rate of return and net present value. The results of this analysis showed that the installation of a unit for the irradiation of garlic in Egypt would be economically viable. The unit cost of irradiation would decline if the irradiator is used as a multipurpose facility

  16. Assessment of 226Ra, 228Ra and 40K contents in the Egyptian bottled natural water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Afifi, E.M.; Hilal, M.A.; Khalifa, S.M.; Aly, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    The activity concentrations of 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra and 4 0 and k in different brands of the bottled egyptian natural water of different origins obtained from four regions, have been analyzed nondestructively by gamma- ray spectrometry. The study covers nine brands of natural water commonly used mainly for drinking in egypt. The results showed, concentrations up to 184, 156 and 1700 mBq I - 1 for 2 26Ra, 2 28Ra and 4 0K, respectively, in one brand of the natural water from water from Siwa oasis. Whereas, lower activity concentrations of 2 26Ra and 2 28Ra were found in one brand of these natural waters from El sadat region. The activity concentration of 4 0K was found to be in the background range in the brands from El sadat, kafr El arbein and beilbeis regions. The committed effective doses reached 1.9 x 10 - 2 m Sy Y - 1 for ingestion of 2 26Ra and 2 28Ra for one liter per day, respectively, which are lower than the standard permissible limit by the WHO and IAEA. However, it is recommended to moderate drinking of bottled natural water to avoid the accumulation effect of radioactive nuclides especially radium

  17. Branding Cities, Changing Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    Societal changes are seldom discussed in the literature on city branding. The time element is important because it highlights the fluctuating reality of society. The city brand message freezes the place but in fact, the city branding exercise is a continuous process. Society emerges too. City...... brands are supposed to accentuate the uniqueness of the city, be built from the bottom-up and reflect the city's identity. This paper highlights three paradoxes, pointing out that city branding processes can also make cities more alike, bring about societal changes and forge new city identities. A city...... branding campaign does not just present the city, it may change the city. The relationships between the branding exercise and the city are intertwined in the evolution of the place....

  18. Political Culture and the Nature of Political Participation in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    political socialization . Political-cultural values are gradually internalized within the society and political behavior is largely reflective of...the extent to which the regime used education as a means of political socialization : Socialism is articulated as a Muslim theory of socialism. The head... political socialization except for a brief period during the mobilization program of Ali Sabri. Egypt’s party system has been more relevant for

  19. Inflation and Inflation Uncertainty Revisited: Evidence from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesbah Fathy Sharaf

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The welfare costs of inflation and inflation uncertainty are well documented in the literature and empirical evidence on the link between the two is sparse in the case of Egypt. This paper investigates the causal relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty in Egypt using monthly time series data during the period January 1974–April 2015. To endogenously control for any potential structural breaks in the inflation time series, Zivot and Andrews (2002 and Clemente–Montanes–Reyes (1998 unit root tests are used. The inflation–inflation uncertainty relation is modeled by the standard two-step approach as well as simultaneously using various versions of the GARCH-M model to control for any potential feedback effects. The analyses explicitly control for the effect of the Economic Reform and Structural Adjustment Program (ERSAP undertaken by the Egyptian government in the early 1990s, which affected inflation rate and its associated volatility. Results show a high degree of inflation–volatility persistence in the response to inflationary shocks. Granger-causality test along with symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-M models indicate a statistically significant bi-directional positive relationship between inflation and inflation uncertainty, supporting both the Friedman–Ball and the Cukierman–Meltzer hypotheses. The findings are robust to the various estimation methods and model specifications. The findings of this paper support the view of adopting inflation-targeting policy in Egypt, after fulfilling its preconditions, to reduce the welfare cost of inflation and its related uncertainties. Monetary authorities in Egypt should enhance the credibility of monetary policy and attempt to reduce inflation uncertainty, which will help lower inflation rates.

  20. Microbiological testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zeitoun, Hend; Kassem, Mervat; Raafat, Dina; AbouShlieb, Hamida; Fanaki, Nourhan

    2015-01-01

    Background Microbial contamination of pharmaceuticals poses a great problem to the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, especially from a medical as well as an economic point of view. Depending upon the product and its intended use, the identification of isolates should not merely be limited to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) indicator organisms. Results Eighty-five pre-used non-sterile pharmaceuticals collected from random consumers in Egypt were examined for the eventual presence of b...

  1. A comparison of higher education reforms in Egypt and Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Kohstall, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis examines the impact of international aid agencies on the reform agenda of North African countries. It analyses and compares the paths of higher education reform (1997-2007) in Egypt and Morocco, using analytical instruments pertaining to new approaches in public policy theory. For a long time, both countries appeared relatively immune against reform pressure from outside. Still, the analysis of their reform processes shows that the internationalization of higher educa...

  2. Sharia-compliant hotels in Egypt: Concept and chanllenges

    OpenAIRE

    Saad, Hesham Ezzat; Ali, Badran Nabil; ABDEL-ATI, Abdel- aleem Magdy

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to provide greater clearness for the meaning of the ShariaCompliant Hotel (SCH) and identify the challenges facing the development of this type of hotels in Egypt. To fulfill these objectives, Delphi technique, as a method of refining group opinions, was used. The study used two rounds e-mailed questionnaires. Findings indicated that the most important defining features of SCH were; no alcohol or pork allowed, gender segregation was significant and halal food product...

  3. Safety philosophy for nuclear power plants in egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mervat, S.A.; Hammad, F.H.

    1988-01-01

    This work establishes the basic principles of a safety philosophy for nuclear power plants in egypt. A number of deterministic requirements stemming the multiple barriers and the defense-in-depth concept are emphasised. other requirements in the areas of siting, operational safety, safety analysis, special issues, and experience feedback are also identified. The role of international cooperation in nuclear safety technology-transfer and nuclear emergencies is highlighted. In addition probabilistic ally based guidelines are set for acceptable risk and dose limits

  4. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Walid El; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indic...

  5. Status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt is reviewed. There are nine institutes with plasma research activities. The largest is the Atomic energy Authority (AEA), which has activities in fundamental plasma studies, fusion technology, plasma and laser applications, and plasma simulation. The experiments include Theta Pinches, a Z Pinch, a coaxial discharge, a glow discharge, a CO 2 laser, and the EGYPTOR tokamak. (author)

  6. MPR multi-purpose reactor to be built in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Competing with two enterprises from the US and Canada and with a French-German consortium, INVAP won a bid for the supply of a research reactor to Egypt. This is the most important contract ever made by Argentina involving the supply, on a turnkey operation, of a complex facility that incorporates advanced technologies developed in our country and for a sum of approximately 80 million US dollars

  7. Box City Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Understanding the Built Environment, Prairie Village, KS.

    This curriculum packet contains two lesson plans about cities and architecture intended for use with students in upper elementary grades and middle schools. The first lesson plan, "City People, City Stories" (Jan Ham), states that understanding architecture and cities must begin with an understanding of the people of the city. The children create…

  8. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-24

    A \\'smart city\\' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis for providing essential services to residents. Yanbu Industrial City- Smart City Project - First large scale smart city in The kingdom.

  9. Violence, abuse, alcohol and drug use, and sexual behaviors in street children of Greater Cairo and Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Khaled H; Suliman, El Daw A

    2010-07-01

    To measure the prevalence of HIV/AIDS risk behaviors and related factors in a large, probability-based sample of boys and girls aged 12-17 years living on the streets of Egypt's largest urban centers of Greater Cairo and Alexandria. Time-location sampling (TLS) was used to recruit a cross-sectional sample of street children. Procedures entailed using key informants and field observation to create a sampling frame of locations at predetermined time intervals of the day, where street children congregate in the two cities, selecting a random sample of time-locations from the complete list, and intercepting children in the selected time-locations to assess eligibility and conduct interviews. Interviews gathered basic demographic information, life events on the street (including violence, abuse, forced sex), sexual and drug use behaviors, and HIV/AIDS knowledge. A total of 857 street children were enrolled in the two cities, with an age, sex, and time-location composition matching the sampling frame. The majority of these children had faced harassment or abuse (93%) typically by police and other street children, had used drugs (62%), and, among the older adolescents, were sexually active (67%). Among the sexually active 15-17-year-olds, most reported multiple partners (54%) and never using condoms (52%). Most girls (53% in Greater Cairo and 90% in Alexandria) had experienced sexual abuse. The majority of street children experienced more than one of these risks. Overlaps with populations at highest risk for HIV were substantial, namely men who have sex with men, commercial sex workers, and injection drug users. Our study using a randomized TLS approach produced a rigorous, diverse, probability-based sample of street children and documented very high levels of multiple concurrent risks. Our findings strongly advocate for multiple services including those addressing HIV and STI prevention and care, substance use, shelters, and sensitization of authorities to the plight of

  10. Future of Energy in Egypt and the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Nokraschy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available If the whole world, which Egypt is a part of, continues business as usual in the field of electricitygeneration, namely, using the same regimes adopts today, burning fossil fuels and Uranium fission,both fuels will run out within sixty years at most and the world will definitely return to the Stone Age.Shall this be the end of the Egyptian people … the history makers?Generating energy is the next necessity to human life after water and food, since it is the majorstimulus of development. However, what is the aim of development if it is only momentary; thenfollowed by an endless abyss?Shall we wait till fossil and nuclear fuels run out? Jostling over the remaining fuel will certainly befierce and we will pay a high price for it, a matter that will subsequently lead to demolishing theingredients of development.Considering that oil is now dominating our way of life, it shall be wise to start immediately planning forthe post-oil age, provided that it is a sustainable plan set up to continue its validity as long as humanslive on this planet; this cannot be achieved except if we shift to renewable energies.Looking at Egypt and its available renewable energy sources, it becomes evident that the solarenergy, particularly in Upper Egypt, can give more than the present and future needs of the Egyptiansociety and even cover the demand of the whole world for electricity.

  11. Dimensions of quality of antenatal care service at Suez, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel Rahman El Gammal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The 5 th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC, quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider′s satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ° 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians′ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement.

  12. Nuclear electricity for sustainable development: Egypt a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comsan, M.N.H. [Projects and Consultation Unit, Afaq Scientific, 12 Qurash St., 6th Zone, Nasr City, Cairo 11371 (Egypt)

    2010-09-15

    Egypt is a fast growing country with 78.9 million population and annual per capita installed power 0.286 MW as of July 2008. Moderate to mature population and economic growth trends forecast population and annual per capita installed power to reach 111 millions and 0.63 MW, respectively by 2032; and 128 millions at per capita power of 1.02 MW by 2052. With these trends in consideration installed electricity generation capacity are forecasted at 70 GW by 2032 and 132 GW by 2052 as compared to the 2008 installed power of 22.6 GW. Meeting these demands is almost impossible using known limited national fossil fuel reserves. Current electricity generation policy exhausts about 65% of country's total fossil production. Crude oil reserves are expected to deplete by 2012, while gas reserves will be overstrained starting from 2030. A major policy shift towards the use of non-fossil resources is to be adopted. In the article Egypt's major primary energy resources are evaluated. Electricity generation plans till 2022 are presented and an electricity generation strategy based on gradual introduction of nuclear power starting from 2018 is outlined. A balanced generation mix based on 72.7% fossil, 13% nuclear and 14.3% renewables is targeted by 2052. The mix is supposed to meet Egypt's electricity needs by 2052 and to improve country's energy sustainability. (author)

  13. Women's Agency and Fertility: Recent Evidence from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2017-08-01

    Fertility reached a two decade high of 3.5 births per woman in Egypt in 2014. Lower status of women is associated with higher fertility. Majority of the studies on women's agency and fertility rely on individual level cross-sectional data from South Asia, which limits the understanding of variation among communities and the direction of the relationship between women's agency and fertility in other global contexts. This study examines the relationship between women's agency and fertility longitudinally and among communities in the most populous country in the Middle East - Egypt. For 3,795 ever married women 15 to 49 years old in the 2006 and 2012 Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey, multilevel models are estimated for having given birth and number of births between 2006 and 2012. Contrary to expectation, women with more agency with greater participation in household decision-making and mobility are, in fact, more likely to have had a birth and have a greater total number of births. Only women with more egalitarian attitudes are associated with fewer births. Community membership explains 5% of the variation in fertility. Since social norms in Egypt favor a higher number of births and labor market participation among women is low, women with agency could be fulfilling social expectations of having children and choosing to have more children.

  14. Prospects of effective microorganisms technology in wastes treatment in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emad A Shalaby

    2011-01-01

    Sludge dewatering and treatment may cost as much as the wastewater treatment. Usually large proportion of the pollutants in wastewater is organic. They are attacked by saprophytic microorganisms, i.e. organisms that feed upon dead organic matter. Activity of organisms causes decomposition of organic matter and destroys them, where the bacteria convert the organic matter or other constituents in the wastewater to new cells, water, gases and other products. Demolition activities, including renovation/remodeling works and complete or selective removal/demolishing of existing structures either by man-made processes or by natural disasters, create an extensive amount of wastes. These demolition wastes are characterized as heterogeneous mixtures of building materials that are usually contaminated with chemicals and dirt. In developing countries, it is estimated that demolition wastes comprise 20% to 30% of the total annual solid wastes. In Egypt, the daily quantity of construction and demolition (C&D) waste has been estimated as 10 000 tones. That is equivalent to one third of the total daily municipal solid wastes generated per day in Egypt. The zabbaliin have since expanded their activities and now take the waste they collect back to their garbage villages where it is sorted into recyclable components: paper, plastics, rags, glass, metal and food. The food waste is fed to pigs and the other items are sold to recycling centers. This paper summarizes the wastewater and solid wastes management in Egypt now and future.

  15. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  16. Hotline in Egypt marks change in government attitude to AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The first 24-hour AIDS hotline in the Arab world will open in Cairo, Egypt, in October 1995. The opening of the new service marks a change in attitude on the part of the Egyptian government, which has maintained a discreet AIDS control program in the past. Approval from religious leaders was necessary for the new program to begin; the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) played a prominent role in negotiations. The "Counsel and Hot Line Centre," which will be based in Imbala district, will employ 19 people, including two doctors and two psychologists. The Centre was funded with US$300,000 from the Ford Foundation. Currently, 478 persons with HIV infections and 110 people with AIDS have been reported. The ministry estimates that there are 5000-7000 persons with HIV infections in Egypt. Although these figures were greeted with suspicion by organizations outside of Egypt, subsequent testing has indicated low prevalence rates for this country, despite high tourism and a large population of migrant workers.

  17. A background to the feminist movement in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoodfar, H

    1992-01-01

    The origins of the feminist movement in Egypt can be traced back to the social restructuring that occurred during the reign of Mohammed Ali (1805-48). At that time, a debate raged over whether female education was essential to national development. Reformers such as Kassim Amin argued in favor of education for all women and condemned polygamy, supporting their arguments with references to the Koran. Women from the upper classes used their wealth, over which Muslim law gives them full control, to found hospitals, schools, and training centers. By 1914, there were 14 magazines devoted to women's issues. Women participated in anticolonial movements and nationalist party activities while continuing to advocate improvements in women's status. In 1924, Egypt became the 1st Islamic country to deveil women without state intervention. The Egyptian Feminist Party was founded in 1923, and the Women's Political Party was established in 1942 to coordinate the fight for women's equality and the revision of family law. Women's full political rights gained recognition when Egypt won independence in 1956, and the 1st female Minister, Hekmat Abu-Zaid, was appointed in 1962. Ironically, the feminist movement stagnated in the 1st few decades after independence as women's organizations became coopted into the state. The movement has been revitalized, however, by Islamic attacks on women's rights.

  18. Breast cancer: surgery at the South egypt cancer institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Ahmed A S; Salem, Mohamed Abou Elmagd; Abbass, Hamza

    2010-09-30

    Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men) among the Egypt National Cancer Institute's (NCI) series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI) hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females); 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  19. Breast Cancer: Surgery at the South Egypt Cancer Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A.S. Salem

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequent malignant tumor in women worldwide. In Egypt, it is the most common cancer among women, representing 18.9% of total cancer cases (35.1% in women and 2.2% in men among the Egypt National Cancer Institute’s (NCI series of 10,556 patients during the year 2001, with an age-adjusted rate of 49.6 per 100,000 people. In this study, the data of all breast cancer patients presented to the surgical department of the South Egypt cancer Institute (SECI hospital during the period from Janurary 2001 to December 2008 were reviewed .We report the progress of the availability of breast cancer management and evaluation of the quality of care delivered to breast cancer patients. The total number of patients with a breast lump presented to the SECI during the study period was 1,463 patients (32 males and 1431 females; 616 patients from the total number were admitted at the surgical department .There was a decline in advanced cases. Since 2001, facilities for all lines of comprehensive management have been made accessible for all patients. We found that better management could lead to earlier presentation, and better overall outcome in breast cancer patients.The incidence is steadily increasing with a tendency for breast cancer to occur in younger age groups and with advanced stages.

  20. EARTH OBSERVATION ACTIVITIES AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. El-Magd

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was one of the first developing countries in Africa that used earth observation and remote sensing in various applications since 1970s. It has grown up in the last decades to build its own capacity in space science and technology that ended up by launching earth observation satellites. At the same time Egypt continued to develop the capacity in EO applications and contribute to the national development plans. In this domain NARSS, the governmental research institute that lead the EO and space applications has completed many research and development projects in EO applications in mineral resources exploration, coastal and marine resources, air quality, water resources management, food security, etc. This was via operational projects with the stakeholders and users to ensure sustainability and operation of the services. For example, NARSS has developed an operational system to monitor the national crop rice using EO information that capable to provide the actual land planted with rice and predict the yield. The system has enabled to provide recommendations for other plots of land that suitable for rice plantation. In the area of environmental hazards, many projects on the flash floods and the vulnerability to flash flood hazards were developed providing decision makers with vulnerability maps and Atlases on national level. Further details on the EO activities and future plans at NARSS, Egypt will be presented in this paper.

  1. Dimensions of Quality of Antenatal Care Sservice at Suez, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman El Gammal, Hanan Abbas Abdo Abdel

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The 5th millennium development goal aims at reducing maternal mortality by 75% by the year 2015. According to the World Health Organization, there was an estimated 358,000 maternal deaths globally in 2008. Developing countries accounted for 99% of these deaths of which three-fifths occurred in Sub-Saharan Africa. In primary health care (PHC), quality of antenatal care is fundamental and critically affects service continuity. Nevertheless, medical research ignores the issue and it is lacking scientific inquiry, particularly in Egypt. Aim of the Study: The aim of the following study is to assess the quality of antenatal care in urban Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional primary health care center (PHCC) based study conducted at five PHCC in urban Suez, Egypt. The total sample size collected from clients, physicians and medical records. Parameters assessed auditing of medical records, assessing provider and pregnant women satisfaction. Results: Nearly 97% of respondents were satisfied about the quality of antenatal care, while provider's satisfaction was 61% and for file, auditing was 76.5 ± 5.6. Conclusion: The present study shows that client satisfaction, physicians’ satisfaction and auditing of medical record represent an idea about opportunities for improvement. PMID:25374861

  2. Prevalence of dementia in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt [Corrigendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Tallawy HN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El Tallawy HN, Farghly WM, Badry R, et al. Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2014;9:9–14.On page 13, before the Disclosure statement the following section was omitted.AcknowledgmentWe acknowledge LundBeck Pharmaceutical company, Middle East for their support in conducting this research.Read the original article

  3. Geophysical investigation to reveal the groundwater condition at new Borg El-Arab industrial city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhussein A. Basheer

    2014-12-01

    The present study embraces Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES’es and Time Domain Electromagnetic sounding (TEM to investigate the study area. The study aims to delineate the main subsurface conditions from the viewpoint of groundwater location, depth and water quality. Analysis and interpretation of the obtained results reveal that the subsurface consists of five geoelectrical layers with a gentle general slope toward the Mediterranean Sea. The third and the fourth layers in the succession are suggested to be the two water bearing formations of which the third layer is saturated with fresh water overlying saline water at the bottom of the fourth one. It is worth mentioning that the fresh water depth varies between 50 and 354 m under the ground surface. The thickness of the fresh water aquifer varies from 9.5 to 66 m; and the saline water depth varies between 116 and 384 m below the ground surface, the thickness of saline water aquifer differs from 34 to 90.5 m.

  4. Frequency of bedwetting among primary school children in Benha city, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf H. Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Conclusion: The prevalence of NE in Qaluobia governorate is slightly higher than some other areas of the world. The frequency of enuresis declines by aging process. The primary as well as the secondary enuresis is common among the selected age group. The different strategies of treatment for nocturnal enuresis play an important role in relieving such complaint, and positive history of enuresis through the family may worsen the problem of enuresis.

  5. Microearthquake studies in Egypt carried out by the geological survey of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulos, Fouad K.; Morgan, Paul; Toppozada, Tousson R.

    1987-07-01

    Extensive microearthquake studies have been conducted in Egypt as a joint project between scientists from the Egyptian Geological Survey and Mining Authority (EGSMA) and U.S. scientists. At this stage, a great part of the data has been analyzed and two intensively active areas have been located: one in the Abu Dabbab area of the Eastern Desert, the second at the mouth of the Gulf of Suez near Gubal Island (Daggett et al., 1980). Both sites have been reported to be the epicenters of large earthquakes in 1955 and 1969, respectively. A few scattered earthquakes have also been located in the northern part of the Red Sea, some of which lie along its median axis (Daggett et al., 1986) adding to evidence for the medial opening of the northern Red Sea. After the occurrence of an earthquake (M = 5.5) in the Aswan region on 14 November 1981, continuous recording of the many aftershocks was carried out by EGSMA for about seven months from December 1981 to July 1982, when the temporary network was replaced by a network of telemetered seismographs installed and operated by Helwan Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics in cooperation with scientists from Lamont and Doherty Geological Observatory (LDGO). The majority of epicenters are concentrated in the vicinity of G. Marawa about 65 km upstream of Aswan Dam, along the E-W Kalabsha fault. The observed focal mechanism is consistent with a right-lateral strike-slip motion on the Kalabsha fault. Analysis of Aswan microearthquakes has been done by EGSMA in cooperation with scientists from California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG).

  6. Liver transplantation in Egypt from West to East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galal H El-Gazzaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Galal H El-Gazzaz1, Azza H El-Elemi21Department of General Surgery, 2Department of Forensic Medicine and Ethics, Suez Canal University, Ismailia, EgyptBackground: Egyptian patients with end-stage liver disease need to seek whole cadaveric liver transplantation (CLT abroad. We studied the outcome of Egyptian patients who underwent CLT in China.Methods: Between 2004–2006, 22 patients who underwent CLT in China and attended two liver surgery outpatient clinics in Egypt for follow-up were included in the study. Demographic, preoperative, postoperative, and follow-up data after coming back from China were reviewed.Results: For 22 patients of median age 48 years (30–62 and with BMI 27.5 ± 6.2, the median follow-up was 23.5 months (range 1–48; 18 patients were males. Hepatitis C (HCV-cirrhosis alone or with schistosomiasis was the main indication for CLT (n = 12; Hepatitis B (HBV-cirrhosis was the indication for transplantation in two patients, HCV-cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC in six, HBV-cirrhosis with HCC in one, and both HBV- and HCV-related cirrhosis with HCC in another. There were eight deaths, one as a result of primary nonfunction, one because of postoperative bleeding, two because of recurrent HCV, and four because of recurrent HCC. Overall survival at one and three years was 68.5% and 64%, respectively, and 50% and 37.5% for HCC patients, respectively, while three-year survival was 80% for hepatitis patients. Twelve patients (54% developed complications. Biliary complications occurred in 45% of cases.Conclusion: CLT tourism to China raises serious concerns regarding selection criteria and ethical issues. Furthermore, the negative impact of this practice on the successful setting up of LT programs in Egypt must be addressed carefully. In Egypt efforts should be directed to get legalization for CLT.Keywords: hepatitis B, hepatitis C, end-stage liver disease, transplantation, Egypt, China

  7. Women in Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Liz

    1982-01-01

    Suggesting that women are at a disadvantage in cities and towns, discusses experiences of women at home, working women, women traveling, shopping, and growing old in cities. Includes suggestions for studying women in cities. (JN)

  8. City Revenues and Expenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — City Revenues and Expenses from the Operating Budget from 2012 to Present, updated every night from the City's JD Edwards ledger.

  9. Pittsburgh City Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Pittsburgh City FacilitiesIncludes: City Administrative Buildings, Police Stations, Fire Stations, EMS Stations, DPW Sites, Senior Centers, Recreation Centers, Pool...

  10. DOP prediction over Egypt from SP3 file for long-term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly M. El-naggar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An important error source in satellite surveying deals with the geometry of the visible satellite constellation at the time of observation. This is similar to the situation in traditional surveys, where the geometry of the network of observed ground stations affects the accuracies of computed positions. Dilution of precision (DOP is an indicator of the quality of the geometry of the visible satellite constellation. The value of DOP is very important during observation sessions, because many projects have special requirements regarding the positioning accuracy. These special requirements will force the surveyor to hold the survey mission until the value of dilution of precision at the time of observation meets the project’s requirements. This means that the GPS mission planning is an essential task before any GPS survey. The task of this paper is related to The GPS mission planning which the values of dilution of precisions and number of visible satellites should be predicted for the observation points, this task should determine the best observation periods which meet the project requirements. This paper explore the process of DOP prediction for long term by using Standard Product 3 (SP3 file and attempt to mathematically or statistically bound the navigation error. In this paper the actual orbital period of GPS satellite was defined and the DOP contour map over Egypt was constructed. By using these contour maps one can predict the DOP by knowing the city name.

  11. Local enhancement of the natural radionuclides in beach sand in Al-ar ish, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seddek, M.K.; Ragab, H.S.; Sharshar, T.; Mahmoud, K.R.; Badran, H.M.; Elnimr, T.

    2005-01-01

    Radionuclidic concentrations in Al-Arish city area, north Sinai, Egypt, were measured. The activities of the 232 Th and 238 U series in soil samples from two locations in harbor area and a location ∼ 3 km east the harbor were higher than those from other sites, with activities of 81.610.7, 50.6 ± 0.5, and 24.8 ± 0.4 Bq/kg 228 ,for ' Rn and 98.9 ± 1.3, 67.2±1.1, and 52.2±0.8 Bq/kg for 8 Ac. The average contents for the other sites were 8. 7.2 and 7.5 ± 6.7 Bq/kg for 222 Rn and 228 Ac, respectively. No significant difference in the 40 K activity was found between these two groups. The measured depth profiles in the site with the highest activity are studied. Samples with the smallest grain size (<0.2 mrr) were found to contain the highest level of activities, due to its high content of black sand

  12. Relation between uranium mineralization and structural features, Gebel Gattar, north eastern desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salman, A.B.; Shalaby, M.H.; Abuzaid, M.M.; Ragab, A.

    1998-01-01

    Gebel Gattar area is situated in the northern Eastern Desert of Egypt, SW Hurghada city and is considered as an area of high potentialities for uranium deposits. The area is covered by Hammamat sediments and Gattarian granites. The Hammamat sediments are dissected by different types of dykes, while Gebel Gattar granites are cut only by basic dykes. These granites are mentioned as the younger pink granites, perthitic leucogranites, calc-alkaline and within plate granites. The structural deformations of the study area are represented by primary structures and secondary ones. The most prevailing structures are folding, faulting and jointing. The faults, especially those trending in the NNE-SSW and N-S directions played as pass ways to the ascending uranium-bearing hydrothermal solutions carrying uranium mineralizations. Most of them are located within a large pull apart basin. It is found from the relation between structures and uranium mineralization within the highly pro missing shear zones that uranium mineralizations are located within a large pull-apart basin, having about 2 km length and 0.5 km width. This idea is based up on the distribution of uranium mineralized lenses as shown in a block diagram. This conclusion is based on the structural framework of the area, the shape of mineralization and its distribution and their mutual relationships of Gl, Gll and GVl shear zones

  13. Phylogenetic characterization of two echinoid species of the southeastern Mediterranean, off Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Soliman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the phylogenetics of two sea urchin species, Arbacia lixula and Paracentrotus lividus from the Mediterranean Sea. Specimens were collected from the east coast of Alexandria City, Egypt. Pigmentation examination showed four sympatric color morphotypes (black, purple, reddish brown, and olive green. Mitochondrial DNA was extracted from specimens and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI and 16S ribosomal RNA (16S were sequenced. The results showed that all black specimens constituted the species A. lixula. All other colors belonged to P. lividus, with no apparent differentiation between color morphotypes. Moreover, P. lividus showed high haplotype diversity (COI; H = 0.9500 and 16S; H = 0.8580 and low values of nucleotide diversity (COI; π = 0.0075 and 16S; π = 0.0049, indicating a high degree of polymorphism within this species. This study represents the first attempt at DNA barcoding of echinoid species in the southeast Mediterranean off the Egyptian coast, and will provide a base for future phylogenetic analyses.

  14. Holocene evolution of Dahab coastline - Gulf of Aqaba, Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torab, Magdy

    2018-03-01

    Dahab is a little Bedouin-village in Sinai Peninsula on the east coast of the Gulf of Aqaba and it lies approximately 90 km north of Sharm-el-Sheikh City. Dahab means "gold" in the Arabic language; over the past 20 years it has become one of the most visited tourist sites in Egypt. The basement complex is composed mostly of biotite aplite-granite, mica-aplite granite, granodiorite, quartz diorite, alaskite, and diorite. This composition correlates to similar igneous rocks in the most southern areas of Sinai and the Red Sea. Wadi Dahab is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks and the coastline is formed of fragments of its rocks mixed with fragments of coral reef. The morphology of Dahab's coastline is characterized by a hooked marine spit composed of fluvial sediments carried by marine currents from the mouth of Wadi Dahab. This spit encloses a shallow lagoon, but the active deposition on the lagoon bottom will turn it into saline marsh. This paper investigates the evolution of the Dahab spit and lagoon during the Holocene and over the last 100 years, as well as the potential impacts of future management of the coastal area. The coastline mapping during the study was dependent on GIS techniques and data were collected by using total station, aerial photographs and satellite image interpretation as well as soil sample dating.

  15. Environmental lead exposure among primary school children in Shebin El-Kom District, Menoufiya Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel Rasoul, G M; Al-Batanony, M A; Mahrous, O A; Abo-Salem, M E; Gabr, H M

    2012-10-01

    Lead still remains an important problem for poor, inner-city, ethnic minority children, with a particular emphasis on lead paint and dust. In Egypt, there is no national survey about the prevalence of elevated blood lead level among children. To assess the environmental lead level as well as to determine blood lead level among primary school children and find out its relationship with their intelligent quotient (IQ), hemoglobin level, hearing impairment and school performance. 190 primary school children from rural and urban areas were selected and their blood lead levels (BLL), hemoglobin concentrations, IQ, hearing threshold and school performance were measured. Also, environmental lead level was measured in the school and home. The mean value of environmental lead (μg/m3) in urban schools air was significantly higher than that in rural areas. BLL had a significant negative correlation with hemoglobin level and IQ; it was positively correlated with the hearing threshold. With increasing BLL, the school performance of children decreased significantly. Exposure to lead would deteriorate IQ, school performance and hearing level of school children. Even in the absence of overt clinical manifestations of lead toxicity, lead intoxication should be among differential diagnosis in children presenting anemia, intellectual impairment, poor academic performance and hearing impairment.

  16. Clean Cities Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2004-01-01

    This fact sheet explains the Clean Cities Program and provides contact information for all coalitions and regional offices. It answers key questions such as: What is the Clean Cities Program? What are alternative fuels? How does the Clean Cities Program work? What sort of assistance does Clean Cities offer? What has Clean Cities accomplished? What is Clean Cities International? and Where can I find more information?

  17. Education in Ancient and the Present Egypt: From 4000 B.C. to A.D. 1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwan, Nour Eldin

    The discovery and deciphering of the Rosetta stone led to a rediscovery of Egypt's contribution to world culture and civilization. This document outlines the growth of knowledge and education in ancient Egypt and emphasizes the disciplines of science, medicine, art, philosophy, agriculture, and engineering. Ancient Egypt's decline and the…

  18. 76 FR 50992 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt AGENCY... into the continental United States of fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on this analysis, we... fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public for...

  19. Update earthquake risk assessment in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Korrat, Ibrahim; El-Hadidy, Mahmoud; Gaber, Hanan

    2017-07-01

    The Cairo earthquake (12 October 1992; m b = 5.8) is still and after 25 years one of the most painful events and is dug into the Egyptians memory. This is not due to the strength of the earthquake but due to the accompanied losses and damages (561 dead; 10,000 injured and 3000 families lost their homes). Nowadays, the most frequent and important question that should rise is "what if this earthquake is repeated today." In this study, we simulate the same size earthquake (12 October 1992) ground motion shaking and the consequent social-economic impacts in terms of losses and damages. Seismic hazard, earthquake catalogs, soil types, demographics, and building inventories were integrated into HAZUS-MH to produce a sound earthquake risk assessment for Cairo including economic and social losses. Generally, the earthquake risk assessment clearly indicates that "the losses and damages may be increased twice or three times" in Cairo compared to the 1992 earthquake. The earthquake risk profile reveals that five districts (Al-Sahel, El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr sharq) lie in high seismic risks, and three districts (Manshiyat Naser, El-Waily, and Wassat (center)) are in low seismic risk level. Moreover, the building damage estimations reflect that Gharb is the highest vulnerable district. The analysis shows that the Cairo urban area faces high risk. Deteriorating buildings and infrastructure make the city particularly vulnerable to earthquake risks. For instance, more than 90 % of the estimated buildings damages are concentrated within the most densely populated (El Basateen, Dar El-Salam, Gharb, and Madinat Nasr Gharb) districts. Moreover, about 75 % of casualties are in the same districts. Actually, an earthquake risk assessment for Cairo represents a crucial application of the HAZUS earthquake loss estimation model for risk management. Finally, for mitigation, risk reduction, and to improve the seismic performance of structures and assure life safety

  20. E-Learning as an Alternative Strategy for Tourism Higher Education in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Galal M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to be one of the earliest studies to investigate tourism e-learning in Egypt, thus, it will initially shed light on the current standing of e-learning in Egypt before proceeding to: identify the present status of e-learning in Egyptian tourism higher education; explore the potential advantages and drawbacks of using…

  1. Comparative Study of Cognitive Styles in Egypt, Greece, Hong Kong and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvas, Michael; El-Kot, Ghada; Sadler-Smith, Eugene

    2001-01-01

    Cognitive Style Inventory scores for business undergraduates in Greece (n=48), Egypt (n=45), and the United Kingdom (n=42) and postgraduates/managers in Egypt (n=20), Hong Kong (n=38) and the United Kingdom (n=21) indicated that, among undergraduates of different cultures, there were no significant style differences. Some differences in the…

  2. 78 FR 45285 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Egypt's Mysterious Book...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8393] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... exhibition ``Egypt's Mysterious Book of the Faiyum,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  3. "Discourse on the Go": Thematic Analysis of Vehicle Graffiti on the Roads of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Nashar, Mohamed; Nayef, Heba

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates graffiti drawn on vehicles in Egypt as an expression of their authors' social values, religious ideologies and political affiliations. Little research has been done in Egypt on these meaning-loaded messages. This paper gives further evidence that graffiti are a very powerful mode of expression for groups that feel…

  4. Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum. Learning from Exhibitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces the exhibition "Eternal Egypt: Masterworks of Ancient Art from the British Museum" that explores the four major periods of Egyptian history. Provides background information on ancient Egypt and describes the art that was present in each of the four kingdoms. (CMK)

  5. Population Problem In Egypt As One of The Priority Health Problems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In last decades, Egypt had suffered major socioeconomic consequences of population problem. This had resulted from the high levels of birth rates and the steady decline in death rates and so, a widened demographic gap. Management of population problem of Egypt included: Economic development, developing new ...

  6. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 1 of 5 Vols. Executive summary, main report and appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The International Energy Assessment Program between Egypt and the U.S. was formulated from mid-March to mid-July, 1978. The assessment identified energy demand and supply options for Egypt that are consistent with its indigenous energy resources; assessed Egypt's ability to effectively use those options; and identified measures by which Egypt's energy-planning activities could be improved. The assessment addressed all known and potential energy supply options (oil, gas, coal, oil shale, hydroelectric, nuclear power, geothermal, solar, wind, and biomass). Using the Reference Energy System, two future energy supply/demand balances are constructed (for 1985 and the year 2000) and these are compared with a historical (1975) supply/demand balance. The feasibility of each of the options is established in terms of the availability of the required resources and of the processing, conversion, transport, and utilization technology.

  7. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies.

  8. A study on the establishment of nuclear cooperative relations and future direction between Korea and Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M. H.; Kim, H. S.; Kim, H. J.; Yun, S. W.; Ko, H. S.

    2000-10-01

    This study was carried out in order to review the cooperation with Egypt and establish and activate the cooperative relations with Egypt. Recent policy trends in the use and development of nuclear energy in Egypt, were investigated including introduction of nuclear power plant, and cooperative relations between two nations were also established under the implementation of the project. It was agreed through exchanges of visits of nuclear cooperation delegation; 1) exchange of visits of cooperation delegation, 2) invitation of egypt experts to policy seminar 3) cooperation between relevant nuclear related organizations of two countries, 4) future cooperation fields and directions between two countries. It is recommended that cooperation with Egypt be implemented systematically through the long term based on national basic cooperation directions and integrated strategies

  9. Water changed the cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elle, Morten; Jensen, Marina Bergen

    An improvement in water infrastructure and cleaning up the waters changed many harbour cities in Denmark at the beginning of the 90s. The harbour cities changed from drity, run-down industrial harbours to clean and attractive harbour dwelling creating new city centres and vital city areas...

  10. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 5 of 5 Vols. Annexes 11--13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The principal features of the existing environment of Egypt are characterized and the main problem areas identified in Annex 11. The environmental, health, and associated social issues that must be considered in choosing from among the options available to Egypt for meeting projected future energy needs are identified. The environmental impacts associated with these options are discussed and observations are made of alternte ways to minimize environmental insults. Annex 12, Manpower, analyzes the energy-related manpower situation of Egypt. Manpower education and training resources of Egypt; the existing manpower base of Egypt; manpower needs of the energy strategies; a comparison of manpower needs and existing manpower base; and the underlying economic and social factors that will make Egypt energy facility development very difficult to plan and execute are discussed. Annex 13 summarizes a preliminary analysis of the capital, labor, materials, and equipment resources required to implement alternative Egyptian energy futures and documents the assessment of several Egyptian energy development programs selected by the DOE. It egins with brief overviews of the ESPM model and data base. It then describes the method by which the system was adapted to Egyptian conditions and the results of this modification. The comparison Case energy development program is described, followed by a summary of ESPM-derived facility and resource requirements. Finally, the sensitivity of these results to several alternative energy strategies is illustrated.

  11. Identity of Fasciola spp. in sheep in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amer, Said; ElKhatam, Ahmed; Zidan, Shereif; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-12-01

    In Egypt, liver flukes, Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae), have a serious impact on the farming industry and public health. Both Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are known to occur in cattle, providing the opportunity for genetic recombination. Little is known on the identity and genetic variability of Fasciola populations in sheep. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of liver flukes in sheep in Menofia Province as a representative area of the delta region in Egypt, as measured by postmortem examination of slaughtered animals at three abattoirs. The identity and genetic variability of Fasciola spp. in slaughtered animals were determined by PCR-sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (nad1) genes. Physical inspection of the liver indicated that 302 of 2058 (14.7%) slaughtered sheep were infected with Fasciola spp. Sequence analysis of the ITS1 and nad1 genes of liver flukes from 17 animals revealed that 11 animals were infected with F. hepatica, four with F. gigantica, and two with both species. Seventy eight of 103 flukes genetically characterized from these animals were F. hepatica, 23 were F. gigantica, and two had ITS1 sequences identical to F. hepatica but nad1 sequences identical to F. gigantica. nad1 sequences of Egyptian isolates of F. gigantica showed pronounced differences from those in the GenBank database. Egyptian F. gigantica haplotypes formed haplogroup D, which clustered in a sister clade with haplogroups A, B and C circulating in Asia, indicating the existence of geographic isolation in the species. Both F. hepatica and F. gigantica are prevalent in sheep in Egypt and an introgressed form of the two occurs as the result of genetic recombination. In addition, a geographically isolated F. gigantica population is present in the country. The importance of these observations in epidemiology of fascioliasis needs to be examined in future

  12. DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PROTOTYPE SOLAR UPDRAFT CHIMNEY IN ASWAN/EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinhard Harte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is part of a joint project funded by the Science and Technology Development Fund (STDF of the Arab republic of Egypt and the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF of the Federal Republic of Germany. Continuation of the use of fossil fuels in electricity production systems causes many problems such as: global warming, other environmental concerns, the depletion of fossil fuels reserves and continuing rise in the price of fuels. One of the most promising paths to solve the energy crisis is utilizing the renewable energy resources. In Egypt, high insolation and more than 90 percent available desert lands are two main factors that encourage the full development of solar power plants for thermal and electrical energy production. With an average temperature of about 40 °C for more than half of the year and average annual sunshine of about 3200 hours, which is close to the theoretical maximum annual sunshine hours, Aswan is one of the hottest and sunniest cities in the world. This climatic condition makes the city an ideal place for implementing solar energy harvesting projects from solar updraft tower. Therefore, a Solar Chimney Power Plant (SCPP is being installed at Aswan City. The chimney height is 20.0 m, its diameter is 1.0m and the collector is a four-sided pyramid, which has a side length of 28.5 m. A mathematical model is used to predict its performance. The model shows that the plant can produce a maximum theoretical power of 2 kW. Moreover, a CFD code is used to analyse the temperature and velocity distribution inside the collector, turbine and chimney at different operating conditions. Static calculations, including dead weight and wind forces on the solar updraft chimney and its solar collector, have been performed for the prototype. Mechanical loading and ambient impact on highly used industrial structures such as chimneys and masts cause lifetime-related deteriorations. Structural degradations occur not only from

  13. Lipids and Triterpenes from Mar. Crassifolia growing in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraheim, Zedan Z.; Ahmed, Amany S.; Ramadan, Mahmoud A.

    2008-01-01

    The hexane fraction obtained from the total alcohol extract of the aerial parts of Maerua Crassifolia Frossk grown in Egypt upon repeated column chromatography afforded one new compound identified as 1, 23 dimethoxy tricosa-6-one (1), along with six known compounds identified as long chain hydrocarbon (triacontane) (2), ceryl alcohol (3), lupeol palmitate (4), b-sitosterol palmitate (5), lupeol acetate (6) and alpha-amyrin (7). The identification of the isolated compounds was carried out using different physical, chemical and spectral methods and chromatography with authentic samples. (author)

  14. Two New Flavone Glycosides from Chenopodiumambrosioides Growing Wildly in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Hammoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodiumambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae growing wildly in Egypt was subjected to antioxidant –guided phytochemical investigation and the EtOAc fraction afforded the two new flavone glycosides; scutellarein-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranoside (1 and scutella-rein-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranoside (2. In addition, the invitro antioxidant activities of the plant alcohol extract, CHCl 3 fraction, EtOAc fraction and isolates were studied.

  15. Geology of wadi atalla - el missikat area, eastern desert, egypt.

    OpenAIRE

    El Kassas, I. A. [ابراهيم علي القصاص; Bakhit, F. S.

    1989-01-01

    Wadi Atalla-El Missikat area covers about 2,000 Km2 in the central Eastern Desert of Egypt, between latitudes 26° 10' and 26° 40' N, and longitudes 33° 15' and 33° 40' E. The area is mainly formed of basement complex except its extreme south-western corner where it is covered by foreland sediments of Nubian sandstone. The area is structurally complicated where it has been subjected to various stages of successive tectonic movements since the Precambrian times. The basement complex in the stud...

  16. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index...... food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index...

  17. Egypt (1914-2014): Global architecture before globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Volait , Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    Chapitre de l'ouvrage "Architecture from the Arab World (1914-2014): a selection", sous la direction de George Arbid, publié à l'occasion de la participation du Royaume du Bahrein à la 14ème exposition d'architecture de la Biennale de Venise.; The article provides a survey of the main tendencies of modern architecture in Egypt over the past century, from 1914 to 2014. It argues that an established tradition of borrowing and naturalizing European techniques and aesthetics characterized Egyptia...

  18. Managing the growing energy demand - The case of Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Kholy, Hosni; Faried, Ragy

    2010-09-15

    The electric energy consumption rate in Egypt has an average increase of 7% per year through the last three decades. In order to satisfy the ever increasing energy demand, several actions were, and have to be taken. These actions have to be carried out in parallel. The one having the greatest effect is the measures carried out for energy conservation and loss reduction. Diversifying the energy source such as utilization of Renewable Energy technologies can contribute to satisfying the demand and extending the hydro-carbon reserves life. Regional integration of electrical networks will save expenditures used to build additional power plants.

  19. Radiation shielding properties of some natural rocks in upper Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbady, A.; Ahmed, N.K.; Saied, M.H.; Uosif, M.A.; El-kamel, A.H.

    1999-01-01

    To support the use of some natural rocks in Upper Egypt as suitable radiation materials, the attenuation of gamma - ray through destructive and nondestructive samples of alabaster, marble and limestone have been tested in the energy range from 356 keV to 1173 keV. The attenuation coefficients of the nondestructive samples are found higher than the values of the destructive samples. The half - layer values for attenuation, and the concentration of uranium and thorium in the samples were calculated and discussed

  20. Atmospheric turbidity parameters in the high polluted site of egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaltout, M.A.M.; Rahoma, U.A.

    1996-01-01

    Monthly variations of Linke, angstrom and Schuepp turbidity coefficients and gamma exponent as well as the influence of climatic factor on them are analysed. For each of these turbidity coefficients; calculated from measurements of broad band filters at Helwan, egypt, desert climate, are reported. A linear regression model fitted to Angstrom's turbidity turbidity coefficient beta and Linke turbidity L for Helwan. The calculation showed that, it is higher values of atmospheric turbidity coefficients due to, both the effect of air pollutants in the Helwan atmosphere from the four cement companies and some of heavy industrial factories, and the effect of the former's desert climate. 6 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Screening for Common Mental Disorders and Substance Abuse among Temporary Hired Cleaners in Egyptian Governmental Hospitals, Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate

    OpenAIRE

    RA Abbas; RAM Hammam; SS El-Gohary; LME Sabik; MS Hunter

    2012-01-01

    Background: Informal employment is common in developing countries, including Egypt. This type of employment may have significant consequences on mental health. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and risk factors of common mental disorders and substance abuse among temporary hired hospital cleaners. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 242 adult temporary cleaners and 209 permanent cleaners working in 4 governmental hospitals in Zagazig City, Sharqia Governorate, Egyp...

  2. Effects of environmental factors on monuments: the Harkhuf Tomb in Aswan, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Marina

    2015-04-01

    The tombs of the nobles excavated in the rocks on the Nile west bank at Qubbet el-Hawa in Aswan (Egypt) testify the role of the city as the southern gate of Egypt. In old times Aswan was the starting point of caravans travelling far south in uncovered territories and bringing back precious and exotic goods. Inscriptions on the tombs reflect the explorations and trades of that time and the cultural exchanges with southern territories. Nowadays the tombs, exposed to the environmental factors - wind, sun, rainfall - and to air polluttants originated from the town of Aswan are under a fast deterioration process. It is therefore necessary a full documentation of the tombs and of their façade and a study of the deterioration process due to the impact of the environmental factors. As a case study the tomb of Harkhuf at Qubbet el-Hawa has been chosen, because of its importance, its status of decay, and for the old documentation by the Italian Egyptologist E. Schiaparelli. The climate factors affecting the tomb of Harkhuf are air temperature, its diurnal excursion, and wind, and, at some extent, relative humidity. In fact, in Aswan, night time Humidity can be more than 30% during the winter months, while precipitation is a very rare event occurring once every 1 or 2 years, but has important impact due to its high intensity and short duration with devastating impact on manufact and structures in the area. The experiment, designed using portable meteorological instruments, permitted to define if the microclimate near the Harkhuf Tomb has the same characteristics of the larger Aswan area which can be derived by the meteorological station located at the Aswan airport. However differences in the microclimate are evident and preliminary analysis of data collected between 8:00 am and 4:00 pm during some consecutive days will be presented. The study permitted to identify and measure the differential heating of the façade, with the right part reaching temperatures much warmer than

  3. How the HBRC contributes to the Sustainability in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled El Zahaby

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Housing & Building National Research Center, HBRC, is a governmental institute subordinate to the Ministry of Housing, Utilities and Urban Communities which started in 1954 by 12 employees. HBRC now has more than 1100 employees, 300 of which are M.Sc., and/or Ph.D. holders.HBRC is the sole entity nationwide responsible for issuing the Egyptian Codes (30 as well as technical specifications (21, in addition to providing periodical training for these codes and specifications. Training also extends to a variety of engineering subjects and it serves both public and private sectors.HBRC is involved in several national scientific research plans as well as researches leading to academic degrees.One of the main activities of HBRC is serving the community through the assessment of mal-functioning structures nationwide, as well as technically refereeing disputes between different parties. Moreover, HBRC is taking a substantial role in the quality control and construction supervision of the national projects.It is worth mentioning that all HBRC labs are ISO 17025 accredited by the International Accreditation Services, IAS. Moreover, HBRC hosts the Egyptian Green Building Council, originated back in 2009 by a ministerial decree. Several rating systems exist worldwide, .e.g., LEED, BREEAM, CASBEE, etc. In this capacity, a rating system for new buildings, termed Green Pyramid Rating System (GPRS has been developed. It has been issued back in December 2010. Other rating systems have followed since then, including GPRS for banks, communities, etc. These rating systems have been applied to several structures / compounds, e.g., the first governmental green building has been designed at HBRC; compounds, club houses and banks have been assessed according to the appropriate GPRS.HBRC has carried out some tangible steps towards the application of the green building concept in Egypt. The use of traditional construction systems has to be developed so as to coop with

  4. An early warning system for flash floods in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cools, J.; Abdelkhalek, A.; El Sammany, M.; Fahmi, A. H.; Bauwens, W.; Huygens, M.

    2009-09-01

    This paper describes the development of the Flash Flood Manager, abbreviated as FlaFloM. The Flash Flood Manager is an early warning system for flash floods which is developed under the EU LIFE project FlaFloM. It is applied to Wadi Watier located in the Sinai peninsula (Egypt) and discharges in the Red Sea at the local economic and tourist hub of Nuweiba city. FlaFloM consists of a chain of four modules: 1) Data gathering module, 2) Forecasting module, 3) Decision support module or DSS and 4) Warning module. Each module processes input data and consequently send the output to the following module. In case of a flash flood emergency, the final outcome of FlaFloM is a flood warning which is sent out to decision-makers. The ‘data gathering module’ collects input data from different sources, validates the input, visualise data and exports it to other modules. Input data is provided ideally as water stage (h), discharge (Q) and rainfall (R) through real-time field measurements and external forecasts. This project, however, as occurs in many arid flash flood prone areas, was confronted with a scarcity of data, and insufficient insight in the characteristics that release a flash flood. Hence, discharge and water stage data were not available. Although rainfall measurements are available through classical off line rain gauges, the sparse rain gauges network couldn’t catch the spatial and temporal characteristics of rainfall events. To overcome this bottleneck, we developed rainfall intensity raster maps (mm/hr) with an hourly time step and raster cell of 1*1km. These maps are derived through downscaling from two sources of global instruments: the weather research and forecasting model (WRF) and satellite estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). The ‘forecast module’ comprises three numerical models that, using data from the gathering module performs simulations on command: a rainfall-runoff model, a river flow model, and a flood model. A

  5. Characterization of virulent Listeria monocytogenes isolates recovered from ready-to-eat meat products and consumers in Cairo, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maysa A. I. Awadallah

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of some virulence genes distributed in Listeria monocytogenes isolated from ready-to-eat (RTE meat products and consumers in Cairo province, Egypt. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 beef luncheon, chicken luncheon and frankfurter beef (40 samples, each were collected from 10 different local shops situated in Al-salam city, Cairo province, Egypt. Stool samples were collected from 40 people who had the habit of consuming RTE meat. The suspected L. monocytogenes isolates were subjected to a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for rapid speciation and virulence determination using primers specific for inIA, inIC, and inIJ genes. Results: Culture examination of all samples on Oxford media revealed presence of colonies characteristic to L. monocytogenes in 6 beef luncheon (15%, 4 chicken luncheon (10%, 1 frankfurter beef (2.5% and 1 human stool (2.5% samples. Species identity of L. monocytogenes was verified through the amplification of a 800 bp fragment with inIA primers in 2 out of 6 culture isolates from beef luncheon (5%, and 1 out 4 culture isolates from chicken luncheon (2.5% samples. Statistical analysis revealed no significant difference between the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in different food samples examined (p>0.05. The virulence of these strains was ascertained by the presence of 517 bp and 238 bp fragments of inIC and inIJ genes, respectively in the isolates that contained the 800 bp fragment. The culture isolates obtained from one frankfurter beef sample, and one human stool sample were found negative by multiplex PCR for the presence of L. monocytogenes and its virulence specific genes. Conclusion: It could be concluded that L. monocytogenes are circulating in beef and chicken luncheon sold in Cairo, Egypt. Multiplex PCR is reliable for confirmation of L. monocytogenes. This study suggests the implementation of hygienic measures at all levels from production to consumption

  6. Obstacles Facing Promoting Tourism for Islamic Landmarks from the Perspective of Tour Operators in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzan Bakri Hassan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The UNESCO launched a campaign #unite4heritage in Egypt to defeat extremism and intolerance. The message of such campaigne is peace, dialogue and unity embedded in cultural heritage. As culture and tourism are linked together, such message could be delivered through improving culture heritage tourism in Egypt. Islamic landmarks  are considered as a part of human heritage. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify how much tour operators in Egypt include Islamic landmarks in their programs to determine the obstacles facing promoting cultural tourism in Islamic landmarks' areas. Additionally, the study would identify positive results in the case of developing heritage tourism in Egypt. To achieve a high result, a survey approach was employed to collect data from 100 tour operators, using a completed questionnaire technique as well as a Likert Scale and statistical models in order to test and interpret the research outcomes. The research findings indicated that although tour operators in Egypt are convinced of the significance of the Islamic landmarks, there is no contradiction between creating global understanding and at the same time achieving benefit to the local community. However, there is a range of obstacles facing promoting such type of tourism in Egypt. Keywords: Culture heritage tourism, community, Egypt, Islamic civilization.

  7. Higher derivative analysis for the interpretation of self-potential profiles at southern part of the Nile Delta, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafez, M.; EL-Qady, G.; Awad, S.; Elsayed, E.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most important, but also one of the most tedious, problems confronting the mineral industries in dealing with the sulfides and graphite is estimating the depth of a buried object from self-potential anomalies. A peat layer has been encountered in the subsurface Holocene sediments of the eastern part of the Nile Delta at depths range from 7 to 13 meters. The maximum thickness of the peat (3m) has been recorded in the southern part of the Mansoura city and it decreases gradually in a configuration parallel to Damietta branch of the Nile. To elucidate the peat layer in terms of depth and thickness, a self-potential survey was carried at Mansoura city, Nile Delta of Egypt, in terms of eight profiles. Interpretation of data was performed through the correction and processing using the derivative analysis of higher orders by means of an algorithm developed by the authors. Depth, shape factor and the optimum order of the regional components are determined. A rough estimation of the relief of the peat layer was derived. Based in the results, the depth to the peat layer varies from 11.8 up to 13.1 meters which correlates very well with the available information and the lithological data in the area. (author)

  8. Nitrogen uptake efficiency of irrigated wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Monem, M.A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Egypt's current wheat production would be impossible without N fertilizers, the consumption of which has increased more than 75% in the last 20 years. The efficiency of uptake of applied N is low, and better management of both fertilizer and irrigation is needed to improve N recovery by crops and reduce losses from the plant/soil system. Field trials were conducted over a 3-year period, on Egypt's three main soil types: old irrigated land of the Nile valley, newly reclaimed sandy and calcareous soils, and salt-affected soil of the north delta. The responses of wheat cultivars to N, and patterns of N uptake and N loss, as affected by irrigation regime, were examined using 15 N. Cultivar Sakha 69 was more responsive to applied N and assimilated N more efficiently than other varieties under different soil types. Nitrogen loss from the sandy soil was as high as 57% whereas average loss in the clay soil was 17%. A higher water table in the salt-affected soil negatively affected N uptake. Irrigation with 75% of the required water for wheat had no effect on yield or N-uptake. (author)

  9. The national environmental radiation monitoring network in egypt. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    Post accident environmental pollution with radionuclides occurs at accident site, and also cross borders to affect distant localities. The situation in egypt present special importance regarding its position near asian near asian and european nuclear sites, israel in east, and libya in the west. Also, the present and future nuclear installations in egypt. Environmental base line monitoring data is essential knowledge in nuclear practices. For these reasons, the egyptian government took steps to set up a national response plan for dealing with inside and outside accidents. The key elements of the plan is the establishment of a national environmental monitoring network (NERMN) and a nuclear emergency response system (NERS). The NERMN will detect radioactivity resulting from any accident affecting the egyptian territory even if it is not formally reported under international agreements, or if there are delays in notification. Therefore, the system provides the means of assembling and analyzing the radiological monitoring data related to the accident, and allowing information for the authorities. This is met with through a fully automatic system for gamma radiation monitoring and a semiautomatic system for air activity monitoring (aerosol), and network of liquid monitors. 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Inventory of Agricultural Land Area of Egypt Using Modis Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereher, M.E.

    2009-01-01

    A new generation of satellite data has been emerged since the launch of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro radiometer (MODIS), in 1999, for monitoring land resources and terrestrial environments. Agricultural land area of Egypt in 2005 was estimated using MODIS data. Four scenes were utilized to extract the total country area. MODIS vegetation Indices product (MOD 13 QI) was the most suitable to extract the total gross cultivated land area of Egypt. An unsupervised classification algorithm was applied to estimate the cultivated land area, which approached 8.2 million feddans in 2005. The Nile Delta contains the majority of agricultural lands (63.2%). The Nile Valley and EI-Fayoum Depression possess 33.9% and the remaining little percent (∼3%) represents the scattered agricultural land along the Suez Canal, Sinai and the Western Desert. The classification accuracy of agricultural land reached 84%, revealing higher confidence of assessment. The present study asserts on the importance of using remote sensing in monitoring agricultural land resources

  11. The national environmental radiation monitoring network in egypt. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morsy, M S [National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Post accident environmental pollution with radionuclides occurs at accident site, and also cross borders to affect distant localities. The situation in egypt present special importance regarding its position near asian near asian and european nuclear sites, israel in east, and libya in the west. Also, the present and future nuclear installations in egypt. Environmental base line monitoring data is essential knowledge in nuclear practices. For these reasons, the egyptian government took steps to set up a national response plan for dealing with inside and outside accidents. The key elements of the plan is the establishment of a national environmental monitoring network (NERMN) and a nuclear emergency response system (NERS). The NERMN will detect radioactivity resulting from any accident affecting the egyptian territory even if it is not formally reported under international agreements, or if there are delays in notification. Therefore, the system provides the means of assembling and analyzing the radiological monitoring data related to the accident, and allowing information for the authorities. This is met with through a fully automatic system for gamma radiation monitoring and a semiautomatic system for air activity monitoring (aerosol), and network of liquid monitors. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Environmental-impact assessment of hydro-power in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.M.; Ismail, M.A.

    2000-01-01

    The environmental impact of energy production and use with the associated emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly CO 2 , has created much attention and growing concern at both national and international levels. In Egypt, efforts have been directed to incorporate the environment-protection issues within the overall planning of the energy sector, as appropriate to its national commitment and its techno-economic considerations. Over the past decade, 1985-1995, hydro-power had contributed between 28 and 22% of the total energy produced by Egyptian power-plants, while the contribution of the hydro capacity was between 32.4 and 21.5%. Many studies have been carried out on the impacts of the Aswan High Dam on various aspects of the environment. An objective evaluation of the Dam, based on 25 years of operational data, indicated that it has overall been positive even though it has contributed to some environmental problems. These problems, however, are significantly less than most people originally expected. This paper deals with the review and analysis of the detrimental effects of hydro-power in Egypt. An evaluation will be given of the emissions of greenhouse gases from the whole hydro-chain. (Author)

  13. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Mohamed Megahed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD. PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  14. Environmental and health impacts of successive mineral fertilization in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdelhafez, Ahmed A. [Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza (Egypt); Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Abbas, Hassan H.; Abd-El-Aal, Rafat S. [Faculty of Agriculture, Benha University (Egypt); Kandil, Nabil F. [Soils, Water and Environment Research Institute (SWERI), Agricultural Research Center (ARC), Giza (Egypt); Li, Jianhua [Key Laboratory of Yangtze River Water Environment, Ministry of Education, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Mahmoud, Wahballah [Center of Excellence of Biotechnology Research, King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia)

    2012-04-15

    Excessive amounts of mineral fertilizers are unnecessarily applied to agricultural soils in Egypt to increase crop yield. The current study aims at assessing the impacts of fertilization with different mineral fertilizers for different cultivation periods on the accumulation of heavy metals in soils and plants grown thereon. In addition, human risks resulted due to the exposure to these metal ions through ingestion, and dermal routes were evaluated. Soil and plant samples were collected from several locations in El-Behira Governorate, Egypt and their heavy metal contents were measured. The result indicated that there is a continuous accumulation of heavy metals in the soils and the plants grown thereon. Calculation of the hazard index (HI) revealed that humans, especially children, have a potential health risk for both Pb and Cd, which have levels greater than the safe level (1). Finally, the obtained results showed that the continuous application of mineral fertilizers containing high levels of heavy metals pose a potential health threat. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from horse meat in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaapan, R M; Ghazy, A A

    2007-01-01

    Portions of heart, liver, skeletal and diaphragmatic muscles obtained from 150 slaughtered horses at Giza-Zoo abattoir were used for bioassays in mice and cats. T. gondii tachyzoites were isolated successfully from the peritoneal exudates of the inoculated mice 6-8 days post inoculation with pooled horse tissues. Whereas, T. gondii tissue cysts containing bradyzoites were detected in the impression smears of mice brain on the 45th days or more post infection. The oocysts were detected in feces of cats 3-6 days post feeding on horse tissues containing tissue cysts. The oocysts became sporulated within 3-5 days in 2.5% Potassium dichromate. A total of 79 out of 150 horse meat samples were found to be infected with an incidence rate of 52.6 %. This is the first trial for isolation of T. gondii infective stages from horses in Egypt. Moreover, this study pointed out to the high infection rate of T. gondii in horse meat which may be considered as an important source of infection to wild zoo-animals in Egypt and humans in some countries if consumed raw or insufficiently cooked.

  16. Egypt's first subsea completion: A Gulf of Suez case history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hawary, A.; Hoffman, J.G.

    1996-01-01

    A case history of the Gulf of Suez Petroleum Co.'s (Gupco) first subsea completion is provided. The first completion was for Well GS 373-2, a previously drilled and tested exploration well located in the south portion of the gulf of Suez. Subsea technology was used to economically justify development of this one-well marginal field, which was discovered in 1978. Traditional methods proved to be too costly for development, therefore application of a low-cost subsea tree was used to capture the resources. In the Gulf of Suez, many fields have been discovered but have not been developed because of low reserves. These marginal projects can have a profound impact on the revenue and shareholder value if an economic method is used to exploit these opportunities. Platform installation was not feasible because of reserve size, hence the well has remained abandoned until recently. This paper presents a summarized look at subsea completion technology. The cost comparison of traditional development methods will be made, given the local cost structure in Egypt. The application of this technology has some limitations and constraints that will be discussed in the paper. Furthermore, the actual field installation of Egypt's first subsea tree will be summarized. Also included is a discussion on simple remote controls and offshore installation operations

  17. Polychlorinated Biphenyls Water Pollution along the River Nile, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Elbana, Mariam Hassan; Nabawy, Ehab; Mahmoud, Hend A

    2015-01-01

    Ten polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were determined in water samples collected along the River Nile using gas chromatography-electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCB concentrations ranged from 14 to 20 μg/L, which were higher than those reported in previous studies, indicating serious PCB pollution in the River Nile. PCB congener profiles varied depending on the sampling sties. PCB-138 was the predominant congener accounting for more than 18% of total PCBs. The composition of PCB congeners in the water revealed that highly chlorinated PCB technical mixtures such as Aroclor 1254 was the main PCB production historically used in Egypt. An increasing trend in PCB levels from the upper stream to the Nile estuaries was observed. The calculated flux of PCBs indicated that 6.8 tons of PCBs is dumped into the Mediterranean Sea each year from the River Nile. The hazard quotients and carcinogenic risk caused by PCB pollution in the River Nile were above the acceptable level indicating that PCBs in the River Nile water pose adverse health effects for all age groups. Our findings revealed that PCBs possess a serious risk to the Egyptian population that depends mainly on the River Nile as a source of water. Thus, stricter legislation and regulatory controls should be applied to reduce the risk of PCBs in Egypt.

  18. Macroeconomic determinants of savings in Egypt "Statistical Model"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa Abdelaty Hasan Esmail

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Like lot of countries, aggregate consumption constitutes a major portion of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Egypt. Consumption decisions determine savings decisions. In long term growth literature, differences in long term growth had been explained to a large extent by differences in the rates of savings which also determine a country’s investment in productive capacity, human capital and socio-economic infrastructure. In this study, we analyse macroeconomic determinants of savings in Egypt using Ordinary multiple regression. Our results indicate that national savings rate is positively related with real GDP growth rate. This suggests that saving is a positive function of income. The evidence suggests that national savings rate is negatively related with federal debt growth and inflation. This hints towards crowding out of private sector investment through decline in savings rate as a result of government’s indebtedness. Finally, negative association between savings rate and inflation implies that the consumer is rational and makes decisions based on his perceptions when it comes to allocating the lifetime resources over the period of his life. Increase in inflation dampens the incentive to save and people respond rationally which is made evident by the negative sign on inflation coefficient in our model.

  19. Covert Diplomacy Between Israel and Egypt During Nasser Rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ido Yahel

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The history of Egypt and Israel consists of four wars and hundreds of border incidents that have taken the lives of tens of thousands of people. It seems that only the rise to power of a leader in the stature of Anwar Sadat could put an end to this bloody circle, because the previous president, Gamal Abdel Nasser, was not willing to hold any kind of political contact with Israel. But Nasser’s reign involved constant political contact between Egypt and Israel, most of whom remain confidential. This article attempts to examine whether any of these contacts were likely to succeed and yield a peace treaty between the two countries, an agreement that could have prevented three wars and saved the lives of so many people on both sides. It will do so by examining these contacts, their characteristics, and the reasons for their failure, while dividing them into three periods: the 1948 war to the 1956 war, the 1956 war to the 1967 war, and the 1967 war to the death of Nasser in 1970.

  20. Survey on coenurosis in sheep and goats in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas A. Desouky

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 75 sheep and goats from apparently healthy and from clinically affected flocks were examined for Coenurus cerebralis cysts from different localities in Egypt. Of 25 animals examined from clinically diseased sheep and goats, 25 (100% revealed the presence of infestation with one to four coenuri in the brain. The sites of predilection were the left hemisphere (48%, followed by the right hemisphere (40% and the cerebellum (12%. There was no apparent effect of the age of sheep and goats on susceptibility to infestation with C. cerebralis. Another 50 animals from apparently healthy sheep and goat herds presented no C. cerebralis cysts. The cysts from infested sheep could infest newborn puppies experimentally, with a prepatent period of 60 days post infestation. A total of 15 immature worms that were recovered from one puppy did not reach patency until 105 days post infestation with C. cerebralis cyst scolices. Pathological changes in C. cerebralis-infested sheep brain revealed parasitic elements, demyelinated nerve tracts, hyperaemic blood vessels with round cell infiltration, encephalomalacia with round cell infiltration and palisading macrophages and giant cells, as well as focal replacement of the brain parenchyma with caseated and calcified materials. The morphological characteristics of both the larval stage from sheep and goats and adult worms of Taenia multiceps from experimentally infested dogs are described. The results conclude that C. cerebralis is one of the principal causes of nervous manifestations of coenurosis in clinically diseased sheep and goats in Egypt.

  1. Eyewitness introduction to Egypt: "The gift of the Nile".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Geraldine

    2009-01-01

    Northeastern corner of Africa, lying at the crossroads between the two continents of Europe and Asia (in the Sinai Peninsula), while bordering Libya, Sudan, Israel and the Red Sea. Egypt is the most ancient tourist country in the world. Several health fact-finding missions in the last few years were made to this small country that is frequently defined by the Valley of the Nile. With the spreading deserts on either side, or a very rich heritage of ancient relics, these scenic vistas are without equal elsewhere in the world. Although there are significant cultural differences among the population, Egypt has a long history of ethnic and religious compassion. Among the many rarities, main tourist attractions include the three great Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx, amazing ancient wonders of the world. These fact-finding missions included how health and medical care are defined, how people and culture are intertwined with its physical features, land use, and the economy and its resources.

  2. [Cardiopulmonary resuscitation already in Egypt 5,000 years ago?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocklitz, A

    1997-06-06

    In light of the medically relevant features of the ancient Egyptian mouth-opening ceremony, the question of the effectiveness of medical practices in Egypt thousands of years ago is examined, whereby the religious and cultural framework also plays a significant role. In the Land on the Nile myth and reality clearly generated special conditions which favoured the systematic treatment of questions of resuscitation. Numerous examples show that this had practical consequences in the area of everyday medicine. In addition, rebirth and resurrection were central elements of the cult of the dead which had exact medical equivalents. These equivalents may demonstrate the advanced state of resuscitation practices in Egypt at that time. In this context, a reconstruction of an ancient Egyptian mouth-opening instrument is presented. In the cult of the dead, this instrument played a role which can be compared to the function of a modern laryngoscope. It appears possible that at the time of the pyramids the Egyptians already had an understanding of the technology required to perform instrument-aided artificial respiration. Whether or not they actually possessed a fundamental knowledge of the principles of cardio-pulmonary resuscitation remains unclear. Nevertheless, the astonishingly functional characteristics of the reconstructed mouth-opening instrument suggest that it was developed for more than purely symbolic purposes.

  3. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  4. Beleaguered Egypt project running out of funds and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    Started in 1979 as part of the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF), the Family of the Future (FOF) social marketing project accounts for 35% of all contraceptives used in Egypt. FOF left the IPPF in 1981 to work as a nonprofit, semiprivate organization under the supervision of Egypt's Ministry of Health and has become the third largest social marketing project in the world. FOF has, however, gone through 5 executive directors in the last 6 years, prompting critics to think that the Board of Directors is hand-picked by the Egyptian Ministry of Health. additional allegations of financial mismanagement have caused the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) to cancel over $1.5 million in annual funding and product support for the program. Until recently, FOF has benefited from products and operations and technical assistance totalling near $20 million as part of a USAID 10-year, $118-million Egyptian effort. FOF has responded to the funding cut by downsizing its staff and preparing to raise contraceptive prices. Even though USAID has solicited proposals for competitive replacement programs, the new executive director is optimistic that funding cuts leading to organizational change and price increases will ultimately help FOF become self-sufficient. Once USAID-provided supplies have been depleted, FOF will most likely turn to IPPF for assistance.

  5. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Elizabeth R; Hartman, Gideon; Greenfield, Haskel J; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E; Maeir, Aren M

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  6. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth R Arnold

    Full Text Available Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900-2500 BCE. Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan.

  7. Isotopic Evidence for Early Trade in Animals between Old Kingdom Egypt and Canaan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Haskel J.; Shai, Itzhaq; Babcock, Lindsay E.; Maeir, Aren M.

    2016-01-01

    Isotope data from a sacrificial ass and several ovicaprines (sheep/goat) from Early Bronze Age household deposits at Tell es-Safi/Gath, Israel provide direct evidence for the movement of domestic draught/draft and husbandry animals between Old Kingdom Egypt (during the time of the Pyramids) and Early Bronze Age III Canaan (ca. 2900–2500 BCE). Vacillating, bi-directional connections between Egypt and Canaan are known throughout the Early Bronze Age, but here we provide the first concrete evidence of early trade in animals from Egypt to Canaan. PMID:27322197

  8. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  9. Jerusalem: City of Dreams, City of Sorrows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Jerusalem is more than an intriguing global historical city; it is a classroom for liberal learning and international understanding. It had never been a city of one language, one religion and one culture. Looking at the origins of Jerusalem's name indicates its international and multicultural nature. While Israelis designate Jerusalem as their…

  10. Smart City project

    KAUST Repository

    Al Harbi, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    A 'smart city' is an urban region that is highly advanced in terms of overall infrastructure, sustainable real estate, communications and market viability. It is a city where information technology is the principal infrastructure and the basis

  11. Smart Sustainable Cities

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    important part of city planning is also learning from other cities, e.g., through the bench-learning, defining ..... Integrated semantics service platform ...... order to provide the best services to customers, their different needs and preferences ...

  12. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  13. Cities spearhead climate action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Following President Trump's withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, cities worldwide have pledged support to combat climate change. Along with a growing coalition of businesses and institutions, cities represent a beacon of hope for carbon reduction in politically tumultuous times.

  14. Assessment of natural radioactivity levels in soil samples from some areas in Assiut, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Gamal, Hany; Farid, M El-Azab; Abdel Mageed, A I; Hasabelnaby, M; Hassanien, Hassanien M

    2013-12-01

    The natural radioactivity of soil samples from Assiut city, Egypt, was studied. The activity concentrations of 28 samples were measured with a NaI(Tl) detector. The radioactivity concentrations of (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K showed large variations, so the results were classified into two groups (A and B) to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Group A represents samples collected from different locations in Assiut and characterized by low activity concentrations with average values of 46.15 ± 9.69, 30.57 ± 4.90, and 553.14 ± 23.19 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. Group B represents samples mainly collected from the area around Assiut Thermal Power Plant and characterized by very high activity concentrations with average values of 3,803 ± 145, 1,782 ± 98, and 1,377 ± 78 for (226)Ra, (232)Th, and (40)K, respectively. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity (Raeq), the absorbed dose rate (D), the annual effective dose rate (E), the external hazard index (H ex), and the annual gonadal dose equivalent (AGDE) have been calculated and compared with the internationally approved values. For group A, the calculated averages of these parameters are in good agreement with the international recommended values except for the absorbed dose rate and the AGDE values which are slightly higher than the international recommended values. However, for group B, all obtained averages of these parameters are much higher by several orders of magnitude than the international recommended values. The present work provides a background of radioactivity concentrations in the soil of Assiut.

  15. Lead and Cadmium Toxicity in Tile Manufacturing Workers in Assiut, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragaa M Abd Elmaaboud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Occupational lead and cadmium exposure are important health issues in developing countries. This study aimed to detect toxic metal contents in raw materials used to make tiles and to assess exposure health impacts on workers. The study sample consisted of 74 tile workers, having a mean age of 35.2 years, in the Industrial City of Arab El Awamer, Assiut (Egypt. Elemental analysis of the raw materials was performed by using scanning electron microscopy. The data collection questionnaire was divided into two parts; the first included demographic data, symptoms attributed to toxic elements and possible sources of exposure to metals. The second part was designated to assess heavy metal exposure health impacts through clinical examination and biological  investigations. Many toxic elements were identified in the raw materials used to make tiles, and the most abundant were lead and cadmium. Analysis of the clinical data revealed that 66% of the workers suffered from headache, constipation (8%, abdominal colic (33.8% and 30% suffered from a variety of respiratory problems such as dyspnea (60%, cough (13% and chest tightness (27%. Fifty percent of the workers complained of weak grip, 33.8% of foot drop, and 54% had tremors. Burton’s line in gums was present in 28% of workers and 28.2% were diagnosed with constrictive lung diseases. Of the 74 workers, 90.5 % showed toxic lead levels and 80% had toxic cadmium levels. 10.8% had abnormal alpha glutathione levels with a positive strong linear correlation between lead and cadmium levels and years of work. It is mandatory to develop and implement measures to prevent these hazardous exposure effects among tile industry workers.

  16. Wind energy as a potential generation source at Ras Benas, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Shata

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the wind characteristics in Ras Benas city located on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt using measured data (wind, pressure and temperature) and Weibull function were made. Statistical analysis model to evaluate the wind energy potential was introduced. According to the power calculations done for the site, the annual mean wind density is 315 kW/m 2 at a height of 70 m above ground level. This station has a huge wind energy potential for electricity generation, especially during spring and summer seasons, comparing with some European countries. In addition, the monthly wind turbine efficiency parameter (η monthly ) has been calculated by using a commercial wind turbine 1 MW with 70 m hub height to help designers and users in evaluating the potentialities and choosing the suitable wind turbine for the considered site. The use of wind turbine with capacity greater than 1000 kW at this station was recommended. Ras Benas station was selected to install 30 MW-wind farm consists of 20 commercial wind turbines (Nordex S 77) with hub heights and Rotor diameter were 100 and 77 m, respectively. This site has annual wind speed more than 9.8 m/s at 100 m height and enough area to locate these turbines. The estimated energy production using WASP Program of these wind farm was 130 GWh/year. Furthermore, the production costs was found 1.3EUR cent/kWh, which is a competition price at the wind energy world market. (author)

  17. Wind energy as a potential generation source at Ras Benas, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Shata [Physics Department, Faculty of Science in Port Said, Suez Canal University (Egypt)

    2010-10-15

    Analysis of the wind characteristics in Ras Benas city located on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt using measured data (wind, pressure and temperature) and Weibull function were made. Statistical analysis model to evaluate the wind energy potential was introduced. According to the power calculations done for the site, the annual mean wind density is 315 kW/m{sup 2} at a height of 70 m above ground level. This station has a huge wind energy potential for electricity generation, especially during spring and summer seasons, comparing with some European countries. In addition, the monthly wind turbine efficiency parameter ({eta}{sub monthly}) has been calculated by using a commercial wind turbine 1 MW with 70 m hub height to help designers and users in evaluating the potentialities and choosing the suitable wind turbine for the considered site. The use of wind turbine with capacity greater than 1000 kW at this station was recommended. Ras Benas station was selected to install 30 MW-wind farm consists of 20 commercial wind turbines (Nordex S 77) with hub heights and Rotor diameter were 100 and 77 m, respectively. This site has annual wind speed more than 9.8 m/s at 100 m height and enough area to locate these turbines. The estimated energy production using WASP Program of these wind farm was 130 GWh/year. Furthermore, the production costs was found 1.3EUR cent/kWh, which is a competition price at the wind energy world market. (author)

  18. Seatbelt use and speeding on three major roads in Egypt: a brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoe, Connie; Puvanachandra, Prasanthi; Rahman, M Hafizur; El Sayed, Hesham; Eldawy, Soad; El-Dabaa, Ayman; Albert, Mourid; Hyder, Adnan A

    2013-12-01

    Road traffic injuries pose a significant threat to the Egyptian population. Recent estimates revealed that Egypt experiences 42 road traffic deaths per 100,000 population (1.8% of all deaths in the country), which is the highest death rate in the region. More than half of the road traffic crashes that resulted in injuries occurred on the country's highways. Despite the significance of this public health problem, very little risk factor information currently exists. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the burden of speeding and the level of seatbelt and child restraint use on a highway (Cairo Ring Road) and two urban roads crossing Alexandria city (Kornish and Gamal Abd-Elnaser roads). Two rounds of seatbelt and child restraint observational studies and one round of speed observational study were carried out between 2011 and 2012. Findings revealed that seatbelt use among drivers and front seat passengers were low for all three sites (range: 11.1% to 19.8% for drivers; 2.9% to 4.0% for front seat passengers). Similarly, child restraint use in cars with children was very low ranging from 1.1% to 3.9% on all three roads. All three roads experienced a high percentage of vehicles driving above the speed limit (39.4% on Kornish Road, 22.6% on Cairo Ring Road, 11.8% on Gamal Abd-Elnaser Road), with the majority of these vehicles driving 1 to 10 kilometer above the speed limit. Future interventions need to focus on enhancing enforcement of speed and seatbelt wearing, closing gaps in legislation, and standardizing existing data systems to help inform good road safety policies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Current state of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed Amin Elzorkany

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD continue to increase in number worldwide, especially in developing countries. Although continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD has comparable survival advantages as hemodialysis (HD, it is greatly underutilized in many regions worldwide. The prevalence of use of CAPD in Egypt is 0.29/million population in 2017. The aim of this study is to describe the current state and practice of CAPD in Egypt and included 22 adult patients who were treated by CAPD. All the study patients were switched to CAPD after treatment with HD failed due to vascular access problems. Patients were mainly female (68.2 % with the mean age of 49.77 ± 11.41 years. The average duration on CAPD was 1.76 ± 1.30 years. Hypertension was the main cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD constituting 36.4%, followed by diabetes (27.3 %, and toxic nephropathy (4.5%. Of importance is that about 31.8% of patients had ESRD of unknown etiology. The mean weekly Kt/V urea of patients on PD was 1.92 ± 0.18. The mean hemoglobin, serum calcium, phosphorus, parathormone, and albumin levels were 10.27 ± 1.98 g/dL, 8.36 ± 1.19 mg/dL, 5.70 ± 1.35 mg/dL, 541.18 ± 230.12 pg/mL, and 2.98 ± 0.73 g/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference between diabetic and nondiabetic CAPD patients regarding demographic and laboratory data. Our data indicate that there is continuing underutilization of CAPD in Egypt which may be related to nonavailability of CAPD fluid, patient factors (education and motivation, gradual decline of the efficiency of health-care professionals, and lack of a national program to start PD as the first modality for renal replacement therapy. It is advised to start an organized program to make CAPD widespread and encourage local production of PD fluids to reduce the cost of CAPD.

  20. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  1. Resilient modulus for unbound granular materials and subgrade soils in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Rabah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechanistic Empirical (ME pavement design methods started to gain attention especially the last couple of years in Egypt and the Middle East. One of the challenges facing the spread of these methods in Egypt is lack of advanced properties of local soil and asphalt, which are needed as input data in ME design. Resilient modulus (Mr for example is an important engineering property that expresses the elastic behavior of soil/unbound granular materials (UGMs under cyclic traffic loading for ME design. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resilient modulus data for soil/UGMs in Egypt, a comprehensive laboratory testing program was conducted to measure resilient modulus of typical UGMs and subgrade soils typically used in pavement construction in Egypt. The factors that affect the resilient modulus of soil/UGMs were reviewed, studied and discussed. Finally, the prediction accuracy of the most well-known Mr Prediction models for the locally investigated materials was investigated.

  2. High-precision radiocarbon chronometry of ancient Egypt, and comparisons with Nubia, Palestine and Mesopotamia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, F A; Robinson, S W

    1987-03-01

    The use of radiocarbon age measurements in historical chronology is examined for ancient Egypt and neighbouring regions. A methodology is presented aimed at improving the reliability and precision of radiocarbon age determinations.

  3. Ground water lifting in the remote and arid areas of Egypt using solar photovoltaic pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younes, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study has been carried out at Mechanical and Electrical Research Institute, Qenater (300 N, 310 E), Egypt on a 2000 WP solar photovoltaic (PV) water pump. The main objective is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing solar energy in ground water lifting. A solar PV pumping system has been constructed as a prototype for a large-scale photovoltaic project in south of Egypt. Solar potential at the remote and arid areas of Egypt is discussed. Installation and operation factors as a function of environmental conditions are presented. Performance of the water pump has been evaluated. The water discharge and system efficiency has been estimated and presented. The changes in water discharge and system efficiency with change in solar radiation has been measured and presented. Preliminary results show that there is a huge potential and real-ability for solar PV submersible water pumping in the remote and arid areas of Egypt

  4. Entrepreneurial intention benefitting from education, training and competence: Egypt and Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashourizadeh, Shayegheh; Nasiri, Niloofar; Schøtt, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The question is, for adults in Egypt and Iran, are education, training and competencies positively interrelated and is this human capital benefitting intention to start a business?– Data on people’s human capital and intentions have been collected by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor in 2008....... The sample is 2,068 adults in Egypt and 2,610 adults in Iran who were not owning-managing a starting or operating business. Multivariate analyses reveal considerable effects of human capital in Egypt and Iran. Education benefits training, training during schooling benefits training after schooling, education...... and training largely benefit competencies such as self-efficacy and opportunity-alertness and education, training and competencies all benefit intention to start a business, but effects differ between Egypt and Iran. The study is valuable and original by demonstrating considerable effects of higher education...

  5. All Eyes on Egypt: Islam and the Medical Use of Dead Bodies Amidst Cairo's Political Unrest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Sherine

    2016-01-01

    Using dead bodies for medical purposes has long been considered taboo in Egypt. Public health campaigns, physicians' pleas, and the urgings of religious scholars all failed to alter public opinion regarding the donation of dead bodies either for instructional material or for therapeutic treatments. Yet in 2011, amid revolutionary turmoil in Egypt, a campaign was launched for people to donate their eyes upon death; this time, people readily signed up to be donors. Focusing on mass eye trauma that occurred in Egypt amid the political uprisings of 2011, I raise questions about when and why Islam can explain people's attitudes and behaviors, particularly toward death and medicine. The case of mass eye trauma in Egypt and citizens' reformulations of questions once jealously controlled by state-aligned doctors, politicians, and religious scholars unsettles the boundaries between 'religion' and 'secularism' in medical practice. [Formula: see text].

  6. Projected role of nuclear power in Egypt and problems encountered in implementing the first nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effat, K.E.A.; Sirry, H.; El-Fouly, M.F.; El-Sharkawy, E.; El-Saiedi, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the present and projected power demands in Egypt and the factors behind the decision to introduce a nuclear power generation program. Different problems encountered and anticipated in introducing the first nuclear power plant are also discussed

  7. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unprecedented spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt ... Effective diagnosis and control management are needed to control the disease. ... Reconstituted clinical samples consisting of H5 AIVs mixed with ...

  8. Micro-gravity studies in archeo-prospecting of the Valley of the Kings, Luxor, Egypt

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Issawy, E. A.; Tealeb, A. A.; Mrlina, Jan; Radwan, A. H.; Hassan, G. S.; Sakr, K. O.

    - (2001), s. 201-212 ISSN 1110-6417 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3012916 Keywords : micro-gravity investigations * archaeo-prospecting * Valley of the Kings * Egypt Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  9. Influence through Airpower Security Cooperation in Egypt and Pakistan: Lessons for Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thies, Douglas G

    2007-01-01

    .... airpower security cooperation with Pakistan and Egypt. The central argument is that these cases suggest that the key variables affecting the success of airpower security cooperation as a diplomacy instrument are: 1...

  10. Rapid detection of the avian influenza virus H5N1 subtype in Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr

    highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Egypt is threatening poultry and ... Key words: Avian influenza virus, H5N1, fluorescent antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) ..... poultry and is potentially zoonotic.

  11. Egypt : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: FOREIGN TRADE, INTERREGIONAL TRADE, TRADE LIBERALIZATION, TRADE FACILITATION, FINANCIAL SERVICES, TELECOMMUNICATIONS INDUSTRY, TRANSPORT. Région: Egypt, Jordan, Middle East, Lebanon, Morocco, North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Central Asia, Far East Asia, South Asia.

  12. Egypt--United States cooperative energy assessment: report on preliminary discussions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    Egyptian and U.S. Government representatives met in Cairo during the period of February 14-22, 1978 to discuss a cooperative Egypt-U.S. assessment of the energy demand and supply options available to Egypt. This report summarizes those preliminary discussions. The discussions accomplished the following: the background and objectives of the U.S. initiative for a cooperative energy assessment with Egypt were explained; Egyptian electric energy activities and their priorities were presented; methods under consideration for the systematic identification and assessment of energy options available to Egypt were explained; the cooperation of Egyptian energy resource and planning organizations was assured; and arrangements to carry out the cooperative assessment were planned.

  13. A recent Mw 4.3 earthquake proving activity of a shallow strike-slip fault in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzelarab, Mohamed; Ebraheem, Mohamed O.; Zahradník, Jiří

    2018-03-01

    The Mw 4.3 earthquake of September 2015 is the first felt earthquake since 1900 A.D in the northern part of the Western Desert, Egypt, south of the El-Alamein City. The available waveform data observed at epicentral distances 52-391 km was collected and carefully evaluated. Nine broad-band stations were selected to invert full waveforms for the centroid position (horizontal and vertical) and for the focal mechanism solution. The first-arrival travel times, polarities and low-frequency full waveforms (0.03-0.08 Hz) are consistently explained in this paper as caused by a shallow source of the strike-slip mechanism. This finding indicates causal relation of this earthquake to the W-E trending South El-Alamein fault, which developed in Late Cretaceous as dextral strike slip fault. Recent activity of this fault, proven by the studied rare earthquake, is of fundamental importance for future seismic hazard evaluations, underlined by proximity (∼65 km) of the source zone to the first nuclear power plant planned site in Egypt. Safe exploration and possible future exploitation of hydrocarbon reserves, reported around El-Alamein fault in the last decade, cannot be made without considering the seismic potential of this fault.

  14. Anaerobic biodegradability and treatment of Egyption domestic sewage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwally, T.A.; Al-Sarawey, A.; El-Sherbiny, M.F.; Zeeman, G.; Lettinga, G.

    2003-01-01

    The anaerobic biodegradability of domestic sewage for four Egyptian villages and four Egyptian cities was determined in batch experiments. The results showed that the biodegradability of the Egyptian-villages sewage (73%) was higher than that of the cities (66%). The higher biodegradability of the

  15. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children.

  16. Risk factors for congenital heart diseases in Alexandria, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassili, A.; Mokhtar, S.A.; Dabous, N.I.; Zaher, S.R.; Mokhtar, M.M.; Zaki, A.

    2000-01-01

    A matched case control study has been conducted in the children's hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt, during 2 years-period, aiming at investigating the risk factors for the occurrence of congenital heart diseases. Our results showed that the significant risk factors for developing any type of congenital heart disease and ventricular septal defects were: older paternal age at birth, positive consanguinity, positive family history, female sex hormones, irradiation, hazardous maternal occupation, diabetes mellitus and suburban or rural residence. However, some environmental/teratogenic factors were not implicated in the etiology of atrial septal defects or pulmonary stenosis. These findings strongly suggest that environmental factors vary according to the specific type of congenital heart disease. This study emphasizes on the need to instruct the public about the importance of pre-marital counselling and the deleterious effects of various teratogens in the environment

  17. Scaling the State: Egypt in the Third Millennium BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bussmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Discussions of the early Egyptian state suffer from a weak consideration of scale. Egyptian archaeologists derive their arguments primarily from evidence of court cemeteries, elite tombs, and monuments of royal display. The material informs the analysis of kingship, early writing, and administration but it remains obscure how the core of the early Pharaonic state was embedded in the territory it claimed to administer. This paper suggests that the relationship between centre and hinterland is key for scaling the Egyptian state of the Old Kingdom (ca. 2,700-2,200 BC. Initially, central administration imagines Egypt using models at variance with provincial practice. The end of the Old Kingdom demarcates not the collapse, but the beginning of a large-scale state characterized by the coalescence of central and local models.

  18. Road map for renewable energy research and development in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel K. Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt possesses excellent potential for renewable energy (RE including solar, wind and biomass energy. Renewable energy technologies (RETs and systems have different needs for support in terms of research and development, demonstration and market development. For this purpose, the Energy Research Center (ERC at Cairo University has carried out a study with the ultimate goal of formulating a national development strategy and action plan for the local manufacture of renewable energy systems (RESs and components. The present study positions the different RETs and RESs and identifies the research and development needs for each technology. The study also suggests how to establish a competitive market for RET. For this purpose it builds and analyses a set of likely scenarios, and proposes a practical development strategy and a detailed action plan for achieving it.

  19. Nuclear fuel requirements in Egypt up to the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, F.H.; Ghoneim, M.M.; Abou-Zahra, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The nuclear fuel demands (as U 3 O 8 ) in Egypt for the nuclear power and nuclear desalination programmes up to the year 2000 were calculated. The recent nuclear power forecasts of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the General Egyptian Electricity Coroporation (GEEC) were used as bases for calculation. The requirements were calculated for light and heavy water reactor (LWR and HWR) strategies. The cumulative uranium requirements for power and desalination programmes were found to be in the range of 19000-25000 tons in case of HWR strategy and 30000-400000 tons in case of LWR strategy. In the year 2000 alone the demands are expected to be 2000-2500 tons in case of HWR strategy and 3200-4000 tons in case of LWR strategy. Intensive uranium exploration coupled with a suitable reactor policy is essential to ensure the availability of these demands and for developing a local nuclear fuel technology

  20. 'Like a Virgin': Hymenoplasty and Secret Marriage in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, L L

    2016-01-01

    In Egypt, women seek hymenoplasty to disguise evidence of premarital sexual intercourse. Physicians hide the fact that they perform the procedure, and laypeople condemn it as against religion and morality, a way of cheating men of knowledge of their wives' sexual history. Yet high-ranking religious leaders have condoned hymenoplasty. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, archival research, and formal interviews with laypeople and physicians, in this article, I investigate this discrepancy between religious and lay opinions. Many Egyptians believe women resort to hymenoplasty after contracting secret `urfi (customary) marriages, and I examine the relationship between hymenoplasty and extramarital and paramarital sexuality. Egyptian debates around hymenoplasty and marriage are concerned with the notion that women's sexual status must be socially visible, believing that doctors and kin have the ability and obligation to read women's sexual history through physiological markers and social rituals. Hymenoplasty and secret marriage render women's sexual histories illegible to observers.

  1. Microbiological quality of coastal sea water of Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divizia, M; Ruscio, V; Donia, D; el Ghazzawi, E; Elcherbini, E; Gabrieli, R; Gamil, F; Kader, O; Zaki, A; Renganathan, E; Panà, A

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of the seawater in Alexandria, Egypt. Samples were collected in 6 different points: Kayet Bay, El Shatby, Camp Cesar, Sporting, Beir Massoud and El Max. In total, 24 samples were analyzed. For each point the analysis included estimation of the following parameters: Esherichia coli, total coliform and fecal streptococci, Yersinia, Shigella, Salmonella, bacteriophages and enteric viruses. Just one sample (El Max) was positive for the presence of Salmonella, neither Shigella or Yersinia were isolated from any of the analyzed points. E. coli was identified in 10 samples while the ratio between total coliform and fecal streptococci showed variable results with the exception of El Max that resulted constantly high. Three samples were positive for the presence of enteric viruses: El Shatby, Beir Massoud and Sporting. The analysis of phages showed a variable pollution values.

  2. Sharia-compliant hotels in Egypt: Concept and chanllenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham Ezzat Saad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to provide greater clearness for the meaning of the ShariaCompliant Hotel (SCH and identify the challenges facing the development of this type of hotels in Egypt. To fulfill these objectives, Delphi technique, as a method of refining group opinions, was used. The study used two rounds e-mailed questionnaires. Findings indicated that the most important defining features of SCH were; no alcohol or pork allowed, gender segregation was significant and halal food products are significant. Other important defining features included; Quran and prayer mats in each room, no nightclubs, disco or bars, and signs indicating the direction of Mecca in every room. The main SCH challenges cited by the respondents were deprivation of the insertion in the international or local hotel classifications; competition with other non-Islamic hotels, and need for specific criteria appropriated to the international hotel classifications.

  3. Molecular detection of Capillaria philippinensis: An emerging zoonosis in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, Nadia A; El-Badry, Ayman A; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; Rubio, Jose M

    2015-07-01

    Human infection with Capillaria philippinensis is accidental; however, it may end fatally if not diagnosed and treated in the proper time. The first case was detected in the Philippines in 1963, but later reported in other countries around the world, including Egypt. In this report, molecular diagnosis using a specific nested PCR for detection of C. philippinensis in faeces is described based on the amplification of small ribosomal subunit. The test showed sensitivity and specificity, as it detected all the positive cases and gave no cross-reaction with human DNA and DNA of other tested parasites. This method can be very useful not only for improvement of diagnosis, but also to understand the different environmental routes of transmission by detection of C. philippinensis DNA-stages in the possible fish intermediate hosts and reservoir animal host, helping to improve strategies for surveillance and prevention of human disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An Energy Overview of the Republic of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The DOE Office of Fossil Energy is maintaining a web site that is meant to provide useful business- and energy-related information about countries and regions of the world for exporters, project developers, and researchers. The site consists of more than 130 country pages (organized into seven different world regions), with each country page having its own set of links to information sources about that country. There are also more than 30 Country Energy Overviews at the web site -- each of these is a comprehensive review of a specific country's entire energy situation, including sections on Energy Policy, Oil, Natural Gas, Coal, Hydroelectric/Renewables, Nuclear Power, Energy Transmission Infrastructure, Electricity, Electric Industry Overview, Environmental Activities, Privatization, Trade, and Economic Situation. The specific country highlighted in this Country Energy Overview is Egypt. The site is designed to be dynamic. Updates to the overviews will be made as need and resources permit

  5. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomma, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized

  6. CAPITAL STRUCTURE DETERMINANTS: EVIDENCE FROM PALESTINE AND EGYPT STOCK EXCHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Razak Abdul Hadi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract -This study is driven by the motivation to examine the capital structure determinants for Palestine Stock Exchange (PEX and Egypt Stock Exchange (EGX. Within the framework of capital structure theories, this study uses Generalized Method of Moments (GMM,1982 as an estimation model employing quarterly panel data analysis during the observed period from 2008 till 2012. The test results from GMM indicate that all the examined determinants have significant relationship with leverage. It has a negative value with liquidity, non-debt tax shield, profitability, size and growth. The Egyptian firms have some uniqueness in its trend. Current assets, debt ratio and liquidity behave positively with leverage except for growth. The other tested determinants in Egyptian companies are found to be not significant.

  7. Current trends in radiation protection in Egypt. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomma, M A [Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The treatise presents the development of radiation protection in egypt over the past four decades. The contents will include a historical synopsis, and the current state of art regarding competent authorities, the hierarchy involved, and the respective responsibilities. The recent publications of the international trends in radiation protection are also mentioned. The efforts made towards the implementation of the new recommendations on radiation protection, and updating of the radiation protection legislations are also discussed. The 1994 international safety standards, and the collective opinion of the committee on radiation protection and public health (CRPPH) of the organization for economic Co-operation and development of the Nuclear energy agency OECD/NEA are also summarized.

  8. Provenance studies of pottery fragments from medieval Cairo, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beal, J.W.; Olmez, I.

    1997-01-01

    In the analysis of archeological pottery fragments, instrumental neutron activation analysis has been utilized to establish the elemental concentrations of up to 37 chemical elements for each of 53 archeological pottery samples from medieval Cairo, Egypt, and one additional sample of Chinese porcelain. These elemental concentrations have been utilized in a statistical analysis procedure in order to determine similarities and correlations between the various samples. Multivariate analyses have been used to quantitatively determine these interrelationships. This methodology successfully separated the Egyptian samples into two broad categories: polychrome decorated ceramic ware and monochrome celadon ware. In addition the methodology successfully identified the one unique sample of Chinese porcelain. Several samples appeared to be either a mixture of categories or outliers in the data set and were not attributable to any distinct category. (author)

  9. Human Fascioliasis: A Re-emerging Disease in Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Mohamed A.; Tolba, Mohammed; Abdel-Malek, Mohamed O.; Abbas, Wael A.; Zidan, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the number of humans infected with Fasciola has risen rapidly. Diagnosis is based mainly on detection of eggs in stool analysis. The rate of infection in Egypt is unknown. In this retrospective study, we describe 23 cases of hepatic fascioliasis, and only 2 of these cases showed eggs in stools. The symptoms of infection, such as pyrexia of unknown origin, epigastric pain, and abdominal distension, were suggestive. Imaging techniques, including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, were very helpful in detecting hepatic changes. An indirect hemagglutination assay proved to be of value for diagnosis. Treatment using a 2-day triclabendazole regimen cured the infection and signs of hepatic involvement disappeared. Combining both imaging techniques and laboratory tests is essential for diagnosis of fascioliasis in the early stage. PMID:25870421

  10. Human fascioliasis: a re-emerging disease in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekky, Mohamed A; Tolba, Mohammed; Abdel-Malek, Mohamed O; Abbas, Wael A; Zidan, Mohamed

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, the number of humans infected with Fasciola has risen rapidly. Diagnosis is based mainly on detection of eggs in stool analysis. The rate of infection in Egypt is unknown. In this retrospective study, we describe 23 cases of hepatic fascioliasis, and only 2 of these cases showed eggs in stools. The symptoms of infection, such as pyrexia of unknown origin, epigastric pain, and abdominal distension, were suggestive. Imaging techniques, including abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography, were very helpful in detecting hepatic changes. An indirect hemagglutination assay proved to be of value for diagnosis. Treatment using a 2-day triclabendazole regimen cured the infection and signs of hepatic involvement disappeared. Combining both imaging techniques and laboratory tests is essential for diagnosis of fascioliasis in the early stage. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  11. Sea transport of radioactive materials in Egypt (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shinawy, R.M.K.; Gomaa, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In Egypt the national regulations for safe transport of radioactive materials (RAM) are based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations. In addition, regulations for the safe transport of these materials through the Suez Canal (SC) were laid down by the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority (EAEA) and the Suez Canal Authority (SCA). They are continuously updated to meet the increased knowledge and the experience gained. The technical and protective measures taken during transport of RAM through SC are mentioned. Assessment of the impact of transporting radioactive materials through the Suez Canal using the INTERTRAN computer code was carried out in cooperation with IAEA. The transported activities and empty containers, the number of vessels carrying RAM through the Canal from 1963 to 1996 and their nationalities are also discussed. The protective measures are mentioned. (author)

  12. Sexual life in Pharaonic Egypt: towards a urological view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokeir, A A; Hussein, M I

    2004-10-01

    Sex is a basic human need, common to all people at all times. It is evident that the ancient Egyptians were real human beings, not only a people who built massive pyramids and made mummies of their dead. The ancient Egyptians had a rich and varied sexual life, which they found an opportunity to describe in words and pictures. As in the other early primitive civilizations, erotic matters were of prime importance and became an integral part of life. In Pharaonic times, the Egyptians described impotence and recorded several methods to increase the sexual power. In the present paper, we will shed light on some aspects of the sexual life in ancient Egypt that may be interesting to the urologists, including ancient Egyptian concepts of sex and erotic matters, their own way of treatment of impotence and Min, the Egyptian fertility God.

  13. The impact of economic globalization on the shadow economy in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Farzanegan, Mohammad Reza; Hassan, Mai

    2017-01-01

    This study examines the economic globalization and the shadow economy nexus in Egypt. Using time series data from 1976 to 2013, the impulse response analysis shows that the response of the shadow economy in Egypt to positive shocks in economic globalization is negative and statistically significant for the first three years following the shock. This finding is obtained by controlling for several intermediary channels in globalization-shadow economy nexus such as education, government spending...

  14. Ricardian Equivalence, Twin Deficits, and the Feldstein-Horioka puzzle in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Marinheiro

    2006-01-01

    Egypt has presented important budget imbalances. This paper tries to evaluate whether Egypt’s public deficit has had any impact on current account imbalances, examining the validity of the twin deficit hypothesis for Egypt. We conclude for the presence of a (weak) long-run relationship between the budget deficit and the current account deficit. Yet, we reject the twin-deficit hypothesis: we found evidence in favour of a reverse Granger-causality running from the external deficit to the budget...

  15. Transfiguring the Dead: The Iconography, Commemorative Use, and Materiality of Mummy Shrouds from Roman Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Jimenez, Lissette Marie

    2014-01-01

    The mummy shrouds, often overlooked or dissected into dichotomous parts because of their Hellenistic and Egyptian hybrid pictorial nature, provide unparalleled insight into religious and social facets of life and death in Roman Egypt. Moving beyond the aesthetic properties of these objects and focusing on the symbolic and material functions of the iconography on the shrouds enables a fuller understanding of individual and collective social aspirations of the inhabitants of Roman Egypt. When v...

  16. Evaluation of SPT energy for Donut and Safety hammers using CPT measurements in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Rami M. El-Sherbiny; Manal A. Salem

    2013-01-01

    Standard Penetration Test (SPT) blow counts require correction prior to utilization in soil characterization and determination of properties and behavior. Among the most important corrections is the energy correction required to adjust the blow counts to 60% energy efficiency. However, there are no published data supporting commonly used value in Egypt. This paper presents an evaluation of the energy efficiency of the Donut and Safety hammers commonly used in Egypt and the associated energy c...

  17. Electronic Health Records Prospects in Egypt: A Demand-Side Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Badran; Mona Farid

    2017-01-01

    The present study sheds light on the expected factors that would impact the Electronic Health Records (EHR) service in Egypt from the demand-side perspective, i.e. the health care consumer. This empirical study is motivated by the widespread use of EHR as a method of promoting health services globally, where it is considered as an efficiency enhancing, cost effective technology. Moreover, the healthcare sector in Egypt is gaining momentum, especially that the comprehensive healthcare and soci...

  18. Neurosurgery in Egypt: past, present, and future-from pyramids to radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gindi, Sayed

    2002-09-01

    THE CONTEMPORARY DEVELOPMENT of neurosurgery in Egypt is described, with reference to the ancient past and recent American and European influences. This article traces the steps taken by several leading Egyptian pioneers. Egypt, one of the key countries in the Middle East, has led the development of the specialty in the region and has maintained close ties with the international body of neurological surgeons and surgical societies.

  19. Egypt: The Key To Peace And Prosperity In The Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-03

    United States had concerns with Egypt’s desire to become a regional leader . Nasser took exception to this perceived threat and told an audience in...economic interests ahead of political and radical religious ideals. Second, instead of supporting autocratic rule in Egypt as the United States has done...recognize Egypt as a defacto leader in Africa. Third, U.S. - Egyptian military relations need to continue and grow. In order for this to occur, the

  20. Different Creative Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Mark; Vaarst Andersen, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    and exhibits a tendency of congregating in major cities with diverse service and cultural offers and tolerance to non-mainstream lifestyles. However, we find that a range of smaller Danish cities also attract the creative class. Second, we undertake qualitative interviews that facilitate theory building. We...... suggest that many creatives are attracted by the smaller cities' cost advantages, specialized job offers, attractive work/life balances, and authenticity and sense of community. The article synthesizes its results into four stylized types of creative cities, and concludes by discussing the policy...... challenges associated with these different cities....

  1. Prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roushdy, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry in Egypt is continually expanding its activity and each year marks new accomplishments and additions which enable the companies to apply the most modern scientific means in the production of pharmaceutical preparations and consequently to improve their market potentialities. The certainty of expansion and the possibility of increasing exports of sterilized medical products, particularly to Arab and African countries, indicate a need for a gamma-sterilization plant. This technology permits the introduction of the latest practices with regard to used disposables, thus greatly reducing the chances of cross-contamination which usually results in serious complications enhanced by local environmental conditions. This paper reviews the current state and future prospects for radiation sterilization of medical products and biological tissues in connection with other related industrial radiation processings. Moreover, the paper reviews the Egyptian scientific and technical experience with irradiation facilities and the parameters underlying the choice of Egypt's first industrial gamma and electron-beam irradiators designed for more than a single-purpose use, with hygienic measures taken to avoid biological contamination of sterilized medical packages throughout the sterilization process. In addition, the paper deals with the policy set up for establishing the Egyptian National Centre for Radiation Technology with a view to introducing irradiation techniques in the sterilization of medical products, and to improving the properties and increasing the competitiveness of Egyptian fabrics. Apart from medical sterilization, certain industrial processes have been mentioned to show how a multi-purpose irradiation facility may be utilized in a developing country to justify significantly the large investment required. (author)

  2. The corrosive well waters of Egypt's western desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Frank Eldridge

    1979-01-01

    The discovery that ground waters of Egypt's Western Desert are highly corrosive is lost in antiquity. Inhabitants of the oases have been aware of the troublesome property for many decades and early investigators mention it in their reports concerning the area. Introduction of modern well-drilling techniques and replacements of native wood casing with steel during the 20th century increased corrosion problems and, in what is called the New Valley Project, led to an intense search for causes and corrective treatments. This revealed that extreme corrosiveness results from combined effects of relatively acidic waters with significant concentrations of destructive sulfide ion; unfavorable ratios of sulfate and chloride to less aggressive ions; mineral equilibria and electrode potential which hinder formation of protective films; relative high chemical reaction rates because of abnormal temperatures, and high surface velocities related to well design. There is general agreement among investigators that conventional corrosion control methods such as coating metal surfaces, chemical treatment of the water, and electrolytic protection with impressed current and sacrificial electrodes are ineffective or impracticable for wells in the Western Desert's New Valley. Thus, control must be sought through the use of materials more resistant to corrosion than plain carbon steel wherever well screens and casings are necessary. Of the alternatives considered, stainless steel appears to. be the most promising where high strength and long-term services are required and the alloy's relatively high cost is acceptable. Epoxy resin-bonded fiberglass and wood appear to be practicable, relatively inexpensive alternatives for installations which do. not exceed their strength limitations. Other materials such as high strength aluminum and Monel Metal have shown sufficient promise to. merit their consideration in particular locations and uses. The limited experience with pumping in these desert

  3. Screening for retinopathy of prematurity: a report from upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud M. Nassar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To detect the incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP in a tertiary referral neonatal intensive care unit in upper Egypt and to describe the obstacles faced during implementing the screening protocol for the first time. METHODS: Consecutive infants were enrolled at birth and screened for ROP. We used the UK ROP guideline (May 2008 for infant selection, follow up and treatment. Repeat examinations were performed until retinal vascularisation was complete. RESULTS: Fifty-two infants were enrolled: 24 males and 28 females. Mean gestational age was 31.3wk (±2.8 SD and mean birth weight was 1234.6 g (±221.1 SD. Incidence of ROP was 36.5% (stages 1, 2, 3 and 4a were 9.6%, 9.6%, 15.4% and 1.9% respectively, no stages 4b or 5 were found in this series. Six infants (11.5% died during screening without ROP, 25 infants (48.1% were discharged from screening with retinal vascularisation reaching zone III, 5 infants (9.6% were treated with indirect diode with or without additional cryotherapy and 16 infants (30.8% were lost to follow up. In this series gestational age rather than birth weight was found significantly correlated and predictive (P<0.05 with ROP stages. CONCLUSION: ROP in a single site in Upper Egypt appears to have comparable incidence to other areas worldwide. The main screening obstacle was missing cases due to the absence of a national ROP screening protocol.

  4. Arab Spring - Concepts and Characteristics (Case of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Gad El Ashkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at sheding light on the revolutions of the Arab Spring, especially in the case of Egypt, where the conceptual side will be reviewed and to identify the most important features and highlights of this event. During the second decade of the twenty-first century, the Arab region has marked a flurry of unusual at the political level. This flurry has created a very important phenomenon not only for the Arab region, but also worldwide. This phenomenon is known as the Arab Spring, which came as a result of the ongoing suffering of the peoples of the region from injustice, oppression and inequality in all spheres of life. Thus, to achieve this purpose, revolutionary concepts and the theoretical concept of revolution will be analyzed and studied, a comparison between western concept and the Arab revolution, as well as concentration on a particular focus on the concept of Egyptian Spring and the most prominent features of it. Through this work will be provided insights on the reality of revolutionary concepts and specifically the depth of the dimensions, aspects and characteristics that belong to the concept of the Revolution of Arab Spring in general, and Egypt in particular. There is no doubt that the study of this event cannot be stopped to the limits or the time, and that this event is not just about Arab nations or peoples of the Middle East region, but it has to do will all the peoples of the world living under the pressure of the same reasons and conditions of these revolutions.

  5. An optimization planning technique for Suez Canal Network in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou El-Ela, A.A.; El-Zeftawy, A.A.; Allam, S.M.; Atta, Gasir M. [Electrical Engineering Dept., Faculty of Eng., Shebin El-Kom (Egypt)

    2010-02-15

    This paper introduces a proposed optimization technique POT for predicting the peak load demand and planning of transmission line systems. Many of traditional methods have been presented for long-term load forecasting of electrical power systems. But, the results of these methods are approximated. Therefore, the artificial neural network (ANN) technique for long-term peak load forecasting is modified and discussed as a modern technique in long-term load forecasting. The modified technique is applied on the Egyptian electrical network dependent on its historical data to predict the electrical peak load demand forecasting up to year 2017. This technique is compared with extrapolation of trend curves as a traditional method. The POT is applied also to obtain the optimal planning of transmission lines for the 220 kV of Suez Canal Network (SCN) using the ANN technique. The minimization of the transmission network costs are considered as an objective function, while the transmission lines (TL) planning constraints are satisfied. Zafarana site on the Red Sea coast is considered as an optimal site for installing big wind farm (WF) units in Egypt. So, the POT is applied to plan both the peak load and the electrical transmission of SCN with and without considering WF to develop the impact of WF units on the electrical transmission system of Egypt, considering the reliability constraints which were taken as a separate model in the previous techniques. The application on SCN shows the capability and the efficiently of the proposed techniques to obtain the predicting peak load demand and the optimal planning of transmission lines of SCN up to year 2017. (author)

  6. Changing patterns of drug-resistant Shigella isolates in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Elmeged, Ghada M; Khairy, Rasha M; Abo-Eloyoon, Sahar M; Abdelwahab, Sayed F

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) is a serious problem in treating shigellosis. There are limited existing data examining the change in the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella in Egypt. We previously reported that 58% of the Shigella isolates in Egypt were resistant to at least one member of the three different antimicrobial groups. This study was performed to determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of Shigella, determine their possible mechanisms of resistance, and compare their resistance profile to those reported 20 years ago. Stool samples were collected from 500 subjects and processed for the isolation and identification of Shigella. The susceptibility of the isolates to 11 different antimicrobials was determined using the disc diffusion method. Of 500 stool cultures, 24 (4.8%) samples were positive for Shigella. There was a high percentage of resistance to ampicillin (88%), tetracycline (83%), and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (75%). Also, there was a moderate percentage of resistance to chloramphenicol (46%), streptomycin (42%), ceftazidime (33%), and cefotaxime (25%). A lower percentage of resistance was recorded for amikacin, nalidixic acid (17% each), and ofloxacin (7%), while no resistance was found to ciprofloxacin (0%). Twenty-one of the isolates (88%) were resistant to at least three different antimicrobial groups (indicating MDR). The average number of antimicrobial agents to which the Shigella isolates were resistant was 4.3±1.4, while it was 3.4±1.5 in the same locality in 1994. These data demonstrate that there is a marked increase in MDR and change in the resistance patterns of Shigella over the past 20 years.

  7. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 3 of 5 Vols. Annexes 2--5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-04-01

    The principal objectives of the energy assessment project for Egypt are to develop understanding of the current status of the principal energy users in Egypt's industrial and agricultural sectors; to estimate the energy demand and efficiency for each selected subsector within these major sectors; to identify opportunities for fuel type changes, technology switches, or production pattern changes which might increase the efficiency with which Egypt's energy is used both now and in the future; and based on options identified, to forecast energy efficiencies for selected Egyptian subsectors for the years 1985 and 2000. The areas studied in the industrial sector are the iron and steel, aluminum, fertilizer, chemical, petrochemical, cement, textile, and automotive manufacturing industries. Those studied in the agricultural sector concern drainage and irrigation, mechanization, and food processing. Additional information in 4 annexes include industrial/agricultural sector options; residential/commercial, transportation, and fossil fuels supply options.

  8. National water, food, and trade modeling framework: The case of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkader, A; Elshorbagy, A; Tuninetti, M; Laio, F; Ridolfi, L; Fahmy, H; Hoekstra, A Y

    2018-05-22

    This paper introduces a modeling framework for the analysis of real and virtual water flows at national scale. The framework has two components: (1) a national water model that simulates agricultural, industrial and municipal water uses, and available water and land resources; and (2) an international virtual water trade model that captures national virtual water exports and imports related to trade in crops and animal products. This National Water, Food & Trade (NWFT) modeling framework is applied to Egypt, a water-poor country and the world's largest importer of wheat. Egypt's food and water gaps and the country's food (virtual water) imports are estimated over a baseline period (1986-2013) and projected up to 2050 based on four scenarios. Egypt's food and water gaps are growing rapidly as a result of steep population growth and limited water resources. The NWFT modeling framework shows the nexus of the population dynamics, water uses for different sectors, and their compounding effects on Egypt's food gap and water self-sufficiency. The sensitivity analysis reveals that for solving Egypt's water and food problem non-water-based solutions like educational, health, and awareness programs aimed at lowering population growth will be an essential addition to the traditional water resources development solution. Both the national and the global models project similar trends of Egypt's food gap. The NWFT modeling framework can be easily adapted to other nations and regions. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Cities as development drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Bjørn; Poulsen, Tjalfe; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong connection between economic growth and development of cities. Economic growth tends to stimulate city growth, and city economies have often shaped innovative environments that in turn support economic growth. Simultaneously, social and environmental problems related to city growth...... can be serious threats to the realization of the socio-economic contributions that cities can make. However, as a result of considerable diversity of competences combined with interactive learning and innovation, cities may also solve these problems. The ‘urban order’ may form a platform...... for innovative problem solving and potential spill-over effects, which may stimulate further economic growth and development. This paper discusses how waste problems of cities can be transformed to become part of new, more sustainable solutions. Two cases are explored: Aalborg in Denmark and Malmö in Sweden...

  10. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement...... at identifying the factors have impacted both the constitutional drafting process and the popular perception of the produced constitutions in each of Tunisia and Egypt....

  11. City Carbon Footprint Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangwu Chen

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Progressive cities worldwide have demonstrated political leadership by initiating meaningful strategies and actions to tackle climate change. However, the lack of knowledge concerning embodied greenhouse gas (GHG emissions of cities has hampered effective mitigation. We analyse trans-boundary GHG emission transfers between five Australian cities and their trading partners, with embodied emission flows broken down into major economic sectors. We examine intercity carbon footprint (CF networks and disclose a hierarchy of responsibility for emissions between cities and regions. Allocations of emissions to households, businesses and government and the carbon efficiency of expenditure have been analysed to inform mitigation policies. Our findings indicate that final demand in the five largest cities in Australia accounts for more than half of the nation’s CF. City households are responsible for about two thirds of the cities’ CFs; the rest can be attributed to government and business consumption and investment. The city network flows highlight that over half of emissions embodied in imports (EEI to the five cities occur overseas. However, a hierarchy of GHG emissions reveals that overseas regions also outsource emissions to Australian cities such as Perth. We finally discuss the implications of our findings on carbon neutrality, low-carbon city concepts and strategies and allocation of subnational GHG responsibility.

  12. [Healthy Cities projects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Takehito

    2002-05-01

    This is a review article on "Healthy Cities". The Healthy Cities programme has been developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) to tackle urban health and environmental issues in a broad way. It is a kind of comprehensive policy package to carry out individual projects and activities effectively and efficiently. Its key aspects include healthy public policy, vision sharing, high political commitment, establishment of structural organization, strategic health planning, intersectoral collaboration, community participation, setting approach, development of supportive environment for health, formation of city health profile, national and international networking, participatory research, periodic monitoring and evaluation, and mechanisms for sustainability of projects. The present paper covered the Healthy Cities concept and approaches, rapid urbanization in the world, developments of WHO Healthy Cities, Healthy Cities developments in the Western Pacific Region, the health promotion viewpoint, and roles of research.

  13. EU Smart City Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years European Commission has developed a set of documents for Members States tracing, directly or indirectly, recommendations for the transformation of the European city. The paper wants to outline which future EU draws for the city, through an integrated and contextual reading of addresses and strategies contained in the last documents, a future often suggested as Smart City. Although the three main documents (Cohesion Policy 2014-2020 of European Community, Digital Agenda for Europe and European Urban Agenda face the issue of the future development of European cities from different points of view, which are respectively cohesion social, ICT and urban dimension, each of them pays particular attention to urban and territorial dimension, identified by the name of Smart City. In other words, the paper aims at drawing the scenario of evolution of Smart Cities that can be delineated through the contextual reading of the three documents. To this end, the paper is divided into three parts: the first part briefly describes the general contents of the three European economic plan tools; the second part illustrates the scenarios for the future of the European city contained in each document; the third part seeks to trace the evolution of the Smart Cities issue developed by the set of the three instruments, in order to provide the framework of European Community for the near future of our cities

  14. A liveable city:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2014-01-01

    is increas- ingly based in and on cities rather than nations, and cities compete for businesses, branding, tourists and talent. In the western world, urbanisation has happened simultane- ously to de-industrialisation, which has opened industrial neighbourhoods and harbours for new uses – often focus- ing......There are over 20 cities world-wide with a population of over 10 million people. We have entered ‘The Millennium of the City’. The growth of urban populations has been accompanied by profound changes of the cities’ economic and social profile and of the cities themselves. The world economy...

  15. Big data, smart cities and city planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, Michael

    2013-11-01

    I define big data with respect to its size but pay particular attention to the fact that the data I am referring to is urban data, that is, data for cities that are invariably tagged to space and time. I argue that this sort of data are largely being streamed from sensors, and this represents a sea change in the kinds of data that we have about what happens where and when in cities. I describe how the growth of big data is shifting the emphasis from longer term strategic planning to short-term thinking about how cities function and can be managed, although with the possibility that over much longer periods of time, this kind of big data will become a source for information about every time horizon. By way of conclusion, I illustrate the need for new theory and analysis with respect to 6 months of smart travel card data of individual trips on Greater London's public transport systems.

  16. Theme city or gated community - images of future cities

    OpenAIRE

    Helenius-Mäki, Leena

    2002-01-01

    The future of the cities has been under discussion since the first city. It has been typical in every civilisation and era to hope for a better city. Creek philosopher Platon created image of future city where all men were equal and the city was ruled by philosophers minds. Many philosopher or later social scientist have ended up to similar "hope to be city". The form and type of the better city has depended from creators of those future city images. The creators have had their future city im...

  17. Uranium exploration in Egypt past, current and future activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farag, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Egyptian Nuclear Materials Authority (NMA), is the government body responsible for exploration of the nuclear raw materials in the country. The early NMA U-exploration activities has included training of exploration teams, conduction of airborne, ground follow up and preliminary geological mapping as well as execution of limited exploration drilling. A number of TC projects and expert missions were mainly executed in collaboration with the IAEA for this purpose. These efforts have resulted in the discovery of seven U-potential prospects. NMA has also exercised limited heap leaching on experimental scale and obtained small amounts of U-concentrates, utilized for R & D purposes. However, the exploration activities remained in the preliminary phases and did not succeed to reach either reliable evaluation of the discovered uranium resources or running productive U-exploitation. By the end of the last decade, Egypt has declared the intention to adopt a peaceful program for electric power generation; this implied NMA to implement a twofold plan as described hereafter. Regarding the conventional U-resources, occurring in the Eastern Desert, NMA focus the exploration activities on the younger granites of Pan African type, and the associated inter-mountain basins. The activities will be restricted to the evaluation of U-reserves in at least three of the most promising uranium prospects that still require extensive exploration drilling programs. NMA is now implementing an international bid announcement seeking for partnership of an experienced international firm, to assess the uranium resources in these sites, in addition to receiving relevant IAEA/TC programs. Regarding non-conventional resources, the black sand project is mainly a resource of a titanium and zirconium minerals; however, NMA is now trying to process monazite to obtain mainly Th and minor U by-products. NMA has successfully completed an exploration study and. the Government of Egypt has recently

  18. First birth and the trajectory of women's empowerment in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2017-11-08

    Women's empowerment is often used to explain changes in reproductive behavior, but no consideration is given to how reproductive events can shape women's empowerment over time. Fertility may cause changes in women's empowerment, or they may be mutually influencing. Research on women's empowerment and fertility relies on cross-sectional data from South Asia, which limits the understanding of the direction of association between women's empowerment and fertility in other global contexts. This study uses two waves of a panel survey from a prominent Middle Eastern country, Egypt, to examine the trajectory of women's empowerment and the relationship between first and subsequent births and empowerment over time. Using longitudinal data from the 2006 and 2012 Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey, a nationally representative sample of households in Egypt, for 4660 married women 15 to 49 years old, multilevel negative binomial, ordinary least squares, and logistic regression models estimate women's empowerment and consider whether a first and subsequent births are associated with empowerment later in life. Women's empowerment is operationalized through four measures of agency: individual household decision-making, joint household decision-making, mobility, and financial autonomy. A first birth and subsequent births are significantly positively associated with all measures of empowerment except financial autonomy in 2012. Women who have not had a birth make 30% fewer individual household decisions and 14% fewer joint household decisions in 2012 compared to women with a first birth. There is also a positive relationship with mobility, as women with a first birth have more freedom of movement compared to women with no births. Earlier empowerment is also an important predictor of empowerment later in life. Incorporating the influence of life events like first and subsequent births helps account for the possibility that empowerment is dynamic and that life course experiences shape

  19. Epidemiology and Diagnosis of Feline Intestinal Lymphosarcomas in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayez Awadalla Salib

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Feline intestinal lymphosarcomas are mostly caused by Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV. Unfortunately, there is no available vaccine for FeLV in Egypt. The diagnosis of feline intestinal lymphosarcomas depends upon abdominal palpation, x-rays examination, ultrasonography, direct ELISA and histopathology of masses excised during laparotomy. The recorded clinical signs in intestinal lymphosarcoma affected cats were variable including vomiting, fever, anorexia, ascites, anemia, dyspnea, constipation and emaciation. The affected lymph nodes were mesenteric, mediastinal and retropharyngeal. The prevalence of intestinal lymphosarcomas in the examined cats was 4.03 % (11 out of 273 cats. The prevalence was higher in queens than toms (2.93 % and 0.73 % respectively. The Siamese cats had higher prevalence than the Sherazy ones (2.56 % and 1.47 % respectively. X-ray films and ultrasonographic images performed on the eleven cats suffered from intestinal lymphosarcomas revealed ascities and abdominal masses. The comparison of ELISA and histopathology (of excised masses results showed that 9 out of 11 intestinal lymphosarcoma affected cats were infected with FeLV that proved not all cases of intestinal lymphosarcoma were caused by FeLV. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ELISA to diagnose intestinal lymphosarcoma in cats were 81.81 %, 100 % and 92 % respectively. Gross autopsy of the collected lymph nodes, livers, kidneys revealed that gross lymphadenopathy involving one or more nodes, hepatomegaly and kidney enlargement. Microscopically, the examined tissues specimens showed that the normal architecture of the examined lymph nodes, livers, and kidneys has been replaced by a diffuse infiltrate of both lymphocytes and lymphoblasts. The vast majority of the cells are small lymphocyte-type cells with round basophilic nuclei and a sparse rim of cytoplasm. The eleven intestinal lymphosarcoma affected cats exposed to abdominal exploratory surgery (laparotomy

  20. Using Remote Sensing and Gis Techniques For Assessment The Environmental Changes in The Area Surrounding Suez Canal, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youssef, A.M.; EL Baroudy, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    Multi-temporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data were utilized in a Geographic Information System (GIS) to evaluate changes in landuse II and cover in the area surrounds the Suez Canal, Egypt. The area is bounded by the Great Bitter Lake from the south, El Qantara city from the north, Nile Delta from the west, and Sinai Peninsula from the east. The area witnessed a rapid development in the past three decades, and the environmental changes were very remarkable. The data collected by Landsat sensors, TM (1984) and ETM+ (2000) were used to conduct a change detection and landuse analysis over the area of study. Both images were spatially registered and band four (Near Infra-Red) was radiometrically normalized to eliminate the atmospheric and sun luminance variation. Band algebra techniques were implemented to generate a reflectance difference image. On the other hand, the images were classified with supervised (maximum likelihood) technique with the help of ground truth data to provide the landuse maps for 1984 and 2000 periods. These maps were converted to GIS environment and final landuse changes have been provided

  1. Does nitrite and nitrate levels in drinking water impact the health of people in Dakahlia governorate, Egypt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortada, Wael I; Shokeir, Ahmed A

    2018-05-07

    A total of 1291 drinking water samples were examined for nitrite and nitrate during 6 months from December, 2015 to May, 2016 at 17 cities of Dakahlia governorate (Nile Delta, north of Egypt), and the results were utilized for assessment of health risk of the exposure from drinking water by calculating average daily intake (ADI), hazard quotient (HQ), and the hazard index (HI). The nitrite and nitrate in drinking water had a concentration range of 0.030-0.113 and 2.41-8.70 mg L -1 , with mean values of 0.059 ± 0.014 and 5.25 ± 1.61 mg L -1 , respectively. Nitrite and nitrate levels in rural areas and ground water samples were significantly higher than that in the urban ones. None of the analyzed samples exceeded WHO guideline values that set out to prevent methemoglobinemia. The values of HQ and HI for all age groups do not exceed unity indicating a low risk of methaemoglobinaemia for the population in this area. Results of the present study indicate that there is no health risk of residents from nitrite and nitrate through drinking water in the studied area. However, the other sources of exposure to nitrite and nitrate should be investigated in further studies.

  2. The use of cartographic modeling to assess the impacts of coastal flooding: a case study of Port Said Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou Samra, Rasha M

    2017-09-01

    Low-set coastal areas are expected to aggravate inundation on account of sea level rise (SLR). The present study is planned to appraise the impacts of coastal flooding in Port Said city, Egypt by using remote sensing, GIS, and cartographic modeling techniques. To accomplish this scope, Landsat 8-OLI image dated 2016 and SRTM 1Arc-Second Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were used. Landsat image was classified into seven land use and land cover (LULC) classes by using remote sensing and GIS's software. Different inundation scenarios 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0-m coastal elevation were used to figure the influence of SLR on the study area. Estimation of potential losses under SLR was made by overlaying the expected scenarios on land use. The inundation areas under the expected SLR scenarios of 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 m were estimated at 827.49, 1072.67, and 1179.41 km 2 , respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that expected coastal flooding scenarios will lead up to serious impacts on LULC classes and coastal features in the study area.

  3. Prevalence of fascioliasis (liver flukes) infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshraway, Nagwa T.; Mahmoud, Wafaa G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis infections in cattle and buffaloes, slaughtered in El-Kharga city slaughterhouse at New Valley Governorate. Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for liver fascioliasis allover 2016. Macroscopic fascioliasis was detected from a total of 2251 basing on animals specie, sex, season, and Fasciola spp. in addition to microscopic examination of blood, fecal samples which collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each). Results: The total prevalence rate of Fasciola sp. infection occurs in the study area were about 695/2251 (30.88%) from the total cattle and bovine slaughtered carcasses. The incidence of fascioliasis was 4/12 (33.33%) and 678/2200 (30.82%) for females and males cattle carcasses, respectively, while the infection rate in buffalo carcasses was 1/4 (25.00%) and 12/35 (34.29%) for females and males buffalo carcasses, respectively. Conclusion: The moderate fasciolosis infection in cattle and buffaloes slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt. The highest fascioliasis infection was recorded during winter and autumn. It constitutes a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir and threat public health. PMID:28919682

  4. Climate Change, Coastal Vulnerability and the Need for Adaptation Alternatives: Planning and Design Examples from Egypt and the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeffress Williams

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Planning and design of coastal protection for high-risk events with low to moderate or uncertain probabilities are a challenging balance of short- and long-term cost vs. protection of lives and infrastructure. The pervasive, complex, and accelerating impacts of climate change on coastal areas, including sea-level rise, storm surge and tidal flooding, require full integration of the latest science into strategic plans and engineering designs. While the impacts of changes occurring are global, local effects are highly variable and often greatly exacerbated by geophysical (land subsidence, faulting, oceanographic (ocean circulation, wind patterns and anthropogenic factors. Reducing carbon emissions is needed to mitigate global warming, but adaptation can accommodate at least near future change impacts. Adaptation should include alternatives that best match region-specific risk, time frame, environmental conditions, and the desired protection. Optimal alternatives are ones that provide protection, accommodate or mimic natural coastal processes, and include landforms such as barrier islands and wetlands. Plans are often for 50 years, but longer-term planning is recommended since risk from climate change will persist for centuries. This paper presents an assessment of impacts of accelerating climate change on the adequacy of coastal protection strategies and explores design measures needed for an optimum degree of protection and risk reduction. Three coastal areas facing similar challenges are discussed: Abu-Qir Bay, Nile River delta plain, Egypt; Lake Borgne, New Orleans, Louisiana delta plain; and the New York City region.

  5. Joint Egypt/United States report on Egypt/United States cooperative energy assessment. Volume 4 of 5 Vols. Annexes 6--10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, Edward E.; Teagan, Peter; Little, Arthur D.; Kaplan, George; Kunze, Jay; Warchol, Edward J.

    1979-04-01

    Annex 6, which investigates the possible hydroelectric resources of Egypt, reveals that presently the only existing sites are on the upper Nile at the High and Aswan Dams. There are 8 sites on the Nile where it is practical to add hydroelectric generation and, of these, only 4 are feasible for immediate construction. There are also pumped-storage sites on the Nile and the Red Sea. There is also the Qattara Depression in the Western Desert which can be utilized for conventional, as well as pumped-storage generation, by bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea to the depression by canal or tunnel. The options were considered for construction of hydro plants to met the electric load growth of Egypt when other forms of energy supply would be integrated into a comprehensive supply pattern. In Annex 7, the prospective use of nuclear energy to meet Egypt's resources (uranium and thorium) to implement a nuclear energy program, and potential effects of the expanded use of nuclear energy are discussed. Annex 8 discusses solar energy (technology descriptions and impacts, solar thermal power, photovoltaics). Also wind power generation, biomass utilization, desalination, solar air conditioning and refrigeration, and cost of power from diesel engines are discussed. Annex 9 covers geothermal potentials in Egypt, discussing resources with temperatures above 180/sup 0/C; from 150 to 180/sup 0/C; from 100 to 150/sup 0/C; and with temperatures below 100/sup 0/C. Annex 10 discusses the electric power systems in Egypt. The following subjects are covered: existing electric power systems; electrical power facilities under construction or planned for construction by 1985; past and projected growth of electrical energy; distribution; and electrical power system projected from 1985 to 2000. (MCW)

  6. 7Be in soil, deposited dust and atmospheric air and its using to infer soil erosion along Alexandria region, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, I H; Abdel-Halim, A A

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the radioactivity behavior of 7 Be in surface soil, airborne and deposited dust along Alexandria region in Egypt. The results obtained were used to predict scavenging processes of 7 Be from surface soil to infer soil erosion and land vulnerable to accelerated sea-level rise. The areal activity concentrations of 7 Be in surface soil were investigated in 30 undisturbed sites and 7 Be inventories were determined via deposited dust in 10 locations. Results of the former were found to be ranged from 78 Bq/m 2 to 104 Bq/m 2 . High levels were observed in western sites associated with high dust deposition rate. On the other hand, low levels were found in the eastern sites, those may be attributed to scavenging processes such as land erosion toward the direction to the sea. The effective removal rates of 7 Be were calculated using the box-model, showing a broad special trend of inventories generally decreasing eastwards. The scavenging rates were ranged between 3.13 yr -1 in western sites to 5.34 yr -1 in eastern ones which denote that the east of the city suffers from rapid soil erosion. The airborne 7 Be was monthly monitored along the period from October 2014 to September 2015 through one site located at the mid of the city. The results revealed lower values in winter and autumn than in summer and spring ranged between 6.2 mBq/m 3 and 10.5 mBq/m 3 . These levels are comparable with that in other world regions and the seasonal variations are associated with the prevailing climatic conditions in Alexandria region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Rediscovery of Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati) (Acari: Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae) parasitizing the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy) (Mammalia: Chiroptera), with a key to mites of bats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negm, Mohamed W; Fakeer, Mahmoud M

    2014-04-01

    Faunistic information about bat mites in Egypt is scarce. Collection records of parasitic mites, Meristaspis lateralis (Kolenati, 1856) (Mesostigmata: Spinturnicidae), are reported from the Egyptian fruit bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus (Geoffroy, 1810) (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in Assiut Governorate, Egypt. Seven species of bat mites are recognized from Egypt to date. A host-parasite checklist and an identification key to these species are presented.

  8. Application of probabilistic seismic hazard models with special calculation for the waste storage sites in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, A.A.; El-Hemamy, S.T.

    2000-01-01

    Probabilistic strong motion maps of Egypt are derived by applying Gumbel models and likelihood method to 8 earthquake source zones in Egypt and adjacent regions. Peak horizontal acceleration is mapped. Seismic data are collected from Helwan Catalog (1900-1997), regional catalog of earthquakes from the International Seismological Center (ISC,1910-1993) and earthquake data reports of US Department of International Geological Survey (USCGS, 1900-1994). Iso-seismic maps are also available for some events, which occurred in Egypt. Some earthquake source zones are well defined on the basis of both tectonics and average seismicity rates, but a lack of understanding of the near field effects of the large earthquakes prohibits accurate estimates of ground motion in their vicinity. Some source zones have no large-scale crustal features or zones of weakness that can explain the seismicity and must, therefore, be defined simply as concentrations of seismic activity with no geological or geophysical controls on the boundaries. Other source zones lack information on low-magnitude seismicity that would be representative of longer periods of time. Comparisons of the new probabilistic ground motion estimates in Egypt with equivalent estimates made in 1990 have been done. The new ground motion estimates are used to produce a new peak ground acceleration map to replace the 1990 peak acceleration zoning maps in the Building code of Egypt. (author)

  9. Morbidity, Mortality, and Seasonality of Influenza Hospitalizations in Egypt, November 2007-November 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amr Kandeel

    Full Text Available Influenza typically comprises a substantial portion of acute respiratory infections, a leading cause of mortality worldwide. However, influenza epidemiology data are lacking in Egypt. We describe seven years of Egypt's influenza hospitalizations from a multi-site influenza surveillance system.Syndromic case definitions identified individuals with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI admitted to eight hospitals in Egypt. Standardized demographic and clinical data were collected. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs were tested for influenza using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and typed as influenza A or B, and influenza A specimens subtyped.From November 2007-November 2014, 2,936/17,441 (17% SARI cases were influenza-positive. Influenza-positive patients were more likely to be older, female, pregnant, and have chronic condition(s (all p<0.05. Among them, 53 (2% died, and death was associated with older age, five or more days from symptom onset to hospitalization, chronic condition(s, and influenza A (all p<0.05. An annual seasonal influenza pattern occurred from July-June. Each season, the proportion of the season's influenza-positive cases peaked during November-May (19-41%.In Egypt, influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality and influenza SARI hospitalization patterns mirror those of the Northern Hemisphere. Additional assessment of influenza epidemiology in Egypt may better guide disease control activities and vaccine policy.

  10. Population and development in Egypt. Part 2. New hopes for old problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C F

    1981-01-01

    Egypt is faced with many economic difficultires, e.g., acutely limited land and water resources already stretched to their limits, an increasing dependence on imported food and raw materials, and a large and rapidly growing population which makes ever greater demands on all available resources. For many years, Egypt focussed, understandably but obsessively, on political matters. Only in 1978, with a peace initiative with Israel ongoing, could Egypt concentrate on economic possibilities. The positive economic element that entered the scene at that time was the 1st balance of payments surplus in recent Egyptian history, due to growing tourism, increased oil earnings, resumed revenues from Suez Canal traffic, and high remittances from Egyptians working abroad. There is no guarantee that any or all of these favorable factors will continue. Agriculture in Egypt is inefficient. There are steady pressures of population on the land, sluggishness in land reclamation programs, and a continual loss of cultivated land to industry and urbanization. Water creation projects have not achieved their goals. The increase in agricultural production in 1980 was estimated at 2.7%, but the increase in population in the same year was 2.9%. It is with population growth that Egypt must meet the challenge.

  11. Preface (to Playable Cities)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; Nijholt, A.; Nijholt, Antinus

    In this book, we address the issue of playfulness and playability in intelligent and smart cities. Playful technology can be introduced and authorized by city authorities. This can be compared and is similar to the introduction of smart technology in theme and recreational parks. However, smart

  12. Cities and Refugees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katz, Bruce; Noring, Luise; Garrelts, Nantke

    Centennial Scholar Initiative and the Foreign Policy program, with key research led by the Copenhagen Business School. It aims to show the extent to which cities are at the vanguard of this crisis and to deepen our understanding of the role and capacity of city governments and local networks in resettlement...

  13. Innovation and the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Neil; Forman, Adam; Ko, Jae; Giles, David; Bowles, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    With Washington trapped in budget battles and partisan gridlock, cities have emerged as the best source of government innovation. Nowhere is this more visible than in New York City. Since taking office in 2002, Mayor Bloomberg has introduced a steady stream of innovative policies, from a competition to recruit a new applied sciences campus and a…

  14. Visions of the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    in informing understandings and imaginings of the modern city. The author critically examines influential traditions in western Europe associated with such figures as Ebenezer Howard and Le Corbusier, uncovering the political interests, desires and anxieties that lay behind their ideal cities, and drawing out...

  15. Marriage and the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gautier, Pieter; Svarer, Michael; Teulings, Coen

    Do people move to cities because of marriage market considerations? In cities singles can meet more potential partners than in rural areas. Singles are therefore prepared to pay a premium in terms of higher housing prices. Once married, the marriage market benefits disappear while the housing...

  16. Economical investigation of solar water distillation in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakr, I A; Khalil, M A; Delyannis, A; Delyannis, E [eds.

    1976-01-01

    Many ways of solar water distillation have been suggested but most of them are either too expensive or only a practical solution to different processes under investigation. Solar heat distillation has a bright future because the greatest potential needs appear to be in those sections where the availability of solar energy is high and the availability of potable water is low as in our Egyptian deserts where the solar intensity has a yearly mean value of about 6000 kcal/(m/sup 2/day). The solar distillation method has a number of economic characteristics which are different from other sea water conversion methods, including: The processing equipment is very simple and results in low equipment costs. No special skills are required for both erection and operation. It can be used with saline water of wide range of salt concentration. The still design is essentially modular, and can be made to meet any desired capacity. Scale formation and corrosion are minor problems as compared with other methods. Power requirements are negligible. The cost of unit construction is not markedly influenced by the size of the still. The lack of quantitative and operative data of solar water distillation techniques with respect to their cost needs in investigation from the economical standpoint of view in Egypt. The subject of this work is to find the order of magnitude of the fresh water cost by solar distillation.

  17. Site Characteristics For Long Term Storage in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Hemamy, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with the establishment of a new guideline for a new disposal for low and intermediate radioactive waste in Egypt. It is only permitted in natural geological formations with acceptable seismic and tectonic parameters. The representative parameters applied for this evaluation are related to the release process of the strain energy. The examined parameters are magnitude M2, equivalent to the mean annual total strain energy release, and magnitude M3, analogous to the maximum strain energy which may be accumulated and released in a region. Empirical relation between M3 and M2 is obtained and the result shows that it has a worldwide validity. The quantity Dt, showing the time difference per year between the upper bound line (in the energy diagram) and the time since the last seismic activity (strain energy accumulation) is suggested here. An effort is made to forecast the approximate time of the next earthquake occurrence with magnitude less or equal to the maximum strain energy release. Finally, it clears that the Western Desert are a suitable region for establishing the site of radioactive waste repository

  18. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walid El Ansari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students’ stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables, and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index. Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating.

  19. Ozone therapy in postgraduate theses in Egypt: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlBedah, Abdullah M N; Khalil, Mohamed K M; Elolemy, Ahmed T; Alrasheid, Mohamed H S; Al Mudaiheem, Abdullah; Elolemy, Tawfik M B

    2013-08-01

    Systematic reviews of the studies published in the major medical data bases have not shown solid support for the use of ozone therapy. Unpublished or grey literature, including postgraduate theses, may solve this controversy. To review the postgraduate theses published in Egypt in order to assess the clinical safety and effectiveness of ozone therapy in specific medical conditions. The databases of the Egyptian Universities' Library Consortium and the databases of each university were searched for postgraduate theses that evaluated ozone therapy as an intervention for any disease or condition in any age group, compared with any or no other intervention and published before September 2010. A total of 28 quasi trials were included. The theses did not report any safety issues in terms of ozone therapy. With respect to its effectiveness, the studies suggested some benefits of ozone in the treatment of dental infection and recovery, musculoskeletal disorders, diabetes mellitus, chronic diseases, and obstetrics and gynaecology. However, the number of studies included was small and they were of limited quality. There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of ozone in the treatment of dental infections, in facilitating faster dental recovery after extraction or implantation, in diabetes mellitus, musculoskeletal disorders, or obstetrics and gynaecology.

  20. Nutritional Correlates of Perceived Stress among University Students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2015-11-06

    Food intake choice and amount might change with stress. However, this has not been examined among Egyptian students. We examined students' stress levels, its correlation with their consumption of a range of food groups, and adherence to dietary guidelines. A cross sectional survey (N = 2810 undergraduates at 11 faculties at Assiut University, Egypt) assessed two composite food intake pattern scores (one unhealthy: sweets, cakes, snacks; and a healthy one: fruits and vegetables), and two indicators of healthy eating (subjective importance of healthy eating; and dietary guideline adherence index). Multiple linear regression tested the associations of stress with two food intake pattern scores and two indicators of healthy eating, controlling for six potential confounders for the sample and separately for males and females. Higher perceived stress score was significantly associated with less frequent food intake of fruit and vegetables in males and females. The association was more pronounced among males than in females. No significant association was observed between the sweets cakes and snacks score and stress. Of the two indicators of healthy eating, the dietary guideline adherence index was not associated with stress, while the subjective judgment of healthy eating was consistently negatively associated with stress. Stress related decreased-eating was present. Recent studies suggest that stress could be associated with either decreased or increased eating depending on the study population, food group, and type of stressor. Further research is necessary to understand stress related over- and undereating.

  1. Utilization of induced mutations in improving legumes in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo-Hegazi, A. M. T.

    1993-01-01

    More than one hundred articles published by Egyptian research workers dealing with the improvement of some seed-legumes through radiation, radioisotopes, chemical mutagens and induced mutations are briefly summarized and discussed from the point of view of a mutation breeder working in this field since 1961. Articles on faba bean (Vicia faba L.), soybean (Glycine Max L.), lentils (Lens culinaris), chick-pea (Cicer arietinum L.), lupin (Lupinus termis), peas=pea (Pisum sativum L.), cowpea (Vigna sinensis, savi), and fenugreek-helba (Trigonella foenum gracum L.) are reviewed. A very few number of promising mutations have been induced. However, none of them are utilized neither in conventional breeding programs nor as cultivars. This may be due to the lack of central plans and organization between efforts or research work being carried in various institutions. Joint plants and cooperation between research institutions, not only in Egypt but also among the Arab countries, are required in this field which may help in closing the wide gab between production and consumption os seed legumes. (author)

  2. Microbiological testing of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Hend; Kassem, Mervat; Raafat, Dina; AbouShlieb, Hamida; Fanaki, Nourhan

    2015-12-09

    Microbial contamination of pharmaceuticals poses a great problem to the pharmaceutical manufacturing process, especially from a medical as well as an economic point of view. Depending upon the product and its intended use, the identification of isolates should not merely be limited to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) indicator organisms. Eighty-five pre-used non-sterile pharmaceuticals collected from random consumers in Egypt were examined for the eventual presence of bacterial contaminants. Forty-one bacterial contaminants were isolated from 31 of the tested preparations. These isolates were subjected to biochemical identification by both conventional tests as well as API kits, which were sufficient for the accurate identification of only 11 out of the 41 bacterial contaminants (26.8%) to the species level. The remaining isolates were inconclusively identified or showed contradictory results after using both biochemical methods. Using molecular methods, 24 isolates (58.5%) were successfully identified to the species level. Moreover, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays were compared to standard biochemical methods in the detection of pharmacopoeial bacterial indicators in artificially-contaminated pharmaceutical samples. PCR-based methods proved to be superior regarding speed, cost-effectiveness and sensitivity. Therefore, pharmaceutical manufacturers would be advised to adopt PCR-based methods in the microbiological quality testing of pharmaceuticals in the future.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of tinea capitis in children from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham William Doss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytic fungi of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are the most important fungal species causing tinea capitis. Choice of treatment for tinea capitis is determined by the species of fungus. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most prevalent fungal species causing tinea capitis in children from Egypt and the most useful antifungal agent for treatment. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed clinically with tinea capitis were included in the study. Samples were collected and sent to the microbiology and immunology laboratory for sample processing and fungal identification by routine laboratory techniques. A study of antifungal susceptibility to chosen antifungal medications (fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was done by minimum inhibitory concentration technique. Results: Our analysis revealed that Microsporum canis is the most commonly isolated strain. Amphotericin was the most effective antifungal agent followed by terbinafine. The most sensitive strain to fluconazole and griseofulvin is Microsporum gypseum, while Microsporum audouinii was mostly responsive to terbinafine. Conclusion: Identification and evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of the pathogenic species in a certain geographic region is important to achieve a good clinical response.

  4. Molecular identification of Fasciola spp. (Digenea: Fasciolidae) in Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dar, Y.; Amer, S.; Mercier, A.; Courtioux, B.; Dreyfuss, G.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 134 Egyptian liver flukes were collected from different definitive hosts (cattle, sheep, and buffaloes) to identify them via the use of PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of the first nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS1). Specimens of F. hepatica from France, as well as F. gigantica from Cameroon were included in the study for comparison. PCR products of ITS1 were subjected for digestion by RsaI restriction enzyme and visualized on agarose gel. According to RFLP pattern, Egyptian flukes were allocated into two categories. The first was identical to that of French hepatica flukes to have a pattern of 360, 100, and 60 (bp) band size, whereas the second resembled to that of Cameroonian gigantica worms to have a profile of 360, 170, and 60 bp in size. Results of RFLP analysis were confirmed by sequence analysis of representative ITS1 amplicons. No hybrid forms were detected in the present study. Taken together, this study concluded that both species of Fasciola are present in Egypt, whereas the hybrid form may be not very common. PMID:22550630

  5. Strategy and perspective for uranium exploration in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.A.; Salman, A.B.; Assaf, H.S.; Mahdy, M.M.

    1995-01-01

    Uranium exploration started in Egypt about three decades ago. This was performed by applying integrated airborne and ground radiometric prospecting. The latter was conducted upon selected areas having rather favorable geological criteria. These activities resulted in the discovery of great numbers of radiometric anomalies, with several uranium occurrences in various geologic environments in granitic and sedimentary rocks. Some of these uranium occurrences show good potential for developing into workable uranium deposits. Small-scale exploratory tunnelling and drilling works have been carried out at some of these occurrences. Leaching studies and pilot experiments were carried out on technological samples to evaluate ore's suitability for uranium extraction. However, no assured reserves of uranium have been reached yet. The demands for uranium to satisfy the near future Egyptian nuclear power generation necessitates some development in the national strategy for uranium exploration. This will be achieved through intense programmes for ground geophysics and drilling from surface and underground mining works, in addition to radon emanometry and logging of oil and gas wells. Moreover, non conventional procedures for uranium extraction such as heap-leaching may be followed to exploit small-scale uranium deposits. In this developed strategy, the present uranium occurrences are modellized and categorized following the IAEA classification. The characteristics of the present uranium occurrences will be utilized in prospecting new areas. Subsidiary resources in phosphorites, black sands and rare metal deposits could supply additional quantities of uranium, in addition to thorium and rare earth elements. (author). 34 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Studies on water use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1996-01-01

    This experiment was carried out in Ismailia region to investigate water use efficiency of 14 bred wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 4 durum wheat cultivars (T. durum L.). Two irrigation water levels were used, an optimum level of 441 mm and a low level of 271 mm during the growing season using a sprinkler irrigation system. Yield and yield components examined showed significant differences among cultivars. The best cultivar for grain yield was Sakha 8 giving 4850 kg/ha. The lowest yield of 2650 kg/ha was produced by Sohag 3. There were also large genotypic differences among cultivars for water use efficiency. The cultivars that are better in water use efficiency may be used for wheat production in areas in Egypt where rainfall is low, or for use in breeding programmes aimed at incorporating the traits of high water use efficiency with high grain yield. Protein and phytin content of grains were negatively correlated with irrigation water level. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab

  7. Studies on water use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M [Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt). Soil and Water Dept.

    1996-07-01

    This experiment was carried out in Ismailia region to investigate water use efficiency of 14 bred wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 4 durum wheat cultivars (T. durum L.). Two irrigation water levels were used, an optimum level of 441 mm and a low level of 271 mm during the growing season using a sprinkler irrigation system. Yield and yield components examined showed significant differences among cultivars. The best cultivar for grain yield was Sakha 8 giving 4850 kg/ha. The lowest yield of 2650 kg/ha was produced by Sohag 3. There were also large genotypic differences among cultivars for water use efficiency. The cultivars that are better in water use efficiency may be used for wheat production in areas in Egypt where rainfall is low, or for use in breeding programmes aimed at incorporating the traits of high water use efficiency with high grain yield. Protein and phytin content of grains were negatively correlated with irrigation water level. (author). 10 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab.

  8. Benthic dinoflagellates from Red Sea, Egypt: Early records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin El Semary

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dinoflagellates from Red Sea are hardly studied, in particular the benthic forms. Samples collected from shallow intertidal zone, Ain Sokhna, Egypt were microscopically examined. Three genera with seven species were recorded. The most frequently-encountered was Katodinium sp., a small mushroom-like with epitheca being consistently larger than hypotheca. Light micrographs revealed the presence of a nucleus in the hyposome and descending cingulum. Scanning electromicrographs (SEM confirmed this orientation and revealed the presence of apical pore system. Another species showed similarity to the mushroom-like morphology but with large conical episome and small hyposome. Heterotrophic, naked Gyrodinium cf dominans and Gyrodinium sp. were also observed where in the former, there were conspicuous longitudinal striations. A frequently-observed species had naked Gyrodinium-like morphology but with much smaller size. One photosynthetic species had a characteristic stigma similar to type B eyespot in “dinotoms” and episome being slightly larger than hyposome. Gymnodinium sp. with sulcus extending slightly in the episome but deeply to the end of hyposome was also recorded. This genus is reported to be mostly toxic and its presence should be monitored. Finally, this study presents some early records for benthic dinophytes from rather underexplored locality and raises alerts about genus with reported toxicity.

  9. Turnover intention among intensive care unit nurses in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosallam, Rasha; Hamidi, Samer; Elrefaay, Manal

    2015-06-01

    Given the difficulty in recruiting new nurses, it is imperative to retain those already in the profession. This cross-sectional study explored the relationship of demographic and work-related factors, burnout, conflict management and relationship between nurses and physicians on turnover intentions among ICU nurses in eight major hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt. Data on burnout, conflict management, nurse-physician communication, and turnover intention were collected by surveying 100 nurses in eight hospitals in Alexandria governorate. All nurses at the ICU of selected hospitals were approached (n=100) and a 47-item Likert scale questionnaire was administered to explore the factors affecting the turnover intention of ICU nurses in Alexandria. ICU nurses exhibited a mean score for turnover intention of 3.23 (mean score percentage 65.0%). There was a moderately positive statistically significant correlation between turnover intention and emotional exhaustion (r=0.29, Pturnover intention were emotional exhaustion and age. Nurses turnover intention at the ICU of the selected hospitals is high and is significantly associated with nurses' emotional exhaustion, poor nurse-physician communication, and nurses age.

  10. Detection and characterization of hepatitis A virus circulating in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamza, Hazem; Abd-Elshafy, Dina Nadeem; Fayed, Sayed A; Bahgat, Mahmoud Mohamed; El-Esnawy, Nagwa Abass; Abdel-Mobdy, Emam

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) still poses a considerable problem worldwide. In the current study, hepatitis A virus was recovered from wastewater samples collected from three wastewater treatment plants over one year. Using RT-PCR, HAV was detected in 43 out of 68 samples (63.2%) representing both inlet and outlet. Eleven positive samples were subjected to sequencing targeting the VP1-2A junction region. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all samples belonged to subgenotype IB with few substitutions at the amino acid level. The complete sequence of one isolate (HAV/Egy/BI-11/2015) showed that the similarity at the amino acid level was not reflected at the nucleotide level. However, the deduced amino acid sequence derived from the complete nucleotide sequence showed distinct substitutions in the 2B, 2C, and 3A regions. Recombination analysis revealed a recombination event between X75215 (subgenotype IA) and AF268396 (subgenotype IB) involving a portion of the 2B nonstructural protein coding region (nucleotides 3757-3868) assuming the herein characterized sequence an actual recombinant. Despite the role of recombination in picornaviruses evolution, its involvement in HAV evolution has rarely been reported, and this may be due to the limited available complete HAV sequences. To our knowledge, this represents the first characterized complete sequence of an Egyptian isolate and the described recombination event provides an important update on the circulating HAV strains in Egypt.

  11. Assessment of Energy Conservation in Egypt's Electric System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar El Saeed Awad Abou Ghoniem

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an evaluation of energy saving policy as a key factor in Egypt's electric system in terms of benefits, invested cost, power quality and environmental impact, solutions have been made by system planners and decision makers aiming to face the challenges that being encountered by the electric system such as scarce and precious of prime energies are compared in terms of invested cost, implementation time and advantages for both of power providers and end users w.r.to energy savings. A case study that implemented in a pilot program for energy savings was given. It is a group of facilities include industrial, commercial, administrative companies and worship houses, they are connected to Alexandria electrical distribution network, they are classified as big customers, i.e. contracted power for each is higher than 0.5 mega watt, the goals of the program were evaluating potentials of energy saving opportunities in the system and estimating the outcomes. Options were evaluated with regard to savings in electricity, fuels and water. Cost of investments and pay back periods were calculated. Environmental impact as a result of saving in emitted green house gas co2 is determined. Potentials of energy savings are analyzed and benefits to both electric utilities and end users were assessed.

  12. BATHYMETRIC STUDY OF WADI EL-RAYAN LAKES, EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radwan Gad Elrab ABD ELLAH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bathymetry is a technique of measuring depths to determine the morphometry of water bodies. The derivation of bathymetry from the surveys is one of the basic researches of the aquatic environment, which has several practical implications to on the lake environment and it's monitoring. Wadi El-Rayan, as Ramsar site, is a very important wetland, in Egypt, as a reservoir for agricultural drainage water, fisheries and tourism. The Lakes are man-made basins in the Fayoum depression. Wadi El-Rayan Lakes are two reservoirs (upper Lake and Lower Lake, at different elevations. The Upper Lake is classified as open basin, while the Lower Lake is a closed basin, with no significant obvious water outflow. During recent decades, human impact on Wadi El-Rayan Lakes has increased due to intensification of agriculture and fish farming. Analyses of bathyemtric plans from 1996, 2010 and 2016 showed, the differences between morphometric parameters of the Upper Lake were generally small, while the Lower Lake changes are obvious at the three periods. The small fluctuate, in the features of Upper Lake is due to the water balance between the water inflow and water. The Lower Lake has faced extreme water loss through last twenty years is due to the agricultural lands and fish farms extended in the depression. The Upper Lake is rich in Lakeshores macrophyets, while decline the water plants in the Lower Lake. With low water levels, in the Lower Lake, the future continuity of the Lake system is in jeopardy

  13. Environmental Characterization and Radioecological Assessment of Suez Canal Area, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.A.; Zaki, A.H.; Diab, M.; Al-Ashry, KH.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the environmental characteristic and radioecological assessment of the Suez Canal area, Egypt. The hydrochemical parameters including major elements (Ca, Mg, Na, Cl, SO 4 , HCO 3 ) and trace elements (Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Cd) of the soil, plant and water samples collected from the Suez Canal area were measured. The natural radioactivity and man-made radionuclides were measured in the same samples.The specific activities of 238 U series, 232 Th series, 40 K and 137 Cs (Bq/kg dry weight) were measured using gamma ray spectrometers based on hyper pure germanium detectors. The absorbed radiation dose rates in air (nGy/h) due to natural radionuclides in soil, and radium equivalent activity index (Bq/kg) were calculated. The average specific activity of 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K in soil samples were 12.9, 10.2 and 144.9 Bq/kg, respectively. The activity concentrations of 137 Cs in the different collected samples and 238 U and 232 Th series in plant and water samples were less than the lower detection limit. The average specific activity of 40 K in plant samples was 325.8 Bq/kg. The concentration and distribution pattern of 238 U series in soil can be used to trace the radiological impact of the non-nuclear industries on the Suez Canal area.

  14. Risk factors for bango abuse in upper Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassa, Heba A; Dawood, Abd El-Wahaab A; Shehata, Manal M; Abdel-Hady, Randa H; Abdel-Aal, Khaled M

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly abused drug in the world. In Egypt, the Anti Narcotic General Administration, showed that the narcotics problem costs the Egyptian economy approximately 800 million dollars annually. The present study was designed to determine the risk factors that lead to bango abuse among secondary school students and drivers in Assiut province. Urine samples were taken from 1000 volunteers after filling questionnaires and the risk factors were determined. Ethical consideration and informed consent was taken on. In drivers, the study found that bango abuse was concentrated in age group (21 to abuse concentrated in male students by 100%, and in those with high daily fund. The abused students tend to be more aggressive. Also, tend to be lazy to share in school activities. Abused students present in large family (8-11 persons) and families with troubles between parents (81% in divorced parents). In conclusion, bango abuse leads to deterioration of the academic achievement, and may be associated with antisocial and violent behavior. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Corporate governance structure and firm’ financial performance: Evidences from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Soliman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent financial international scandals have generated hyped interest in the area of corporate governance as a mean to mitigate financial problems faced in developing nations. The purpose of this study is to examine the link between corporate governance structure and firm’ financial performance in Egypt. The data for analysis are gathered from manual review of the financial statements and websites of the thirty enterprises that make up the (EGX 30 covering the four years period 2007-2010. Results from the study indicate that board size; the presence of audit committee; and audit quality significantly have relationship with firm’ financial performance measured by ROA and ROE. The results also, indicate that board independence; and institutional ownership have no significant correlation with firm’ financial performance. For CEO duality, the results indicate that CEO duality has a positive impact upon companies’ financial performance measured by ROE, at the same time, is not correlated with the ROA measure of financial performance. This study is important because it offers evidence on the impact of corporate governance structure on firm financial performance. In addition, it provides useful information that is of great value to policy makers, academics and other stakeholders.

  16. Mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the Jurassic coal from Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baioumy, H.M. [Central Metallurgical Research and Development Institute, Cairo (Egypt)

    2009-06-15

    The Jurassic coal deposit in the Maghara area, Sinai, Egypt contains at least 11 coal seams of lenticular shape. The thickness of the main coal seams ranges from 130 cm to 2 m and are underlain and overlain by thin black shale beds. Mineralogical analysis indicated that this coal is characterized by low mineral matter with traces of quartz in some samples. However, coal ash is made up of quartz with traces of calcite, anhydrite, and hematite. Analysis of coal rank parameters indicated that the Maghara coal can be classified as medium volatile bituminous coal. The high sulfur contents and the relatively high proportion of pyritic sulfur suggest a possible marine transgression after the deposition of precursor peat. This interpretation is supported by the relatively high B contents. The relatively high Ge in the Maghara coal could be attributed to an infiltration of Ge enriched water from the surrounding siliceous sediments probably during diagenesis. The high Au contents were contributed to an Au-rich provenance of the ash contents of this coal. Rare earth elements geochemistry indicated low concentrations of these elements with slight enrichment of light rare earth elements (LREEs), slight negative Eu anomaly, and relatively flat heavy rare earth elements (HREEs) patterns. The low contents of trace and rare earth elements, particularly those with environmental relevance, compared to the usual concentration ranges in worldwide coal gives an advantage for this coal.

  17. Radionuclide content of local and imported cements used in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K R

    2007-01-01

    The activity concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-ray emitting radionuclides in local and imported cement have been investigated during the period from 2000 to 2003 using a 50% HPGe γ-spectroscopy system. The total numbers of local and imported samples were 29 and 8, respectively. The results showed a low activity concentration of 137 Cs in both the local and imported samples. The only exception was found in one imported Portland cement (2.8 ± 0.2 Bq kg -1 ) and one local blast furnace slag cement (1.9 ± 0.3 Bq kg -1 ). The average activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K in local cement were 33 ± 17, 14 ± 2.4 and 45 ± 26 Bq kg -1 , respectively, whereas those in imported cement were 27 ± 7, 8 ± 7 and 134 ± 22 Bq kg -1 , respectively. The results showed that blast furnace slag cement contains the highest level of natural radioactivity, whereas white cement contains the lowest levels. The measured activity concentrations of the detected radionuclides were compared with other measurements carried out in Egypt and elsewhere. Radium-equivalent activities were also calculated to assess the radiation hazards arising from using such material in the construction of dwellings. Generally, the radium-equivalents of the analysed samples were smaller than the guideline limit of 370 Bq kg -1

  18. Management of Hypertension and Other CVD Risk Factors in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A. Abolfotouh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the knowledge and practice of PHC physicians toward the detection and management of hypertension (HTN and other CVD risk factors. Methods. A cross-sectional study of all primary health care physicians of the FHU of three rural districts of Egypt was conducted. Each physician was subjected to a prevalidated interview questionnaire on the WHO-CVD risk management package for low and medium resources, and a checklist of observation of daily practices. Results. Hypertension was a priority problem in about two-thirds (62.9% of physicians, yet only 19% have guidelines for HTN patients. Clinical history recording system for HNT was available for 50% of physicians. Levels of knowledge varied with regard to definition of HTN (61.3%, fair, procedures for BP measurement (43.5%, poor, indications for referral (43.5%, poor, patient counseling (61.3%, fair, patient treatment (59.8%, fair. Availability of clinical history recording system for HNT was a significant predictor for physician's level of knowledge (P=0.001. Overall level of practice was fair (68.5%. Conclusion. PHC physicians have unsatisfactory knowledge and practice on hypertension. There is a need of more continuing medical education. Local and international manuals, workshops, and seminars on how to make use of these guidelines would improve doctors' performance.

  19. Women's age at first marriage and postmarital agency in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, AliceAnn; VanderEnde, Kristin; Cheong, Yuk Fai; Dodell, Sylvie; Yount, Kathryn M

    2016-05-01

    Early - or child - marriage (before age 18) may diminish women's ability to exercise agency, or their capacity to act upon their goals. Using a propensity score adjustment approach, we analyzed data from 2394 married women ages 35-49 years who participated in the 2006 Egypt Labor Market Panel Survey (ELMPS). We examined whether women's first marriage at age 18 or older was associated with their post-marital agency, measured in terms of their influence in family decisions, freedom of movement in public spaces, and unfavorable views about intimate partner violence against wives. In bivariate analyses, women's age at first marriage was positively associated with their decision-making and more equitable gender attitudes. However, once we controlled for selection into age-at-first-marriage groups, there were no significant differences between the two age-at-first-marriage groups in any dimension of women's agency. We examined the sensitivity of the non-significant age-at-first-marriage effects to possible violations of the strong ignorability assumption and the results did not alter our conclusions. The assumption that women's age at first marriage is a proxy for their post-marital agency, as defined here, warrants further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk factors for chronic mastitis in morocco and egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Hanna N; Soliman, Amr S; Omar, Omar S; Youssef, Tamer F; Karkouri, Mehdi; Abdel-Aziz, Azza; Hablas, Ahmad; Blachley, Taylor; Tahri, Ali; Merajver, Sofia D

    2013-01-01

    Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis). Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62-1.90) and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07-3.61). Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47-0.67) and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39-5.72). Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60-0.84) and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36-1.97). This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.

  1. Risk Factors for Chronic Mastitis in Morocco and Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna N. Oltean

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic mastitis is a prolonged inflammatory breast disease, and little is known about its etiology. We identified 85 cases and 112 controls from 5 hospitals in Morocco and Egypt. Cases were women with chronic mastitis (including periductal, lobular, granulomatous, lymphocytic, and duct ectasia with mastitis. Controls had benign breast disease, including fibroadenoma, benign phyllodes, and adenosis. Both groups were identified from histopathologically diagnosed patients from 2008 to 2011, frequency-matched on age. Patient interviews elicited demographic, reproductive, breastfeeding, and clinical histories. Cases had higher parity than controls (OR = 1.75, 1.62–1.90 and more reported history of contraception use (OR = 2.73, 2.07–3.61. Cases were less likely to report wearing a bra (OR = 0.56, 0.47–0.67 and less often used both breasts for breastfeeding (OR = 4.40, 3.39–5.72. Chronic mastitis cases were significantly less likely to be employed outside home (OR = 0.71, 0.60–0.84 and more likely to report mice in their households (OR = 1.63, 1.36–1.97. This is the largest case-control study reported to date on risk factors for chronic mastitis. Our study highlights distinct reproductive risk factors for the disease. Future studies should further explore these factors and the possible immunological and susceptibility predisposing conditions.

  2. Smart City Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    This article reflects on the challenges for urban planning posed by the emergence of smart cities in network societies. In particular, it reflects on reductionist tendencies in existing smart city planning. Here the concern is with the implications of prior reductions of complexity which have been...... undertaken by placing primacy in planning on information technology, economical profit, and top-down political government. Rather than pointing urban planning towards a different ordering of these reductions, this article argues in favor of approaches to smart city planning via complexity theory....... Specifically, this article argues in favor of approaching smart city plans holistically as topologies of organized complexity. Here, smart city planning is seen as a theory and practice engaging with a complex adaptive urban system which continuously operates on its potential. The actualizations in the face...

  3. The Flickering Global City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Slater

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article explores new dimensions of the global city in light of the correlation between hegemonic transition and the prominence of financial centers. It counterposes Braudel’s historical sequence of dominant cities to extant approaches in the literature, shifting the emphasis from a convergence of form and function to variations in history and structure. The marked increase of finance in the composition of London, New York and Tokyo has paralleled each city’s occupation of a distinct niche in world financial markets: London is the principal center of currency exchange, New York is the primary equities market, and Tokyo is the leader in international banking. This division expresses the progression of world-economies since the nineteenth century and unfolds in the context of the present hegemonic transition. By combining world-historical and city-centered approaches, the article seeks to reframe the global city and overcome the limits inherent in the paradigm of globalization.

  4. Governing the City

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornberger, Martin

    2012-01-01

    cities. This theoretical curiosity is reflected in the rising interest in urban strategy from practice. For instance, the World Bank regularly organizes an Urban Strategy Speaker Series, while the powerful network CEOs for Cities lobbies for a strategic approach to urban development. Critical scholars......Strategy frames the contemporary epistemological space of urbanism: major cities across the globe such as New York, London and Sydney invest time, energy and resources to craft urban strategies. Extensive empirical research projects have proposed a shift towards a strategic framework to manage...... such as Zukin diagnose not a shift in but a shift to strategic thinking in the contemporary city. This article poses the question: what makes strategy such an attractive ‘thought style’ in relation to imagining and managing cities? How can we understand the practice of urban strategy? And what are its intended...

  5. Implementation of Web-Based Education in Egypt through Cloud Computing Technologies and Its Effect on Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Seoud, M. Samir Abou; El-Sofany, Hosam F.; Taj-Eddin, Islam A. T. F.; Nosseir, Ann; El-Khouly, Mahmoud M.

    2013-01-01

    The information technology educational programs at most universities in Egypt face many obstacles that can be overcome using technology enhanced learning. An open source Moodle eLearning platform has been implemented at many public and private universities in Egypt, as an aid to deliver e-content and to provide the institution with various…

  6. 76 FR 81468 - Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ...] Notice of Decision to Authorize the Importation of Shredded Lettuce From Egypt Into the Continental... fresh shredded lettuce from Egypt. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we made... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh shredded lettuce from...

  7. Education Finance in Egypt: Problems and a Possible Solution. Occasional Paper. RTI Press Publication OP-0017-1401

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, F. Henry; Crouch, Luis; Hanna, Rafik

    2014-01-01

    Egypt, currently in the throes of major political change, will likely undergo reforms of various sorts in the next few years. Some of these reforms are likely to give local entities, including schools, greater control over education finances. In 2007, the Government of Egypt began to decentralize some non-personnel recurrent finances from the…

  8. The Birth of Moses in Egypt according to the Book of Jubilees (Jub 47.1-9)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiten, Jacques T.A.G.M. van; van Kooten, G.H.; Hilhorst, A.

    2005-01-01

    Jacques T.A.G.M. van Ruiten, “The Birth of Moses in Egypt according to the Book of Jubilees (Jub 47.1-9),” in The Wisdom of Egypt: Jewish, Early Christian, and Gnostic Essays in Honour of Gerard P. Luttikhuizen (ed. Anthony Hilhorst and George H. van Kooten; Ancient Judaism and Early Christianity

  9. The road to liberating citizens While governing the urban areas. The tale of two cities: Cairo and buenos aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azza Sirry

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The relation between the political agenda, the social and economic policies, and urban planning and fabric of cities as a product cannot be missed. And as cities are centres of national economic growth and given that the future of the world will be urban it is thus ironic that the majority of the population of almost all cities in almost all developing countries lives in houses that are below standards, in areas that lack services and basic infrastructure. Furthermore, the people who live in these areas suffer from high present of socio-economic problems such as unemployment and literacy. The poorest of the population have to pay more for their houses, service and infrastructure provision. And they lack access to formal credit and thus to opportunities (Sirry 2004. The cities have become places of frustration instead of places of hope and opportunities. It is not thus surprising that the world is witnessing a wave of upheavals all over its’ cities. In the two case studies the article will try to discuss the background of the country and the political, social, and economic conditions and the physical outcome that is manifested in the image of its cities specially the capital city and how can the change towards democracy help the country, its cities and the urban population. The period covered is called by many the contemporary period, it starts in 50’s in Egypt and 70’s in Argentine.

  10. Smart City: Adding to the Complexity of Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Emine Mine

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to further the state-of-the-art knowledge on what a smart city is by analysing the smart cities across the world. It also seeks to find out how different approaches to smart city creation influence the city. This work is based on the ongoing review on Smart Cities that was started in 2014 and is structured as follows: first, definitions of "smart city" are reviewed, then typologies of smart cities are generated by analysing the different types of smart cities across the world...

  11. Symptoms and health complaints and their association with perceived stress at university: survey of students at eleven faculties in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Labeeb, Shokria; Stock, Christiane

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationships between perceived stress and a range of self reported symptoms and health complaints in a representative sample of students at one university in Egypt. The data (3,271 students) was collected during the academic year 2009-2010 at eleven faculties at the university of Assiut city, Egypt. A self-administered questionnaire measured health complaints (22 symptoms) and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale. Socio-demographic and lifestyle data were also collected. Factor analysis generated four groups of health complaints: psychological, circulatory/breathing, gastrointestinal, and pains/aches, and the internal consistency of each group of symptoms was computed using reliability analyses (Cronbach's alpha). Perceived stress was categorized into four levels based on quartiles. Multiple binomial or multinomial logistic regression analyses analysed the relationship between each of the four groups of symptoms and other students' general characteristics adjusted for the effect of all other groups of symptoms. The symptoms most often reported as having occurred sometimes/very often in the last 12 months were fatigue (85.3%), difficulties to concentrate (78.1%), headache (77.9%), and mood swings (74.5%), while nervousness/anxiety (63.2%) and sleep disorder (63.7%) affected many students. Multinominal logistic regression revealed a clear association and a linear trend between increasing level of stress and a higher frequency of psychological symptoms that remained significant after adjustment for other groups of symptoms. There were no associations between perceived stress and circulatory/breathing symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, or for pains/aches. Poor health was consistently associated with higher frequency of symptoms across all symptom groups except for gastrointestinal symptoms. Higher health awareness was associated with lower frequency of psychological and circulatory/breathing symptoms but not for the other two symptom groups. Better

  12. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  13. Industrial Hazardous Waste Management In Egypt-the baseline study: An Updated review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farida M, S.

    1999-01-01

    Increased industrialization over the past decades in Egypt has resulted in an increased and uncontrolled generation of industrial hazardous waste. This was not accompanied by any concerted efforts to control these wastes. Consequently, no system for handling or disposing of industrial wastes, in general, and industrial hazardous wastes, in specific, exists. In 1993, a baseline report was formulated to assess the overall problem of industrial hazardous waste management in Egypt. Consequently, recommendations for priority actions were identified and the main components of a national hazardous waste system under the provision of Law 4/ 1994 were presented. This paper provides an updated review of this report in light of the proposed technical, legal and institutional guidelines to help in the realization of such a needed waste management system in Egypt

  14. Analytical Characterization of Rococo Paintings in Egypt: Preliminary Results from El-Gawhara Palace at Cairo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma REFAAT

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El-Gawhara palace (1813–1814 AD is situated south of the Mosque of Muhammad Ali in the Cairo Citadel. This palace is an important example of the best early 19th century rococo decorations in Egypt. The present study reports some of the results obtained from the application of different analytical techniques to characterize some rococo paintings at El-Gawhara palace at Cairo, Egypt. The characterization of the studied paintings was carried out by means of optical microscopy (OM, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDS and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT−IR. The obtained results allowed the identification of the chemical composition, structure and the painting technique employed in these paintings. This methodology reveals some useful information on some rococo paintings dating back to the 19th century in Egypt.

  15. The building stones of ancient Egypt a gift of its geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Dietrich D.; Klemm, Rosemarie

    2001-08-01

    Building stones and clay-rich Nile mud were ancient Egypt's main raw construction materials. While the mud was easily accessible along the Nile river valley, the immense quantities of the different stone materials used for construction of the famous pyramids, precious temples and tombs needed a systematic quarrying organization, well arranged transport logistics over extreme distances and a high standard of stone masonry. The petrography, occurrence, and main applications of the 11 most popular stone types used in ancient Egypt are described in this contribution. Rough estimates of the scale of this mining activity, based on the volume of many different ancient quarry sites, all over Egypt, reveal that the monuments known today represent only a small fraction of the amount of building stones mined during the long, ancient Egyptian history.

  16. Isolation and molecular characterisation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Latif, Ahmed O; Goyal, Sagar M; Chander, Yogesh; Abdel-Moneim, Ahmed S; Tamam, Sabry M; Madbouly, Hanafy M

    2013-06-01

    Nine fetuses and neonates from sheep and goats in Egypt were screened for pestiviruses using immunohistochemistry (IHC), virus isolation, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Two goat kids with typical border disease (BD) were positive for pestivirus infection by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using polyclonal anti-BDV serum but not when four different monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were used. On inoculation in MDBK cells, a cytopathic bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) was isolated from one of the two kids. PCR amplification followed by sequencing of the 5'-UTR region confirmed it as BVDV subtype 1b. Although the circulating virus in Egypt is considered to be BVDV 1a, this report confirms the existence of BVDV 1b in addition to BVDV 1a. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of a pestivirus from goats in Egypt and is probably the second report worldwide of a goat kid showing central nervous signs associated with border disease.

  17. @City: technologising Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas, Jesús

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is about the concept of the contemporary city - the influence that technology has when one thinks about, plans and lives in a city. The conjunction of technology and city reformulates customs and social practices; it can even determine the way one constitutes one's own identity. One can see how close the relation is between technology (specifically, TICS and the structures of the city in a wide variety of situations: in social interactions on the street, in transport, and in ways of buying, of working and entertainment. "@City" is a concept that very well reflects the emergent properties of a current city, that is, the coexistence of a physical and a virtual urban space. The "22@Barcelona" project attempts to bring together different types of spaces. By combining the physical with the virtual, 22@Barcelona, as a neighborhood of @City, creates an uncertain and blurred border between both spaces.The article also examines the impact that these spaces have on the psycho-social processes involved in the daily life of a traditionally working-class neighborhood, now strongly limited by technological boundaries.

  18. Futures of cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen dokumenterer resultater fra den internationale kongres Futures of Cities arrangeret af IFHP International Federation of Housing and Planning, Realdania, Kunstakademiets Arkitektskole og City of Copenhagen. Kongressen blev afholdt i september 2007 i Øksnehallen og på Kunstakademiets...... Arkitektskole. Bogen  har 3 dele. Principles: Copenhagen Agenda for Sustainable Living, 10 principper udviklet af Ugebrevet Mandag Morgen illustreret af arkitektstuderende. Congress: Futures of Cities, Emerging Urbanisms- Emerging Practices, oplæg fra unge tegnestuer til temaet fremlagt på Student Congress...

  19. Smart city – future city? smart city 20 as a livable city and future market

    CERN Document Server

    Etezadzadeh, Chirine

    2016-01-01

    The concept of a livable smart city presented in this book highlights the relevance of the functionality and integrated resilience of viable cities of the future. It critically examines the progressive digitalization that is taking place and identifies the revolutionized energy sector as the basis of urban life. The concept is based on people and their natural environment, resulting in a broader definition of sustainability and an expanded product theory. Smart City 2.0 offers its residents many opportunities and is an attractive future market for innovative products and services. However, it presents numerous challenges for stakeholders and product developers.

  20. The guide to greening cities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnston, Sadhu Aufochs

    2013-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 CHAPTER 3. Leading in the Community: Using City Assets, Policy, Partnerships, and Persuasion . . Case in Point: Returning to Green City Roots and Loving El...

  1. Regulatory challenges for independent organization and licensing procedures for Egypt first nuclear power program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsheikh, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    In March 2010 the Government of Egypt issued an Ordinance creating an independent regulatory body the Egypt Nuclear and Radiological Regulatory Authority (NRRA) reporting directly to the Prime Minister and responsible for matters dealing with protection of the radiation worker, public and environment from the harmful effects of ionizing radiation. A little more than 2 years have elapsed since this date. Some of the challenges faced by NRRA to its regulatory independence are given below. This paper will discuss the major challenges relating to Egyptian nuclear power program and specially the regulatory effectiveness and licensing procedures compared to international comparison.

  2. Plague in Egypt: Disease biology, history and contemporary analysis: A minireview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael M. Lotfy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plague is a zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. Unfortunately, it is still endemic in some parts of the world. Also, natural foci of the disease are still found in some countries. Thus, there may be a risk of global plague re-emergence. This work reviews plague biology, history of major outbreaks, and threats of disease re-emergence in Egypt. Based on the suspected presence of potential natural foci in the country, the global climate change, and the threat posed by some neighbouring countries disease re-emergence in Egypt should not be excluded. The country is in need for implementation of some preventive measures.

  3. Evaluation of energy economics of solar resorts on the Red Sea in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modet, Georgei

    2011-10-28

    This thesis investigates the energy performance of resorts in Egypt. The expansive tourism development results in higher demands of energy whilst increasing the burden on the country's economy. The objective is to evaluate solar resorts versus the conventional design in terms of energy, economic and environmental performances. An energy audit is conducted among five stars resorts in Sharm el Sheikh. A self developed evaluation model using environmental life cycle costing is used to evaluate the conventional resort versus the solar resort concept. The thesis concludes with the discussion of the results and recommendations for encouraging the use of renewable energy in the hotel sector in Egypt.

  4. Democratisation in Egypt From A Historical Perspective: Problems, Pitfalls and Prospects(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail KURUN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available History of democratisation in Egypt could as best be dated back to 1970s. But little democratic progress was achieved in Sadat’s and Mubarak’s tenure until the Arap Spring. There are many handicaps before democratisation in Egypt: the elite’s stake in the authoritarian rule, widespread political extremism, structural problems within the political culture of the country in terms of democracy etc. This article ultimately argues that Egyptian democratisation process seems to be a painful and bloody process, but in the long term after the Arab Spring, the clock is ticking in favour of democracy.

  5. The phytoplankton of Great Bitter Lake, Egypt, including the impacts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phytoplankton community comprised mostly diatoms and blue-green algae, although dinoflagellates and green algae were important at times. Local effects of effluent from a drain coming from the city of Ismailia were evident, although the effect of tourist hotels at Palma Beach was not detectable. The discharge of ...

  6. Female infant in Egypt: mortality and child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Beheiri, F; El-drini, H; Manala-od; Bulbul, A

    1981-01-01

    Deviation from the normative sex-pattern of infant deaths is so large in Egypt that nearly 1/3 of female deaths can be attributed to a sex-specific cause: lesser care of the female child. This article reports on child neglect which may account for the relatively lower survival rate of the female infant, despite its biological advantage over the male. This knowledge is seen as vital in planning interventions. The investigation answers 3 questions relating to the sex-specific factors of death among female infants: do girls display a poorer level of nutrition compared to boys? Is there evidence to show that sickness episodes of female infants are treated more carelessly than those of male infants? Are there reasons to believe that girls are more exposed to life-threatening psychological factors than are boys? A group of 598 families in low-income districts of Cairo was randomly chosen to receive regular monthly visits by a team of trained field invstigators over a 1-year period. The sample is thought to represent life in urban quarters of Egypt, described as pervasively rural in orientations despite urban occupations and living conditions. The study finds no significant sex difference in nutritional status until the 6th month of life. Around this period, 2/5 of the female group but 1/4 of the male show signs of malnutrition as measured by weight. The difference continues to increase and is very statistically significant by the end of the year. Nutritional status of female infants tended to decline with an addition of daughters in the family. Also, at birth orders 2 ot 5 and in large families of 4-5 children, the relative nutritional disadvantage of the female infant is statistically significant. Moreover, a very distinct sex-difference in dietary patterns is observed as no boy was deprived of supplementary feeding during the 2nd 1/2 of the year but only 1/15 girls received food other than breast milk during this period. Despite some evidence highly suggestive of

  7. Wastewater reuse in liquid sodium silicate manufacturing in alexandria, egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Gaber A; Abd El-Salam, Magda M; Arafa, Anwar K

    2009-01-01

    Soluble sodium silicates (waterglass) are liquids containing dissolved glass which have some water like properties. They are widely used in industry as sealants, binders, deflocculants, emulsifiers and buffers. Their most common applications in Egypt are in the pulp and paper industry (where they improve the brightness and efficiency of peroxide bleaching) and the detergent industry, in which they improve the action of the detergent and lower the viscosity of liquid soaps. The survey results showed that the production was carried out batch-wise, in an autoclave (dissolver). Sodium silicate in the state of crushed glass was charged in an autoclave (dissolver) with sodium hydroxide and water. The product is filtered through a press. The left over sludge (mud and silicates impurities) is emptied into the local sewer system. Also, sludge (silica gel) was discharged from the neutralization process of the generated alkaline wastewater and consequently clogging the sewerage system. So this study was carried out to modify the current wastewater management system which eliminates sludge formation, the discharge of higher pH wastewater to the sewer system, and to assess its environmental and economic benefits. To assess the characteristics of wastewater to be reused, physico-chemical parameters of 12 samples were tested using standard methods. The survey results showed that a total capacity of the selected enterprise was 540 tons of liquid sodium silicates monthly. The total amount of wastewater being discharged was 335 m3/month. Reusing of wastewater as feed autoclave water reduced water consumption of 32.1% and reduced wastewater discharge/month that constitutes 89.6% as well as saving in final product of 6 ton/month. It was concluded that reusing of wastewater generated from liquid sodium silicate manufacturing process resulted in cheaper and environmental-friendly product.

  8. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M [Suez Canal Univ., Ismailia (Egypt). Soil and Water Dept.

    1996-07-01

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m{sup 2}, and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs.

  9. Sexual harassment against nursing staff in Tanta University Hospitals, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo Ali, Ehab A; Saied, Shimaa M; Elsabagh, Hala M; Zayed, Hanaa A

    2015-09-01

    Sexual harassment against nurses is a major workplace problem causing adverse psychological effects and may affect the occupational performance of the nurses. This study aimed to assess the magnitude of this problem, and its characteristics and consequences among the nursing staff in Tanta University Hospitals, Gharbeia Governorate, Egypt. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out on 430 nurses at Tanta University Hospitals using a semistructured, self-administered questionnaire to collect the data concerning the exposure and characteristics of harassment situations. A representative sample of the nurses was taken randomly from the emergency, medical and surgical departments. Overall, 70.2% of the studied nurses were ever exposed to sexual harassment at the workplace; 43.7% of the harassed nurses were working in both day and night shifts. Staring in a suggestive manner emerged as the most common form of harassment, followed by hearing sexual words and comments or jokes (70.9, 58.6 and 57.3%, respectively). The relatives of the patients were the most common perpetrators, followed by the hospital staff other than the doctors (61.9, 45.4%, respectively). During the harassment situation, astonishment and shock were the most frequent responses in 65.2% of the harassed nurses, while after its occurrence 38.4% ignored the situation. About 95% of the harassed nurses were left with psychological effects, mostly in the form of disappointment and depression (76.5 and 67.9%, respectively). The prevalence of sexual harassment among nurses at the workplace was high with relation to certain occupational factors, and it led to marked psychological effects on the victims. Hence, protective legislations and measures should be taken by the hospital management for prevention of this problem in the future.

  10. Studies on phosphate use efficiency of wheat in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.

    1996-01-01

    Genotypic differences in the efficiency of use of phosphorus and other nutrients in wheat was evaluated in a field study. The experiment was conducted during the 1991/92 and 1992/93 seasons on a virgin loamy sandy soil (pH 7.9) with low available phosphorus, in Ismailia, Suez Canal, Egypt. Because of arid climate, water was applied through sprinkler irrigation throughout the growing period (November to May). Shoot samples were taken at four developmental stages. Results show that there are substantial differences in phosphorus use efficiency of wheat. Biomass production, grain yield, straw yield, number of ears per m 2 , and the number of grain per ear differed substantially at different phosphorus levels but there was no major difference in the 1000 grain weight. Wheat cultivars also showed significant differences in their P, K, Ca, and Mg contents. Eighteen local wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown in the field to obtain information about root characteristics and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza fungi infection that known to play a role in phosphate use efficiency of crops. Some root parameters such as root volume, root dry matter, root length and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate were measured at three development stages. In addition, root diameter and root density were also measured. Wheat cultivars efficient in phosphorus use have a high root density in the sub soil region and this is accompanied with a high vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Cultivars showed differences in root morphology and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate. Some cultivars had a low root density and vesicular-arbiscular mycorrhiza infection rate and these cultivars exhibited a high phosphorus use efficiency. This was particularly true with cultivars 14, 16, and 18. This information may be useful to plant breeders in their attempts to breed wheat cultivars efficient in phosphate uptake and use. 41 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  11. Congress of the Polish Chamber of Tourism - Egypt 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Napierała

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess the effectiveness of the Congress of the Polish Chamber of Tourism 2017 in the elaboration of joint applications regarding the provision of substantive and logistical support to entrepreneurs as well as the pursuit of comprehensive regulation of tourism law; adaptation of Polish law to European standards. Research problems: What is the legal status in the field of tourism law regarding outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport? What are the main problems of the industries and what are their solutions proposed? What is the position and conclusions of the Congress? Research methods: study of documents, source materials, study of Congress materials, interviews with participants of the Congress, personal participation in the Congress. The PIT Congress took place on 25.11. - 2.12.2017 in Egypt (Marsa Alam: "Groundbreaking changes in tourism law: challenges and problems". The aim of the Congress was to develop a common position in the field of tourism law on outgoing tourism, incoming tourism and MICE, children and youth tourism, domestic tourism and accommodation facilities, travel agents and air transport. PIT is the largest nationwide organization of the economic self-government of the tourism industry. Polish Chamber of Tourism, which is a full member of the European Union of Travel Agencies of the European Union (ECTAA. From the beginning of its existence (25 years of activity, it has been successfully applying for a new shape of tourist business in Poland. Conclusions: - trainings should be carried out using the latest laws, - substantive and logistical support should be provided to entrepreneurs, - strive for comprehensive regulation of tourism law, - tourism needs a host so that it can be prioritized as an important branch of the economy.

  12. Environmental assessment of rosetta area,mediterranean sea coast - egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aly, A.M.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study is titled (Environmental Assessment of Rosetta Area,Mediterranean Sea Coast, Egypt). The environmental assessment can be defined here as the process of assessing the potential impacts (positive or negative) of the presence of certain influential on a particular ecosystem. Samples were collected from Abu Khashaba beach area, Rosetta on the Mediterranean Sea coast. Samples of the beach sediments, sea-water and the scattered shells in this coastal region were collected. Sediments in this region are characterized by its large content of heavy metals, which added to these sediments its black color. It is known that these black sands occurred along the Mediterranean Sea coast from Alexandria to Rafah. The advantage of these black sand deposits is their contents from multiple economic metals which have important industrial uses, such as magnetite, ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon, garnet and other important minerals. Ten sampling profiles spaced in-between by about 600 m distance, and extending into the land from the shoreline for about 50 m or less. Along each profile, three sediment samples were collected; the first sample from the surface at the beach line, the second sample from the end of the foreshore area at a depth of about 50 cm and the third sample was taken from the backshore area at a depth of about 1 m. Extending from each profile into the sea, marine-water samples were taken at a distance of about 3 m from the beach line, and from a depth of about 1 m below the sea surface. The shells samples were collected from the scattered shells on the beach. By examination of these samples a 15 different shells types were defined.

  13. Adverse health problems among municipality workers in alexandria (egypt).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Wahab, Ekram W; Eassa, Safaa M; Lotfi, Sameh E; El Masry, Sanaa A; Shatat, Hanan Z; Kotkat, Amira M

    2014-05-01

    Solid waste management has emerged as an important human and environmental health issue. Municipal solid waste workers (MSWWs) are potentially exposed to a variety of occupational biohazards and safety risks. The aim of this study was to describe health practices and safety measures adopted by workers in the main municipal company in Alexandria (Egypt) as well as the pattern of the encountered work related ill health. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2013. We interviewed and evaluated 346 workers serving in about 15 different solid waste management activities regarding personal hygiene, the practice of security and health care measures and the impact of solid waste management. Poor personal hygiene and self-care, inadequate protective and safety measures for potentially hazardous exposure were described. Impact of solid waste management on health of MSWWs entailed high prevalence of gastrointestinal, respiratory, skin and musculoskeletal morbidities. Occurrence of accidents and needle stick injuries amounted to 46.5% and 32.7% respectively. The risk of work related health disorders was notably higher among workers directly exposed to solid waste when compared by a group of low exposure potential particularly for diarrhea (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-3.8), vomiting (OR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.1-6.6), abdominal colic (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.2), dysentery (OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 1.3-10), dyspepsia (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3), low back/sciatic pain (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.8-7), tinnitus (OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 0.3-122) and needle stick injury (OR = 3.4, 95% CI = 2.1-5.5). Workers exposed to solid waste exhibit significant increase in risk of ill health. Physician role and health education could be the key to assure the MSWWs health safety.

  14. Postsovkhoz City & Postsovkhoz Person

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2001-01-01

    Põlvamaal Moostes mõtte- ja keskkonnakunstitalgud "Postsovkhoz City" ja "Postsovkhoz Person". Näha saab endistesse tööstushoonetesse ülespandud näitusi ja installatsioone. 11. VIII esinejad, ettekanded.

  15. OpenCities Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Open Cities Project aims to catalyze the creation, management and use of open data to produce innovative solutions for urban planning and resilience challenges...

  16. Access to the city

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Møller-Jensen, Lasse

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with access to the city for urban residents living in the periphery of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The paper presents an analysis of the mobility practices of residents and investigates the mobility constraints they experience in relation to the limited accessibility provided...... mobility and access to the city for residents in the periphery. Regular mobility is an ingrained part of residents' livelihood strategies. The majority of households rely on one or more members regularly travelling to central parts of the city in relation to their livelihood activities. The analysis...... by road and traffic conditions and highlights how accessibility problems of peripheral settlements are not easily understood separately from the general dysfunctions of the overall mobility system of city....

  17. City sewer collectors biocorrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksiażek, Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents the biocorrosion of city sewer collectors impregnated with special polymer sulphur binders, polymerized sulphur, which is applied as the industrial waste material. The city sewer collectors are settled with a colony of soil bacteria which have corrosive effects on its structure. Chemoautotrophic nitrifying bacteria utilize the residues of halites (carbamide) which migrate in the city sewer collectors, due to the damaged dampproofing of the roadway and produce nitrogen salts. Chemoorganotrophic bacteria utilize the traces of organic substrates and produce a number of organic acids (formic, acetic, propionic, citric, oxalic and other). The activity of microorganisms so enables the origination of primary and secondary salts which affect physical properties of concretes in city sewer collectors unfavourably.

  18. Towards Intelligently - Sustainable Cities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the quest for achieving sustainable cities, Intelligent and Knowledge City Programmes (ICPs and KCPs represent cost-efficient strategies for improving the overall performance of urban systems. However, even though nobody argues on the desirability of making cities “smarter”, the fundamental questions of how and to what extent can ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement of urban sustainability lack a precise answer. In the attempt of providing a structured answer to these interrogatives, this paper presents a methodology developed for investigating the modalities through which ICPs and KCPs contribute to the achievement or urban sustainability. Results suggest that ICPs and KCPs efficacy lies in supporting cities achieve a sustainable urban metabolism through optimization, innovation and behavior changes.

  19. SmartCityWare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Nader; Al-Jaroodi, Jameela; Jawhar, Imad

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are becoming a reality. Various aspects of modern cities are being automated and integrated with information and communication technologies to achieve higher functionality, optimized resources utilization, and management, and improved quality of life for the residents. Smart cities...... rely heavily on utilizing various software, hardware, and communication technologies to improve the operations in areas, such as healthcare, transportation, energy, education, logistics, and many others, while reducing costs and resources consumption. One of the promising technologies to support...... technology is Fog Computing, which extends the traditional Cloud Computing paradigm to the edge of the network to enable localized and real-time support for operating-enhanced smart city services. However, proper integration and efficient utilization of CoT and Fog Computing is not an easy task. This paper...

  20. Environment, gas and city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    Here are given all the advantages of natural gas among the others energies sources to avoid air pollution in cities. Pollution, energy economy, energy control are actions of environmental policy of natural gas industry in France